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Sample records for anthelmintic treatment programme

  1. The economic effects of whole-herd versus selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, J.; Levecke, B.; Devleesschauwer, B.; Vercruysse, J.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Current control practices against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cows rely strongly on anthelmintic use. To reduce the development of anthelmintic resistance or disposition of drug residues in the environment, novel control approaches are currently proposed that target anthelmintic treatment to

  2. A randomized triple blind trial to assess the effect of an anthelmintic programme for working equids in Morocco

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    Christley Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastro-intestinal parasitism has been identified as a significant cause of disease in working equids in many countries. This randomized triple-blind trial was designed to assess the impact of an anthelmintic treatment programme (using oral ivermectin and fenbendazole comparing treated and placebo control populations of working donkeys, mules and horses in field conditions in Morocco. In particular, we assessed animal body weight and condition score, together with a questionnaire-based owner evaluation of number of subjective animal health parameters. Faecal worm egg count was also measured. Results 239 animals completed the full study, 130 in the treatment group and 109 in the control group. Although the average animal weight increased during the study, this change was not significantly different between the two groups. Animals in the treatment group had a significantly lower strongyle worm egg count and increased in body condition score compared to animals in the control group at each examination during the study period. Owners of animals in the treatment group reported improvement in health and work ability and a beneficial effect on pruritus during the early period of the study. These differences in owner perception between treatment groups had disappeared in the latter stages of the study. Conclusion This study demonstrated that a routine anthelmintic treatment programme of three treatments annually can have a significant effect on faecal worm egg count. There may be beneficial consequences for the animal health and productivity. Further research on other populations of working equids in different environments would facilitate the objective planning of effective parasite control strategies for specific situations and provide better understanding of the likely clinical benefits of such programmes.

  3. Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jacqueline B.

    2014-01-01

    Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole), tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel) and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin). Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC)-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop diagnostics

  4. Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes

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    Jacqueline B. Matthews

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole, tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin. Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop

  5. Anthelmintic treatment alters the parasite community in a wild mouse host

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Amy B.; Antonovics, Janis

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are often co-infected with several parasite species, yet the consequences of drug treatment on the dynamics of parasite communities in wild populations have rarely been measured. Here, we experimentally reduced nematode infection in a wild mouse population and measured the effects on other non-target parasites. A single oral dose of the anthelmintic, ivermectin, significantly reduced nematode infection, but resulted in a reciprocal increase in other gastrointestinal parasites, spe...

  6. Mixed methods evaluation of targeted selective anthelmintic treatment by resource-poor smallholder goat farmers in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Josephine G; Ofithile, Mphoeng; Tavolaro, F Marina; van Wyk, Jan A; Evans, Kate; Morgan, Eric R

    2015-11-30

    Due to the threat of anthelmintic resistance, livestock farmers worldwide are encouraged to selectively apply treatments against gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs). Targeted selective treatment (TST) of individual animals would be especially useful for smallholder farmers in low-income economies, where cost-effective and sustainable intervention strategies will improve livestock productivity and food security. Supporting research has focused mainly on refining technical indicators for treatment, and much less on factors influencing uptake and effectiveness. We used a mixed method approach, whereby qualitative and quantitative approaches are combined, to develop, implement and validate a TST system for GINs in small ruminants, most commonly goats, among smallholder farmers in the Makgadikgadi Pans region of Botswana, and to seek better understanding of system performance within a cultural context. After the first six months of the study, 42 out of 47 enrolled farmers were followed up; 52% had monitored their animals using the taught inspection criteria and 26% applied TST during this phase. Uptake level showed little correlation with farmer characteristics, such as literacy and size of farm. Herd health significantly improved in those herds where anthelmintic treatment was applied: anaemia, as assessed using the five-point FAMACHA(©) scale, was 0.44-0.69 points better (95% confidence interval) and body condition score was 0.18-0.36 points better (95% C.I., five-point scale) in treated compared with untreated herds. Only targeting individuals in greatest need led to similar health improvements compared to treating the entire herd, leading to dose savings ranging from 36% to 97%. This study demonstrates that TST against nematodes can be implemented effectively by resource-poor farmers using a community-led approach. The use of mixed methods provides a promising system to integrate technical and social aspects of TST programmes for maximum uptake and effect. PMID

  7. Restrictions of anthelmintic usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup

    2009-01-01

    Given the increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in equine parasites, parasitologists now recommend traditional treatment approaches to be abandoned and replaced by more sustainable strategies. It is of crucial importance to facilitate veterinary involvement to ensure that treatment decisio...

  8. Comparison between anthelmintic treatment strategies against Ascaridia galli in commercial laying hens.

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    Tarbiat, B; Jansson, D S; Tydén, E; Höglund, J

    2016-08-15

    The efficacy of a sustainable deworming strategy based on targeted treatments (TT) against Ascaridia galli was investigated for the first time in laying hen flocks on a Swedish commercial farm. Three experimental protocols with different levels of treatment, e.g. targeted treatment (TT), conventional treatment (CT) and untreated (UT), were tested in randomly allocated flocks of two different bird hybrids. Every second week faecal egg counts (FECs) were determined from pooled faecal materials collected on trays (20×27cm) placed for a maximum of 12h on the litter belts. In the TT, anthelmintic administration (fenbendazole, 1mg/kg body weight for 5days) started at 22 weeks post placement (wpp) and was repeated twice when the pooled FECs surpassed the assigned threshold of 200 egg per gram faeces (EPG). The CT flocks were treated once at 27wpp using the same anthelmintic. Hens in the UT were not dewormed and served as controls. Additionally, FECs on cloacal contents, worm fecundity and worm burdens were determined at 19, 35 and 45wpp. None of the flocks became infected until after 16wpp. The cumulative pooled FECs at the end of the study were significantly (phens. PMID:27514895

  9. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

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    Donnan Alison A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 μmol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days, the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

  10. Cost Benefits Analysis of Anthelmintic Treatment of Cattle and Buffaloes

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    Laiq Ahmed Athar, Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Tauseef-ur-Rehman and Izhar Ahmad Khan1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the point prevalence of various helminths of cattle and buffalo population of district Toba Tek Singh, Pakistan and economic benefits of deworming with oxyclozanide. Out of 540 fecal samples examined, 205 (37.96% were found infected with helminths. Significantly higher (OR=2.2; P<0.05 prevalence of helminths was recorded in buffaloes (40%; 112/280 as compared to cattle (35.77%; 93/260. Oesophagostomum, Cooperia, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloide, Ostertagia, Fasciola (F. hepatica, F. gigantica and Haemonchus contortus were the helminth species identified in the study area. Oxyclozanide medicated buffaloes (E=96.66% and cattle (E=95.64% showed a significant decrease in fecal egg counts on day 14 post-treatment. An average daily increase of 0.89 and 0.71 liters of milk along with 0.42 and 0.37% more fat per buffalo and cattle, respectively was observed in oxyclozanide medication. The economic value of reduced production of infected animals was estimated as US$ 0.47 (Pak Rupees 40 and US$ 0.41 (Pak Rupees 35 per animal per day for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. It can be concluded that single dose of oxyclozanide is effective against all bovine helminths.

  11. The Effect of Anthelmintic Treatment on Coccidia Oocyst Shedding in a Wild Mammal Host with Intermittent Cestode Infection

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    Radovan Václav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While hosts are routinely exploited by a community of parasite species, the principles governing host responses towards parasites are unclear. Identifying the health outcomes of coinfections involving helminth macroparasites and microparasites is one area of importance for public and domestic animal health. For instance, it is controversial how deworming programmes affect incidence and severity of such important microparasite diseases as malaria. One problem is that most study systems involve domestic and laboratory animals with conditions hardly comparable to those of free-living animals. Here, we study the effect of anthelmintic treatment on coccidia infection intensity in wild Alpine marmots, M. marmota. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that helminth infection has a positive effect on concurrent microparasite infection. However, our work also points to the fact that within-host interactions between helminths and microparasites are context-dependent and can turn to negative ones once helminth burdens increase. Our study suggests that coccidia benefit from intermittent helminth infection in marmots due to the protective effects of helminth infection only during the early phase of the host’s active season. Also, the marmot’s response towards coccidia infection appears optimal only under no helminth infection when the host immune response towards coccidia would not be compromised, thereby pointing to the importance of regular intestinal helminth elimination by marmots just before hibernation.

  12. Anthelmintic treatment alters the parasite community in a wild mouse host.

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    Pedersen, Amy B; Antonovics, Janis

    2013-08-23

    Individuals are often co-infected with several parasite species, yet the consequences of drug treatment on the dynamics of parasite communities in wild populations have rarely been measured. Here, we experimentally reduced nematode infection in a wild mouse population and measured the effects on other non-target parasites. A single oral dose of the anthelmintic, ivermectin, significantly reduced nematode infection, but resulted in a reciprocal increase in other gastrointestinal parasites, specifically coccidial protozoans and cestodes. These results highlight the possibility that drug therapy may have unintended consequences for non-target parasites and that host-parasite dynamics cannot always be fully understood in the framework of single host-parasite interactions.

  13. The impact of anthelmintic treatment intervention on malaria infection and anaemia in school and preschool children in Magu district, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Kishamawe, Coleman;

    2015-01-01

    . The current study assessed the impact of two anthelmintic treatment approaches on malaria infection and on anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania. METHODS: A total of 765 children were enrolled into a prospective randomized anthelmintic intervention trial following a baseline...... study of 1546 children. Enrolled children were randomized to receive either repeated treatment with praziquantel and albendazole four times a year (intervention group, 394 children) or single dose treatment with praziquantel and albendazole once a year (control group, 371 children). Follow up...... concentrations. Monitoring of clinical malaria attacks was performed at each school during the two years of the intervention. RESULTS: Out of 1546 children screened for P. falciparum, S. mansoni, S. haematobium, hookworm and T. Trichiura at baseline, 1079 (69.8%) were infected with at least one of the four...

  14. Anthelmintics, used for the treatment of fascioliasis as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation in warm blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miert, A.S.J.P.A.M. van; Groeneveld, H.W.

    1969-01-01

    Dinitrophenol and liverfluke anthelmintics such as niclofolan, nitroxynil, bromophenophos and hexachlorophene increased ATP-ase activity of rat-liver mitochondria and caused a contracture of striated muscle in vitro. After lethal doses, rigidity occured soon after deatth. It is postulated that these

  15. Lack of Cyathostomin sp. reduction after anthelmintic treatment in horses in Brazil.

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    Canever, Ricardo J; Braga, Pollyana R C; Boeckh, Albert; Grycajuck, Marcelly; Bier, Daniele; Molento, Marcelo B

    2013-05-01

    The increase of anthelmintic resistance in the last years in the nematode population of veterinary importance has become a major concern. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the main anthelmintic drugs available in the market against small strongyles of horses in Brazil. A total of 498 horses from 11 horse farms, located in the states of Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, in Brazil, were treated with ivermectin, moxidectin, pyrantel and fenbendazole, orally at their recommended doses. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was used to determine the product's efficacy and fecal culture was used to determine the parasite genus. Reduction on anthelmintic efficacy was found for fenbendazole in all horse farms (11/11), pyrantel in five yards (5/11) and ivermectin had low efficacy in one of the yards studied (1/11). Multidrug resistance of up to 3 drugs classes was found in one of the tested farms (1/11). Cyathostomin were the most prevalent parasite. The results showed that resistance to fenbendazole is widespread; the efficacy of pyrantel is in a critical situation. Although the macrocyclic lactones compounds still showed high efficacy on most farms, suspected resistance to macrocyclic lactones is of great concern.

  16. Effects of anthelmintic treatment and feed supplementation on grazing Tuli weaner steers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

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    A. Magaya

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Tuli cattle and the effect of dietary protein supplementation and anthelmintic treatment on productivity in young growing cattle. Forty steers with an average age of 18 months were divided into 4 groups; 1 fenbendazole (slow release bolus and cottonseed meal (FCSM group, 2 fenbendazole (FBZ group, 3 cottonseed meal (CSM group and 4 control (no cottonseed meal and no fenbendazole (control group. Performance parameters measured included wormeggs per gram of faeces (EPG, packed cell volume (PCV, albumin and live-weight gain. Results showed that faecal worm egg counts were lower and PCV was higher in the FCSM and FBZ groups than in the CSM and control groups (P < 0.01. Weight gains were higher in the CSMand FCSM groups than in the FBZ and control groups (P < 0.05. The cost benefits of anthelmintic treatment and dietary supplementation were apparent in this study. The improved growth performance of the FCSM, FBZ and CSM groups reflected a financial gain over the controls on termination of the study. The dominant genera of gastrointestinal nematodes on faecal culture, pasture larval counts and necropsy were Cooperia and Haemonchus. The incidences of Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum and Bunostomum were low.

  17. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

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    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  18. Species composition of larvae cultured after anthelmintic treatment indicates reduced moxidectin susceptibility of immature Cylicocyclus species in horses.

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    Kooyman, F N J; van Doorn, D C K; Geurden, T; Mughini-Gras, L; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A

    2016-08-30

    For the control of cyathostomins in horses, the macrocyclic lactones (MLs), moxidectin (MOX) and ivermectin (IVM) are the most commonly used anthelmintics. However, reduced activity, observed as shortening of the egg reappearance period (ERP) has been described. Shortening of the ERP may be caused by a decreased susceptibility of immature worms for MLs. Alternatively, immature worms may develop faster into egg producing adults as a result of repeated ML treatments. The species composition of the larval cultures obtained shortly after ML and pyrantel (PYR) treatment can confirm the hypothesis of decreased ML susceptibility, as this is often class-specific, whereas faster development would also occur after treatment with anthelmintics with a different mode of action. From 3 farms with a known history of shortened ERP, 8 horses per farm were selected and divided into 2 groups. The MOX-PYR-MOX group was treated twice with MOX (day 0 and 126) and once with PYR (day 84) and the IVM-PYR-IVM group was treated twice with IVM (day 0 and 98) and once with PYR (day 56). Cultured infective larvae (L3s) were counted and differentiated with the reverse line blot on pooled samples. Per cyathostomin species, the number of larvae per gram was calculated. The efficacy of all ML treatments was 100% and a shortened ERP was found on all 3 farms. The species composition of the larval cultures after ML treatment did not differ significantly from that after PYR treatment in the IVM-PYR-IVM group, but it did differ in the MOX-PYR-MOX group. The larval cultures obtained after MOX treatment consisted mostly of Cylicocyclus nassatus, while after PYR treatment Cylicostephanus longibursatus was the most abundant species. In the cultures from 42days after MOX treatment 6 cyathostomin species from 3 genera were found on the farm with the lowest activity (farm 1), while on the farm with the highest activity (farm 3) only 3 species from one genus were found in the same number of examined L3s. The

  19. Anthelmintics Resistance; How to Overcome it?

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    Hatem A Shalaby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many parasitic helminthes of veterinary importance have genetic features that favor development of anthelmintic resistance, this becoming a major worldwide constrain in livestock production. The develop­ment of anthelmintic resistance poses a large threat to future production and welfare of graz­ing animals. Development of variable degrees of resistance among different species of gastrointes­tinal nematodes has been reported for all the major groups of anthelmintic drugs. It has been ob­served that frequent usage of the same group of anthelmintic; use of anthelmintics in sub-optimal doses, prophylactic mass treatment of domestic animals and frequent and continuous use of a single drug have contributed to the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance in helminthes. The degree and extent of this problem especially with respect to multidrug resistance in nematode popula­tions is likely to increase. Maintaining parasites in refugia and not exposed to anthelmintics, seems to be a key point in controlling and delaying the development of resistance, because the suscepti­ble genes are preserved. Targeted selective treatments attract the interest of scientists to­wards this direction. Additionally, adoption of strict quarantine measures and a combination drug strategy are two important methods of preventing of anthelmintic resistance. Experience from the development of anthelmintic resistance suggests that modern control schemes should not rely on sole use of anthelmintics, but employ other, more complex and sustainable recipes, including parasite resistant breeds, nutrition, pasture management, nematode-trapping fungi, antiparasitic vaccines and botanical dewormers. Most of them reduce reliance on the use of chemicals and are environmental friendly. Finally, if new anthelmintic products are released, an important question will be raised about how they should be used. It is suggested that slowing the development of resistance to a new

  20. Haemonchus contortus as a paradigm and model to study anthelmintic drug resistance.

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    Gilleard, John S

    2013-10-01

    Anthelmintic resistance is a major problem for the control livestock parasites and a potential threat to the sustainability of community-wide treatment programmes being used to control human parasites in the developing world. Anthelmintic resistance is essentially a complex quantitative trait in which multiple mutations contribute to the resistance phenotype in an additive manner. Consequently, a combination of forward genetic and genomic approaches are needed to identify the causal mutations and quantify their contribution to the resistance phenotype. Therefore, there is a need to develop genetic and genomic approaches for key parasite species identified as relevant models. Haemonchus contortus, a gastro-intestinal parasite of sheep, has shown a remarkable propensity to develop resistance to all the drugs used in its control. Partly because of this, and partly because of its experimental amenability, research on this parasite has contributed more than any other to our understanding of anthelmintic resistance. H. contortus offers a variety of advantages as an experimental system including the ability to undertake genetic crosses; a prerequisite for genetic mapping. This review will discuss the current progress on developing H. contortus as a model system in which to study anthelmintic resistance. PMID:23998513

  1. Characterization of the inflammatory response to anthelmintic treatment in ponies naturally infected with cyathostomin parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Betancourt, Alejandra; Lyons, Eugene T.;

    2013-01-01

    amyloid A, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, and iron, and real-time PCR measurement of expression of the genes for interleukins 1-b and 10, tumor necrosis factor-a, and interferon-c. There were subtle inflammatory responses to treatment, but cytokine expression was significantly associated with the interaction term...

  2. Albendazole, a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, in the treatment of intestinal nematode and cestode infection: a multicenter study in 480 patients.

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    Jagota, S C

    1986-01-01

    The anthelmintic activity of and patient tolerance to albendazole, a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, were studied in a multicenter trial involving 480 patients ranging in age from 2 to 60 years. The patients had single or mixed infections caused by pinworms, roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, threadworms, or tapeworms. The stools were examined by the direct method, and ova were counted by means of the Kato-Katz technique. A Graham-Scotch test was also done in patients infected with Enterobius vermicularis. Most patients received a single 400-mg dose of albendazole; adults were given two tablets, and children were given a 2% suspension. All patients with Hymenolepis nana and about half of those with Taenia infections were treated for three successive days. Patients were carefully evaluated before and after treatment to assess the efficacy and safety of the drug. After a single dose of albendazole, the cure rate was 95.3% in ascariasis, 92.2% in ancylostomiasis, 90.5% in trichuriasis, 64.9% in taeniasis, and 100% in enterobiasis. Among patients receiving 400 mg of albendazole for three days, the cure rate was 63.4% in hymenolepiasis and 86.1% in taeniasis. The drug was well tolerated, and no significant side effects were reported. PMID:3516398

  3. Stability during cooking of anthelmintic veterinary drug residues in beef

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Kevin Mark; Whelan, Michelle; Danaher, Martin; Kennedy, David Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Anthelmintic drugs are widely used for treatment of parasitic worms in livestock but little is known about the stability of their residues in food under conventional cooking conditions. As part of the European Commission-funded research project ProSafeBeef, cattle were medicated with commercially available anthelmintic preparations, comprising 11 active ingredients (corresponding to 21 marker residues). Incurred meat and liver were cooked by roasting (40 min at 190?C) or...

  4. Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.

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    Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

    2012-05-25

    There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made.

  5. Diagnosis and control of anthelmintic-resistant Parascaris equorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinemeyer Craig R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 2002, macrocyclic lactone resistance has been reported in populations of Parascaris equorum from several countries. It is apparent that macrocyclic lactone resistance developed in response to exclusive and/or excessively frequent use of ivermectin or moxidectin in foals during the first year of life. The development of anthelmintic resistance was virtually inevitable, given certain biological features of Parascaris and unique pharmacologic characteristics of the macrocyclic lactones. Practitioners can utilize the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test to detect anthelmintic resistance in Parascaris, and the same technique can be applied regularly to confirm the continued efficacy of those drugs currently in use. In the face of macrocyclic lactone resistance, piperazine or anthelmintics of the benzimidazole or pyrimidine classes can be used to control ascarid infections, but Parascaris populations that are concurrently resistant to macrocyclic lactones and pyrimidine drugs have been reported recently from Texas and Kentucky. Compared to traditional practices, future recommendations for ascarid control should feature: 1 use of only those anthelmintics known to be effective against indigenous populations, 2 initiation of anthelmintic treatment no earlier than 60 days of age, and 3 repetition of treatments at the longest intervals which prevent serious environmental contamination with Parascaris eggs. In the interest of decreasing selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, horse owners and veterinarians must become more tolerant of the passage of modest numbers of ascarid eggs by some foals. Anthelmintic resistance is only one of several potential responses to genetic selection. Although still only theoretical, changes in the immunogenicity of ascarid isolates or reduction of their prepatent or egg reappearance periods could pose far greater challenges to effective control than resistance to a single class of anthelmintics.

  6. Characteristics and Treatment Programmes of Adolescent Sexual Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    CANKURTARAN ÖNTAŞ, Doç. Dr. Özlem

    2010-01-01

    Modern childhood approach provided that juvenile offenders are treated different form adult. This article is given information about theoritical expalanation, characteristics, treatment programmes of adolescent sexual offenders. There are two explanation about causes of juvenile sexual offenders. One of model is Ryan, Lane, Davis ve Lsaac (1987)’s sexual abuse cycle. This model assert that when adolescent meet negative reflections, He has negative self concept then has negative coping strateg...

  7. Evaluation of an 18-month commercial multidisciplinary obesity treatment programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, E E J G; van Baak, M A

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of obesity is an often studied subject. Although reductions in weight and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors are important aims of obesity treatment, improvements in quality of life and eating behaviour are also relevant outcomes. In this practice-based study, we evaluated an 18-month commercial multidisciplinary obesity treatment programme and report on treatment results for weight, cardiometabolic risk factors, eating behaviour and quality of life. From a local commercial obesity treatment centre, 426 subjects (65% female; 45.4 ± 12.2 years; body mass index 40.0 ± 6.6 kg m(-2)) were recruited. Measurements of body weight, height, body composition, waist circumference and blood pressure were scheduled at baseline and every 3 months, whereas fasting blood collections were scheduled at baseline and every 6 months. At the same time points, participants were asked to fill in questionnaires on dietary intake, eating behaviour and quality of life. After 18 months of treatment programme, average weight change [mean (95% confidence interval)] was -10.9 kg (-14.8 to -7.0; P < 0.001) for the completers (n = 181) and -10.8 kg (-14.2 to -7.4; P < 0.001) for the intention-to-treat population (n = 426). Waist circumference (mean ± standard error of the mean) (-0.13 ± 0.01 cm; P < 0.001), fat mass (-7.8 ± 1.3 kg; P < 0.001) systolic (-11.4 ± 2.0; P < 0.001) and diastolic (-7.0 ± 1.3; P < 0.001) blood pressure, triglycerides (-0.4 ± 0.1; P = 0.004) and plasma glucose (-0.6 ± 0.2; P = 0.001) were significantly reduced. The PCS scale of the SF-36 and all three scales of the three-factor eating questionnaire improved significantly over the 18-month treatment period. All collected data in this study provide evidence that a multidisciplinary treatment programme based on lifestyle modification results in significant weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic

  8. Anthelmintic drugs and nematicides: studies in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Walker, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes infect many species of animals throughout the phyla, including humans. Moreover, nematodes that parasitise plants are a global problem for agriculture. As such, these nematodes place a major burden on human health, on livestock production, on the welfare of companion animals and on crop production. In the 21st century there are two major challenges posed by the wide-spread prevalence of parasitic nematodes. First, many anthelmintic drugs are losing their effectiveness because nematode strains with resistance are emerging. Second, serious concerns regarding the environmental impact of the nematicides used for crop protection have prompted legislation to remove them from use, leaving agriculture at increased risk from nematode pests. There is clearly a need for a concerted effort to address these challenges. Over the last few decades the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has provided the opportunity to use molecular genetic techniques for mode of action studies for anthelmintics and nematicides. These approaches continue to be of considerable value. Less fruitful so far, but nonetheless potentially very useful, has been the direct use of C. elegans for anthelmintic and nematicide discovery programmes. Here we provide an introduction to the use of C. elegans as a 'model' parasitic nematode, briefly review the study of nematode control using C. elegans and highlight approaches that have been of particular value with a view to facilitating wider-use of C. elegans as a platform for anthelmintic and nematicide discovery and development. PMID:25517625

  9. Tannin rich peanut skins lack anthelmintic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) resistance to synthetic anthelmintics in small ruminants has led to the evaluation of feed sources containing naturally occurring bioactive secondary metabolites that lessen parasite activity. Plants rich in condensed tannins (CT) can have beneficial anthelmintic pro...

  10. Toxocara canis: anthelmintic activity of quinone derivatives in murine toxocarosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Santos, T; Mata-Santos, H A; Carneiro, P F; De Moura, K C G; Fenalti, J M; Klafke, G B; Cruz, L A X; Martins, L H R; Pinto, N F; Pinto, M C F R; Berne, M E A; Da Silva, P E A; Scaini, C J

    2016-04-01

    Human toxocarosis is a chronic tissue parasitosis most often caused by Toxocara canis. The seroprevalence can reach up to 50%, especially among children and adolescents. The anthelmintics used in the treatment have moderate efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of quinones and their derivatives against T. canis larvae and the cytotoxicity of the larvicidal compounds. The compounds were evaluated at 1 mg mL(-1) concentration in microculture plates containing third stage larvae in an Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 h. Five naphthoxiranes were selected for the cytotoxicity analysis. The cell viability evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays using murine peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice revealed that the naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) were less cytotoxic at a concentration of 0.05 mg mL(-1). The efficacy of naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) was examined in murine toxocarosis also. The anthelmintic activity was examined by evaluating the number of larvae in the brain, carcass, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and eyes. Compound (3) demonstrated anthelmintic activity similar to that of albendazole by decreasing the number of larvae in the organs of mice and thus could form the basis of the development of a new anthelmintic drug. PMID:26887285

  11. Electron beam processing programme: Wastewater and sludge treatment in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research, working on environmental applications, has an extensive research programme using high energy electron beam in treating industrial wastewater and sludge. The experiments are being conducted in a pilot plant using an industrial electron beam 1.5MeV, 25mA, where the streams are presented to the scanned electron beam in counter flow. This pilot plant is designed to process approximately 3.0m3/h with an average dose 5kGy and the absorbed dose measurement is performed continuously by calorimetric system in real time. Combined biological and radiation treatment of domestic sewage and sludge were carried out to investigate disinfestation and removal of organic matter. The experiments showed that total and fecal coliforms were decreased by about 5 logs cycles with a 3.0kGy radiation dose in raw sewage and biological effluents, respectively. Concerning the industrial wastewater in the first stage of the programme, the irradiation was conducted using batch systems with samples originating from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant. The data showed a significant color reduction effect when delivered dose was increased, and the opposite was noted for turbidity and total suspended solids. Other experiments were focused to process real industrial effluents from one of the most important chemical and pharmaceutical industries in Brazil. A special transport truck was used to transfer the liquid waste from the Industry to the Electron Beam Pilot Plant. Large quantities of liquid waste were irradiated with and without air addition with the doses from 2kGy to 20kGy. Such experiences performed in association with the Industry demonstrated that this technology has a great potential to be transferred and to contribute with a permanent cleanup alternative for hazardous wastes

  12. Substance abuse and batterer programmes in California, USA: factors associated with treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Christine; Valenstein, Helen; Stuart, Gregory L; Moos, Rudolf H

    2015-11-01

    The association between substance abuse and intimate partner violence is quite robust. A promising area to improve treatment for the dual problems of substance abuse and violence perpetration is the identification of client characteristics and organisational and programme factors as predictors of health outcomes. Therefore, we examined associations of client, organisational and programme factors with outcomes in community health settings. Directors of 241 substance use disorder programmes (SUDPs) and 235 batterer intervention programmes (BIPs) reported outcomes of programme completion and substance use and violence perpetration rates at discharge; data collection and processing were completed in 2012. SUDPs having more female, non-white, younger, uneducated, unemployed and lower income clients reported lower completion rates. In SUDPs, private, for-profit programmes reported higher completion rates than public or private, non-profit programmes. SUDPs with lower proportions of their budgets from government sources, and higher proportions from client fees, reported better outcomes. Larger SUDPs had poorer programme completion and higher substance use rates. Completion rates in SUDPs were higher when clients could obtain substance- and violence-related help at one location, and programmes integrated violence-prevention contracting into care. In BIPs, few client, organisational and programme factors were associated with outcomes, but the significant factors associated with programme completion were consistent with those for SUDPs. Publicly owned and larger programmes, and SUDPs lacking staff to integrate violence-related treatment, may be at risk of poorer client outcomes, but could learn from programmes that perform well to yield better outcomes. PMID:25470658

  13. Anthelmintic activity of latex of Jatropha curcas (ratanjot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Hitesh Kumar Parmar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of plants have been used for the treatment of helmenthiasis throughout the world. One such plant is Jatropha curcas. It is known as ratanjot or biodiesel plant, which belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. It possesses many uses like antidiabetic, antmicrobial and antioxidant. The phytochemical prospection of the fresh and dried latex showed the presence of different classes of secondary metabolites that have demonstrated antimicrobial action. The present research work investigated the Anthelmintic activity of latex of leaves of Jatropha curcas. The major finding of the present work illustrates that aqueous latex of Jatropha curcas has shown better Anthelmintic activity than control Jatropha latex and standard drug, piperazine citrate.

  14. Anthelmintic activity of Pongamia glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Laware

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaves, wood, seed, bark and pericarp of the fruit of Pongamia glabra were separately dried, powdered and extracted with methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Anthelmintic activity of these various extracts was evaluatedon Indian adult earthworms, Pherentima posthuma. Results showed that the seed part of P. glabra took less time to cause paralysis and death of the earthworms; therefore, seeds were extracted successively withpetroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Again these extracts were screened for anthelmintic activity. Results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of seeds of P. glabra was most potentfollowed by petroleum ether extract. It can be concluded that anthelmintic activity of the seed of P. glabra is due to the active principles present mostly in the ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts.

  15. Characteristics and programme-defined treatment outcomes among childhood tuberculosis (TB patients under the national TB programme in Delhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinath Satyanarayana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB patients under India's Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP are managed using diagnostic algorithms and directly observed treatment with intermittent thrice-weekly short-course treatment regimens for 6-8 months. The assignment into pre-treatment weight bands leads to drug doses (milligram per kilogram that are lower than current World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for some patients. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of our study was to describe the baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes reported under RNTCP for registered childhood (age <15 years TB patients in Delhi. Additionally, we compared the reported programmatic treatment completion rates between children treated as per WHO recommended anti-TB drug doses with those children treated with anti-TB drug doses below that recommended in WHO guidelines. METHODS: For this cross-sectional retrospective study, we reviewed programme records of all 1089 TB patients aged <15 years registered for TB treatment from January to June, 2008 in 6 randomly selected districts of Delhi. WHO disease classification and treatment outcome definitions are used by RNTCP, and these were extracted as reported in programme records. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Among 1074 patients with records available, 651 (61% were females, 122 (11% were <5 years of age, 1000 (93% were new cases, and 680 (63% had extra-pulmonary TB (EP-TB--most commonly peripheral lymph node disease [310 (46%]. Among 394 pulmonary TB (PTB cases, 165 (42% were sputum smear-positive. The overall reported treatment completion rate was 95%. Similar reported treatment completion rates were found in all subgroups assessed, including those patients whose drug dosages were lower than that currently recommended by WHO. Further studies are needed to assess the reasons for the low proportion of under-5 years of age TB case notifications, address challenges in reaching all childhood TB patients by RNTCP, the

  16. Anthelmintic activity of Pyrostegia venusta using Pheretima posthuma

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    P.V. Nisha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 3 million people are infected with helminthes worldwide. Helminthes infections are commonly found in villages of developing countries and are being recognized as cause of much acute as well as chronic illness among the human beings as well as cattle’s. Hence, the treatment for helmintic infection is of utmost need. The high cost of modern anthelmintics has limited the effective control of these parasites. However, increasing problems of development of resistance in helminthes against anthelmintics have led to the proposal of screening medicinal plants for their anthelmintic activity. Literature survey revealed that there are only few reports available on phytochemical and pharmacological studies of this plant. In the present investigation we have made a sincere attempt to evaluate the anthelmintic property of chloroform and methanol extracts of Pyrostegia venusta using Pheretima posthuma as an experimental helminthes model. Piperazine citrate was used as the standard reference. Five different concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 mg/ml of chloroform and methanol extracts were used to determine their effect as time taken to paralysis and time to induce death in the worms. Among the various concentrations of chloroform extract tested, 12.5 mg/ml showed efficient anthelmintic activity with paralysis time (23 min and death time (44 min. Among all the concentrations of methanolic extract tested, 12.5 mg/ml showed significant results with paralysis time (34 min and death time (78 min respectively. This investigation revealed that chloroform extract was more effective in its anthelmintic action against Pheretima posthuma when compared to methanolic extract. But both the extracts were less potent when compared with standard drug piperazine citrate.

  17. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holm Signe A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR in 10 selected herds were investigated during April–September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137 with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6% and other Nematodirus species (15.0%. Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92% tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg. AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.

  18. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Signe A; Sörensen, Camilla R L; Thamsborg, Stig M; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.

  19. A survey of anthelmintic resistance on ten sheep farms in Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey to detect anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep was conducted on 10 randomly-distributed farms in the Chivhu District, Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe. Before the survey, a questionnaire was circulated to the farmers concerning nematode parasite control. Results showed that parasite control using anthelmintic treatment was the only method practised and that the benzimidazoles were the most frequently used anthelmintic drugs. The faecal egg count reduction test was used to detect resistance. The anthelmintic groups tested were benzimidazoles, levamisole and ivermectin. Resistance to benzimidazoles was detected on 6 of 10 farms and levamisole resistance on 2 of 3 farms. Ivermectin resistance was not observed on the farms surveyed. Post-treatment larval cultures indicated that Haemonchus contortus survived administration of fenbendazole, albendazole, oxfendazole and levamisole. A Cooperia sp. strain resistant to albendazole was detected and this is the first report in Zimbabwe of a resistant parasite in this genus.

  20. Managing anthelmintic resistance: is it feasible in New Zealand to delay the emergence of resistance to a new anthelmintic class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, D M; Hosking, B C; Bisset, S A; McKay, C H

    2009-08-01

    The recent registration in New Zealand of the first new class of broad-spectrum anthelmintic, for use against nematode parasites of ruminants, in nearly three decades has raised the possibility that parasite management practices could be improved to minimise the emergence of resistance to the new drug. A review of knowledge pertaining to the selection of anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep highlights a number of management practices which could be altered to achieve this. A number of previously common practices such as whole-flock treatment of adult ewes around lambing, and treatment of lambs as they are moved onto pastures with low parasite contamination have been clearly identified as high risk for selecting resistant parasites. Once high-risk practices have been identified steps can be taken to either eliminate their use or mitigate the associated risk. Much of the focus on the management of resistance around the world is on the retention of susceptible genotypes in refugia. While approaches to retaining unselected parasites are likely to vary around the world, empirical studies indicate that the practice is likely to be effective at slowing the development of resistance. The challenge for farmers and advisors will be to strike a balance between retaining sufficient susceptible parasites to usefully delay the development of resistance while not unduly compromising animal performance and farm profitability. The merits of combining different classes of anthelmintic in order to slow the development of resistance remains somewhat contentious in some countries. However, the attributes of oral anthelmintics are such that they seem likely to meet most, if not all, of the criteria for combinations to be highly effective at slowing the build-up of resistance in nematode parasites. It is evident that considerable progress has been made in understanding the factors involved in selecting anthelmintic-resistant nematodes since the last broad

  1. Restrictions of anthelmintic usage: perspectives and potential consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Martin K

    2009-01-01

    Given the increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in equine parasites, parasitologists now recommend traditional treatment approaches to be abandoned and replaced by more sustainable strategies. It is of crucial importance to facilitate veterinary involvement to ensure that treatment decisions are based on parasitic knowledge. Despite recommendations given for the past two decades, strategies based on the selective therapy principle have not yet been implemented on a larger scale in equi...

  2. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and th......Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re......-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very...... closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 mu g/mL, respectively. Our...

  3. Evaluation of a lifestyle change programme for the treatment of obesity in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsch, Simone; Biedert, Esther; Keller, Ulrich

    2003-03-01

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioural group therapy programme for the treatment of obesity in clinical practice, 122 patients from 14 general practices (n = 70) were randomised into either a treatment or a control arm with a ratio of 3 to 2. The group treatment programme was also assessed in a clinical centre (n = 52; University Hospital Basel). Before therapy, a clinical interview and a mental disorder examination were carried out on all patients. The instructors of the programme (practitioners; clinic physicians) were trained during two afternoon meetings to supervise the group sessions. The treatment programme consisted of 16 group sessions of 90 min each, and contained psycho-educational elements concerning a balanced diet, instruction for the integration of more activity in everyday life (lifestyle activity), problemsolving strategies, and the cognitive restructuring of dysfunctional cognition regarding the own body. All the patients who were treated in the various settings demonstrated a benefit from therapy. Compared to the control groups which received usual medical care, they were able to reduce their starting weight by around 5% (p attractiveness regarding their body and shape (p <0.05). These results support the effectiveness of the integrated cognitive behavioural treatment programme in clinical practice over a duration of 12 months. PMID:12707842

  4. The diterpenoid 7-keto-sempervirol, derived from Lycium chinense, displays anthelmintic activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke. These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA (praziquantel for schistosomiasis or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB, this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening, oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental

  5. The in vitro motility response to various anthelmintics of third-stage larvae of Oesophagostomum spp. from pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, M; Corba, J; Hrcková, G

    1998-07-01

    The in vitro activities of thiabendazole, levamisole, pyrantel, morantel and ivermectin against Oesophagostomum spp., the nodular worm of pigs, were determined and compared. The study was carried out using isolates of O. dentatum and O. quadrispinulatum, which had been defined in vivo. Infective larvae were exposed to the anthelmintics for 24 h and then placed in a micromotility meter. All the treatments significantly reduced the motility of the ensheathed L3 larvae, but the micromotility meter was not able to differentiate between anthelmintic resistant and anthelmintic susceptible isolates.

  6. Maintaining Unity - Relatives in older patient's fast-track treatment programmes. A Grounded theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To generate a substantive grounded theory of relatives' pattern of behaviour in older patients' fast-track treatment programmes during total hip or knee replacement. BACKGROUND: Fast-track treatment programmes are designed to make total hip and knee replacements more efficient through recovery...... improvements. The support of relatives during older patients' trajectory is important. However, knowledge is needed on the relatives' pattern of behaviour to strengthen their involvement in fast-track treatment programmes. DESIGN: We used a Glaserian grounded theory approach based on a systematic generation...... of theory from data to explain the latent pattern of behaviour of relatives. METHODS: Data were collected from 2010-2011 in orthopaedic wards at two Danish university hospitals and consisted of 14 non-participant observations, 14 postobservational interviews and five interviews. Seven relatives of patients...

  7. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC FISHMEAL POLYMER BAITS FOR THE CONTROL OF BAYLISASCARIS PROCYONIS IN FREE-RANGING RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyser, Timothy J; Johnson, Shylo R; Stallard, Melissa D; McGrew, Ashley K; Page, L Kristen; Crider, Nikki; Ballweber, Lora R; Swihart, Robert K; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-07-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of raccoons (Procyon lotor) and is a zoonotic helminth with the potential to cause severe or fatal infection. Raccoons thrive in human-dominated landscapes, and the fecal-oral transmission pathway and lack of effective treatment make B. procyonis a serious threat to public health. The distribution of medicinal baits has emerged as a socially acceptable and cost-effective method for managing disease in free-ranging wildlife. We assessed the suitability of a mass-producible anthelmintic bait for B. procyonis mitigation by evaluating the willingness of free-ranging raccoons to consume anthelmintic baits and determining whether bait consumption successfully cleared B. procyonis infections from raccoons. Anthelmintic baits were modified from standard fishmeal polymer baits, the food attractant commonly used in oral rabies vaccine baits, with the introduction of 220 mg of pyrantel pamoate into the fishmeal mixture. We captured 16 naturally infected raccoons, presented one anthelmintic bait, and monitored B. procyonis infection over 90 d by screening feces for eggs. Treatment cleared B. procyonis infections for nine of 12 raccoons that consumed >10 g of the 15 g bait. We used remote cameras to monitor in situ patterns of bait consumption for anthelmintic baits relative to standard baits. Both anthelmintic and standard baits were rapidly consumed, with no differences in the rate of consumption between bait types. However, after bait contact, raccoons demonstrated a greater willingness to consume standard baits while ignoring anthelmintic baits more frequently (P = 0.06). Initial trials of anthelmintic baits show promise, although refinement in both dose and palatability is needed. At mass production scales, the addition of pyrantel pamoate to fishmeal polymer baits would be inexpensive, potentially making anthelmintic baits a viable management option when coupled with an oral rabies vaccine or used independently

  8. Computer programme for prediction steel parameters after heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Trzaska

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is presentation of the computer program for calculating the Continuous Cooling Transformation diagrams for constructional and engineering steels.Design/methodology/approach: The computer program uses the artificial neural networks for prediction steel properties after heat treatment. Input data are chemical composition and austenitizing temperature. Results of calculation consist of temperature of the beginning and the end of transformation in the cooling rate function, the volume fraction of structural components and hardness of steel cooled from austenitizing temperature with a fixed rate.Findings: The algorithm can be use in designing new chemical compositions of steels with assumed hardness after heat treatment.Research limitations/implications: The created method for designing chemical compositions is limited by ranges of mass concentrations of elements. The methodology demonstrated in the paper makes possibility to add new steels to the system.Practical implications: The method may be used in computer steel selection systems for machines parts manufactured from constructional or engineering steels subjected to heat treatment.Originality/value: The presented computer program can be used for selecting steel with required structure after heat treatment.

  9. Managing anthelmintic resistance--parasite fitness, drug use strategy and the potential for reversion towards susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, Dave M

    2013-11-15

    The rotation of different anthelmintic classes, on an approximately annual basis, has been widely promoted and adopted as a strategy to delay the development of anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites. Part of the rationale for recommending this practice was the expectation that resistant genotype worms have a lower ecological fitness than susceptible worms, at least in the early stages of selection, and so reversion towards susceptibility could be expected in those years when an alternative class of anthelmintic was used. The routine use of combination anthelmintics might be expected to negate this opportunity for reversion because multiple classes of anthelmintic would be used simultaneously. A simulation model was used to investigate whether the optimal strategy for use of multiple drug classes (i.e. an annual rotation of two classes of anthelmintic or continuous use of two classes in combination) changed with the size of the fitness cost associated with resistance. Model simulations were run in which the fitness cost associated with each resistance gene was varied from 0% to 15% and the rate at which resistance developed was compared for each of the drug-use strategies. Other factors evaluated were the initial frequency of the resistance genes and the proportion of the population not exposed to treatment (i.e. in refugia). Increasing the proportion of the population in refugia always slowed the development of resistance, as did using combinations in preference to an annual rotation. As the fitness cost associated with resistance increased, resistance developed more slowly and this was more pronounced when a combination was used compared to a rotation. If the fitness cost was sufficiently high then resistance did not develop (i.e. the resistance gene frequency declined over time) and this occurred at lower fitness costs when a combination was used. The results, therefore, indicate that the optimal drug-use strategy to maximise the benefit of any fitness

  10. Computer programme for prediction steel parameters after heat treatment

    OpenAIRE

    J. Trzaska; L.A Dobrzanski; A. Jagiełło

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is presentation of the computer program for calculating the Continuous Cooling Transformation diagrams for constructional and engineering steels.Design/methodology/approach: The computer program uses the artificial neural networks for prediction steel properties after heat treatment. Input data are chemical composition and austenitizing temperature. Results of calculation consist of temperature of the beginning and the end of transformation...

  11. Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of Haemonchus contortus in Small Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, R B; Kahn, L P; Sargison, N D; Van Wyk, J A

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a highly pathogenic, blood-feeding nematode of small ruminants, and a significant cause of mortalities worldwide. Haemonchosis is a particularly significant threat in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions, where warm and moist conditions favour the free-living stages, but periodic outbreaks occur more widely during periods of transient environmental favourability. The clinical diagnosis of haemonchosis is based mostly on the detection of anaemia in association with a characteristic epidemiological picture, and confirmed at postmortem by the finding of large numbers of H. contortus in the abomasum. The detection of impending haemonchosis relies chiefly on periodic monitoring for anaemia, including through the 'FAMACHA' conjunctival-colour index, or through faecal worm egg counts and other laboratory procedures. A range of anthelmintics for use against H. contortus is available, but in most endemic situations anthelmintic resistance significantly limits the available treatment options. Effective preventative programmes vary depending on environments and enterprise types, and according to the scale of the haemonchosis risk and the local epidemiology of infections, but should aim to prevent disease outbreaks while maintaining anthelmintic efficacy. Appropriate strategies include animal management programmes to avoid excessive H. contortus challenge, genetic and nutritional approaches to enhance resistance and resilience to infection, and the monitoring of H. contortus infection on an individual animal or flock basis. Specific strategies to manage anthelmintic resistance centre on the appropriate use of effective anthelmintics, and refugia-based treatment schedules. Alternative approaches, such as biological control, may also prove useful, and vaccination against H. contortus appears to have significant potential in control programmes. PMID:27238006

  12. Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of Haemonchus contortus in Small Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, R B; Kahn, L P; Sargison, N D; Van Wyk, J A

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a highly pathogenic, blood-feeding nematode of small ruminants, and a significant cause of mortalities worldwide. Haemonchosis is a particularly significant threat in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions, where warm and moist conditions favour the free-living stages, but periodic outbreaks occur more widely during periods of transient environmental favourability. The clinical diagnosis of haemonchosis is based mostly on the detection of anaemia in association with a characteristic epidemiological picture, and confirmed at postmortem by the finding of large numbers of H. contortus in the abomasum. The detection of impending haemonchosis relies chiefly on periodic monitoring for anaemia, including through the 'FAMACHA' conjunctival-colour index, or through faecal worm egg counts and other laboratory procedures. A range of anthelmintics for use against H. contortus is available, but in most endemic situations anthelmintic resistance significantly limits the available treatment options. Effective preventative programmes vary depending on environments and enterprise types, and according to the scale of the haemonchosis risk and the local epidemiology of infections, but should aim to prevent disease outbreaks while maintaining anthelmintic efficacy. Appropriate strategies include animal management programmes to avoid excessive H. contortus challenge, genetic and nutritional approaches to enhance resistance and resilience to infection, and the monitoring of H. contortus infection on an individual animal or flock basis. Specific strategies to manage anthelmintic resistance centre on the appropriate use of effective anthelmintics, and refugia-based treatment schedules. Alternative approaches, such as biological control, may also prove useful, and vaccination against H. contortus appears to have significant potential in control programmes.

  13. A robust method for the evaluation of prison based sex offender treatment programmes

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Gary; Murphy, Paul; Cotter, Anthony; Carr, Alan.

    2000-01-01

    This paper outlines the approach to evaluating the sex offender treatment programme currently running in the Irish prison system. It begins with an introduction to the scope of the problem of sexual offending as reflected by the extent of the prison population in Ireland who have been convicted of a variety of sexual offences. It then outlines two key points that can be gleaned from several decades of general research on evaluating the effectiveness of psychological treatments ...

  14. A control system based on field programmable gate array for papermaking sewage treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi Sheng; Xie, Chang; Qing Xiong, Yan; Liu, Zhi Qiang; Li, Qing

    2013-03-01

    A sewage treatment control system is designed to improve the efficiency of papermaking wastewater treatment system. The automation control system is based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), coded with Very-High-Speed Integrate Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL), compiled and simulated with Quartus. In order to ensure the stability of the data used in FPGA, the data is collected through temperature sensors, water level sensor and online PH measurement system. The automatic control system is more sensitive, and both the treatment efficiency and processing power are increased. This work provides a new method for sewage treatment control.

  15. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN.

    OpenAIRE

    H.P. Desai*, M.D. Kapadia and A.R. Kharat

    2012-01-01

    Development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs lead to the evaluation of medicinal plants which acts as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The present study has been undertaken to perform the evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Plumbago zeylanica belonging to family Plumbaginaceae. In the current study, experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible anthelminitic effects of various extracts of the roots of Plumbago zeylanica. Various conce...

  16. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Williams

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and

  17. Long Term Control of Scabies Fifteen Years after an Intensive Treatment Programme.

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    Michael Marks

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is a major public health problem in the Pacific and is associated with an increased risk of bacterial skin infections, glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever. Mass drug administration with ivermectin is a promising strategy for the control of scabies. Mass treatment with ivermectin followed by active case finding was conducted in five communities in the Solomon Islands between 1997 and 2000 and resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of both scabies and bacterial skin infections.We conducted a prospective follow-up study of the communities where the original scabies control programme had been undertaken. All residents underwent a standardised examination for the detection of scabies and impetigo.Three hundred and thirty eight residents were examined, representing 69% of the total population of the five communities. Only 1 case of scabies was found, in an adult who had recently returned from the mainland. The prevalence of active impetigo was 8.8% overall and 12.4% in children aged 12 years or less.We found an extremely low prevalence of scabies 15 years after the cessation of a scabies control programme. The prevalence of impetigo had also declined further since the end of the control programme. Our results suggest that a combination of mass treatment with ivermectin and intensive active case finding may result in long term control of scabies. Larger scale studies and integration with other neglected tropical disease control programmes should be priorities for scabies control efforts.

  18. Long Term Control of Scabies Fifteen Years after an Intensive Treatment Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michael; Taotao-Wini, Betty; Satorara, Lorraine; Engelman, Daniel; Nasi, Titus; Mabey, David C.; Steer, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Scabies is a major public health problem in the Pacific and is associated with an increased risk of bacterial skin infections, glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever. Mass drug administration with ivermectin is a promising strategy for the control of scabies. Mass treatment with ivermectin followed by active case finding was conducted in five communities in the Solomon Islands between 1997 and 2000 and resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of both scabies and bacterial skin infections. Methods We conducted a prospective follow-up study of the communities where the original scabies control programme had been undertaken. All residents underwent a standardised examination for the detection of scabies and impetigo. Results Three hundred and thirty eight residents were examined, representing 69% of the total population of the five communities. Only 1 case of scabies was found, in an adult who had recently returned from the mainland. The prevalence of active impetigo was 8.8% overall and 12.4% in children aged 12 years or less. Discussion We found an extremely low prevalence of scabies 15 years after the cessation of a scabies control programme. The prevalence of impetigo had also declined further since the end of the control programme. Our results suggest that a combination of mass treatment with ivermectin and intensive active case finding may result in long term control of scabies. Larger scale studies and integration with other neglected tropical disease control programmes should be priorities for scabies control efforts. PMID:26624616

  19. Anthelmintic resistance of intestinal nematodes to ivermectin and pyrantel in Estonian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, B; Peltola, S-M

    2015-11-01

    There is evidence of resistance in horses to anthelmintic treatment using ivermectin and pyrantel. However, little information is available about the parasites, treatment practices or anthelmintic resistance in the horse population in Estonia. In the present study, we examined 41 trotting and riding horses aged < 3 years from four stables in Estonia. Faecal samples were collected, and horses were selected for treatment if the nematode egg count per gram faeces exceeded 200. Horses (n= 32) that shed strongyle-type eggs were treated with pyrantel, whereas Parascaris equorum-positive animals received ivermectin. Up to 78% of horses required anthelmintic treatment and the efficiency of the anthelmintics was evaluated using a faecal egg count reduction test. Resistance of P. equorum was observed in 50% of horses treated with ivermectin and of strongyles in 27% of horses treated with pyrantel. Ivermectin treatment resulted in a mean reduction of 100% for strongyle eggs and an 89% reduction in P. equorum, and pyrantel-treated horses exhibited an 88% reduction in strongyle eggs. These results are considered to be the first indication of resistance to pyrantel, but further studies of ivermectin resistance are required. According to questionnaires completed by the owners of horses, resistance might be explained by a lack of evidence-based strategies, a strong preference for using ivermectin and possibly a subjective evaluation of the body weight of horses.

  20. Assessment and treatment of sex offenders: the Prince of Wales Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaghy, N

    1990-06-01

    The treatment programme for sex offenders at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, is described. Penile circumference assessment is not used as there is no evidence it provides a valid measure of individuals' paedophile or rapist tendencies. Sex offenders' self-reports remain the major source of information in their assessment. The development of the two major techniques used--imaginal desensitization and short-term medroxyprogesterone--is outlined. About 80% of subjects can be expected to show a good response to one or other of these therapies. Of those who do not, most respond to the alternative or aversive therapy. Adolescent offenders appear to require more intensive treatment. Results appear comparable with those of more intensive programmes in use overseas. PMID:2204335

  1. Provider experiences of the implementation of a new tuberculosis treatment programme: A qualitative study using the normalisation process model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Simon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. In many settings, including South Africa, treatment outcomes remain poor. In contrast, many antiretroviral treatment (ART programmes are achieving high levels of adherence and good outcomes. The ART programme model for maintaining treatment adherence may therefore hold promise for TB treatment. Changing treatment models, however, requires an assessment of how staff receive the new model, as they are responsible for programme implementation. Using the normalization process model as an analytic framework, this paper aims to explore staff perceptions of a new TB treatment programme modelled on the ART treatment programme. Methods A qualitative approach was used. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with clinic staff from five intervention clinics. Data were analysed initially using qualitative content analysis. The resulting categories were then organised under the constructs of the normalization process model. Results Staff recounted a number of challenges with implementing the programme. Interviews and focus group discussions identified factors relating to the main categories of the normalization process model. The key issues hindering the normalisation of the programme within clinics related to the interactional workability, relational integration and skill-set workability constructs of the model. These included hierarchical relationships, teamwork, training needs and insufficient internalisation by staff of the empowerment approach included in the programme. Logistical and management issues also impacted negatively on the normalization of the programme at the clinics. Conclusion The normalization process model assisted in categorising the challenges experienced during implementation of the intervention. The results suggest that issues remain that need to be resolved before the programme is implemented more widely. Considerable work is

  2. Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suman Kundu; Saptarshi Roy; Larisha Mawkhleing Lyndem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia(C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). angustifolia Methods: Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently.Results: C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively.Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h.Conclusions:This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested.

