WorldWideScience

Sample records for anthelmintic treatment programme

  1. The economic effects of whole-herd versus selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, J.; Levecke, B.; Devleesschauwer, B.; Vercruysse, J.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Current control practices against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cows rely strongly on anthelmintic use. To reduce the development of anthelmintic resistance or disposition of drug residues in the environment, novel control approaches are currently proposed that target anthelmintic treatment to

  2. Effectiveness of a community-based strategic anthelmintic treatment programme in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes and Fasciola gigantica in cattle in Kilolo district, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyyu, J.D.; Kassuku, A.A.; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal demonstration project was carried out in 2005/2006 for thirteen months to determine the effectiveness of a strategic community-based worm control (CBWC) programme in the control of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and Fasciola gigantica in cattle. Two villages namely, a CBWC village...

  3. A randomized triple blind trial to assess the effect of an anthelmintic programme for working equids in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christley Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastro-intestinal parasitism has been identified as a significant cause of disease in working equids in many countries. This randomized triple-blind trial was designed to assess the impact of an anthelmintic treatment programme (using oral ivermectin and fenbendazole comparing treated and placebo control populations of working donkeys, mules and horses in field conditions in Morocco. In particular, we assessed animal body weight and condition score, together with a questionnaire-based owner evaluation of number of subjective animal health parameters. Faecal worm egg count was also measured. Results 239 animals completed the full study, 130 in the treatment group and 109 in the control group. Although the average animal weight increased during the study, this change was not significantly different between the two groups. Animals in the treatment group had a significantly lower strongyle worm egg count and increased in body condition score compared to animals in the control group at each examination during the study period. Owners of animals in the treatment group reported improvement in health and work ability and a beneficial effect on pruritus during the early period of the study. These differences in owner perception between treatment groups had disappeared in the latter stages of the study. Conclusion This study demonstrated that a routine anthelmintic treatment programme of three treatments annually can have a significant effect on faecal worm egg count. There may be beneficial consequences for the animal health and productivity. Further research on other populations of working equids in different environments would facilitate the objective planning of effective parasite control strategies for specific situations and provide better understanding of the likely clinical benefits of such programmes.

  4. Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jacqueline B.

    2014-01-01

    Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole), tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel) and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin). Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC)-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop diagnostics

  5. Anthelmintic resistance in equine nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline B. Matthews

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole, tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin. Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop

  6. Restrictions of anthelmintic usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup

    2009-01-01

    Given the increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in equine parasites, parasitologists now recommend traditional treatment approaches to be abandoned and replaced by more sustainable strategies. It is of crucial importance to facilitate veterinary involvement to ensure that treatment decisio...

  7. The effect of an indirect anthelmintic treatment on parasites and breeding success of free-living pheasants Phasianus colchicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draycott, R A H; Woodburn, M I A; Ling, D E; Sage, R B

    2006-12-01

    In Great Britain free-living common pheasants Phasianus colchicus are often managed at high densities owing to their popularity as a quarry species. They are prone to infection by a range of parasite species including Heterakis gallinarum, Capillaria spp. and Syngamus trachea. In 1995 the efficacy of an indirect anthelmintic technique for controlling parasitic worm burdens of pheasants was determined in a pilot study on a shooting estate in the south of England. Between 2000 and 2003 a large-scale field experiment was conducted on nine estates in eastern England to determine the effect of the technique on parasite burden and pheasant breeding success. In the absence of anthelmintic treatment worm burdens increased rapidly through March and April, whereas birds given anthelmintic-treated grain had lower worm burdens during the same period. The breeding success of pheasants was significantly higher on plots provided with anthelmintic treatment, although no long-term increases in population densities were observed. The burdens of the most common parasite H. gallinarum were significantly lower in pheasants from treatment plots six weeks after the anthelmintic treatment had ceased, but spring treatment did not influence parasite burden in the following winter.

  8. Anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, P J

    1997-11-01

    simple commercial fact that by far the greatest anthelmintic sales are associated with the cattle industry. However, this market is specific and sectoral, with by far the greatest sales in North America and Western Europe, where the prevalence of resistance is likely to be low and remain so, more-or-less indefinitely. So the chances of the above scenario occurring must be considered low. Remarkable developments have recently occurred in non-chemotherapeutic parasite control options, for example worm vaccines, host selection and biological control. Also, there seems to be greater acceptance of various grazing management practices designed to reduce the frequency of anthelmintic treatment. However, they collectively cannot be expected to offer immediate salvation to farmers now faced with chemotherapeutic failure to control nematode parasites in their flocks. The future for these farmers must be considered bleak, because compounded with these problems are the poor commodity prices for sheep and goat meat and fibre, resulting in relentless reductions in funding for research to support these industries. Perhaps the major social issues associated with re-structuring and possibly abandonment of sheep and goat farming in affected areas may precipitate action? As veterinary parasitologists, who in general have an interest and expertise in parasite control, we must promote the importance of the problem of anthelmintic resistance and ways to tackle it.

  9. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnan Alison A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 μmol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days, the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

  10. The impact of anthelmintic treatment intervention on malaria infection and anaemia in school and preschool children in Magu district, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Kishamawe, Coleman;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested that helminth infections increase the risk of malaria infection and are associated with increased number of malaria attacks and anaemia. Thus interventions to control helminth infections may have an impact on incidence of clinical malaria and anaemia....... The current study assessed the impact of two anthelmintic treatment approaches on malaria infection and on anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania. METHODS: A total of 765 children were enrolled into a prospective randomized anthelmintic intervention trial following a baseline...... parasites. There was no significant difference in malaria infection (prevalence, parasite density and frequency of malaria attacks) and in the prevalence of anaemia between the repeated and single dose anthelmintic treatment groups at 12 and 24 months follow up (p>0.05). However, overall...

  11. Cost Benefits Analysis of Anthelmintic Treatment of Cattle and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiq Ahmed Athar, Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Tauseef-ur-Rehman and Izhar Ahmad Khan1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the point prevalence of various helminths of cattle and buffalo population of district Toba Tek Singh, Pakistan and economic benefits of deworming with oxyclozanide. Out of 540 fecal samples examined, 205 (37.96% were found infected with helminths. Significantly higher (OR=2.2; P<0.05 prevalence of helminths was recorded in buffaloes (40%; 112/280 as compared to cattle (35.77%; 93/260. Oesophagostomum, Cooperia, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloide, Ostertagia, Fasciola (F. hepatica, F. gigantica and Haemonchus contortus were the helminth species identified in the study area. Oxyclozanide medicated buffaloes (E=96.66% and cattle (E=95.64% showed a significant decrease in fecal egg counts on day 14 post-treatment. An average daily increase of 0.89 and 0.71 liters of milk along with 0.42 and 0.37% more fat per buffalo and cattle, respectively was observed in oxyclozanide medication. The economic value of reduced production of infected animals was estimated as US$ 0.47 (Pak Rupees 40 and US$ 0.41 (Pak Rupees 35 per animal per day for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. It can be concluded that single dose of oxyclozanide is effective against all bovine helminths.

  12. The Effect of Anthelmintic Treatment on Coccidia Oocyst Shedding in a Wild Mammal Host with Intermittent Cestode Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Václav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While hosts are routinely exploited by a community of parasite species, the principles governing host responses towards parasites are unclear. Identifying the health outcomes of coinfections involving helminth macroparasites and microparasites is one area of importance for public and domestic animal health. For instance, it is controversial how deworming programmes affect incidence and severity of such important microparasite diseases as malaria. One problem is that most study systems involve domestic and laboratory animals with conditions hardly comparable to those of free-living animals. Here, we study the effect of anthelmintic treatment on coccidia infection intensity in wild Alpine marmots, M. marmota. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that helminth infection has a positive effect on concurrent microparasite infection. However, our work also points to the fact that within-host interactions between helminths and microparasites are context-dependent and can turn to negative ones once helminth burdens increase. Our study suggests that coccidia benefit from intermittent helminth infection in marmots due to the protective effects of helminth infection only during the early phase of the host’s active season. Also, the marmot’s response towards coccidia infection appears optimal only under no helminth infection when the host immune response towards coccidia would not be compromised, thereby pointing to the importance of regular intestinal helminth elimination by marmots just before hibernation.

  13. Target selected treatment with levamisole to control the development of anthelmintic resistance in a sheep flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; Gaínza, Yousmel Alemán; Barioni-Júnior, Waldomiro; Esteves, Sérgio Novita; Niciura, Simone Cristina Méo

    2016-03-01

    Levamisole phosphate, chosen based on its 100 % efficacy demonstrated by a previous fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), was used as the exclusive anthelmintic treatment in the Embrapa Southeast Livestock sheep flock from 2009 to 2014 in a target selected treatment scheme. In the present study, the effectiveness of this nematode control scheme was evaluated after 5 years by FECRT, larval development test (LDT), and a molecular test to assess the development of levamisole resistance in Haemonchus contortus. Animals were submitted to treatments with albendazole, levamisole, closantel, ivermectin, moxidectin, and monepantel. Eggs per gram of feces (EPG) counts and fecal cultures were performed, and anthelmintic efficacy was calculated by the RESO 4.0 program. The helminths of the flock (GIN Embrapa2014) were compared to susceptible (McMaster) and resistant (Embrapa2010) H. contortus isolates in the LDT to estimate the LC50 and LC90 of levamisole and in a molecular test to evaluate the 63-bp indel in the acr8 gene associated with levamisole resistance. In the FECRT, parasites were susceptible to monepantel (99.6 %) and closantel (98.3 %), but resistant to moxidectin (93.8 %), levamisole (70.4 %), ivermectin (48.1 %), and albendazole (0 %). In the coproculture on D14, and the control group presented 80 % H. contortus and 20 % Trichostrongylus sp., while in the monepantel group L1 were observed as well as Oesophagostomum sp. L3. LDT and resistance factors provided good separation between susceptible and resistant parasites. The genotypic frequencies of the 63-bp insertion in the acr8 gene in H. contortus were 11.9, 6.7, and 0 % in GIN Embrapa2014, Embrapa2010, and McMaster isolates, respectively. After 5 years of exclusive use, the nematodes developed resistance to levamisole, detected by FECRT and by increase in LC50 and LC90 for levamisole in the LDT. The 63-bp indel was not confirmed as a molecular marker of levamisole resistance in our isolates. The target

  14. Anthelmintic treatment alters the parasite community in a wild mouse host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Amy B; Antonovics, Janis

    2013-08-23

    Individuals are often co-infected with several parasite species, yet the consequences of drug treatment on the dynamics of parasite communities in wild populations have rarely been measured. Here, we experimentally reduced nematode infection in a wild mouse population and measured the effects on other non-target parasites. A single oral dose of the anthelmintic, ivermectin, significantly reduced nematode infection, but resulted in a reciprocal increase in other gastrointestinal parasites, specifically coccidial protozoans and cestodes. These results highlight the possibility that drug therapy may have unintended consequences for non-target parasites and that host-parasite dynamics cannot always be fully understood in the framework of single host-parasite interactions.

  15. Characterization of the inflammatory response to anthelmintic treatment in ponies naturally infected with cyathostomin parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Betancourt, Alejandra; Lyons, Eugene T.

    2013-01-01

    was to evaluate the systemic inflammatory response of ponies naturally infected with cyathostomins to single dose representatives of three anthelmintic drug classes, namely, oxibendazole, pyrantel pamoate, and moxidectin. Thirty ponies aged between 1 and 18 years of age were allocated to one of three anthelmintic...

  16. Interaction between anthelmintic treatment and vaccine responses in ponies naturally infected with cyathostomins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Rubinson, E F; Chambers, T M; Horohov, D W; Wagner, B; Betancourt, A; Reedy, S E; Jacobsen, S

    2015-04-15

    Anthelmintics and vaccines are commonly given concurrently in routine equine management, but it is unknown to what extent an interaction between the two exists. Cyathostomins can modulate the local immune response by stimulating a type 2 helper T cell (Th2) response. In addition, anti-inflammatory effects of ivermectin have been found in rodent models. It is unknown whether these anti-inflammatory effects affect the acute phase response elicited by commonly used vaccines. This study evaluated how the acute phase inflammatory response, leukocyte expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and vaccine-specific titers induced by simultaneous injection of three vaccines (West Nile Virus, Equine Herpes Rhinopneumonitis, and Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin) were modulated by concurrent administration of ivermectin or pyrantel pamoate in ponies naturally infected with cyathostomins. Mixed-breed yearling ponies were blocked by gender and fecal strongyle egg count, then randomly assigned to three treatment groups: ivermectin (n=8), pyrantel pamoate (n=8), and control (n=7). All ponies received vaccinations intramuscularly on days 0 and 29, and anthelmintics were administered on the same days. Whole blood, serum and plasma samples were collected one, three and 14 days after each vaccination. Samples were analyzed for concentrations of acute phase reactants (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen and iron), mRNA expression levels of cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ) in leukocytes, and vaccine-specific antibody titers. A marked acute-phase response was noted following both vaccinations. In contrast, the pattern of change in cytokine expression was less pronounced and more variable. Statistical differences were observed between groups for haptoglobin, fibrinogen, IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-10, but differences were generally small and none of the vaccine titers were different between the groups. Taken together, the study

  17. The impact of anthelmintic treatment intervention on malaria infection and anaemia in school and preschool children in Magu district, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinung'hi, Safari M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Kishamawe, Coleman;

    2015-01-01

    . The current study assessed the impact of two anthelmintic treatment approaches on malaria infection and on anaemia in school and pre-school children in Magu district, Tanzania. METHODS: A total of 765 children were enrolled into a prospective randomized anthelmintic intervention trial following a baseline...... study of 1546 children. Enrolled children were randomized to receive either repeated treatment with praziquantel and albendazole four times a year (intervention group, 394 children) or single dose treatment with praziquantel and albendazole once a year (control group, 371 children). Follow up...... concentrations. Monitoring of clinical malaria attacks was performed at each school during the two years of the intervention. RESULTS: Out of 1546 children screened for P. falciparum, S. mansoni, S. haematobium, hookworm and T. Trichiura at baseline, 1079 (69.8%) were infected with at least one of the four...