  3. Towards Developing an Initial Programme Theory: Programme Designers and Managers Assumptions on the Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence Club Programme in Primary Health Care Facilities in the Metropolitan Area of Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukumbang, Ferdinand C.; van Belle, Sara; Marchal, Bruno; van Wyk, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background The antiretroviral adherence club intervention was rolled out in primary health care facilities in the Western Cape province of South Africa to relieve clinic congestion, and improve retention in care, and treatment adherence in the face of growing patient loads. We adopted the realist evaluation approach to evaluate what aspects of antiretroviral club intervention works, for what sections of the patient population, and under which community and health systems contexts, to inform guidelines for scaling up of the intervention. In this article, we report on a step towards the development of a programme theory—the assumptions of programme designers and health service managers with regard to how and why the adherence club intervention is expected to achieve its goals and perceptions on how it has done so (or not). Methods We adopted an exploratory qualitative research design. We conducted a document review of 12 documents on the design and implementation of the adherence club intervention, and key informant interviews with 12 purposively selected programme designers and managers. Thematic content analysis was used to identify themes attributed to the programme actors, context, mechanisms, and outcomes. Using the context-mechanism-outcome configurational tool, we provided an explanatory focus of how the adherence club intervention is roll-out and works guided by the realist perspective. Results We classified the assumptions of the adherence club designers and managers into the rollout, implementation, and utilisation of the adherence club programme, constructed around the providers, management/operational staff, and patients, respectively. Two rival theories were identified at the patient-perspective level. We used these perspectives to develop an initial programme theory of the adherence club intervention, which will be tested in a later phase. Conclusion The perspectives of the programme designers and managers provided an important step towards developing

  4. Repurposing salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs to combat drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Rajamuthiah

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that has become the leading cause of hospital acquired infections in the US. Repurposing Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved drugs for antimicrobial therapy involves lower risks and costs compared to de novo development of novel antimicrobial agents. In this study, we examined the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available anthelmintic drugs. The FDA approved drug niclosamide and the veterinary drug oxyclozanide displayed strong in vivo and in vitro activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC: 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml respectively; minimum effective concentration: ≤ 0.78 μg/ml for both drugs. The two drugs were also effective against another Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecium (MIC 0.25 and 2 μg/ml respectively, but not against the Gram-negative species Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of niclosamide and oxyclozanide were determined against methicillin, vancomycin, linezolid or daptomycin resistant S. aureus clinical isolates, with MICs at 0.0625-0.5 and 0.125-2 μg/ml for niclosamide and oxyclozanide respectively. A time-kill study demonstrated that niclosamide is bacteriostatic, whereas oxyclozanide is bactericidal. Interestingly, oxyclozanide permeabilized the bacterial membrane but neither of the anthelmintic drugs exhibited demonstrable toxicity to sheep erythrocytes. Oxyclozanide was non-toxic to HepG2 human liver carcinoma cells within the range of its in vitro MICs but niclosamide displayed toxicity even at low concentrations. These data show that the salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs niclosamide and oxyclozanide are suitable candidates for mechanism of action studies and further clinical evaluation for treatment of staphylococcal infections.

  5. First report of multiple anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of sheep in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M.B. Gárcia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to report the presence of parasites resistant to the most used anthelmintic drugs in sheep in Colombia. Four farms (denominated farm 1, 2, 3 and 4 were selected where the animals were not treated with anthelmintics for two months before the trial. Animals with faecal egg count (FEC above 150 and of different ages were allocated into six groups, each consisting of at least 5 animals. The drugs and dosages used were: ivermectin 1% (0.2 mg/kg, albendazole 25% (5 mg/kg, fenbendazole 10% (5 mg/kg, levamisole 10% (5 mg/kg, and moxidectin 1% (0.2 mg/kg. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined by the FEC reduction test (FECRT with a second sampling 14 days post-treatment. The efficacy of albendazole and fenbendazole at farm 1 was above 95%, which was different from the others farms. The FECRT indicated the presence of multidrug resistance in the other farms where no tested drugs showed activity higher than 79% (albendazole: 0 to 55%, fenbendazole: 51.4 to 76.6%, ivermectin: 67.3 to 93.1%, levamisole: 0 to 78.1%, and moxidectin: 49.2 to 64.1%.Haemonchus contortus was the predominant (96% species, followed by a small presence of Trichostrongylus sp. (3% andCooperia sp. (1%. Therefore, we report for the first time the existence of multiple anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in Colombia.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF TREATMENT OUTCOME OF TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS UNDER REVISED NATIONAL TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL PROGRAMME IN NANDED, MAHARASHTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varthi Mahendra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB remains a world-wide public health problem despite the fact that the causative organism was discovered more than 100 years ago and highly effective drugs and vaccine are available making TB a preventable and curable disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess the treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients under Revised National Tuberculosis control Programme. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present record based study was conducted during July 2013-September 2013. The treatment outcome of all tuberculosis patients were assessed from the RNTCP treatment cards that were on DOTS during 1st Jan 2011 to 30th June 2012 at City Tuberculosis Center, Nanded-Waghala Municipal Corporation, Jangamwadi, Nanded. Before starting the study, the ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee of the college. The data was directly entered on the Microsoft Excel regarding epidemiological variables and outcome of tuberculosis patients. The data was tabulated and analyzed by using statistical software Open Epi Version 2.3 by maintaining confidentiality. RESULTS: Thus we had included 442 TB patients. The findings of treatment outcome of TB patients were Cured 104 (23.53%, treatment completed 289 (65.38%, defaulters 20 (4.52%, treatment failures 1 (0.23%, deaths 25 (5.66% and transferred out 3 (0.68%. CONCLUSION: Our study showed the treatment outcome rates as per the expected norms RNTCP.

  7. Anthelmintic prescribing patterns of a sample of general practitioners from selected areas in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawardena GSA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available General Practitioners (GPs provide first contact care of children and pregnant mothers in the community. This study ascertained the prescribing pattern of anthelmintics to children and pregnant women by a sample of GPs from the district of Colombo. Two hundred medical practitioners engaged in full-time General Practice (100 urban and 100 rural, were selected randomly. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 183 GPs aged between 26 and 72 years (median 38 participated with 94 coming from urban areas. Seventy percent of the GPs were male. Almost 13% of GPs from urban areas had a Postgraduate degree in comparison to 4.5% from the rural areas ( P < 0.05. Over 50% of GPs had 6-20 years of service and over 30% treated 16-30 patients daily. Seventy-three percent of GPs from rural areas accessed health-related reading material either daily or weekly in contrast to only 40% from urban areas ( P < 0.001. All GPs prescribed anthelmintics to children. Pyrantel pamoate was the preferred anthelmintic used for children by both groups. Approximately 55% and 64% of GPs from urban and rural areas, respectively, prescribed anthelmintics during pregnancy. A majority of GPs prescribed drugs after the first trimester. However, 25% from urban areas gave drugs during any trimester ( P < 0.001. Regression analysis revealed that GPs with postgraduate qualifications, those having frequent access to health-related material and those seeing more than 30 patients daily, prescribed anthelmintics to pregnant women more often. Although routine de-worming of pregnant women and children should occur through government antenatal and well-baby clinics, and through the schools de-worming programme, it may not happen due to various reasons. Thus, GPs play a vital role in achieving good coverage of anthelmintics among children and pregnant women. Making available clear national guidelines on prescribing anthelmintics in Sri Lanka would

  8. AN UPDATED REVIEW ON ANTHELMINTIC MEDICINAL PLANTS

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    Raj Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases, from the dawn of civilization. There exists a plethora of knowledge, information and benefits of herbal drugs in our ancient literature of Ayurvedic (Traditional Indian Medicine, Siddha, Unani and Chinese medicine. According to the World Health Organization, 2003 about 80 % of the population of developing countries being unable to afford pharmaceutical drugs rely on traditional medicines, mainly plant based, to sustain their primary health care needs. Herbal medicines are in great demand in the developed as well as developing countries for primary healthcare because of their wide biological and medicinal activities, higher safety margins and lesser costs. In this review we have enlisted the updated anthelmintic medicinal plants which are used as good alternatives for the traditional allopathic anthelmintic agents.

  9. Evaluating the potential impact of enhancing HIV treatment and tuberculosis control programmes on the burden of tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chindelevitch, Leonid; Menzies, Nicolas A.; Pretorius, Carel; Stover, John; Salomon, Joshua A.; Cohen, Ted

    2015-01-01

    HIV has fuelled increasing tuberculosis (TB) incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. Better control of TB in this region may be achieved directly through TB programme improvements and indirectly through expanded use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among those with HIV. We used a mathematical model of TB and HIV in South Africa to examine the potential epidemiological impact in scenarios involving improvements in three dimensions of TB programmes: coverage, diagnosis and treatment effectiveness, as w...

  10. The economic value of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia: results from a contingent valuation survey

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    Rehnberg Clas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia is facing a double crisis of increasing malaria burden and dwindling capacity to deal with the endemic malaria burden. The pursuit of sustainable but equity mechanisms for financing malaria programmes is a subject of crucial policy discussion. This requires that comprehensive accounting of the economic impact of the various malaria programmes. Information on the economic value of programmes is essential in soliciting appropriate funding allocations for malaria control. Aims and objectives This paper specifically seeks to elicit a measure of the economic benefits of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia. The paper also studies the equity implications in malaria treatment given that demand or malaria treatment is determined by household socio-economic status. Methods A contingent valuation survey of about 300 Zambian households was conducted in four districts. Willingness-to-pay (WTP was elicited for an improved treatment programme for malaria in order to generate a measure of the economic benefits of the programme. The payment card method was used in eliciting WTP bids. Findings The study reports that malaria treatment has significant economic benefits to society. The total economic benefits of an improved treatment programme were estimated at an equivalent of US$ 77 million per annum, representing about 1.8% of Zambia's GDP. The study also reports the theoretically anticipated association between WTP and several socio-economic factors. Our income elasticity of demand is positive and similar in magnitude to estimates reported in similar studies. Finally, from an equity standpoint, the constraints imposed by income and socio-economic status are discussed.

  11. Waste treatment and immobilization technologies involving inorganic sorbents. Final report of a co-ordinated research programme 1992-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) for the application of inorganic sorbents in liquid waste treatment and immobilization was initiated by the IAEA in 1992. The results of this CRP are presented in this report. Fifteen institutions from fourteen countries were involved in this programme. The framework of this CRP was: (1) to conduct fundamental studies on sorbent structure and sorption mechanism; (2) to obtain thermodynamic and kinetic data of the treatment process; (3) to define sorption mechanism of radionuclides on different soils; (4) to identify sorbents appropriate for treatment of liquid waste streams; (5) to develop standard tests to be able to compare results of different groups of investigations. Refs, figs, tabs

  12. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of a Leaf Extract from Combretum mucronatum with Anthelmintic Activity: Oligomeric Procyanidins as the Active Principle

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    Verena Spiegler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Combretum mucronatum Schumach. & Thonn. is a medicinal plant widely used in West African traditional medicine for wound healing and the treatment of helminth infections. The present study aimed at a phytochemical characterization of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of this plant and the identification of the anthelmintic compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation. An EtOH-H2O (1:1 extract from defatted leaves was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O. Further fractionation was performed by fast centrifugal partition chromatography, RP18-MPLC and HPLC. Epicatechin (1, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC 2 to 10 (mainly procyanidins and flavonoids 11 to 13 were identified as main components of the extract. The hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and purified compounds were tested in vitro for their anthelmintic activity using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of OPCs as the active compounds with a dose-dependent anthelmintic activity ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Using OPC-clusters with a defined degree of polymerization (DP revealed that a DP ≥ 3 is necessary for an anthelmintic activity, whereas a DP > 4 does not lead to a further increased inhibitory effect against the helminths. In summary, the findings rationalize the traditional use of C. mucronatum and provide further insight into the anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins.

  13. Anthelmintic effects of forage chicory against parasitic nematodes in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Williams, Andrew; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    BACKGROUND: Chicory (Cichorium intybus) has potential as a natural anthelmintic in livestock, however evidence of efficacy against cattle nematodes is lacking. Here, we investigated anthelmintic effects of chicory in stabled calves. METHODS: Jersey male calves (2-4 months) were stratified by live...

  14. The Cyclooctadepsipeptide Anthelmintic Emodepside Differentially Modulates Nematode, Insect and Human Calcium-Activated Potassium (SLO Channel Alpha Subunits.

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    Anna Crisford

    Full Text Available The anthelmintic emodepside paralyses adult filarial worms, via a mode of action distinct from previous anthelmintics and has recently garnered interest as a new treatment for onchocerciasis. Whole organism data suggest its anthelmintic action is underpinned by a selective activation of the nematode isoform of an evolutionary conserved Ca2+-activated K+ channel, SLO-1. To test this at the molecular level we compared the actions of emodepside at heterologously expressed SLO-1 alpha subunit orthologues from nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and human using whole cell voltage clamp. Intriguingly we found that emodepside modulated nematode (Ce slo-1, insect (Drosophila, Dm slo and human (hum kcnma1SLO channels but that there are discrete differences in the features of the modulation that are consistent with its anthelmintic efficacy. Nematode SLO-1 currents required 100 μM intracellular Ca2+ and were strongly facilitated by emodepside (100 nM; +73.0 ± 17.4%; n = 9; p < 0.001. Drosophila Slo currents on the other hand were activated by emodepside (10 μM in the presence of 52 nM Ca2+ but were inhibited in the presence of 290 nM Ca2+ and exhibited a characteristic loss of rectification. Human Slo required 300 nM Ca2+ and emodepside transiently facilitated currents (100 nM; +33.5 ± 9%; n = 8; p<0.05 followed by a sustained inhibition (-52.6 ± 9.8%; n = 8; p < 0.001. This first cross phyla comparison of the actions of emodepside at nematode, insect and human channels provides new mechanistic insight into the compound's complex modulation of SLO channels. Consistent with whole organism behavioural studies on C. elegans, it indicates its anthelmintic action derives from a strong activation of SLO current, not observed in the human channel. These data provide an important benchmark for the wider deployment of emodepside as an anthelmintic treatment.

  15. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN.

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    H.P. Desai*, M.D. Kapadia and A.R. Kharat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs lead to the evaluation of medicinal plants which acts as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The present study has been undertaken to perform the evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Plumbago zeylanica belonging to family Plumbaginaceae. In the current study, experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible anthelminitic effects of various extracts of the roots of Plumbago zeylanica. Various concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20mg/ml of water and methanol extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Piperazine citrate was taken as a reference standard drug.The anthelmintic activity was observed by gradually increasing the dose of extract. Methanolic extract of Plumbago zeylenica showed higher activity as compared to water extract.

  16. IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF NATIVE PLANTS AGAINST HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Nyla; Anwar, Sadaf; Mahmood, Qaisar; Zia, Muhammad Abid; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of two medicinally important plants against Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants. Fruit peel of Punica granatum Linn. (vern. Anar), leaves and roots of Berberis lycium Royle (vern. Sumbal) were tested for their anthelmintic efficacy. Methanolic extracts of the test plants from various plant parts were tested for anthelmintic efficacy against the Haemonchus contortous using albendazole as a reference standard. The results revealed that both the plant extracts exhibited potent anthelmintic activity at concentrations higher than 50 mg/mL when tested against their respective standard drug. In case of Berberis lycium Royle when the results were compared, methanolic roots extracts showed more potent activity as compared to leaves extracts at the same concentration. It was observed that the in vitro anthelmintic potential of Punica granatum Linn. fruit peel and Berberis lyceium Royale root can be used to treat helminth infections after in vivo trails. PMID:26665413

  17. The costs of a sexually transmitted infection outreach and treatment programme targeting most at risk youth in Tajikistan

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    Johns Benjamin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted outreach, counselling, and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs are among the most cost-effective interventions aimed at ameliorating the burden of HIV/STIs. Since many new HIV infections occur in people under the age of 25, youth, and especially most at risk adolescents (MARA, need to be able to access HIV/STI services. Starting in 2006, a programme targeting MARA including outreach, confidential and voluntary counselling and testing, and STI diagnosis and treatment was piloted in three cities in Tajikistan. This study uses data from these pilot sites to estimate the costs of a national programme. Methods Cost data were collected from the three pilot sites. Then, the target population and the number of patients receiving specific types of services are calculated for other areas. The unit costs from the pilot sites are multiplied by usage rates to determine the total costs of a national programme. Scenarios were developed to reflect data uncertainty. The government's ability to finance the programme was estimated using Ministry of Health budget data. Further analyses were done for one of the pilot cities where more detailed data were available. Results In total, costs were projected for eight programme sites, covering an estimated 8,020 MARA. Operational and variable cost for the programme are projected to be US$ 119,159 (range US$ 104,953 to 151,524 per year. Including annual equivalent cost for capital and start-up items raises this to US$ 137,082 (range: US$ 123,022 to 169,597 per year. The analyses of potential sources of financing for the programme remain inconclusive, but it may take multiple sources of financing to fund the programme. Conclusion While the cost-effectiveness of similar programmes have been previously assessed using modelled data, more work needs to be done to assess the costs of new programmes in relation to financial resources available. Full costing should consider cost

  18. Written treatment contracts: their use in planning treatment programmes for in-patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, B

    1978-11-01

    The formation of a therapeutic relationship involves the negotiation of a treatment contract which conforms to the general principles of any contractual agreement. Attempts have been made to formalize the therapeutic alliance, and this paper reports the development of a written contract for psychiatric in-patients. PMID:728689

  19. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE

    OpenAIRE

    MATA-SANTOS, Taís; PINTO, Nitza França; Hilton Antônio MATA-SANTOS; DE MOURA, Kelly Gallan; Carneiro, Paula Fernandes; CARVALHO, Tatiane dos Santos; DEL RIO, Karina Pena; PINTO, Maria do Carmo Freire Ribeiro; MARTINS, Lourdes Rodrigues; Juliana Montelli FENALTI; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Scaini, Carlos James

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis) is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate) of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubate...

  20. The association between farmers’ participation in herd health programmes and their behaviour concerning treatment of mild clinical mastitis

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    Lind Ann-Kristina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Denmark, it has recently become mandatory for all dairy farmers with more than 100 cows to sign up for a herd health programme. Three herd health programmes are available. These differ in a number of aspects, including the frequency of veterinary visits and the farmer’s access to prescription drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate whether dairy farmers’ behavioural intentions, i.e. to call a veterinarian or start medical treatment on the day that they detect a cow with mild clinical mastitis (MCM, are different depending on the type of herd health programme. Methods A questionnaire survey based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB was conducted. TPB proposes that a person’s behavioural intention is strongly correlated with his or her actual behaviour. Three behavioural factors determine the behavioural intention: attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Each of these factors is decided by a set of beliefs, each of which in turn is weighted by an evaluation: 1 the expected outcomes of performing the behaviour, 2 what a person believes that others think of the behaviour, and 3 the person’s perceived power to influence the behaviour. A set of statements about the treatment of MCM based on interviews with 38 dairy farmers were identified initially. The statements were rephrased as questions and the resulting questionnaire was distributed to 400 randomly selected Danish dairy farmers who use the two most restrictive herd health programmes, either Core or Module1, and to all 669 farmers with the least restrictive herd health programme, Module2. The association between intention and the herd health programme was modelled using logistic regression. Results The farmers with the Module2 herd health programme had a significantly higher behavioural intention to perform the behaviour, when compared to farmers with a more restrictive herd health programme (OR = 2.1, p Conclusion Danish dairy

  1. Understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment and care in rural Tanzania: the ACCESS Programme

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    Alba Sandra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt access to effective treatment is central in the fight against malaria. However, a variety of interlinked factors at household and health system level influence access to timely and appropriate treatment and care. Furthermore, access may be influenced by global and national health policies. As a consequence, many malaria episodes in highly endemic countries are not treated appropriately. Project The ACCESS Programme aims at understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment and care in a rural Tanzanian setting. The programme's strategy is based on a set of integrated interventions, including social marketing for improved care seeking at community level as well as strengthening of quality of care at health facilities. This is complemented by a project that aims to improve the performance of drug stores. The interventions are accompanied by a comprehensive set of monitoring and evaluation activities measuring the programme's performance and (health impact. Baseline data demonstrated heterogeneity in the availability of malaria treatment, unavailability of medicines and treatment providers in certain areas as well as quality problems with regard to drugs and services. Conclusion The ACCESS Programme is a combination of multiple complementary interventions with a strong evaluation component. With this approach, ACCESS aims to contribute to the development of a more comprehensive access framework and to inform and support public health professionals and policy-makers in the delivery of improved health services.

  2. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF HIBISCUS CANNABINUS LEAF EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Chaitanya Sravanthi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the anthelmintic activity of Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract using adult earthworm, Pheritima posthuma. The methanolic extract of the crude drug at concentrations of 10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30mg/ml, 40mg/ml were tested which involve determination of paralysis time and death time. Albendazole was used as standard and it was found that the concentrated methanolic extract (with no traces of solvent of the Hibiscus cannabinus leaves which is used as food in many parts of the world, showed a better anthelminthic activity in comparison with the standard.

  3. The efficacy of 30% FENBENDAZOLE anthelmintic paste in cyathostominosis in horses

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    Corina Badea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Horse cyathostominosis is a large intestine helminthosis caused by parasites belonging to the family Strongylidae, subfamily Cyathostominae. The cyathostomins (small strongyles represent a challenge for the parasitologists and animal owners due to the different ontogenesis, the high number of parasite species and their ability to develop anthelmintic resistance. The faeces were examined by flotation (Willis method and the infestation level was determined by McMaster method in day 0, 7 and 14 post treatments. The product Vanbendazol (30% fenbendazole had a 97.7% efficacy in the treated horses from Şofronea, Arad County, using the Faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT. Also were performed Presidente and Borgsteede relations and the anthelmintic efficacy was 98.2% for the both relations.

  4. Anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder against bovine strongylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamra, Nirmala; Das, Giridhari; Singh, Priyanka; Haque, Manjurul

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder against strongyle infections in cattle. Based on copro-examination, 30 cattle positive for strongyle infection with at least 250 [eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces] were selected and grouped as A, B and C (10 animals/group). Group A and B were treated respectively with fendendazole and neem leaf powder @ 5 and 500 mg/kg body weight, whereas Group C served as infected untreated control. Faecal sample from each animal of these groups was examined on day 0, 7, 14 and 28 post treatments and EPG was determined. The result showed significant decrease (p neem leaf powder has anthelmintic property and it can further be studied to isolate the active component to produce herbal anthelminthics.

  5. The evolution of eccentric training as treatment for patellar tendinopathy (jumper's knee): a critical review of exercise programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Visnes, Håvard; Bahr, Roald

    2007-01-01

    Background and aim: Eccentric training has become a popular treatment for patellar tendinopathy. Our purpose was to review the evolution of eccentric strength training programmes for patellar tendinopathy with a focus on the exercise prescriptions used, to help clinicians make appropriate choices and identify areas needing further research.

  6. First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, R.; Jiménez, A. E.; Romero, J. J.; Alvarez, V.; De Oliveira, J. B.; Hernández, J.

    2011-01-01

    As the prevalence and severity of anthelmintic resistance continue to rise, nematode infections in sheep correspondingly reduce the profitability of the sheep industry. In Costa Rica, sheep production systems are increasing in both number and importance. A field trial study was carried out to detect the level of anthelmintic resistance to albendazole and ivermectin in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep from seven farms in Costa Rica. Resistance was determined using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Three treatment groups were assessed on each farm: control, albendazole, and ivermectin. Haemonchus spp. (71%), Strongyloides sp. (57%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (43%) presented resistance levels to albendazole, whereas Strongyloides sp. (43%), Haemonchus spp. (29%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (29%) were resistant to ivermectin. Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most resistant GIN to both products. This study suggests that frequency of treatment, exclusive chemical control, and visual estimation of animal weight to calculate dosage may contribute to the high levels of anthelmintic resistance that were observed on the farms analyzed herein. PMID:21772962

  7. First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maroto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the prevalence and severity of anthelmintic resistance continue to rise, nematode infections in sheep correspondingly reduce the profitability of the sheep industry. In Costa Rica, sheep production systems are increasing in both number and importance. A field trial study was carried out to detect the level of anthelmintic resistance to albendazole and ivermectin in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN of sheep from seven farms in Costa Rica. Resistance was determined using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT. Three treatment groups were assessed on each farm: control, albendazole, and ivermectin. Haemonchus spp. (71%, Strongyloides sp. (57%, and Trichostrongylus spp. (43% presented resistance levels to albendazole, whereas Strongyloides sp. (43%, Haemonchus spp. (29%, and Trichostrongylus spp. (29% were resistant to ivermectin. Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most resistant GIN to both products. This study suggests that frequency of treatment, exclusive chemical control, and visual estimation of animal weight to calculate dosage may contribute to the high levels of anthelmintic resistance that were observed on the farms analyzed herein.

  8. HIV treatment as prevention: optimising the impact of expanded HIV treatment programmes.

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    Wim Delva

    Full Text Available Until now, decisions about how to allocate ART have largely been based on maximising the therapeutic benefit of ART for patients. Since the results of the HPTN 052 study showed efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART in preventing HIV transmission, there has been increased interest in the benefits of ART not only as treatment, but also in prevention. Resources for expanding ART in the short term may be limited, so the question is how to generate the most prevention benefit from realistic potential increases in the availability of ART. Although not a formal systematic review, here we review different ways in which access to ART could be expanded by prioritising access to particular groups based on clinical or behavioural factors. For each group we consider (i the clinical and epidemiological benefits, (ii the potential feasibility, acceptability, and equity, and (iii the affordability and cost-effectiveness of prioritising ART access for that group. In re-evaluating the allocation of ART in light of the new data about ART preventing transmission, the goal should be to create policies that maximise epidemiological and clinical benefit while still being feasible, affordable, acceptable, and equitable.

  9. IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ACALYPHA INDICA LEAVES EXTRACTS

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    Pal Vishesh Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract from the Acalypha indica leaves of investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. Three concentrations (1%, 2.5% and 5% of extract were studied in activity, which involved the determination of time of paralysis and death of the worm. Both the extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 100 mg/ml. Piperazine citrate in same concentration as that of extract was included as standard reference and distilled water as control. The anthelmintic activity of ethanol extract of Acalypha indica leaf therefore been demonstrated for the first time.

  10. An Evaluation of the EQUIP Treatment Programme with Men who have Intellectual or Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Peter E.; Murphy, Glynis H.; Clare, Isabel C.H.; Palmer, Emma J.; Rees, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Equipping Youth to Help One Another Programme (EQUIP) was designed for young offenders to address a developmental delay in moral reasoning, distorted cognitions and social skills. Methods: The present authors undertook a single case series study and piloted an adapted version of the EQUIP programme with three men with intellectual…

  11. "It's Intense, to an Extent": A Qualitative Study of the Emotional Challenges Faced by Staff Working on a Treatment Programme for Intellectually Disabled Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Daljit K.; Rose, John; Rostill-Brookes, Helen J.; Thrift, Su

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study explores the emotional challenges faced by staff working on a sex offender treatment programme for people with an intellectual disability. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with eight participants working on a treatment programme for sex offenders with an intellectual disability. Interviews were analysed…

  12. Evaluation of enhanced virgin coconut oil and senduduk (Melastoma malabathricum) as anthelmintics against caprine strongyle nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basripuzi, H B; Sani, R A; Ariff, O M; Chandrawathani, P

    2013-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic properties of enhanced virgin coconut oil (EVCO) and senduduk (Melastoma malabathricum) plant against strongyle nematodes in goats. Two preparations of 10% EVCO dissolved in 90% virgin coconut oil and 10% EVCO dissolved in 90% palm oil, were given orally to two groups of mixed breeds goats. The efficacy test indicated that EVCO was insufficiently active as an anthelmintic. Four concentrations of senduduk solution (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg ml(-1)) were compared with a control and albendazole in an in vitro test for larvicidal effect. There was no significant larval mortality using senduduk solution. An in vivo test of senduduk was conducted by comparing three groups of goats, namely control, levamisole and treatment groups that were given a daily oral dose of senduduk crude extract with 1g kg(-1) from Day 0 to Day 12 and 2 g kg(-1) from Day 13 to Day 30. This efficacy test with senduduk also gave negative results. The findings obtained indicated that EVCO and senduduk were ineffective as anthelmintics against caprinestrongyle nematodes at the concentrations used.

  13. An information system to manage the rollout of the antiretroviral treatment programme in the Free State

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    J.E. Kotzé

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome epidemic, caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, is a global crisis which threatens development gains, economies, and societies. Within sub-Saharan Africa, where the epidemic began the earliest and the HIV prevalence is the highest, African countries have death rates not seen before. In South Africa the epidemic has a devastating impact which creates profound suffering on individuals and their families, and the impact on the socio-economic level is of great concern. The eradication of HIV/AIDS represents one of humanity’s greatest challenges, which requires co-operation and comprehensive collaboration between many different role players. In this endeavour clinical information plays a major role. To combat the effect of the disease, the Free State Department of Health started with the provisioning of antiretroviral therapy in the public health sector. The objective of this paper was to address the challenges they faced in order to develop and implement an information system to manage the rollout of antiretroviral treatment effectively. They started with a paper-based system to collect vital information. It was followed by a palm computer project that was initiated to electronically capture the data collected by the paper-based system. This system was then replaced by a comprehensive Hospital and Clinic Information System which was acquired and customised for the antiretroviral data collection process. Research partners developed a standalone antiretroviral data warehouse for collecting information associated with the monitoring and evaluation of the Free State antiretroviral and HIV/ AIDS treatment programme. The data warehouse successfully produced several management information reports to the antiretroviral management team. A need was identified to design a comprehensive antiretroviral data warehouse that will integrate data from several operational sources which are all associated with HIV/AIDS.

  14. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Fernanda Ramos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG (sensitivity of 50 EPG. These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different

  15. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups

  16. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Azadirachta Indica Leaves

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    HAQUE RABIU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms (Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridiagalli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control. Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 40 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaves has been reported

  17. INVESTIGATION OF IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF Clerodendron Inerme

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    Mondal Subhasish

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Clerodendron inerme leaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridia galli. Various concentrations (10-50 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control. Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 30 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Clerodendron inerme has been reported for the first time.

  18. Anthelmintic properties of extracts from Artemisia plants against nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Afshan, K; Mirza, B; Miller, J E; Manan, A; Irum, S; Rizvi, S S R; Qayyum, M

    2015-06-01

    Artemisia plant genus, natural inhabitant of northern Punjab Pakistan, is well known for its anthelmintic properties; many Artemisia species have not been so far scientifically proved. The aim of this study was to assess in vitro anthelmintic activity of Artemisia indica and Artemisia roxburghiana against mixed infection of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. This study is first scientifically proven study on anthelmintic activity of A. indica and A. roxburghiana. Five different concentrations (50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.75 mg/mL) accompanied by negative control (PBS) and positive control (albendazole, 10%) were used to carry out the egg hatch inhibition assay, larval mortality assay and adult worm mortality assay. The Baermann technique was used first time in larval mortality assay and proved to be effective. The results revealed that methanolic extracts of both A. indica and A. roxburghiana, showed maximum anthelmintic activity at concentration of 50 mg/ml by egg hatch inhibition (85±21.2; 80±28.3), larvae mortality (18±2.8; 17±4.2) and adult worm mortality (8.5±2.1; 8±2.8) assays. However, at concentration of 50 mg/ml both plant extracts in comparison to albendazole showed statistically insignificant (p≤0.05) results. The A. indica showed higher anthelmintic activity at all concentrations as compared to A. roburghiana. It has been concluded both plants exhibit anthelmintic activity and further evaluation of these plants should be carried out to purify the active ingredients for anthelmintic activity. Moreover, the decoctions of these plants could be used to GINs after confirming anthelmintic properties through in vivo.

  19. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    HAQUE RABIUL; MONDAL SUBHASISH; GHOSH PARAG

    2011-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma), tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis) and roundworms (Ascaridia galli). Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml) of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml) was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control.Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic...

  20. Anthelmintic effects of forage chicory against parasitic nematodes in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Williams, Andrew; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Enemark, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chicory (Cichorium intybus) has potential as a natural anthelmintic in livestock, however evidence of efficacy against cattle nematodes is lacking. Here, we investigated anthelmintic effects of chicory in stabled calves.METHODS: Jersey male calves (2-4 months) were stratified by live weight and allocated randomly to 2 groups: chicory (CHI, n=9) and control (CON, n=6). CHI and CON calves were fed with forage chicory silage (cv. Spadona) and hay ad libitum, resp., for 8 weeks. After...

  1. Controlling internal parasites without anthelmintics (a review) OF0132

    OpenAIRE

    KEATINGE, Ray

    1996-01-01

    1.0 Executive summary 1. Internal parasites are a major source of economic loss in grazing ruminants. To a greater or lesser degree, most farms in the UK rely on anthelmintics for control. In most situations these products continue to be highly effective, but anthelmintic resistance is increasing to the limited range of products available, raising serious concerns over the future of worm control. 2. Internal parasites are also of concern on organic farms, where the prophylactic us...

  2. Anthelmintics – From Discovery to Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J. Wolstenholme

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific meeting entitled ‘Anthelmintics: From Discovery to Resistance’ was held in San Francisco in February 2014. The themes of the meeting were drug discovery, modes of action and resistance. Both human and veterinary parasites were covered in the oral and poster presentations. The attendees were from both academic and industrial backgrounds. In the present article we introduce a number of the papers that emerged from the meeting. Several of the papers covered current drug discovery efforts underway worldwide, with some specific examples focusing on ion channels, protein kinases and cysteine proteases. These efforts included the repurposing of known drugs as well as the discovery of novel actives. Two papers described recently-developed whole-organism screening techniques. Finally, we introduce several papers looking at mechanisms and management of drug resistance in human and veterinary parasites.

  3. Care seeking and attitudes towards treatment compliance by newly enrolled tuberculosis patients in the district treatment programme in rural western Kenya: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Ayisi; A.H. van 't Hoog; J.A. Agaya; W. Mchembere; P.O. Nyamthimba; O. Muhenje; B.J. Marston

    2011-01-01

    The two issues mostly affecting the success of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes are delay in presentation and non-adherence to treatment. It is important to understand the factors that contribute to these issues, particularly in resource limited settings, where rates of tuberculosis are high. Th

  4. Treatment and use of sewage sludge and liquid agricultural wastes. Review of COST 68/681 programme, 1972-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the activities of the Community concerted action programme (finally termed COST 681) on the treatment and use of sewage sludge, and latterly of liquid agricultural waste, from its inception in the early 1970s to the end of 1990. It was prepared by WRC of the UK on behalf of DG XII of the Commission of the European Communities. (author). refs., Figs., Tabs

  5. Phytochemical, Anti-oxidant and Anthelmintic activities of various leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sreejith

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that the leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria exhibited strong antioxidant activity and possess significant anthelmintic activity and thus it is a good source of antioxidant and anthelmintic constituents.

  6. To trace the active compound in mengkudu (morinda citrifolia with anthelmintic acvtivity against Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B Murdiati

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites such Haemonchus contortus is usually controlled by management improvement and regular administration of anthelmintic. However, there is an indication of H. contortus resistance to several anthelmintic available in the market, which makes medicinal plants as an alternative anthelmintic and mengkudu or noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia have been reported as an effective anthelmintic. To trace the active compounds responsible for anthelmintic activity against H. contortus, the mengkudu fruit was continuosly extracted into hexane, chloroform, metanol and water, followed by in-vitro study on the anthelmintic activity. The in-vitro anthelmintic activity was base on the ability of the extracts to kill the worm and the ability of the extracts to prevent egg development. The study suggested that chloroform fraction which contains alkaloid and anthraquinon have the highest anthelmintic activity and showed significant different compared to control (P≤ 0.05.

  7. Anthelmintic-resistant strains of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis isolated from an organic sheep and goat farm in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Enemark, Heidi L.; Thansborg, Stig M.

    2013-01-01

    ) or 10 mg/kg closantel (CLO). Kids were treated with 10 mg/kg FBZ, 0.3 mg/kg MOX, 14 mg/kg LEV, 0.2 mg/kg IVM or 10 mg/kg CLO. FECs were performed at day of treatment and 14 days post treatment. In a subsequent investigation, faeces from adult goats were cultured to obtain 3rd-stage nematode larvae (L3......A suspected case of anthelmintic resistance (AR) was investigated in an organic dairy sheep and goat farm. The herd was established in 2007 by purchase of animals from a number of other farms. Selection for the study was based on history of anthelmintic-treatment failure. Forty-eight lambs and 48...... %. This is the first isolation of BZ-resistant H. contortus and T. colubriformis in Denmark and highlights the need for continuous surveillance of AR in conventional and organic farms....

  8. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K.

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA. PMID:27301442

  9. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA.

  10. [The resistance status of gastrointestinal strongyles against anthelmintics in three Estonian sheep flocks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anupöld, Ann Mari; Hinney, Barbara; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Poor efficacy of anthelmintic drugs in sheep due to infections with resistant gastrointestinal strongyles is reported worldwide. The aim of this pilot study was to gain an insight into the current situation of anthelmintic efficacy in Estonian sheep flocks. From September to November 2012, faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were carried out in three Estonian sheep farms, evaluating the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin. Individual faecal samples were taken at the day of treatment and 10 to 14 days later and examined by a modified McMaster technique. Anthelmintic treatment was carried out with ivermectin (Bimectin 10 mg/ml, Bimeda Chemicals Export) subcutaneously with a dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight in the IVM group (n = 20 animals/farms 1 and 2; n = 5 for farm 3) or albendazol (Endospec 10%, Bimeda Chemicals Export) orally in the dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight in the ALB group (n = 20 animals/ farm); animals in the control group (n = 20 animals for farms 1 and 3, n = 18 for farm 2) were left untreated. The FECRT was carried out according to the WAAVP guidelines. On farm 1 the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin was reduced with 66% and 65% FECR, respectively. With a FECR of 26% the results of farm 2 showed a pronounced albendazole resistance while ivermectin was still sufficiently efficient (99% reduction). Farm 3 showed nearly 100% efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin, but earlier problems with high endoparasite burden and mortality may indicate a possible developing albendazole resistance which could not be detected with the FECRT yet. The results of this study show that in Estonia resistance against benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones does occur, indicating that close countrywide monitoring is advisable.

  11. Efficacy of selected anthelmintic drugs against cyathostomins in horses in the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Juliane K; Hinney, Barbara; Denwood, Matthew J; Traversa, Donato; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Clausen, Peter-Henning

    2015-12-01

    Cyathostomins are currently the most common internal parasites of horses. With the intensive use of anthelmintic drugs over the past decades, resistance of cyathostomins to anthelmintics is becoming a growing problem in many countries. The aim of this study was to assess the current situation on horse farms in the German federal state of Brandenburg. A pre-selected population of horses from 24 premises that had shown a prevalence of cyathostomins higher than the average in a previous study was examined for anthelmintic efficacy. Faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRTs) were performed for ivermectin (IVM) and pyrantel (PYR). For IVM, the egg reappearance period (ERP) was also examined, as a shortened ERP can be indicative of developing resistance. The efficacy of IVM on cyathostomins was high: 99.1 % of 224 horses had a zero egg count 14 days after treatment. No shortening of the ERP was detected. For the data of the FECRT for PYR, three different methods of calculation were employed: (a) the method as recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP), (b) a bootstrapping method and (c) a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Two methods of interpretation for these data were used: Resistance was declared (a) when FECR was <90 % and the lower 95 % confidence interval (LCL) <80 % and (b) when additionally the upper 95 % confidence level (UCL) was <95 %. When applying the first interpretation, resistance against PYR was found on four yards, while, when considering the UCL, all three methods for calculation only detected resistance on one single yard. Twelve species of cyathostomins were detected in larval cultures derived from strongyle egg positive faecal samples collected 14 days after treatment with PYR by reverse line blot hybridization (RLB). In order to generate comparable data, it is suggested to establish international standards for the calculation of FECRT data. PMID:26337266

  12. A report on anthelmintic activity of Cassia tora leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinu John

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction of Cassia tora L. leaves were evaluated for anthelmintic property using the Indian adult earthworm (Pheretima posthuma as a model. Among the earthworms the ethyl acetate fraction was potent. The results were compared with a standard drug, albendazole. The phytochemical analysis of both extracts showed the presence of phenolics like flavonoids and tannins as well as anthraquinones, which may be the active principle. The present study confirms the ethno-medicinal report of the plant as an anthelmintic drug.

  13. Comparative study on Anthelmintic property of Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Devi. S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For the present study Acacia catechu, Euphorbia heterophylla, Corallocarpus epigaeus and Caesalpinia bonducella plant parts were chosen to evaluate the comparative analysis on anthelmintic activity. Different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, 100mg/ml of methanolic extracts of these plant parts were used. The evaluation parameters involved the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. Piperazine citrate was used as standard drug at 10 mg/ml concentration and saline as control. The results obtained showed that Corallocarpus epigaeus showed the highest anthelmintic activity with death time of 9 minutes at 100 mg/ml concentration.

  14. Heavy metals analysis, phytochemical, phytotoxic and anthelmintic investigations of crude methanolic extract, subsequent fractions and crude saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L

    OpenAIRE

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Subhan, Fazal; Ullah, Farhat; Sadiq, Abdul; Ahmad, Sajjad; Imran, Muhammad; Kamal, Zul; Hussain, Sajid; Shah, Syed Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background Polygonum hydropiper L decoctions are traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments including inflammation, dyspepsia, diarrhea, menorrhagia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis and CNS disorders. Present study was undertaken to investigate P. hydropiper L. for heavy metals content, phytoconstituents, Phytotoxic and anthelmintic activities to explore its toxicological and pharmacological potentials and rationalize its ethnomedicinal uses. Methods Plant crude powder, methanolic ext...

  15. Effect of combinations of marketed human anthelmintic drugs against Trichuris muris in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiser Jennifer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are responsible for a huge public health burden, however treatment options are limited. The discovery and development of novel efficacious drugs or drug combinations for the treatment of STH infections therefore has a high research priority. Methods We studied drug combination effects using the main standard anthelmintics, albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin in the Trichuris muris model. Drug combinations were first tested in vitro and additive and synergistic combinations investigated further in vivo in female mice using ratios based on the ED50 of the respective drugs. Results In vitro all 10 combinations of the standard anthelmintics tested against T. muris revealed synergistic behavior. We identified three drug combinations in vivo as strongly synergistic, namely mebendazole-ivermectin (Combination index (CI=0.16, mebendazole-levamisole (CI=0.17 and albendazole-mebendazole (CI=0.23. For albendazole-ivermectin, moderate synergism was observed (CI=0.81 and for albendazole-levamisole a nearly additive effect was documented (CI=0.93 in vivo. Five combinations (albendazole-pyrantel pamoate, mebendazole-pyrantel pamoate, levamisole-pyrantel pamoate, levamisole-ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate-ivermectin were antagonistic in vivo. Conclusion Our results strengthen the evidence that combination chemotherapy might play a role in the treatment of Trichuris infections. Albendazole-mebendazole should be studied in greater detail in preclinical studies.

  16. Examining the pathways for young people with drug and alcohol dependence: a mixed-method design to examine the role of a treatment programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Sally; Rawstorne, Patrick; Hayen, Andrew; Bryant, Joanne; Baldry, Eileen; Ferry, Mark; Williams, Megan; Shanahan, Marian; Jayasinha, Ranmalie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Young people with drug and alcohol problems are likely to have poorer health and other psychosocial outcomes than other young people. Residential treatment programmes have been shown to lead to improved health and related outcomes for young people in the short term. There is very little robust research showing longer term outcomes or benefits of such programmes. This paper describes an innovative protocol to examine the longer term outcomes and experiences of young people referred to a residential life management and treatment programme in Australia designed to address alcohol and drug issues in a holistic manner. Methods and analysis This is a mixed-methods study that will retrospectively and prospectively examine young people's pathways into and out of a residential life management programme. The study involves 3 components: (1) retrospective data linkage of programme data to health and criminal justice administrative data sets, (2) prospective cohort (using existing programme baseline data and a follow-up survey) and (3) qualitative in-depth interviews with a subsample of the prospective cohort. The study will compare findings among young people who are referred and (a) stay 30 days or more in the programme (including those who go on to continuing care and those who do not); (b) start, but stay fewer than 30 days in the programme; (c) are assessed, but do not start the programme. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been sought from several ethics committees including a university ethics committee, state health departments and an Aboriginal-specific ethics committee. The results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at research conferences, disseminated via a report for the general public and through Facebook communications. The study will inform the field more broadly about the value of different methods in evaluating programmes and examining the pathways and trajectories of vulnerable young people. PMID

  17. RD and D Programme 98. Treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste. Programme for research, development and demonstration of encapsulation and geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    RD and D-Programme 98 is intended to provide an overview of SKBs activities and plans. The detailed research programme is presented in a separate background report. In parallel with RDD-Programme 98, SKB is publishing a number of reports that provide a more thorough background and a more detailed account, particularly on those issues that the Government mentioned in its decision regarding RD and D-Programme 95. The programme is divided into two parts: Background and Execution. The background part begins with a chapter on the basic premises. It deals with general principles, laws and the properties of the waste. The facilities that exist today for dealing with the nuclear waste are also described in the introductory chapter. The two following chapters have to do with the choice between different methods for disposing of nuclear waste and with the KBS-3 method, which SKB has chosen as its main alternative. These two chapters provide a broader account of both the KBS-3 method and different alternative methods than previous RD and D-programmes. The background part concludes with a chapter about the long-term safety of the deep repository. The second part, Execution, begins with an overview of SKBs strategy and the main features of the programme, both for the next few years and further in the future. The plans for siting, technology and safety assessment are then presented in greater detail. This is followed by an overview of our plans for supportive research and development, including continued R and D on other methods than the KBS-3 method. The programme concludes with a chapter on decommissioning of nuclear facilities. An important part of the ongoing and planned work is consultation on environmental impact assessments. A first draft of the contents of future environmental impact statements is therefore provided. By attaching it to RD and D-Programme 98, SKB wishes to give all reviewing bodies an opportunity to offer their viewpoints at an early stage on what future

  18. RD and D Programme 98. Treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste. Programme for research, development and demonstration of encapsulation and geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RD and D-Programme 98 is intended to provide an overview of SKBs activities and plans. The detailed research programme is presented in a separate background report. In parallel with RDD-Programme 98, SKB is publishing a number of reports that provide a more thorough background and a more detailed account, particularly on those issues that the Government mentioned in its decision regarding RD and D-Programme 95. The programme is divided into two parts: Background and Execution. The background part begins with a chapter on the basic premises. It deals with general principles, laws and the properties of the waste. The facilities that exist today for dealing with the nuclear waste are also described in the introductory chapter. The two following chapters have to do with the choice between different methods for disposing of nuclear waste and with the KBS-3 method, which SKB has chosen as its main alternative. These two chapters provide a broader account of both the KBS-3 method and different alternative methods than previous RD and D-programmes. The background part concludes with a chapter about the long-term safety of the deep repository. The second part, Execution, begins with an overview of SKBs strategy and the main features of the programme, both for the next few years and further in the future. The plans for siting, technology and safety assessment are then presented in greater detail. This is followed by an overview of our plans for supportive research and development, including continued R and D on other methods than the KBS-3 method. The programme concludes with a chapter on decommissioning of nuclear facilities. An important part of the ongoing and planned work is consultation on environmental impact assessments. A first draft of the contents of future environmental impact statements is therefore provided. By attaching it to RD and D-Programme 98, SKB wishes to give all reviewing bodies an opportunity to offer their viewpoints at an early stage on what future

  19. Anthelmintic Activity of a Herbal Formulation Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arfan Zaman*§, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Nisar Khan and Ghulam Muhammad1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of a herbal formulation (HF based on aqueous extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica and Nicotiana tabacum, flowers of Calotropis procera and seeds of Trachyspermum ammi. In vitro, eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus were exposed to different concentrations of HF following the standard procedures of egg hatch test (EHT; 50 to 0.024414 mg ml-1 and adult motility assay (AMA; 200-0.1953125mg ml-1, respectively. The reference drugs used in the study were oxfendazole (0.0056704 to 0.0000027 mg ml-1 and levamisole (1.50 mg ml-1 for EHT and AMA, respectively. In vivo, pre and post-treatment (4 mg, 2 mg and 500 µg kg-1 body weight fecal egg counts were determined following standard fecal egg count reduction test in sheep naturally parasitized with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. In EHT, LC50 values of HF and oxfendazole (reference drug were 275.1 and 0.016 µg ml-1, respectively. In AMA, 100% mortality of H. contortus was observed 6 hr post-exposure to 3.125-200 mg ml-1 concentrations of HF and 2 hr post-exposure to levamisole. In vivo, maximum (96.2% fecal egg count (EPG reduction was recorded in sheep treated with HF @ 4 mg kg-1 body weight; whereas, 89.3% reduction in EPG was recorded in sheep treated with levamisole @ 7.5 mg kg-1 body weight. A graded dose response was noted in all the tests used in the present study to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of HF. Therefore, HF seems to be promising as an anthelmintic for animals. Large scale trials on efficacy and safety, however, are recommended before the HF is considered for commercialization in crude form.

  20. Design and evaluation of a treatment programme for Spanish adolescents with overweight and obesity. The EVASYON Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redondo-Figuero Carlos

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity (OW/OB among adolescents worldwide has increased since the 60 s. Spain has reached one of the highest OW/OB prevalence rates among adolescents from European countries. The aim of this methodological paper is to describe the design and evaluation in the EVASYON study (Development, implementation and evaluation of the efficacy of a therapeutic programme for adolescents with OW/OB: integral education on nutrition and physical activity. Methods/Design The EVASYON was planned by a multidisciplinary team to treat OW/OB in Spanish adolescents. The EVASYON is a multi-centre study conducted in 5 hospitals in 5 Spanish cities (Granada, Madrid, Pamplona, Santander and Zaragoza and two hundred and four OW/OB Spanish adolescents were recruited for this intervention. The treatment was implemented for approximately one-year follow-up. The adolescents were treated in groups of a maximum of 10 subjects; each group had 20 visits during the treatment period in two phases: intensive during the first 2 months (1st to 9th visits, and extensive during the last 11 months (10th to 20th visits. In order to assess the efficacy of the treatment, 8 dimensions were measured: diet; physical activity and fitness; eating behaviour; body composition; haematological profile; metabolic profile; minerals and vitamins; immuno-inflammatory markers. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms were also determined. Discussion The treatment programme developed in the EVASYON study was designed as a national pilot study to be implemented as an effective treatment for adolescents with OW/OB into the Spanish Health Care Service.

  1. A comparative study of the anthelmintic potential of Cleome Viscosa L. and Cleome Burmanni W. and A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi S Pillai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol, aqueous and chloroform extracts of Cleome viscosa and Cleome burmanni were tested for anthelmintic potential against the Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. Different concentrations of the extracts ranging from 50-2000 μg/ml were tested and results expressed as time required for paralysis and death of the worms. Piperazine citrate was used as a reference standard and DMSO (1% as the negative control. The methanol extracts of Cleome viscosa and Cleome burmanni exhibited significant anthelmintic activity. Methanol extract of Cleome viscosa at a concentration of 2000 μg/ml was detected to be the most effective treatment dose. Thin layer chromatography of methanol extracts of both plants revealed the presence of terpenoids.

  2. Poor efficacy of the most commonly used anthelmintics in sport horse nematodes in Morocco in relation to resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouiten H.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport and leisure horses in Morocco are treated with several anthelmintics, organophosphates (dichlorvos, benzimidazoles (mostly thiabendazole or tetrahydropyrimidines (mostly pyrantel pamoate against nematodes. We studied three horse stables in Rabat, one in Meknes and one in Bouznika. Two of the Rabat and Bouznika stables had introduced a large number of horses from countries (Argentina or Europe where resistance to benzimidazoles is frequent, whereas the Meknes stud farm remained without foreign introduction. The number of treatments was not very frequent (twice a year in adult horses but the same anthelmintics were used repeatedly. No resistance to dichlorvos was detected whereas benzimidazole and pyrantel pamoate resistances were detected for the first time in African horses, outside South Africa.

  3. "That is why I stopped the ART": Patients' & providers' perspectives on barriers to and enablers of HIV treatment adherence in a South African workplace programme

    OpenAIRE

    Kielmann Karina; Fielding Katherine; Hamilton Robin; Charalambous Salome; Dahab Mison; Churchyard Gavin J; Grant Alison D

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background As ART programmes in African settings expand beyond the pilot stages, adherence to treatment may become an increasing challenge. This qualitative study examines potential barriers to, and facilitators of, adherence to ART in a workplace programme in South Africa. Methods We conducted key informant interviews with 12 participants: six ART patients, five health service providers (HSPs) and one human resources manager. Results The main reported barriers were denial of existen...

  4. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa U; Amrutia Jay N; Katharotiya Reena; Moses Semuel Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera were screened for various bioactive constituents like glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids and alkaloids. The chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheritima postuma using Piperazine citrate and Rajah Pravartani Vati (Ayurvedic preparation) as a reference standards. The results obtained indicated that the chloroform ex...

  5. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.;

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclu...

  6. Metabolic pathways of benzimidazole anthelmintics in harebell (Campanula rotundifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlíková, Lucie; Jirásko, Robert; Skálová, Lenka; Pavlík, František; Szotáková, Barbora; Holčapek, Michal; Vaněk, Tomáš; Podlipná, Radka

    2016-08-01

    Benzimidazoles anthelmintics, which enter into environment primarily through excretion in the feces or urine of treated animals, can affect various organisms and disrupt ecosystem balance. The present study was designed to test the phytotoxicity and biotransformation of the three benzimidazole anthelmintics albendazole (ABZ), fenbendazole (FBZ) and flubendazole (FLU) in the harebell (Campanula rotundifolia). This meadow plant commonly grows in pastures and comes into contact with anthelmintics through the excrements of treated animals. Suspensions of harebell cells in culture medium were used as an in vitro model system. ABZ, FLU and FBZ were not found to be toxic for harebell cells, which were able to metabolize ABZ, FLU and FBZ via the formation of a wide scale of metabolites. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) led to the identification of 24, 18 and 29 metabolites of ABZ, FLU and FBZ, respectively. Several novel metabolites were identified for the first time. Based on the obtained results, the schemes of the metabolic pathways of these anthelmintics were proposed. Most of these metabolites can be considered deactivation products, but a substantial portion of them may readily be decomposed to biologically active substances which could negatively affect ecosystems. PMID:27208642

  7. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAQUE RABIUL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridia galli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control.Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 50 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves has been reported. Introduction Infections with helminth are among the most widespread infections in humans and other domestic animals affecting a large number of world population. The majority of these infections due to worms are generally restricted mainly to the tropical regions and the occurance is accelerated due to unhygienic lifestyle and poverty also resulting in the development of symtomps like anaemia, eosinophilia and pneumonia1. Parasitic diseases cause ruthless morbidity affecting principally in population.

  8. [Resistance to anthelmintics in nematodes in sheep and goats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praslicka, J; Corba, J

    1995-08-01

    The article offers a brief view on the most important theoretical knowledge of resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to anthelmintic drugs in sheep and goats. Besides the definition and basic terms, factors of development and occurrence of resistance on farm are analyzed. Furthermore, methods for detection of resistant nematodes as well as complex of recommended preventive measures are given.

  9. Anthelmintic resistance to ivermectin and moxidectin in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Chartier, Christophe; Fanke, Jane; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane; Traversa, Donato; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina; Vanimisetti, Hima Bindu; Bartram, David J; Denwood, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has been increasingly reported in cattle worldwide over the last decade, although reports from Europe are more limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of injectable formulations of ivermectin and moxidectin at 0.2 mg per kg bodyweight against naturally acquired gastro-intestinal nematodes in cattle. A total of 753 animals on 40 farms were enrolled in Germany (12 farms), the UK (10 farms), Italy (10 farms), and France (8 farms). Animals were selected based on pre-treatment faecal egg counts and were allocated to one of the two treatment groups. Each treatment group consisted of between 7 and 10 animals. A post-treatment faecal egg count was performed 14 days (±2 days) after treatment. The observed percentage reduction was calculated for each treatment group based on the arithmetic mean faecal egg count before and after treatment. The resistance status was evaluated based on the reduction in arithmetic mean faecal egg count and both the lower and upper 95% confidence limits. A decreased efficacy was observed in half or more of the farms in Germany, France and the UK. For moxidectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in France, and on 1 farm in Germany and the UK. For ivermectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in the UK, and on 1 farm in Germany and France. The remaining farms with decreased efficacy were classified as having an inconclusive resistance status based on the available data. After treatment Cooperia spp. larvae were most frequently identified, though Ostertagia ostertagi was also found, in particular within the UK and Germany. The present study reports lower than expected efficacy for ivermectin and moxidectin (based on the reduction in egg excretion after treatment) on European cattle farms, with confirmed anthelmintic resistance on 12.5% of the farms.

  10. Intermediate Level Waste Research Programme: Progress report for 1986/87 from the Waste Treatment and Disposal Working Party covering Joint Funded Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Treatment and Disposal Working Party (WTDWP) covered the areas of: ILW Product Evaluation; ILW and HLW Disposal Studies, and ILW and HLW Quality Checking. The objectives of the programme were to evaluate potential waste products arising from the treatment of ILW/HLW, and to develop appropriate techniques which could be used to check the quality of the finished waste product. (author)

  11. Predictors of outcome of the treatment programme in a multidisciplinary headache centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rigmor; Zeeberg, Peter; Dehlendorff, Christian;

    2010-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of headaches, multidisciplinary headache clinics are few and their efficacy still needs validation. The objective was to characterise patients and treatment results in a tertiary headache centre.......Despite the high prevalence of headaches, multidisciplinary headache clinics are few and their efficacy still needs validation. The objective was to characterise patients and treatment results in a tertiary headache centre....

  12. The Anthelmintic Activity of Vernonia Amygdalina (Asteraceae and Alstonia Boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketor, E.C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal worms affect a host of individuals resulting in malnutrition, stunted growth, intellectual retardation and cognitive deficits. The aim of this study is to investigate the antihelminthic activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae and Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae using earth-worms (Lumbricus terretris. The worms were directly exposed to 50, 100, and 200 mg/ml of aque-ous and ethanolic bark extracts of Alstonia boonei and leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina and piperazine citrate in a petri dish and in an organ bath. The control group was exposed to distilled water. The time of paralysis and death were determined within a period of 6 h in the petri dish method whiles spontaneous movements of the worms before and after drug administration were recorded on a slow moving kymograph drum in the organ bath method. All doses of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts significantly (P ≤ 0.001 reduced the time of paralysis and time of death compared to the vehicle treated group. The time of paralysis and time of death in the tissue bath method corresponded to that obtained by direct exposure. The extracts exhibited anthelmintic ac-tivity and thus could be an inexpensive and readily available source of anthelmintic treatment.

  13. [Anthelmintic control of multiresistant nematodes in the gastrointestinal tract of imported goats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corba, J; Várady, M; Praslicka, J; Veselý, L

    1993-01-01

    Multiple resistant strains of Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus were detected in a flock of cashmere and angora goats imported from New Zealand. The ED50 values detected by in vitro EHA test were from 0.27 to 0.36 micrograms/ml (while the reference value of sensitivity is 0.10 microgram/ml TBZ). Multiple resistance to all the types of currently used anthelmintics was confirmed by in vivo FECRT, when the efficacy of recommended doses was lower than 90% (albendazole 74%, levamisole 86%, ivermectin 83%). Two control schemes were investigated. In the simultaneous application of anthelmintics in the double or triple of recommended doses (0.4 mg/kg ivermectin s.c., 30 mg/kg levamisole and 20 mg/kg albendazole p.o.) was effective. Examination of goats 7 and 8 months after treatment revealed the repeated presence of multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. It is the first published case of intercontinental transfer of resistant strains of nematodes when importing small ruminants.

  14. Determination of anthelmintic efficacy against Toxocara canis in dogs by use of capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice C Y; Epe, Christian; Bowman, Dwight D

    2015-09-15

    Industry guidelines for anthelmintic testing call for postmortem inspection of animals to verify treatment efficacy. A previous study showed that capsule endoscopy (CE) can be performed on dogs in vivo to quantify hookworms in the small intestine. Adoption of a minimally invasive procedure such as this could reduce the need for necropsy in efficacy trials. The present study employed CE to enumerate Toxocara canis in dogs, with two main goals: to determine if multiple capsule examinations improves the accuracy of worm counts compared to a single examination, and to establish if the efficacy of an anthelmintic compound is the same whether calculated using CE or necropsy data. To avoid needless animal sacrifice, the study was carried out on beagle dogs already in a product development trial with a planned terminal endpoint. Dogs were infected by oral inoculation with T. canis eggs. Untreated control dogs (n=8) were evaluated by CE three times while dogs treated with test compounds (3 groups of 4) were examined only once. Utilizing either the average count or just the last complete capsule examination, a robust correlation was found between CE and postmortem numbers (r=0.94, pcanis parasiticide trials. PMID:26321133

  15. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina;

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity...... to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely...... of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of ascariosis....

  16. [Treatment of chronic pain of oncologic origin with epidural or intrathecal morphine administered by continuous or programmable flow implanted pumps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez López, M J; de la Torre Liébanas, M; Sánchez-Guijo Bernal, J J; Muñoz de la Guardia, J L

    1990-01-01

    We have treated a total of 40 patients who presented chronic pain secondary to a neoplastic condition; the patients were treated with morphine in a continuous perfusion by means of an implanted perfusion pump. The route used was the epidural route in seven patients and the intrathecal route in the remaining 33 patients. In 22 patients, the implanted pump was the continuous flow Infusaid model and in the remaining 18, the programmable flow Synchromed (Medtronic) model. The daily dose of morphine ranged from 2.4 mg to 48 mg and maximum perfusion period was 19 months. Main complications were displacement of the catheter and rejection of perfusion system. Despite its high prize, we believe that such treatment system should be considered because of the quality of life improvement of the patients. PMID:2098877

  17. Relatives in older patients' fast-track treatment programme during total hip or knee replacement. A grounded theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher

    The aim of this Ph.D.-dissertation was to generate grounded theories of relatives, patients, and health professionals’ pattern of behaviour, respectively, in relation to the relatives of older patients’ fast-track treatment programmes during total hip or knee replacement. The dissertation includes...... three classic grounded theory studies discovered through Glaser’s theoretical and methodological framework. The constant comparative method was the guiding principle of simultaneous data collection, data analysis, and substantive and theoretical coding, while theoretical sampling and writing memos. Data...... was collected between 2010 and 2011 in the orthopaedic wards of two Copenhagen university hospitals, and guided by theoretical sampling. Study I: Seven relatives of patients over 70 years of age participated. Data consisted of 14 non-participant observations, 14 post-observational interviews, and five formal...

  18. Clinical and logistical aspects of in vitro fertilization treatment: An analysis of a transport IVF programme

    OpenAIRE

    Roest, Jan

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn vitro fertilization and cmblYo transfer (IVFIET), the culture of aspirated aGcytcs and spermatozoa in the JaboratOly follO\\\\ved by transccrvicai embryo transfer, ,vas originally used as a treatment for infertility resulting from impaired fUllction of the fallopian tubes. A few years after the introduction of IVF/ET the indications for treatment included infertility caused by endometriosis, male factors, ovulation disorders and unexplained infertility (1). Although IVF has now b...

  19. Treatment technologies for low and intermediate level waste from nuclear applications. Final report of a co-ordinated research programme 1991-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low and intermediate level radioactive waste is generated from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The waste management programmes and activities in many developing Member States have been reviewed through a Waste Management Advisory Programme (WAMAP) implemented by the IAEA in 1987-1995. One of the WAMAP objectives was to assist in practical development and implementation of safe and efficient waste treatment methods. In this context the IAEA has initiated a co-ordinated research programme on treatment technologies for institutional wastes covering the most important recurring problems in developing Member States. The programme was intended to cover the research and development required for reliable waste treatment operations, including the likely variations in institutional waste inputs using simple low cost processes. This co-ordinated research programme was initiated in 1991 and brought together 14 participants from 13 countries. The results of the studies were discussed at three research co-ordination meetings. This report summarizes the salient features and results obtained during five year investigations and provides recommendations for future work in this area. Refs, figs, tabs

  20. Development, implementation and evaluation of a multidisciplinary cancer rehabilitation programme : The CANSURVIVOR Project : meeting post-treatment cancer survivors’ needs

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ivers, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer survivor numbers in Ireland are increasing due to the success of modern treatments. Although most survivors have a good quality of life not all survivors return to \\'normal\\' after treatment. The HSE funded CANSURVIVOR research project has found that many survivors have difficulties and need help to recover and adjust after cancer treatment. Over a number of exploratory studies using interviews, focus groups and a survey of 262 breast, prostate, colorectal and lung cancer survivors, the researchers found that over 25% of survivors experienced significant difficulties with physical, emotional and social functioning, including symptoms such as insomnia and fatigue, while 33% experienced high levels of anxiety. Of particular concern were the findings that over 50% of survivors were overweight, 35% had reduced their physical activity levels and 13% continued to smoke after cancer, putting them at risk for further health problems. This evidence led to the development of an 8-week multi-disciplinary pilot rehabilitation programme. Significant quality of life improvements were achieved with increases in strength and fitness as well as a reduction in anxiety levels and dietary improvements. The researchers highlight the need for a structured, co-ordinated survivorship service, education of health professionals about survivorship and the provision of high quality information to survivors. This research was led by the School of Psychology at UCD in collaboration with the Physiotherapy and Nutrition departments of St. Vincent\\'s hospital.

  1. PREVALENCE AND ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF ABAMECTIN AGAINST GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES IN HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAHFOOZ, M. Z. MASOOD, A. YOUSAF, N. AKHTAR AND M. A. ZAFAR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and anthelmintic efficacy of Abamectin against gastrointestinal parasites under field conditions in Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan was studied in 100 horses. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was 75%, including Strongylus spp. (50%, Oxyuris equi (12%, Parascaris equorum (8% and mixed infection (5%. Among these naturally infected animals, 15 were selected. These horses were assigned to three groups on the basis of prevalent species of gastrointestinal parasites. Each group had five animals, comprising four treatment horses and a control horse. Abamectin was evaluated against these gastrointestinal parasites with a single shot at the dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg body weight administered through subcutaneous route which resulted in 98% reduction in faecal egg count after day 14 post-treatment. Non-treated horses remained positive for gastrointestinal parasites. No adverse reactions were observed during the experimental period. It was concluded that Abamectin is highly effective against gastrointestinal parasites in horses.

  2. Limited availability of childhood overweight and obesity treatment programmes in Danish paediatric departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg, Marianne; Cortes, Dina; Johansen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of children and adolescents with overweight and obesity has tripled over the past 30 years. One in five children in Denmark is overweight, a condition which is accompanied by serious medical and psychosocial complications. So far, an overview of the Danish treatment...

  3. Detoxification of medication-overuse headache by a multidisciplinary treatment programme is highly effective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, Signe B; Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence for optimal medication-overuse headache treatment is lacking. Some experts suggest reduced symptomatic medication with prophylactics from the start of withdrawal, while others suggest a two-month drug-free period with multidisciplinary education. Aim: To examine the acceptabi...

  4. Clinical and logistical aspects of in vitro fertilization treatment: An analysis of a transport IVF programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Roest (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn vitro fertilization and cmblYo transfer (IVFIET), the culture of aspirated aGcytcs and spermatozoa in the JaboratOly follO\\\\ved by transccrvicai embryo transfer, ,vas originally used as a treatment for infertility resulting from impaired fUllction of the fallopian tubes. A few years a

  5. The treatment of insomnia through mass media, the results of a televised behavioural training programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klip, EC

    1997-01-01

    An important trend in behavioural medicine is a psyche-educational approach to health problems. A training course aimed at the treatment of sleep disorders has been developed using the following basic principles: (1) a symptomatic approach, (2) emphasis on information on sleep and sleep disorders, (

  6. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisale A B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata Linn belonging to family Fabaceae are used traditionally as appetizer, diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic. Seeds are coarse powdered and exhaustively with hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Alcoholic extract of Vigna unguiculata showed significant activity than aqueous extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed seeds of vigna unguiculata possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The seeds extract also showed presence of flavonoids, and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations.

  7. Anthelmintic drugs and nematocides: studies in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Holden-Dye, L.; Walker, R

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes infect many species of animals throughout the phyla, including humans. Moreover, nematodes that parasitise plants are a global problem for agriculture. As such, these nematodes place a major burden on human health, on livestock production, on the welfare of companion animals and on crop production. In the 21st century there are two major challenges posed by the wide-spread prevalence of parasitic nematodes. First, many anthelmintic drugs are losing their effectiveness beca...

  8. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa U

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera were screened for various bioactive constituents like glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids and alkaloids. The chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheritima postuma using Piperazine citrate and Rajah Pravartani Vati (Ayurvedic preparation as a reference standards. The results obtained indicated that the chloroform extract was more potent compared to other extracts.

  9. Antifungal and anthelmintic activities of Cleistopholis patens (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akendengué, Blandine; Champy, Pierre; Nzamba, Joseph; Roblot, François; Loiseau, Philippe M; Bories, Christian

    2009-08-01

    Basic CH2Cl2 extract of the trunk bark of Cleistopholis patens (Annonaceae) exhibited antifungal activities against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. glabrata using an agar well-diffusion assay method. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of 8-hydroxysampangine. The methanolic extract displayed anthelmintic activity against Rhabditis pseudoelongata. Purification of the neutral CH2Cl2 extract yielded bornyl-p-transcoumarate and bornyl-p-cis-coumarate.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and anthelmintic efficacy of topical eprinomectin in goats prevented from grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Steffen; Kellermann, Michael; Wehner, Teresa A

    2014-11-01

    Pharmacokinetics and anthelmintic activity of topical eprinomectin in goats prevented from physical contact to others and self-grooming were studied. Sixteen approximately 7 months old male castrated German White Noble goats harbouring induced infections of gastrointestinal nematode parasites were included in the study. They were blocked based on pre-treatment body weight (range 22.4 to 36.4 kg) and then randomly allocated to the untreated control group or the group treated with topical 0.5% w/v eprinomectin (EPRINEX Pour-on, Merial) at 1 mg/kg body weight. Plasma samples were collected prior to and at intervals up to 14 days following treatment and analyzed to determine the concentrations of eprinomectin (B1a component). Parasites were recovered, identified, and counted following necropsy 14 days after treatment. Goats treated with topical eprinomectin had significantly fewer (≥99% reduction, p < 0.01) adult Cooperia curticei, Haemonchus contortus, Nematodirus battus, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Ostertagia circumcincta, and Trichostrongylus colubriformis than the untreated controls. Basic pharmacokinetic parameters for eprinomectin B1a were AUCinfinity, 37.1 ± 15.2 day ng/mL; T½, 5.11 ± 2.83 days; and Cmax, 5.93 ± 1.87 ng/mL; individual maximal concentrations were observed 1 or 2 days after treatment. Results of this study indicate that oral ingestion is not required to achieve adequate exposure for excellent anthelmintic efficacy following topical administration of eprinomectin at 1 mg/kg body weight to goats.

  11. Direct and indirect anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar; Sarwar, Muhammad; Jabbar, Abdul; Ahmed, Shahbaz; Nisa, M; Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Mufti, Kamran Aftab; Yaseen, Muhammad

    2007-03-15

    Anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins (CT) was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro tests included egg hatch test and paralysis/mortality assay on adult Haemonchus contortus. In vivo anthelmintic effect was determined by faecal egg count reduction test in lambs. To this end, 18 lambs were divided into three groups (low tannin, high tannin and control). The lambs of low and high tannin groups were fed diets containing 2 and 3% CT while the control group was fed on diets without CT. In vitro trials showed a dose-dependent inhibition of nematode egg hatching; whereas, there was no effect of CT on adult H. contortus. In vivo trials indicated reduction in faecal egg counts in lambs fed diets containing CT. Feed intake and nutrient digestibility of CT-fed sheep was lower and nitrogen balance was higher as compared to control. Maximum weight gain was observed in animals fed diets containing 3% CT. The direct anthelmintic effect of CT, therefore, was evidenced by inhibited egg hatching; whereas, faecal egg counts reduction in sheep was through improved nutrient utilization.

  12. Anthelmintic activity of steroidal saponins from Paris polyphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G-X; Han, J; Zhao, L-W; Jiang, D-X; Liu, Y-T; Liu, X-L

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the anthelmintic activity of crude extracts and pure compounds from the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla. The methanol extract showed a promising anthelmintic activity against Dactylogyrus intermedius (EC(50) value=18.06 mg l(-¹). Based on these finding, the methanol extract was fractionated on silica gel column chromatography in a bioassay-guided fractionation affording two known steroidal saponins showing potent activity, dioscin and polyphyllin D. Both dioscin and polyphyllin D exhibited significant activity against D. intermedius with EC(50) values of 0.44 and 0.70 mg l(-¹), respectively, which were more effective than the positive control, mebendazole (EC(50) value=1.25 mg l(-¹)). The acute toxicities (LC(50)) of dioscin and polyphyllin D for goldfish were 1.37 and 1.08 mg l(-¹), respectively. These results indicated that P. polyphylla extract and the isolated compounds are potential natural agents for the control of Dactylogyrus infestation. This is the first report on in vivo anthelmintic investigation for P. polyphylla. PMID:20576414

  13. Anthelmintic activity of the latex of Ficus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Amorin, A; Borba, H R; Carauta, J P; Lopes, D; Kaplan, M A

    1999-03-01

    The latex of some species of Ficus (Moraceae) has been traditionally used as vermifuge in Central and South America. It has been accepted that anthelmintic activity is due to a proteolytic fraction called ficin. In the present study, the anthelmintic activity of the latex of Ficus insipida Willd. and Ficus carica L. has been investigated in NIH mice naturally infected with Syphacia obvelata, Aspiculuris tetraptera and Vampirolepis nana. The latex of F. insipida, administered by intragastric route in doses of 4 ml/kg/day during three consecutive days, were effective in the removal of 38.6% of the total number of S. obvelata, being inexpressive in the removal of A. tetraptera (8.4%) and segments of V. nana (6.3%). The latex of F. carica, administered in doses of 3 ml/kg/day, during three consecutive days, was effective in the removal of S. obvelata (41.7%) and it did not produce significant elimination of A. tetraptera (2.6%) and V. nana (8.3%). The observed high acute toxicity with hemorrhagic enteritis, in addition to a weak anthelmintic efficacy, do not recommend the use of these lattices in traditional medicine.

  14. A Randomized Controlled Trial for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech Comparing Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment and the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme-Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; McCabe, Patricia; Ballard, Kirrie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This randomized controlled trial compared the experimental Rapid Syllable Transition (ReST) treatment to the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme-Third Edition (NDP3; Williams & Stephens, 2004), used widely in clinical practice in Australia and the United Kingdom. Both programs aim to improve speech motor planning/programming for children…

  15. HIV diversity and drug resistance from plasma and non-plasma analytes in a large treatment programme in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Kantor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antiretroviral resistance leads to treatment failure and resistance transmission. Resistance data in western Kenya are limited. Collection of non-plasma analytes may provide additional resistance information. Methods: We assessed HIV diversity using the REGA tool, transmitted resistance by the WHO mutation list and acquired resistance upon first-line failure by the IAS–USA mutation list, at the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH, a major treatment programme in western Kenya. Plasma and four non-plasma analytes, dried blood-spots (DBS, dried plasma-spots (DPS, ViveSTTM-plasma (STP and ViveST-blood (STB, were compared to identify diversity and evaluate sequence concordance. Results: Among 122 patients, 62 were treatment-naïve and 60 treatment-experienced; 61% were female, median age 35 years, median CD4 182 cells/µL, median viral-load 4.6 log10 copies/mL. One hundred and ninety-six sequences were available for 107/122 (88% patients, 58/62 (94% treatment-naïve and 49/60 (82% treated; 100/122 (82% plasma, 37/78 (47% attempted DBS, 16/45 (36% attempted DPS, 14/44 (32% attempted STP from fresh plasma and 23/34 (68% from frozen plasma, and 5/42 (12% attempted STB. Plasma and DBS genotyping success increased at higher VL and shorter shipment-to-genotyping time. Main subtypes were A (62%, D (15% and C (6%. Transmitted resistance was found in 1.8% of plasma sequences, and 7% combining analytes. Plasma resistance mutations were identified in 91% of treated patients, 76% NRTI, 91% NNRTI; 76% dual-class; 60% with intermediate-high predicted resistance to future treatment options; with novel mutation co-occurrence patterns. Nearly 88% of plasma mutations were identified in DBS, 89% in DPS and 94% in STP. Of 23 discordant mutations, 92% in plasma and 60% in non-plasma analytes were mixtures. Mean whole-sequence discordance from frozen plasma reference was 1.1% for plasma-DBS, 1.2% plasma-DPS, 2.0% plasma-STP and 2

  16. Studies on the traditional herbal anthelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliks, M M

    1985-01-01

    Infusions and decoctions of the leaves, roots and inflorescences of the herbaceous shrub Chenopodium ambrosioides (American wormseed, goosefoot, epazote, paico) and related species indigenous to the New World have been used for centuries as dietary condiments and as traditional anthelmintics by native peoples for the treatment of intestinal worms. Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium and its active constituent, ascaridol, obtained by steam distillation, have been and continue to be, used with considerable success in mass treatment campaigns. Ethnopharmacological studies in a community of Mayan subsistence farmers in Chiapas, Mexico, confirmed that decoctions containing up to 300 mg of dry plant material per kg body weight (MGKGW) were widely used and traditionally highly regarded in the treatment of ascariasis. However, therapeutic doses of up to 6000 MGKGW of powdered, dried plant had no significant anthelmintic effect on the adults of Necator, Trichuris of Ascaris. Gas-liquid chromatographic analyses of plant samples used consistently demonstrated the presence of ascaridol in the expected amounts. Possible origins of subjective belief in the efficacy of C. ambrosioides as used, may be related to the positive association of spontaneous, or peristalsis-induced passage of senescent worms immediately following a therapeutic episode. It is also possible that in the past varieties of the plant containing much more ascaridol were used. The results of these controlled field studies did not sustain widely held traditional beliefs, nor the value of therapeutic practices regarding this plant. It is, therefore, essential that all indigenous ethnomedical practices be objectively evaluated for efficacy and safety using appropriate protocols before being considered for adoptation or promotion in health care programs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3906906

  17. Safety and on-treatment efficacy of telaprevir: the early access programme for patients with advanced hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, M; Fernández, I; Abdurakhmanov, D; Ferreira, P A; Strasser, S I; Urbanek, P; Moreno, C; Streinu-Cercel, A; Verheyen, A; Iraqi, W; DeMasi, R; Hill, A; Läuffer, J M; Lonjon-Domanec, I; Wedemeyer, H

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim Severe adverse events (AEs) compromise the outcome of direct antiviral agent-based treatment in patients with advanced liver fibrosis due to HCV infection. HEP3002 is an ongoing multinational programme to evaluate safety and efficacy of telaprevir (TVR) plus pegylated-interferon-α (PEG-IFNα) and ribavirin (RBV) in patients with advanced liver fibrosis caused by HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1). Methods 1782 patients with HCV-1 and bridging fibrosis or compensated cirrhosis were prospectively recruited from 16 countries worldwide, and treated with 12 weeks of TVR plus PEG-IFN/RBV, followed by 12 or 36 weeks of PEG-IFN and RBV (PR) alone dependent on virological response to treatment and previous response type. Results 1587 patients completed 12 weeks of triple therapy and 4 weeks of PR tail (53% cirrhosis, 22% HCV-1a). By week 12, HCV RNA was undetectable in 85% of naives, 88% of relapsers, 80% of partial responders and 72% of null responders. Overall, 931 patients (59%) developed grade 1–4 anaemia (grade 3/4 in 31%), 630 (40%) dose reduced RBV, 332 (21%) received erythropoietin and 157 (10%) were transfused. Age and female gender were the strongest predictors of anaemia. 64 patients (4%) developed a grade 3/4 rash. Discontinuation of TVR due to AEs was necessary in 193 patients (12%). Seven patients died (0.4%, six had cirrhosis). Conclusions In compensated patients with advanced fibrosis due to HCV-1, triple therapy with TVR led to satisfactory rates of safety, tolerability and on-treatment virological response with adequate managements of AEs. PMID:24201995

  18. A psychological treatment programme for traumatised ex military personnel in the UK

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    Beatriz Sánchez España

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A large proportion of homeless people in the UK are former members of the armed services and suffer from a mental illness. In fact, homelessness itself can be considered a symptom or manifestation of other underlying psychological difficulties. For these reasons Community Housing and Therapy (CHT considers that providing psychological therapies to treat the homeless population is a more effective way of tackling the problem of homelessness, as it addresses the roots of the problem. This approach is one which is beginning to be recognised by leading agencies in the field. At the same time, the provision of psychological therapies for symptoms such as depression and anxiety has become accepted through the Department of Health’s (DoH Increased Access to Psychological Therapies ( IAPT initiative. Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder that homeless people suffer and it is well documented that psychological treatments for depression can be extremely effective. As well as approaching homelessness from the angle of psychological therapies, CHT in its work with the ex-service community has become increasingly aware that there are a large number of non statutory homeless that do not get the same attention as rough sleepers.

  19. Hydrodynamics of the Certas™ programmable valve for the treatment of hydrocephalus

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    Eklund Anders

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new Certas™ shunt for the treatment of hydrocephalus has seven standard pressure settings that according to the manufacturer range from 36 to 238 mmH2O, and an additional “Virtual Off” setting with an opening pressure >400 mmH2O. Information on actual pressure response and reliability of shunt performance is important in clinical application, especially the “Virtual Off” setting as a non-surgical replacement for shunt ligation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in-vitro hydrodynamic performance of the Certas™ shunt. Methods Six new Certas™ shunts with proximal and distal catheters were tested with an automated, computerized test system that raised the pressure from zero to a maximum pressure and back to zero at each valve setting. Opening pressure and flow resistance were determined. Results For settings 1–7 the measured opening pressure range was 26 to 247 mmH2O, and the mean change in opening pressure for a one-step adjustment was between 33 and 38 mmH2O. For setting 8 (“Virtual Off” the measured mean opening pressure was 494 ± 34 mmH2O (range 451 to 556 mmH2O. The mean outflow resistance was 7.0 mmHg/ml/min (outflow conductance 17.9 μl/s/kPa. Conclusions The six shunts had similar characteristics and closely matched the manufacturer’s specifications for opening pressure at settings 1–7. The opening pressure for the “Virtual Off” setting was nearly 500 mmH2O, which is 100 mmH2O higher than the manufacturer’s specification of “>400” and should be functionally off for most patients with communicating hydrocephalus. Clinical studies are needed to evaluate if the CSF dynamic profile persists after implantation in patients.

  20. Lay workers in directly observed treatment (DOT) programmes for tuberculosis in high burden settings: Should they be paid? A review of behavioural perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kironde, Samson; Bajunirwe, Francis

    2002-08-01

    The current global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic has pressured health care managers, particularly in developing countries, to seek for alternative, innovative ways of delivering effective treatment to the large number of TB patients diagnosed annually. One strategy employed is direct observation of treatment (DOT) for all patients. In high-burden settings innovation with this strategy has resulted into the use of lay community members to supervise TB patients during the duration of anti-TB treatment. However, community involvement in health programmes is not a simple matter. There is often a need for continued motivation of community members in order to ensure sustainability of such projects. Lay workers may demand payment for work done particularly if this takes up a reasonable proportion of their time. TB treatment, by its very nature, lasts for a considerable period and this paper seeks to examine behavioural perspectives that attempt to address the issue of whether lay workers in such programmes should be paid for their services. The theories explored suggest intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as factors that lead people to volunteer for health programmes. Intrinsic motivation encompasses such feelings as empathy and altruism as well as other factors such as religious and cultural conviction. The authors argue however that in high-burden TB settings, these factors alone may be inadequate to provide continued motivation for lay worker involvement in health programmes. Extrinsic motivators, of which money is the strongest example, then also serve to keep sustained interest particularly in resource-limited settings where people expect payment for work done. The debate on whether lay workers in health programmes should be paid is thus compounded by issues such as what factors one believes are responsible for motivation in particular contextual settings; how long lay persons are expected to perform tasks at hand; the capacity that exists to pay them and the

  1. Hepatic biotransformation pathways and ruminal metabolic stability of the novel anthelmintic monepantel in sheep and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballent, M; Virkel, G; Maté, L; Viviani, P; Lanusse, C; Lifschitz, A

    2016-10-01

    Monepantel (MNP) is a new amino-acetonitrile derivative anthelmintic drug used for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in sheep. The present work investigated the main enzymatic pathways involved in the hepatic biotransformation of MNP in sheep and cattle. The metabolic stability in ruminal fluid of both the parent drug and its main metabolite (monepantel sulphone, MNPSO2 ) was characterized as well. Additionally, the relative distribution of both anthelmintic molecules between the fluid and particulate phases of the ruminal content was studied. Liver microsomal fractions from six (6) rams and five (5) steers were incubated with a 40 μm of MNP. Heat pretreatment (50 °C for 2 min) of liver microsomes was performed for inactivation of the flavin-monooxygenase (FMO) system. Additionally, MNP was incubated in the presence of 4, 40, and 80 μm of methimazole (MTZ), a FMO inhibitor, or equimolar concentrations of piperonyl butoxide (PBx), a well-known general cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitor. In both ruminant species, MNPSO2 was the main metabolite detected after MNP incubation with liver microsomes. The conversion rate of MNP into MNPSO2 was fivefold higher (P < 0.05) in sheep (0.15 ± 0.08 nmol/min·mg) compared to cattle. In sheep, the relative involvement of both FMO and CYP systems (FMO/CYP) was 36/64. Virtually, only the CYP system appeared to be involved in the production of MNPSO2 in cattle liver. Methimazole significantly reduced (41 to 79%) the rate of MNPSO2 production in sheep liver microsomes whereas it did not inhibit MNP oxidation in cattle liver microsomes. On the other hand, PBx inhibited the production of MNPSO2 in liver microsomes of both sheep (58 to 98%, in a dose-dependent manner) and cattle (almost 100%, independently of the PBx concentration added). The incubation of MNP and MNPSO2 with ruminal contents of both species showed a high chemical stability without evident metabolism and/or degradation as well as an extensive

  2. Effective anthelmintic therapy of residents living in endemic area of high prevalence for Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni infections enhances the levels of allergy risk factor anti-Der p1 IgE

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    Sabrina S. Campolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were investigated the relationship between Hookworm/Schistosoma mansoni infections and allergy related risk factors in two endemic areas with distinct prevalence of infections and co-infection. The intensity of infections, eosinophilia, allergy risk factors, infections status and anti-Der p1 IgE levels before and 2 years (population 1 and 3 years (population 2 after anthelmintic treatment, were evaluated. It was observed that the population with lower prevalence and intensity of infection (population 2 had lower eosinophils counts (>600/mm3 and higher animal contact than the population with higher parasites intensity (population 1. After anthelmintic treatment the intensity of S. mansoni single infection decreased, but no changes were observed in Hookworm and co-infected individuals. The anthelmintic treatment also enhanced anti-Der p1 IgE optical density in ELISA on the subgroups that became negative for helminth infection regardless of their previous infection condition in population 1. Facing that, we evaluated the anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index, and the ratio (after/before treatment was significantly higher in patients co-infected before treatment. On the other hand, no association between anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index and the intensity of infections were observed. In conclusion, effective anthelmintic therapy of subjects from endemic areas with high prevalence of Hookworm and S. mansoni infections enhances anti-Der p1 IgE levels.

  3. CORRELATION BETWEEN THE PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAWSONIA INERMIS LEAF EXTRACTS

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    Nayak Sarojini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To know the anthelmintic activity of leaves of Lawsonia inermis, we used maceration method of extraction using solvents like ethanol and methanol. Each extract was tested for anthelminthic activity by following standard method .The ethanolic and methanolic extract displayed anthelmintic activity in dose dependant manner. We found that the ethanolic as well as methanolic extracts were more potent than the positive control as far as their anthelmintic activity was concerned. To correlate phytochemical screening with anthelmintic activity, phytochemical evaluation of the extract was also performed. From our result it may be mentioned that the ethanolic extract was potent as anthelmintic agent due to the presence of glycosides, terpenoids and flavonoids. On the other hand, the methanolic extract was effective probably due to the involvement of alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids and flavonoids.

  4. Application of mobile-technology for disease and treatment monitoring of malaria in the "Better Border Healthcare Programme"

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    Meankaew Pongthep

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating the use of cell-phones into a routine malaria prevention and control programme, to improve the management of malaria cases among an under-served population in a border area. The module for disease and treatment monitoring of malaria (DTMM consisted of case investigation and case follow-up for treatment compliance and patients' symptoms. Methods The module combining web-based and mobile technologies was developed as a proof of concept, in an attempt to replace the existing manual, paper-based activities that malaria staff used in treating and caring for malaria patients in the villages for which they were responsible. After a patient was detected and registered onto the system, case-investigation and treatment details were recorded into the malaria database. A follow-up schedule was generated, and the patient's status was updated when the malaria staff conducted their routine home visits, using mobile phones loaded with the follow-up application module. The module also generated text and graph messages for a summary of malaria cases and basic statistics, and automatically fed to predetermined malaria personnel for situation analysis. Following standard public-health practices, access to the patient database was strictly limited to authorized personnel in charge of patient case management. Results The DTMM module was developed and implemented at the trial site in late November 2008, and was fully functioning in 2009. The system captured 534 malaria patients in 2009. Compared to paper-based data in 2004-2008, the mobile-phone-based case follow-up rates by malaria staff improved significantly. The follow-up rates for both Thai and migrant patients were about 94-99% on Day 7 (Plasmodium falciparum and Day 14 (Plasmodium vivax and maintained at 84-93% on Day 90. Adherence to anti-malarial drug therapy, based on self-reporting, showed high completion

  5. Anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus): in vitro effects on swine nematodes and relationship to sesquiterpene lactone composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Boas, Ulrik;

    2016-01-01

    Chicory is a perennial crop that has been investigated as a forage source for outdoor-reared ruminants and pigs, and has been reported to have anthelmintic properties. Here, we investigated in vitro anthelmintic effects of forage chicory-extracts against the highly prevalent swine parasites Ascaris...... suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum. Methanol extracts were prepared and purified from two different cultivars of chicory (Spadona and Puna II). Marked differences were observed between the anthelmintic activity of extracts from the two cultivars. Spadona extracts had potent activity against A. suum...... anthelmintic activity of forage chicory towards swine nematodes. Our results indicate a significant anthelmintic effect, which may possibly be related to SL composition....

  6. Anthelmintic effect of Mentha spp. essential oils on Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces and metacestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, Marina A; Albanese, Adriana A; Gende, Liesel B; Eguaras, Martín J; Denegri, Guillermo M; Elissondo, María Celina

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of Mentha piperita and Mentha pulegium essential oils against Echinococcus granulosus and to compare the effectiveness of both oils according to the exposure time and concentration. Although both treatments had a protoscolicidal effect, M. pulegium had a considerably stronger effect than M. piperita. Essential oil of M. pulegium produced dose- and time-dependent effects. Maximal protoscolicidal effect was observed after 12 days of incubation and reached 0% after 18 days. This lack of viability was proved during the determination of infectivity into mice. Essential oil of M. piperita produced only a time-dependent effect. At 24 days p.i., the viability of protoscoleces decreased to approximately 50%. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) demonstrated the drug-induced ultrastructural damage. On the other hand, a loss of turgidity was detected in all M. pulegium-treated cysts respective of the drug concentration. There was a correlation between the intensity of damage and the concentration of the essential oil assayed. Studies by SEM revealed that the germinal layer of treated cysts lost the feature multicellular structure. M. pulegium essential oil showed piperitone oxide as main compound in their composition, and we suggest that this component could be responsible of the markedly anthelmintic effect detected. Our data suggest that essential oils of Mentha spp. can be a promising source of potential protoscolicidal agents. The isolation of active anthelmintic constituents is in progress and may lead to the discovery of compounds with improved therapeutic value.

  7. Inhibiting Interference - a grounded theory of health professionals' pattern of behaviour related to the relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To generate a grounded theory explaining health professionals' pattern of behaviour and experience related to the relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programmes during total joint replacement. BACKGROUND: Health professionals uphold standardised care for patients, and effect...... on quality is seen when relatives support patients during total joint replacement. Since health professionals often have problematic relationships with relatives, knowledge is needed of the health professionals' pattern of behaviour in relation to relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programme....... DESIGN: Grounded theory according to Glaser's methodology was used to generate substantive theory of health professionals' pattern of behaviour. METHODS: Data were collected from 2010 to 2011 by 44 health professionals in orthopaedic wards at two Danish hospitals. Data from nonparticipant observations...

  8. "That is why I stopped the ART": Patients' & providers' perspectives on barriers to and enablers of HIV treatment adherence in a South African workplace programme

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    Kielmann Karina

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As ART programmes in African settings expand beyond the pilot stages, adherence to treatment may become an increasing challenge. This qualitative study examines potential barriers to, and facilitators of, adherence to ART in a workplace programme in South Africa. Methods We conducted key informant interviews with 12 participants: six ART patients, five health service providers (HSPs and one human resources manager. Results The main reported barriers were denial of existence of HIV or of one's own positive status, use of traditional medicines, speaking a different language from the HSP, alcohol use, being away from home, perceived severity of side-effects, feeling better on treatment and long waiting times at the clinic. The key facilitators were social support, belief in the value of treatment, belief in the importance of one's own life to the survival of one's family, and the ability to fit ART into daily life schedules. Conclusion Given the reported uncertainty about the existence of HIV disease and the use of traditional medicines while on ART, despite a programme emphasising ART counselling, there is a need to find effective ways to support adherence to ART even if the individual does not accept biomedical concepts of HIV disease or decides to use traditional medicines. Additionally, providers should identify ways to minimize barriers in communication with patients with whom they have no common language. Finally, dissatisfaction with clinical services, due to long waiting times, should be addressed.

  9. Anthelmintic efficacy on Parascaris equorum in foals on Swedish studs

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    Christensson Dan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last few years stud farms have experienced increasing problems with Parascaris equorum infections in foals despite intensive deworming programs. This has led to the question as to whether the anthelmintic drugs used against this parasite are failing. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole and pyrantel on the faecal output of ascarid eggs of foals. Methods A Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT was performed on nine large studs in Sweden. Anthelmintic drugs were given orally and faecal samples were examined for ascarid eggs on the day of deworming and 14 days later. Faecal Egg Count Reductions (FECRs were calculated on arithmetic means of transformed individual FECRs and on arithmetic means of individual FECRs. Results Seventy-nine (48% out of a total of 165 foals sampled were positive for P. equorum eggs before deworming and 66 of these met the criteria for being used in the efficacy assessment. It was shown that there was no, or very low activity of ivermectin on the output of ascarid eggs in the majority of the foals, whereas for fenbendazole and pyrantel it was >90%. Conclusion Ivermectin resistance was shown in 5 out of 6 farms. Therefore, ivermectin should not be the drug of choice in the control of P. equorum infections in foals. According to the results of this study, fenbendazole or pyrantel are still effective and should be used against this parasite.

  10. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of Tamarindus Indica linn

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    S S Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent.

  11. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent.

  12. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  13. Treatment outcome and mortality at one and half year follow-up of HIV infected TB patients under TB control programme in a district of South India.

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    Sophia Vijay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is paucity of data from India on the impact of HIV related immunosuppression in response to TB treatment and mortality among HIV infected TB patients. We assessed the TB treatment outcome and mortality in a cohort of HIV infected TB patients treated with intermittent short course chemotherapy under TB control programme in a high HIV prevalent district of south India. METHODOLOGY/ FINDINGS: Among 3798 TB patients registered for treatment in Mysore district from July 2007 to June 2008, 281 HIV infected patients formed the study group. The socio-demographic and treatment related data of these patients was obtained from TB and HIV programme records and patient interviews 19 months after TB treatment initiation by field investigators. Treatment success rate of 281 patients was 75% while in smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases it was 62%, attributable to defaults (16% and deaths (19%. Only 2 patients had treatment failure. Overall, 83 (30% patients were reported dead; 26 while on treatment and 57 after TB treatment. Association of treatment related factors with treatment outcome and survival status was studied through logistic regression analysis. Factors significantly associated with 'unfavourable outcome' were disease classification as Pulmonary [aOR-1.96, CI (1.02-3.77], type of patient as retreatment [aOR-4.78, CI (2.12-10.76], and non initiation of ART [aOR-4.90, CI (1.85-12.96]. Factors associated with 'Death' were non initiation of ART [aOR-2.80, CI (1.15-6.81] and CPT [aOR-3.46, CI (1.47-8.14]. CONCLUSION: Despite the treatment success of 75% the high mortality (30% in the study group is a matter of concern and needs immediate intervention. Non initiation of ART has emerged as a high risk factor for unfavourable treatment outcome and mortality. These findings underscore the importance of expanding and improving delivery of ART services as a priority and reconsideration of the programme guidelines for ART initiation in

  14. Anthelmintic effect of herbicidal dinitroanilines on the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'anna, Viviane; de Souza, Wanderley; Vommaro, Rossiane C

    2016-08-01

    Dinitroanilines are known herbicides that impair the polymerization of microtubules. This study investigated the effects of oryzalin and trifluralin on the viability, morphology, and ultrastructure of different life stages of Caenorhabditis elegans. Both drugs reduced the survival of the adult population in 50% after three days of treatment with concentrations of approximately 30 μM and 57 μM, respectively. The development of new adults was monitored for seven days and treatment with both drugs also showed a decrease in the adult population. 25 μM Oryzalin or trifluralin inhibited the hatching of eggs by nearly 100%. Both drugs showed remarkable larvicidal activity at 25 μM against the larvae at first and second stages (L1-L2) and at third and fourth stages (L3-L4) after 24 h. Treatment with dinitroanilines led to incomplete egg embryo development. The oryzalin and trifluralin treatments caused the detachment of cuticular layers of adults and larvae and the formation of a large number of intracellular membrane whirls and lipid bodies in the hypodermal cells and non-contractile muscles of adults. Both drugs also provoked the bagging process, which generated lesions in the uterus of the adults. In addition, trifluralin caused the detachment of certain areas of the cuticle adjacent to the hypodermis in a large number of nematodes. Our results suggest that dinitroanilines are a potentially new alternative for anthelmintic chemotherapy. PMID:27118457

  15. Evaluation of cooling water treatment programme at RAPS-3 and 4 with reference to chlorination and microbial control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water from Rana Pratap Sagar Lake is used in Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) units 3 and 4 for cooling the condenser system. As the lake water is rich in nutrients and microflora, investigations were carried out on the nutrient quality, microflora distribution and chlorine decay to evaluate the cooling water treatment programme. Algal growth in emergency storage makeup water pools, weed growth on the cooling tower decks and biofilm growth on various materials (carbon steel, stainless steel, admiralty brass and cupronickel) were studied with an objective to understand the reasons for corrosion and failure of fire water pipeline. Visual examination showed that the emergency makeup water pools were infested with green algae and cyano-bacterial mats. Some algal growth was observed on induced draft cooling tower-3 structures. The bacterial counts in various water samples were low, except in emergency makeup water pool. Sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) were present in makeup and demineralised waters. Chlorophyll pigment analysis showed that the makeup and emergency storage water pool had abundant algal growth. To prevent biofouling, chlorine is dosed at the rate of 7 kg/hr for 10 minutes; free residual oxidant (FRO) and chlorine decay were monitored at regular intervals. After 24 hrs, biofilm thickness on different materials ranged from 27-45 μm. However, the thickness was reduced by 50 % after exposure to 2 ppm of chlorine for 15 minutes. In further investigations, it was found that the anion resin beads of demineraliser plant were infested with filamentous microbes. Hence, It is recommended to treat the feed water of DM plant. Tubercles were observed inside the failed fire water carbon steel pipeline and on removing the tubercles concentric ring patterns, typical signatures of SRB corrosion were observed. For controlling the biofouling problem in the cooling water system, it is recommended to maintain a chlorine dose of 2.3 ppm (which gives 0.8 ppm FRO) for two

  16. F200Y polymorphism of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene in Haemonchus contortus and sheep flock management practices related to anthelmintic resistance in eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Alexandre Moura; Sampaio Junior, Francisco Dantas; Pacheco, Adlilton; da Cunha, Amanda Batista; Cruz, Juliana Dos Santos; Scofield, Alessandra; Góes-Cavalcante, Gustavo

    2016-08-15

    The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of the F200Y polymorphism in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene of Haemonchus contortus from various sheep flocks in eastern Amazon, and to identify management practices that may favor the emergence of resistance to anthelmintic drugs in the same area. In total, 305 specimens of H. contortus were collected from sheep at 12 farms located in the state of Pará. An allele-specific PCR was performed to detect the F200Y polymorphism, and questionnaires were used to obtain information about the farms and flocks. All genotypes were detected as follows: 31% of the parasites were RR, 37% of the parasites were SR, and 32% were SS. The completed questionnaires revealed that all farms employed semi-intensive farming systems, performed suppressive anthelmintic treatment, and based their choice of drug on cost and availability rather than on any knowledge regarding drugs that remained effective on their property. It can thus be concluded that the SNP in codon 200 of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene is present in the H. contortus populations from eastern Amazon, and that a series of management practices that favor the emergence of anthelmintic resistance are employed on these farms.

  17. F200Y polymorphism of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene in Haemonchus contortus and sheep flock management practices related to anthelmintic resistance in eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Alexandre Moura; Sampaio Junior, Francisco Dantas; Pacheco, Adlilton; da Cunha, Amanda Batista; Cruz, Juliana Dos Santos; Scofield, Alessandra; Góes-Cavalcante, Gustavo

    2016-08-15

    The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of the F200Y polymorphism in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene of Haemonchus contortus from various sheep flocks in eastern Amazon, and to identify management practices that may favor the emergence of resistance to anthelmintic drugs in the same area. In total, 305 specimens of H. contortus were collected from sheep at 12 farms located in the state of Pará. An allele-specific PCR was performed to detect the F200Y polymorphism, and questionnaires were used to obtain information about the farms and flocks. All genotypes were detected as follows: 31% of the parasites were RR, 37% of the parasites were SR, and 32% were SS. The completed questionnaires revealed that all farms employed semi-intensive farming systems, performed suppressive anthelmintic treatment, and based their choice of drug on cost and availability rather than on any knowledge regarding drugs that remained effective on their property. It can thus be concluded that the SNP in codon 200 of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene is present in the H. contortus populations from eastern Amazon, and that a series of management practices that favor the emergence of anthelmintic resistance are employed on these farms. PMID:27514894

  18. Transport of anthelmintic benzimidazole drugs by breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merino, G; Jonker, JW; Wagenaar, E; Pulido, MM; Molina, AJ; Alvarez, AI; Schinkel, AH

    2005-01-01

    Methylcarbamate benzimidazoles [albendazole (ABZ), fenbendazole (FBZ), and their respective sulfoxide derivatives, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) and oxfendazole (OXF)] are therapeutically important anthelmintic agents with low bioavailability. We studied their in vitro interaction with the apical AT

  19. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ACACIA SUMA (ROXB BARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharyya Suman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to investigate the preliminary phytochemical studies and anthelmintic activities on the bark of Acacia suma (Roxb. Family- Fabaceae against adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (5-25 mg/ml of each extract along with the reference samples (Piperazine citrate, Albendazole were subjected for anthelmintic activity study. The qualitative test revealed that the petroleum ether extracts contained only terpenoids but chloroform and hydroalcoholic (Methanol 70% v/v extracts exhibited the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and saponins but amino acids and steroids were absent. All the extracts showed anthelmintic activity when compared with petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. The anthelmintic activity of hydroalcoholic extract was comparable with reference drugs.

  20. Synthesis and anthelmintic activity of osthol analogs against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Lu; Hao, Bing; Liu, Shao-Peng; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2012-08-01

    In an attempt to develop novel anthelmintic agents, our previously isolated osthol was used as lead structures for further optimization. In our research, a series of coumarin analogs, prepared from 7-hydroxy coumarin or 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin, have been evaluated for their anthelmintic activities. In all of the compounds, 6 and 7 were first synthesized, and their structures were identified based on NMR and MS values. Among the candidates, 8-allyl-7-allyloxycoumarin showed better anthelmintic activity than other compounds against Dactylogyrus infestation with EC(50) value of 1.81 mg/L. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of 16 osthol analogs with anthelmintic activity expressed as pEC(50) and toxicity to goldfish expressed pLC(50), such results can offer useful theoretical references for future experimental works. PMID:22749191

  1. A questionnaire survey of the management and use of anthelmintics in cattle and antelope in mixed farming systems in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Madzingira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the management of mixed farming of cattle and antelope and use of anthelmintics was conducted on eleven farms between August and December 1999 by a self-administered questionnaire. Seventeen antelope species ranging from grey duikers (Sylvicapra grimmia to eland (Taurotragus oryx occurred on the farms. Impala (Aepyceros melampus was the most abundant antelope on the farms. Seventy-five per cent of the antelope species on the farms were grazers and mixed feeders and shared grazing with cattle. Most farmers (n =8 did not consider the stocking density for cattle and antelope as an important management factor. Fifty-four per cent of the farmers (n = 6 routinely dewormed both cattle and antelopes. Albendazole and fenbendazole were the most commonly used drugs for deworming cattle (72.7 % and antelope species (54.5 %. The deworming of antelope was carried out during the dry season, using albendazole-, fenbendazole-and rafoxanide-medicated supplementary feed blocks. Doramectin injections were given to antelopes on two farms. Cattle were dewormed preventively and according to the general body condition of the animal. Few farmers (n = 4 followed the recommended deworming programme for cattle in Zimbabwe and only one farmer followed a specified dosing programme for game. However, results from the survey on the deworming of game indicate that farmers perceived helminth infections in antelope to be important.

  2. Sainfoin – New Data on Anthelmintic Effects and Production in Sheep and Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Werne, S.; V. Maurer; Perler, E.; Amsler, Z.; Probst, J.; Zaugg, C.; Krenmayr, I.; Schwery, M.; Volken, H.; Heckendorn, F.

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are one of the most important problems affecting health and therefore performance and welfare in small ruminant husbandry. The control of these parasites in the past strongly relied on the repeated use of anthelmintic drugs. This has led to nematode populations which are resistant to most of the currently available anthelmintics. Furthermore customer’s demands for organic and residue free animal products are increasing. The aforementioned problems have given a...

  3. Sainfoin - new data on anthelmintic effects and production in sheep and goats

    OpenAIRE

    Heckendorn, F.; Werne, S.; V. Maurer; Perler, E.; Amsler, Z.; Probst, J.; Zaugg, C.; Krenmeyr, I

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are one of the most important problems affecting health and therefore performance and welfare in small ruminant husbandry. The control of these parasites in the past strongly relied on the repeated use of anthelmintic drugs. This has led to nematode populations which are resistant to most of the currently available anthelmintics. Furthermore customer’s demands for organic and residue free animal products are increasing. The aforementioned problems have given a...

  4. Changes in success rates of smoking cessation treatment associated with take up of a national evidence-based training programme

    OpenAIRE

    Brose, L. S.; West, R.; Michie, S.; McEwen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The English ‘stop smoking services’ provide behavioural support to some 700,000 smokers annually. Success rates of the services varied considerably before 2010 and had been in slight decline so, to improve performance, a national programme of evidence-based practitioner training was developed to improve knowledge and skills-based competences. This study evaluated whether uptake of the training was associated with improvements in success rates of services. Methods Mean 4-w...