  18. A comparison of two CSA treatment programmes

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The development of effective treatment programmes to ameliorate the sequelae of CSA is imperative. Ideally such programmes should address intrapsychic psychological difficulties through individually based child-focused interventions; peer-related interpersonal problems through group-based interventions; and difficulties within the family and wider social network through family therapy and systemic interventions. It would be expected that some programmes might be more effective than others for...

  19. Age, but not anthelmintic treatment, is associated with urinary neopterin levels in semi-free ranging Barbary macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nadine; Heistermann, Michael; Strube, Christina; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Studying host parasite interactions and their implications for evolution and ecology recently received increasing attention, particularly with regard to host physiology and immunity. Here we assess variation of urinary neopterin (uNEO), a marker of cellular immune activation and iummunosenescence, in response to age and anthelmintic treatment in semi-free ranging Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). Urinary NEO levels were measured via enzyme-immunoassay from 179 urine samples of 43 individuals between 5–29 years of age. Efficiency of treatment was assessed by Mc Master flotation on repeated faecal samples, including 18 untreated individuals as control group. We used linear mixed models with age and parasite status as main effects, controlling for sex and physical condition, assessed through urinary C-Peptide-levels, with social group and ID as random factors. Urinary NEO levels significantly increased with age, suggesting that changes in aging Barbary macaque immune responses are consistent with immunosenescence described in human and nonhuman primates and can be detected via uNEO measurements. Anthelmintic treatment, however, had no influence on uNEO levels, potentially due to quick reinfections or attenuated immune responses in repeated infections. We conclude that uNEO is a potential non-invasive marker for immune function and particularly immunosenescence in wildlife. PMID:28155915

  20. Lack of Cyathostomin sp. reduction after anthelmintic treatment in horses in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canever, Ricardo J; Braga, Pollyana R C; Boeckh, Albert; Grycajuck, Marcelly; Bier, Daniele; Molento, Marcelo B

    2013-05-01

    The increase of anthelmintic resistance in the last years in the nematode population of veterinary importance has become a major concern. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the main anthelmintic drugs available in the market against small strongyles of horses in Brazil. A total of 498 horses from 11 horse farms, located in the states of Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, in Brazil, were treated with ivermectin, moxidectin, pyrantel and fenbendazole, orally at their recommended doses. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was used to determine the product's efficacy and fecal culture was used to determine the parasite genus. Reduction on anthelmintic efficacy was found for fenbendazole in all horse farms (11/11), pyrantel in five yards (5/11) and ivermectin had low efficacy in one of the yards studied (1/11). Multidrug resistance of up to 3 drugs classes was found in one of the tested farms (1/11). Cyathostomin were the most prevalent parasite. The results showed that resistance to fenbendazole is widespread; the efficacy of pyrantel is in a critical situation. Although the macrocyclic lactones compounds still showed high efficacy on most farms, suspected resistance to macrocyclic lactones is of great concern.

  1. Effects of anthelmintic treatment and feed supplementation on grazing Tuli weaner steers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Magaya

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Tuli cattle and the effect of dietary protein supplementation and anthelmintic treatment on productivity in young growing cattle. Forty steers with an average age of 18 months were divided into 4 groups; 1 fenbendazole (slow release bolus and cottonseed meal (FCSM group, 2 fenbendazole (FBZ group, 3 cottonseed meal (CSM group and 4 control (no cottonseed meal and no fenbendazole (control group. Performance parameters measured included wormeggs per gram of faeces (EPG, packed cell volume (PCV, albumin and live-weight gain. Results showed that faecal worm egg counts were lower and PCV was higher in the FCSM and FBZ groups than in the CSM and control groups (P < 0.01. Weight gains were higher in the CSMand FCSM groups than in the FBZ and control groups (P < 0.05. The cost benefits of anthelmintic treatment and dietary supplementation were apparent in this study. The improved growth performance of the FCSM, FBZ and CSM groups reflected a financial gain over the controls on termination of the study. The dominant genera of gastrointestinal nematodes on faecal culture, pasture larval counts and necropsy were Cooperia and Haemonchus. The incidences of Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum and Bunostomum were low.

  2. In a Randomized Controlled Trial of Iron Fortification, Anthelmintic Treatment, and Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria for Anemia Control in Ivorian Children, only Anthelmintic Treatment Shows Modest Benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohner, F.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Amon, R.J.; Vounatsou, P.; Tschannen, A.B.; N'goran, E.K.; Nindjin, C.; Cacou, M.C.; Té-Bonlé, D.; Aka, H.; Sess, D.E.; Utzinger, J.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    Anemia is common among children in sub-Saharan Africa and its etiology is multifactorial. Likely causes of anemia are low bioavailability of dietary iron, malaria, and helminth infection. In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of iron fortification, intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) of m

  3. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  4. Species composition of larvae cultured after anthelmintic treatment indicates reduced moxidectin susceptibility of immature Cylicocyclus species in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooyman, F N J; van Doorn, D C K; Geurden, T; Mughini-Gras, L; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A

    2016-08-30

    For the control of cyathostomins in horses, the macrocyclic lactones (MLs), moxidectin (MOX) and ivermectin (IVM) are the most commonly used anthelmintics. However, reduced activity, observed as shortening of the egg reappearance period (ERP) has been described. Shortening of the ERP may be caused by a decreased susceptibility of immature worms for MLs. Alternatively, immature worms may develop faster into egg producing adults as a result of repeated ML treatments. The species composition of the larval cultures obtained shortly after ML and pyrantel (PYR) treatment can confirm the hypothesis of decreased ML susceptibility, as this is often class-specific, whereas faster development would also occur after treatment with anthelmintics with a different mode of action. From 3 farms with a known history of shortened ERP, 8 horses per farm were selected and divided into 2 groups. The MOX-PYR-MOX group was treated twice with MOX (day 0 and 126) and once with PYR (day 84) and the IVM-PYR-IVM group was treated twice with IVM (day 0 and 98) and once with PYR (day 56). Cultured infective larvae (L3s) were counted and differentiated with the reverse line blot on pooled samples. Per cyathostomin species, the number of larvae per gram was calculated. The efficacy of all ML treatments was 100% and a shortened ERP was found on all 3 farms. The species composition of the larval cultures after ML treatment did not differ significantly from that after PYR treatment in the IVM-PYR-IVM group, but it did differ in the MOX-PYR-MOX group. The larval cultures obtained after MOX treatment consisted mostly of Cylicocyclus nassatus, while after PYR treatment Cylicostephanus longibursatus was the most abundant species. In the cultures from 42days after MOX treatment 6 cyathostomin species from 3 genera were found on the farm with the lowest activity (farm 1), while on the farm with the highest activity (farm 3) only 3 species from one genus were found in the same number of examined L3s. The

  5. Anthelmintics Resistance; How to Overcome it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem A Shalaby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many parasitic helminthes of veterinary importance have genetic features that favor development of anthelmintic resistance, this becoming a major worldwide constrain in livestock production. The develop­ment of anthelmintic resistance poses a large threat to future production and welfare of graz­ing animals. Development of variable degrees of resistance among different species of gastrointes­tinal nematodes has been reported for all the major groups of anthelmintic drugs. It has been ob­served that frequent usage of the same group of anthelmintic; use of anthelmintics in sub-optimal doses, prophylactic mass treatment of domestic animals and frequent and continuous use of a single drug have contributed to the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance in helminthes. The degree and extent of this problem especially with respect to multidrug resistance in nematode popula­tions is likely to increase. Maintaining parasites in refugia and not exposed to anthelmintics, seems to be a key point in controlling and delaying the development of resistance, because the suscepti­ble genes are preserved. Targeted selective treatments attract the interest of scientists to­wards this direction. Additionally, adoption of strict quarantine measures and a combination drug strategy are two important methods of preventing of anthelmintic resistance. Experience from the development of anthelmintic resistance suggests that modern control schemes should not rely on sole use of anthelmintics, but employ other, more complex and sustainable recipes, including parasite resistant breeds, nutrition, pasture management, nematode-trapping fungi, antiparasitic vaccines and botanical dewormers. Most of them reduce reliance on the use of chemicals and are environmental friendly. Finally, if new anthelmintic products are released, an important question will be raised about how they should be used. It is suggested that slowing the development of resistance to a new

  6. Effectiveness of strategic anthelmintic treaments in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes and Fasciola gigantica in cattle in Iringa region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyyu, J.D.; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Monrad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal field trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of strategic anthelmintic treatments in the control of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and Fasciola gigantica in cattle. A total of 167 cattle (6-18 months) from three large-scale dairy farms, four traditional farms and nine...... and the proportion of animals passing Fasciola eggs in faeces (P¿nematodes. It is concluded that a programme of four strategic treatments per year was effective in controlling GI nematodes and F. gigantica and improved...

  7. Species composition of larvae cultured after anthelmintic treatment indicates reduced moxidectin susceptibility of immature Cylicocyclus species in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooyman, F N J; van Doorn, D C K; Geurden, T; Mughini-Gras, L; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A

    2016-01-01

    For the control of cyathostomins in horses, the macrocyclic lactones (MLs), moxidectin (MOX) and ivermectin (IVM) are the most commonly used anthelmintics. However, reduced activity, observed as shortening of the egg reappearance period (ERP) has been described. Shortening of the ERP may be caused b

  8. The effects of anthelmintic treatments against gastrointestinal nematodes on the performance of breeding ewes and lambs on pasture in semi-arid Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'ang'a, C J; Maingi, N; Kanyari, P W N; Munyua, W K

    2009-08-01

    The effects of anthelmintics treatments in controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in breeding ewes in a semi-arid area of Kenya were determined. The study carried out during two breeding seasons, between June 2000 and December 2001 where albendazole was administered to groups of ewes, 2 weeks before mating, 3 weeks to lambing and mid lactation indicated significantly lower nematode egg counts in treated than untreated groups of ewes. In the first breeding season, reduced rainfall resulted in pasture scarcity and weight loss in both groups of ewes through out the gestation period, but losses were higher for the untreated group. In the second season, both groups of ewes showed a steady increase in weight gain during the gestation period and post-partum, but weight gains were higher in the treated group. In lambs, weight gains at 6 weeks were higher for treated ewes than control groups, in both breeding seasons. The results of this trial indicate that anthelmintic treatments in breeding ewes in the study area are beneficial in reducing gastrointestinal nematode infections and improving performance of the ewes and their lambs. In addition to the treatments, breeding ewes should be given feed supplementation particularly during periods of pasture scarcity.

  9. Community perception of school-based delivery of anthelmintics in Ghana and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, S; Marriot, H; Hall, A; Adjei, S; Allan, E; Maier, C; Bundy, D A; Drake, L J; Coombes, M D; Azene, G; Lansdown, R G; Wen, S T; Dzodozmenyo, M; Cobbinah, J; Obro, N; Kihamia, C M; Issae, W; Mwanri, L; Mweta, M R; Mwaikemwa, A; Salimu, M; Ntimbwa, P; Kiwelu, V M; Turuka, A; Nkungu, D R; Magingo, J

    2001-12-01

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation of community perception of two large-scale, government-run, school-based health programmes delivering anthelmintic drugs to primary school children, in Ghana (80 442 children in 577 schools) and Tanzania (110 000 children in 352 schools). Most teachers (96% in Ghana and 98% in Tanzania) were positive about their role in the programme, including administration of anthelmintic drugs, and parents and children fully accepted their taking on this role. The benefits of the programme were apparent to teachers, parents and children in terms of improved health and well-being of the children. Over 90% of parents in both Ghana and Tanzania indicated a willingness to pay for the continuation of drug treatment. The evaluation also highlighted areas that are critical to programme effectiveness, such as communication between schools and parents, the issue of collaboration between the health and education sectors, parents' perception of the importance of helminth infection as a serious and chronic health problem (compared with more acute and life threatening illnesses such as malaria), and who should pay for treatment of side-effects.

  10. Equine anthelmintics: survey of the patterns of use, beliefs and attitudes among horse owners in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, K; Taylor, N M; Wilsmore, A J; Garforth, C

    2011-05-07

    An online survey was conducted to establish horse owners' beliefs, attitudes and practices relating to the use of anthelmintic drugs. Out of a total of 574 respondents, 89 per cent described themselves as 'leisure riders', most of whom took part in a variety of activities including eventing, show jumping, dressage, hunter trials, hunting, driving, endurance and showing. Overall, respondents were generally aware and concerned about the issue of anthelmintic resistance. Less than 60 per cent of all respondents were comfortable with their existing anthelmintic programme, and 25 per cent would like to reduce the use of anthelmintics in their horses. Of all the respondents, 47 per cent used livery, and 49 per cent of those reported that the livery imposed a common anthelmintic programme for horses kept on the premises; 45 per cent of these respondents were not entirely happy with the livery yard's programme. Less than 50 per cent of all respondents included 'veterinary surgeon' among their sources of advice on worming.

  11. Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

    2012-05-25

    There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made.

  12. Diagnosis and control of anthelmintic-resistant Parascaris equorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinemeyer Craig R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 2002, macrocyclic lactone resistance has been reported in populations of Parascaris equorum from several countries. It is apparent that macrocyclic lactone resistance developed in response to exclusive and/or excessively frequent use of ivermectin or moxidectin in foals during the first year of life. The development of anthelmintic resistance was virtually inevitable, given certain biological features of Parascaris and unique pharmacologic characteristics of the macrocyclic lactones. Practitioners can utilize the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test to detect anthelmintic resistance in Parascaris, and the same technique can be applied regularly to confirm the continued efficacy of those drugs currently in use. In the face of macrocyclic lactone resistance, piperazine or anthelmintics of the benzimidazole or pyrimidine classes can be used to control ascarid infections, but Parascaris populations that are concurrently resistant to macrocyclic lactones and pyrimidine drugs have been reported recently from Texas and Kentucky. Compared to traditional practices, future recommendations for ascarid control should feature: 1 use of only those anthelmintics known to be effective against indigenous populations, 2 initiation of anthelmintic treatment no earlier than 60 days of age, and 3 repetition of treatments at the longest intervals which prevent serious environmental contamination with Parascaris eggs. In the interest of decreasing selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, horse owners and veterinarians must become more tolerant of the passage of modest numbers of ascarid eggs by some foals. Anthelmintic resistance is only one of several potential responses to genetic selection. Although still only theoretical, changes in the immunogenicity of ascarid isolates or reduction of their prepatent or egg reappearance periods could pose far greater challenges to effective control than resistance to a single class of anthelmintics.

  13. Development of Anthelmintic Resistance Detection Methods of Gastrointestinal Nematodes on Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Haryuningtyas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensive usage of anthelmintic in most of farms led to resistances of livestock gastrointestinal nematodes against anthelmintic. Many reports of resistance that increased every year happen following the continuing helminth control programmes. The succesful implementation of helminth control programmes that designed to minimize the development of resistance in nematode populations depends on the availability of effective and sensitive method for its detection and monitoring. A variety of in vivo and in vitro tests have been developed for detecting nematode population resistance to the main anthelmintic groups. This paper will discuss the development of detection method of anthelmintic resistance based on conventional and molecular approach according to their strengths and weakness.

  14. Evaluation of an 18-month commercial multidisciplinary obesity treatment programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, E E J G; van Baak, M A

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of obesity is an often studied subject. Although reductions in weight and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors are important aims of obesity treatment, improvements in quality of life and eating behaviour are also relevant outcomes. In this practice-based study, we evaluated an 18-month commercial multidisciplinary obesity treatment programme and report on treatment results for weight, cardiometabolic risk factors, eating behaviour and quality of life. From a local commercial obesity treatment centre, 426 subjects (65% female; 45.4 ± 12.2 years; body mass index 40.0 ± 6.6 kg m(-2)) were recruited. Measurements of body weight, height, body composition, waist circumference and blood pressure were scheduled at baseline and every 3 months, whereas fasting blood collections were scheduled at baseline and every 6 months. At the same time points, participants were asked to fill in questionnaires on dietary intake, eating behaviour and quality of life. After 18 months of treatment programme, average weight change [mean (95% confidence interval)] was -10.9 kg (-14.8 to -7.0; P < 0.001) for the completers (n = 181) and -10.8 kg (-14.2 to -7.4; P < 0.001) for the intention-to-treat population (n = 426). Waist circumference (mean ± standard error of the mean) (-0.13 ± 0.01 cm; P < 0.001), fat mass (-7.8 ± 1.3 kg; P < 0.001) systolic (-11.4 ± 2.0; P < 0.001) and diastolic (-7.0 ± 1.3; P < 0.001) blood pressure, triglycerides (-0.4 ± 0.1; P = 0.004) and plasma glucose (-0.6 ± 0.2; P = 0.001) were significantly reduced. The PCS scale of the SF-36 and all three scales of the three-factor eating questionnaire improved significantly over the 18-month treatment period. All collected data in this study provide evidence that a multidisciplinary treatment programme based on lifestyle modification results in significant weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic

  15. Premature termination of treatment in an inpatient eating disorder programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Philip C; Perlman, Christopher M; Ross, Stuart A; Gates, April L

    2007-07-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to explore rates, timing and predictors of two forms of premature termination of treatment (PTT) in an inpatient eating disorders programme: patient dropout (DO) and administrative discharge (AD). A chart review was conducted to obtain demographic, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), and Resident Assessment Instrument-Mental Health (RAI-MH) data for 186 patients being treated for bulimia nervosa (BN), anorexia nervosa (AN), or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Overall, of the 37.6% of patients who terminated treatment prematurely, 22.1% of patients dropped out, and 15.5% of patients were administratively discharged. Time at which discharge occurred was found to be associated with the type of premature termination. The presence of DSM-IV Axis-I comorbidity was found to be the only factor associated with an increased risk of being administratively discharged. No factors were predictive of patients dropping out of treatment. The findings support the notion that AD and patient DO are different events that may have different factors influencing their rates and timing. Implications for future research and programme planning are discussed.

  16. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and th......Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re...... results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA....

  17. Anthelmintic drugs and nematicides: studies in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Walker, Robert J

    2014-12-16

    Parasitic nematodes infect many species of animals throughout the phyla, including humans. Moreover, nematodes that parasitise plants are a global problem for agriculture. As such, these nematodes place a major burden on human health, on livestock production, on the welfare of companion animals and on crop production. In the 21st century there are two major challenges posed by the wide-spread prevalence of parasitic nematodes. First, many anthelmintic drugs are losing their effectiveness because nematode strains with resistance are emerging. Second, serious concerns regarding the environmental impact of the nematicides used for crop protection have prompted legislation to remove them from use, leaving agriculture at increased risk from nematode pests. There is clearly a need for a concerted effort to address these challenges. Over the last few decades the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has provided the opportunity to use molecular genetic techniques for mode of action studies for anthelmintics and nematicides. These approaches continue to be of considerable value. Less fruitful so far, but nonetheless potentially very useful, has been the direct use of C. elegans for anthelmintic and nematicide discovery programmes. Here we provide an introduction to the use of C. elegans as a 'model' parasitic nematode, briefly review the study of nematode control using C. elegans and highlight approaches that have been of particular value with a view to facilitating wider-use of C. elegans as a platform for anthelmintic and nematicide discovery and development.

  18. Characteristics and programme-defined treatment outcomes among childhood tuberculosis (TB patients under the national TB programme in Delhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinath Satyanarayana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB patients under India's Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP are managed using diagnostic algorithms and directly observed treatment with intermittent thrice-weekly short-course treatment regimens for 6-8 months. The assignment into pre-treatment weight bands leads to drug doses (milligram per kilogram that are lower than current World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for some patients. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of our study was to describe the baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes reported under RNTCP for registered childhood (age <15 years TB patients in Delhi. Additionally, we compared the reported programmatic treatment completion rates between children treated as per WHO recommended anti-TB drug doses with those children treated with anti-TB drug doses below that recommended in WHO guidelines. METHODS: For this cross-sectional retrospective study, we reviewed programme records of all 1089 TB patients aged <15 years registered for TB treatment from January to June, 2008 in 6 randomly selected districts of Delhi. WHO disease classification and treatment outcome definitions are used by RNTCP, and these were extracted as reported in programme records. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Among 1074 patients with records available, 651 (61% were females, 122 (11% were <5 years of age, 1000 (93% were new cases, and 680 (63% had extra-pulmonary TB (EP-TB--most commonly peripheral lymph node disease [310 (46%]. Among 394 pulmonary TB (PTB cases, 165 (42% were sputum smear-positive. The overall reported treatment completion rate was 95%. Similar reported treatment completion rates were found in all subgroups assessed, including those patients whose drug dosages were lower than that currently recommended by WHO. Further studies are needed to assess the reasons for the low proportion of under-5 years of age TB case notifications, address challenges in reaching all childhood TB patients by RNTCP, the

  19. Effectiveness of Treatment Programmes for Depression among Adults with Mild/Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, M. P.; McGillivray, J. A.; Newton, D. C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The current study describes the development and evaluation of group treatment programme for people with mild/moderate intellectual disability (ID). Methods: A total of 34 participants (16 males, 18 females) completed the treatment programme and 15 participants (six males, nine females) comprised a control group. Results: Compared to…

  20. Anthelmintic activity of latex of Jatropha curcas (ratanjot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Hitesh Kumar Parmar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of plants have been used for the treatment of helmenthiasis throughout the world. One such plant is Jatropha curcas. It is known as ratanjot or biodiesel plant, which belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. It possesses many uses like antidiabetic, antmicrobial and antioxidant. The phytochemical prospection of the fresh and dried latex showed the presence of different classes of secondary metabolites that have demonstrated antimicrobial action. The present research work investigated the Anthelmintic activity of latex of leaves of Jatropha curcas. The major finding of the present work illustrates that aqueous latex of Jatropha curcas has shown better Anthelmintic activity than control Jatropha latex and standard drug, piperazine citrate.

  1. Anthelmintic activity of Pongamia glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Laware

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaves, wood, seed, bark and pericarp of the fruit of Pongamia glabra were separately dried, powdered and extracted with methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Anthelmintic activity of these various extracts was evaluatedon Indian adult earthworms, Pherentima posthuma. Results showed that the seed part of P. glabra took less time to cause paralysis and death of the earthworms; therefore, seeds were extracted successively withpetroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Again these extracts were screened for anthelmintic activity. Results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of seeds of P. glabra was most potentfollowed by petroleum ether extract. It can be concluded that anthelmintic activity of the seed of P. glabra is due to the active principles present mostly in the ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts.

  2. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna

    2016-01-01

    -infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very...

  3. Anthelmintic efficacy and management practices in sheep farms from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Daniela Guedes; da Rocha, Letícia Oliveira; Arruda, Sabrina Santos; Palieraqui, Jorge Guilherme Bergottini; Cordeiro, Rudymilla Cunha; Santos, Edizio; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Santos, Clóvis de Paula

    2010-06-24

    Anthelmintic resistance in parasites maybe a consequence of over-exposing populations of parasites to drugs or from the commerce/transit of animals harboring resistant parasites. Knowledge of the sensitivity of nematodes to anthelmintics is essential to establish an efficient integrated program of parasite control. In Brazil, producers rely on technology transfer from field professionals and non-technical labor for new management strategies of parasite control. The aim of this work was to determine the practices farmers used for anthelmintic management and to monitor drug efficacy on sheep farms from northern and northwestern regions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A questionnaire was sent to 34 farms, and anthelmintics were tested on ten of these farms. Sheep (n=10/group) were weighed and treated with albendazole, closantel, doramectin, fenbendazole, ivermectin, levamisole, moxidectin, or nitroxynil with their recommended doses. Faeces were collected on the day of treatment and after 7-10 days. The faecal egg count reduction test was evaluated based on RESO 2.0. Among the farmers interviewed, 97% applied commercial anthelmintics to control parasites, 77% rotated anthelmintics annually, 72% used ivermectin as the principal anthelmintic, and 38% applied anthelmintics with a frequency of 30-60 days. On two farms, none of the anthelmintics was efficacious. Levamisole had the best overall efficacy (70%). Albendazole, ivermectin, and fenbendazole were efficacious (above 95%) on only two farms. The present work illustrates the alarming lack of efficacy of drugs even in an area new to sheep farming. It is important to establish alternative strategies of management in a broad program of parasite control for reducing the selection pressure on parasites by the commercially available anthelmintics.

  4. Anthelmintic activity of Pyrostegia venusta using Pheretima posthuma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Nisha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 3 million people are infected with helminthes worldwide. Helminthes infections are commonly found in villages of developing countries and are being recognized as cause of much acute as well as chronic illness among the human beings as well as cattle’s. Hence, the treatment for helmintic infection is of utmost need. The high cost of modern anthelmintics has limited the effective control of these parasites. However, increasing problems of development of resistance in helminthes against anthelmintics have led to the proposal of screening medicinal plants for their anthelmintic activity. Literature survey revealed that there are only few reports available on phytochemical and pharmacological studies of this plant. In the present investigation we have made a sincere attempt to evaluate the anthelmintic property of chloroform and methanol extracts of Pyrostegia venusta using Pheretima posthuma as an experimental helminthes model. Piperazine citrate was used as the standard reference. Five different concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 mg/ml of chloroform and methanol extracts were used to determine their effect as time taken to paralysis and time to induce death in the worms. Among the various concentrations of chloroform extract tested, 12.5 mg/ml showed efficient anthelmintic activity with paralysis time (23 min and death time (44 min. Among all the concentrations of methanolic extract tested, 12.5 mg/ml showed significant results with paralysis time (34 min and death time (78 min respectively. This investigation revealed that chloroform extract was more effective in its anthelmintic action against Pheretima posthuma when compared to methanolic extract. But both the extracts were less potent when compared with standard drug piperazine citrate.

  5. Benefits of urea-molasses block supplementation and symptomatic and tactical anthelmintic treatments of communally grazed indigenous goats in the Bulwer area, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Vatta

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the cooperation of farmers owning communally grazed indigenous goats in southwestern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, where farmers had identified poor reproductive performance in their herds as one of their major problems. The aim was to quantify the effects of 3 interventions and the interaction between these interventions on goat productivity and gastrointestinal nematode infection. The interventions were: urea-molasses block supplementation during the dry winter seasons of 2004 and 2005, tactical anthelmintic treatment with ivermectin (400 µg/kg during the wet summer period (on 3 January 2005 and symptomatic treatment with ivermectin (400 mg/kg of all goats judged anaemic throughout the entire study period. The FAMACHA© system was used as a gauge of anaemia. It was noted that goats considered anaemic tended to remain so throughout the study period. The tactical anthelmintic treatment was effective as it markedly reduced (P=0.066 the summer peak in faecal egg counts and is therefore recommended. By contrast, while the urea-molasses block supplementation appeared to reduce the faecal egg counts immediately following the 2004 supplementation (P < 0.05, this did not hold true in 2005. Interestingly, in the tactically treated anaemic goats, the improvement in the number of kids suckled per doe year-on-year tended to be greater than in the non-anaemic goats. It is considered that the routine symptomatic treatment of anaemic goats may have been a key factor. More detailed investigations into the routine symptomatic treatment of anaemic goats are therefore recommended.

  6. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holm Signe A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR in 10 selected herds were investigated during April–September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137 with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6% and other Nematodirus species (15.0%. Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92% tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg. AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.

  7. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Signe A; Sörensen, Camilla R L; Thamsborg, Stig M; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92%) tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg) or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg). AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.

  8. Maintaining Unity - Relatives in older patient's fast-track treatment programmes. A Grounded theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To generate a substantive grounded theory of relatives' pattern of behaviour in older patients' fast-track treatment programmes during total hip or knee replacement. BACKGROUND: Fast-track treatment programmes are designed to make total hip and knee replacements more efficient through recove...... to fit in with the patients' and health professionals' requirements. CONCLUSION: The substantive theory of Maintaining Unity offers knowledge of relatives' strong desire to provide compassionate and loving support for the older patients during fast-track treatment programmes.......AIM: To generate a substantive grounded theory of relatives' pattern of behaviour in older patients' fast-track treatment programmes during total hip or knee replacement. BACKGROUND: Fast-track treatment programmes are designed to make total hip and knee replacements more efficient through recovery...... improvements. The support of relatives during older patients' trajectory is important. However, knowledge is needed on the relatives' pattern of behaviour to strengthen their involvement in fast-track treatment programmes. DESIGN: We used a Glaserian grounded theory approach based on a systematic generation...