  5. IDIOPATHIC THORACO SCOLIOSIS TREATMENT USING A COMBINATION OF DOCUMENTATION BASED CARE (DBC BACK ACTIVE RECONDITIONING PROGRAMME AND SCHROTH METHODS: A PROSPECTIVE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesan Kathiresan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available reconditioning programme and Schroth methods to lessen the curvature allied with idiopathic Thoracicscoliosis.ResearchDesign: Sampling-An 18 years old female, single case study,Setting-DBC Kuching Active rehabilitationcentre, Malaysia.Duration of the study-20 weeks,Outcome measures-A base line and follow-up outcomemeasures includes Borg pain scale, Functional Rating Index, Balance test, and Radiographic analysis.Interventions-Document Based Care (DBC Back active reconditioning programme and Schroth methodsConclusion-The combination of the Document Based Care (DBC Back active reconditioning programme andSchroth methods seemed to be effective at reducing a Thoracic dextroscoliosis by about 14° (50% andLumbarLevoscoliosis by about 7° (25%, Short form (SF-36 showed improvement inQuality of life,balance time on theBalance board improved to 52 seconds and Borg pain scale rated 8/10 at the onset of care, dropped to a 1/10after 20 weeks, in this single case study. The positive outcomes of this practice validate a policyof offeringconservative treatment as an alternative to Thoracic scoliosis patients, including those for whom surgery isdiscussed

  6. Monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution's 1992 report on its programme of monitoring radioactive substances is presented. Site operators' returns are verified and the report provides independent data on the environmental impact of authorized disposal of radioactive wastes. Radiation doses which may have been received by members of the public, fall well below the International Commission for Radiological Protection's (ICRP) recommended annual doses. (UK)

  7. Programmable Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Patawaran, Ferze D.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Lee, Clement G.; Nguyen, Huy

    2011-01-01

    A programmable oscillator is a frequency synthesizer with an output phase that tracks an arbitrary function. An offset, phase-locked loop circuit is used in combination with an error control feedback loop to precisely control the output phase of the oscillator. To down-convert the received signal, several stages of mixing may be employed with the compensation for the time-base distortion of the carrier occurring at any one of those stages. In the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR), the compensation occurs in the mixing from an intermediate frequency (IF), whose value is dependent on the station and band, to a common IF used in the final stage of down-conversion to baseband. The programmable oscillator (PO) is used in the final stage of down-conversion to generate the IF, along with a time-varying phase component that matches the time-base distortion of the carrier, thus removing it from the final down-converted signal.

  8. Bituminous solidification, disposal, transport and burial of spent ion-exchange resins. Part of a coordinated programme on treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project dealing with the incorporation of spent ion-exchange resins into bitumen was performed within the Agency coordinated research programme on treatment of spent ion-exchange resins. Physical and chemical properties of commercial ion-exchange resins, bitumens and bituminized resins were studied. It was shown that bitumen with low oil content and with a softening point of 60-70 deg. C are applicable for the incorporation of resins. The final waste form is allowed to contain maximum 50% resin. The comprehensive study of the biological resistance of B-30 bitumen was performed. That showed that any bacteriological attack can be regarded as generally insignificant. A continuously operating technology was realized on a semi-plant scale. The best operating conditions of this technology were determined. On the basis of the experience gained from the experiments a design of the bituminization plant of 50m3 dry resin/year treatment capacity was proposed

  9. Anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Caltha palustris var. alba Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubashir, Sofi; Dar, Mohd Yousuf; Lone, Bashir A; Zargar, M Iqbal; Shah, Wajaht A

    2014-08-01

    The methanolic extract obtained from the root portion of Caltha palustris var. alba was evaluated for its anthelmintic efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep under both in vitro and in vivo conditions using worm motility inhibition (WMI) assay and fecal egg count reduction (FECR) assay, respectively. The extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity using agar-well diffusion method against different bacterial strains. In addition the extract was evaluated for cytotoxic and antioxidant activity against cultured THP-1(Leukemia), A-549 (Lung), HCT-15 (Colon), Cervix (HeLa) and PC-3(Prostrate) cell lines by SRB and DPPH radical scavenging assays. The extract used resulted in mean %WMI of 94.44%, as observed when the worms were put in lukewarm buffer for 30 min after exposure to different treatments. The mean mortality index of the sample was 0.95. The lethal concentration (LC50) was 0.11 mg·mL(-1). Cell lines were exposed to concentration of 100 μg·mL(-1) of extract for 48 h, which reduced the viability of these cell lines. The same plant extract also showed 55.58% DPPH radical scavenging activity.

  10. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Santos, Taís; Pinto, Nitza França; Mata-Santos, Hilton Antônio; De Moura, Kelly Gallan; Carneiro, Paula Fernandes; Carvalho, Tatiane Dos Santos; Del Rio, Karina Pena; Pinto, Maria do Carmo Freire Ribeiro; Martins, Lourdes Rodrigues; Fenalti, Juliana Montelli; Da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Scaini, Carlos James

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis) is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate) of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC) test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL), lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL), β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL). The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds.

  11. The anthelmintic drug niclosamide induces apoptosis, impairs metastasis and reduces immunosuppressive cells in breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinghong Ye

    Full Text Available Breast carcinoma is the most common female cancer with considerable metastatic potential. Discovery of new therapeutic approaches for treatment of metastatic breast cancer is still needed. Here, we reported our finding with niclosamide, an FDA approved anthelmintic drug. The potency of niclosamide on breast cancer was assessed in vitro and in vivo. In this investigation, we found that niclosamide showed a dramatic growth inhibition against breast cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis of 4T1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Further, Western blot analysis demonstrated the occurrence of its apoptosis was associated with activation of Cleaved caspases-3, down-regulation of Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Survivin. Moreover, niclosamide blocked breast cancer cells migration and invasion, and the reduction of phosphorylated STAT3(Tyr705, phosphorylated FAK(Tyr925 and phosphorylated Src(Tyr416 were also observed. Furthermore, in our animal experiments, intraperitoneal administration of 20 mg/kg/d niclosamide suppressed 4T1 tumor growth without detectable toxicity. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed a decrease in Ki67-positive cells, VEGF-positive cells and microvessel density (MVD and an increase in Cleaved caspase-3-positive cells upon niclosamide. Notably, niclosamide reduced the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs in tumor tissues and blocked formation of pulmonary metastases. Taken together, these results demonstrated that niclosamide may be a promising candidate for breast cancer.

  12. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís MATA-SANTOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL, lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL, β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL. The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds.

  13. Anthelmintic effect of condensed tannins in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eidi Yoshihara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal helminthiasis infections are considerate one of the main limiting factors in sheep production worldwide. The development of parasite resistance to anthelmintics has caused significant losses of small ruminant production. In the search for new alternatives for effective control of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants, phytotherapy is a promising field of research in an attempt to reduce the usage of chemical treatments, aimed at ecological production. Many plants play a crucial role in maintaining animal and human life. During human evolution many interactions with other organisms were established and they have affected each other in many ways. Plants have developed biochemical mechanisms to defend themselves from biological antagonists that act as their natural enemies. This principle has led scientists to search for bio-active compounds produced by plants against pathogens. Since these discovers their metabolites are evaluated against diseases of importance not only in public health, but also in animal production. This article presents a review of studies with tanniniferous plants scientifically tested worldwide for the control of gastrointestinal parasites in ruminants.

  14. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Santos, Taís; Pinto, Nitza França; Mata-Santos, Hilton Antônio; De Moura, Kelly Gallan; Carneiro, Paula Fernandes; Carvalho, Tatiane Dos Santos; Del Rio, Karina Pena; Pinto, Maria do Carmo Freire Ribeiro; Martins, Lourdes Rodrigues; Fenalti, Juliana Montelli; Da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Scaini, Carlos James

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis) is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate) of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC) test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL), lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL), β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL). The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds. PMID:26200958

  15. Substance abuse and the workplace : a networking programme for employers and out-patient treatment centres / Gerbregda Smook

    OpenAIRE

    Smook, Gerbregda

    2014-01-01

    Both employers and out-patient treatment centres are key role players in addressing workplace related substance abuse. On the one hand, employers are directly and indirectly affected by the huge problem of substance abuse. On the other hand, out-patient treatment centres provide, as their core goal, for the treatment of substance abuse and dependency. Due to the extent of the problem of substance abuse, collaborative intervention measures between employers and out-patient treatment centres ar...

  16. Technology Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  17. In vitro anthelmintic activity of three medicinal plants against Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eguale Tadesse

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of anthelmintic resistance and the high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs led to the evaluation of medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. In the current study, in-vitro experiments were conducted to determine the possible anthelmintic effects of crude aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides, Lawsonia inermis and seeds of Jatropha curcas, on eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus. Both extracts of C. ambrosioides and J. curcas inhibited the hatching of eggs at a concentration less than or equal to 2mg/ml, while the effect of L. inermis was not dose-dependent and did not inhibit the hatching of eggs of H. contortus, significantly, at all tested concentrations. Based on their ED 50 , the two most potent extracts using egg hatch assay were the hydroalcoholic extract of C. ambrosioides (0.09mg/ml and the aqueous extract of J. curcas (0.1mg/ml in a decreasing order of potency. With regard to the effect of extracts on the survival of adult parasites, extracts from C. ambrosioides have shown a moderate effect, while J. curcas and L. inermis have shown no statistically significant effect on the survival of adult parasites at the concentrations tested, and the few mortality cases recorded were not dose-dependent ( P < 0.05. The overall findings of the present study have shown that C. ambrosioides and J. curcas contain possible anthelmintic compounds and further evaluation of these plants should be carried out.

  18. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF FRUIT PULP OF CORDIA DICHOTOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisale A B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Cordia dichotoma Forst belonging to family Boraginaceae are used traditionally as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and anthelmentic activities. Pulp obtained after separation of seeds was shade dried, powdered and subjected to successive hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether (40-60 C ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Aqueous extract of Cordia dichotoma showed significant activity than ethanolic extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed fruits of Cordia dichotoma possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The fruit pulp extract of Cordia dichotoma also showed presence of flavonoid, alkaloid and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations, TLC and HPTLC methods.

  19. Anthelmintic activity of albendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, G W; Ernst, J V

    1977-09-01

    Anthelmintic activities of albendazole were evaluated in a controlled experiment. Forty calves experimentally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were allotted to 4 groups. Calves in group 1 were used as nonmedicated controls; calves in groups 2, 3, and 4 were given (by oral route) a suspension containing albendazole at dose concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/kg of body weight on the 35th day after administration of infective nematode larvae. In groups 2, 3, and 4 calves, average overall reductions (based on geometric means) were 77.1, 93.6, and 98.1%, respectively. These reductions were highly significant (P less than 0.01) in calves given doses of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg, and were significant (P less than 0.05) in calves given the 2.5-mg/kg dose. Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia onchophora, Cooperia punctata, and Oesophagostomum radiatum removals at the 5.0- and 7.5-mg/kg dose levels were all highly significant (P less than 0.01); whereas, removals of Haemonchus contortus were not significant, even at the 7.5-mg/kg dose level. PMID:921039

  20. Climatic influences on development and survival of free-living stages of equine strongyles: implications for worm control strategies and managing anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martin K; Kaplan, Ray M; Thamsborg, Stig M; Monrad, Jesper; Olsen, Susanne N

    2007-07-01

    Development of resistance to anthelmintic drugs by horse strongyles constitutes a growing threat to equine health because it is unknown when new drug classes can be expected on the market. Consequently, parasite control strategies should attempt to maintain drug efficacy for as long as possible. The proportion of a parasite population that is not exposed to anthelmintic treatment is described as being "in refugia" and although many factors affect the rate at which resistance develops, levels of refugia are considered the most important as these parasites are not selected by treatment and so provide a pool of sensitive genes in the population. Accordingly, treatment should be avoided when pasture refugia are small because such treatments will place significant selection pressure for resistance on worm populations. Given this new paradigm for parasite control, it has become important to identify seasons and circumstances wherein refugia are diminished. Free-living stages of equine strongyles are highly dependent on climatic influences, and this review summarises studies of strongyle development and survival under laboratory and field conditions in Northern (cool) temperate, Southern (warm) temperate and subtropical/tropical climates. In Northern temperate climates, refugia are smallest during the winter. In contrast, refugia are lowest during the summer in warm temperate and subtropical/tropical climates. Although adverse seasonal changes clearly have significant effects on the ability of free living stages of strongyle nematode parasites to survive and develop, available data suggest that climatic influences cannot effectively "clean" pastures from one grazing season to the next. PMID:16815051

  1. Improving bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole by preparing albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Rodriguez J.J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes (ABZ-CDC compared to albendazole suspensions in carboxymethylcellulose (ABZ-CMC was assessed in a mouse model for Trichinella infections. Swiss CD-1 mice experimentally infected with T. spiralis were treated with both formulations against enteral (adult worms and parenteral (migrating and encysted larvae. Oral bioavailability was assessed in age matched mice treated with 50 mg/kg of both formulations. The anthelmintic effects and plasma concentration of the active metabolite albendazole-sulphoxide (ABZSO enantiomer (– were significantly increased following administration of ABZ-CDC in relation to ABZ-CMC.

  2. Improving bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole by preparing albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodriguez, J J; Torrado, J; Bolás, F

    2001-06-01

    The bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes (ABZ-CDC) compared to albendazole suspensions in carboxymethylcellulose (ABZ-CMC) was assessed in a mouse model for Trichinella infections. Swiss CD-1 mice experimentally infected with T. spiralis were treated with both formulations against enteral (adult worms) and parenteral (migrating and encysted larvae). Oral bioavailability was assessed in age matched mice treated with 50 mg/kg of both formulations. The anthelmintic effects and plasma concentration of the active metabolite albendazole-sulphoxide (ABZSO) enantiomer (-) were significantly increased following administration of ABZ-CDC in relation to ABZ-CMC. PMID:11484352

  3. In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Lagenaria Siceraria Leaves in Indian Adult Earthworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Different extracts of Lagenaria siceraria were taken for anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. Two concentrations (50 and 100 mg/ml of various extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Albendazole (20 mg/ml was used as reference standard and carboxy methyl cellulose (0.5% as a control group. Dose dependent activity was observed in the plant extracts but methanolic extract exhibited more activity as compared to others. The anthelmintic activity of Lagenaria sicerarialeaves extract has therefore been demonstrated for the first time.

  4. Phyto chemical Screening, Antibacterial, Antifungal and Anthelmintic Activity of Morinda citrifolia stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. D. Gopala Krishna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the Petroleum Ether and Alcoholic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni stem were subjected to preliminary screening for Antimicrobial and Aanthelmintic activity. The alcoholic extract exhibited significant Anti bacterial, Antifungal activity, comparable to the standard drug Tetracycline. The Petroleum Ether and Alcoholic extract were evaluated for Anthelmintic activity on adult Indian Earthworms, ‘Pheretima posithuma’. The Alcoholic extract produced more significant Anthelmintic activity than Petroleum ether extract and the activities are comparable with the reference drug Piperazine citrate

  5. A survey on anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in the Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernanská, D; Várady, M; Corba, J

    2006-01-15

    The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance on 27 sheep farms in Slovakia was investigated in 2003 and 2004 using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) according to the WAAVP guidelines. Resistance to albendazole was detected on one farm (3.7%) and suspected on two farms (7.4%) out of 27 sheep flocks. Resistance to ivermectin was tested on 26 farms. On six (23.1%) farms, results indicated the presence of ivermectin resistance. Resistance to ivermectin was suspected on eight farms (30.8%). However, it is also possible that generic ivermectin anthelmintics used in survey have a lower efficacy against sheep nematodes.

  6. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Akter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p

  7. Anthelmintic activity ofSecuridaca longepedunculata (Family:Polygalaceae) root extract in mice, in vitro andin vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adiele RC; Fakae BB; Isuzu IU

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To elucidate the pharmacological bases of oral administration ofSecuridaca longepedunculata(S. longepedunculata) root extract as an anthelmintic in folkloric medicine. Methods:Albino mice were infected with infective third(L3) larval stage ofHeligmosomoides polygyrus(H. polygyrus) by esophageal intubation.Following establishment of the adult worms in the intestine, the mice were treated with0-2000 mg/kg body weight(bw) of methanolic root extract ofS. longepedunculata and100 mg/kg bw of pyrantel embonate, the reference drugin vivo. Bioactivity and larvicidal effects of the extract were tested by exposing brine shrimps(Artemia salina) to0.00-1.00 mg/mL and theL3 stage ofHeligmosomoidescontortus(H. contortus) and H. polygyrus to0.00-2.50 mg/mL of the extractin vitro.Results:The percentage yield of the extract was7.13% w/w dry matter.The brine shrimps toxicity bioassay resulted in anLC50 of 74.18μg/mL.The extract had a significant, dose-dependent larvicidal effect on theL3 stage ofH. contortus andH. polygyrus with the terminal effect of75% and70% at the highest exposure concentrations, respectively.The extract however, did not affect the number of worm eggs per gram(epg) of fecal materials(P<0.05) and total worm burden(twb) of adultH. polygyrus in infected mice.Treatment with pyrantel embonate significant reduced both the fecal egg count and twb to0 compared to the untreated control(P<0.05).Conclusions:These results indicate that S. longepedunculata root extract contains potent bioactive compounds and has larvicidal effect onL3 stage ofH. contortus andH. polygyrus, substantiating its use as anthelmintic in alternative medicine.

  8. Comparison of calculation methods used for the determination of anthelmintic resistance in sheep in a temperate continental climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzon, L C; van Leeuwen, J; Menzies, P I; Jones-Bitton, A; Sears, W; Jansen, J T; Peregrine, A S

    2015-04-01

    This study compared results obtained with five different fecal egg count reduction (FECR) calculation methods for defining resistance to ivermectin, fenbendazole, and levamisole in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in a temperate continental climate: FECR1 and FECR2 used pre-and posttreatment fecal egg count (FEC) means from both treated and control animals, but FECR1 used arithmetic means, whereas FECR2 used geometric means; FECR3 used arithmetic means for pre- and posttreatment FECs from treated animals only; FECR4 was calculated using only arithmetic means for posttreatment FECs from treated and control animals; and FECR5 was calculated using mean FEC estimates from a general linear mixed model. The classification of farm anthelmintic resistance (AR) status varied, depending on which FECR calculation method was used and whether a bias correction term (BCT, i.e., half the minimum detection limit) was added to the zeroes or not. Overall, agreement between all methods was higher when a BCT was used, particularly when levels of resistance were low. FECR4 showed the highest agreement with all the other FECR methods. We therefore recommend that small ruminant clinicians use the FECR4 formula with a BCT for AR determination, as this would reduce the cost of the FECRT, while still minimizing bias and allowing for comparisons between different farms. For researchers, we recommend the use of FECR1 or FECR2, as the inclusion of both pre- and posttreatment FECs and use of randomly allocated animals in treatment and control groups makes these methods mathematically more likely to estimate the true anthelmintic efficacy.

  9. Antibacterial, anthelmintic and antioxidant activity of Argyreia elliptica extracts: Activity enhancement by the addition of metal salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Prashanth

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Argyreia elliptica extracts were prepared with solvents at different polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol and evaluate their antibacterial, anthelmintic and antioxidant properties first time. An antioxidant activity was analyzed using different in vitro tests namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging methods. Quantitative determination of phenols was carried out using spectrophotometric methods. In addition, the extracts were screened for their biological activity in absence and in presence of metal salts [Fe(III and Zn(II] ions. Results indicate that, the tested bacterial strains were most sensitive to the chloroform (CE and methanol extract (ME. Ethyl acetate (EA, CE and ME extracts showed potent radical scavenging activity. CE and ME extracts showed the highest total phenolic content and its enhanced anthelmintic and antioxidant activities were found in Fe(III combination. The extracts-Zn(II ion combination showed enhanced antibacterial activity against tested bacterial strains compare to the extracts alone.Industrial relevance. Herbal medicines have gained increasing attention worldwide for the treatment of various diseases because of their effectiveness and small side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. In general, the essential trace elements have been found to possess a very important role in biological system and also therapeutic activity depends on some trace elements. The present research reports the phytochemical screening of Argyrea elliptica leaves extracts. The antibacterial, anthilmentic and in vitro antioxidant activity activity of extracts and its metal salt combination was studied. The results scientifically establish the efficacy of the plant extracts and its metal salt combination as antibacterial, anthilmentic and antioxidant agents.Keywords. Argyreia elliptica; Antioxidant; Antibacterial activity; Total phenolic content.

  10. Anthelmintic activity of some Mediterranean browse plants against parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolaraki, F; Sotiraki, S; Stefanakis, A; Skampardonis, V; Volanis, M; Hoste, H

    2010-04-01

    The anthelmintic properties of tannin-rich plants are being explored as an alternative to chemical drugs. Most data have been acquired on legume forages, but only few on browse plants. The present study aimed to (i) screen the in vitro effects of extracts from 7 Mediterranean plants on Haemonchus contortus, (ii) verify the role of tannins using an inhibitor, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) and (iii) verify the in vivo effects of extracts from 4 plants. Significant inhibition was shown in vitro using a larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay for all extracts except that from Olea europaea var. koroneiki. After adding PVPP, the LMI values were restored to control levels for all plants except Pistacia lentiscus and Ceratonia siliqua, confirming a role for tannins in the activity. In the in vivo experiment, 48 lambs composed 6 groups, depending on diet. On Day 0, groups G1-G5 received H. contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae and G6 remained uninfected. The various diets were distributed from Days 14 to 45: P. lentiscus (G1), Quercus coccifera (G2), C. siliqua (G3), Onobrychis viciifolia (G4), or Medicago sativa for the 2 control groups (G5, G6). Egg excretion, packed cell volumes (PCVs) and inorganic phosphate were measured weekly throughout the entire experimental period. At slaughter, the worms were enumerated and their fecundity assessed. Consumption of the 4 browser plants did not provoke differences in pathophysiological measurements but there were significant decreases in egg excretion, mainly explained by significant decreases in worm fecundity for both species, without any statistical difference in worm numbers.

  11. A Statistical Programme Assignment Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Staghøj, Jonas; Svarer, Michael

    When treatment effects of active labour market programmes are heterogeneous in an observable way  across the population, the allocation of the unemployed into different programmes becomes a particularly  important issue. In this paper, we present a statistical model designed to improve the present...... duration of unemployment spells may result if a statistical programme assignment model is introduced. We discuss several issues regarding the  plementation of such a system, especially the interplay between the statistical model and  case workers....

  12. ISOLDE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Fedosseev, V; Lynch, K M; Grob, L K; Herfurth, F; Scheidenberger, C; Geppert, C; Gorges, C; Ratajczyk, T; Vogel, S; Munch, M K; Nieminen, P; Pakarinen, J J A; Lecesne, N; Bouzomita, H; Grinyer, J; Marques moreno, F M; Parlog, M; Pedroza, J; Ghetta, V; Lozeva, R; Guillemaud mueller, D S; Cottereau, E; Cheikh mhamed, M; Tusseau nenez, S; Tungate, G; Walker, P M; Smith, A G; Fitzpatrick, C; Dominik, W M; Karny, M; Ciemny, A A; Nyman, G H; Thies, R M A; Lindberg, S K G; Langouche, G F; Delaure, B J P; Mayet, P; Ory, G T; Kesteloot, N J K; Papuga, J; Dehairs, M H R; Callens, M; Domnanich, K A; Richter, D; Lutter, R J; Wiehr, S; Tengblad, O; Nacher gonzalez, E; Jungclaus, A; Ribeiro jimenez, G; Marroquin alonso, I; Cal gonzalez, J; Paziy, V; Salsac, M; Murphy, C; Podolyak, Z F; Bajoga, A D; Butler, P; Pritchard, A; Steer, A N; Fox, S P; Wadsworth, B A; Truesdale, V L; Al monthery, M; Hass, M; Guttormsen, M S; Badea, M N; Calinescu, S; Cederkall, J A; Zemlyanoy, S; Golovkov, M; Wu, C; Harrichunder, S; 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Vidal, M; Perez liva, M; Calvo portela, P; Ulla pedrera, F J; Domingo pardo, C; Morales lopez, A I; Wood, R T; Lalkovski, S; Page, R; Petri, M; Barton, C J; Nichols, A J; Vermeulen, M J; Bloor, D M; Henderson, J; Wilson, G L; De angelis, G; Buerger, A; Klintefjord, M L; Fornal, B A; Marginean, R; Sava, T; Suvaila, R; Lica, R; Costache, C; Mihai, R; Ionescu, A; Baeck, T M; Masenda, H; Sedlak, M; Koskelo, O K; Kyaw myat, K M; Ganguly, B; Goncalves marques, J; Cardoso, S; Seliverstov, M; Niessen, B D; Gutt, L E; Chapman, R; Spagnoletti, P N; Lopes, C; De oliveira amorim, C; Batista lopes, C M; Araujo, J; Schielke, S J; Daugas, J R; Gaudefroy, L; Chevrier, R; Szunyogh, D M; Napiorkowski, P J; Wrzosek-lipska, K; Wahl, U; Catarino, N; Pereira carvalho alves de sequeira, M; Decoster, S J; Porobic, T; Walters, W; Hess, H E; Holler, A; Bettermann, L; Geibel, K; Taprogge, J; Lewandowski, L T N; Manchado de sola, F; Das gupta, S; Thulstrup, P W; Heinz, U; Neidherr, D M; Gumenyuk, O; Peaker, A R; Wakabayashi, Y; Roder, J; Abrahams, K J; Mach, H A; Souza ribeiro junior, I; He, J; Giles, T J; Dorsival, A; Kalaninova, Z; Venos, D; Kraemer, J; Saha, S; Neugart, R; Eronen, T O; Kreim, K D; Heck, M K; Goncharov, M; Julin, R J; Jakobsson, E H U; Eleon, C; Achouri, N L; Fontbonne, C M; Alfaurt, P; Kusoglu, A; Wilkins, S G; Brown, A R; Imai, N; Pomorski, M J; Janiak, L; Nilsson, T; Stroke, H H; Stanja, J; Dangelser, E; Heenen, P; Mallion, S N; Diriken, J V J; Ghys, L H L; Khamehchi, M A; Van beveren, C; Gins, W A M; Bouma, J T; Mcnulty, J F; Berger, C J; Ohlert, C M; Schwerdtfeger, W; Becerril reyes, A D; Perea martinez, A; Martinez perez, M C; Margerin, V; Rudigier, M; Alexander, T D; Patel, Z V; Hammond, N; Wearing, F; Patel, A; Jenkins, D G; Debernardi, A; Giacoppo, F; Tveten, G M; Krolas, W A; Stanoiu, M A; Rickert, E U; Ter-akopian, G; Cline, D; Riihimaeki, I A; Simon, K D; Wagner, F E; Turker, M; Neef, M H; Jakubek, J; Vagena, E; Bottoni, S; Nishimura, K; Correia, J; Rodrigues valdrez, C J; Ostrowski, A N; Hallmann, O; Scheck, M; Wady, P T; Lane, J; Krasznahorkay, A J; Kunne sohler, D; Meaney, A J; Baptista barbosa, M; Hochschulz, F; Roig, O; Houngbo, D; Behan, C C; Kargoll, S; Kemnitz, S; Redondo cubero, A; Dirkx, D; Tallarida, G; Kaczarowski, R; Finke, F; Linnemann, A; Altenkirch, R; Saed-samii, N; Ansari, S H; Dlamini, W B; Adoons, V N; Ronning, C R; Guadilla gomez, V; Herlert, A J; Judge, S M; Catherall, R; Lettry, J; Lindroos, M; Wenander, F J C; Madurga flores, M; Zakoucky, D; Catchen, G L; Noertershaeuser, W; Kroell, T; Leske, J; Shubina, D; Murray, I M; Pancin, J; Delaunay, F; Poincheval, J J L; Audirac, L L; Gerbaux, M T; Aouadi, M; Sole, P G P; Fallot, M P; Onillon, A; Duchemin, C; Formento cavaier, R; Audi, G; Lau, C; Martin, J A; Barre, N H; Berry, T A; Procter, T J; Farooq-smith, G J; Bladen, L K; Axiotis, M; Muto, S; Jeong, S C; Hirayama, Y; Korgul, A B; Minamisono, K; Bingham, C R; Aprahamian, A; Bucher, B M; Huyse, M L; Himpe, P; Ferrer garcia, R; Sambi, S; Budincevic, I; Neven, M; Bomans, P; Romano, N; Maugeri, E A; Klupp, S C; Dehn, M H; Heinke, R M; Maira vidal, A; Vedia fernandez, M V; Ibanez garcia, P B; Bruyneel, B J E; Materna, T; Al-dahan, N; Alazemi, N; Carroll, R J; Babcock, C; Laird, A M; Eleme, Z; Dhal, A; Valiente dobon, J J; Sahin, E; Goergen, A; Maj, A; Bednarczyk, P A; Borcea, C; Negoita, F; Suliman, G; Marginean, N M; Sotty, C O; Negret, A L; Nae, S A; Nita, C; Golubev, P I; Knyazev, A; Jost, C U; Petrik, K; Strisovska, J; Vaeyrynen, S A; Dracoulis, G D; Rainovski, G I; Uher, J; Fernandez dominguez, B; Chakraborty, P; Avigo, R; Galaviz redondo, D; Castro ribeiro da silva, M; Bernards, C W; Falahat, S; Lekovic, F; Dorrer, H J; Derkx, X; Angus, L J; Sandhu, K S; Gregor, E; Byrne, D J; Haas, H; Lourenco, A A; Sousa pereira, S M; Esteves de araujo, J P; Sousa, J B; De melo mendonca, T M; Tavares de sousa, C; Guerreiro dos santos oliveira custodio, L M; Da rocha rodrigues, P M; Yamaguchi, T; Thompson, P C; Rosenbusch, M; Wienholtz, F; Fischer, P; Iwanicki, J S; Rusek, K M; Hanstorp, D; Severijns, N; Vanpoucke, B R S; Finlay, P E J; Park, S H; Warr, N V; Doornenbal, P C; Imig, A; Seidlitz, M; Moschner, K; Vogt, A; Kaya, L; Martel bravo, I; Orduz, A K; Serot, O; Litvinov, Y; Bommert, M; Hensel, S; Markevich, V; Nishio, K; Ota, S; Matos, I; Zenkevich, A; Picado sandi, E; Forstner, O

    2002-01-01

    The experiments aim at a broad exploration of the properties of atomic nuclei far away from the region of beta stability. Furthermore, the unique radioactive beams of over 60~elements produced at the on-line isotope separators ISOLDE-2 and ISOLDE-3 are used in a wide programme of atomic, solid state and surface physics. Around 300 scientists are involved in the project, coming from about 70 laboratories. \\\\ \\\\ The electromagnetic isotope separators are connected on-line with their production targets in the extracted 600 MeV proton or 910~MeV Helium-3 beam of the Synchro-Cyclotron. Secondary beams of radioactive isotopes are available at the facility in intensities of 10$^1

  13. Assessment of financial impact of implementation of operational programme on discharge and treatment of waste water for settlements which will not be equipped with public sewage system until 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Pregelj, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Slovenia has with its accession to the European Union committed to construct public sewage system and wastewater treatment plant within deadlines that are written in the Operational programme on discharge and treatment of waste water. Due to scattered settlements in Slovenia the construction of public sewage system and waste water treatment plants for each settlement is not economically eligible. Residents of scattered areas which will not be equipped with public sewage systems will have to d...

  14. Falling through the gaps: how should HIV programmes respond to families that persistently deny treatment to children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Busza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children living with HIV rely on adult caregivers for access to HIV testing and care, including clinical monitoring and adherence to treatment. Yet, many caregivers confront barriers to ensuring children's care, including fear of disclosure of the child's or the parents’ HIV status, competing family demands, fluctuating care arrangements and broader structural factors such as entrenched poverty or alternative beliefs about HIV's aetiology and treatment. Thus, many children are “falling through the gaps” because their access to testing and care is mediated by guardians who appear unable or unwilling to facilitate it. These children are likely to suffer treatment failure or death due to their caregivers’ recalcitrance. Discussion: This Commentary presents three cases from paediatric HIV services in Zimbabwe that highlight the complexities facing health care providers in providing HIV testing and care to children, and discusses the implications as a child's rights issue requiring both legal and programmatic responses. The cases provide examples of how disagreements between family members about appropriate care, conflicts between a child and caregiver and religious objections to medical treatment interrupt children's engagement with HIV services. In all three cases, no social or legal mechanisms were in place for health staff to intervene and prevent “loss to follow up.” Conclusions: We suggest that conceptualizing this as a child's rights issue may be a useful way to raise the debate and move towards improved treatment access. Our cases reflect policy failure to facilitate access to children's HIV testing and treatment, and are likely to be similar across international settings. We propose sharing experiences and encouraging dialogue between health practitioners and global advocates for children's right to health to raise awareness that children are the bearers of rights even if they lack legal capacity, and that the

  15. Growth rates and the prevalence and progression of scoliosis in short-statured children on Australian growth hormone treatment programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPhee Ian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design and aim This was a longitudinal chart review of a diverse group (cohort of patients undergoing HGH (Human Growth Hormone treatment. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed with the aim to identify the presence and progression of scoliosis. Methods and cohort 185 patients were recruited and a database incorporating the age at commencement, dose and frequency of growth hormone treatment and growth charts was compiled from their Medical Records. The presence of any known syndrome and the clinical presence of scoliosis were included for analysis. Subsequently, skeletally immature patients identified with scoliosis were followed up over a period of a minimum four years and the radiologic type, progression and severity (Cobb angle of scoliosis were recorded. Results Four (3.6% of the 109 with idiopathic short stature or hormone deficiency had idiopathic scoliosis (within normal limits for a control population and scoliosis progression was not prospectively observed. 13 (28.8% of 45 with Turner syndrome had scoliosis radiologically similar to idiopathic scoliosis. 11 (48% of 23 with varying syndromes, had scoliosis. In the entire cohort, the growth rates of those with and without scoliosis were not statistically different and HGH treatment was not ceased because of progression of scoliosis. Conclusion In this study, there was no evidence of HGH treatment being responsible for progression of scoliosis in a small number of non-syndromic patients (four. An incidental finding was that scoliosis, similar to the idiopathic type, appears to be more prevalent in Turner syndrome than previously believed.

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY BETWEEN ACETONE AND ETHANOLIC STEM BARK EXTRACTS OF SPONDIAS PINNATA (LINN.F KURZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda B.K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Spondias Pinnata (Linn.F Kurz is found in tribal area of Mayurbhanj district and extensively used traditionally by the tribal people as Anthelmintic, Anti-inflammatory, Regulate menstruation, Anti-pyretic, Anti-tumor and Anti-bacterial activity1-6. The present study is attempted to explore the anthelmintic activity of acetone and ethanol extract of bark of plant Spondias Pinnata in a comparative study. The various doses of acetone and ethanol extracts were evaluated for their anthelmintic activities on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima postuma. All extracts of both the solvents were able to show anthelmintic activity at (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml concentration. The activities are well comparable with standard drugs, Piperazine citrate and Albendazole (10 mg/ml.All the doses of acetone and ethanol extract of Spondias Pinnata showed better anthelmintic activities than the standard drugs. When the dose of extract is increased, a gradual increase in anthelmintic activity was observed. Ethanol extract showed better anthelmintic activity in comparison to the acetone extract of Spondias Pinnata. The data was verified as statistically significance by using ANOVA at 5% level of significance (P< 0.05.

  17. Directly observed treatment short course in immunocompetent patients of tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy treated in revised national tuberculosis control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu Kandala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prospective observation analysis to evaluate the cure in tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy with directly observed treatment short course category III (DOTS CAT III treatment as per revised national tuberculosis control program (RNTCP at a tertiary care hospital in AP, India, from October 2007 to September 2009. These cases were followed up for period of 22 months. Materials and Methods: Total 1521 tuberculous cases were screened in KIMS both pulmonary and extra pulmonary cases out of which 146 cases were tuberculous lymphadenitis. Fifty cases of tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy were included after diagnostic and treatment algorithm and fine needle biopsy or excision biopsy. Patients below 5 yrs, immunocompromised, having diabetes mellitus, pulmonary tuberculosis and with other co-morbid conditions were excluded from the study. All patients were put on DOTS CAT III as per RNTCP guidelines. Follow-up was done every 2 months till 6 months for 1 Constitution symptoms 2 Weight gain or loss 3 Appetite gain or loss 4 Regression of lymph nodes or increase 5 Compliance 6 Side effects 7 Failures by demonstration of organism by direct smear, culture or histopathological examination. Results: In this study, lymph node regression was found in 78% at the end of 2 months, 94% at the end of 4 months and 96% at the end of 6 months, 9 patients had regression in size though the nodes were palpable, 2 had no regression but fresh lymph nodes appeared on the same side and sinus discharge was present, culture was negative in these cases. Two cases had immune reconstitution syndrome, constitutional symptoms disappeared and showed clinical improvement. Four cases were subjected for surgical intervention. Conclusion: DOTS CAT III is effective in the treatment of tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy. Compliance was good with minimal, minor side effects, only two had immune reconstitution syndrome and two had sinus formation; they were referred for

  18. High levels of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in new and treatment-failure patients from the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in an urban metropolis (Mumbai in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicol Mark

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India, China and Russia account for more than 62% of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB globally. Within India, locations like urban metropolitan Mumbai with its burgeoning population and high incidence of TB are suspected to be a focus for MDRTB. However apart from sporadic surveys at watched sites in the country, there has been no systematic attempt by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP of India to determine the extent of MDRTB in Mumbai that could feed into national estimates. Drug susceptibility testing (DST is not routinely performed as a part of programme policy and public health laboratory infrastructure, is limited and poorly equipped to cope with large scale testing. Methods From April 2004 to January 2007 we determined the extent of drug resistance in 724 {493 newly diagnosed, previously untreated and 231 first line treatment failures (sputum-smear positive at the fifth month after commencement of therapy} cases of pulmonary tuberculosis drawn from the RNTCP in four suboptimally performing municipal wards of Mumbai. The observations were obtained using a modified radiorespirometric Buddemeyer assay and validated by the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Stockholm, a supranational reference laboratory. Data was analyzed utilizing SPSS 10.0 and Epi Info 2002. Results This study undertaken for the first time in RNTCP outpatients in Mumbai reveals a high proportion of MDRTB strains in both previously untreated (24% and treatment-failure cases (41%. Amongst new cases, resistance to 3 or 4 drug combinations (amplified drug resistance including isoniazid (H and rifampicin (R, was greater (20% than resistance to H and R alone (4% at any point in time during the study. The trend for monoresistance was similar in both groups remaining highest to H and lowest to R. External quality control revealed good agreement for H and R resistance (k = 0.77 and 0.76 respectively. Conclusion

  19. New Method for Analysis of Multiple Anthelmintic Residues in Animal Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the first time, 39 of the major anthelmintics can be detected in one rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method, including the flukicides, which have been generally overlooked in surveillance programs. Utilizing the QuEChERS approach, residues were extracted from liver and milk using acetonitrile, sod...

  20. Phytochemical, Anti-oxidant and Anthelmintic activities of various leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Sreejith; N Kannappan; A Santhiagu; Ajith P Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential and anthelmintic activities of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb leaves. Methods: The dried powdered leaves of Flacourtia sepiaria were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol by a soxhlet extractor and preliminary phytochemical screening was performed using standard protocols. All the extract was evaluated for their potential antioxidant activities using test such as DPPH, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical scavenging abilities, ferrous chelating ability and total phenolic and flavanoid content. Anthelmintic activity of extract was screened in adult Indian earthworm model. Results: Preliminary screening revealed the presence of bioactive compounds especially phenolics, tannins and terpenoids in all extracts. The phenolic and flavanoid content was highest in methanolic extract and lowest in petroleum ether extract. The paralytic (9.46±0.212) and death time (31.43±0.148) of methanolic extract was found to be significant (P Conclusions:The results of the present study indicate that the leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria exhibited strong antioxidant activity and possess significant anthelmintic activity and thus it is a good source of antioxidant and anthelmintic constituents.

  1. Anthelmintic potential of chicory forage is influenced by sesquiterpene lactone composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) herbage has been attributed to sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). Chicory leaves contain lactucin (LAC), 8-deoxylactucin (DOL), and lactucopicrin (LPIC), but the amounts of these three SLs vary among cultivars. The objective of this study was...

  2. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharma

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIAL OF CUCURBITA MAXIMA (PUMPKIN SEEDS AND CARICA PAPAYA (PAPAYA SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Rupa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The crude extract of Carica papaya (papaya seeds (CP and Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin seeds (CM were assayed against adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma for the evaluation of anthelmintic activity. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis (P and time for death (D of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard. The result showed that in both of the extracts (i.e. CP and CM dose of 60 mg / ml possesses more wormicidal activity. The time of paralysis was 1.88 ± 0.52 minute and 1.93 ± 0.57 minute whereas the time of death was 3.45 ± 0.17 minute and 4.90 ± 0.18 minute in the case of Carica papaya and Cucurbita maxima respectively. In conclusion, the use of seeds of Carica papaya (CP and Cucurbita maxima (CM for anthelmintic activity have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity. Both the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity, but the comparative study showed that out of these two, Carica papaya proves to be a better anthelmintic remedy.

  4. Evaluation of Anthelmintic activity of Uncaria gambier Roxb. against Pheretima posthuma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Patil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the anthelmintic potential of leaves & shoots extract of Uncaria gambier Roxb. The alcoholic extract of Uncaria gambier Roxb. & its ethyl acetate fraction at different concentrations (25, 50, 75, 100 mg/ml were tested on Indian adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma by in vitro standard procedure. Time of paralysis and time of death of the worms were considered as the parameters to assess the anthelmintic action. Albendazole and 2% w/v gum acacia in distilled water were used as standard and control respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction of alcoholic extract exhibited potent anthelmintic activity compared to alcoholic extract as evidenced by significant decrease in time of paralysis & death. The observed activity could be due to the presence to phenolic compounds, particularly flavonoids in the test extract. These in vitro studies indicated that the Uncaria gambier Roxb. is a significant source of natural anthelmintic, which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various parasitic disorders.

  5. Evaluation of anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites using observational data and hierarchical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Vidyashankar, Anand N.; Hanlon, Bret;

    Anthelmintic resistance is an increasing challenge in the control of parasites in livestock. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the practical gold standard method for evaluating resistance, but the interpretation is complicated due to high levels of variability. Several factors...... to handle FECRT data obtained from other livestock species, drug types, and parasite species....

  6. Mortality and loss-to-follow-up during the pre-treatment period in an antiretroviral therapy programme under normal health service conditions in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin Jonathan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many HIV programmes in Africa, patients are assessed clinically and prepared for antiretroviral treatment over a period of 4–12 weeks. Mortality rates following initiation of ART are very high largely because patients present late with advanced disease. The rates of mortality and retention during the pre-treatment period are not well understood. We conducted an observational study to determine these rates. Methods HIV-infected subjects presenting at The AIDS Support Clinic in Jinja, SE Uganda, were assessed for antiretroviral therapy (ART. Eligible subjects were given information and counselling in 3 visits done over 4–6 weeks in preparation for treatment. Those who did not complete screening were followed-up at home. Survival analysis was done using poisson regression. Results 4321 HIV-infected subjects were screened of whom 2483 were eligible for ART on clinical or immunological grounds. Of these, 637 (26% did not complete screening and did not start ART. Male sex and low CD4 count were associated independently with not completing screening. At follow-up at a median 351 days, 181 (28% had died, 189 (30% reported that they were on ART with a different provider, 158 (25% were alive but said they were not on ART and 109 (17% were lost to follow-up. Death rates (95% CI per 100 person-years were 34 (22, 55 (n.18 within one month and 37 (29, 48 (n.33 within 3 months. 70/158 (44% subjects seen at follow-up said they had not started ART because they could not afford transport. Conclusion About a quarter of subjects eligible for ART did not complete screening and pre-treatment mortality was very high even though patients in this setting were well informed. For many families, the high cost of transport is a major barrier preventing access to ART.

  7. Treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste. Supplement to the 1992 programme in response to the government decision of December 16, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to criticism from the regulatory authorities, SKB has made this supplementary account to the 1992 R,D and D programme. The report describes the criteria and methods that form the basis for selection of a site suitable for a nuclear waste repository; a programme for specification of the design of a waste encapsulation plant and the repository; a programme for the safety assessments SKB intends to prepare; and an analysis of how different measures and decisions influence later decisions within the repository programme. 71 refs, 19 figs, 6 tabs

  8. Co-ordinated research programme on use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment of food and agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief article summarizes the reports presented at the Final Research Co-ordination Meeting on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment of food and agricultural commodities. The results show that irradiation is a viable alternative to ethylene dibromide fumigation of food, and that neither the radiation dose required for fruit fly disinfestation (0.15 kGy) nor that required to provide quarantine security against other arthropod pests (0.3 kGy) causes significant changes in the physicochemical or organoleptic properties of most fruits and vegetables. 1 ref

  9. Initial findings from a mixed-methods evaluation of computer-assisted therapy for substance misuse in prisoners: Development, implementation and clinical outcomes from the ‘Breaking Free Health & Justice’ treatment and recovery programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Elison

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the United Kingdom’s ‘Transforming Rehabilitation’ agenda, reshaping drug and alcohol interventions in prisons is central to the Government’s approach to addressing substance dependence in the prison population and reduce reoffending. To achieve this, a through-care project to support offenders following release, ‘Gateways’, is taking place providing ‘through the gate’ support to released offenders, including help with organising accommodation, education and employment, and access to a peer supporter. In addition, Gateways is providing access to an evidence-based computer-assisted therapy (CAT programme for substance misuse, Breaking Free Health & Justice (BFHJ. Developed in partnership with the Ministry of Justice (MoJ National Offender Management Services (NOMS, and based on a community version of the programme, Breaking Free Online (BFO, BFHJ provides access to clinically-robust techniques based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT and promotes the role of technology-enhanced approaches in recovery from substance misuse. The BFHJ programme is provided via ‘Virtual Campus’ (VC, a secure, web-based learning environment delivered by NOMS and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, which has no links to websites not approved by MoJ, and provides prisoners with access to online training courses around work and skills. Providing BFHJ on VC makes the programme the world’s first online healthcare programme to be provided in prisons. Aims: Although here is an emerging evidence-base for the effectiveness of the community version of the BFO programme and its implementation within community treatment settings (Davies, Elison, Ward, & Laudet, 2015; Elison, Davies, & Ward, 2015a, 2015b; Elison, Humphreys, Ward, & Davies, 2013; Elison, Ward, Davies, Lidbetter, et al., 2014; Elison, Ward, Davies, & Moody, 2014, its potential within prison settings requires exploration. This study therefore sought to

  10. Mortality and loss to programme before antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected children eligible for treatment in The Gambia, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okomo Uduak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection among children, particularly those under 24 months of age, is often rapidly progressive; as a result guidelines recommend earlier access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART for HIV infected children. Losses to follow-up (LTFU and death in the interval between diagnosis and initiation of ART profoundly limit this strategy. This study explores correlates of LTFU and death prior to ART initiation among children. Methods The study is based on 337 HIV-infected children enrolled into care at an urban centre in The Gambia, including those alive and in care when antiretroviral therapy became available and those who enrolled later. Children were followed until they started ART, died, transferred to another facility, or were LTFU. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine the hazard of death or LTFU according to the baseline characteristics of the children. Results Overall, 223 children were assessed as eligible for ART based on their clinical and/or immunological status among whom 73 (32.7% started treatment, 15 (6.7% requested transfer to another health facility, 105 (47.1% and 30 (13.5% were lost to follow-up and died respectively without starting ART. The median survival following eligibility for children who died without starting treatment was 2.8 months (IQR: 0.9 - 5.8 with over half (60% of all deaths occurring at home. ART-eligible children less than 2 years of age and those in WHO stage 3 or 4 were significantly more likely to be LTFU when compared with their respective comparison groups. The overall pre-treatment mortality rate was 25.7 per 100 child-years of follow-up (95% CI 19.9 - 36.8 and the loss to programme rate was 115.7 per 100 child-years of follow-up (95% CI 98.8 - 137. In the multivariable Cox proportional hazard model, significant independent predictors of loss to programme were being less than 2 years of age and WHO stage 3 or 4. The Adjusted Hazard Ratio

  11. The Validation of Nematode-Specific Acetylcholine-Gated Chloride Channels as Potential Anthelmintic Drug Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, Claudia M.; Farrington, Danielle; Dent, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    New compounds are needed to treat parasitic nematode infections in humans, livestock and plants. Small molecule anthelmintics are the primary means of nematode parasite control in animals; however, widespread resistance to the currently available drug classes means control will be impossible without the introduction of new compounds. Adverse environmental effects associated with nematocides used to control plant parasitic species are also motivating the search for safer, more effective compounds. Discovery of new anthelmintic drugs in particular has been a serious challenge due to the difficulty of obtaining and culturing target parasites for high-throughput screens and the lack of functional genomic techniques to validate potential drug targets in these pathogens. We present here a novel strategy for target validation that employs the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to demonstrate the value of new ligand-gated ion channels as targets for anthelmintic discovery. Many successful anthelmintics, including ivermectin, levamisole and monepantel, are agonists of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, suggesting that the unexploited pentameric ion channels encoded in parasite genomes may be suitable drug targets. We validated five members of the nematode-specific family of acetylcholine-gated chloride channels as targets of agonists with anthelmintic properties by ectopically expressing an ivermectin-gated chloride channel, AVR-15, in tissues that endogenously express the acetylcholine-gated chloride channels and using the effects of ivermectin to predict the effects of an acetylcholine-gated chloride channel agonist. In principle, our strategy can be applied to validate any ion channel as a putative anti-parasitic drug target. PMID:26393923

  12. A xenodiagnostic method using Musca domestica for the diagnosis of gastric habronemosis and examining the anthelmintic efficacy of moxidectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rolf K; Sivakumar, Saritha

    2013-10-18

    Equine habronematidosis has a global distribution and is caused by three spirurid species, Habronema muscae, Habronema microstoma and Draschia megastoma. A case of cutaneous habronematidosis in a stallion in a stable in Dubai, UAE gave occasion to investigate the parasite situation on the farm. Patent H. muscae infections were diagnosed in 18 out of 49 horses in a stable in Dubai, UAE with a xenodiagnostic test using houseflies as indicator host. All horses in the stable were treated with a single dose of moxidectin administered orally as 2% gel in a dosage of 0.4 mg/kg body weight and the efficacy of this targeted treatment was studied. Habronema infection was terminated in all horses. A fly survey conducted at the farm prior and after treatment revealed two muscid species: Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans. Only M. domestica caught at the farm showed a natural infection with Habronema larvae prior and shortly after anthelmintic treatment. Later, examination of flies caught at the farm in monthly intervals up to the end of observation (8 months after treatment) gave negative results. The absence of infection in the intermediate host was an indication of the eradication of stomach worms. The described xenodiagnostic test is a useful tool to diagnose H. muscae infections and can be used to evaluate the efficacy of nematocides in equines.

  13. KINET: a social marketing programme of treated nets and net treatment for malaria control in Tanzania, with evaluation of child health and long-term survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, J R; Abdulla, S; Minja, H; Nathan, R; Mukasa, O; Marchant, T; Mponda, H; Kikumbih, N; Lyimo, E; Manchester, T; Tanner, M; Lengeler, C

    1999-01-01

    We present a large-scale social marketing programme of insecticide-treated nets in 2 rural districts in southwestern Tanzania (population 350,000) and describe how the long-term child health and survival impact will be assessed. Formative and market research were conducted in order to understand community perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and practice with respect to the products to be socially marketed. We identified Zuia Mbu (Kiswahili for 'prevent mosquitoes') as a suitable brand name for both treated nets and single-dose insecticide treatment sachets. A mix of public and private sales outlets is used for distribution. In the first stage of a stepped introduction 31 net agents were appointed and trained in 18 villages: 15 were shop owners, 14 were village leaders, 1 was a parish priest and 1 a health worker. For net treatment 37 young people were appointed in the same villages and trained as agents. Further institutions in both districts such as hospitals, development projects and employers were also involved in distribution. Promotion for both products was intense and used a variety of channels. A total of 22,410 nets and 8072 treatments were sold during the first year: 18 months after launching, 46% of 312 families with children aged under 5 years reported that their children were sleeping under treated nets. A strong evaluation component in over 50,000 people allows assessment of the long-term effects of insecticide-treated nets on child health and survival, anaemia in pregnancy, and the costs of the intervention. This evaluation is based on cross-sectional surveys, and case-control and cohort studies. PMID:10492745

  14. Needs assessment for adapting TB directly observed treatment intervention programme in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A community-based participatory research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoza, Lunic B.; Van den Borne, Hubertus B.; Lebese, Rachel T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Limpopo Province is one of the hardest hit by tuberculosis and human immune virus infections in the country. The province has been implementing a directly observed treatment strategy since 1996. However, the cure rate was 64% in 2015 and remains far from the set target by the World Health Organization of 85%. Poor health-care seeking and adherence behaviours were identified as major risk behaviours. Aim To apply a Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) approach in identifying barriers and facilitators to health-care seeking and adherence to treatment, and to determine strategies and messages in order to inform the design of an adapted intervention programme. Setting This study was conducted in three districts in the Limpopo Province, Capricorn, Mopani and Sekhukhune districts. Methods The community participatory research approach was applied. Purposive sampling was used to sample participants. Focus group discussions were used to collect data. Participatory analysis was used comparing findings within and across all the participants. Results A total of 161 participated in the study. Participants included coordinators, professional nurses, supporters and patients. Major modifiable behavioural-related barriers were lack of knowledge about tuberculosis, misinformation and misperceptions cultural beliefs, stigma and refusal of treatment support. Environment-related barriers were attitudes of health workers, lack of support by family and community, lack of food and use of alcohol and drugs. Strategies and messages included persuasive and motivational messages to promote healthy behaviour. Conclusion Joint programmatic collaboration between the community and academic researchers is really needed for interventions to address the needs of the community.