  9. A survey of anthelmintic resistance on ten sheep farms in Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey to detect anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep was conducted on 10 randomly-distributed farms in the Chivhu District, Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe. Before the survey, a questionnaire was circulated to the farmers concerning nematode parasite control. Results showed that parasite control using anthelmintic treatment was the only method practised and that the benzimidazoles were the most frequently used anthelmintic drugs. The faecal egg count reduction test was used to detect resistance. The anthelmintic groups tested were benzimidazoles, levamisole and ivermectin. Resistance to benzimidazoles was detected on 6 of 10 farms and levamisole resistance on 2 of 3 farms. Ivermectin resistance was not observed on the farms surveyed. Post-treatment larval cultures indicated that Haemonchus contortus survived administration of fenbendazole, albendazole, oxfendazole and levamisole. A Cooperia sp. strain resistant to albendazole was detected and this is the first report in Zimbabwe of a resistant parasite in this genus.

  10. Anthelmintic activity of Cynodon dactylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The plant named Cynodon dactylon belonging to family Poaceae and it is also known as Durva grass, Bermuda grass, Indian Doab, Dhub, and Durba was collected from Paonta Sahib Himachal Pradesh, India in month of May. The plant material was processed for extract. Air-dried and Coarsely powdered plant was extracted for 7 days with Pet. ether, methanol, and water by using maceration method. The phytochemical tests were done to find the presence of the active chemical constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoides, Steroids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins and fixed oils. Standardization of Cynodon dactylon was carried out to check the extractive value, loss on drying, ash value etc. Anthelmintic activity was evaluated on adult Indian earthworm phertima posthuma by using albendazole as a standard drug. The aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon shows anthelmintic activity as compared with the standard drug.

  11. Multiple anthelmintic resistance in a goat herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, A M; Gipson, T A

    2000-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance was monitored over a 30 month period within a goat herd in eastern Virginia, USA. Resistance to ivermectin, levamisole and benzimidazole drugs was detected in Haemonchus contortus using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). When levamisole use was discontinued for 1 year, susceptibility to levamisole appeared to return. Although a single treatment with fenbendazole was able to reduce fecal egg counts by only 50%, two doses administered in a 12 h interval increased efficacy to 92%, however, confidence intervals indicated that resistance was still present. When fecal egg counts were determined the following year after several treatment using this protocol, the efficacy of fenbendazole had fallen again to 57% reduction in fecal egg counts. The predominant genus present in cultured composite fecal samples was Haemonchus. Trichostrongylus, Cooperia and Teladorsagia were also present in smaller numbers.

  12. Managing anthelmintic resistance: is it feasible in New Zealand to delay the emergence of resistance to a new anthelmintic class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, D M; Hosking, B C; Bisset, S A; McKay, C H

    2009-08-01

    The recent registration in New Zealand of the first new class of broad-spectrum anthelmintic, for use against nematode parasites of ruminants, in nearly three decades has raised the possibility that parasite management practices could be improved to minimise the emergence of resistance to the new drug. A review of knowledge pertaining to the selection of anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep highlights a number of management practices which could be altered to achieve this. A number of previously common practices such as whole-flock treatment of adult ewes around lambing, and treatment of lambs as they are moved onto pastures with low parasite contamination have been clearly identified as high risk for selecting resistant parasites. Once high-risk practices have been identified steps can be taken to either eliminate their use or mitigate the associated risk. Much of the focus on the management of resistance around the world is on the retention of susceptible genotypes in refugia. While approaches to retaining unselected parasites are likely to vary around the world, empirical studies indicate that the practice is likely to be effective at slowing the development of resistance. The challenge for farmers and advisors will be to strike a balance between retaining sufficient susceptible parasites to usefully delay the development of resistance while not unduly compromising animal performance and farm profitability. The merits of combining different classes of anthelmintic in order to slow the development of resistance remains somewhat contentious in some countries. However, the attributes of oral anthelmintics are such that they seem likely to meet most, if not all, of the criteria for combinations to be highly effective at slowing the build-up of resistance in nematode parasites. It is evident that considerable progress has been made in understanding the factors involved in selecting anthelmintic-resistant nematodes since the last broad

  13. Anthelmintic resistance in cattle nematodes in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Louis C

    2014-07-30

    The first documented case of macrocyclic lactone resistance in gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes of cattle was seen in the US approximately 10 years ago. Since that time the increase incidence of anthelmintic resistance has continued at an alarming rate. Currently parasites of the genera Cooperia and/or Haemonchus resistant to generic or brand-name macrocyclic lactones have be demonstrated in more than half of all operations examined. Both of these parasite genera are capable of causing economic losses by decreasing food intake and subsequently animal productivity. Currently, there are no easy and quick means to detect anthelmintic resistant GI nematodes. Definitive identification requires killing of cattle. The most commonly used field detection method is the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). This method can be adapted for use as a screening agent for Veterinarians and producers to identify less than desired clearance of the parasites after anthelmintic treatment. Further studies can then define the reasons for persistence of the egg counts. The appearance of anthelmintic resistance is largely due to the development of very effective nematode control programs that have significantly improved the productivity of the US cattle industry, but at the same time has placed a high level of selective pressure on the parasite genome. The challenges ahead include the development of programs that control the anthelmintic resistant nematodes but at the same time result in more sustainable parasite control. The goal is to maintain high levels of productivity but to exert less selective pressures on the parasites. One of the most effective means to slow the development of drug resistance is through the simultaneous use of multiple classes of anthelmintics, each of which has a different mode of action. Reduction of the selective pressure on the parasites can be attained through a more targeted approach to drug treatments where the producer's needs are met by selective

  14. Multiple anthelmintic resistance on a goat farm in Hawassa (southern Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Abebe, Girma

    2009-04-01

    A study was conducted to determine the presence of anthelmintic resistance on Hawassa University goat farm in southern Ethiopia. The 180 goats were stratified by age and sex and randomly assigned to treatment groups (albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin and untreated control). Each treatment group included 15 goats and treatments were administered according to weight of each goat with 7.5 mg/kg bw albendazole, 22.5 mg/kg bw tetramisole and 0.2 mg/kg bw ivermectin dose rates recommended by scientists. Faecal samples were collected on day 0 before treatment, and again on day 12 post treatment. Efficacy of all the drugs was assessed on day 12 post treatment by faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Multiple anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus spp. against albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin was recorded in all age categories of the goats. Likewise, Trichostrongylus/Teladorsagia spp. showed resistance against ivermectin. Coprocultures from all pre- and post-treatments revealed the predominance of Haemonchus spp. Resistance against anthelmintics is attributed to the high frequency of treatment and low dosage of treatment practices on the farm. Large scale studies, however, are needed to assess the current status of anthelmintic resistance against the most commonly used anthelmintics in different agroecology, species of animals and management systems in Ethiopia.

  15. An intensive self care training programme reduces admissions for the treatment of plantar ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, H; Newcombe, L

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes, in detail, an intensive 14 day Self Care Training Programme that is conducted at Lalgadh Leprosy Services Centre in Nepal. An evaluation of the programme was undertaken in which hospital admission for infected plantar ulceration was the outcome measure. It was found that those who had undertaken the programme were less likely to have been admitted for hospital treatment in a 3-month follow-up period (chi 2 = 5.1, P = 0.02). An odds ratio of 1:1.8 (95% CI = 0.15-0.01) was also calculated. This paper presents an overview of the issues related to impairment, a description of the Self Care Training Programme, an analysis of the evaluation results and a discussion of the findings.

  16. Antiparasitic drugs and lactation: focus on anthelmintics, scabicides, and pediculicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Isabel

    2003-11-01

    Infections involving helminths or parasitic worms affect more than 25% of the population worldwide. Because lactating women and their infants are often affected by the complications of these infections such as iron deficiency anemia and malnutrition, they benefit the most from drug therapy. However, scientific literature offers little information regarding transfer of anthelmintics in breast milk and its effects in lactating infants. Scabies and pediculosis, or lice, are common skin infections affecting school-aged children. Close contacts of infected children, which often include lactating mothers, need treatment with one of the several topical products available in the market. This article will review the physicochemical properties and use of anthelmintics, pediculicides, and scabicides while breastfeeding.

  17. The diterpenoid 7-keto-sempervirol, derived from Lycium chinense, displays anthelmintic activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke. These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA (praziquantel for schistosomiasis or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB, this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening, oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental

  18. Limited availability of childhood overweight and obesity treatment programmes in Danish paediatric departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg, Marianne; Cortes, Dina; Johansen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of children and adolescents with overweight and obesity has tripled over the past 30 years. One in five children in Denmark is overweight, a condition which is accompanied by serious medical and psychosocial complications. So far, an overview of the Danish treatment...... of departments offered less comprehensive programmes. The final third offered no multidisciplinary treatment programme for the target group. The criteria for referral to the paediatric departments that offered obesity programmes were heterogeneous. FUNDING: Funding for this study was received from Region...... of childhood overweight and obesity has been lacking. METHODS: Telephone interviews with all Danish paediatric departments were conducted in 2014. The results, constituting a baseline, were analysed using the clinical guidelines for overweight and obesity published by the Danish Paediatric Society's Overweight...

  19. The in vitro motility response to various anthelmintics of third-stage larvae of Oesophagostomum spp. from pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, M; Corba, J; Hrcková, G

    1998-07-01

    The in vitro activities of thiabendazole, levamisole, pyrantel, morantel and ivermectin against Oesophagostomum spp., the nodular worm of pigs, were determined and compared. The study was carried out using isolates of O. dentatum and O. quadrispinulatum, which had been defined in vivo. Infective larvae were exposed to the anthelmintics for 24 h and then placed in a micromotility meter. All the treatments significantly reduced the motility of the ensheathed L3 larvae, but the micromotility meter was not able to differentiate between anthelmintic resistant and anthelmintic susceptible isolates.

  20. Thymus capitatus from Tunisian arid zone: chemical composition and in vitro anthelmintic effects on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker Elandalousi, Ramzi; Akkari, Hafidh; B'chir, Fatma; Gharbi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Awadi, Soufia; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2013-10-18

    The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistant strains of helminths, the drug residues in animal products and the high cost of conventional anthelmintics has created an interest in studying medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Thymus capitatus (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) is used traditionally by people as spices and reported to possess some biological effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of T. capitatus in comparison to albendazole against the gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. To fulfil the objectives, in vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and crude ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of T. capitatus were investigated on the eggs and adults of the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. Both extract types of T. capitatus completely inhibited egg hatching at a concentration close to 2 mg/ml. LC₅₀ of ethanolic extract of T. capitatus was 0.368 mg/ml while that of aqueous extract was 6.344 mg/ml (p<0.05). The ethanolic extract showed higher in vitro activity against adult parasites than the aqueous one in terms of the paralysis and/or death of the worms at different hours post-treatment. Dose dependent effect was observed for both extracts. Chemical analyses revealed that the overall profile of both extracts was dominated by oxygenated constituents. In addition, ethanolic extract is mainly composed of phenols among which thymol (71.22%) and camphor (17.18%). As far as the literature could be ascertained, this is the first publication on anthelmintic activity of T. capitatus. The results of the present study suggest that T. capitatus extracts are a promising alternative to the commercially available anthelmintics like albendazole for the treatment of small ruminants' gastrointestinal nematodes.

  1. Choosing the Best Training Programme: Is there a Case for Statistical Treatment Rules?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staghøj, Jonas; Svarer, Michael; Rosholm, Michael

    2010-01-01

    When treatment effects of active labour market programmes (ALMPs) are heterogeneous in an observable way across the population, the allocation of the unemployed into different programmes becomes particularly important. In this article, we present a statistical model that can be used to allocate...... unemployed into different ALMPs. The model presented is a duration model that uses the timing-of-events framework to identify causal effects. We compare different assignment rules, and the results suggest that a significant reduction in the average duration of unemployment may result if a statistical...

  2. Anthelmintic activity of leaves of justicia beddomei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S

    2007-01-01

    Ethanolic and Chloroform extract of leaves of Justicia beddomei were evaluated separately for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma, using Piperazine citrate as reference standard. The results indicated that ethanolic extract was more potent than the chloroform extract.

  3. Treatment coverage surveys as part of a trachoma control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Emerson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the pillars of the SAFE strategy for trachoma control is the use of mass drug administration (MDA using azithromycin (Zithromax® donated by Pfizer Inc. Azithromycin is very effective for curing infections with ocular Chlamydia trachomatis with a single oral dose. Unusually for the administration of antibiotics, MDA is offered to all members of a defined population without first making an individual diagnosis for each recipient. This is done, in part, because the clinical signs of trachoma do not always mean that C. trachomatis is present and an accurate test for infection is costly and time-consuming to conduct. As a result, members of a defined population (the ‘target population’ are offered treatment whether they have a confirmed current infection or not.