  15. Needs assessment for adapting TB directly observed treatment intervention programme in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A community-based participatory research approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabu T. Mabunda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limpopo Province is one of the hardest hit by tuberculosis and human immune virus infections in the country. The province has been implementing directly observed treatment strategy since 1996. However, the cure rate was 64% in 2015 and remains far from the set target by the World Health Organization of 85%. Poor health-care seeking and adherence behaviours were identified as major risk behaviours.Aim: To apply a community-based participatory research approach in identifying barriers and facilitators to health-care seeking and adherence to treatment, and to determine strategies and messages in order to inform the design of an adapted intervention programme.Setting: This study was conducted in three districts in the Limpopo Province, Capricorn, Mopani and Sekhukhune districts.Methods: Community participatory research approach was applied. Purposive sampling was used to sample participants. Focus group discussions were used to collect data. Participatory analysis was used comparing findings within and across all the participants.Results: A total of 161 participated in the study. Participants included coordinators, professional nurses, supporters and patients. Major modifiable behavioural-related barriers were lack of knowledge about tuberculosis, misinformation and misperceptions cultural beliefs, stigma and refusal of treatment support. Environment-related barriers were attitudes of health workers, lack of support by family and community, lack of food and use of alcohol and drugs. Strategies and messages included persuasive and motivational messages to promote healthy behaviour.Conclusion: Joint programmatic collaboration between the community and academic researchers is really needed for interventions to address the needs of the community.Keywords: Health seeking, Adherence, Community based participatory research, Tuberculosis

  16. Programme Biology - Health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific results for 1975, of the five-year Biology-Health Protection programme adopted in 1971, are presented in two volumes. In volume one, Research in Radiation Protection are developed exclusively, including the following topics: measurement and interpretation of radiation (dosimetry); transfer of radioactive nuclides in the constituents of the environment; hereditary effects of radiation; short-term effects (acute irradiation syndrome and its treatment); long-term effects and toxicology of radioactive elements. In volume, two Research on applications in Agriculture and Medicine are developed. It includes: mutagenesis; soil-plant relations; radiation analysis; food conservation; cell culture; radioentomology. Research on applications in Medicine include: Nuclear Medicine and Neutron Dosimetry

  17. Anthelmintic effect of plant extracts containing condensed and hydrolyzable tannins on Caenorhabditis elegans and their antioxidant capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although tannin-rich forages are known to increase protein uptake and to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infections in grazing ruminants, most published research involves forages with condensed tannins (CT), while published literature lacks information on the anthelmintic capacity, nutritional bene...

  18. Retention and mortality outcomes from a community-supported public–private HIV treatment programme in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Gitau; Paing, Aung Zayar; Myint, Nwe Ni; Di, Win; Thu, Kaung Htet; Ram, Mala; Hoffmann, Christopher J; Wang, Bangyuan; Naing, Soe

    2016-01-01

    was 48.6/1000 person-years; 42% (n=74) of deaths occurred during the pre-ART period and 39.8% (n=70) occurred during the first six months of ART. Of those who died during the pre-ART period, 94.5% were eligible for ART. In multivariate regression, baseline CD4 count and ART status were independent predictors of mortality, whereas ART status, younger age and patient volumes per provider were predictors of loss to follow-up. Probability of being alive and retained in care at six months was 96.8% among those on ART, 38.5% among pre-ART but eligible patients, and 20.0% among ART-ineligible patients. Conclusions Effectively supported private sector GPs successfully administered and monitored ART in Myanmar, suggesting that community-supported private sector partnerships can contribute to expansion of HIV treatment and care capacity. To further improve patient outcomes, early testing and initiation of ART, combined with close clinical monitoring and support during the initial periods of enrolling in treatment and care, are required. PMID:27784509

  19. Maternal diagnosis and treatment of children's fever in an endemic malaria zone of Uganda: implications for the malaria control programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubanga, R G; Norman, S; Ewbank, D; Karamagi, C

    1997-10-14

    of the fever. There is need to educate mothers to suspect malaria first in every case of febrile illness, just like the doctors do, and about the first line drugs for the treatment of malaria. PMID:9352002

  20. Anxiety and depression amongst patients enrolled in a public sector antiretroviral treatment programme in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappin Michele

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS and depression are projected to be the two leading causes of disability by 2030. HIV/AIDS and anxiety/depression are interlinked. People suffering from depression may be more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviour, and therefore at greater risk of contracting HIV. An HIV + diagnosis may trigger symptoms of anxiety and depression, which may in turn result in risky sexual behaviour and the spread of HIV. This study explores correlates of anxiety and depression in patients enrolled in a public sector ART programme in South Africa. Methods Interviews were conducted with 716 patients initiating ART at twelve public health care facilities in the Free State. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. An 8+ cut-off was used to identify possible cases of anxiety and depression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis, using STATA Version 11, was performed to identify correlates of anxiety and depression. Results The prevalence of symptoms of respectively anxiety and depression amongst this study population in the Free State was 30.6% and 25.4%. The multivariate logistic regression analyses identified five correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression. Disruptive side effects (OR = 3.62, CI 1.95-6.74 and avoidant coping (OR = 1.42, CI 1.22-1.65 were associated with a greater number of symptoms of anxiety. Stigma was associated with an increase in symptoms of anxiety (OR = 1.14, CI 1.07-1.21 and of depression (OR = 1.13, CI 1.06-1.20, while being a widow (OR = 0.30, CI 0.13-0.69 and participating in a support group (OR = 0.21, CI 0.05-0.99 were associated with decreased symptoms of depression. Conclusions The findings from the study provide valuable insights into the psychosocial aspects of the Free State public-sector ART programme. Combined with the literature on the intricate link between mental health problems and treatment outcomes our results emphasise

  1. Anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus): in vitro effects on swine nematodes and relationship to sesquiterpene lactone composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Peña-Espinoza, Miguel A; Boas, Ulrik; Simonsen, Henrik T; Enemark, Heidi L; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2016-05-01

    Chicory is a perennial crop that has been investigated as a forage source for outdoor-reared ruminants and pigs, and has been reported to have anthelmintic properties. Here, we investigated in vitro anthelmintic effects of forage chicory-extracts against the highly prevalent swine parasites Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum. Methanol extracts were prepared and purified from two different cultivars of chicory (Spadona and Puna II). Marked differences were observed between the anthelmintic activity of extracts from the two cultivars. Spadona extracts had potent activity against A. suum third (L3) and fourth (L4) - stage larvae, as well as O. dentatum L4 and adults, whereas Puna II extracts had less activity against A. suum and no activity towards O. dentatum L4. Transmission-electron microscopy of A. suum L4 exposed to Spadona extracts revealed only subtle changes, perhaps indicative of a specific anthelmintic effect rather than generalized toxicity. Ultra-high liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the purified extracts were rich in sesquiterpene lactones (SL), and that the SL profile differed significantly between cultivars. This is the first report of anthelmintic activity of forage chicory towards swine nematodes. Our results indicate a significant anthelmintic effect, which may possibly be related to SL composition. PMID:26935644

  2. Assessment of the anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole in school children in seven countries where soil-transmitted helminths are endemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Vercruysse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Necator americanus/Ancylostoma duodenale are among the most widespread parasites worldwide. Despite the global expansion of preventive anthelmintic treatment, standard operating procedures to monitor anthelmintic drug efficacy are lacking. The objective of this study, therefore, was to define the efficacy of a single 400 milligram dose of albendazole (ALB against these three STH using a standardized protocol. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seven trials were undertaken among school children in Brazil, Cameroon, Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Tanzania and Vietnam. Efficacy was assessed by the Cure Rate (CR and the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR using the McMaster egg counting technique to determine fecal egg counts (FEC. Overall, the highest CRs were observed for A. lumbricoides (98.2% followed by hookworms (87.8% and T. trichiura (46.6%. There was considerable variation in the CR for the three parasites across trials (country, by age or the pre-intervention FEC (pre-treatment. The latter is probably the most important as it had a considerable effect on the CR of all three STH. Therapeutic efficacies, as reflected by the FECRs, were very high for A. lumbricoides (99.5% and hookworms (94.8% but significantly lower for T. trichiura (50.8%, and were affected to different extents among the 3 species by the pre-intervention FEC counts and trial (country, but not by sex or age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that a FECR (based on arithmetic means of >95% for A. lumbricoides and >90% for hookworms should be the expected minimum in all future surveys, and that therapeutic efficacy below this level following a single dose of ALB should be viewed with concern in light of potential drug resistance. A standard threshold for efficacy against T. trichiura has yet to be established, as a single-dose of ALB is unlikely to be satisfactory for

  3. A reappraisal of the virtues of private sector employment programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Brian Krogh; Jensen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the employment effects of active labour market programmes for Danish welfare benefit recipients, focusing on private sector employment (PSE) programmes. Using a latent variable model that allows for heterogeneous treatment effects among observationally identical persons, we...

  4. Field efficacy of four anthelmintics and confirmation of drug-resistant nematodes by controlled efficacy test and pyrosequencing on a sheep and goat farm in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Thamsborg, Stig M; Demeler, Janina; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-12-15

    We describe a case of anthelmintic resistance on one of the largest organic small ruminant farms in Denmark. The flock was established in 2007 by purchase of animals from other Danish farms and had history of clinical parasitism, high mortality of young stock and anthelmintic treatment failure. In October 2011, 40 lambs and 40 kids were selected for a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) with fenbendazole (FBZ), ivermectin (IVM), moxidectin (MOX) and levamisole (LEV). Lambs were treated with the recommended sheep dose of each product while kids received the sheep dose of IVM, 1.5× sheep dose of MOX and 2× sheep dose of FBZ and LEV. Untreated lambs and kids were also included and three methods for calculating faecal egg count (FEC) reduction were compared. In a subsequent investigation, a controlled efficacy test (CET) with FBZ and IVM was performed in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis isolated from adult goats on the farm. Recovered specimens of H. contortus were subjected to pyrosequencing for detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to benzimidazole (BZ) resistance. During the FECRT, FECs in untreated lambs dropped significantly by 47%. No FEC reduction was detected in untreated kids. After FBZ treatments, FEC reductions in lambs and kids ranged from 15 to 54% and 49-56%, respectively, according to the different calculation methods. Post IVM treatments, FEC reductions in lambs and kids varied between 71-90% and 81-83%, correspondingly. LEV and MOX reduced FECs by 98-100% in both species. In the CET, FBZ reduced H. contortus worm counts by 52-56% and no reduction in T. colubriformis counts were detected after treatment. IVM eliminated 100% of H. contortus and reduced T. colubriformis counts by 84-92%, according to different calculation methods. Pyrosequencing of isolated H. contortus revealed increased frequencies of the BZ resistance-related SNP in codon 200 of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene

  5. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: History and achievements with special reference to annual single-dose treatment with diethylcarbamazine in Samoa and Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Eisaku

    2011-03-01

    Samoa in relation to the annual single-dose MDAs revealed that low density mf carriers, who have a very low mf count of 1-20/ml of venous blood, could not play a significant role in filariasis transmission.From around 1990, studies on spaced low-dose DEC treatments and various types of combination chemotherapy with DEC and ivermectin increased. Albendazole, a well-known anti-intestinal helminths agent, was later added to the combination. The main findings of these studies with W. bancrofti are: (i) a single dose of DEC at 6 mg/kg reduced mean mf density by ca. 90% 1 year after treatment; (ii) the same dose could damage/kill adult worms; (iii) a single dose of ivermectin at ca. 400 µg/kg was more effective than DEC in reducing mf density during the first year and was similarly or less effective in the second year; (iv) ivermectin probably could not kill adult worms; (v) a single combined dose of albendazole (400 mg) and DEC (6 mg/kg) was effective to reduce mf density by 85 to nearly 100% 12-24 months after treatment; and (vi) ivermectin or albendazole included in the combination chemotherapy produced "beyond-filariasis" benefits: clearance/reduction of intestinal helminths, and, additionally, in the case of ivermectin, skin-dwelling ectoparasites.The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) started its worldwide activities in 2000, with the target of elimination by 2020. The basic strategy is to conduct annual single-dose MDAs for 4-6 years. In 2000-2007, a minimum of 570 million individuals were treated in 48 of 83 endemic countries. The drugs used are DEC 6 mg/kg plus albendazole 400 mg in most countries, or ivermectin 200-400 µg/kg plus albendazole 400 mg particularly in onchocerciasis endemic countries in Africa. (MDAs with DEC alone had been used in India.)The GPELF achieved impressive results in terms of parasitological cure/improvement, clinical benefits, social and economic impacts, etc. However, the most impressive result of all was the

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BARK OF HOLOPTELEA INTEGRIFOLIA

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    Sarabjot Kaur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic potential of ethanolic and aqueous extract of bark of Holoptelea integrifolia using Eisenia foetida. Various concentrations (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extract were tested in the bioassay, which involved determination of time of paralysis (P and time of death (D of the worms. Piperazine Citrate (10 mg/ml was included as standard. The results indicated that the ethanolic and aqueous extract significantly demonstrated paralysis and also caused death of worms especially at higher concentration as compared to standard references. In conclusion, the use of bark of Holoptelea integrifolia as an anthelmintic have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity.

  7. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTHELMINTIC SCREENING OF LEAVES, BARK, ROOTS OF PLANT TABERNAEMONTANA CORONARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Ushasri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tabernaemontana coronaria is a potential non cultivated medicinal plant widely distributed in waste lands and open forests in India. The alcoholic, ethereal and chloroform extracts were obtained from the plant Tabernaemontana coronaria by soxhlet extraction or continuous hot percolation method and the extracts were evaluated for their anthelmintic activity, against locally available earth worms (Pheretima posthuma. Three concentrations (10, 30, 60 mg/ml were prepared from each extract and were used for the study over earth worms. The study involves the determination of time of paralysis and time for death of the earth worms tested. The results obtained from the study revealed that all the extracts of Tabernaemontana coronaria possess significant anthelmintic effect at highest concentration (60 mg/ml. A solution of Albendazole was prepared in same concentration as that of extract and was used as standard. A 5% tween-80 suspension prepared using normal saline solution was used as control or blank.

  8. In Vitro Evaluation Of Anthelmintic Activity Of Gymnema sylvestre Leaves Against Pheretima posthuma

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    T. Srinath Reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gymnema sylvestre has been used as a traditional medicinal plant to prevent diabetes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate anthelmintic activity of hot and cold hydroalcoholic extracts of Gymnema sylvestre leaves against Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (25-500 mg/ml of hot and cold hydroalcoholic extracts of Gymnema sylvestre were evaluated in the bioassay involving determination of time of paralysis (P and time of death (D of the worms. Albendazole was used as standard anthelmintic drug and distilled water was used as control. The results of present study indicated that the hydroalcoholic extracts significantly exhibited the paralysis in worms and also caused death of worms in dose dependent manner, among which hot maceration extract showing more significant results when compared with the cold maceration extract. Further studies have to be done to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity.

  9. Parasite control in Canadian companion animal shelters and a cost-comparison of anthelmintics

    OpenAIRE

    Schurer, Janna M.; McKenzie, Christina; Dowling, Patricia M.; Bouchard, Emilie; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Animal shelters have limited resources and must accommodate large numbers of animals at unpredictable intake rates. These dogs and cats are often parasitized, which can adversely affect the health of animals and expose shelter workers and adoptive owners to zoonoses. We analyzed survey responses from rural (n = 32) and urban (n = 50) companion animal shelters across Canada, and compared the wholesale cost of commercially available anthelmintics to identify cost-effective methods of managing p...

  10. IN VITRO STUDY OF THE ANTHELMINTIC ACTION OF TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM L. GROWN IN IRAN

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    T.Ghafagaai

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available The water extract of Trigonella foenum graecum stem and leaves was tested for lethal activity against Hymenolepis nana, Syphacia obvelata, and Moniezia expansa. The plant extract demonstrated good anthelmintic activity in vitro which is directly related to the concentration of the extract used. The extract also prevents the formation of Ascaris larvae from the eggs of Ascaris lumbrico- ides (human. Department of Pharmacology and Department of Pathobiology, School of Medicine, Universety of Isfahan, Isfahan IRAN.

  11. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTHELMINTIC SCREENING OF LEAVES, BARK, ROOTS OF PLANT TABERNAEMONTANA CORONARIA

    OpenAIRE

    S.Ushasri; Ch.Gireesh kumar; M.Sarath Chandra Sekhar; Ramesh, N.; Satyanarayana, M.

    2013-01-01

    Tabernaemontana coronaria is a potential non cultivated medicinal plant widely distributed in waste lands and open forests in India. The alcoholic, ethereal and chloroform extracts were obtained from the plant Tabernaemontana coronaria by soxhlet extraction or continuous hot percolation method and the extracts were evaluated for their anthelmintic activity, against locally available earth worms (Pheretima posthuma). Three concentrations (10, 30, 60 mg/ml) were prepared from each extract and w...

  12. Organization of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the polyketide anthelmintic macrolide avermectin in Streptomyces avermitilis

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Haruo; Nonomiya, Tomoko; Usami, Masayo; Ohta, Toshio; Ōmura, Satoshi

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the gene cluster from Streptomyces avermitilis that governs the biosynthesis of the polyketide anthelmintic avermectin revealed that it contains four large ORFs encoding giant multifunctional polypeptides of the avermectin polyketide synthase (AVES 1, AVES 2, AVES 3, and AVES 4). These clustered polyketide synthase genes responsible for avermectin biosynthesis together encode 12 homologous sets of enzyme activities (modules), each catalyzing a specific round of polyketide chain el...

  13. Effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work rate for persons with work-related stress. A non-randomized controlled study from a stress clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    was to test the effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work (RTW) rate in persons with work-related stress and establish predictive factors for this outcome. METHODS: During a two-year period 63 out of 73 referrals to the Stress Clinic (a section of a Clinic of Occupational...... and after four months. A specialist in occupational medicine carried out all sessions.Return To Work (RTW), defined as having a job and not being on sick leave at the census, was used as outcome measure four months after baseline, and after one and two years. RESULTS: The level of sick leave in the stress...... the two groups was observed after one and two years. Age below 50 years and being a manager increased the odds ratio for RTW after one and two years, while gender and depression had no predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: The stress treatment programme showed a significant effect on the return to work rate...

  14. Effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work rate for persons with work-related stress. A non-randomized controlled study from a stress clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    was to test the effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work (RTW) rate in persons with work-related stress and establish predictive factors for this outcome. METHODS: During a two-year period 63 out of 73 referrals to the Stress Clinic (a section of a Clinic of Occupational...... the two groups was observed after one and two years. Age below 50 years and being a manager increased the odds ratio for RTW after one and two years, while gender and depression had no predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: The stress treatment programme showed a significant effect on the return to work rate...... and after four months. A specialist in occupational medicine carried out all sessions.Return To Work (RTW), defined as having a job and not being on sick leave at the census, was used as outcome measure four months after baseline, and after one and two years. RESULTS: The level of sick leave in the stress...

  15. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Gerda; Sakong, Bellonah M; Adenubi, Olubukola T; Pauw, Elizabeth; Leboho, Tlabo; Wellington, Kevin W; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-01-01

    The nematode, Haemonchus contortus, is responsible for major economic losses in the livestock industry. The management of parasites such as H. contortus has been through the use of synthetic parasiticides. This has resulted in the presence of residues in meat and milk, which affects food safety. The development of resistance to available anthelmintics coupled with their high cost has further complicated matters. This has led to the investigation of alternative methods to manage nematodes, including the use of plants and plant extracts as a potential source of novel anthelmintics. Acetone extracts were prepared from 15 South African plant species and their anthelmintic activity determined using the egg hatch assay (EHA). The leaf extract of Cleome gynandra had the best inhibitory activity (68% ± 3%) at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, followed by the stem extract of Maerua angolensis (65% ± 5%). The extracts had a relatively low toxicity on Vero cells determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cellular assay. PMID:27543148

  16. A STUDY ON CYTOTOXIC AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF LEAVES OF CLERODENDRUM VISCOSUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Md. Shamsul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the biological investigations of Clerodendrum viscosum – a plant belonging to the family Verbenaceae. The leaf of Clerodendrum viscosum was extracted with methanol and water. The crude extract of methanol of Clerodendrum viscosum was screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. A reputed cytotoxic agent vincristine sulphate was used as a positive control. From the result of the brine shrimp lethality bioassay it can be well predicted that methanol extract possess cytotoxic principles (with LC50 3.696 µg/ml comparison with positive control vincristine sulphate (with LC50 0.773 µg /ml. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts from the leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum were investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma and five concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/ml of each extracts were studied in activity, which involved the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worm. Both the extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 50 mg/ml. Albendazole in 20mg/ml concentration extract was used as standard reference and saline solution as control. All the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity in dose dependent manner.

  17. Surveillance of Invitro Antioxidant and Anthelmintic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Syzygium Cumini Bark (Myrtaceae

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    Nellickal Subramanyan Jayamohan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Herbal medicines have been used for treating various diseases from ancient times. Even in the era of advanced modern medicine, natural sources of antioxidants and pharmaceutical compounds are of great importance, many of such rich sources are still unearthed.Materials and methods: Methanolic extract of Jamun (Syzygium cumini tree bark was screened for in vitro- antioxidant activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening results showed S. cumini was positive for flavonoids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. Antioxidant studies includes DPPH scavenging activity, reducing capacity assessment, reducing effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and nitrous oxide scavenging activity against ascorbic acid (ASA standard.Results: The phenolic content was 480 mg % of gallic acid equivalents, tannin 1.9 mg % of gallic acid equivalents, tannin was 250 mg % of catechine equivalents on ferric chloride estimation and flavon content 66.17 µg/ ml was considerable. Anthelmintic property of methanolic and aqueous extract of S. cumini bark showed promising activity against control.Discussion: S. cumini could be a promising agent in antioxidant and anthelmintic research and could lead in development of new drug molecule. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the antioxidant and anthelmintic activity of S. cumini bark. 

  18. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Fouche

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The nematode, Haemonchus contortus, is responsible for major economic losses in the livestock industry. The management of parasites such as H. contortus has been through the use of synthetic parasiticides. This has resulted in the presence of residues in meat and milk, which affects food safety. The development of resistance to available anthelmintics coupled with their high cost has further complicated matters. This has led to the investigation of alternative methods to manage nematodes, including the use of plants and plant extracts as a potential source of novel anthelmintics. Acetone extracts were prepared from 15 South African plant species and their anthelmintic activity determined using the egg hatch assay (EHA. The leaf extract of Cleome gynandra had the best inhibitory activity (68% ± 3% at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, followed by the stem extract of Maerua angolensis (65% ± 5%. The extracts had a relatively low toxicity on Vero cells determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide cellular assay.

  19. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982 at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA and Teucrium stocksianum (CST had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development.

  20. The acceptability of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi delivered through the expanded programme of immunization in southern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrisho Mwifadhi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi reduces the incidence of clinical malaria. However, before making decisions about implementation, it is essential to ensure that IPTi is acceptable, that it does not adversely affect attitudes to immunization or existing health seeking behaviour. This paper reports on the reception of IPTi during the first implementation study of IPTi in southern Tanzania. Methods Data were collected through in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation carried out by a central team of social scientists and a network of key informants/interviewers who resided permanently in the study sites. Results IPTi was generally acceptable. This was related to routinization of immunization and resonance with traditional practices. Promoting "health" was considered more important than preventing specific diseases. Many women thought that immunization was obligatory and that health staff might be unwilling to assist in the future if they were non-adherent. Weighing and socialising were important reasons for clinic attendance. Non-adherence was due largely to practical, social and structural factors, many of which could be overcome. Reasons for non-adherence were sometimes interlinked. Health staff and "road to child health" cards were the main source of information on the intervention, rather than the specially designed posters. Women did not generally discuss child health matters outside the clinic, and information about the intervention percolated slowly through the community. Although there were some rumours about sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP, it was generally acceptable as a drug for IPTi, although mothers did not like the way tablets were administered. There is no evidence that IPTi had a negative effect on attitudes or adherence to the expanded programme on immunisation (EPI or treatment seeking or existing malaria prevention. Conclusion In order to improve

  1. Olympic Partner Programme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Olympic Partner Programme (TOP) is an international Olympic marketing programme created by the International Olympic Committee (IOC),which includes the Organising Committees of the Games,the National Olympic Committees and the TOP Partners.

  2. UNESCO's Ethics Education Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, H.A.M.J. ten

    2008-01-01

    Unesco initiated the Ethics Education Programme in 2004 at the request of member states to reinforce and increase the capacities in the area of ethics teaching. The programme is focused on providing detailed information about existing teaching programmes. It also develops and promotes teaching throu

  3. In vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) against Haemonchus contortus from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L E; Castro, P M N; Chagas, A C S; França, S C; Beleboni, R O

    2013-07-01

    Despite the overall progress of sheep farming in Brazil, infections with the gastrointestinal parasite Haemonchus contortus represent one the most important problems in sheep production, aggravated by the increasing resistance of nematodes to traditional anthelmintic drugs caused by inadequate sheep flock management by breeders. Ethnopharmacological data indicate Annona muricata as a promising alternative for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes because of its general anthelmintic properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic effects of A. muricata aqueous leaf extract against eggs, infective larvae and adult forms of parasitic nematode H. contortus. At higher doses, A. muricata extract showed 84.91% and 89.08% of efficacy in egg hatch test (EHT) and larval motility test (LMT), respectively. In the adult worm motility test, worms were completely immobilized within the first 6-8h of nematode exposition to different dilutions of extract. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of phenolic compounds in A. muricata aqueous leaf extract that may be responsible for the anthelmintic effects observed. Moreover those results validate the traditional use of A. muricata as a natural anthelmintic and then the pharmacological potential of its compounds for future in vivo investigations.

  4. How have ART treatment programmes changed the patterns of excess mortality in people living with HIV? Estimates from four countries in East and Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Slaymaker

    2014-04-01

    similar to that of the general population. Further research is urgently needed to establish why the different impacts on mortality were observed and how the care and treatment programmes in these countries can be more effective in reducing mortality further.

  5. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Niaz; Shah Syed; Shah Ismail; Ahmed Ghayour; Ghias Mehreen; Khan Imran

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Method...

  6. Assessment of the anthelmintic activity of medicinal plant extracts and purified condensed tannins against free-living and parasitic stages of Oesophagostomum dentatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Ropiak, Honorata M.; Fryganas, Christos;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundPlant-derived condensed tannins (CT) show promise as a complementary option to treat gastrointestinal helminth infections, thus reducing reliance on synthetic anthelmintic drugs. Most studies on the anthelmintic effects of CT have been conducted on parasites of ruminant livestock. Oesop...

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF MUSA ACUMINATE COLLA AND CAJANUS CAJAN (LINN. LEAF EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakta Tejendra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract of leaf of Musa acuminate colla and seed of Cajanus cajan (Linn. were taken for the examination of anthelmintic activity on Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30 mg/ml of both plant extract were tested and results were expressed in terms of time of paralysis and time of death of worms. Albendazole of same concentration as like as plant extracts was taken as reference standard and normal saline solution as control. Paralysis time can be determined by vigorous shaking when no movement was observed. When whitish substances were secreted from the body that one was termed as death time. Both the extracts show significant anthelmintic activity but among these two Musa acuminate colla showed more anthelmintic activity than Cajanus cajan (Linn.. Future scope involves isolation of active constituents responsible for this action.

  8. Anthelmintic resistance of nematodes in communally grazed goats in a semi-arid area of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. Bakunzi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted on the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance of nematodes in communally grazed goats in a semi-arid area in SouthAfrica. In herds belonging to 10 smallholder goat farmers, the efficacies of fenbendazole, levamisole and rafoxanide were tested by faecal egg count reduction (FECR tests. Efficacies of 80 % were considered a threshold for anthelmintic resistance. The FECR tests showed that all drugs tested more than 80 % effective in most instances, but there were notable exceptions. In 1 case, rafoxanide was only 31 % effective and in another case fenbendazole was only 47 % effective. The occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in this farming sector is of concern. Steps should be taken to prevent its further spread and to avoid the development of a situation as onnumerous commercial sheep farms in South Africa where resistance is very common.

  9. Characteristics and comprehensiveness of adult HIV care and treatment programmes in Asia-Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas: results of a site assessment conducted by the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephany N Duda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV care and treatment programmes worldwide are transforming as they push to deliver universal access to essential prevention, care and treatment services to persons living with HIV and their communities. The characteristics and capacity of these HIV programmes affect patient outcomes and quality of care. Despite the importance of ensuring optimal outcomes, few studies have addressed the capacity of HIV programmes to deliver comprehensive care. We sought to describe such capacity in HIV programmes in seven regions worldwide. Methods: Staff from 128 sites in 41 countries participating in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS completed a site survey from 2009 to 2010, including sites in the Asia-Pacific region (n=20, Latin America and the Caribbean (n=7, North America (n=7, Central Africa (n=12, East Africa (n=51, Southern Africa (n=16 and West Africa (n=15. We computed a measure of the comprehensiveness of care based on seven World Health Organization-recommended essential HIV services. Results: Most sites reported serving urban (61%; region range (rr: 33–100% and both adult and paediatric populations (77%; rr: 29–96%. Only 45% of HIV clinics that reported treating children had paediatricians on staff. As for the seven essential services, survey respondents reported that CD4+ cell count testing was available to all but one site, while tuberculosis (TB screening and community outreach services were available in 80 and 72%, respectively. The remaining four essential services – nutritional support (82%, combination antiretroviral therapy adherence support (88%, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT (94% and other prevention and clinical management services (97% – were uniformly available. Approximately half (46% of sites reported offering all seven services. Newer sites and sites in settings with low rankings on the UN Human Development Index (HDI, especially those in the President's Emergency

  10. Anthelmintic activity of medicinal plants extract against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, goat farming, either as a full-time or part-time activity, is in increasingly being recognized as an economically beneficial livestock enterprise in tropical and sub tropical countries. Despite this popularity of goat industry, several constraints have limited the full potential of this farming activity in these countries. Among the multitude of impediments, which limit the development of the goat industry, gastrointestinal nematode infection represents a major constraint in Sri Lanka like in other parts of the tropics. Recent studies in Sri Lanka have shown, gastrointestinal nematode infections decrease the productivity, particularly weight gain in meat goats in the dry zone. The work done in dry zone of Sri Lanka has indicated that an overwhelming majority (99%) of goats were affected by a moderate to high gastrointestinal nematode infection. Successful control gastrointestinal nematodiasis infection is important for the sustainable productivity of the goat industry. The control of gastrointestinal nematodiasis is usually performed using synthetic anthelmintics. The appearance of nematode resistance to these anthelmintics and several other factors highlight the need to developing alternatives. This stimulated the research of alternatives, such as medicinal plants to control gastrointestinal nematodiasis. According to circumstances and depending on their efficacy, naturally produced plant anthelmintics offer an alternative that can overcome some of these problems and is both sustainable and environmentally acceptable. Fifteen plant extracts were screened using an in vitro larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. Out of the fifteen crude extracts Azadiractha indica (neem) seed (NS), Areca catechu(areca-nut) unripe fruit kernel(AUFK), Adhatoda vasica (pavatta-adathoda) leaves (PL), caused a significant(P 0.05). ANUFK and PL extracts at the dose rates used was effective in controlling the GI nematodiasis in goats. ANUFK and PL could be used in control

  11. ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTHELMINTIC AND INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF A MACROLICHEN EVERNIASTRUM CIRRHATUM (FR. HALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi D

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae is a foliose lichen that grows luxuriantly in tropical Himalayas, central India and higher altitudes of southern India. In the present study, we investigated antimicrobial, anthelmintic and insecticidal activity of a foliose macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae. Powdered lichen material was extracted with methanol in soxhlet apparatus. The extract was tested for secondary metabolites by standard phytochemical tests and thin layer chromatography (TLC. Antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria was screened by agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by micro-dilution method. Antifungal activity was tested against Aspergillus niger and A. fumigatus by Agar well diffusion method. Anthelmintic activity, in terms of paralysis and death of worms, was determined using adult Indian earthworm model. Insecticidal activity was assessed in terms of larval mortality against 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Methanol extract of E. cirrhatum caused more inhibition of Streptococcus epidermidis than other bacteria whereas P. aeruginosa was least inhibited. The MIC was found to be least for S. epidermidis. The extract has shown more inhibition of Aspergillus niger than A. fumigatus. At concentration 5mg/ml and higher, the extract produced marked anthelmintic effect than the reference drug. The extract exhibited potent larvicidal effect. Among larvae, 2nd instar larvae were shown to be more susceptible than 3rd instar larvae. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. TLC revealed Atranorin, Salazinic acid and Protolichesterinic acid. The results of bioactivities of E. cirrhatum are promising. The activities of the extract may be attributed to the presence of various secondary metabolites. The lichen thus forms a potential candidate for drug discovery and development

  12. The use of fenbendazole in the treatment of commercial turkeys infected with Ascaridia dissimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazwinsri, T A; Rosenstein, M; Schwartz, R D; Wilson, K; Johnson, Z

    1993-03-01

    Birds on a commercial turkey Farm were treated with fenbendazole on two separate occasions. For each treatment, fenbendazole was administered in the feed for 3 days at 30 mg/kg. Mean Ascaridia dissimilis total counts in randomly selected birds were 14.4 and 33.0 prior to the first and second treatments, respectively, whilst post-treatment counts averaged only 0.1 and 0.3, respectively. Anthelmintic effectiveness as demonstrated by both treatments was >99.0%. No untoward effects were noted with either fenbendazole treatment. After fenbendazole withdrawal, routine treatments with piperazine dihydrochloride were commenced with no apparent anthelmintic effectiveness. Mean total nematode burdens rose to 153.9 with a high individual count of 451. The potential for severe ascaridiasis when effective anthelmintic intervention is precluded was demonstrated.

  13. Advanced systems for the rapid detection of anthelmintic drugs in food

    OpenAIRE

    Keegan, Jemma Louise

    2011-01-01

    Several surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor assays were developed and validated for the detection of anthelmintic veterinary drugs in liver tissue and milk using a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction procedure. The first screening assay was developed to detect 11 benzimidazole carbamates in milk and liver. In bovine milk the assay showed a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.7 μg kg-1 and a detection capability (CCβ) of 5 μg kg-1. Analyte recovery was in th...

  14. Comparative Anthelmintic Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Stem Extract of Tinospora Cordifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant Tiwari; Bimlesh Kumar; Manoj Kumar; Mandeep Kaur; Pardeep Sharma; Jiban Debnath

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at the in-vitro evaluation of anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of stem of Tinospora cordifolia using Eisenia foetida at four different concentrations (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml) respectively. The study involved the determination of time of paralysis (P) and time of death (D) of the worms. At the concentration of 100 mg/ml both the ethanolic and the aqueous extracts exhibited very significant activities as compared to the standard drug piperazine c...

  15. Comparison of two versions of larval development test to detect anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, Marián; Corba, Július; Letková, Valéria; Kovác, Gabriel

    2009-03-23

    Larval development (LDT) and micro-agar larval development tests (MALDT) were used to compare the reliability and sensitivity of two methods for detecting anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus. The tests were conducted using three resistant and four susceptible isolates of H. contortus. Both versions of the tests provided comparable results with regard to the characterization of benzimidazole and levamisole susceptibility but neither test was sufficiently sensitive to discrimination between an ivermectin (IVM) susceptible and an IVM resistant isolate. Each test has its own merits with the LDT having the advantage of being less time-consuming.

  16. Anthelmintic Effect of Biocompatible Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs on Gigantocotyle explanatum, a Neglected Parasite of Indian Water Buffalo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Akhtar Khan

    Full Text Available Helminth parasites of veterinary importance cause huge revenue losses to agrarian economy worldwide. With the emergence of drug resistance against the current formulations, there is a need to focus on the alternative approaches in order to control this menace. In the present study, biocompatible zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs were used to see their in vitro effect on the biliary amphistomes, Gigantocotyle explanatum, infecting Bubalus bubalis because these nanoparticles are involved in generation of free radicals that induce oxidative stress, resulting in disruption of cellular machinery. The ZnO NPs were synthesized by using egg albumin as a biotemplate and subsequently characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, X-ray Diffraction and Spectrophotometrical, which showed that ZnO NPs were highly purified wurtzite type polycrystals, with a mean size of 16.7 nm. When the parasites were treated with lower concentrations (0.004% and 0.008% of the ZnO NPs, the worms mounted a protective response by stimulating the antioxidant system but the treatment of G. explanatum with 0.012% ZnO NPs produced significant inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD (p< 0.05 and glutathione S- transferase (GST (p<0.01, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA, a lipid peroxidation marker, was significantly (p< 0.01 elevated. SEM and histopathology revealed pronounced tegumental damage showing the disruption of surface papillae and the annulations, particularly in the posterior region near acetabulum. The under expression of a number of polypeptides, loss of worm motility in a time dependent manner, further reflect strong anthelmintic potential of ZnO NPs. It can be concluded that the anthelmintic effect might be due to the production of reactive oxygen species that target a variety of macromolecules such as nucleic acid, protein and lipids which are involved in different cellular processes.

  17. Atividade anti-helmíntica de plantas nativas do continente americano: uma revisão Anthelmintic activity of native American plants: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz uma revisão de plantas nativas do continente americano com atividade anti-helmíntica com a finalidade de subsidiar pesquisas e o desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos na área de produtos naturais. Na literatura, foram citadas 22 famílias de plantas, tais como: Moraceae, Asteraceae e Cucurbitaceae, e estudadas cerca de 35 espécies, como a Ficus sp, Cucurbita máxima, e Ruta graveolens, usadas por sua alegada atividade anti-helmíntica. Destas espécies, 26 foram ativas contra alguns helmintos: Strongyloides stercolaris, Ancylostomidae, Trichostrongylus sp, Capillaria sp, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia saginata, Haemonchus contortus, e Hymenolepsis diminuta. Foi verificado maior número de estudos com parasitas de animais, possivelmente devido ao desenvolvimento de resistência dos helmintos aos tratamentos convencionais disponíveis.This paper is a review of native American plants showing anthelmintic activity in order to give support to research and development of new drugs in the field of natural products. In the literature, 22 plant families were cited, such as: Moraceae, Asteraceae and Cucurbitaceae, and around 35 species were studied, including Ficus sp, Cucurbita maxima and Ruta graveolens, used for their putative anthelmintic activity. From these species, 26 were active against some helminthes: Strongyloides stercolaris, Ancylostomidae, Trichostrongylus sp, Capillaria sp, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia saginata, Haemonchus contortus and Hymenolepsis diminuta. Data indicated a larger number of studies with animal parasites, probably due to the resistance of these helminthes to the conventional treatments available.

  18. Evaluation of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks as a feed supplement for cattle production and as a carrier for anthelmintic medication in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairy and beef production in Myanmar is expanding, due to increasing demands from a growing population but animal productivity, is often low due to inadequate nutritional resources. The benefits of feeding different formulations of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) to dairy and beef cattle were investigated before attempting to transfer this feed supplementation technology to farmers. Several studies indicated that supplementation with UMMB resulted in increased milk production, improved live-weight gain and intake of the available feeds, Supplementation with UMMB was cost effective with a cost : benefit ratio of more than 1 : 2. In addition, supplementation with UMMB resulted in a substantial reduction in the calving to first service interval, calving to conception interval and the number of services per conception. The time to first oestrus for dairy heifers was also reduced. UMMB will, therefore, have a substantial impact on dairy and beef cattle production once this technology is passed on to farmers. Infection with gastrointestinal nematode parasites is frequently a problem in cattle production in tropical areas where commercial anthelmintics are not often used due to their high cost and/or unavailability. Three local herbal remedies, leaves of Ananas comosus, Momordica charantia and Anona squamosa were assessed for their anthelmintic efficacy. All three plants reduced faecal worm egg counts of infected cattle after weekly bolus doses for at least two weeks. Comparison of bolus doses with A. comosus or M. charantia with albendazole showed similar levels of efficacy (94%) in reducing faecal worm egg counts. Assessment of these plants after inclusion in UMMB showed similar efficacy (>79%) to UMMB containing fenbendazole (89%) and suggests further work be conducted to confirm dose rates and benefits of treatment before introduction for on-farm application. (author)

  19. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo-Lopez Celia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT and negative (treated, T control groups (treatment with albendazole. On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05. At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers. However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and

  20. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Lopez, Celia; Manolaraki, Foteini; Saratsis, Anastasios; Saratsi, Katerina; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Skampardonis, Vasileios; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Hoste, Hervé; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua) against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa) and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT) and negative (treated, T) control groups (treatment with albendazole). On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05). At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV) values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values) and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers). However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and/or other

  1. Toxicity of anthelmintic drugs (fenbendazole and flubendazole) to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagil, Marta; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Puckowski, Alan; Wychodnik, Katarzyna; Maszkowska, Joanna; Mulkiewicz, Ewa; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Flubendazole (FLU) and fenbendazole (FEN) belong to benzimidazoles-pharmaceuticals widely used in veterinary and human medicine for the treatment of intestinal parasites as well as for the treatment of systemic worm infections. In recent years, usage of these drugs increased, which resulted in a larger contamination of the environment and possible negative effects on biota. Hence, in our research, we investigated an aquatic ecotoxicity of these pharmaceuticals towards: marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus), duckweed (Lemna minor) and crustacean (Daphnia magna). Ecotoxicity tests were combined with chemical analysis in order to investigate the actual exposure concentration of the compounds used in the experiment as well as to stability and adsorption studies. As a result, study evaluating sensitivity of different aquatic organisms to these compounds and new ecotoxicological data is presented. The strongest negative impact of FLU and FEN was observed to D. magna.

  2. Toxicity of anthelmintic drugs (fenbendazole and flubendazole) to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagil, Marta; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Puckowski, Alan; Wychodnik, Katarzyna; Maszkowska, Joanna; Mulkiewicz, Ewa; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Flubendazole (FLU) and fenbendazole (FEN) belong to benzimidazoles-pharmaceuticals widely used in veterinary and human medicine for the treatment of intestinal parasites as well as for the treatment of systemic worm infections. In recent years, usage of these drugs increased, which resulted in a larger contamination of the environment and possible negative effects on biota. Hence, in our research, we investigated an aquatic ecotoxicity of these pharmaceuticals towards: marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus), duckweed (Lemna minor) and crustacean (Daphnia magna). Ecotoxicity tests were combined with chemical analysis in order to investigate the actual exposure concentration of the compounds used in the experiment as well as to stability and adsorption studies. As a result, study evaluating sensitivity of different aquatic organisms to these compounds and new ecotoxicological data is presented. The strongest negative impact of FLU and FEN was observed to D. magna. PMID:25189803

  3. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  4. Enhanced bioavailability and anthelmintic efficacy of mebendazole in redispersible microparticles with low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose

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    Torre-Iglesias PM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Paloma Marina de la Torre-Iglesias,1,2 Juan José García-Rodriguez,3 Guillermo Torrado,4 Susana Torrado,1,2 Santiago Torrado-Santiago,1,5 Francisco Bolás-Fernández3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain; 2Institute of Industrial Pharmacy, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain; 3Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain; 4Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alcala University, Alcala de Henares (Madrid, Spain; 5Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD, Madrid, Spain Background: Mebendazole (MBZ is an extremely insoluble and therefore poorly absorbed drug and the variable clinical results may correlate with blood concentrations. The necessity of a prolonged high dose treatment of this drug increases the risk of adverse effects. Methods: In the present study we prepared redispersible microparticles (RDM containing MBZ, an oral, poorly water-soluble drug, in different proportions of low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC. We investigated the microparticulate structures that emerge spontaneously upon dispersion of an RDM in aqueous medium and elucidated their influence on dissolution, and also on their oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficiency using a murine model of infection with the nematode parasite Trichinella spiralis.Results: Elevated percentages of dissolved drug were obtained with RDM at 1:2.5 and 1:5 ratios of MBZ: L-HPC. Thermal analysis showed an amorphization of MBZ in the RDM by the absence of a clear MBZ melting peak in formulations. The rapid dissolution behavior could be due to the decreased drug crystallinity, the fast dissolution time of carriers as L-HPC, together with its superior dispersibility and excellent wetting properties. RDM-1:2.5 and RDM-1:5 resulted in increased maximum plasma concentration and area(s under the curve (AUC0

  5. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Andrew C.; Hunt, Peter W.; Skuce, Philip; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Martin, Richard J.; Sager, Heinz; Krücken, Jürgen; Hodgkinson, Jane; Lespine, Anne; Jex, Aaron R.; Gilleard, John S.; Beech, Robin N.; Wolstenholme, Adrian J.; Demeler, Janina; Robertson, Alan P.; Charvet, Claude L.; Neveu, Cedric; Kaminsky, Ronald; Rufener, Lucien; Alberich, Melanie; Menez, Cecile; Prichard, Roger K.

    2014-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS) provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance. PMID:25516826

  6. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Kotze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance.

  7. Anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of extracts of Markhamia obtusifolia Sprague (Bignoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchu, F; Githiori, J B; McGaw, L J; Eloff, J N

    2011-12-29

    The anthelmintic activity of Markhamia obtusifolia Sprague (Bignoniaceae) leaf extracts was evaluated against the ruminant gastrointestinal nematode parasite Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Nematoda: Strongylida) using the in vitro egg hatch test. Also, the cytotoxic activity of aqueous extracts of M. obtusifolia was evaluated in cell line cytotoxicity assays. The results indicated that the effective concentration (EC(50)) for the water extract of M. obtusifolia leaves (0.46 mg/mL; Confidence Interval [CI] 0.3-0.5mg/mL) was significantly lower than the EC(50) for the acetone extract of M. obtusifolia (0.8 mg/mL; CI 0.7-1mg/mL). Aqueous extracts were twice as potent as the acetone extracts. The EC(90) (0.2mg/mL; CI 0.1-0.02) for thiabendazole (positive control) was significantly lower than the EC(90) for the water extract of M. obtusifolia (10.7 mg/mL; CI 8.3-13.7 mg/mL). In the cytotoxicity bioassay, the lethal concentration (LC(50)) for the aqueous extract of M. obtusifolia was 0.476 mg/mL, which was relatively high (low toxicity) in comparison to the highly toxic berberine (LC(50)=9.80 μg/mL). The current study showed that M. obtusifolia plant extracts possess anthelmintic activity and are relatively non-cytotoxic, thus providing support for their use in traditional veterinary practices.

  8. Overview of anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Jordana Andrioli; Santos, Clóvis de Paula

    2016-01-01

    Frequent and inappropriate use of all classes of antiparasitic drugs in small ruminants has led to failures in their effectiveness, culminating in a global problem of anthelmintic resistance. Brazil stands out as one of the world's leaders in publications about anthelmintic resistance, and for having the most numerous reports of this resistance in small ruminants in the Americas. These studies have involved mainly the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and its correlation with field management practices. In vivoeffectiveness testing is conducted in areas where livestock is of greater economic significance, e.g., in the South (sheep) and Northeast (goats), or is important for research and economic centers, such as the Southeast (sheep). The most widely studied species is sheep, for which the widest range of drugs is also evaluated. Despite significant advances achieved in molecular research, laboratory analyses should include knowledge about the reality in the field so that they can become feasible for the producer. Moreover, molecular studies can be underpinned by the analysis of field studies, such as the maintenance of antiparasitic effectiveness over time and the mechanisms involved in this process. PMID:26982560

  9. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

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    Rong-Jyh Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae, commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant, liriodenine (1, lysicamine (2, (--anonaine (3, (--asimilobine (4, (--caaverine (5, (--N-methylasimilobine (6, (--nuciferine (7, (--nornuciferine (8, (--roemerine (9, 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10 and cepharadione B (11 were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis. However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana.

  10. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintoan-Uta, C; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P J; Coles, G C

    2014-04-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml(-1) ± 0.13 µg ml(-1)) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms.

  11. The relative anthelmintic efficacy of plant-derived cysteine proteinases on intestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoga, W; Mansur, F; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Garnett, M C; Lowe, A; Behnke, J M

    2015-03-01

    We examined the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of plant cysteine proteinases (CPs) derived from pineapple (Ananas comosus) and kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa), and compared their efficacy as anthelmintics to the known effects of CPs from the latex of papaya (Carica papaya) against the rodent intestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides bakeri. Both fruit bromelain and stem bromelain had significant in vitro detrimental effects on H. bakeri but in comparison, actinidain from kiwi fruit had very little effect. However, in vivo trials indicated far less efficacy of stem bromelain and fruit bromelain than that expected from the in vitro experiments (24.5% and 22.4% reduction in worm burdens, respectively) against H. bakeri. Scanning electron microscopy revealed signs of cuticular damage on worms incubated in fruit bromelain, stem bromelain and actinidain, but this was far less extensive than on those incubated in papaya latex supernatant. We conclude that, on the basis of presently available data, CPs derived from pineapples and kiwi fruits are not suitable for development as novel anthelmintics for intestinal nematode infections. PMID:24176056

  12. Anthelmintic efficiency of doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, in combination or individually, in sheep worm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsback, Luciane; Luppi, Pedro Alex Ramsey; Silva, Camile Sanches; Negrão, Gustavo Kremer; Conde, Gabriel; Gabriel, Hugo Vinícius; Balestrieri, João Vitor; Tomazella, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    The anthelmintic efficiency of doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, used individually or in combination, was determined by the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) test and cultivation of larvae of anthelminthic-treated sheep grouped as follows: G1 (doramectin), G2 (fenbendazole), G3 (nitroxynil), G4 (doramectin + fenbendazole), G5 (doramectin + nitroxynil), G6 (fenbendazole + nitroxynil), G7 (doramectin + nitroxynil + fenbendazole), G8 (untreated). In addition to individually used doramectin and fenbendazole, the helminths were also resistant to the combination of doramectin + fenbendazole; nitroxynil + fenbendazole; and doramectin + nitroxynil + fenbendazole, with their FECR rates ranging from 62-83%. The helminths showed possible nitroxynil-resistance, but had low resistance when the drug was administered in combination with doramectin. The evaluation of individual helminth species revealed that fenbendazole was fully effective against Cooperia; doramectin (G1), moderately effective against Haemonchus and insufficiently active against Cooperia; nitroxynil, effective against Haemonchus and insufficiently active against Cooperia. It was concluded from the results that herd nematodes are resistant to doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, and that the combined use of the drugs not only fails to significantly improve the anthelmintic efficiency against Haemonchus and Cooperia, but is also cost-ineffective.

  13. Anthelmintic efficiency of doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, in combination or individually, in sheep worm control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Holsback

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anthelmintic efficiency of doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, used individually or in combination, was determined by the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR test and cultivation of larvae of anthelminthic-treated sheep grouped as follows: G1 (doramectin, G2 (fenbendazole, G3 (nitroxynil, G4 (doramectin + fenbendazole, G5 (doramectin + nitroxynil, G6 (fenbendazole + nitroxynil, G7 (doramectin + nitroxynil + fenbendazole, G8 (untreated. In addition to individually used doramectin and fenbendazole, the helminths were also resistant to the combination of doramectin + fenbendazole; nitroxynil + fenbendazole; and doramectin + nitroxynil + fenbendazole, with their FECR rates ranging from 62-83%. The helminths showed possible nitroxynil-resistance, but had low resistance when the drug was administered in combination with doramectin. The evaluation of individual helminth species revealed that fenbendazole was fully effective against Cooperia; doramectin (G1, moderately effective against Haemonchus and insufficiently active againstCooperia; nitroxynil, effective againstHaemonchus and insufficiently active againstCooperia. It was concluded from the results that herd nematodes are resistant to doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, and that the combined use of the drugs not only fails to significantly improve the anthelmintic efficiency against Haemonchus andCooperia, but is also cost-ineffective.

  14. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF PINEAPPLE FRUIT EXTRACT USING INDIAN EARTHWORM (PHERITIMA POSTHUMA

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    Dey P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple is a favorite for the lovers of fruit in its fresh forms as well as in preserves like jams, jellies and squashes. Two varieties of Pineapples (Queen and Kew are available in Tripura during mid-May to mid-September. The plant is well known for its different folk medicines like the root and fruit are either eaten or applied topically as an anti-inflammatory, digestive and anthelmintic. It was observed that the people of Tripura especially the Tribes are use the juice of matured root or fruit in worm. Research shows that, mainly bromelain is responsible for all its therapeutic activity.The agriculture of Tripura, each year, gets a special boost from pineapple production between the middle of May and middle of September, both inclusive. Pineapple’s leaves are used as the source of a textile fiber and are employed as a component of wall paper and furnishings, amongst other uses. This allows the crop to contribute a significant proportion in the economy of the state.The present study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of fruit extract (Aqueous of Pineapple using Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma.All the extracts were found not only to paralysis (vermifuge but also to kill the earthworms (vermicidal. But the concentration of 40mg/ml fruit extract showed the maximum effect in respect of 20 and 10 mg/ml.

  15. Comparative Anthelmintic Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Stem Extract of Tinospora Cordifolia

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    Prashant Tiwari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at the in-vitro evaluation of anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of stem of Tinospora cordifolia using Eisenia foetida at four different concentrations (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml respectively. The study involved the determination of time of paralysis (P and time of death (D of the worms. At the concentration of 100 mg/ml both the ethanolic and the aqueous extracts exhibited very significant activities as compared to the standard drug piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml. The time of paralysis and death was recorded as 9 ± 0.57 and 15.83 ± 0.60 in case of aqueous extract, on the other hand it was recorded as 4.16 ± 0.30 and 10.83 ± 0.60 in case of ethanolic extracts. In conclusion, the use of stem of Tinospora cordifolia as an anthelmintic have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity

  16. Comparative Anthelmintic Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Leaf Extracts Of Clitoria Ternatea

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    Manoj Salhan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at the in-vitro comparative study of anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves of Clitoria ternatea using Eisenia foetida at three different concentrations (100, 50, 25 mg/ml respectively. The study involved the determination of time of paralysis (P and time of death (D of the worms. At the concentration of 100 mg/ml both the ethanolic and the aqueous extracts showed very significant activities as compared to the standard drug levamisole (0.55 mg/ml. In case of aqueous extract the time of paralysis and death time was observed as 18 ± 1.57 and 53.33 ± 0.33 and in case of ethanolic extracts 12.33 ± 0.80 and 32.33 ± 0.71 respectively. In conclusion, the use of leaves of Clitoria ternatea as an anthelmintic have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity

  17. Pro and cons of targeted selective treatment against digestive-tract strongyles of ruminants

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    Cabaret J.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of resistance to anthelmintics among gastrointestinal nematodes and the desire for lower input agriculture have promoted the idea that targeted selective treatment (treating the animals in need of such a treatment and only them could be a sustainable solution for controlling internal parasites of ruminants. The pros are the slowing of resistance prevalence, lower residues of anthelmintics in meat and milk, and lower cost; the cons are the difficulty and time spent on selecting animals in need of treatment and the possibility of lower production. Using actual experiments and modelling we show that targeted selective treatment can be used to sustainably control gastrointestinal nematode infections in flock.