  4. Managing anthelmintic resistance--parasite fitness, drug use strategy and the potential for reversion towards susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, Dave M

    2013-11-15

    The rotation of different anthelmintic classes, on an approximately annual basis, has been widely promoted and adopted as a strategy to delay the development of anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites. Part of the rationale for recommending this practice was the expectation that resistant genotype worms have a lower ecological fitness than susceptible worms, at least in the early stages of selection, and so reversion towards susceptibility could be expected in those years when an alternative class of anthelmintic was used. The routine use of combination anthelmintics might be expected to negate this opportunity for reversion because multiple classes of anthelmintic would be used simultaneously. A simulation model was used to investigate whether the optimal strategy for use of multiple drug classes (i.e. an annual rotation of two classes of anthelmintic or continuous use of two classes in combination) changed with the size of the fitness cost associated with resistance. Model simulations were run in which the fitness cost associated with each resistance gene was varied from 0% to 15% and the rate at which resistance developed was compared for each of the drug-use strategies. Other factors evaluated were the initial frequency of the resistance genes and the proportion of the population not exposed to treatment (i.e. in refugia). Increasing the proportion of the population in refugia always slowed the development of resistance, as did using combinations in preference to an annual rotation. As the fitness cost associated with resistance increased, resistance developed more slowly and this was more pronounced when a combination was used compared to a rotation. If the fitness cost was sufficiently high then resistance did not develop (i.e. the resistance gene frequency declined over time) and this occurred at lower fitness costs when a combination was used. The results, therefore, indicate that the optimal drug-use strategy to maximise the benefit of any fitness

  5. Long Term Control of Scabies Fifteen Years after an Intensive Treatment Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michael; Taotao-Wini, Betty; Satorara, Lorraine; Engelman, Daniel; Nasi, Titus; Mabey, David C.; Steer, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Scabies is a major public health problem in the Pacific and is associated with an increased risk of bacterial skin infections, glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever. Mass drug administration with ivermectin is a promising strategy for the control of scabies. Mass treatment with ivermectin followed by active case finding was conducted in five communities in the Solomon Islands between 1997 and 2000 and resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of both scabies and bacterial skin infections. Methods We conducted a prospective follow-up study of the communities where the original scabies control programme had been undertaken. All residents underwent a standardised examination for the detection of scabies and impetigo. Results Three hundred and thirty eight residents were examined, representing 69% of the total population of the five communities. Only 1 case of scabies was found, in an adult who had recently returned from the mainland. The prevalence of active impetigo was 8.8% overall and 12.4% in children aged 12 years or less. Discussion We found an extremely low prevalence of scabies 15 years after the cessation of a scabies control programme. The prevalence of impetigo had also declined further since the end of the control programme. Our results suggest that a combination of mass treatment with ivermectin and intensive active case finding may result in long term control of scabies. Larger scale studies and integration with other neglected tropical disease control programmes should be priorities for scabies control efforts. PMID:26624616

  6. Long Term Control of Scabies Fifteen Years after an Intensive Treatment Programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marks

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is a major public health problem in the Pacific and is associated with an increased risk of bacterial skin infections, glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever. Mass drug administration with ivermectin is a promising strategy for the control of scabies. Mass treatment with ivermectin followed by active case finding was conducted in five communities in the Solomon Islands between 1997 and 2000 and resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of both scabies and bacterial skin infections.We conducted a prospective follow-up study of the communities where the original scabies control programme had been undertaken. All residents underwent a standardised examination for the detection of scabies and impetigo.Three hundred and thirty eight residents were examined, representing 69% of the total population of the five communities. Only 1 case of scabies was found, in an adult who had recently returned from the mainland. The prevalence of active impetigo was 8.8% overall and 12.4% in children aged 12 years or less.We found an extremely low prevalence of scabies 15 years after the cessation of a scabies control programme. The prevalence of impetigo had also declined further since the end of the control programme. Our results suggest that a combination of mass treatment with ivermectin and intensive active case finding may result in long term control of scabies. Larger scale studies and integration with other neglected tropical disease control programmes should be priorities for scabies control efforts.

  7. Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of Haemonchus contortus in Small Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, R B; Kahn, L P; Sargison, N D; Van Wyk, J A

    2016-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a highly pathogenic, blood-feeding nematode of small ruminants, and a significant cause of mortalities worldwide. Haemonchosis is a particularly significant threat in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions, where warm and moist conditions favour the free-living stages, but periodic outbreaks occur more widely during periods of transient environmental favourability. The clinical diagnosis of haemonchosis is based mostly on the detection of anaemia in association with a characteristic epidemiological picture, and confirmed at postmortem by the finding of large numbers of H. contortus in the abomasum. The detection of impending haemonchosis relies chiefly on periodic monitoring for anaemia, including through the 'FAMACHA' conjunctival-colour index, or through faecal worm egg counts and other laboratory procedures. A range of anthelmintics for use against H. contortus is available, but in most endemic situations anthelmintic resistance significantly limits the available treatment options. Effective preventative programmes vary depending on environments and enterprise types, and according to the scale of the haemonchosis risk and the local epidemiology of infections, but should aim to prevent disease outbreaks while maintaining anthelmintic efficacy. Appropriate strategies include animal management programmes to avoid excessive H. contortus challenge, genetic and nutritional approaches to enhance resistance and resilience to infection, and the monitoring of H. contortus infection on an individual animal or flock basis. Specific strategies to manage anthelmintic resistance centre on the appropriate use of effective anthelmintics, and refugia-based treatment schedules. Alternative approaches, such as biological control, may also prove useful, and vaccination against H. contortus appears to have significant potential in control programmes.

  8. National treatment programme of hepatitis C in Egypt: Hepatitis C virus model of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Akel, W; El-Sayed, M H; El Kassas, M; El-Serafy, M; Khairy, M; Elsaeed, K; Kabil, K; Hassany, M; Shawky, A; Yosry, A; Shaker, M K; ElShazly, Y; Waked, I; Esmat, G; Doss, W

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem in Egypt as the nation bears the highest prevalence rate worldwide. This necessitated establishing a novel model of care (MOC) to contain the epidemic, deliver patient care and ensure global treatment access. In this review, we describe the process of development of the Egyptian model and future strategies for sustainability. Although the magnitude of the HCV problem was known for many years, the HCV MOC only came into being in 2006 with the establishment of the National Committee for Control of Viral Hepatitis (NCCVH) to set up and implement a national control strategy for the disease and other causes of viral hepatitis. The strategy outlines best practices for patient care delivery by applying a set of service principles through identified clinical streams and patient flow continuums. The Egyptian national viral hepatitis treatment programme is considered one of the most successful and effective public health programmes. To date, more than one million patients were evaluated and more than 850 000 received treatment under the umbrella of the programme since 2006. The NCCVH has been successful in establishing a strong infrastructure for controlling viral hepatitis in Egypt. It established a nationwide network of digitally connected viral hepatitis-specialized treatment centres covering the country map to enhance treatment access. Practice guidelines suiting local circumstances were issued and regularly updated and are applied in all affiliated centres. This review illustrates the model and the successful Egyptian experience. It sets an exemplar for states, organizations and policy-makers setting up programmes for care and management of people with hepatitis C.

  9. Provider experiences of the implementation of a new tuberculosis treatment programme: A qualitative study using the normalisation process model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Simon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. In many settings, including South Africa, treatment outcomes remain poor. In contrast, many antiretroviral treatment (ART programmes are achieving high levels of adherence and good outcomes. The ART programme model for maintaining treatment adherence may therefore hold promise for TB treatment. Changing treatment models, however, requires an assessment of how staff receive the new model, as they are responsible for programme implementation. Using the normalization process model as an analytic framework, this paper aims to explore staff perceptions of a new TB treatment programme modelled on the ART treatment programme. Methods A qualitative approach was used. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with clinic staff from five intervention clinics. Data were analysed initially using qualitative content analysis. The resulting categories were then organised under the constructs of the normalization process model. Results Staff recounted a number of challenges with implementing the programme. Interviews and focus group discussions identified factors relating to the main categories of the normalization process model. The key issues hindering the normalisation of the programme within clinics related to the interactional workability, relational integration and skill-set workability constructs of the model. These included hierarchical relationships, teamwork, training needs and insufficient internalisation by staff of the empowerment approach included in the programme. Logistical and management issues also impacted negatively on the normalization of the programme at the clinics. Conclusion The normalization process model assisted in categorising the challenges experienced during implementation of the intervention. The results suggest that issues remain that need to be resolved before the programme is implemented more widely. Considerable work is

  10. A pilot trial to study the effectiveness of an exercise programme in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STASINOPOULOS DIMITRIOS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot trial was to study the effectiveness of an exercise programme in the treatment of chronic rotator cuff tendinopathy. Patients were allocated to two groups by sequential allocation. the patients in group a (n=10 received an exercise programme consisted of slow progressive isotonic, including eccentric, strengthening exercises and static stretching exercises. The exercise programme was given daily (apart from weekends for 4 weeks. The patients in the group B (placebo group, n=10 received placebo tablets (unmarked vitamin C twice daily for four weeks. Patients’ pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VaS at the end of the four-week course of treatment (week 4 and three months after the end of treatment (week 16. Differences between groups were determined using the independent t test. The difference within groups between baseline and end of treatment was analysed with a paired t test. At the end of treatment there was a decline in visual analogue scale of about 7 units in the exercise programme group compared with baseline (p0.0005, independent t test in favour of the exercise programme group. Although the pain reduced in patients with shoulder tendinopathy at the end of the treatment using an exercise programme, future controlled studies are needed to establish the effectiveness of an exercise programme in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopthy.

  11. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of

  12. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Williams

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and

  13. Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, N J; Trainor, B L; Urie, J S; Atkins, J W; Pyman, M F; Wolstencroft, I R

    1985-07-01

    Cases of anthelmintic resistance on 3 goat farms in Gippsland were investigated. On the first farm Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Ostertagia (Teladorsagia) circumcincta were found to be resistant to fenbendazole, but the first 2 species were fully susceptible to levamisole. On the second farm a population of T. colubriformis, resistant to concurrent full doses of levamisole and a benzimidazole, was found to retain this resistance when transferred to sheep. On the third farm, heavy mortality due to Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus spp burdens was arrested only by the use of concurrent full doses of levamisole and oxfendazole; no single anthelmintic was found to be effective. A disturbing rise in the incidence of clinical helminthiosis, often accompanied by anthelmintic resistance, occurred on goat farms in Gippsland early in 1984.

  14. Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suman Kundu; Saptarshi Roy; Larisha Mawkhleing Lyndem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia(C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). angustifolia Methods: Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently.Results: C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively.Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h.Conclusions:This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested.

  15. Anthelmintic resistance of intestinal nematodes to ivermectin and pyrantel in Estonian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, B; Peltola, S-M

    2015-11-01

    There is evidence of resistance in horses to anthelmintic treatment using ivermectin and pyrantel. However, little information is available about the parasites, treatment practices or anthelmintic resistance in the horse population in Estonia. In the present study, we examined 41 trotting and riding horses aged ivermectin. Up to 78% of horses required anthelmintic treatment and the efficiency of the anthelmintics was evaluated using a faecal egg count reduction test. Resistance of P. equorum was observed in 50% of horses treated with ivermectin and of strongyles in 27% of horses treated with pyrantel. Ivermectin treatment resulted in a mean reduction of 100% for strongyle eggs and an 89% reduction in P. equorum, and pyrantel-treated horses exhibited an 88% reduction in strongyle eggs. These results are considered to be the first indication of resistance to pyrantel, but further studies of ivermectin resistance are required. According to questionnaires completed by the owners of horses, resistance might be explained by a lack of evidence-based strategies, a strong preference for using ivermectin and possibly a subjective evaluation of the body weight of horses.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF TREATMENT OUTCOME OF TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS UNDER REVISED NATIONAL TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL PROGRAMME IN NANDED, MAHARASHTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varthi Mahendra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB remains a world-wide public health problem despite the fact that the causative organism was discovered more than 100 years ago and highly effective drugs and vaccine are available making TB a preventable and curable disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess the treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients under Revised National Tuberculosis control Programme. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present record based study was conducted during July 2013-September 2013. The treatment outcome of all tuberculosis patients were assessed from the RNTCP treatment cards that were on DOTS during 1st Jan 2011 to 30th June 2012 at City Tuberculosis Center, Nanded-Waghala Municipal Corporation, Jangamwadi, Nanded. Before starting the study, the ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee of the college. The data was directly entered on the Microsoft Excel regarding epidemiological variables and outcome of tuberculosis patients. The data was tabulated and analyzed by using statistical software Open Epi Version 2.3 by maintaining confidentiality. RESULTS: Thus we had included 442 TB patients. The findings of treatment outcome of TB patients were Cured 104 (23.53%, treatment completed 289 (65.38%, defaulters 20 (4.52%, treatment failures 1 (0.23%, deaths 25 (5.66% and transferred out 3 (0.68%. CONCLUSION: Our study showed the treatment outcome rates as per the expected norms RNTCP.

  17. Alternatives to anthelmintics for the control of nematodes in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stear, M J; Doligalska, M; Donskow-Schmelter, K

    2007-02-01

    Efficient and welfare-friendly livestock production demands the control of nematode infection. Current control measures rely upon anthelmintic treatment but are threatened by the widespread evolution of drug-resistance in parasite populations. Several methods have been advocated to control nematodes without relying on effective anthelmintics. These include grazing management, biological control, nutritional supplementation, vaccination, and genetic approaches. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. There are several grazing management schemes that can reduce the severity of infection but they are insufficient on their own to control infection. Biological control includes the use of predatory fungi to control nematode populations and the use of pasture species that can reduce the intensity of infection. Fungi can control nematodes but the current requirement for daily feeding means that this approach will be most useful for animals that are handled daily. Feeding supplementary protein can control nematode infection. The method is simple but can be expensive and may not be cost-effective for some marginal enterprises. Genetic approaches include the use of resistant breeds and selective breeding. Some breeds will thrive in conditions that kill animals from other breeds but substitution of resistant breeds is not always feasible. Selective breeding is effective and inexpensive but requires a high level of expertise. The most appropriate method or set of methods to minimize the adverse consequences of nematode infection may vary among farms.

  18. The economic value of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia: results from a contingent valuation survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehnberg Clas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia is facing a double crisis of increasing malaria burden and dwindling capacity to deal with the endemic malaria burden. The pursuit of sustainable but equity mechanisms for financing malaria programmes is a subject of crucial policy discussion. This requires that comprehensive accounting of the economic impact of the various malaria programmes. Information on the economic value of programmes is essential in soliciting appropriate funding allocations for malaria control. Aims and objectives This paper specifically seeks to elicit a measure of the economic benefits of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia. The paper also studies the equity implications in malaria treatment given that demand or malaria treatment is determined by household socio-economic status. Methods A contingent valuation survey of about 300 Zambian households was conducted in four districts. Willingness-to-pay (WTP was elicited for an improved treatment programme for malaria in order to generate a measure of the economic benefits of the programme. The payment card method was used in eliciting WTP bids. Findings The study reports that malaria treatment has significant economic benefits to society. The total economic benefits of an improved treatment programme were estimated at an equivalent of US$ 77 million per annum, representing about 1.8% of Zambia's GDP. The study also reports the theoretically anticipated association between WTP and several socio-economic factors. Our income elasticity of demand is positive and similar in magnitude to estimates reported in similar studies. Finally, from an equity standpoint, the constraints imposed by income and socio-economic status are discussed.

  19. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes in goats and evaluation of FAMACHA diagnostic marker in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabukenya, Immaculate; Rubaire-Akiiki, Chris; Olila, Deogracious; Muhangi, Denis; Höglund, Johan

    2014-10-15

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a challenge to goat production globally causing reduced growth, morbidity and mortality. We report here results of the first nation-wide anthelmintic resistance (AR) study and validation of assessment of clinical anaemia with FAMACHA eye scores in goats in Uganda. From August to December 2012 the efficacy of albendazole (7.5mg/kg), levamisole (10.5mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.3mg/kg) against strongyle nematodes was tested on 33 goat farms in Soroti, Gulu, Mpigi, Mbarara and Ssembabule districts of Uganda. Altogether 497 goats were subjected to a total of 45 different faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT), each involving 5-20 goats. On one farm all substances were tested. Faecal and blood samples were collected and FAMACHA eye scores evaluated on the day of treatment and 15 days later. A questionnaire survey was conducted on frequency, type and dose of anthelmintics used, farm size and grazing management system. Examination of infective third stage larvae (L3) from pooled faecal cultures demonstrated Haemonchus to be the predominant genus (>75%). Resistance to at least one anthelmintic group was detected on 61% of the 33 farms and in 49% of the 45 test groups. Prevalence of resistance to ivermectin, levamisole and albendazole was respectively 58%, 52% and 38%. Correlation between pre-treatment packed cell volume determinations and FAMACHA scores (r(498) = -0.89) was significant. Paddock grazing system (Odds ratio 4.9, 95% CI 1.4-17.3) and large farm size of >40 goats (odds ratio 4.4, 95% CI 1.2-16.1) were significant predictors of AR. In all districts, resistance to all three anthelmintics was higher on large-scale goat farms practising mostly paddock grazing. Interestingly, resistance to albendazole, the most commonly used anthelmintic in Uganda, was lower than that to ivermectin and levamisole. We recommend adaptation of FAMACHA to goats to help restrict anthelmintic treatment to heavily infected individuals. This will limit

  20. First report of multiple anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of sheep in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M.B. Gárcia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to report the presence of parasites resistant to the most used anthelmintic drugs in sheep in Colombia. Four farms (denominated farm 1, 2, 3 and 4 were selected where the animals were not treated with anthelmintics for two months before the trial. Animals with faecal egg count (FEC above 150 and of different ages were allocated into six groups, each consisting of at least 5 animals. The drugs and dosages used were: ivermectin 1% (0.2 mg/kg, albendazole 25% (5 mg/kg, fenbendazole 10% (5 mg/kg, levamisole 10% (5 mg/kg, and moxidectin 1% (0.2 mg/kg. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined by the FEC reduction test (FECRT with a second sampling 14 days post-treatment. The efficacy of albendazole and fenbendazole at farm 1 was above 95%, which was different from the others farms. The FECRT indicated the presence of multidrug resistance in the other farms where no tested drugs showed activity higher than 79% (albendazole: 0 to 55%, fenbendazole: 51.4 to 76.6%, ivermectin: 67.3 to 93.1%, levamisole: 0 to 78.1%, and moxidectin: 49.2 to 64.1%.Haemonchus contortus was the predominant (96% species, followed by a small presence of Trichostrongylus sp. (3% andCooperia sp. (1%. Therefore, we report for the first time the existence of multiple anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in Colombia.

  1. Optimal Control of Hepatitis C Antiviral Treatment Programme Delivery for Prevention amongst a Population of Injecting Drug Users

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Natasha K.; Pitcher, Ashley B.; Vickerman, Peter; Vassall, Anna; Hickman, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    In most developed countries, HCV is primarily transmitted by injecting drug users (IDUs). HCV antiviral treatment is effective, and deemed cost-effective for those with no re-infection risk. However, few active IDUs are currently treated. Previous modelling studies have shown antiviral treatment for active IDUs could reduce HCV prevalence, and there is emerging interest in developing targeted IDU treatment programmes. However, the optimal timing and scale-up of treatment is unknown, given the...

  2. Optimal Control of Hepatitis C Antiviral Treatment Programme Delivery for Prevention amongst a Population of Injecting Drug Users

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, NK; Pitcher, AB; Vickerman, P.; Vassall, A; Hickman, M

    2011-01-01

    : In most developed countries, HCV is primarily transmitted by injecting drug users (IDUs). HCV antiviral treatment is effective, and deemed cost-effective for those with no re-infection risk. However, few active IDUs are currently treated. Previous modelling studies have shown antiviral treatment for active IDUs could reduce HCV prevalence, and there is emerging interest in developing targeted IDU treatment programmes. However, the optimal timing and scale-up of treatment is unknown, given t...

  3. Anthelmintic prescribing patterns of a sample of general practitioners from selected areas in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawardena GSA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available General Practitioners (GPs provide first contact care of children and pregnant mothers in the community. This study ascertained the prescribing pattern of anthelmintics to children and pregnant women by a sample of GPs from the district of Colombo. Two hundred medical practitioners engaged in full-time General Practice (100 urban and 100 rural, were selected randomly. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 183 GPs aged between 26 and 72 years (median 38 participated with 94 coming from urban areas. Seventy percent of the GPs were male. Almost 13% of GPs from urban areas had a Postgraduate degree in comparison to 4.5% from the rural areas ( P < 0.05. Over 50% of GPs had 6-20 years of service and over 30% treated 16-30 patients daily. Seventy-three percent of GPs from rural areas accessed health-related reading material either daily or weekly in contrast to only 40% from urban areas ( P < 0.001. All GPs prescribed anthelmintics to children. Pyrantel pamoate was the preferred anthelmintic used for children by both groups. Approximately 55% and 64% of GPs from urban and rural areas, respectively, prescribed anthelmintics during pregnancy. A majority of GPs prescribed drugs after the first trimester. However, 25% from urban areas gave drugs during any trimester ( P < 0.001. Regression analysis revealed that GPs with postgraduate qualifications, those having frequent access to health-related material and those seeing more than 30 patients daily, prescribed anthelmintics to pregnant women more often. Although routine de-worming of pregnant women and children should occur through government antenatal and well-baby clinics, and through the schools de-worming programme, it may not happen due to various reasons. Thus, GPs play a vital role in achieving good coverage of anthelmintics among children and pregnant women. Making available clear national guidelines on prescribing anthelmintics in Sri Lanka would

  4. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina

    2014-01-01

    to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely...... employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse......, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects...

  5. Modelling the benefits of a new class of anthelmintic in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, D M

    2012-05-04

    Since 2009 two new classes of anthelmintics have been registered for use in sheep in New Zealand. This raises challenging questions about how such new actives should be used, not only to minimise the development of resistance to them, thereby ensuring their availability as effective treatments for as long as possible, but also to minimise the further development of resistance to the other anthelmintic classes. One strategy which appears to offer considerable potential for slowing the development of resistance is the use of combinations of different anthelmintic classes, although this approach remains contentious in some countries. The potential benefit of using anthelmintics in combination is particularly relevant to two recently released anthelmintic compounds because one, monepantel, is presently only available as a single active product while the other, derquantel, is only available in combination with abamectin. A simulation modelling approach was used to investigate the potential benefits of using anthelmintics in combination. The rate at which resistance develops to a new 'active' when used alone was compared to an equivalent compound used in combination with a second compound from an alternative class (in this case, abamectin), when various levels of resistance occur to the second active. In addition, the potential of a new active to reduce further development of resistance to the second compound in the combination was evaluated. Finally, the use of combinations as compared to sequential or rotational use patterns, in the presence of side resistance between two actives was investigated. The modelling simulations suggest a significant advantage to both compounds when they are used in combination, especially if both initially have high efficacy. The development of resistance to the new active was delayed, although to a lesser extent, even when the efficacy of the second active in the combination was only 50%. Under a 'low-refugia' management environment

  6. The association between farmers’ participation in herd health programmes and their behaviour concerning treatment of mild clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Ann-Kristina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Denmark, it has recently become mandatory for all dairy farmers with more than 100 cows to sign up for a herd health programme. Three herd health programmes are available. These differ in a number of aspects, including the frequency of veterinary visits and the farmer’s access to prescription drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate whether dairy farmers’ behavioural intentions, i.e. to call a veterinarian or start medical treatment on the day that they detect a cow with mild clinical mastitis (MCM, are different depending on the type of herd health programme. Methods A questionnaire survey based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB was conducted. TPB proposes that a person’s behavioural intention is strongly correlated with his or her actual behaviour. Three behavioural factors determine the behavioural intention: attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Each of these factors is decided by a set of beliefs, each of which in turn is weighted by an evaluation: 1 the expected outcomes of performing the behaviour, 2 what a person believes that others think of the behaviour, and 3 the person’s perceived power to influence the behaviour. A set of statements about the treatment of MCM based on interviews with 38 dairy farmers were identified initially. The statements were rephrased as questions and the resulting questionnaire was distributed to 400 randomly selected Danish dairy farmers who use the two most restrictive herd health programmes, either Core or Module1, and to all 669 farmers with the least restrictive herd health programme, Module2. The association between intention and the herd health programme was modelled using logistic regression. Results The farmers with the Module2 herd health programme had a significantly higher behavioural intention to perform the behaviour, when compared to farmers with a more restrictive herd health programme (OR = 2.1, p Conclusion Danish dairy

  7. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of a Leaf Extract from Combretum mucronatum with Anthelmintic Activity: Oligomeric Procyanidins as the Active Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegler, Verena; Sendker, Jandirk; Petereit, Frank; Liebau, Eva; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-08-14

    Combretum mucronatum Schumach. & Thonn. is a medicinal plant widely used in West African traditional medicine for wound healing and the treatment of helminth infections. The present study aimed at a phytochemical characterization of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of this plant and the identification of the anthelmintic compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation. An EtOH-H2O (1:1) extract from defatted leaves was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O. Further fractionation was performed by fast centrifugal partition chromatography, RP18-MPLC and HPLC. Epicatechin (1), oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) 2 to 10 (mainly procyanidins) and flavonoids 11 to 13 were identified as main components of the extract. The hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and purified compounds were tested in vitro for their anthelmintic activity using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of OPCs as the active compounds with a dose-dependent anthelmintic activity ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Using OPC-clusters with a defined degree of polymerization (DP) revealed that a DP ≥ 3 is necessary for an anthelmintic activity, whereas a DP > 4 does not lead to a further increased inhibitory effect against the helminths. In summary, the findings rationalize the traditional use of C. mucronatum and provide further insight into the anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins.

  8. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of a Leaf Extract from Combretum mucronatum with Anthelmintic Activity: Oligomeric Procyanidins as the Active Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Spiegler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Combretum mucronatum Schumach. & Thonn. is a medicinal plant widely used in West African traditional medicine for wound healing and the treatment of helminth infections. The present study aimed at a phytochemical characterization of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of this plant and the identification of the anthelmintic compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation. An EtOH-H2O (1:1 extract from defatted leaves was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O. Further fractionation was performed by fast centrifugal partition chromatography, RP18-MPLC and HPLC. Epicatechin (1, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC 2 to 10 (mainly procyanidins and flavonoids 11 to 13 were identified as main components of the extract. The hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and purified compounds were tested in vitro for their anthelmintic activity using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of OPCs as the active compounds with a dose-dependent anthelmintic activity ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Using OPC-clusters with a defined degree of polymerization (DP revealed that a DP ≥ 3 is necessary for an anthelmintic activity, whereas a DP > 4 does not lead to a further increased inhibitory effect against the helminths. In summary, the findings rationalize the traditional use of C. mucronatum and provide further insight into the anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins.

  9. Understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment and care in rural Tanzania: the ACCESS Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Sandra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt access to effective treatment is central in the fight against malaria. However, a variety of interlinked factors at household and health system level influence access to timely and appropriate treatment and care. Furthermore, access may be influenced by global and national health policies. As a consequence, many malaria episodes in highly endemic countries are not treated appropriately. Project The ACCESS Programme aims at understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment and care in a rural Tanzanian setting. The programme's strategy is based on a set of integrated interventions, including social marketing for improved care seeking at community level as well as strengthening of quality of care at health facilities. This is complemented by a project that aims to improve the performance of drug stores. The interventions are accompanied by a comprehensive set of monitoring and evaluation activities measuring the programme's performance and (health impact. Baseline data demonstrated heterogeneity in the availability of malaria treatment, unavailability of medicines and treatment providers in certain areas as well as quality problems with regard to drugs and services. Conclusion The ACCESS Programme is a combination of multiple complementary interventions with a strong evaluation component. With this approach, ACCESS aims to contribute to the development of a more comprehensive access framework and to inform and support public health professionals and policy-makers in the delivery of improved health services.