  18. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Document Server

    CERN audiovisual service

    2009-01-01

    The SET-Routes programme, launched in 2007 with the goal of attracting girls and young women to careers in science, came to an end in April this year. The result of a collaboration between EMBL, EMBO and CERN, the programme established a network of "ambassadors", women scientists who went out to talk about their careers in science at schools and universities across Europe.

  19. Monoaminergic signaling as a target for anthelmintic drug discovery: receptor conservation among the free-living and parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komuniecki, Richard; Law, Wen Jing; Jex, Aaron; Geldhof, Peter; Gray, John; Bamber, Bruce; Gasser, Robin B

    2012-05-01

    This review is designed to summarize the information on monoamine-dependent paralysis as a target for anthelmintic development, examine the conservation of monoamine receptors in the genomes of both free-living and parasitic nematodes, and highlight the utility of the Caenorhabditis elegans model system for dissecting the monoaminergic modulation of locomotory decision-making. PMID:22343182

  20. Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to screen plant extracts and compounds as natural anthelmintics for veterinary use

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most challenging obstacles to testing plant products for their anthelmintic activity are: 1) establishing a suitable nematode in vitro assay from which results can be indicative of potential use against a parasitic nematode of interest, and 2) preparing the extracts in a way that, once lyophiliz...

  1. Characterization of phytoconstituents and evaluation of total phenolic content, anthelmintic, and antimicrobial activities of Solanum violaceum Ortega. (Family:Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Sarwar Raju

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Since S. violaceum have shown antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anthelmintic activities, more studies such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and other pharmacological activities should be carried out to justify its traditional use, as the plant is available and used broadly in the rural areas for folkloric remedies. 

  2. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KfK participates to the Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community. Most of the work in progress addresses the Next European Torus (NET) and the long term technology aspects as defined in the 82/86 programme. A minor part serves to preparation of future contributions and to design studies on fusion concepts in a wider perspective. The Fusion Technology Programme of Euratom covers mainly aspects of nuclear engineering. Plasma engineering, heating, refueling and vacuum technology are at present part of the Physics Programme. In view of NET, integration of the different areas of work will be mandatory. KfK is therefore prepared to address technical aspects beyond the actual scope of the physics experiments. The technology tasks are reported project wise under title and code of the Euratom programme. Most of the projects described here are shared with other European fusion laboratories as indicated in the table annexed to this report. (orig./GG)

  3. In vitro anthelmintic activity of the Zizyphus joazeiro bark against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its cytotoxicity on Vero cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Danilo Cavalcanti; de Lima, Hélimar Gonçalves; Vaz, Ariádne Vieira; Santos, Nathália Silva; Santos, Francianne Oliveira; Dias, Êuder Reis; Botura, Mariana Borges; Branco, Alexsandro; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

    2016-08-15

    This study examined the in vitro effect of the Zizyphus joazeiro bark against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and its cytotoxicity on Vero cells. The ovicidal activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CE), its partitioned hexane (HE) and aqueous extract (AE) and saponins fraction (SF), including betulinic acid (BA), a biogenetic compound from this plant found in HE, were investigated using the inhibition of egg hatch assay (EHA). Thereafter, the extracts and the SF were evaluated through the larval motility assay (LMA) and larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The AE and SF promoted a complete inhibition of the egg hatch, and the effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC50) values was 1.9 and 1.3mg/mL, respectively. The highest percentages of inhibition in EHA observed after treatments with CE, HE and BA corresponded to 79, 48 and 17%, respectively. The extracts and SF did not show larvicidal activity in LMA and LMIA. The AE and SF demonstrated cytotoxic effects in 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl, 2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue tests; however, SF was more toxic (50% inhibitory concentration, IC50=0.20mg/mL). The chemical characterization of the SF was made through Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses, which led to the identification of two saponins known as Joazeiroside B and Lotoside A. The results obtained from the research of this saponin content provide important information about the biological activity, especially the anthelmintic effect present in the plant investigated. That also suggests the types of bioactive compounds that may be responsible for this antiparasitic activity exhibited by the plant extracts. PMID:27514875

  4. Correlation of polyphenolic content with radical-scavenging capacity and anthelmintic effects of Rubus ulmifolius (Rosaceae) against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkari, Hafidh; Hajaji, Soumaya; B'chir, Fatma; Rekik, Mourad; Gharbi, Mohamed

    2016-05-15

    Phenolic content, antioxidant and anthelmintic activities of herbal extracts are of particular interest to drug industry; plant extracts with significant anthelmintic activity have the potential to be used as alternatives to conventional chemical drugs. In the present study, Rubus ulmifolius fruit extracts obtained using solvents of increasing polarity (water, methanol, chloroform and hexane) were examined for their antioxidant and anthelmintic activities in correlation with their polyphenolic content. In vitro antioxidant activity of all extracts was carried out using free radical-scavenging activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethilenebenzotiazolin)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation. In vitro anthelmintic activities were investigated on the egg and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus from sheep in comparison to albendazole. Total polyphenol content of R. ulmifolius was higher in more polar extract, ranging from 64.5 in aqueous extract to 1.57mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight (GAE/g DW) in hexanic extract. Likewise, highest amounts of flavonoids and condensed tannins were found in aqueous extract (28.06mg QE/g and 7.42mg CE/g DW, respectively) compared to hexanic extract (0.71mg QE/g and 0.29mg CE/g DW, respectively) (ptannins content with scavenging of either DPPH (r=0.722, 0.764 and 0.752, p<0.01, respectively) or ABTS radicals (r=0.893, 0.765 and 0.722, p<0.01, respectively) and with inhibition of egg hatching (r=0.874, 0.883 and 0.862, p<0.01, respectively). Highest inhibition of motility (100%) of worms was observed 8h post-exposure in aqueous and methanolic extract at 8mg/mL. To our knowledge, these results depict for the first time that R. ulmifolius possesses in vitro anthelmintic properties. PMID:27084470

  5. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and in vitro anthelmintic activities ofMaesa lanceolata solvent extracts againstLymnatis nilotica (aquatic leech)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wondu Dagnaw; Alemayehu Mekonnen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate phytochemicals constituents and check the anthelmintic activities of Maesa lanceolata (M. lanceolata) solvent extracts against aquatic leech. Methods: Several phytochemicals were tested and screened from petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts ofM. lanceolata extracts and their anthelmintic activities were done based on the standard procedure against aquatic leech. Piperazine citrate (20 mg/mL) was used as a reference standard while distilled water was used as a control. Results:Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts ofM. lanceolata revealed the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids in chloroform extracts and alkaloids in methanol extracts. In addition to the qualitative analysis of the plant extracts, the anthelmintic effects were also evaluated against aquatic leech (Lymnatis nilotica). Accordingly, various concentrations (10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/mL) of each solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts and 20 mg/mL of standard drug were prepared and tested against the selected leech. All the tested concentrations showed anthelmintic activities in a dose-dependent manner. From petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts, chloroform extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration was effective with the paralytic time of (29.00 ± 1.06) min and death time of (65.00 ± 2.00) min in gradient extraction method. But in the case of extraction without gradient method, methanol extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration showed effective paralysis and death time (26.00 ± 1.73) and (56.00 ± 1.56) min, respectively, against the selected aquatic leech. Conclusions:The present study revealed thatM. lanceolata extracts have magic anthelmintic activities which are helpful to treat aquatic leeches (Lymnatis nilotica) which are associated with the nasal cavities of animals and human beings.

  6. REHABILITATION PRACTICAL PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana KRANJC JOLDIKJ

    Full Text Available Centre for Education and Rehabilitation of Physi­cally Handicapped Children and Adolescents Kamnik (Zavod za usposabljanje invalidne mlad­ine Kamnik; hereinafter: ZUIM perform verified or state-ap­proved programme the Rehabilitation practical pro­gramme. The programme is intended for all those young people, who have completed primary school education, but cannot continue regular schooling in secondary school pro­grammes. The programme con­sists of several equivalent parts: education, practical work, train­ing work, health, therapeutic, psychologi­cal, and other activities. For every beginner in the first month of education members of the operative team create an individualized programme, which in­cludes individualized school work, individualized training programme, and other expert activities. The programme can last for 6 years maximum, it can however be completed earlier, when the op­erative team feels the training is no longer neces­sary. Pro­gress of a young person is what matters the most, and if there is no progress, the training is brought to an end. Training of young people in the Rehabilitation practical programme is only the be­ginning. The country will have to start considering social enter­prises, which are found elsewhere in the world, for example in Scandinavian countries and in the USA.

  7. Association between health systems performance and treatment outcomes in patients co-infected with MDR-TB and HIV in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: implications for TB programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Loveday

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To improve the treatment of MDR-TB and HIV co-infected patients, we investigated the relationship between health system performance and patient treatment outcomes at 4 decentralised MDR-TB sites. METHODS: In this mixed methods case study which included prospective comparative data, we measured health system performance using a framework of domains comprising key health service components. Using Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficients we quantified the direction and magnitude of the association between health system performance and MDR-TB treatment outcomes. Qualitative data from participant observation and interviews analysed using systematic text condensation (STC complemented our quantitative findings. FINDINGS: We found significant differences in treatment outcomes across the sites with successful outcomes varying from 72% at Site 1 to 52% at Site 4 (p<0.01. Health systems performance scores also varied considerably across the sites. Our findings suggest there is a correlation between treatment outcomes and overall health system performance which is significant (r = 0.99, p<0.01, with Site 1 having the highest number of successful treatment outcomes and the highest health system performance. Although the 'integration' domain, which measured integration of MDR-TB services into existing services appeared to have the strongest association with successful treatment outcomes (r = 0.99, p<0.01, qualitative data indicated that the 'context' domain influenced the other domains. CONCLUSION: We suggest that there is an association between treatment outcomes and health system performance. The chance of treatment success is greater if decentralised MDR-TB services are integrated into existing services. To optimise successful treatment outcomes, regular monitoring and support are needed at a district, facility and individual level to ensure the local context is supportive of new programmes and implementation is according to guidelines.

  8. The European Fusion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Fusion Programme is coordinated by Euratom and represents a long term cooperative project of Member States of the European Communities in the field of fusion, designed to lead to the joint construction of prototypes. The main lines of the programme proposed for 1982 to 1986 are: (1) the continuation of a strong effort on tokamaks with emphasis on JET construction, operation and upgrading, (2) conceptual design of NET and development of the related technology, and (3) further work on two alternative magnetic confinement systems. The current status and future plans for this programme are discussed in the paper. (author)

  9. Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to the most commonly used anthelmintics in sheep, cattle and horses in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valladares, M; Geurden, T; Bartram, D J; Martínez-Pérez, J M; Robles-Pérez, D; Bohórquez, A; Florez, E; Meana, A; Rojo-Vázquez, F A

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the status of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in ruminants and horses in Spain. The efficacy of commonly used macrocyclic lactones (MLs) - ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) - was measured in sheep, cattle and horses. In addition, albendazole (ABZ) and levamisole (LEV) were evaluated in sheep and oxibendazole (OXI) and pyrantel (PYR) in horses. Efficacy was evaluated based on the difference between the arithmetic mean pre- and post-treatment faecal egg count (in cattle and horses), or compared to an untreated control group (in sheep). AR was present when the percentage reduction in egg count was <95% and the lower 95% confidence interval (CI) was <90%; if only one of these two criteria was met, the finding was recorded as suspected AR (SAR). In horses, AR-PYR and OXI was considered when the percentage reduction in egg count was ≤ 90% and the lower 95% CI was ≤ 80%. For each animal species, at least 10 study sites were selected. AR to at least one of the drugs was detected in all 10 sheep flocks; the main parasite identified after treatment was Teladorsagia circumcincta. Moreover, in 5 flocks multidrug resistance was identified, on 4 farms to drugs from different families, on one farm to both MOX and IVM and on another farm to all drugs tested. In cattle, the efficacy of both MOX and IVM was 100% on 4 and 3 farms, respectively, and therefore 60% of these farms were considered to have AR or SAR to both MLs. The most frequent parasite identified after treatment was Trichostrongylus spp., although Ostertagia ostertagi was also identified after treatment on one farm. In contrast to ruminants, the 4 drugs evaluated in horses were highly efficacious against strongyles, with efficacies for the MLs and OXI between 95 and 100% and between 94 and 100% for PYR, although 3 herds were SAR against PYR. In conclusion, AR to at least one of the commonly used drugs was identified on all sheep flocks investigated in the northwest of

  10. Which is the best phenotypic trait for use in a targeted selective treatment strategy for growing lambs in temperate climates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenson, Yan C S M; Kahn, Lewis P; Bishop, Stephen C; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-08-15

    Targeted selective treatment (TST) requires the ability to identify the animals for which anthelmintic treatment will result in the greatest benefit to the entire flock. Various phenotypic traits have previously been suggested as determinant criteria for TST; however, the weight gain benefit and impact on anthelmintic efficacy for each determinant criterion is expected to be dependent upon the level of nematode challenge and the timing of anthelmintic treatment. A mathematical model was used to simulate a population of 10,000 parasitologically naïve Scottish Blackface lambs (with heritable variation in host-parasite interactions) grazing on medium-quality pasture (grazing density=30 lambs/ha, crude protein=140g/kg DM, metabolisable energy=10MJ/kg DM) with an initial larval contamination of 1000, 3000 or 5000 Teladorsagia circumcincta L3/kg DM. Anthelmintic drenches were administered to 0, 50 or 100% of the population on a single occasion. The day of anthelmintic treatment was independently modelled for every day within the 121day simulation. Where TST scenarios were simulated (50% treated), lambs were either chosen by random selection or according to highest faecal egg count (FEC, eggs/g DM faeces), lowest live weight (LW, kg) or lowest growth rate (kg/day). Average lamb empty body weight (kg) and the resistance (R) allele frequency amongst the parasite population on pasture were recorded at slaughter (day 121) for each scenario. Average weight gain benefit and increase in R allele frequency for each determinant criterion, level of initial larval contamination and day of anthelmintic treatment were calculated by comparison to a non-treated population. Determinant criteria were evaluated according to average weight gain benefit divided by increase in R allele frequency to determine the benefit per R. Whilst positive phenotypic correlations were predicted between worm burden and FEC; using LW as the determinant criterion provided the greatest benefit per R for all

  11. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; dos Santos, Estela; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed. PMID:27223652

  12. High-levels of acquired drug resistance in adult patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapy in a rural HIV treatment programme in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justen Manasa

    Full Text Available To determine the frequency and patterns of acquired antiretroviral drug resistance in a rural primary health care programme in South Africa.Cross-sectional study nested within HIV treatment programme.Adult (≥ 18 years HIV-infected individuals initially treated with a first-line stavudine- or zidovudine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART regimen and with evidence of virological failure (one viral load >1000 copies/ml were enrolled from 17 rural primary health care clinics. Genotypic resistance testing was performed using the in-house SATuRN/Life Technologies system. Sequences were analysed and genotypic susceptibility scores (GSS for standard second-line regimens were calculated using the Stanford HIVDB 6.0.5 algorithms.A total of 222 adults were successfully genotyped for HIV drug resistance between December 2010 and March 2012. The most common regimens at time of genotype were stavudine, lamivudine and efavirenz (51%; and stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (24%. Median duration of ART was 42 months (interquartile range (IQR 32-53 and median duration of antiretroviral failure was 27 months (IQR 17-40. One hundred and ninety one (86% had at least one drug resistance mutation. For 34 individuals (15%, the GSS for the standard second-line regimen was <2, suggesting a significantly compromised regimen. In univariate analysis, individuals with a prior nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI substitution were more likely to have a GSS <2 than those on the same NRTIs throughout (odds ratio (OR 5.70, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.60-12.49.There are high levels of drug resistance in adults with failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy in this rural primary health care programme. Standard second-line regimens could potentially have had reduced efficacy in about one in seven adults involved.

  13. In vitro analysis of the anthelmintic activity of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) sesquiterpene lactones against a predominatly Haemonchus contortus egg population

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) herbage has been attributed to sesquiterpene lactones. Chicory leaves contain significant amounts of lactucin (LAC), 8-deoxylactucin (DOL), and lactucopicrin (LPIC), but the proportions of these three sesquiterpene lactones vary among fora...

  14. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  15. Greek Teachers Programme 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this year's Greek Teachers Programme was co-organized by CERN Education Group and the Hellenic Physical Society and took place from 8 to 12 November 2015. The programme targets physics high-school teachers from all over Greece. It aims to help teachers inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers by motivating their students to understand and appreciate how science works at the world's largest physics laboratory, whereby increasing their interest in pursuing studies in STEM fields in secondary and post-secondary education. 33 teachers took part in this programme which comprised lectures by Greek members of the CERN scientific community, with visits to experimental facilities, hands-on activities and dedicated sessions on effective and creative ways through which participants may bring physics, particle physics and CERN closer to their school classroom. In 2015, more than 100 teachers took part in the three editions of the Greek Teachers Programme.

  16. Network virtualization and programmability

    OpenAIRE

    Colle, Didier; Jooris, Bart; Gurzi, Pasquale; Pickavet, Mario; Demeester, Piet

    2010-01-01

    We present network virtualization (building virtual or logical networks over a physical infrastructure) and network programmability (allowing the network operator to at least control the network but more fundamentally to define its behavior) concepts.

  17. Fellows, Associates & Students Programmes

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The present document reviews the CERN Fellows, Associates and Students Programmes emphasizing the developments since 2000, when the previous review was presented to the Scientific Policy Committee, Finance Committee and Council (CERN/2325), and makes proposals for the coming five years. In summary, it is proposed to â?¢ Simplify the payment scheme for the Paid Scientific Associates Programme, which will no longer depend on candidateâ??s home support and age; â?¢ Broaden the scope of the Fellowship Programme, in order to facilitate the recruitment of young graduates in computing and engineering. Age-related eligibility conditions and payment levels will be replaced with experience-based criteria; â?¢ Modify subsistence rates for the Doctoral and Technical Student Programme in order to harmonize CERNâ??s payment levels with those offered by other research establishments. This document is presented for discussion and recommendation by the Scientific Policy Committee and approval by the Council. Additiona...

  18. Elukestva õppe programm : Erasmus+

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Erasmus+ programm liidab senised koostööprogrammid „Euroopa elukestva õppe programm“, „Euroopa Noored“ ning Euroopa komisjoni rahvusvahelised kõrgharidusprogrammid. Elukestva õppe programmi 2013 kokkuvõte

  19. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    George Korir; Manu Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external component...

  20. Stay Safe Programme

    OpenAIRE

    MacIntyre, Deirdre; Carr, Alan.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. This child abuse prevention study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Stay Safe Programme in training unscreened 7 and 10 year old children in personal safety skills. Subsidiary aims were to evaluate the programme's impact on children's self-esteem and parents' and teachers' knowledge and attitudes of relevance to child abuse and protection. Method. Changes in safety knowledge and skills and self-esteem of 339 children who participated in the Stay Safe Program...

  1. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin;

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  2. In vitro evaluation of anthelmintic activity of various tannin structures against Cooperia oncophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Enemark, Heidi L.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2013-01-01

    The use of tannin-rich plants against gastro-intestinal nematodes is an alternative currently investigated to avoid the exclusive use of anthelmintic (AH) synthetic drugs and prevent the spread of resistance among these nematode populations. Studies of AH effects on cattle nematodes using tannin......-rich legumes such as Onobrychis viciifolia have been carried out in vitro but the contribution of all structural parameters from their condensed tannins has not been yet completely elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between structure and AH activity in vitro. A series of...... activity using the Larval Feeding Inhibition Assay (LFIA) and the Larval Exsheathment Inhibition Assay on Cooperia oncophora. Preliminaries results with the LFIA showed that high AH activity was due to tannins with increasing prodelphinidin/procyanidin and cis/trans ratios. The variation in mDP between...

  3. Anthelmintic efficacy of gold nanoparticles derived from a phytopathogenic fungus, Nigrospora oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip Kumar Kar

    Full Text Available Exploring a green chemistry approach, this study brings to the fore, the anthelmintic efficacy of gold nanoparticles, highlighting the plausible usage of myconanotechnology. Gold nanoparticles of ∼6 to ∼18 nm diameter were synthesized by treating the mycelia-free culture filtrate of the phytopathogenic fungus with gold chloride. Their size and morphology were confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, DLS data, AFM and TEM images. The XRD studies reveal a crystalline nature of the nanoparticles, which are in cubic phase. The FTIR spectroscopic studies before and after the formation of nanoparticles show the presence of possible functional groups responsible for the bio-reduction and capping of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The latter were tested as vermifugal agents against a model cestode Raillietina sp., an intestinal parasite of domestic fowl. Further, ultrastructural and biochemical parameters were used to corroborate the efficacy study.

  4. Multi-class determination of anthelmintics in soil and water by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Marivil D; Haberhauer, Georg; Kist, Alla; Rathor, M Nasir; Gerzabek, Martin; Cannavan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The translocation of antiparasitic drugs from animal excrement through soil and water to crops and forages and their recycling to food-producing animals is a potential concern with respect to the contamination of the food chain. To facilitate the investigation of this problem, an LC-MS/MS method for selected anthelmintics in soil and water was developed. The soil sample preparation involved a simple solvent extraction and dispersive clean-up technique. The method was validated at 10, 20 and 40 µg kg(-1) for levamisole, fenbendazole, fenbendazole sulphoxide and fenbendazole sulphone and at 20, 40 and 80 µg kg(-1) for eprinomectin. LOQs were 10 µg kg(-1) for the first four compounds and 20 µg kg(-1) for eprinomectin. The overall mean recoveries ranged from 76.1% to 89% for loamy soils and from 79.9% to 96.9% for sandy soils. Analysis of water samples was performed by extraction/concentration on an Oasis-HLB (Aschaffenburg, Germany) cartridge. Validation was performed at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 µg l(-1). The LOQ for all compounds was 0.25 µg l(-1). Method recovery (and RSD) varied between 35.4% (28) for eprinomectin and 125.1% (16) for fenbendazole sulphone. The validated methods were applied to soil and water samples in a study on the behaviour of anthelmintic drugs in a soil-plant-water system (manuscript on "transport investigation of antiparasitic drugs based on a lysimeter experiment" in preparation).

  5. Protection and Delivery of Anthelmintic Protein Cry5B to Nematodes Using Mesoporous Silicon Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chen; Hu, Yan; Miller, Melanie; Aroian, Raffi V; Sailor, Michael J

    2015-06-23

    The ability of nano- and microparticles of partially oxidized mesoporous silicon (pSi) to sequester, protect, and deliver the anthelmintic pore-forming protein Cry5B to nematodes is assessed in vitro and in vivo. Thermally oxidized pSi particles are stable under gastric conditions and show relatively low toxicity to nematodes. Fluorescence images of rhodamine-labeled pSi particles within the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Ancylostoma ceylanicum show that ingestion is dependent on particle size: particles of a 0.4 ± 0.2 μm size are noticeably ingested by both species within 2 h of introduction in vitro, whereas 5 ± 2 μm particles are excluded from C. elegans but enter the pharynx region of A. ceylanicum after 24 h. The anthelmintic protein Cry5B, a pore-forming crystal (Cry) protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis, is incorporated into the pSi particles by aqueous infiltration. Feeding of Cry5B-loaded pSi particles to C. elegans leads to significant intoxication of the nematode. Protein-loaded particles of size 0.4 μm display the highest level of in vitro toxicity toward C. elegans on a drug-mass basis. The porous nanostructure protects Cry5B from hydrolytic and enzymatic (pepsin) degradation in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) for time periods up to 2 h. In vivo experiments with hookworm-infected hamsters show no significant reduction in worm burden with the Cry5B-loaded particles, which is attributed to slow release of the protein from the particles and/or short residence time of the particles in the duodenum of the animal.

  6. Multi-class determination of anthelmintics in soil and water by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Marivil D; Haberhauer, Georg; Kist, Alla; Rathor, M Nasir; Gerzabek, Martin; Cannavan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The translocation of antiparasitic drugs from animal excrement through soil and water to crops and forages and their recycling to food-producing animals is a potential concern with respect to the contamination of the food chain. To facilitate the investigation of this problem, an LC-MS/MS method for selected anthelmintics in soil and water was developed. The soil sample preparation involved a simple solvent extraction and dispersive clean-up technique. The method was validated at 10, 20 and 40 µg kg(-1) for levamisole, fenbendazole, fenbendazole sulphoxide and fenbendazole sulphone and at 20, 40 and 80 µg kg(-1) for eprinomectin. LOQs were 10 µg kg(-1) for the first four compounds and 20 µg kg(-1) for eprinomectin. The overall mean recoveries ranged from 76.1% to 89% for loamy soils and from 79.9% to 96.9% for sandy soils. Analysis of water samples was performed by extraction/concentration on an Oasis-HLB (Aschaffenburg, Germany) cartridge. Validation was performed at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 µg l(-1). The LOQ for all compounds was 0.25 µg l(-1). Method recovery (and RSD) varied between 35.4% (28) for eprinomectin and 125.1% (16) for fenbendazole sulphone. The validated methods were applied to soil and water samples in a study on the behaviour of anthelmintic drugs in a soil-plant-water system (manuscript on "transport investigation of antiparasitic drugs based on a lysimeter experiment" in preparation). PMID:23581460

  7. Protection and Delivery of Anthelmintic Protein Cry5B to Nematodes Using Mesoporous Silicon Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chen; Hu, Yan; Miller, Melanie; Aroian, Raffi V; Sailor, Michael J

    2015-06-23

    The ability of nano- and microparticles of partially oxidized mesoporous silicon (pSi) to sequester, protect, and deliver the anthelmintic pore-forming protein Cry5B to nematodes is assessed in vitro and in vivo. Thermally oxidized pSi particles are stable under gastric conditions and show relatively low toxicity to nematodes. Fluorescence images of rhodamine-labeled pSi particles within the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Ancylostoma ceylanicum show that ingestion is dependent on particle size: particles of a 0.4 ± 0.2 μm size are noticeably ingested by both species within 2 h of introduction in vitro, whereas 5 ± 2 μm particles are excluded from C. elegans but enter the pharynx region of A. ceylanicum after 24 h. The anthelmintic protein Cry5B, a pore-forming crystal (Cry) protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis, is incorporated into the pSi particles by aqueous infiltration. Feeding of Cry5B-loaded pSi particles to C. elegans leads to significant intoxication of the nematode. Protein-loaded particles of size 0.4 μm display the highest level of in vitro toxicity toward C. elegans on a drug-mass basis. The porous nanostructure protects Cry5B from hydrolytic and enzymatic (pepsin) degradation in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) for time periods up to 2 h. In vivo experiments with hookworm-infected hamsters show no significant reduction in worm burden with the Cry5B-loaded particles, which is attributed to slow release of the protein from the particles and/or short residence time of the particles in the duodenum of the animal. PMID:25950754

  8. Incineration of ion-exchange resins in fluidized bed. Part of a coordinated programme on treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incineration of ion-exchange resins in a fluidized bed was studied on the pilot plant scale. The test programme performed consisted of the testing of various bed materials and finding the optimal conditions of incineration of spent resins. Granular resins were incinerated in an ethanol-water mixture. Incinernation converts the organic resin into inert oxide material, which can be solidified for instance with cement. The weight of the ash was 1...20% and the volume 2...30% of the original resins, which contained 15...25% moisture. When solidified with cement the volume of the ash-concrete is 4...22% of the concrete of equal compressive strength acquired by direct solidification. Water immersion and heat tests of solidified ash showed satisfactory results. The absorption of Cs and Co in various bed materials was studied by means of inactive tracer materials. Biotite and chamotte absorbed significantly, but this absorption does not drastically help on the off gas side. The sintering of the bed materials in the presence of sodium was studied. Corundum, chamotte and biotite have a safety limit of 5% sodium of the bed's weight at 8500C

  9. ADS National Programmes: France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies related to nuclear reactors and radioactive waste started at the French National Centre for Scientific research, CNRS, as a result of the French law on radioactive waste that was published in 1991. They were initially organized around the programme PACE (Physique pour l’Aval du Cycle Electronucléaire = physics of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle), which became PACEN (Physique pour l’Aval du Cycle et production d’Energie Nucléaire = Physics of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and production of nuclear energy) in 2006. Research on accelerator driven systems was from the beginning part of this programme. This research is mainly funded by the National Institute for Nuclear end Particle Physics (IN2P3) of CNRS and within the EURATOM European programmes (FP5, 6 and 7). The programme took place in several stages, and covered various scientific fields, benefitting from expertise of CNRS in the field. More specifically, it aimed and still aims to: – Test and verify the feasibility and design of the ADS concept, in terms of neutronics, physics of materials, design of the accelerator and tests of its prototypical components that have been built (or are at present under construction); – Measure and-or improve nuclear data related to radioactive waste transmutation. Today, most of the activities in support to ADS development carried out by CNRS focus on accelerator developments, GUINEVERE (Generator of Uninterrupted Intense NEutron at the lead VEnus REactor) experiment, ADS core studies, deployment scenarios and nuclear data measurements. The CEA R&D programmes on ADS are mainly focused on the European project EUROTRANS of the 6th Framework programme (2005–2010) and continued in the FREYA project of the 7th Framework Programme

  10. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS; including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to

  11. ADS National Programmes: Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German R&D programme for ADS development is related to the partitioning and transmutation of spent fuel. This programme is implemented mainly by the three national research centres belonging to the Helmholtz Association, i.e. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in cooperation with the Technical University of Aachen (RWTH Aachen) and the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf (HZDR). The main purpose of this R&D programme is the prospect to manage the high level radioactive waste such as to reduce the burden on a final repository. P&T does not eliminate the need for a final repository whatever the strategy, but it allows the reduction of the radio-toxicity associated with radioactive waste, the increase of the repository capacity as a consequence of the reduction of masses to be stored and their associated residual heat load. Different fuel cycle scenarios to implement P&T can be envisaged. These scenarios have been evaluated to identify the impact of P&T on the characteristics, number and deployment pace of the installations of the fuel cycle (reprocessing, fuel fabrication, storage etc). Almost all activities conducted in the R&D programme are embedded in European and international projects and initiatives. In the following more details on the relevant components of the R&D programme are summarized

  12. Use of two in vitro methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistant nematode parasites on Slovak sheep farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, Marián; Cernanská, Dana; Corba, Július

    2006-02-18

    A survey of the prevalence of anthelmintic resistant nematode populations was conducted on 32 sheep farms in the Slovak Republic. In vitro egg hatch test and larval development tests were used for the detection of resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics and they were compared with in vivo faecal egg count reduction tests. There was agreement in the declaration of resistance between the faecal egg count reduction test and both in vitro tests. The presence of resistant populations was determined on two farms using egg hatch test. In both farms, the LD(50) values were higher than 0.1 microg TBZ/ml, indicating resistance. By using LD(99) values it might be possible to reveal relatively small proportion of resistant larvae in the population. The prevalence of benzimidazole resistance has not change on Slovak sheep farms during last decade.

  13. Inequities in Receipt of Iron and Vitamin A Supplements, and Anthelmintic Medications by Young Children in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Devin D; McLennan, John D

    2015-11-01

    Gaps in the receipt of micronutrients and anthelmintic medications by children in low-and middle-income countries undermine efforts to reduce the burden of vitamin A and iron deficiencies, and soil transmitted helminthiases. This study aimed to identify the extent of equitable receipt of these interventions in the Dominican Republic (DR) using indices of need and socioeconomic status with data derived from the DR 2007 Demographic and Health Survey. Receipt of anthelmintic medication, iron, and vitamin A were reported for 55.0% (last six months), 30.3% (last seven days), and 24.0% (last six months) of young children, respectively. No relationships were found between indices of need and receipt of any of the interventions using bivariate and multivariate analysis. However, receipt of each intervention was related to higher maternal education, and iron was additionally related to greater family wealth. Systematic efforts to improve equitability of receipt of these core child health interventions are needed.

  14. External Mobility Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Every year, a significant number of highly-skilled staff members leave the Organization and offer their talents on the European job market. CERN is launching a programme aiming to help staff members to whom the Organization cannot offer an indefinite contract in the transition towards their next employment. The programme, which is based on the establishment of a number of partnerships with potential employers in the private sector, will run on a voluntary basis. Staff members who have received confirmation that they will not be offered an indefinite contract and who are interested in availing themselves of the opportunities offered by the programme, are invited to enrol by following the procedure described at: https://ert.cern.ch/browse_intranet/wd_pds?p_web_page_id=5841 Applications will be processed in the strictest confidence by the Human Resources Department and eligible profiles will then be made available to partner companies for recruitment purposes. Any subsequent ...

  15. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    CERN Document Server

    Korir, George

    2014-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes a series of operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series ...

  16. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum)

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Andrew R.; Aina Ramsay; Hansen, Tina V. A.; Ropiak, Honorata M; Helena Mejer; Peter Nejsum; Irene Mueller-Harvey; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated tha...

  17. Funktionell Programmering : En framtidsprognos

    OpenAIRE

    Holmer, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    Trenden inom systemutveckling och programutveckling går mot ett mer användande av multi programmeringsparadigmer. Funktionell programmering har fått mer uppmärksamhet på senare tid och utvecklingen tycks över lag gå än mer åt det deklarativa hållet där programmeraren fokuserar mer på vad som skall utföras och inte lika mycket på hur. Under en tid har det objektorienterade paradigmet varit dominerande, kommer det vara så i framtiden? Funktionell programmering skiljer sig från imperativ program...

  18. Computer mathematics for programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Abney, Darrell H; Sibrel, Donald W

    1985-01-01

    Computer Mathematics for Programmers presents the Mathematics that is essential to the computer programmer.The book is comprised of 10 chapters. The first chapter introduces several computer number systems. Chapter 2 shows how to perform arithmetic operations using the number systems introduced in Chapter 1. The third chapter covers the way numbers are stored in computers, how the computer performs arithmetic on real numbers and integers, and how round-off errors are generated in computer programs. Chapter 4 details the use of algorithms and flowcharting as problem-solving tools for computer p

  19. A programmer's geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowyer, Adrian

    1983-01-01

    A Programmer's Geometry provides a guide in programming geometric shapes. The book presents formulas and examples of computer representation and coding of geometry. Each of the nine chapters of the text deals with the representation and solution of a specific geometrical problem, such as areas, vectors, and volumes. The last chapter provides a brief discussion on generating image through a computer. The codes presented in the book are written in FORTRAN 77. The text will be of great use to programmers who are working on projects that involve geometric calculations.

  20. Synthesis, in vitro antioxidant, anthelmintic and molecular docking studies of novel dichloro substituted benzoxazole-triazolo-thione derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyendra, R V; Vishnumurthy, K A; Vagdevi, H M; Rajesh, K P; Manjunatha, H; Shruthi, A

    2011-07-01

    A novel 6,8-dichloro [1,2,4]triazolo [3,4-b] [1,3]benzoxazole-3(2H)-thione 4 and its derivatives 5a and 5b are synthesized from 5,7-dichloro-2-hydrazinyl-1,3-benzoxazole 3, obtained by reaction of hydrazine hydrate with ethyl [(5,7-dichloro-1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)sulfanyl]acetate 2. The newly synthesized compounds are characterized by analytical (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, LC-MS mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. All synthesized compounds are screened for in vitro antioxidant and anthelmintic activities. In correlation to anthelmintic activity, compounds are subjected to molecular docking studies for the binding to β-Tubulin, target protein elite to the parasites. Compounds 3, 4 and 5a exhibited potential radical scavenging capacity with good anthelmintic activity. In molecular docking study also, compounds showed minimum binding energy and have good affinity toward the active pocket thus, they may be considered as good inhibitor of β-Tubulin.

  1. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon martinii, Cymbopogon schoenanthus and Mentha piperita essential oils evaluated in four different in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiki, L M; Chagas, A C S; Bizzo, H R; Ferreira, J F S; Amarante, A F T

    2011-12-29

    Anthelmintic resistance is a worldwide concern in small ruminant industry and new plant-derived compounds are being studied for their potential use against gastrointestinal nematodes. Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oils were evaluated against developmental stages of trichostrongylids from sheep naturally infected (95% Haemonchus contortus and 5% Trichostrogylus spp.) through the egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA), and the larval exsheathment assay (LEA). The major constituent of the essential oils, quantified by gas chromatography for M. piperita oil was menthol (42.5%), while for C. martinii and C. schoenanthus the main component was geraniol (81.4% and 62.5%, respectively). In all in vitro tests C. schoenanthus essential oil had the best activity against ovine trichostrongylids followed by C. martini, while M. piperita presented the least activity. Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil had LC(50) value of 0.045 mg/ml in EHA, 0.063 mg/ml in LDA, 0.009 mg/ml in LFIA, and 24.66 mg/ml in LEA. The anthelmintic activity of essential oils followed the same pattern in all in vitro tests, suggesting C. schoenanthus essential oil could be an interesting candidate for nematode control, although in vivo studies are necessary to validate the anthelmintic properties of this oil.

  2. Costs and benefits of Danish active labour market programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Svend; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skipper, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Since 1994, unemployed workers in the Danish labour market have participated in active labour market programmes on a large scale. This paper contributes with an assessment of costs and benefits of these programmes. Long-term treatment effects are estimated on a very detailed administrative dataset...

  3. Anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins on Trichostrongylus colubriformis in experimentally infected sheep Efeito anti-helmíntico de taninos condensados sobre Trichostrongylus colubriformis em ovinos experimentalmente infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Francisco Talamine do Amarante

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent surveys have identified anthelmintic effects from many bioactive substances particularly from condensed tannin (CT sources. The aims of the present study were to investigate the potential anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins (CT on Trichostrongylus colubriformis in experimentally infected sheep and the nutritional consequences on animals. Twenty helminth-free lambs were divided into five groups of four animals. Groups I to IV were artificially infected with 6,000 third stage larvae (L3 of T. colubriformis. Group I was the infected control and group V was the uninfected control. Twenty-eight days post-infection (p. i. lambs from GII were supplemented with tanniniferous sorghum (350 g/animal/day, during seven days; GIII were drenched with Acacia mearnsii extract (15% CT for just one day and GIV during two days (1.6 g extract/kg BW. At day 36 p. i., animals from infected group (GI to GIV were slaughtered. Faecal egg counts (FEC values present a reduction on GII when compared with GI at day 29 p. i. (P 0.05. No difference was related on total worm burden between treatments; however, GIV presented lower number of females than GI (P O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial efeito anti-helmíntico dos taninos condensados sobre Trichostrongylus colubriformis em ovinos experimentalmente infectados e as conseqüências nutricionais destes produtos sobre os animais. Vinte ovinos livres de infecção parasitária foram divididos em cinco grupos de quatro animais. Os grupos GI a GIV foram experimentalmente infectados com 6000 larvas infectantes (L3 de T. colubriformis. O GI foi mantido como controle infectado e o GV como controle não infectado. Vinte e oito dias pós-infecção (p.i. os animais foram tratados com fontes de taninos condensados (TC: o GII suplementado com 350 g de sorgo taninífero, durante sete dias; os grupos GIII e GIV receberam extrato de Acacia mearnsii (1,6 g de extrato/kg de peso vivo, durante um ou dois

  4. A reappraisal of the virtues of private sector employment programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Graversen, Brian Krogh

    In this paper, we evaluate the employment effects of Danish active labour market programmes aimed at welfare benefit recipients. We estimate an econometric model with treatment effects and discrete outcomes and we allow the responses to treatment to vary among observationally identical persons....... The empirical analysis is based on a register-based dataset that gives infor-mation on participation in labour market programmes and subsequent employment. Using a latent variable model, we estimate commonly defined treatment effects, and in particular, the distribution of treatment effects. We do not find any...... significant mean effects of participation in private sector employment programmes compared to participation in other programmes, but we find evidence of heterogeneity in the treatment effects....

  5. Mexican medfly programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This film tells the story of the fight against and final extinction of the Mediterranean fruit-fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Mexico. By producing billions of high quality sterile flies in the Medfly reproduction and sterilization laboratory in the province of Chiapas and releasing them over infested areas, the Moscamed Programme succeeded in eradicating this pest from Mexico in 1982

  6. Kulturalistische Unternehmensethik : ein Programm

    OpenAIRE

    Hanekamp, Gerd

    2001-01-01

    "Das Programm einer kulturalistischen Unternehmensethik wird vorgestellt. Es gründet auf einem philosophischen Ansatz, der sich als instrumentalistisch, kontextualistisch, transsubjektivistisch und individualistisch charakterisieren lässt. Hinsichtlich der ethischen Grundlagen werden starke Thesen durch den Rekurs auf eine kontextualistisch-normative Anthropologie vermieden." (Autorenreferat)

  7. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

    2008-01-01

    Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

  8. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.;

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  9. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KfK is involved in the European Fusion Programme predominantly in the NET and Fusion Technology part. The following fields of activity are covered: Studies for NET, alternative confinement concepts, and needs and issues of integral testing. Research on structural materials. Development of superconducting magnets. Gyrotron development (part of the Physics Programme). Nuclear technology (breeding materials, blanket design, tritium technology, safety and environmental aspects of fusion, remote maintenance). Reported here are status and results of work under contracts with the CEC within the NET and Technology Programme. The aim of the major part of this R and D work is the support of NET, some areas (e.g. materials, safety and environmental impact, blanket design) have a wider scope and address problems of a demonstration reactor. In the current working period, several new proposals have been elaborated to be implemented into the 85/89 Euratom Fusion Programme. New KfK contributions relate to materials research (dual beam and fast reactor irradiations, ferritic steels), to blanket engineering (MHD-effects) and to safety studies (e.g. magnet safety). (orig./GG)

  10. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002...

  11. Progressive Retirement Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 30 January 2007, the Director-General has approved the extension of the Progressive Retirement Programme with effect from 1 April 2007 until 31 March 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 74484/74128

  12. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report summarises the fast reactor research carried out at the Netherlands Energy Research Centre during the year 1981. The neutron and fission product cross sections of various isotopes have been evaluated. In the fuel performance programme, some preliminary results are given and irradiation facilities described. Creep experiments on various stainless steel components are reported

  13. En model for programmer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    Dette undervisningsmateriale beskriver en model for, hvordan programmer er opbygget. Materialet er skrevet til brug i det gymnasiale forsøgsfag Informationsteknologi. Seneste version af dette undervisningsmateriale kan findes på http:// www.imhotep.dk. Tak til Elisabeth Husum for en kritisk...

  14. Selection for anthelmintic resistant Teladorsagia circumcincta in pre-weaned lambs by treating their dams with long-acting moxidectin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, D M; Miller, C M; Fraser, K

    2015-12-01

    Administration of long-acting anthelmintics to pregnant ewes prior to lambing is a common practice in New Zealand. Today, most of these products contain macrocyclic lactone (ML) actives, which because of their lipophilic nature, are detectable in the milk of treated animals and in the plasma of their suckling offspring. This study was conducted to confirm the transfer of ML actives to lambs in the ewe's milk, and to assess whether this could result in selection for ML resistant nematodes in the lamb. Ninety, twin bearing Romney ewes were treated before lambing with a long-acting injectable formulation of moxidectin, a 100-day controlled release capsule (CRC) containing abamectin and albendazole, or remained untreated. After lambing, seven ewes from each treatment group were selected for uniformity of lambing date and, along with their twin lambs, relocated indoors. At intervals, all ewes and lambs were bled, and samples of ewe's milk were collected, for determination of drug concentrations. Commencing 4 weeks after birth all lambs were dosed weekly with 250 infective larvae (L3) of either an ML-susceptible or -resistant isolate of Teladorsagia circumcinta. At 12 weeks of age all lambs were slaughtered and their abomasa recovered for worm counts. Moxidectin was detected in the plasma of moxidectin-treated ewes until about 50 days after treatment and in their lambs until about day 60. Abamectin was detected in the plasma of CRC-treated ewes until the last sample on day 80 and in the plasma of their lambs until about day 60. Both actives were detectable in milk of treated ewes until day 80 after treatment. Establishment of resistant L3 was not different between the treatment groups but treatment of ewes with moxidectin reduced establishment of susceptible L3 by 70%, confirming the potential of drug transfer in milk to screen for ML-resistance in the suckling lamb. PMID:27120068

  15. Compounds Derived from the Bhutanese Daisy, Ajania nubigena, Demonstrate Dual Anthelmintic Activity against Schistosoma mansoni and Trichuris muris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark S.; Giacomin, Paul R.; Becker, Luke; Sotillo, Javier; Pickering, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Background Whipworms and blood flukes combined infect almost one billion people in developing countries. Only a handful of anthelmintic drugs are currently available to treat these infections effectively; there is therefore an urgent need for new generations of anthelmintic compounds. Medicinal plants have presented as a viable source of new parasiticides. Ajania nubigena, the Bhutanese daisy, has been used in Bhutanese traditional medicine for treating various diseases and our previous studies revealed that small molecules from this plant have antimalarial properties. Encouraged by these findings, we screened four major compounds isolated from A. nubigena for their anthelmintic properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we studied four major compounds derived from A. nubigena for their anthelmintic properties against the nematode whipworm Trichuris muris and the platyhelminth blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni using the xWORM assay technique. Of four compounds tested, two compounds—luteolin (3) and (3R,6R)-linalool oxide acetate (1)—showed dual anthelmintic activity against S. mansoni (IC50 range = 5.8–36.9 μg/mL) and T. muris (IC50 range = 9.7–20.4 μg/mL). Using scanning electron microscopy, we determined luteolin as the most efficacious compound against both parasites and additionally was found effective against the schistosomula, the infective stage of S. mansoni (IC50 = 13.3 μg/mL). Luteolin induced tegumental damage to S. mansoni and affected the cuticle, bacillary bands and bacillary glands of T. muris. Our in vivo assessment of luteolin (3) against T. muris infection at a single oral dosing of 100 mg/kg, despite being significantly (27.6%) better than the untreated control group, was markedly weaker than mebendazole (93.1%) in reducing the worm burden in mice. Conclusions/Significance Among the four compounds tested, luteolin demonstrated the best broad-spectrum activity against two different helminths—T. muris and S. mansoni—and was

  16. ADS National Programmes: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China the conceptual study of an ADS concept which lasted for about five years ended in 1999. As one project of the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 Programme) in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five year programme of fundamental research of ADS physics and related technology was launched in 2000 and passed national review at the end of 2005. From 2007, another five year 973 Programme Key Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Subcritical System for Nuclear waste Transmutation started. The research activities were focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven subcritical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and an RFQ accelerating structure of 3.5 MeV has been built and were being improved. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carrying out. The VENUS I facility has been constructed as the basic experimental platform for neutronics study in ADS blanket. VENUS I a zero power subcritical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external neutron produced by a pulsed neutron generator or 252Cf neutron source. The theoretical, experimental and simulation studies on nuclear data, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to ADS are carried out in order to provide the database for ADS system analysis. China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and other Chinese institutes carried out the MOST project together. Besides CIAE, China Academy of Science (CAS) pays more and more attention to Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC). A large programme of ANFC, including ADS and Th based nuclear fuel cycle, has been launched by CAS

  17. Fish preservation by combined treatment of curing and radiation. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation preservation of Asian fish and fishery products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined treatment of potassium sorbate and irradiation to improve the keeping quality of traditional cured fish, e.g. salted fish, boiled fish and smoked fish packaged in polyethylene bags was studied. Low-dose irradiation for insect disinfestation of dried fish was also investigated. Irradiation treatment alone with doses up to 0.3 Mrad was not sufficient to prevent mold growth on semi-dried salted mackerel which contains approximately 6-11% of salt and 45-60% of moisture. Combined treatment of potassium sorbate and irradiation (200 r 400krad) was found to be effective in extending shelf-life of boiled and semi-dehydrated mackerel up to 5 weeks at ambient conditions. The shelf-life of comparable control samples was 2.5 weeks and for commercial boiled and semi-dried fish 3-7 days under the same conditions. The shelf-life of smoked milkfish, packaged in polyethylene bags and irradiated with 200 or 400krad was found to be 15 and 20 days respectively at ambient conditions as compared to 5 days for control samples. Dermestes maculatus was found to be the predominant pest infesting dried, smoked fish followed by Necrobia rufipes. A dose of 25krad was found to be sufficient to disinfest these insect species in the product

  18. Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutwyche, P. R.; Challinor, S. F.

    2003-02-24

    The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted.

  19. Donor transplant programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts

  20. The INTEGRAL Core Observing Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Gehrels, N.; Lund, Niels;

    1999-01-01

    The Core Programme of the INTEGRAL mission is defined as the portion of the scientific programme covering the guaranteed time observations for the INTEGRAL Science Working Team. This paper describes the current status of the Core Programme preparations and summarizes the key elements...

  1. Cassia alata L: potential role as anthelmintic agent against Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Suman; Roy, Saptarshi; Lyndem, Larisha M

    2012-09-01

    The efficacy of Cassia alata against cestode Hymenolepis diminuta was evaluated in our study. Worms were maintained between rat model and beetle. Air-dried leaves of C. alata were subjected to ethanol extraction. Different concentrations (10-80 mg/ml) of the extract were prepared in phosphate buffer saline and tested on the parasite in vitro. Parasites treated with C. alata showed a decrease in motility with an increase in concentrations and complete immobilization took lesser time compared to control. The paralyzed parasites were further processed for electron microscopic studies. Ultrastructural micrographs revealed swelling of the tegument and blebbing on the tegumental surface throughout the body accompanied with destruction of microtriches and changes such as shrinkage in the scolex region. Depletion of parenchyma cells and destruction in the connective tissues along with sparsely cytoplasmic cytons were also observed, and these observations are similar with worms treated with a known drug praziquantel. These results may suggest that the plant leaves could be considered for controlling helminth infection and can represent a step forward in the search for alternative anthelmintic drug.

  2. UV/Visible Spectroscopic Quantification of Veterinary Anthelmintic Drug Oxfendazole in Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendraprasad, N.; Basavaiah, K.

    2016-07-01

    Oxfendazole (OFA) is a broad spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic medication used to treat veterinary diseases. Two new, simple, rapid, precise and accurate, and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the assay of OFA in its pure form and in its boluses. The first method (method A) is based on the measurement of green colored manganate obtained due to oxidation of OFA by permanganate in an alkaline medium at 610 nm. In the second method (Method B), the chromophoric activity of OFA is measured at 290 nm in the acetic acid-water (1:1) solvent system. OFA has been quantified over the linear ranges of 1.25-12.5 and 1.25-10 μg/mL in method A and method B, respectively, with apparent molar absorptivity values of 2.54 × 104 and 2.13 × 104 L·mol-1·cm-1. The limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and Sandell sensitivity values are 0.15 u 0.18 μg/mL, 0.46 and 0.56 μg/mL, and 0.0124 and 0.0148 μg/cm2. The developed methods were successfully applied to determine OFA in the bolus. No interference from adjuvants was observed.

  3. Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernatus Martin Mkupasi

    Full Text Available Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs.

  4. Enhancement of bioavailability and anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole by solid dispersion and cyclodextrin complexation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiselvan, R; Mohanta, G P; Madhusudan, S; Manna, P K; Manavalan, R

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of albendazole (ABZ) employing solid dispersion and cyclodextrin complexation techniques. Solid dispersion (dispersion) was prepared using ABZ and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer (1:1 weight ratio). Ternary inclusion complex (ternary complex) was prepared using ABZ, hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) and L-tartaric acid (1:1:1 molar ratio). In rabbits with high gastric acidity (gastric pH approximately 1), ternary complex and solid dispersion showed a bioavailability enhancement of 3.2 and 2.4 fold respectively, compared to a commercial suspension (p 5) caused a 62% reduction in AUC (area under the plasma level curve) for the commercial suspension, whereas the reduction in case of PVP dispersion and ternary complex was only 43% and 37% respectively. The rapid absorption of the drug from solid dispersion and ternary complex was reflected in improved anthelmintic efficacy against the systemic phases of Trichinella spiralis. The ternary complex was significantly more efficient than solid dispersion and exhibited the highest larvicidal activity (90%) at a dose of 50 mg x kg(-1) (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of the ternary complex might be high even if there is a great variation in the gastric pH. PMID:17867556

  5. Anthelmintic Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains against the Gill Fish Trematode Centrocestus formosanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Estrada, Luis Javier; Hernández-Velázquez, Víctor Manuel; Arenas-Sosa, Iván; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Peña-Chora, Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic agents, such as helminths, are the most important biotic factors affecting aquaculture, and the fluke Centrocestus formosanus is considered to be highly pathogenic in various fish species. There have been efforts to control this parasite with chemical helminthicides, but these efforts have had unsuccessful results. We evaluated the anthelmintic effect of 37 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against C. formosanus metacercariae in vitro using two concentrations of total protein, and only six strains produced high mortality. The virulence (CL50) on matacercariae of three strains was obtained: the GP308, GP526, and ME1 strains exhibited a LC50 of 146.2 μg/mL, 289.2 μg/mL, and 1721.9 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, these six B. thuringiensis strains were evaluated against the cercariae of C. formosanus; the LC50 obtained from the GP526 strain with solubilized protein was 83.8 μg/mL, and it could be considered as an alternative control of the metacercariae and cercariae of this parasite in the productivity systems of ornamental fishes. PMID:27294137

  6. Anthelmintic Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains against the Gill Fish Trematode Centrocestus formosanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Mendoza-Estrada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic agents, such as helminths, are the most important biotic factors affecting aquaculture, and the fluke Centrocestus formosanus is considered to be highly pathogenic in various fish species. There have been efforts to control this parasite with chemical helminthicides, but these efforts have had unsuccessful results. We evaluated the anthelmintic effect of 37 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against C. formosanus metacercariae in vitro using two concentrations of total protein, and only six strains produced high mortality. The virulence (CL50 on matacercariae of three strains was obtained: the GP308, GP526, and ME1 strains exhibited a LC50 of 146.2 μg/mL, 289.2 μg/mL, and 1721.9 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, these six B. thuringiensis strains were evaluated against the cercariae of C. formosanus; the LC50 obtained from the GP526 strain with solubilized protein was 83.8 μg/mL, and it could be considered as an alternative control of the metacercariae and cercariae of this parasite in the productivity systems of ornamental fishes.

  7. Anthelmintic Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains against the Gill Fish Trematode Centrocestus formosanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Estrada, Luis Javier; Hernández-Velázquez, Víctor Manuel; Arenas-Sosa, Iván; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Peña-Chora, Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic agents, such as helminths, are the most important biotic factors affecting aquaculture, and the fluke Centrocestus formosanus is considered to be highly pathogenic in various fish species. There have been efforts to control this parasite with chemical helminthicides, but these efforts have had unsuccessful results. We evaluated the anthelmintic effect of 37 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against C. formosanus metacercariae in vitro using two concentrations of total protein, and only six strains produced high mortality. The virulence (CL50) on matacercariae of three strains was obtained: the GP308, GP526, and ME1 strains exhibited a LC50 of 146.2 μg/mL, 289.2 μg/mL, and 1721.9 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, these six B. thuringiensis strains were evaluated against the cercariae of C. formosanus; the LC50 obtained from the GP526 strain with solubilized protein was 83.8 μg/mL, and it could be considered as an alternative control of the metacercariae and cercariae of this parasite in the productivity systems of ornamental fishes. PMID:27294137

  8. Anthelmintic effects of a cationic toxin from a South American rattlesnake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Mas, C; Moreira, J T; Pinto, S; Monte, G G; Nering, M B; Oliveira, E B; Gazarini, M L; Mori, M A; Hayashi, M A F

    2016-06-15

    Despite the unquestionable importance of the highly cationic feature of several small polypeptides with high content of positively charged amino acids for their biological activities, positively charged peptides do not necessarily have the capacity to cross the cell membranes. Interestingly, we found that crotamine, a positively charged amphiphilic peptide from the South American rattlesnake venom, has a unique cell-penetrating property with affinity for acidic vesicles, besides a well-characterized antimicrobial and antitumoral activities. In spite of a remarkable in vitro antifungal activity of crotamine against Candida spp., no significant effect of this peptide could be observed in the course of Candida albicans and Candida krusei infection on Caenorhabditis elegans asssed in vivo. These experiments, in which the nematode C. elegans was used as a living host, suggested, however, the potential anthelmintic activity of crotamine because of its uptake by the worms and accumulation in their acidic compartments. As described in the present work, this lysosomotropic property is consistent with a previously proposed mechanism of toxicity of crotamine on mammalian tumoral cell lines. This study also allowed us to propose the cationic peptides with lysosomotropic property, as crotamine, as a potential new class of anthelmentics with ability to overcome the challenging problems of drug resistance. PMID:26713409

  9. Bioergia Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of Finland's Bioenergia Research Programme are (1) To develop new methods of producing biofuels which can compete with imported fuels, demonstrating the most promising production methods through pilot schemes, (2) To develop and demonstrate 3 - 4 new pieces of equipment or methods connected with handling and using bioenergy, (3) To produce basic information on conversion techniques and evaluate the quality, usability and environmental impacts of the products as well as the overall economy of the entire production chain and to create 2-3 conversion methods for follow-up development by industry. The principle research areas are (1) Development of production technology for wood-derived fuels, (2) Peat production, (3) The use of bioenergy and (4) Biomass conversion. This conference paper discusses the results obtained so far and reviews in some detail the activities of the programme. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Bioergia Research Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D.

    1997-12-31

    The main objectives of Finland`s Bioenergia Research Programme are (1) To develop new methods of producing biofuels which can compete with imported fuels, demonstrating the most promising production methods through pilot schemes, (2) To develop and demonstrate 3 - 4 new pieces of equipment or methods connected with handling and using bioenergy, (3) To produce basic information on conversion techniques and evaluate the quality, usability and environmental impacts of the products as well as the overall economy of the entire production chain and to create 2-3 conversion methods for follow-up development by industry. The principle research areas are (1) Development of production technology for wood-derived fuels, (2) Peat production, (3) The use of bioenergy and (4) Biomass conversion. This conference paper discusses the results obtained so far and reviews in some detail the activities of the programme. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KfK-Association has continued work on 17 R and D contracts of the Fusion Technology Programme. An effort of 94 manyears per year is at present contributed by 10 KfK departments, covering all aereas defined in the Fusion Technology Programme. The dominant part of the work is directed towards the need of the NET design or supporting experiments. Some additional effort addresses long term technological issues and system studies relevant to DEMO or confinement schemes alternative to tokamaks. Direct contribution to the NET team has increased by augmentation of NET study contracts and delegation of personnel, three KfK delegates being at present members of the NET team. In reverse, specifications and design guidelines worked out by NET have started to have an impact on the current R and D-work in the laboratory. (orig./GG)

  12. Pharmacovigilance programme of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaiselvan Vivekanandan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs through pharmacovigilance is vital to patient safety and rational prescribing. In India, Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO initiated Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI to report ADRs through ADRs monitoring centres in India. Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC is functioning as National Coordination Centre (NCC for PvPI. The ADRs are reported to NCC through VigiFlow by various centres are evaluated and committed to Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden. The potential benefit of the PvPI is aimed to reducing or eliminating a harm of medicine. Continuous efforts of the healthcare professionals and the patients are expected to make this as one of the most successful and effective programmes. The present article updates the status and future plan of PvPI.

  13. Use of thermo-coagulation as an alternative treatment modality in a 'screen-and-treat' programme of cervical screening in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christine; Kafwafwa, Savel; Brown, Hilary; Walker, Graeme; Madetsa, Belito; Deeny, Miriam; Kabota, Beatrice; Morton, David; Ter Haar, Reynier; Grant, Liz; Cubie, Heather A

    2016-08-15

    The incidence of cervical cancer in Malawi is the highest in the world and projected to increase in the absence of interventions. Although government policy supports screening using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), screening provision is limited due to lack of infrastructure, trained personnel, and the cost and availability of gas for cryotherapy. Recently, thermo-coagulation has been acknowledged as a safe and acceptable procedure suitable for low-resource settings. We introduced thermo-coagulation for treatment of VIA-positive lesions as an alternative to cryotherapy within a cervical screening service based on VIA, coupled with appropriate, sustainable pathways of care for women with high-grade lesions and cancers. Detailed planning was undertaken for VIA clinics, and approvals were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Regional and Village Chiefs. Educational resources were developed. Thermo-coagulators were introduced into hospital and health centre settings, with theoretical and practical training in safe use and maintenance of equipment. A total of 7,088 previously unscreened women attended VIA clinics between October 2013 and March 2015. Screening clinics were held daily in the hospital and weekly in the health centres. Overall, VIA positivity was 6.1%. Almost 90% received same day treatment in the hospital setting, and 3- to 6-month cure rates of more than 90% are observed. Thermo-coagulation proved feasible and acceptable in this setting. Effective implementation requires comprehensive training and provider support, ongoing competency assessment, quality assurance and improvement audit. Thermo-coagulation offers an effective alternative to cryotherapy and encouraged VIA screening of many more women. PMID:27006131

  14. Treatment of multiple resistant field strain of Ostertagia spp. in Cashmere and Angora goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, M; Praslicka, J; Corba, J

    1994-05-01

    A multiple resistant field strain of gastro-intestinal nematodes was detected in Cashmere and Angora goats imported from New Zealand. Different treatments with three types of broad spectrum anthelmintics (albendazole, levamisole/tetramisole and ivermectin) at various dose rates are described. Satisfactory effect in Angora goats was not achieved until all three anthelmintics were administered simultaneously at twice the normal sheep dose. Post mortem worm counts and identification revealed that the resistant population consisted of 89% Ostertagia circumcincta, 6% Ostertagia ostertagi and 5% Ostertagia trifurcata. However, egg hatch assay carried out seven months later detected the presence of resistant nematodes again.

  15. The Mathematica programmer

    CERN Document Server

    Maeder, Roman E

    1994-01-01

    The Mathematica Programmer covers the fundamental programming paradigms and applications of programming languages. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters. Part 1 begins with an overview of the programming paradigms. This part also treats abstract data types, polymorphism and message passing, object-oriented programming, and relational databases. Part 2 looks into the practical aspects of programming languages, including in lists and power series, fractal curves, and minimal surfaces.This book will prove useful to mathematicians and computer scientists.

  16. Programmable mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin; van Hecke, Martin

    2014-10-24

    We create mechanical metamaterials whose response to uniaxial compression can be programmed by lateral confinement, allowing monotonic, nonmonotonic, and hysteretic behavior. These functionalities arise from a broken rotational symmetry which causes highly nonlinear coupling of deformations along the two primary axes of these metamaterials. We introduce a soft mechanism model which captures the programmable mechanics, and outline a general design strategy for confined mechanical metamaterials. Finally, we show how inhomogeneous confinement can be explored to create multistability and giant hysteresis.

  17. ADS National Programmes: Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a preliminary design developed in 1998, based on the Energy Amplifier concept proposed by CERN, a first configuration of a lead-bismuth Eutectic cooled Experimental ADS (LBE-XADS) was worked out in the period 1999–2001, under the aegis of MURST, by a group of Italian organizations led by Ansado Nucleare, with the aim of assessing the feasibility of a small sized (80 MWth) ADS. At the end of 1997 a joint effort of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) and INFN (National Institute for Nuclear Physics) led to the approval of a national programme by MURST (Minister for University and Scientific and Technological Research) named TRASCO (TRAsmutazione SCOrie) aiming at the study of physics and technologies needed to design an ADS for radioactive waste transmutation. The programme consisted of research subprogrammes on accelerator, neutronics, thermalhydraulics analysis, beam window technology, and material technology and compatibility with Pb and Pb-Bi. At now, most of the activities in support to the ADS development carried out at national level are part of EU-funded Projects. These activities are complemented by the programme agreement (AdP -Accordo di programma), signed between ENEA and the Ministry of Economic Development, which provides in general a range of activities aimed at the development of sustainable nuclear fission systems. Several universities and the national industry are involved, besides ENEA, in the activities

  18. Programmable Quantitative DNA Nanothermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareau, David; Desrosiers, Arnaud; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2016-07-13

    Developing molecules, switches, probes or nanomaterials that are able to respond to specific temperature changes should prove of utility for several applications in nanotechnology. Here, we describe bioinspired strategies to design DNA thermoswitches with programmable linear response ranges that can provide either a precise ultrasensitive response over a desired, small temperature interval (±0.05 °C) or an extended linear response over a wide temperature range (e.g., from 25 to 90 °C). Using structural modifications or inexpensive DNA stabilizers, we show that we can tune the transition midpoints of DNA thermometers from 30 to 85 °C. Using multimeric switch architectures, we are able to create ultrasensitive thermometers that display large quantitative fluorescence gains within small temperature variation (e.g., > 700% over 10 °C). Using a combination of thermoswitches of different stabilities or a mix of stabilizers of various strengths, we can create extended thermometers that respond linearly up to 50 °C in temperature range. Here, we demonstrate the reversibility, robustness, and efficiency of these programmable DNA thermometers by monitoring temperature change inside individual wells during polymerase chain reactions. We discuss the potential applications of these programmable DNA thermoswitches in various nanotechnology fields including cell imaging, nanofluidics, nanomedecine, nanoelectronics, nanomaterial, and synthetic biology. PMID:27058370

  19. A new video programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN video productions

    2011-01-01

    "What's new @ CERN?", a new monthly video programme, will be broadcast on the Monday of every month on webcast.cern.ch. Aimed at the general public, the programme will cover the latest CERN news, with guests and explanatory features. Tune in on Monday 3 October at 4 pm (CET) to see the programme in English, and then at 4:20 pm (CET) for the French version.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1383406', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-...

  20. The impact of a school-based water supply and treatment, hygiene, and sanitation programme on pupil diarrhoea: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, M C; Clasen, T; Dreibelbis, R; Saboori, S; Greene, L E; Brumback, B; Muga, R; Rheingans, R

    2014-02-01

    The impact of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) access on mitigating illness is well documented, although impact of school-based WASH on school-aged children has not been rigorously explored. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in Nyanza Province, Kenya to assess the impact of a school-based WASH intervention on diarrhoeal disease in primary-school pupils. Two study populations were used: schools with a nearby dry season water source and those without. Pupils attending 'water-available' schools that received hygiene promotion and water treatment (HP&WT) and sanitation improvements showed no difference in period prevalence or duration of illness compared to pupils attending control schools. Those pupils in schools that received only the HP&WT showed similar results. Pupils in 'water-scarce' schools that received a water-supply improvement, HP&WT and sanitation showed a reduction in diarrhoea incidence and days of illness. Our study revealed mixed results on the impact of improvements to school WASH improvements on pupil diarrhoea. PMID:23702047

  1. Larger-scale irradiation and marketing studies on onions. Part of a coordinated programme on pre-commercial scale radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed grown onions of ''Alsogodi'' variety were harvested manually, partially defoliated, irradiated with a dose of 50 Gy at a throughput of 6 tons per hour in a pilot-irradiator specially designed for onions, and then stored at ambient conditions of temperature and humidity, together with non-irradiated onions. Texture, density, growth of inner bud, colour, storage losses and quality were determined. Results clearly demonstrated that irradiation for sprout inhibition has a favourable effect on maintaining good texture of onions during storage. By inhibiting the sprouting, no internal discolouration of the bud occurred during storage. This is important for the quality of fresh onions as well as for that of the final dried product, processed from fresh onions after various periods of storage. Due to sub-optimal initial quality of the onions and unsatisfactory control of storage conditions, total storage losses were too high, compared to the results of previous experiments. Yet, the beneficial effect of irradiation was demonstrated at the end of the considered storage period, since 55% of the irradiated and only 10% of the non-irradiated commodities were of acceptable marketing quality. Cost calculation based on 80% utilization of the pilot irradiator used in this study resulted in a treatment cost of 0.25 forint per kg, which is approximately 8% of the average purchasing price of onions in Hungary

  2. Community response to intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi delivered through the expanded programme of immunization in five African settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slutsker Lawrence

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IPTi delivered through EPI has been shown to reduce the incidence of clinical malaria by 20–59%. However, new health interventions can only be effective if they are also socially and culturally acceptable. It is also crucial to ensure that attitudes to IPTi do not negatively influence attitudes to and uptake of immunization, or that people do not misunderstand IPTi as immunization against malaria and neglect other preventive measures or delay treatment seeking. Methods These issues were studied in five African countries in the context of clinical trials and implementation studies of IPTi. Mixed methods were used, including structured questionnaires (1,296, semi-structured interviews (168, in-depth interviews (748 and focus group discussions (95 with mothers, fathers, health workers, community members, opinion leaders, and traditional healers. Participant observation was also carried out in the clinics. Results IPTi was widely acceptable because it resonated with existing traditional preventive practices and a general concern about infant health and good motherhood. It also fit neatly within already widely accepted routine vaccination. Acceptance and adherence were further facilitated by the hierarchical relationship between health staff and mothers and by the fact that clinic attendance had a social function for women beyond acquiring health care. Type of drug and regimen were important, with newer drugs being seen as more effective, but potentially also more dangerous. Single dose infant formulations delivered in the clinic seem to be the most likely to be both acceptable and adhered to. There was little evidence that IPTi per se had a negative impact on attitudes to EPI or that it had any affect on EPI adherence. There was also little evidence of IPTi having a negative impact on health seeking for infants with febrile illness or existing preventive practices. Conclusion IPTi is generally acceptable across a wide range of

  3. In vivo anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa in village chickens naturally infected with Heterakis gallinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwale, Marizvikuru; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa against Heterakis gallinarum in village chickens. The chickens naturally infected with H. gallinarum were randomly divided into 14 groups of eight chickens and orally administered distilled water (negative control), mebendazole (positive control), and graded levels (50-, 100-, 200-, and 400-mg/kg doses) of the three plant extracts. At days 0, 7, and 14, the floatation technique was used to determine fecal egg counts and H. gallinarum worms from chicken ceca were counted at days 0 and 14. Egg count reduction percentage (ECR%) was high at day 7 for all the test materials except for A. sisalana (100 mg/kg) that had 33%. At day 14, ECR% was high for all the other test materials save for A. ferox (200 mg/kg), mebendazole, and distilled water which was 50, 32, and 50%, respectively. A. ferox (200 mg/kg), G. perpensa (200 and 400 mg/kg), and A. sisalana (50 and 100 mg/kg) had the highest (85, 78, 74, 86, and 73%, respectively) worm count reduction percentage. The plants had anthelmintic properties. Advocacy and utilization of these plants in improving the health of village chickens could lead to increased productivity, boosting profits for the poultry industry thereby enabling it to meet the supply of animal protein and enhance livelihoods. It is imperative to determine compounds in the crude extracts of these medicinal plants which are responsible for the anthelmintic activities and their mechanism of action. PMID:25311442

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity of novel fluorinated 7-ethyl-10-phenothiazines, their sulphones and ribofuranosides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naveen Gautam; Abhilasha Yadav; Nishidha Khandelwal; D C Gautam

    2014-01-01

    A series of novel fluorinated 10-phenothiazines were synthesized via Smiles rearrangement. 10-phenothiazines on refluxing with 30% hydrogen peroxide in glacial acetic acid gave 10-phenothiazines-5, 5-dioxides (sulphones). These synthesized 10-phenothiazines were then used as base to prepare ribofuranosides by treating them with sugar (-D-ribofuranosyl- 1-acetate-2, 3, 5-tribenzoate). The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity and anthelmintic activity. The structural assignments of compounds were made on the basis of spectroscopic data and elemental analysis.

  5. Variability in faecal egg counts – a statistical model to achieve reliable determination of anthelmintic resistance in livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Vidyashankar, Anand N.; Hanlon, Bret;

    Anthelmintic resistance is an increasing challenge for the control of parasites in livestock. The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the practical gold standard method for evaluating resistance, but the interpretation is complicated due to high levels of variability. A hierarchical...... arithmetic calculations classified nine farms (14.1 %) as resistant and 11 farms (17.2 %) as suspect resistant. Using 10000 Monte Carlo simulated data sets, our methodology provides a reliable classification of farms into different resistance categories with a false discovery rate of 1.02 %. The methodology...

  6. Impact of chemical structure of flavanol monomers and condensed tannins on in vitro anthelmintic activity against bovine nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Fryganas, Christos; Ropiak, Honorata M.;

    2016-01-01

    Plants containing condensed tannins (CT) may have potential to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle. The aim was to investigate the anthelmintic activities of four flavan-3-ols, two galloyl derivatives and 14 purified CT fractions, and to define which structural features of CT...... susceptible to all CT fractions than C. oncophora L1. The mean degree of polymerization of CT (i.e. average size) was the most important structural parameter: large CT reduced larval feeding more than small CT. The flavan-3-ols of prodelphinidin (PD)-type tannins had a stronger negative influence on parasite...

  7. Binary mask programmable hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P W M; Poon, T-C; Zhou, Changhe; Cheung, K W K

    2012-11-19

    We report, for the first time, the concept and generation of a novel Fresnel hologram called the digital binary mask programmable hologram (BMPH). A BMPH is comprised of a static, high resolution binary grating that is overlaid with a lower resolution binary mask. The reconstructed image of the BMPH can be programmed to approximate a target image (including both intensity and depth information) by configuring the pattern of the binary mask with a simple genetic algorithm (SGA). As the low resolution binary mask can be realized with less stringent display technology, our method enables the development of simple and economical holographic video display.

  8. Flexible programmable logic module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hutchinson, Robert L. (Albuquerque, NM); Pierson, Lyndon G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  9. Programmable ferroelectric tunnel memristor

    OpenAIRE

    Andy eQuindeau; Dietrich eHesse; Marin eAlexe

    2014-01-01

    We report an analogously programmable memristor based on genuine electronic resistive switching combining ferroelectric switching and electron tunneling. The tunnel current through an 8 unit cell thick epitaxial Pb(Zr[0.2]Ti[0.8])O[3] film sandwiched between La[0.7]Sr[0.3]MnO[3] and cobalt electrodes obeys the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model for bidimensional growth with a characteristic switching time in the order of 10^-7 seconds. The analytical description of switching kinetics allows us...

  10. CASINDO Programme Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, N.; Smekens, K.; Bole-Rentel, T.; Saidi, R. [Unit ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Wijnker, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kamphuis, E. [ETC Netherlands, Leusden (Netherlands); Winarno, Oetomo Tri [Institute of Technology, Bandung (Indonesia); Permana, Iman [Technical Education Development Centre, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2012-06-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. CASINDO stands for Capacity development and strenghtening for energy policy formulation adn implementation of sustainable energy projects in Indonesia.

  11. Accident prevention programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  12. Progress in Programmable Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Cuntala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Programmable logic devices (PLD are situated on important place among microelectronic components thanks to the continuing technological development of semiconductor components, due to new architectures and new approaches to digital systems design. Software design of various complicated digital systems becomes advantageous article of many firms. The Department of Electronics and Electrotechnology pays pemanent attention to mentioned components in application field. The collective of authors wants in this article point out on possibilities of design of digital system using the PLD. The paper plan contains the following basic parts: Technological aspects that influence development of configurable logic devices, Methodology od design and implementation and Flexibility of PLD interface.

  13. A programmable Fortran preprocessor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosing, M.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable Fortran preprocessor is described. It allows users to define compile time operations that can examine and modify the source tree before it is compiled with a traditional compiler. This intermediate step allows the definition of routines and operations that adapt to the context in which they are used. Context sensitive operations increase the flexibility of abstractions that can be built without degrading efficiency, as compared to using traditional run time based abstractions such as libraries or objects. The preprocessor is described briefly along with an example of how it is used to add CMFortran array operations to Fortran77. Other preprocessors that have been implemented are also briefly described.

  14. A comparative study on the efficacy of four anthelmintics on some important reindeer parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Nordkvist

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available Four anthelmintic preparations were tested against some of the most important parasites of reindeer, i.e. warble fly (Oedemagena tarandi, nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe, brainworm (Elaphostrongylus rangiferi, and lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus. Their efficacy against intestinal nematodes was also registered. Test drugs were Fenthion (Bayer, Fenbendazole (Hoechst, Mebendazole (Janssen, and Ivermectin (Merk Sharp & Dohme. Against O. tarandi and C. trompe Ivermectin was 100% effective and Fenthion 86 and 100% respectively. The efficacy of Fen- and Mebendazole against these parasites was not significant. Against E. rangiferi the benzimidazole compounds were highly effective, with Mebendazole a bit ahead. Ivermectin had a moderate effect and Fenthion had no effect on this parasite. Against D. viviparus Fenbendazole, Mebendazole and Ivermectin were of equal, moderate-high effectiveness. No drug had a complete effect on the «arrested» larvae of D. viviparus. Fenthion had no effect at all. Fenbendazole and Ivermectin were both 100% effective against intestinal nematodes. Mebendazole was less effective and Fenthion had no effects. Ivermectin is considered to be the overall most effective anthelmintic in this test.En jamforande studie av effekten av fyra anthelmintika mot några betydelsesfulla parasiter hos ren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Fyra antiparasitmedel har prôvats mot några av renens viktigaste parasiter, nàmligen hudkorm (Oedemagena tarandi, svalgkorm (Cephenemyia trompe, hjårnmask (Elaphostrongylus rangiferi och lungmask (Dictyocaulus viviparus. Vidare har medlens effekt på mag- tarmnematoder (Trichostongylider också noterats. De prôvade medicinerna var Fenthion (Bayer, Mebendazole (Leo/Janssen, Fenbendazole (Hoechst och Ivermectin (Merck Sharp & Dohme. Mot hud- och svalgkorm var Ivermectin 100% effektivt medan for Fenthion effekten var 86 resp 100%. Effekten av Fen- och Mebendazole mot de båda parasiterna var inte

  15. 可调压式分流管治疗小儿脑积水的临床观察%Clinical efficiency of programmable shunt valve in treatment of hydrocephalus in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟碹; 梁平; 夏佐中; 周渝冬; 李禄生

    2011-01-01

    Objective To summarize our experience and assess the clinical value of the programmable shunt valve in treatment of hydrocephalus in children. Methods A total of 24 children (at age of 8 months to 11.2 years old, and mean age of 5. 7 years old) with hydrocephalus who underwent Ventriculo-peritoneal (V-P) shunt surgery and programmable valve implantation during operation were retrospectively analyzed. The opening pressure was settled based on intraoperative intraventricular pressure, clinical manifestation and imaging results. Postoperative regulator opening pressure was adjusted according to clinical improvement and imaging results after operation. Results After operation, adjusting valve pressure was performed for 0 to 4 times, mean 2.6 times. All the cases were followed up for 3 to 28 months, and their clinical symptoms were relieved or disappeared. CT examination showed size of ventricle was reduced compared with preoperative in all cases. Postoperative infection was found in 2 cases, and shunt obstruction in 1 case. Conclusion Programmable shunt valve has the advantages of individual pressure setting, and effectively preventing excessive and insuffi-cient segregation postoperatively.%目的 总结可调压式分流管治疗小儿脑积水的经验,探讨其临床应用价值.方法 回顾性分析24例植入可调压式分流管治疗的不同类型脑积水患儿的病情转归.患儿均行脑室-腹腔分流术,根据术中脑脊液测压结果并结合患儿临床表现、影像学检查等因素设定调压阀开放压力的初始值,术后根据患儿临床表现的改善情况及影像学复查结果进行调压阀开放压力调整.结果 术后调压次数0~4次,平均2.6次.随访3~28个月,患儿临床症状均明显缓解或消失,CT检查显示脑室均较术前缩小.术后感染2例,分流管梗阻1例.结论 可调压式分流管具有压力设定个体化的优点,在小儿脑积水治疗中疗效优于固定压力分流管,可有效避免

  16. Heterologous Expression in Remodeled C. elegans: A Platform for Monoaminergic Agonist Identification and Anthelmintic Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Law

    2015-04-01

    the identification of ligands for a host of potential anthelmintic targets.

  17. Characterization of Haemonchus contortus P-glycoprotein-16 and its interaction with the macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, P; Che, H; Beech, R N; Prichard, R K

    2015-11-01

    Anthelmintic resistance in veterinary nematodes, including Haemonchus contortus, has become a limitation to maintaining high standards of animal health. Resistance in this parasite, to all drug families including the macrocyclic lactones (MLs) is a serious issue worldwide. Mechanisms of resistance to the MLs appear to be complex and to include the elimination of these compounds by ABC transporter-like proteins present in nematodes. In order to investigate the potential involvement of ABC transporters in ML resistance in H. contortus, we have characterized the functionality of the ABC transporter H. contortus P-glycoprotein-16 (Hco-PGP-16) expressed in mammalian cells. This has included a study of its interaction with different MLs, including the avermectins, abamectin (ABA) and ivermectin (IVM), and the milbemycin, moxidectin (MOX). Hco-PGP-16 transport activity was studied using the fluorophore Rhodamine 123 (Rho 123). Transfected cells expressing Hco-PGP-16 accumulated less than 50% of Rho 123 than control cells, suggesting an active transport of this tracer dye by Hco-PGP-16. The influence of the MLs on the Rho123 transport by Hco-PGP-16 was then investigated. A marked inhibition of Rho123 transport by ABA and IVM was observed. In contrast, MOX showed less effect on inhibition of Rho123 transport by Hco-PGP-16, and the inhibition was not saturable. The difference in the interaction of the avermectins and MOX with Hco-PGP-16 may help explain the slower rate of development of resistance to MOX compared with the avermectins in H. contortus.

  18. Developing an integrated, Internet-based self-help programme for young people with depression and alcohol use problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Deady

    2014-07-01

    Overall, the DEAL Project programme was well-received and provides an innovative new platform for the treatment of co-occurring depression and alcohol use problems in young people. The next phase will include an evaluation of programme efficacy. If found to be efficacious, the programme has the potential to improve outcomes, reduce disease burden, and increase treatment uptake in this vulnerable group.

  19. Walking in Balance: Native American Recovery Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Owen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews Native American ritual practices, frameworks and key concepts employed by several substance abuse treatments centres in the U.S. and Canada. It also examines the way Alcoholics Anonymous’ Twelve Step programme has been modified to attract and serve the needs of Native Americans and First Nations and its potential impact on the ritual practices. Native concepts of wellbeing are highlighted and linked to the idea of living in “balance”.

  20. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report summarizes the fast reactor research carried out by ECN during the period covering the year 1980. This research is mainly concerned with the cores of sodium-cooled breeders, in particular the SNR-300, and its related safety aspects. It comprises six items: A programme to determine relevant nuclear data of fission- and corrosion-products; A fuel performance programme comprising in-pile cladding failure experiments and a study of the consequences of loss-of-cooling and overpower; Basic research on fuel; Investigation of the changes in the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel DIN 1.4948 due to fast neutron doses, this material has been used in the manufacture of the reactor vessel and its internal components; Study of aerosols which could be formed at the time of a fast reactor accident and their progressive behaviour on leaking through cracks in the concrete containment; Studies on heat transfer in a sodium-cooled fast reactor core. As fast breeders operate at high power densities, an accurate knowledge of the heat transfer phenomena under single-phase and two-phase conditions is sought. (Auth.)

  1. ADS National Programmes: Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian activities in the field of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are mainly related to the MYRRHA project development. MYRRHA is an accelerator driven, multi purpose fast neutron spectrum facility for R&D, cooled by a lead-bismuth eutectic. SCK•CEN has started the MYRRHA project as a national programme with several national & international bilateral collaboration agreements; the project has now evolved as an European integrated project in the frame of the IPEUROTRANS (European Commission, Sixth Framework Programme). The MYRRHA ‘Draft-2’ predesign file (completed in the early 2005) has been proposed to the partners as a basis for the XT-ADS machine. After a detailed investigation of potential alternatives, the MYRRHA concept (for the subcritical core, the primary coolant system, the accommodation of experimental rigs, the reactor vessel and the spallation target) has been kept with some modifications to achieve the XT-ADS objectives. The most recent version of the XT-ADS design was presented in the 2007 TWG meeting

  2. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    27 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 28 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 29 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 30 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 4.45 p.m. Auditorium (Main Building) After the success of the preparation seminars held in recent years, it has been decided that the programme should continue. The forthcoming seminar has been prepared in close collaboration with the CERN Pensioners' Association. The programme will be organised over several half-day sessions. Once again this year, a special session will be devoted to the 10th revision of the Swiss state pension scheme, the 'AVS' (Assurance-Vieillesse et Survivants), and the consequences for international civil servants. A talk will be given by Mrs Danièle Siebold, Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation, aimed mainly at those residing in or intending to move to Switzerland, or who worked in Switzerland before joining CERN. To enable Mrs Siebold to respond to your concerns as effectively as possible, please ...

  3. Accelerator programme at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  4. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  5. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  6. Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) Programme - 12397

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pether, Colin; Carrol, Phil; Birkett, Eddie; Kibble, Matthew [Sellafield Ltd, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Waste material from the reprocessing of irradiated fuel has been stored under water for several decades leading to the water becoming highly radioactive. As a critical enabler to the decommissioning strategy for the Sellafield site, the Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) programme has been established to provide a processing route for this highly radioactive liquor. This paper reviews the progress that has been made since the start of routine LAR transfer cycles (July 2010) and follows on from the earlier paper presented at WM2011. The paper focuses on the learning from the first full year of routine LAR transfer cycles and the application of this learning to the wider strategies for the treatment of further radioactive liquid effluents on the Sellafield site. During this period over 100,000 Curies of radioactivity has been safely removed and treated. The past year has witnessed the very successful introduction of the LAR programme. This has lead to hazard reduction at MSSS and demonstration that the SIXEP facility can meet the significantly increased challenge that the LAR programme represents. Part of the success has been the ability to predict and deliver a realistic production schedule with the availability of the MSSS, EDT and SIXEP facilities being central to this. Most importantly, the LAR programme has been successful in bringing together key stakeholders to deliver this work while integrating with the existing, day to day, demands of the Sellafield site. (authors)

  7. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve

  8. Climate Ambassador Programmes in Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pedersen, Stine Rahbek

    2016-01-01

    Some Danish municipalities have developed ambassador programmes which generate environmental and climate change mitigation efforts in local public administrations and institutions. This chapter analyses the characteristics and experiences of four ambassador programmes now operating...... in the municipalities of Furesø, Lyngby-Taarbæk, Frederiksberg and Hvidovre. Two of the ambassador programmes presented here focus primarily on climate change mitigation initiatives, and two have a broader focus on sustainable development. Important elements for the impact of these programmes are the networking among...

  9. Praziquantel Treatment in Trematode and Cestode Infections: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-01-01

    Status and emerging issues in the use of praziquantel for treatment of human trematode and cestode infections are briefly reviewed. Since praziquantel was first introduced as a broadspectrum anthelmintic in 1975, innumerable articles describing its successful use in the treatment of the majority of human-infecting trematodes and cestodes have been published. The target trematode and cestode diseases include schistosomiasis, clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, heterophyidiasis, ...

  10. Programmable ferroelectric tunnel memristor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy eQuindeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an analogously programmable memristor based on genuine electronic resistive switching combining ferroelectric switching and electron tunneling. The tunnel current through an 8 unit cell thick epitaxial Pb(Zr[0.2]Ti[0.8]O[3] film sandwiched between La[0.7]Sr[0.3]MnO[3] and cobalt electrodes obeys the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model for bidimensional growth with a characteristic switching time in the order of 10^-7 seconds. The analytical description of switching kinetics allows us to develop a characteristic transfer function that has only one parameter viz. the characteristic switching time and fully predicts the resistive states of this type of memristor.

  11. INDUSTRIAL RISK Programme development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INC-DTCI ICIS Rm. Valcea conducts basic and applied research among which there is the INDUSTRIAL RISK Programme that comprises studies of risk analysis and evaluation at objectives and activities in zones were risk factors are in operation, factors leading potentially to natural or technological disasters. The risk analysis and evaluation methodology proposed is a follow-up of the action plan for risk reduction in industry. The risk management refers to risk and its components assessment and identification of places where improvements are to be introduced. The risk analysis and evaluation model was developed for installations in chemical industry and are also applicable for the installations of heavy water production by H2O-H2S isotopic exchange. The risk studies supply information necessary in making decisions, aiming at preventing the operation incidence and reducing their consequences

  12. Photovoltaic programme - edition 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules and building integration, system technologies, planning and operating aids is summarised. Also, PV for applications in developing countries, thermo-photovoltaics and international co-operation are commented on. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and noise barriers as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and further PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents the abstracts of reports made by the project managers of 73 research and pilot and demonstration projects in these areas for 2002.

  13. Country programme review Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A five-expert mission was organized from 21-26 August 1993 and this document reflects the findings and recommendations of the team. Intensive contacts with heads of institutions, scientists and decision making persons in various sectors in the country were co-ordinated by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The terms of reference of the mission were: To assess the on-going TC projects; to assist the Bangladesh nationals to finalize the formulation of the new requests for 1995-96 TC programme and to establish priority areas with regard to the introduction of national projects involving accelerated technological transfer in order to catalyze national development plans in specific areas; to examine institutional framework suitable for the introduction of these priority nuclear techniques

  14. World association for the advancement of veterinary parasitology (WAAVP): Second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennessy, D.R.; Bauer, C.; Boray, J.C.;

    2006-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine which, in conjunction with other sets of guidance such as those of the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH GL7 and VICH GL16), sho...

  15. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia annua L. extracts in vitro and the effect of an aqueous extract and artemisinin in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no effective natural alternative control for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants, with Haemonchus contortus being the most economically important GIN. Despite frequent reports of multidrug-resistant GIN, there is no new commercial anthelmintic to substitute failing ones. Alt...

  16. Chernobyl five years after. WHO to spearhead international programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 1990, an agreement was signed between the WHO and the USSR Ministry of Health to set up a long-term international programme to assist the populations affected by the Chernobyl accident, as well as to increase the body of scientific knowledge about radiation effects. The programme will deal with monitoring and treatment of the affected populations and will carefully examine emergency prevention issues. Funding will come primarily from voluntary contributions from WHO Member States

  17. Screening of newborns for congenital hypothyroidism. Guidance for developing programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a condition that, if left untreated, can cause lifelong human suffering as a result of severe mental retardation and deficiency of growth. With the involvement of the IAEA, screening programmes to detect congenital hypothyroidism in newborn infants have been introduced successfully in a large number of countries. The cornerstone of these programmes is accurate and reliable screening methods involving isotope techniques and simple medical treatment. The suffering - and heavy social and economic burden - caused by congenital hypothyroidism prompted many countries to institute a formalized screening programme directed at newborns, just as a vaccination programme has become an integral part of child health care. In many other countries however, this type of formalized service has not yet been established. For these countries, the implementation of a neonatal screening programme will bring about a considerable improvement in child health care. It is hoped that the guidance in this publication will be especially useful to the signatories of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Several factors that prevail in a country - the climate, political environment, economic development, level of health care and the transportation system - have an influence on the overall operational systems, design and implementation of a screening programme. As such, the design of such a programme will differ greatly from country to country. Nevertheless, neonatal screening programmes have many elements in common. This book draws on the IAEA's experience in this area over more than a decade, and on the results of a regional technical cooperation programme on neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism in East Asia (IAEA Project RAS6032). This publication provides guidance aimed specifically at implementing and sustaining programmes for the screening of newborn infants

  18. Programmable architecture for quantum computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Wang, L.; Charbon, E.; Wang, B.

    2013-01-01

    A programmable architecture called “quantum FPGA (field-programmable gate array)” (QFPGA) is presented for quantum computing, which is a hybrid model combining the advantages of the qubus system and the measurement-based quantum computation. There are two kinds of buses in QFPGA, the local bus and t

  19. An automatic bibliography indexing programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Morris

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available A relatively simple FORTRAN IV programme, designed for a small computer, for author and key-word indexes to bibliographic records is described, and examples of output are given. It is com­pared with some other systems. Suggested improvements to the programme are given.

  20. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  1. Evaluation of a communication and stress management training programme for infertile couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lone; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Boivin, Jackey;

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluates a patient education programme focussed on improving communication and stress management skills among couples in fertility treatment.......This study evaluates a patient education programme focussed on improving communication and stress management skills among couples in fertility treatment....

  2. The BGAN extension programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  3. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982, KfK joined the fusion programme of EURATOM as a further association introducing its experience in nuclear technology. KfK closely cooperates with IPP Garching, the two institutions forming a research unit aiming at planning and realization of future development steps of fusion. KfK has combined its forces in the Nuclear Fusion Project (PKF) with participation of several KfK departments to the project tasks. Previous work of KfK in magnetic fusion has addressed mainly superconducting magnets, plasma heating by cluster ions and studies on structural materials. At present, emphasis of our work has concentrated increasingly on the nuclear part, i.e. the first wall and blanket structures and the elements of the tritium extraction and purification system. Associated to this component development are studies of remote maintenance and safety. Most of the actual work addresses NET, the next step to a demonstration of fusion feasibility. NET is supposed to follow JET, the operating plasma physics experiment of Euratom, on the 1990's. Detailed progress of the work in the past half year is described in this report. (orig./GG)

  4. ALICE pp physics programme

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The physics programme of the ALICE experiment at CERN-LHC comprises besides studies of high-energy heavy-ion collisions measurements of proton-proton interactions at unprecedented energies, too. This paper focuses on the global event characterisation in terms of the multiplicity distribution of charged hadrons and mean transverse momentum. These bulk observables become accessible because the detector features excellent track reconstruction, especially at low transverse momenta. The measurement of strange hadrons is of particular interest since the strange-particle phase-space was found to be suppressed beyond canonical reduction at lower center-of-mass energies and the production mechanism of soft particles is not yet fully understood. Here we benefit in particular from particle identification down to very low transverse momentum, i.e. 100 - 300 MeV/c, giving access to spectra and integrated yields of identified hadrons. Equipped with these features, ALICE will play a complementary role w.r.t. other LHC exper...

  5. SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500   DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Monday 29 July 09:15 - 10:00 R. RATTAZZI Beyond the Standard Model (3/3) 10:15 - 11:00 P. WELLS Experimental test of the SM - LEP (3/3) 11:15 - 12:00 P. WELLS Discussion Session 14:00 - 16:00 R. ASSMANN The CLIC Concept for a Future Particle Collider at the Energy Frontier Tuesday 30 July 09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (1/2) 10:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (1&2/4) Wednesday 31 July  09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (2/2) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (3/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK / F. ANTINORI Discussion Session Thursday 1 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (1/4) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (4/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (1/2) Friday 2 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (2/4) 10:15 ? 11:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (2/2) 11:15 ? 12:00 F. BEDESCHI / T. NAKADA Di...

  6. SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    Main Auditorium, bldg. 500   DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Wednesday 3 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. FAYARD, O. ULLALAND Presentation of the Summer Student Programm 10:15 - 12:00 L. MAIANI Introduction to CERN (1&2/2) 14:00 - 15:00 G. Stevenson Radiation Protection (Council Chamber, bldg.503) Thursday 4 July 09:15 - 11:00 F. CLOSE Introduction to Particle Physics for non Physics Students (1&2/4) 11:15 - 12:00 C. JORAM Particle Detectors (1/5) Friday 5 July 09:15 - 11:00 F. CLOSE Introduction to Particle Physics for non Physics Students (3&4/4) 11:15 - 12:00 Discussion Session Monday 8 July 09:15 - 10:00 R. KLEISS Fundamental Concepts of Particle Physics (1/6) 10:15 - 11:00 C. JORAM Particle Detectors (2/5) 11:15 - 12:00 M. FRANKLIN Classic Experiments (1/3) 14:00 - 15:00 M. LINDROOS Isolde 15:30 - 16:30 M. LINDROOS Visit of the Experiment Tuesday 9 july 09:15 - 10:00 R. KLEISS Fundamental Concepts of Particle Physics (2/6) 10:15 - 11:00 C. JORAM Part...

  7. Photovoltaic programme, edition 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration areas in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in future solar cell technologies as well as in the area of modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links and is completed with a collection of project abstracts.

  8. Programmable electronic synthesized capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A predetermined and variable synthesized capacitance which may be incorporated into the resonant portion of an electronic oscillator for the purpose of tuning the oscillator comprises a programmable operational amplifier circuit. The operational amplifier circuit has its output connected to its inverting input, in a follower configuration, by a network which is low impedance at the operational frequency of the circuit. The output of the operational amplifier is also connected to the noninverting input by a capacitor. The noninverting input appears as a synthesized capacitance which may be varied with a variation in gain-bandwidth product of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain-bandwidth product may, in turn, be varied with a variation in input set current with a digital to analog converter whose output is varied with a command word. The output impedance of the circuit may also be varied by the output set current. This circuit may provide very small ranges in oscillator frequency with relatively large control voltages unaffected by noise.

  9. FPGAs for software programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Hannig, Frank; Ziener, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book makes powerful Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and reconfigurable technology accessible to software engineers by covering different state-of-the-art high-level synthesis approaches (e.g., OpenCL and several C-to-gates compilers). It introduces FPGA technology, its programming model, and how various applications can be implemented on FPGAs without going through low-level hardware design phases. Readers will get a realistic sense for problems that are suited for FPGAs and how to implement them from a software designer’s point of view. The authors demonstrate that FPGAs and their programming model reflect the needs of stream processing problems much better than traditional CPU or GPU architectures, making them well-suited for a wide variety of systems, from embedded systems performing sensor processing to large setups for Big Data number crunching. This book serves as an invaluable tool for software designers and FPGA design engineers who are interested in high design productivity through behavi...

  10. Summer Student Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Date Time Title Speaker 05/07/2006 09:15 - 10:00 Presentation of the Summer Student Programme F. CERUTTI Information on Computing Rules D. HEAGERTY Workshops presentation O. ULLALAND 10:15 - 11:00 Introduction to CERN J. ENGELEN 11:15 Film on CERN 11:00 Introduction to Particle Physics F. CLOSE 11:15 - 12:00 Accelerators (1/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 12:00 Discussion Session 7/07/2006 09:15 - 11:00 Introduction to Particle Physics F. CLOSE 11:15 - 12:00 Accelerators (2/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 12:00 Discussion Session 09:15 - 10:00 Accelerators (3/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 10:15 - 12:00 Detectors (1-2/5) O. ULLALAND 12:00 Discussion Session 11/07/2006 09:15 - 10:00 Accelerators (4/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 10:15 - 11:00 Detectors (3/5) O. ULLALAND 11:15 - 12:00 Introduction to Nuclear Physics (1/4) P. CHOMAZ P. CHOMAZ 10:15 - 11:00 Accelerators (5/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 11:15 - 12:00 Detectors (4/5) O. ULLALAND 12:00 Discus...

  11. Summer Student Lecture Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 More Information DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Wednesday 7 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Fayard, O. Ullaland, D. Heagerty (CERN) Programme Presentation Workshops presentation Information on Computing Rules 10:15 - 11:00 R. Aymar (CERN) Introduction to CERN (1/2) 11:15 - 12:00 J. Engelen (CERN) Introduction to CERN (2/2) 15:00 - 16:30 H. Menzel (CERN) An Introduction to Radiation Protection DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Thursday 8 july 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (1/4) 10:15 - 11:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (2/4) 11:15 - 12:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Fundamental questions in modern nuclear physics: The challenge of exotic nuclei (1/2) DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Friday 9 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (3/4) 10:15 - 11:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Fundamental questions in modern nuclear physics: The challenge of exotic nuclei (2/2) 11:15 - 12:00 P....

  12. Management and Communication programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2005-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of three new courses in the Management and Communication programme: 1.     Managing Time (Open to all Staff Members) The objectives are: To enhance your personal effectiveness through better organisation skills To acquire ways of making the most of your time through improved work habits To reduce stress For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/S8E_e.asp 2.     Service Orientation (Open to all Staff Members working in a service-related function) The objectives are: To understand the key elements in an effective client/service provider relationship To develop a client focused approach to providing services For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/serv_e.asp 3.   Introduction to Leadership (Open to Staff in Career Paths E & above, including newly appointed supervisors and Sect...

  13. Management and Communication programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2005-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of three new courses in the Management and Communication programme: 1.     Managing Time (Open to all Staff Members) The objectives are: To enhance your personal effectiveness through better organisation skills To acquire ways of making the most of your time through improved work habits To reduce stress For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/S8E_e.asp 2.     Service Orientation (Open to all Staff Members working in a service-related function) The objectives are: To understand the key elements in an effective client/service provider relationship To develop a client focused approach to providing services For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/serv_e.asp 3.   Introduction to Leadership (Open to Staff in Career Paths E & above, including newly appointed supervisors and Secti...

  14. Scientific Programme Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  15. Mechanistic and single-dose in vivo therapeutic studies of Cry5B anthelmintic action against hookworms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are one of the most important parasitic infections of humans worldwide, considered by some second only to malaria in associated disease burden. Single-dose mass drug administration for soil-transmitted helminths, including hookworms, relies primarily on albendazole, which has variable efficacy. New and better hookworm therapies are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein Cry5B has potential as a novel anthelmintic and has been extensively studied in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we ask whether single-dose Cry5B can provide therapy against a hookworm infection and whether C. elegans mechanism-of-action studies are relevant to hookworms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test whether the C. elegans invertebrate-specific glycolipid receptor for Cry5B is relevant in hookworms, we fed Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm adults Cry5B with and without galactose, an inhibitor of Cry5B-C. elegans glycolipid interactions. As with C. elegans, galactose inhibits Cry5B toxicity in A. ceylanicum. Furthermore, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, which controls one of the most important Cry5B signal transduction responses in C. elegans, is functionally operational in hookworms. A. ceylanicum hookworms treated with Cry5B up-regulate p38 MAPK and knock down of p38 MAPK activity in hookworms results in hypersensitivity of A. ceylanicum adults to Cry5B attack. Single-dose Cry5B is able to reduce by >90% A. ceylanicum hookworm burdens from infected hamsters, in the process eliminating hookworm egg shedding in feces and protecting infected hamsters from blood loss. Anthelmintic activity is increased about 3-fold, eliminating >97% of the parasites with a single 3 mg dose (∼30 mg/kg, by incorporating a simple formulation to help prevent digestion in the acidic stomach of the host mammal. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies advance the development of Cry5B protein as a potent, safe single

  16. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  17. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Ravinet

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN infection can impair milk production (MP in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1 the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2 herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR, faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd. Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average. This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  18. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  19. Therapeutic effects of exercise-based treatment programme on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder%小脑运动训练对注意缺陷多动障碍患儿疗效的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 文飞球; 张佳楠; 肖金利; 张蔚; 周克英; 陈言钊

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨小脑运动训练(DDAT)对不同亚型注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)伴直立平衡功能异常患儿的治疗作用.方法 对符合美国《精神障碍诊断与统计手册(第4版)》ADHD诊断标准,伴直立平衡功能失调的91例ADHD患儿,其中,注意缺陷型ADHD(ADHD-I) 43例、多动-冲动型ADHD(ADHD-HI) 15例、混合型ADHD(ADHD-C) 33例均予DDAT治疗6个月,分别于DDAT治疗前、开始治疗后3个月和6个月、治疗结束后3个月对各亚型进行SNAP-Ⅳ量表评估,治疗前后进行直立平衡功能、Conners父母症状问卷分析.结果 ADHD-I、ADHD-HI、ADHD-C的注意缺陷评分治疗前(1.99±0.34、0.96 ±0.31、2.17 ±0.31)均高于治疗结束后3个月(1.19 ±0.45、0.81 ±0.28、1.32 ±0.37),ADHD-I和ADHD-C差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).ADHD-I、ADHD-HI、ADHD-C治疗前和治疗结束后3个月的多动/冲动评分分别为0.81 ±0.35、2.01±0.35、1.96±0.33vs.0.45±0.33、0.79 ±0.41、1.10 ±0.35,各亚型差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).Conners父母症状问卷调查中,品行问题(1.11 ±0.48vs.0.76 ±0.44)、学习问题(1.97 ±0.58vs.1.60±0.67)、身心问题(0.61±0.49 vs.0.29±0.35)、多动-冲动(1.46±0.69vs.1.09 ±0.55)、焦虑(1.05±0.63vs.0.62±0.47)评分较治疗前均有显著降低,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).平衡功能测试仪检测,治疗后平衡功能失调改善的有效率87.9%,亚型之间有效率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 DDAT对有直立平衡功能异常的ADHD患儿安全有效,针对改善小脑功能的运动训练能明显改善ADHD患儿的症状和平衡功能.%Objective To evaluate the effects of an exercise-based treatment programme (dyslexia,dyspraxia and attention-deficit treatment,DDAT) on various subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Method Ninety-one ADHD children with standing balance dysfunction (ADHD-I 43,ADHD-HI 15 and ADHD-C 33) were given DDAT for 6 months,the efficacy of DDAT was

  20. Automatic TLI recognition system, programmer`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the software of an automatic target recognition system (version 14), from a programmer`s point of view. The intent is to provide information that will help people who wish to modify the software. In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a user`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide. 2 refs.

  1. External quality audit programmes for radiotherapy dosimetry and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely accepted that individual radiotherapy centres should have in place a comprehensive quality assurance programme on all the necessary steps for the delivery of safe accurate treatment. As regards the performance of radiotherapy equipment and dosimetry, the most widely used process of external checking has been dosimetry intercomparison, comparing independently measured doses to locally stated doses in a variety of conditions. These have been at a number of different levels: from basic beam calibration; up to and including exercises employing anatomic or pseudo-anatomic phantoms and incorporating tests of treatment planning equipment and procedures. Some of these have been one-off exercises, whilst others are continuing, or have given rise to on-going quality audit programmes on a national (or wider) basis. A number of these have evolved, or are evolving, into audits which include external checking of the achievement of standards in performance of treatment equipment, as well as in the dosimetry in each institution involved. The principles and methodologies of the various types of external checking programmes for treatment equipment and dosimetry are reviewed, covering the experimental approaches and the tolerances applied. What is included in a given programme will, of necessity, depend on the resources available and the purpose of the exercise. Methods and tolerances must be matched to endpoint. Tolerance levels must take into account the experimental uncertainties of the measurement methods employed. Finally, external audit can only be used to complement, and in conjunction with, institutional quality assurance programmes and not as a substitute for them

  2. Anthelmintic action of Morinda citrifolia (noni on Heterakis gallinarumAção anti-helmíntica da Morinda citrifolia (noni sobre Heterakis gallinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Rodrigues Barros Brito

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The anthelmintic effect of Morinda citrifolia (noni on Heterakis gallinarum was evaluated in chicken naturally infected. The anthelmintic activity in vitro was determined in adults helminthes in disposable petri dishes, containing Tyrode solution, pre warmed in which aqueous or ethanolic extracts were added. The material was maintained in a BOD at 37ºC (±1. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts presented the following concentrations: 1.69; 3.37; 6.74; 13.48 e 26.96 mg.mL-1 and 4.17; 8.34; 16.68; 33.36 e 66.72 mg.mL-1, respectively. It was used as positive control, a solution of tetrahidrate citrate of piperazin in the concentration of 50 mg/mL. The anthelmintic activity in vivo was determined by the administration of aqueous or ethanolic extracts (10 mL/Kg/PV during three consecutive days. The feces were collected during four days in each group, washed in water and sifted. In the fifth day post-treatment, the chickens were slaughtered and necropsy was performed in order to count and identify remaining helminthes. The data were analyzed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. In the in vivo test there was no significant difference between the aqueous extract and the control group (water (p>0.05 in the elimination of H. gallinarum. The ethanolic extract presented an elimination of 20.35%, differing statistically from the control group (p A ação anti-helmíntica da Morinda citrifolia (noni sobre Heterakis gallinarum foi avaliada em galinhas poedeiras naturalmente infectadas. A atividade anti-helmíntica in vitro foi determinada em helmintos adultos colocados em placas de petri descartáveis, contendo solução Tyrode pré-aquecida, nas quais foi adicionado o extrato aquoso ou etanólico e mantidas em BOD a uma temperatura de 37oC (±1. Os extratos aquoso e etanólico foram usados nas seguintes concentrações: 1,69; 3,37; 6,74; 13,48 e 26,96 mg.mL-1 e 4,17; 8,34; 16,68; 33,36 e 66,72 mg.mL-1, respectivamente. Como controle positivo usou-se uma solu

  3. Eficacia antihelmíntica de tres endectocidas administrados por vía oral en caballos Anthelmintic efficacy of three endectocides administered by oral route in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. RUBILAR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar la eficacia antihelmíntica de los endectocidas ivermectina, doramectina y moxidectina sobre el control del parasitismo gastrointestinal en equinos, se seleccionaron 20 caballos clínicamente sanos con recuentos fecales positivos a huevos de nemátodos. Los caballos fueron distribuidos homogéneamente considerando el peso vivo y el recuento fecal de huevos en 4 grupos de 5 animales cada uno. Grupo 1: control, sin tratamiento antihelmíntico; Grupo 2: tratados con ivermectina en dosis de 0,2 mg/kg vía oral; Grupo 3 tratados con doramectina inyectable , en dosis 0.2 mg/kg, reformulado mediante caolín y miel de abejas para la administración vía oral; Grupo 4: tratados con moxidectina , en dosis 0,4 mg/kg vía oral. De cada uno de los caballos se obtuvieron muestras de heces para recuento de huevos y coprocultivos, antes del tratamiento y a los 3, 6, 10, 20, 40, 60,90, 105, 125, 145 y 175 días post tratamiento. Los resultados obtenidos indican una reducción significativa (pIn naturally gastrointestinal nematodes infected horses the anthelmintic efficacy of the endectocides ivermectin (IVM, doramectin (DRM and moxidectin (MXD was evaluated. Animals were evenly distributed to 4 experimental groups: Group I, non treated horses, control; Group II treated with an oral dose of 0.2 mg/kg of IVM by oral route; Group III treated with a reformulated oral dose of 0,2 mg/kg of DRM; Group IV treated with an oral dose of 0.4 mg/kg of MXD. Faecal samples for parasites eggs count and larval cultures were collected before treatment at 3,6,10,20,40,60,90,105,125,145 and 175 days postreatment. Results obtained showed a significant reduction (p <0,05 in the faecal eggs count in treated group, from day 3 to day 145 post treatment. This level of significance remained until day 175 post treatment only in the group treated with moxidectin

  4. In vitro evaluation of anthelmintic property of ethno-veterinary plant extracts against the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyathilakan, N; Murali, K; Anandaraj, A; Abdul Basith, S

    2012-04-01

    The present study was envisaged to evaluate the efficacy of ethno-medicinal plant aqueous extracts such as Allium sativum, Lawsonia inermis, and Opuntia ficus indica in vitro in comparison with the chemotherapeutic agent, Oxyclozanide on Fasciola gigantica adults. The efficacy was evaluated by gross visual motility and mortality of F. gigantica with score index, light microscopic examination of carmine stained flukes and histopathology of treated flukes. Based on the in vitro trials conducted using above plant extracts at 1 percent, 2.5 percent and 5 percent concentration, the extracts of O. ficus indica showed flukicidal effect at 2.5 and 5% concentration. However A. sativum and L. inermis were effective at 5% concentration only. The study indicated the potential for developing herbal-based anthelmintics to control F. gigantica in livestock. PMID:23543611

  5. A comparison of in vitro tests and a faecal egg count reduction test in detecting anthelmintic resistance in horse strongyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Barnes, E.H.;

    1999-01-01

    This study reports a comparison between faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA) for detecting anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyles. Resistance to benzimidazoles was demonstrated in 33 of 42 (79%) farms tested by FECRT and in 32 (62......%) of the 52 farms tested by EHA. As the reference strain used was not fully susceptible to benzimidazoles it was not possible to determine the level of resistance by LDA. Pyrantel resistance was indicated on three of 15 farms by faecal egg count reduction. Resistance was also indicated by LDA for one...... of these farms. In addition resistance was indicated by LDA on two more farms that were not tested by FECRT. Further testing is needed to confirm if these findings are truly indicative of resistance. Generally, correlations between the tests were poor and it was not possible to use the outcome of one test...