  10. Correcting mortality for loss to follow-up: a nomogram applied to antiretroviral treatment programmes in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Egger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization estimates that in sub-Saharan Africa about 4 million HIV-infected patients had started antiretroviral therapy (ART by the end of 2008. Loss of patients to follow-up and care is an important problem for treatment programmes in this region. As mortality is high in these patients compared to patients remaining in care, ART programmes with high rates of loss to follow-up may substantially underestimate mortality of all patients starting ART. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a nomogram to correct mortality estimates for loss to follow-up, based on the fact that mortality of all patients starting ART in a treatment programme is a weighted average of mortality among patients lost to follow-up and patients remaining in care. The nomogram gives a correction factor based on the percentage of patients lost to follow-up at a given point in time, and the estimated ratio of mortality between patients lost and not lost to follow-up. The mortality observed among patients retained in care is then multiplied by the correction factor to obtain an estimate of programme-level mortality that takes all deaths into account. A web calculator directly calculates the corrected, programme-level mortality with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. We applied the method to 11 ART programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. Patients retained in care had a mortality at 1 year of 1.4% to 12.0%; loss to follow-up ranged from 2.8% to 28.7%; and the correction factor from 1.2 to 8.0. The absolute difference between uncorrected and corrected mortality at 1 year ranged from 1.6% to 9.8%, and was above 5% in four programmes. The largest difference in mortality was in a programme with 28.7% of patients lost to follow-up at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of bias in mortality estimates can be large in ART programmes with substantial loss to follow-up. Programmes should routinely report mortality among patients retained in care and the proportion of patients

  11. Optimal control of hepatitis C antiviral treatment programme delivery for prevention amongst a population of injecting drug users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha K Martin

    Full Text Available In most developed countries, HCV is primarily transmitted by injecting drug users (IDUs. HCV antiviral treatment is effective, and deemed cost-effective for those with no re-infection risk. However, few active IDUs are currently treated. Previous modelling studies have shown antiviral treatment for active IDUs could reduce HCV prevalence, and there is emerging interest in developing targeted IDU treatment programmes. However, the optimal timing and scale-up of treatment is unknown, given the real-world constraints commonly existing for health programmes. We explore how the optimal programme is affected by a variety of policy objectives, budget constraints, and prevalence settings. We develop a model of HCV transmission and treatment amongst active IDUs, determine the optimal treatment programme strategy over 10 years for two baseline chronic HCV prevalence scenarios (30% and 45%, a range of maximum annual budgets (£50,000-300,000 per 1,000 IDUs, and a variety of objectives: minimising health service costs and health utility losses; minimising prevalence at 10 years; minimising health service costs and health utility losses with a final time prevalence target; minimising health service costs with a final time prevalence target but neglecting health utility losses. The largest programme allowed for a given budget is the programme which minimises both prevalence at 10 years, and HCV health utility loss and heath service costs, with higher budgets resulting in greater cost-effectiveness (measured by cost per QALY gained compared to no treatment. However, if the objective is to achieve a 20% relative prevalence reduction at 10 years, while minimising both health service costs and losses in health utility, the optimal treatment strategy is an immediate expansion of coverage over 5-8 years, and is less cost-effective. By contrast, if the objective is only to minimise costs to the health service while attaining the 20% prevalence reduction, the

  12. Anthelmintic effects of forage chicory against parasitic nematodes in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Williams, Andrew; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    BACKGROUND: Chicory (Cichorium intybus) has potential as a natural anthelmintic in livestock, however evidence of efficacy against cattle nematodes is lacking. Here, we investigated anthelmintic effects of chicory in stabled calves. METHODS: Jersey male calves (2-4 months) were stratified by live...

  13. Anthelmintic activity of root bark of Carissa carandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, P P; Mazumder, Avijit; Mazumder, R; Bhatnagar, S P

    2007-07-01

    The anthelmintic activity of the Imethanolic extract of the root bark of Carissa carandas was evaluated on adult Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma) using albendazole as a reference standard. The extract caused paralysis followed by the death of worm at the tested dose level. The extract at the highest tested concentration has anthelmintic activity comparable with that of standard drug albendazole.

  14. The evolution of eccentric training as treatment for patellar tendinopathy (jumper's knee): a critical review of exercise programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Visnes, Håvard; Bahr, Roald

    2007-01-01

    Background and aim: Eccentric training has become a popular treatment for patellar tendinopathy. Our purpose was to review the evolution of eccentric strength training programmes for patellar tendinopathy with a focus on the exercise prescriptions used, to help clinicians make appropriate choices and identify areas needing further research.

  15. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Desai*, M.D. Kapadia and A.R. Kharat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs lead to the evaluation of medicinal plants which acts as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The present study has been undertaken to perform the evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Plumbago zeylanica belonging to family Plumbaginaceae. In the current study, experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible anthelminitic effects of various extracts of the roots of Plumbago zeylanica. Various concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20mg/ml of water and methanol extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Piperazine citrate was taken as a reference standard drug.The anthelmintic activity was observed by gradually increasing the dose of extract. Methanolic extract of Plumbago zeylenica showed higher activity as compared to water extract.

  16. Anthelmintic Resistance of Strongyle Nematodes to Ivermectin and Fenbendazole on Cart Horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Zewdu, Alemu; Dagnachew, Shimelis; Bogale, Basazinew

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to determine fenbendazole and ivermectin resistance status of intestinal nematodes of cart horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Forty-five strongyle infected animals were used for this study. The animals were randomly allocated into three groups (15 horses per group). Group I was treated with fenbendazole and Group II with ivermectin and Group III was left untreated. Faecal samples were collected from each cart horse before and after treatment. Accordingly, the reduction in the mean fecal egg count at fourteen days of treatment for ivermectin and fenbendazole was 97.25% and 79.4%, respectively. It was significantly different in net egg count between treatment and control groups after treatment. From the study, resistance level was determined for fenbendazole and suspected for ivermectin. In addition, a questionnaire survey was also conducted on 90 selected cart owners to assess their perception on anthelmintics. In the survey, the most available drugs in the study area used by the owners were fenbendazole and ivermectin. Most respondents have no knowledge about drug management techniques. Hence, animal health extension services to create awareness regarding anthelmintic management that plays a key role in reducing the anthelmintic resistance parasites.

  17. Anthelmintic Resistance of Strongyle Nematodes to Ivermectin and Fenbendazole on Cart Horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdu Seyoum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted from November 2015 to April 2016 to determine fenbendazole and ivermectin resistance status of intestinal nematodes of cart horses in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Forty-five strongyle infected animals were used for this study. The animals were randomly allocated into three groups (15 horses per group. Group I was treated with fenbendazole and Group II with ivermectin and Group III was left untreated. Faecal samples were collected from each cart horse before and after treatment. Accordingly, the reduction in the mean fecal egg count at fourteen days of treatment for ivermectin and fenbendazole was 97.25% and 79.4%, respectively. It was significantly different in net egg count between treatment and control groups after treatment. From the study, resistance level was determined for fenbendazole and suspected for ivermectin. In addition, a questionnaire survey was also conducted on 90 selected cart owners to assess their perception on anthelmintics. In the survey, the most available drugs in the study area used by the owners were fenbendazole and ivermectin. Most respondents have no knowledge about drug management techniques. Hence, animal health extension services to create awareness regarding anthelmintic management that plays a key role in reducing the anthelmintic resistance parasites.

  18. Peer mentors, mobile phone and pills: collective monitoring and adherence in Kenyatta National Hospital's HIV treatment programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Kenyan state joined the international commitment to make antiretroviral treatment free in public health institutions to people infected with HIV. Less than a decade later, treatment has reached over 60% of those who need it in Kenya. This paper, which is based on an in-depth ethnographic case study of the HIV treatment programme at Kenyatta National Hospital, conducted intermittently between 2008 and 2014, examines how HIV-positive peer mentors encourage and track adherence to treatment regimens within and beyond the clinic walls using mobile phones and computer technology. This research into the everyday practices of patient monitoring demonstrates that both surveillance and adherence are collective activities. Peer mentors provide counselling services, follow up people who stray from treatment regimens, and perform a range of other tasks related to patient management and treatment adherence. Despite peer mentors' involvement in many tasks key to encouraging optimal adherence, their role is rarely acknowledged by co-workers, hospital administrators, or public health officials. Following a biomedical paradigm, adherence at Kenyatta and in Kenya is framed by programme administrators as something individual clients must do and for which they must be held accountable. This framing simultaneously conceals the sociality of adherence and undervalues the work of peer mentors in treatment programmes.

  19. Anthelmintic efficacy and dose determination of Albizia anthelmintica against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected Ugandan sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradé, J T; Arble, B L; Weladji, R B; Van Damme, P

    2008-11-07

    Weight loss, stunted growth, and death caused by gastrointestinal parasites are major constraints to livestock productivity, especially in tropical and developing countries where regular use, and misuse, of anthelmintics has led to nematode resistance. Albizia anthelmintica Brong. (Fabaceae) is traditionally employed throughout East Africa to treat helminth parasitosis in livestock. Reported efficacy has varied from 90% against mixed nematodes to just 19% against Haemonchus contortus alone. The objective of this study was to assess the anthelmintic effect of A. anthelmintica against naturally occurring infections of mixed gastrointestinal parasites, and to establish an effective treatment dose, in sheep under pastoral field conditions of northern Uganda. A. anthelmintica bark was collected and prepared according to local custom and packed into gel capsules. Fifty-five young female local mixed-breed lambs were randomly assigned to six groups, including a positive control group that received levamisole (synthetic anthelmintic) and a negative control group that received no treatment. Following the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) dose determination guidelines, the other four groups were treated with varying doses of A. anthelmintica. Statistical analyses (using generalized linear models) were performed to assess treatment effect. There was a significant treatment (group) effect on parasite egg/oocyte counts per gram (EPG) for nematodes, but not for coccidia. The most effective dose against nematodes (0.8g, 58.7mg/kg) closely approximates what is usually given by traditional healers, 0.9g/adult sheep. It provided major and significant reduction in EPG as compared to the negative control. Anthelmintic efficacy was estimated using percent faecal egg count reduction (FECR). Other than the positive control, animals in the standard dose group showed the greatest decline in shedding of nematode eggs, with an FECR of 78%. This study

  20. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE

    OpenAIRE

    MATA-SANTOS, Taís; PINTO, Nitza França; Hilton Antônio MATA-SANTOS; DE MOURA, Kelly Gallan; Carneiro, Paula Fernandes; CARVALHO, Tatiane dos Santos; DEL RIO, Karina Pena; PINTO, Maria do Carmo Freire Ribeiro; MARTINS, Lourdes Rodrigues; Juliana Montelli FENALTI; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Scaini, Carlos James

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis) is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate) of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubate...

  1. Efficacy of anthelmintics on South American camelid (llama and alpaca) farms in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Rose-Ann M; Williamson, Lisa H; Terrill, Thomas H; Kaplan, Ray M

    2010-08-27

    The number of South American camelid (SAC; llama and alpaca) farms is growing in the southeastern United States, and infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major health concern in this region. There is widespread resistance to anthelmintic remedies in small ruminants (sheep and goats), but a paucity of information on llamas and alpacas. Anthelmintic resistance was evaluated on three SAC farms (two llama; one alpaca) in Georgia in the southern United States using fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. For each farm, animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups based on initial fecal egg count (FEC) and number of animals available (2-5 groups, n=9-11 per treatment). Ivermectin (IVM, subcutaneous injection; 0.3mg/kg body weight (BW)) and a control group were tested on an alpaca farm, and fenbendazole (FBZ, oral; 10mg/kg BW; two farms), moxidectin (MOX oral; 0.2mg/kg BW; two farms), and levamisole (LEV, oral; 8 mg/kg BW; one farm) were added for the llama farms. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined by comparing FEC of treatment and control animals 14 days post-treatment, with resistance evaluated using the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines. Based upon these guidelines, there was GIN resistance to IVM in both llamas and alpacas in Georgia and to FBZ on both llama farms where this drug was tested. There was MOX resistance on one llama farm using the FECR test, while there was no resistance to LEV detected in this study. These data demonstrate a serious emerging problem in the United States of llama and alpaca GIN resistant to drugs from two of the three major anthelmintic classes.

  2. Characteristics and comprehensiveness of adult HIV care and treatment programmes in Asia-Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duda, Stephany N; Farr, Amanda M; Lindegren, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: HIV care and treatment programmes worldwide are transforming as they push to deliver universal access to essential prevention, care and treatment services to persons living with HIV and their communities. The characteristics and capacity of these HIV programmes affect patient outcom...

  3. An Evaluation of the EQUIP Treatment Programme with Men who have Intellectual or Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Peter E.; Murphy, Glynis H.; Clare, Isabel C.H.; Palmer, Emma J.; Rees, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Equipping Youth to Help One Another Programme (EQUIP) was designed for young offenders to address a developmental delay in moral reasoning, distorted cognitions and social skills. Methods: The present authors undertook a single case series study and piloted an adapted version of the EQUIP programme with three men with intellectual…

  4. HIV treatment as prevention: optimising the impact of expanded HIV treatment programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Delva

    Full Text Available Until now, decisions about how to allocate ART have largely been based on maximising the therapeutic benefit of ART for patients. Since the results of the HPTN 052 study showed efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART in preventing HIV transmission, there has been increased interest in the benefits of ART not only as treatment, but also in prevention. Resources for expanding ART in the short term may be limited, so the question is how to generate the most prevention benefit from realistic potential increases in the availability of ART. Although not a formal systematic review, here we review different ways in which access to ART could be expanded by prioritising access to particular groups based on clinical or behavioural factors. For each group we consider (i the clinical and epidemiological benefits, (ii the potential feasibility, acceptability, and equity, and (iii the affordability and cost-effectiveness of prioritising ART access for that group. In re-evaluating the allocation of ART in light of the new data about ART preventing transmission, the goal should be to create policies that maximise epidemiological and clinical benefit while still being feasible, affordable, acceptable, and equitable.

  5. Targeted treatment in primary care for low back pain: the treatment system and clinical training programmes used in the IMPaCT Back study (ISRCTN 55174281)

    OpenAIRE

    Sowden, Gail; Hill, Jonathan C.; Konstantinou, Kika; Khanna, Meenee; Main, Chris J.; Salmon, Paula; Somerville, Simon; Wathall, Simon; Foster, Nadine E.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The IMPaCT Back study (IMplementation to improve Patient Care through Targeted treatment for Back pain) is a quality improvement study which aims to investigate the effects of introducing and supporting a subgrouping for targeted treatment system for patients with low back pain (LBP) in primary care. This paper details the subgrouping for targeted treatment system and the clinical training and mentoring programmes aimed at equipping clinicians to deliver it. The subgrouping and ta...