  6. The IAEA isotope and radiation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA isotope and radiation programme is characterized by the very large number of topics dealt with and the broad range of activities where nuclear methods and techniques are utilized. The main activities of the programme can be grouped into: food and agriculture, human health and life science, industry and physical science, and laboratory services. Radioisotope and radiation based techniques are applied to such areas as plant breeding, insect and pest control, soil fertility studies, animal health and production, studies on the fate of pesticide residues and radionuclides in the food chain, and food preservation. General objectives of the second group of activities are to assist hospitals and research institutes in developing member states in the introduction and development of radionuclide tracers in medical diagnosis and research, to promote use of radiation therapy for cancer treatment, etc. The major objective of the third group is to foster research and application of nuclear methodologies for industrial applications in developing countries. The Agency's Laboratories at Seibersdorf and in Vienna and the Monaco Laboratory play a relevant role in providing laboratory services as a back-up for various programmes, and in the training of scientists from developing countries. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Anthelmintic effects of Prosopis laevigata n-hexanic extract against Haemonchus contortus in artificially infected gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesús-Gabino, A F; Mendoza-de Gives, P; Salinas-Sánchez, D O; López-Arellano, M E; Liébano-Hernández, E; Hernández-Velázquez, V M; Valladares-Cisneros, G

    2010-03-01

    The anthelmintic effect of Prosopis laevigata (mezquite) n-hexanic extract was evaluated against Haemonchus contortus endoparasitic stages in artificially infected gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Prosopis laevigata leaves were collected from the Sierra de Huautla, Ecological Reserve of the Biosphere, in Morelos State, Mexico; dehydrated under shade and macerated with n-hexane for 3 days, followed by distillation for 8 h. This procedure was repeated three times and the final extract was kept at 4 degrees C. The in vivo effect of the plant extract was evaluated in gerbils artificially infected with H. contortus. Plant extract concentration was 40 mg/ml. Three groups of gerbils were as follows: group 1 (n = 7), P. laevigata extract at 100 microl intraperitoneally (IP); group 2 (n = 6), control--Tween 20 in water at a single dose of 100 microl IP; group 3 (n = 8) also served as a control, receiving water only, to determine the mortality due to causes other than the plant extract. An additional group of seven gerbils (group 4) was administered fenbendazole, as a positive control. Five days later the animals were euthanized and stomach and mucosa removed to quantify the nematodes. Data were analysed using the Student's t-test to compare the mean of nematodes obtained in groups 1, 2 and 3. The parasite population in the plant extract treated group 1 was reduced by 42.5% (P < 0.05) with respect to the control group 2; and when control group 3 was used for comparison the parasitic reduction was estimated as 53.11%. This study shows the in vivo anthelmintic effect of P. laevigata n-hexane extract for the first time, using gerbils as an in vivo model, with potential use in sheep.

  8. Anthelmintic resistance in Northern Ireland. II: Variations in nematode control practices between lowland and upland sheep flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, C; Barley, J P; Edgar, H W J; Ellison, S E; Hanna, R E B; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2013-02-18

    A questionnaire to obtain information on nematode control practices and sheep management was sent to over 1000 farmers in Northern Ireland. Replies were received from 305 flock owners, and data from 252 of them were analysed. Farms were divided into lowland and upland areas. Sizes of pasture and stocking rates on lowland and upland farms were 59.5 hectares, 6.99 sheep/hectare and 62.9 hectares and 10.01 sheep/hectare, respectively. Mean drenching rates for lambs and adults were 2.33 and 2.44, respectively, in lowland flocks and 2.73 and 2.71, respectively, in upland flocks. Between 2008 and 2011, the most frequently identified compounds in use were benzimidazoles and moxidectin in lowland flocks, and benzimidazoles and avermectins in upland flocks. Over the same period the most frequently identified commercial formulations were Tramazole(®), Panacur(®) and Allverm(®) (white drench), Levacide(®) (yellow drench), Oramec(®) (clear drench; avermectin), Cydectin(®) (clear drench; moxidectin) and Monepantel(®) (orange drench). Most respondents (56.35%) treated their lambs at weaning and the most common time to treat ewes was identified to be pre-mating (67.86% of respondents). The results of the questionnaire survey revealed that lowland annual drench frequency was 2.33 and 2.44 in lambs and ewes, respectively, although drench frequencies were higher in upland flocks: 2.73 and 2.71 for lambs and ewes, respectively. Annual drench rotation was practiced by 43.96% of flock owners, but whether this was true rotation or pseudo-rotation (i.e., substitution of one anthelmintic product by another product belonging to the same chemical group of anthelmintics) could not be explicitly determined. PMID:23228496

  9. Evaluation of In vitro Anthelmintic Activity, Total Phenolic Content and Cytotoxic Activity of Crinum latifolium L. (Family: Amaryllidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Crinum latifolium is a widely used plant in Asian folk and traditional medicine.In the present study, we have tried to find out the anthelmintic activity, total phenolic contents and cytotoxicity of the methanolic extract of the target plant. Methods: Anthelmintic activity was assessed applying five different concentrations of the plant extract and recording the time of paralysis and death. Total phenolic contents were determined using Folin-Ciocaltu method, using Gallic acid as standard; while brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT method was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the plant extract, where vincristine sulphate and DMSO was used as positive and negative control respectively. Result: The lowest time for paralysis and death of worms, for test sample at highest concentration (50mg/ml, were found 24±0.45 and 46.4±0.60 min respectively, which gradually increased with the decrease of concentration. On the other hand, albendazole, which was used as standard, caused paralysis and death of worms at 56.2±0.20 min and 77.4±0.24 min respectively; whereas no mortality of the worms was observed, when distilled water was used as control. The crude methanolic extract exhibited lower amount of total phenolic content (17.50±2.64 mg/ml. In case of cytotoxicity measurement, the crude methanolic extract showed positive result (with LC50 15.652 µg/ml compared to standard Vincristine sulphate (0.839 µg/ml; which indicated that the leaves of Crinum latifolium possess mild cytotoxic principles. Conclusion: Therefore, further studies are suggested to evaluate the possible mechanism of action and the active compounds responsible for the biological activities of the plant extract.

  10. CERN openlab Summer Student Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN openlab is currently taking applications for its summer student programme. The closing date for applications is 30 March 2012.   The openlab Summer Student Programme is open for applications from bachelor, master and PhD students in computer science and physics. Successful applicants will spend 8 weeks at CERN, during the period June to September 2012, to work with some of the latest hardware and software technologies. The programme is more than just a summer at CERN: it can lead to follow-on projects at the home institute and may even inspire the students to become entrepreneurs in cutting-edge computing technologies. A series of lectures will be given by experts in various domains of CERN related high-throughput computing. Study tours to external companies and universities as well as to CERN facilities are also part of the programme. Please visit www.cern.ch/openlab-students for more information.

  11. CERN openlab summer student programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    CERN openlab is currently taking applications for its summer student programme. The closing date for applications is 31 March 2013.   The openlab summer student programme is open for applications from bachelor, master and PhD students in computer science and physics. Successful applicants will spend 9 weeks at CERN, during the period from June to September 2013, working with some of the latest hardware and software technologies. The programme is more than just a summer at CERN: it can lead to follow-on projects at the home institute and may even inspire students to become entrepreneurs in cutting-edge computing technologies. A series of lectures will be given by experts in various domains of CERN-related high-throughput computing. Study tours of external companies and universities as well as of CERN facilities are also part of the programme. Please visit the CERN openlab website for more information.

  12. The internationalisation of postgraduate programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Flemming Kobberøe; Andersen, Ole K.; Bak, Thomas;

    2002-01-01

    for the international students are presented and discussed in terms of e.g. the teamwork situation, professional and cultural differences. A student enrolment programme, implemented through the provision of scholarships, jointly paid by government and industry funds is presented...

  13. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, O. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Tiefenbeck, V. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Duvier, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Qin, A. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Cheney, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Akers, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Roth, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. The Fraunhofer team hypothesized that home occupants with high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostats. In this report, the team discusses results of a project in which the team monitored and compared programmable thermostats with basic thermostats in an affordable housing apartment complex.

  14. Bioenergy in the national forestry programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the national forestry programme is to develop the treatment, utilization and protection of forests in order to increase the employment level in the forestry sector as well as enhance the utilization of the forests for recreation purposes. Increment of the utilization of wood energy is one of the means for meeting the objective of the programme. In addition to the silvicultural reasons, one of the main reasons for increasing of the utilization of energy wood is the possibilities of energywood-related small and medium-sized entrepreneurship to employ people. The emission reduction requirements of the Kyoto summit offer also a reason for the increment of the utilization of wood energy, because the carbon dioxide emissions of biofuels are not included in the emission share of the country. The techno-economically viable unutilized wood energy potential of clearcuts has been estimated to 3.7 million m3 and that of the integrated harvesting of first thinnings 2.3 million m3. On the basis of these figures the latest objective of the programme has been set to increase the energy wood harvesting and utilization to 5.0 million m3/a up to the year 2010. The main means listed in the programme are: Development of integrated harvesting methods, by which it is possible to produce energy wood economically (price less than 45 FIM/MWh) as a byproduct of commercial timber; The environmental support paid to the forest chips purchasers; Bioenergy capacity developed in the forest industry; Social support for product development and entrepreneurhip in the field of bioenergy; Reduction of the value added taxes of the end users of split firewood and wood briquettes

  15. The MERLIN programme: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MERLIN rig at the Northern Research Laboratories, Springfields, was intended to investigate the deformation behaviour of Zircaloy fuel rod cladding under conditions approximating those of a large break Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). In this rig, an assembly of electrically heated fuel rod simulators (6x6 cluster) was subjected to a temperature transient simulating that predicted to occur in a LOCA, including the initiation of bottom reflooding at a suitable stage. The main aim of the MERLIN programme was to investigate the extent of sub-channel blockage produced during clad deformation under conditions of high mechanical restraint, in two phase cooling conditions. The programme was to consist of four test bundles, the final two of which would be used for ballooning experiments in which high sub-channel blockage would be produced by a suitable choice of test conditions. A major part of the programme was to provide validation data for reactor accident codes used in the CEGB clad ballooning safety case for Sizewell B. This report, one of a series which describes the programme in detail, is an overview of the MERLIN programme. It provides background, summarises those reports which discuss the programme in detail and draws attention to those areas where useful information has been obtained. (author)

  16. Further evaluation in field tests of the activity of three anthelmintics (fenbendazole, oxibendazole, and pyrantel pamoate) against the ascarid Parascaris equorum in horse foals on eight farms in Central Kentucky (2009-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Eugene T; Tolliver, Sharon C; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Collins, Sandra S

    2011-10-01

    The activity of three anthelmintics (fenbendazole-FBZ; oxibendazole-OBZ; and pyrantel pamoate-PRT) was ascertained against the ascarid Parascaris equorum in horse foals on eight farms in Central Kentucky (2009-2010) in field tests. A total of 316 foals were treated, and 168 (53.2%) were passing ascarid eggs on the day of treatment. Evaluation of drug efficacy was determined qualitatively by comparing the number of foals passing ascarid eggs in their feces before and after treatment. The main purpose was to obtain data on current activity of these compounds against ascarids. Additionally, the objective was to compare these findings with those from earlier data on the efficacy of these three compounds on nematodes in foals in this geographical area. Efficacies (average) for the foals ranged for FBZ (10 mg/kg) from 50% to 100% (80%), for OBZ (10 mg/kg) from 75% to 100% (97%), and for PRT at 1× (6.6 mg base/kg) from 0% to 71% (2%) and at 2× (13.2 mg base/kg) 0% to 0% (0%). Although the efficacy varied among the drugs, combined data for all farms indicated a significant reduction of ascarid infections for FBZ (p < 0.0001) and OBZ (p < 0.0001) but not for PRT (p = 0.0953).

  17. Assessing the Financial Viability of Academic Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews and examines approaches to determining the financial viability of academic programmes as a critical component of assessing a programme's overall sustainability. Key to assessing the financial viability of a programme is understanding the teaching activities required to deliver the programme and the cost of those activities. A…

  18. NDA National Graduate Programme 'nucleargraduates'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to outline the NDA National Graduate Programme (nuclear graduates). The NDA has a remit under the Energy Act (2004) 'to maintain and develop the skills for decommissioning and nuclear clean-up'. Although current research is now being reviewed, there is significant evidence to suggest that the age profile in the Site Licence Companies is skewed towards older workers and there is likely to be a skill shortage in 3-5 years. As nuclear clean-up is a national issue; skill shortages also become a national issue in a very real sense. In addition, evidence suggests that the industry needs to be constantly challenged in order to achieve its targets for decommissioning. The NDA has a unique position under the Act. It is both a strategic overseer and direct employer. To this end the 'National Graduate Programme' is aligned to both the NDA's previous succession plans and the needs of the industry. Industry needs leadership that challenges the status quo and moves the UK nuclear industry to become best in class; Industry needs a dedicated to programme to address skills shortages and difficult to recruit areas such as, but not exclusively, estimators, schedulers, contract managers, site engineers, decommissioning technicians, safety monitors; The NDA has indicated a 'commercial and politically savvy' cohort is required to meet its own internal challenges and to ensure sustainability in its own workforce, and to be sensitive to the needs of customers and suppliers alike; Need to create a more diversified workforce in the nuclear industry and also plan for new skills evolving from research and development breakthroughs; Need to ensure that Tier 1, 2, 3 and 4 contractors invest in the leadership and skills for the future. World Class - delivery will be benchmarked against UK based multinational companies who operate in a global graduate attraction and development marketplace. The graduates targeted will be from leading institutions and will have a blend of

  19. Work as treatment? The effectiveness of re-employment programmes for unemployed persons with severe mental health problems on health and quality of life: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Rogier M; Carlier, Bouwine E; Schuring, Merel; Burdorf, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Given the importance of unemployment in health inequalities, re-employment of unemployed persons into paid employment may be a powerful intervention to increase population health. It is suggested that integrated programmes of vocational reintegration with health promotion may improve the likelihood of entering paid employment of long-term unemployed persons with severe mental health problems. However, the current evidence regarding whether entering paid employment of this population will contribute to a reduction in health problems remains unambiguous. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effects of re-employment programmes with regard to health and quality of life. Three electronic databases were searched (up to March 2015). Two reviewers independently selected articles and assessed the risk of bias on prespecified criteria. Measures of effects were pooled and random effect meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials was conducted, where possible. Sixteen studies were included. Nine studies described functioning as an outcome measure. Five studies with six comparisons provided enough information to calculate a pooled effect size of -0.01 (95% CI -0.13 to 0.11). Fifteen studies presented mental health as an outcome measure of which six with comparable psychiatric symptoms resulted in a pooled effect size of 0.20 (95% CI -0.23 to 0.62). Thirteen studies described quality of life as an outcome measure. Seven of these studies, describing eight comparisons, provided enough information to calculate a pooled effect size of 0.28 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.52). Re-employment programmes have a modest positive effect on the quality of life. No evidence was found for any effect of these re-employment programmes on functioning and mental health.

  20. Work as treatment? The effectiveness of re-employment programmes for unemployed persons with severe mental health problems on health and quality of life: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Rogier M; Carlier, Bouwine E; Schuring, Merel; Burdorf, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Given the importance of unemployment in health inequalities, re-employment of unemployed persons into paid employment may be a powerful intervention to increase population health. It is suggested that integrated programmes of vocational reintegration with health promotion may improve the likelihood of entering paid employment of long-term unemployed persons with severe mental health problems. However, the current evidence regarding whether entering paid employment of this population will contribute to a reduction in health problems remains unambiguous. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effects of re-employment programmes with regard to health and quality of life. Three electronic databases were searched (up to March 2015). Two reviewers independently selected articles and assessed the risk of bias on prespecified criteria. Measures of effects were pooled and random effect meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials was conducted, where possible. Sixteen studies were included. Nine studies described functioning as an outcome measure. Five studies with six comparisons provided enough information to calculate a pooled effect size of -0.01 (95% CI -0.13 to 0.11). Fifteen studies presented mental health as an outcome measure of which six with comparable psychiatric symptoms resulted in a pooled effect size of 0.20 (95% CI -0.23 to 0.62). Thirteen studies described quality of life as an outcome measure. Seven of these studies, describing eight comparisons, provided enough information to calculate a pooled effect size of 0.28 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.52). Re-employment programmes have a modest positive effect on the quality of life. No evidence was found for any effect of these re-employment programmes on functioning and mental health. PMID:26740687

  1. Structured patient education: the X-PERT Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Trudi; Whitham, Claire

    2009-09-01

    The X-PERT Programme seeks to develop the knowledge, skills and confidence in diabetes treatment for health-care professionals and diabetes self-management. The programme trains health-care professionals to deliver the six-week structured patient education programme to people with diabetes. Over 850 health-care professionals have attended the X-PERT 'Train the Trainer' course and audit results document improved job satisfaction and competence in diabetes treatment and management. National audit statistics for X-PERT implementation to people with diabetes illustrate excellent attendance rates, improved diabetes control, reduced weight, blood pressure, cholesterol and waist circumference and more confidence in self-managing diabetes that has impacted positively on quality of life.

  2. In vitro anthelmintic effect of Acacia gaumeri, Havardia albicans and Quebracho tannin extracts on a mexican strain of Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae

    OpenAIRE

    G. Hernández Orduño; J.F.J. Torres Acosta; C. A. Sandoval Castro; A.J. Aguilar Caballero; R.R. Reyes Ramirez; H Hoste; J.A. Calderón Quintana

    2008-01-01

    The in vitro anthelmintic (AH) effect of Acacia gaumeri (AG), Havardia albicans (HA) and Quebracho tannin extracts on a Mexican strain of Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae was evaluated. Water/acetone extracts of two tropical plants (AG and HA) and a commercial tannin preparation (Schinopsis sp, Quebracho) were screened to evaluate the in vitro AH effect using the larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. The Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae originated from a donor sheep (FES-Cuautitlán, UNAM). The...

  3. Comparative evaluation of anthelmintic and antibacterial activities in leaves and fruits of Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) desr. and Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars) choisy

    OpenAIRE

    C. Tharachand; C Immanuel Selvaraj; Z. Abraham

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity and antibacterial activity of the extracts from the leaves and fruits of Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars) Choisy and Garcinia cambogia(Gaertn.) Desr. using the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg/mL) of various extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water were tested. Albendazole at the concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/mL was used as the standard reference. Signi...

  4. New Euratom research programme 2002-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    The European Union funded research is carried out under two distinct programmes; the European Community Framework Programme (EC Programme) covering research, technological development and demonstration activities; and the Euratom Framework Programme covering research and training activities in the nuclear sector. The contents, funding and timetable of the sixth Euratom Framework Programme (FP6) are shortly reviewed in this paper. The European Union (EU) FP6 for the years 2002 - 2006 starts at the beginning of the year 2003.

  5. Evaluation of the FWF Doctoral Programme (DK Programme)

    OpenAIRE

    Ecker, Brigitte; Kottmann, Andrea; Meyer, Susanne; Brandl, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    In the winter term 2013 a total of 27,634 doctoral students were enrolled at Austrian universities and a total of 2,165 students obtained a doctoral degree; thereof 204 (9.4%) students graduated in a PhD Programme. In total 7,158 doctoral students were employed at Austrian universities in 2012. These numbers include those doctoral students with temporary positions who were funded by competitive means, as provided by the funding programmes of the FWF. In total the FWF as the most important fun...

  6. Programmable automation systems in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish safety authority (STUK) requires plant specific PSAs, and quantitative safety goals are set on different levels. The reliability analysis is more problematic when critical safety functions are realized by applying programmable automation systems. Conventional modeling techniques do not necessarily apply to the analysis of these systems, and the quantification seems to be impossible. However, it is important to analyze contribution of programmable automation systems to the plant safety and PSA is the only method with system analytical view over the safety. This report discusses the applicability of PSA methodology (fault tree analyses, failure modes and effects analyses) in the analysis of programmable automation systems. The problem of how to decompose programmable automation systems for reliability modeling purposes is discussed. In addition to the qualitative analysis and structural reliability modeling issues, the possibility to evaluate failure probabilities of programmable automation systems is considered. One solution to the quantification issue is the use of expert judgements, and the principles to apply expert judgements is discussed in the paper. A framework to apply expert judgements is outlined. Further, the impacts of subjective estimates on the interpretation of PSA results are discussed. (orig.) (13 refs.)

  7. Comparison of programme MOBY-DICK with nodal programmes on benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we compare programme MOBY-DICK (which is diffusion difference programme) with nodal programmes no two-dimensional hexagonal benchmark problems for the VVER-type reactors (published by Chao and Shatilla). Nodal results are partly from one's own programme NODRAM and partly from literature. There is presented dependence on lattice pitch by difference programme and influence of boundary conditions (Author)

  8. Comparative evaluation of anthelmintic and antibacterial activities in leaves and fruits of Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn. desr. and Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars choisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tharachand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity and antibacterial activity of the extracts from the leaves and fruits of Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars Choisy and Garcinia cambogia(Gaertn. Desr. using the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg/mL of various extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water were tested. Albendazole at the concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/mL was used as the standard reference. Significant anthelmintic effects of the fruits and leaves of G. cambogia and G. indica (P<0.05 were observed and the results were expressed in terms of paralysis and death time. All the extracts showed the dose dependent paralysis and death of earthworms. Among all the extracts used, methanol extract exhibited the highest activity. G. cambogia leaf extract (50 mg/mL had 30% faster paralysis effect on earthworms than the standard reference. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extracts of the fruits and leaves showed significant (P<0.05 activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. At a concentration of 500 µg/mL, G. indica fruit extract presented higher zones of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Hence, it could be concluded that the leaves and fruits of G. indica and G. cambogia contained active anthelmintic and antibacterial phytochemicals, which could find their applications in pharmaceuticals.

  9. A single amino acid substitution in isozyme GST mu in Triclabendazole resistant Fasciola hepatica (Sligo strain) can substantially influence the manifestation of anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, V; Estein, S; Ortiz, P; Luchessi, P; Solana, V; Solana, H

    2015-12-01

    The helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica causes fascioliasis in human and domestic ruminants. Economic losses due to this infection are estimated in U$S 2000-3000 million yearly. The most common method of control is the use of anthelmintic drugs. However, there is an increased concern about the growing appearance of F. hepatica resistance to Triclabendazole (TCBZ), an anthelmintic with activity over adult and young flukes. F. hepatica has eight Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) isozymes, which are enzymes involved in the detoxification of a wide range of substrates through chemical conjugation with glutathione. In the present work we identified and characterized the GST mu gene isolated from the TCBZ-susceptible and TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica strains. Total RNA was transcribed into cDNA by reverse transcription and a 657 bp amplicon corresponding to the GST mu gene was obtained. The comparative genetic analysis of the GST mu gene of the TCBZ susceptible strain (Cullompton) and TCBZ resistant strain (Sligo) showed three nucleotide changes and one amino acid change at position 143 in the GST mu isozyme of the TCBZ-resistant strain. These results have potential relevance as they contribute better understand the mechanisms that generate resistance to anthelmintics.

  10. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. PMID:21498864

  11. Energy Management Programmes for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    The IEA Policy Pathway publications provide details on how to implement specific recommendations drawn from the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations. This Policy Pathway, jointly produced by the International Energy Agency and the Institute for Industrial Productivity, develops the critical steps for policy makers implementing energy management programmes for industry. Optimising energy use in industry is essential to improve industrial competitiveness and achieve wider societal goals such as energy security, economic recovery and development, climate change mitigation and environmental protection. While there is significant potential to decrease energy consumption in this sector, opportunities to improve energy efficiency are still under-exploited. Energy management programmes have shown to be instrumental in addressing many of the barriers that inhibit wide-scale uptake of energy management in industry. The Policy Pathway builds on lessons learned from country experiences and provides actionable guidance on how to plan and design, implement, evaluate and monitor energy management programmes for industry.

  12. British Energy Operating Experience Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Energy is the major nuclear generator in the U.K. It has a market share varying between 22% and 25% of the total U.K. generation. The fleet of power stations operated by British Energy consists of one 1250 MWe Pressurised Water Reactor, six Advanced Gas Cooled reactor sites, each with two reactor units of 660 MWe, and one coal fired site with four units of 500 Mwe. In early 1999 British Energy set a strategic goal, for all its reactor units, to achieve 'World Class Performance through Cost leadership' by the end of year 2004. This would be measured against the applicable Upper Quartile performance indicators of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). Against this strategic goal six fundamental objectives were identified, one of which was to define, deploy and measure the effectiveness of a world class Operating Experience programme. British Energy has clearly re-defined its Operating Experience programme and, recognised the value of learning from Operating Experience. Commitment to the programme, and communicating the value of an effective OE programme is being clearly demonstrated by all managers throughout the organisation. Making the information easily accessible at the workplace has been achieved via the British Energy intranet, the harder step is to ensure OE is consulted before commencing an assigned task or plant evolution. Early signs of this are encouraging, but a continuous sustained effort will be required for probably the next two years. The full deployment of the OE programme is scheduled to be complete by 2004. There will however be a redefined programme identified by then to incorporate the lessons learnt and to ensure the programme is aligned with the business as it evolves. An analysis of event root causes and precursors since May 2001 will be undertaken in June 2002. These will be compared with data from previous years to ascertain the effect on the number of recurring events. The critical question, 'has this prevented recurring

  13. Algorithmique et langages de programmation

    OpenAIRE

    Arsac, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    Dans les débuts de l'informatique, un cours de programmation consistait essentiellement en une description des organigrammes, comme représentation graphique de la structure d'un programme (tellement embrouillée qu'il fallait bien en passer par là), et la liste des instructions d'un langage : les constantes entières s'écrivent avec des chiffres sans point décimal ni partie exposant, un identificateur... l'instruction LIRE, etc. Pour le reste, l'apprenti programmeur devait se débrouiller tout s...

  14. Accelerator Neutrino Programme at FERMILAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerator neutrino programme in the USA consists primarily of the Fermilab neutrino programme. Currently, Fermilab operates two neutrino beamlines, the Booster neutrino beamline and the NuMI neutrino beamline and is the planning stages for a third neutrino beam to send neutrinos to DUSEL. The experiments in the Booster neutrino beamline are miniBooNE, SciBooNE and in the future microBooNE, whereas in the NuMI beamline we have MINOS, ArgoNut, MINERVA and coming soon NOA. The major experiment in the beamline to DUSEL will be LBNE. (author)

  15. The ESO Observing Programmes Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, B. E.

    1982-06-01

    Since 1978 the ESO Observing Programmes Committee (OPC) has "the function to inspect and rank the proposals made for observing programmes at La Silla, and thereby to advise the Director General on the distribution of observing time". The members (one from each member country) and their alternates are nominated by the respective national committees for five-year terms (not immediately renewable). The terms are staggered so that each year one or two persons are replaced. The Chairman is appointed annually by the Council. He is invited to attend Council meetings and to report to its members.

  16. Effect on performance of weanling alpacas following treatments against gastro-intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan M; Morgan, Eric R

    2013-11-15

    Nematodes and coccidia are common parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos), and important causes of disease in this increasingly popular livestock species. Endoparasitic infestation is thought to increase at times of natural or imposed stress, and antiparasitic treatments are often administered, although to date there is little evidence regarding their effect. Thirty-one alpaca juvenilles (cria) were divided into four groups at weaning, and received either no treatment as a control (C), fenbendazole anthelmintic (FB), toltrazuril coccidiostat (T), or both treatments (FBT). Body weights and faecal egg/oocyst counts were recorded weekly for six weeks following treatment. Although the prophylactic treatments decreased faecal egg/oocyst counts of the target organisms in the short term, there was no significant difference in egg/oocyst output over the course of the trial from animals given wormer, coccidiostat or both treatments. The group receiving anthelmintic only showed a significant reduction in live weight gain (LWG), with no significant difference in LWG between the other groups. At the conclusion of the trial, 'wormed only' alpacas weighed 3.3% less than at weaning, losing an average 1.3 kg over six weeks, whereas average LWG in the control group was 2.5 kg. Antiparasitics transiently reduced egg/oocyst output but results suggest that further investigation is required on the action of anthelmintics administered to alpaca cria at weaning and their effect on animal health and welfare.

  17. Chinese integrative medicine:inclusion of a Chinese medicine programme in a conventional medical institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yong Chen; Yibin Feng; Lixing Lao

    2014-01-01

    To meet community demands with optimal Chinese and conventional medical treatment, the University of Hong Kong is promoting integrative medicine by developing Chinese medicine programmes that train students of both Western and Chinese medicine. The programmes emphasize multi-disciplinary training and interaction between the two therapeutic approaches, enabling students to establish reliable, consistent, and respectful mutual cooperation in their future careers.

  18. Use of a multiple choice questionnaire to assess UK prescribing channels' knowledge of helminthology and best practice surrounding anthelmintic use in livestock and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Stephanie; Bartley, David J; Hotchkiss, Emily; Hodgkinson, Jane E; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2016-06-01

    Grazing livestock and equines are at risk of infection from a variety of helminths, for which the primary method of control has long been the use of anthelmintics. Anthelmintic resistance is now widespread in a number of helminth species across the globe so it is imperative that best practice control principles be adopted to delay the further spread of resistance. It is the responsibility of all who prescribe anthelmintics (in the UK, this being veterinarians, suitably qualified persons (SQPs) and pharmacists) to provide adequate information on best practice approaches to parasite control at the point of purchase. Poor uptake of best practice guidelines at farm level has been documented; this could be due to a lack of, or inappropriate, advice at the point of anthelmintics purchase. Therefore, the aim here was to evaluate levels of basic knowledge of helminthology, best practice guidelines and dispensing legislation among veterinarians and SQPs in the UK, through a Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) test, that was distributed online via targeted emails and social media sites. For each respondent, the percentage correct was determined (for the MCQ test overall and for subsections) and the results analysed initially using parametric and non-parametric statistics to compare differences between prescribing channels. The results showed that channels generally performed well; veterinarians achieved a mean total percentage correct of 79.7% (range 34.0-100%) and SQPs, a mean total percentage correct of 75.8% (range 38.5-100%) (p=0.051). The analysis indicated that veterinarians performed better in terms of knowledge of basic helminthology (p=0.001), whilst the SQP group performed better on legislation type questions (p=0.032). There was no significant difference in knowledge levels of best practice between the two channels. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that veterinarians and those answering equine questions only performed significantly better than those

  19. Pooling sheep faecal samples for the assessment of anthelmintic drug efficacy using McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC in gastrointestinal strongyle and Nematodirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Fiona; Rinaldi, Laura; McBean, Dave; Pepe, Paola; Bosco, Antonio; Melville, Lynsey; Devin, Leigh; Mitchell, Gillian; Ianniello, Davide; Charlier, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Levecke, Bruno

    2016-07-30

    In small ruminants, faecal egg counts (FECs) and reduction in FECs (FECR) are the most common methods for the assessment of intensity of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes infections and anthelmintic drug efficacy, respectively. The main limitation of these methods is the time and cost to conduct FECs on a representative number of individual animals. A cost-saving alternative would be to examine pooled faecal samples, however little is known regarding whether pooling can give representative results. In the present study, we compared the FECR results obtained by both an individual and a pooled examination strategy across different pool sizes and analytical sensitivity of the FEC techniques. A survey was conducted on 5 sheep farms in Scotland, where anthelmintic resistance is known to be widespread. Lambs were treated with fenbendazole (4 groups), levamisole (3 groups), ivermectin (3 groups) or moxidectin (1 group). For each group, individual faecal samples were collected from 20 animals, at baseline (D0) and 14 days after (D14) anthelmintic administration. Faecal samples were analyzed as pools of 3-5, 6-10, and 14-20 individual samples. Both individual and pooled samples were screened for GI strongyle and Nematodirus eggs using two FEC techniques with three different levels of analytical sensitivity, including Mini-FLOTAC (analytical sensitivity of 10 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG)) and McMaster (analytical sensitivity of 15 or 50 EPG).For both Mini-FLOTAC and McMaster (analytical sensitivity of 15 EPG), there was a perfect agreement in classifying the efficacy of the anthelmintic as 'normal', 'doubtful' or 'reduced' regardless of pool size. When using the McMaster method (analytical sensitivity of 50 EPG) anthelmintic efficacy was often falsely classified as 'normal' or assessment was not possible due to zero FECs at D0, and this became more pronounced when the pool size increased. In conclusion, pooling ovine faecal samples holds promise as a cost-saving and efficient

  20. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity and Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Extracts—In Vitro and in Vivo Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybek, Maciej; Kukula-Koch, Wirginia; Strachecka, Aneta; Jaworska, Aleksandra; Phiri, Andrew M.; Paleolog, Jerzy; Tomczuk, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of studies report growing resistance in nematodes thriving in both humans and livestock. This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficiency of Curcubita pepo (C. pepo) L. hot water extract (HWE), cold water extract (CWE) or ethanol extract (ETE) on two model nematodes: Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and Heligmosoides bakeri (H. bakeri). Methods: Raman, IR and LC-MS spectroscopy analyses were performed on the studied plant material to deliver qualitative and quantitative data on the composition of the obtained extracts: ETE, HWE and CWE. The in vitro activity evaluation showed an impact of C. pepo extracts on C. elegans and different developmental stages of H. bakeri. The following in vivo experiments on mice infected with H. bakeri confirmed inhibitory properties of the most active pumpkin extract selected by the in vitro study. All of the extracts were found to contain cucurbitine, aminoacids, fatty acids, and-for the first time-berberine and palmatine were identified. All C. pepo seed extracts exhibited a nematidicidal potential in vitro, affecting the survival of L1 and L2 H. bakeri larvae. The ETE was the strongest and demonstrated a positive effect on H. bakeri eggs hatching and marked inhibitory properties against worm motility, compared to a PBS control. No significant effects of pumpkin seed extracts on C. elegans integrity or motility were found. The EtOH extract in the in vivo studies showed anthelmintic properties against both H. bakeri fecal egg counts and adult worm burdens. The highest egg counts reduction was observed for the 8 g/kg dose (IC50 against H. bakeri = 2.43; 95% Cl = 2.01–2.94). A decrease in faecal egg counts (FEC) was accompanied by a significant reduction in worm burden of the treated mice compared to the control group. Conclusions: Pumpkin seed extracts may be used to control of Gastrointestinal (G.I.) nematode infections. This relatively inexpensive alternative to the

  1. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity and Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. Seed Extracts—In Vitro and in Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Grzybek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of studies report growing resistance in nematodes thriving in both humans and livestock. This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficiency of Curcubita pepo (C. pepo L. hot water extract (HWE, cold water extract (CWE or ethanol extract (ETE on two model nematodes: Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans and Heligmosoides bakeri (H. bakeri. Methods: Raman, IR and LC-MS spectroscopy analyses were performed on the studied plant material to deliver qualitative and quantitative data on the composition of the obtained extracts: ETE, HWE and CWE. The in vitro activity evaluation showed an impact of C. pepo extracts on C. elegans and different developmental stages of H. bakeri. The following in vivo experiments on mice infected with H. bakeri confirmed inhibitory properties of the most active pumpkin extract selected by the in vitro study. All of the extracts were found to contain cucurbitine, aminoacids, fatty acids, and-for the first time-berberine and palmatine were identified. All C. pepo seed extracts exhibited a nematidicidal potential in vitro, affecting the survival of L1 and L2 H. bakeri larvae. The ETE was the strongest and demonstrated a positive effect on H. bakeri eggs hatching and marked inhibitory properties against worm motility, compared to a PBS control. No significant effects of pumpkin seed extracts on C. elegans integrity or motility were found. The EtOH extract in the in vivo studies showed anthelmintic properties against both H. bakeri fecal egg counts and adult worm burdens. The highest egg counts reduction was observed for the 8 g/kg dose (IC50 against H. bakeri = 2.43; 95% Cl = 2.01–2.94. A decrease in faecal egg counts (FEC was accompanied by a significant reduction in worm burden of the treated mice compared to the control group. Conclusions: Pumpkin seed extracts may be used to control of Gastrointestinal (G.I. nematode infections. This relatively inexpensive alternative

  2. National STDs control programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, N C

    1989-04-01

    In 1947 the Bhore Committee recommended that sexually transmitted diseases should be dealt with by special organizations within the provinces, but the institutions were not adequate, and there was no coordinated plan. Before the 1st 5-year plan, there were 50 state-administered sexually transmitted disease clinics in India. During the 1st 5-year plan, facilities were upgraded, the central government took over certain aspects of the program, and the World Health Organization Venereal Disease team submitted a report on control of venereal diseases in India. By the end of the 5th 5-year plan, the government had set up another 187 clinics. Until the 6th 5-year plan, the central government supplied material, equipment, and drugs to the clinics, but the operating costs were borne by the states. During the 6th 5-year plan, the central government took over all aspects of the program. It is estimated that 20 million Indians suffer from venereal disease. With World Health Organization assistance, group educational activities in sexually transmitted diseases are being organized in different parts of the country, so that all personnel will be better equipped to treat patients. Group educational activities for treatment of yaws are also being organized for paramedical personnel who will have to deal with yaws in tribal areas. The UN Childrens Fund is also providing funds for communication and social mobilization against venereal diseases. PMID:12282050

  3. The Danish bioenergy programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Danish Technological Inst., Section for Biotechnology (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    In Denmark biogas is produced from several different types of facilities: Anaerobic industrial waste and waste water treatment plants, anaerobic sludge stabilization plants, landfill gas plants and single farm and centralized biogas plants. Centralized biogas plants account for approximately 40% of the total production of biogas. In the recent 5 years the single farm plant technology has been considerably improved. Standardized concepts has been developed, which have decreased the construction price of single farm plants, and the introduction of dual fuel gas engines has lowered the cost and increased the efficiency of the energy production unit. Dual fuel gas engines use 7-10% diesel oil together with the gas. They are based on diesel engine principles, often they are modified standard diesel engines, which are cheaper and more simple than ignition gas engines. The construction cost for a typical single farm plant with a 150-200 m{sup 3} reactor is 200,000 USD. As the farmer can obtain a 30% funding from the Danish Energy Agency, the net cost for the farmer is 134,000 USD. The annual income if manure and some industrial waste in co-digested is around 30,000-35,000 USD and the annual running costs is in the level of 5,000-6,000 USD. (EG)

  4. The MERLIN programme: Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MERLIN rig is intended to investigate the deformation behaviour of Zircaloy fuel rod cladding under conditions approximating those of a large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA). An assembly of electrically heated fuel rod simulators (6X6 cluster) is subjected to a temperature transient simulating that predicted to occur in a LOCA, including the initiation of bottom reflooding at a suitable stage. The Bundle B Thermal-Hydraulic test series was intended to commission the test facility and to obtain the operating conditions which would produce a suitable temperature transient for the investigation of clad ballooning at high coolant sub-channel blockages. In addition, the vibration produced by reflooding was to be measured during the course of the programme. The early stages of the programme (ramp test and low power reflooding tests) were successfully accomplished, although a major part of the test section instrumentation was found to be unreliable. A limited number of low power tests designed to investigate starting conditions was followed by an accelerated programme to derive a high temperature burst test transient, with the limited aim of allowing good rig commissioning data to be obtained. A successful burst test was carried out as the final experiment of the programme. (author)

  5. Carioca hospitality programme: Rio 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The "Hospitality programme" at the Rio 2016 Games venues was designed to attend the specific needs of partners and their clients in a transparent and flexible manner. In this guide, you will find information and standards that will help in your choice, and in the planning of this incredible experience.

  6. Summer Student Programme – Report

    CERN Document Server

    Bellora, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This is the report on the studies about radiation damage on silicon strips detectors I've performed during my Summer Student Programme. A parameter to describe the damage amount has been defined, as well as his behaviour over time and absorbed dose.

  7. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights the…

  8. Need for a realistic mental health programme in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barua Ankur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available India, with a population of a billion, has very limited numbers of mental health facilities and professionals in providing mental health care to all the people. The disability associated with mental or brain disorders stops people from working and engaging in other creative activities. Gradual implementation of district mental health programme in a phased manner with support of adequate managerial and financial inputs is the need of the day. Trained mental health care personnel, treatment, care, and rehabilitation facilities should be made available and accessible to the masses. The voluntary organizations should be encouraged to participate in mental health care programme.

  9. Latin American regional co-operative programme on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Latin American Regional Co-ordinated Research Programme on Food Irradiation'' was established in 1986 with the participation of research scientists from countries in the region to investigate the efficacy of food irradiation as a treatment to reduce post-harvest losses and improve the hygienic quality of food, to conduct techno-economic feasibility studies, and to disseminate knowledge about the scientific, health, legal and commercial aspects of food irradiation. This publication contains the final report of the Co-ordinated Research Programme and summaries of individual research reports presented by the participating scientists

  10. Eficácia de vermífugos à base de avermectinas e milbemicinas utilizados há cinco anos em uma criação de eqüinos Efficacy of avermectins and milbemicins anthelmintics derivatives being used for five years in an equine farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Wayne Nogueira

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficácia do controle parasitário com anti-helmínticos (AH de largo espectro usados há mais de cinco anos, em um plantel eqüino da raça puro-sangue inglês, sob manejo semi-intensivo. Os animais foram tratados com Ivermectin (Eqvalan® e Moxidectin (Equest®, por via oral. Durante o estudo, o número de ovos por grama de fezes (opg manteve-se zero na maioria dos animais.The efficacy of parasite control with broad spectrum anthelmintics, used for over five years on a Thoroughbred herd was evaluated. The animals were kept on semi-intensive pasture regimen. During this study the horses received Ivermectin (Eqvalan® and Moxidectin (Equest®; both treatments were given orally. The epg number was zero for most animals troughout the trial.

  11. Interrupting transmission of soil-transmitted helminths: a study protocol for cluster randomised trials evaluating alternative treatment strategies and delivery systems in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Simon J; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Halliday, Katherine E; Njenga, Sammy M; Mcharo, Carlos; Gichuki, Paul M; Wasunna, Beatrice; Kihara, Jimmy H; Njomo, Doris; Alusala, Dorcas; Chiguzo, Athuman; Turner, Hugo C; Teti, Caroline; Gwayi-Chore, Claire; Nikolay, Birgit; Truscott, James E; Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Balabanova, Dina; Griffiths, Ulla K; Freeman, Matthew C; Allen, Elizabeth; Pullan, Rachel L; Anderson, Roy M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, an unprecedented emphasis has been given to the control of neglected tropical diseases, including soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). The mainstay of STH control is school-based deworming (SBD), but mathematical modelling has shown that in all but very low transmission settings, SBD is unlikely to interrupt transmission, and that new treatment strategies are required. This study seeks to answer the question: is it possible to interrupt the transmission of STH, and, if so, what is the most cost-effective treatment strategy and delivery system to achieve this goal? Methods and analysis Two cluster randomised trials are being implemented in contrasting settings in Kenya. The interventions are annual mass anthelmintic treatment delivered to preschool- and school-aged children, as part of a national SBD programme, or to entire communities, delivered by community health workers. Allocation to study group is by cluster, using predefined units used in public health provision—termed community units (CUs). CUs are randomised to one of three groups: receiving either (1) annual SBD; (2) annual community-based deworming (CBD); or (3) biannual CBD. The primary outcome measure is the prevalence of hookworm infection, assessed by four cross-sectional surveys. Secondary outcomes are prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, intensity of species infections and treatment coverage. Costs and cost-effectiveness will be evaluated. Among a random subsample of participants, worm burden and proportion of unfertilised eggs will be assessed longitudinally. A nested process evaluation, using semistructured interviews, focus group discussions and a stakeholder analysis, will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and scale-up of each delivery system. Ethics and dissemination Study protocols have been reviewed and approved by the ethics committees of the Kenya Medical Research Institute and National Ethics Review Committee, and

  12. Psychological effects of a cosmetic education programme in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H Y; Kim, J H; Choi, S; Kang, E; Oh, S; Kim, J Y; Kim, S W

    2015-07-01

    Treatments for breast cancer often include interventions related to psychosocial issues such as negative body image, loss of femininity, and low self-esteem. We identified the psychological effects of a cosmetics education programme in patients with breast cancer. Cosmetic programme is a specific care designed to help patients handle appearance-related side effects. Thirty-one women with breast cancer at a university hospital in South Korea who received a cosmetics education programme were compared with 29 subjects in a control group who received the treatment as usual. Psychological factors including distress, self-esteem, and sexual functioning were assessed three times (before and after the programme, and at the 1-month follow-up). After the programme, patients in the treatment group were significantly less likely than those in the control group to rely on distress (P = 0.038) and avoidance coping (P self-esteem. The mean scores in the treatment group for sexual functioning were higher than those in the control group after the treatment. Our results suggest the potential usefulness of a brief cosmetics education programme for reducing distress and reliance on negative coping strategies. Implementing a cosmetics programme for patients with breast cancer may encourage patients to control negative psychological factors. PMID:25651297

  13. In vitro anthelmintic activity of five tropical legumes on the exsheathment and motility of Haemonchus contortus infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Angel; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; Capetillo-Leal, Concepción M

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the in vitro anthelmintic (AH) activity of five tropical legume plants [Arachis pintoi CIAT 22160 (A.p. 22160), Gliricidia sepium, Cratylia argentea (C.a. Yacapani), C. argentea CIAT 22386 (C.a. 22386), C. argentea Veranera (C.a. Veranera)] against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae and the role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds in the AH effect. Lyophilized leaf extracts of each plant were evaluated using the Larval Exsheathment Inhibition Assay (LEIA) and the larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds in the AH effect was evaluated in both assays using polyethylene glycol (PEG) to remove tannins from the solutions. At the highest concentration (1200μg of extract/ml), A. pintoi 22160, C.a. Yacapani, C.a. Veranera and C.a. 22386 completely inhibited the exsheathment process of H. contortus (P<0.01). At the same concentration (1200μg of extract/ml), the inhibition of larval migration for C.a. 22386, C.a. Veranera and G. sepium was 66.0%, 35.9% and 39.2% (relative to the PBS control), respectively. In both bioassays (LEIA and LMIA), the AH effect shown by each plant was blocked after the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG), corroborating the role of tannins/polyphenolic compounds. PMID:22652531

  14. Cyclotide structure-activity relationships: qualitative and quantitative approaches linking cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity to the clustering of physicochemical forces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkyu Park

    Full Text Available Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived proteins that are characterized by a cyclic backbone and a knotted disulfide topology. Their cyclic cystine knot (CCK motif makes them exceptionally resistant to thermal, chemical, and enzymatic degradation. Cyclotides exert much of their biological activity via interactions with cell membranes. In this work, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the cytotoxic and anthelmintic membrane activities of cyclotides. The qualitative and quantitative models describe the potency of cyclotides using four simple physicochemical terms relevant to membrane contact. Specifically, surface areas of the cyclotides representing lipophilic and hydrogen bond donating properties were quantified and their distribution across the molecular surface was determined. The resulting quantitative structure-activity relation (QSAR models suggest that the activity of the cyclotides is proportional to their lipophilic and positively charged surface areas, provided that the distribution of these surfaces is asymmetric. In addition, we qualitatively analyzed the physicochemical differences between the various cyclotide subfamilies and their effects on the cyclotides' orientation on the membrane and membrane activity.

  15. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the anthelmintic fenbendazole and its metabolites in biological matrices by direct exposure probe mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, S A; Hsieh, L C; McDowell, T R; Short, C R

    1987-04-01

    Methodology for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the anthelmintic fenbendazole and its metabolites in goat feces using electron impact (EI)/direct exposure probe (DEP)/mass spectrometric (MS) and tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) techniques is presented. Analyses were conducted on extracts from spiked feces and feces from animals treated per os with 5 mg fenbendazole/kg, with samples being collected at zero time and at twelve hour intervals for 144 h. The results of the EI/DEP/MS quantitation of these samples are compared to those for the same samples analysed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mass spectral data for fenbendazole and its metabolites are presented and the advantages of the use of EI/DEP/MS and/or DEP/MS/MS over HPLC are discussed. This methodology may be used as a confirmatory method for the HPLC analysis of fenbendazole and its metabolites or may be used as a method in its own right for the rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of these compounds.

  16. An anthelmintic drug, pyrvinium pamoate, thwarts fibrosis and ameliorates myocardial contractile dysfunction in a mouse model of myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoaki Murakoshi

    Full Text Available Metabolic adaptation to limited supplies of oxygen and nutrients plays a pivotal role in health and disease. Heart attack results from insufficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the heart, where cardiomyocytes die and cardiac fibroblasts proliferate--the latter causing scar formation, which impedes regeneration and impairs contractility of the heart. We postulated that cardiac fibroblasts survive metabolic stress by adapting their intracellular metabolism to low oxygen and nutrients, and impeding this metabolic adaptation would thwart their survival and facilitate the repair of scarred heart. Herein, we show that an anthelmintic drug, Pyrvinium pamoate, which has been previously shown to compromise cancer cell survival under glucose starvation condition, also disables cardiac fibroblast survival specifically under glucose deficient condition. Furthermore, Pyrvinium pamoate reduces scar formation and improves cardiac contractility in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. As Pyrvinium pamoate is an FDA-approved drug, our results suggest a therapeutic use of this or other related drugs to repair scarred heart and possibly other organs.

  17. A Hydroalcoholic Extract from Paullinia pinnata L. Roots Exerts Anthelmintic Activity against Free-Living and Parasitic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegler, Verena; Liebau, Eva; Peppler, Carolin; Raue, Katharina; Werne, Steffen; Strube, Christina; Heckendorn, Felix; Agyare, Christian; Stark, Timo; Hofmann, Thomas; Hensel, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Paullinia pinnata is a medicinal plant traditionally used in West Africa against a wide range of diseases including soil-transmitted helminthiases. In this study, a hydroethanolic root extract was investigated for its phytochemical composition and in vitro activity against the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as well as the larval stages of the parasitic helminths Ancylostoma caninum, Haemonchus contortus, Toxocara cati, and Trichuris vulpis.LC-MS analysis of the ethanol-water (1 : 1) extract revealed epicatechin and different A-type linked oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins as the predominant compounds.Within an in vitro mortality assay, the extract showed a lethal activity against T. cati (LC50 of 112 µg/mL), T. vulpis (LC50 of 17 µg/mL), and C. elegans (LC50 2.5 of mg/mL), but not against A. caninum. Additionally, effects on egg hatching and larval migration of H. contortus were investigated, but no inhibitory activity was observed.Overall, these findings rationalize the traditional use of the root extract from P. pinnata as an anthelmintic remedy and provide insight into the phytochemical composition of the extract. PMID:27286336

  18. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V A; Ropiak, Honorata M; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites. PMID:26420588

  19. The International Comparison Programme: 2005 results and supporting the programme

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Whitestone

    2008-01-01

    Explores improvements made in the latest round of the ICP initiative and UK Government support for it in AfricaThe results of the International Comparison Programme (ICP) were released by the World Bank in December 2007. The ICP is a global initiative to collect comparative price data and estimate relative price levels between countries. These figures allow international comparisons of real economic wealth to be made, and hence provide an essential tool for governments designing aid, trade an...

  20. Impact evaluation of child nutrition programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Review of current practices and recent developments in impact evaluation of nutrition programmes for preschool children in developing countries. A survey of the major types of nutrition programmes for young children - nutrition education, food supplementation, and nutrition rehabilitation - is follo