  6. The efficacy of 30% FENBENDAZOLE anthelmintic paste in cyathostominosis in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Badea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Horse cyathostominosis is a large intestine helminthosis caused by parasites belonging to the family Strongylidae, subfamily Cyathostominae. The cyathostomins (small strongyles represent a challenge for the parasitologists and animal owners due to the different ontogenesis, the high number of parasite species and their ability to develop anthelmintic resistance. The faeces were examined by flotation (Willis method and the infestation level was determined by McMaster method in day 0, 7 and 14 post treatments. The product Vanbendazol (30% fenbendazole had a 97.7% efficacy in the treated horses from Şofronea, Arad County, using the Faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT. Also were performed Presidente and Borgsteede relations and the anthelmintic efficacy was 98.2% for the both relations.

  7. Anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder against bovine strongylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamra, Nirmala; Das, Giridhari; Singh, Priyanka; Haque, Manjurul

    2015-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of crude neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder against strongyle infections in cattle. Based on copro-examination, 30 cattle positive for strongyle infection with at least 250 [eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces] were selected and grouped as A, B and C (10 animals/group). Group A and B were treated respectively with fendendazole and neem leaf powder @ 5 and 500 mg/kg body weight, whereas Group C served as infected untreated control. Faecal sample from each animal of these groups was examined on day 0, 7, 14 and 28 post treatments and EPG was determined. The result showed significant decrease (p neem leaf powder has anthelmintic property and it can further be studied to isolate the active component to produce herbal anthelminthics.

  8. An information system to manage the rollout of the antiretroviral treatment programme in the Free State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Kotzé

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome epidemic, caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, is a global crisis which threatens development gains, economies, and societies. Within sub-Saharan Africa, where the epidemic began the earliest and the HIV prevalence is the highest, African countries have death rates not seen before. In South Africa the epidemic has a devastating impact which creates profound suffering on individuals and their families, and the impact on the socio-economic level is of great concern. The eradication of HIV/AIDS represents one of humanity’s greatest challenges, which requires co-operation and comprehensive collaboration between many different role players. In this endeavour clinical information plays a major role. To combat the effect of the disease, the Free State Department of Health started with the provisioning of antiretroviral therapy in the public health sector. The objective of this paper was to address the challenges they faced in order to develop and implement an information system to manage the rollout of antiretroviral treatment effectively. They started with a paper-based system to collect vital information. It was followed by a palm computer project that was initiated to electronically capture the data collected by the paper-based system. This system was then replaced by a comprehensive Hospital and Clinic Information System which was acquired and customised for the antiretroviral data collection process. Research partners developed a standalone antiretroviral data warehouse for collecting information associated with the monitoring and evaluation of the Free State antiretroviral and HIV/ AIDS treatment programme. The data warehouse successfully produced several management information reports to the antiretroviral management team. A need was identified to design a comprehensive antiretroviral data warehouse that will integrate data from several operational sources which are all associated with HIV/AIDS.

  9. An information system to manage the rollout of the antiretroviral treatment programme in the Free State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, J E; McDonald, T

    2010-06-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome epidemic, caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, is a global crisis which threatens development gains, economies, and societies. Within sub-Saharan Africa, where the epidemic began the earliest and the HIV prevalence is the highest, African countries have death rates not seen before. In South Africa the epidemic has a devastating impact which creates profound suffering on individuals and their families, and the impact on the socio-economic level is of great concern. The eradication of HIV/AIDS represents one of humanity's greatest challenges, which requires co-operation and comprehensive collaboration between many different role players. In this endeavour clinical information plays a major role. To combat the effect of the disease, the Free State Department of Health started with the provisioning of antiretroviral therapy in the public health sector. The objective of this paper was to address the challenges they faced in order to develop and implement an information system to manage the rollout of antiretroviral treatment effectively. They started with a paper-based system to collect vital information. It was followed by a palm computer project that was initiated to electronically capture the data collected by the paper-based system. This system was then replaced by a comprehensive Hospital and Clinic Information System which was acquired and customised for the antiretroviral data collection process. Research partners developed a standalone antiretroviral data warehouse for collecting information associated with the monitoring and evaluation of the Free State antiretroviral and HIV/ AIDS treatment programme. The data warehouse successfully produced several management information reports to the antiretroviral management team. A need was identified to design a comprehensive antiretroviral data warehouse that will integrate data from several operational sources which are all associated with HIV/AIDS.

  10. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products with emphasis on anthelmintics in human sanitary waste, sewage, hospital wastewater, livestock wastewater and receiving water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Hee-Young; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2013-03-15

    We investigated 33 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) with emphasis on anthelmintics and their metabolites in human sanitary waste treatment plants (HTPs), sewage treatment plants (STPs), hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWTPs), livestock wastewater treatment plants (LWTPs), river water and seawater. PPCPs showed the characteristic specific occurrence patterns according to wastewater sources. The LWTPs and HTPs showed higher levels (maximum 3000 times in influents) of anthelmintics than other wastewater treatment plants, indicating that livestock wastewater and human sanitary waste are one of principal sources of anthelmintics. Among anthelmintics, fenbendazole and its metabolites are relatively high in the LWTPs, while human anthelmintics such as albendazole and flubendazole are most dominant in the HTPs, STPs and HWTPs. The occurrence pattern of fenbendazole's metabolites in water was different from pharmacokinetics studies, showing the possibility of transformation mechanism other than the metabolism in animal bodies by some processes unknown to us. The river water and seawater are generally affected by the point sources, but the distribution patterns in some receiving water are slightly different from the effluent, indicating the influence of non-point sources.

  11. Comparative anthelmintic activity investigation of selected ethno-medicinal weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueblos, Kirstin Rhys S.; Bajalla, Mark; Pacheco, Dixie; Ganot, Sheila; Paig, Daisy; Tapales, Radyn; Lagare, Jeanne; Quimque, Mark Tristan J.

    2017-01-01

    Helminth infections are one of the seriously neglected potent diseases in many parts of the world. The problems of parasitic helminthes becoming resistant to currently available anthelmintic drugs pose a challenge for the search - relying on natural products - for new and better anthelmintics. In this paper, four abundant Philippine weeds: Chrysopogon aciculatus Trin. Cyperus brevifolius Rottb., Ruellia tuberosa Linn. and Saccharum spontaneum Linn. were investigated for their anthelmintic activities to establish basis of their folkloric claim. The hexane-soluble and chloroform-soluble extracts were obtained through sequential solvent partitioning of the crude ethanolic extract of the air-dried aerial part of each plant sample. Meanwhile, the decoction was obtained from fresh aerial part of the plant samples. All extracts were then subjected to in vitro anthelmintic screening at different concentration as per method of Ghosh, et al. against African nightcrawler earthworms (Eudrillus euginiae) in which the activity of the extracts was determined by correlation with time. The anthelmintic bioassay results revealed a dose-dependent toxicity relationship. It indicated relatively low anthelmintic activities of the decoction of the four plant samples as compared to their corresponding crude ethanol extracts. Among the crude ethanol extracts, C. brevifolius (CBE) gave fastest time to bring about paralysis and death to the test organisms at all concentrations tested. For the hexane extracts, R. tuberosa (RTH) gave better activity among other plant samples. Lastly, among the chloroform-soluble extracts, both that of C. brevifolius (CBC) and R. tuberosa (RTC) comparably showed strongest anthelmintic activities at all tested concentrations, thus, exhibited best anthelmintic activity that is remarkably comparable to the positive control, Mebendazole at the highest concentration tested. In fact, CBC and RTC showed highest anthelmintic potential compared to all extracts tested in

  12. First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maroto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the prevalence and severity of anthelmintic resistance continue to rise, nematode infections in sheep correspondingly reduce the profitability of the sheep industry. In Costa Rica, sheep production systems are increasing in both number and importance. A field trial study was carried out to detect the level of anthelmintic resistance to albendazole and ivermectin in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN of sheep from seven farms in Costa Rica. Resistance was determined using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT. Three treatment groups were assessed on each farm: control, albendazole, and ivermectin. Haemonchus spp. (71%, Strongyloides sp. (57%, and Trichostrongylus spp. (43% presented resistance levels to albendazole, whereas Strongyloides sp. (43%, Haemonchus spp. (29%, and Trichostrongylus spp. (29% were resistant to ivermectin. Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most resistant GIN to both products. This study suggests that frequency of treatment, exclusive chemical control, and visual estimation of animal weight to calculate dosage may contribute to the high levels of anthelmintic resistance that were observed on the farms analyzed herein.

  13. First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, R.; Jiménez, A. E.; Romero, J. J.; Alvarez, V.; De Oliveira, J. B.; Hernández, J.

    2011-01-01

    As the prevalence and severity of anthelmintic resistance continue to rise, nematode infections in sheep correspondingly reduce the profitability of the sheep industry. In Costa Rica, sheep production systems are increasing in both number and importance. A field trial study was carried out to detect the level of anthelmintic resistance to albendazole and ivermectin in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep from seven farms in Costa Rica. Resistance was determined using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Three treatment groups were assessed on each farm: control, albendazole, and ivermectin. Haemonchus spp. (71%), Strongyloides sp. (57%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (43%) presented resistance levels to albendazole, whereas Strongyloides sp. (43%), Haemonchus spp. (29%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (29%) were resistant to ivermectin. Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most resistant GIN to both products. This study suggests that frequency of treatment, exclusive chemical control, and visual estimation of animal weight to calculate dosage may contribute to the high levels of anthelmintic resistance that were observed on the farms analyzed herein. PMID:21772962

  14. Care seeking and attitudes towards treatment compliance by newly enrolled tuberculosis patients in the district treatment programme in rural western Kenya: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Ayisi; A.H. van 't Hoog; J.A. Agaya; W. Mchembere; P.O. Nyamthimba; O. Muhenje; B.J. Marston

    2011-01-01

    The two issues mostly affecting the success of tuberculosis (TB) control programmes are delay in presentation and non-adherence to treatment. It is important to understand the factors that contribute to these issues, particularly in resource limited settings, where rates of tuberculosis are high. Th

  15. Relatives in older patients' fast-track treatment programme during total hip or knee replacement. A grounded theory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher

    The aim of this Ph.D.-dissertation was to generate grounded theories of relatives, patients, and health professionals’ pattern of behaviour, respectively, in relation to the relatives of older patients’ fast-track treatment programmes during total hip or knee replacement. The dissertation includes...... interviews. Maintaining Unity emerged as the relatives’ pattern of behaviour, through which they resolved their main concern; preventing the patients from feeling alone. The relatives resolved their main concern through three interchangeable behavioural modes: Protecting mode, by providing loving......-participant observations and 11 formal interviews. Safeguarding Self-governance emerged in the analysis as the pattern of behaviour through which older patients resolved their main concern; completing the fast-track treatment programme while maintaining autonomy. Four typologies; ‘The Dependent’, ‘The Loner’, ‘The...

  16. Evaluation of enhanced virgin coconut oil and senduduk (Melastoma malabathricum) as anthelmintics against caprine strongyle nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basripuzi, H B; Sani, R A; Ariff, O M; Chandrawathani, P

    2013-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the anthelmintic properties of enhanced virgin coconut oil (EVCO) and senduduk (Melastoma malabathricum) plant against strongyle nematodes in goats. Two preparations of 10% EVCO dissolved in 90% virgin coconut oil and 10% EVCO dissolved in 90% palm oil, were given orally to two groups of mixed breeds goats. The efficacy test indicated that EVCO was insufficiently active as an anthelmintic. Four concentrations of senduduk solution (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg ml(-1)) were compared with a control and albendazole in an in vitro test for larvicidal effect. There was no significant larval mortality using senduduk solution. An in vivo test of senduduk was conducted by comparing three groups of goats, namely control, levamisole and treatment groups that were given a daily oral dose of senduduk crude extract with 1g kg(-1) from Day 0 to Day 12 and 2 g kg(-1) from Day 13 to Day 30. This efficacy test with senduduk also gave negative results. The findings obtained indicated that EVCO and senduduk were ineffective as anthelmintics against caprinestrongyle nematodes at the concentrations used.

  17. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Azadirachta Indica Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAQUE RABIU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms (Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridiagalli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control. Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 40 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaves has been reported

  18. INVESTIGATION OF IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF Clerodendron Inerme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Subhasish

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Clerodendron inerme leaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridia galli. Various concentrations (10-50 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control. Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 30 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Clerodendron inerme has been reported for the first time.

  19. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups

  20. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ramos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG (sensitivity of 50 EPG. These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different

  1. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-04-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70-100 calves or more of both genders with ≥ 200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7-10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7-10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups were effective

  2. Anthelmintic properties of extracts from Artemisia plants against nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S; Afshan, K; Mirza, B; Miller, J E; Manan, A; Irum, S; Rizvi, S S R; Qayyum, M

    2015-06-01

    Artemisia plant genus, natural inhabitant of northern Punjab Pakistan, is well known for its anthelmintic properties; many Artemisia species have not been so far scientifically proved. The aim of this study was to assess in vitro anthelmintic activity of Artemisia indica and Artemisia roxburghiana against mixed infection of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. This study is first scientifically proven study on anthelmintic activity of A. indica and A. roxburghiana. Five different concentrations (50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.75 mg/mL) accompanied by negative control (PBS) and positive control (albendazole, 10%) were used to carry out the egg hatch inhibition assay, larval mortality assay and adult worm mortality assay. The Baermann technique was used first time in larval mortality assay and proved to be effective. The results revealed that methanolic extracts of both A. indica and A. roxburghiana, showed maximum anthelmintic activity at concentration of 50 mg/ml by egg hatch inhibition (85±21.2; 80±28.3), larvae mortality (18±2.8; 17±4.2) and adult worm mortality (8.5±2.1; 8±2.8) assays. However, at concentration of 50 mg/ml both plant extracts in comparison to albendazole showed statistically insignificant (p≤0.05) results. The A. indica showed higher anthelmintic activity at all concentrations as compared to A. roburghiana. It has been concluded both plants exhibit anthelmintic activity and further evaluation of these plants should be carried out to purify the active ingredients for anthelmintic activity. Moreover, the decoctions of these plants could be used to GINs after confirming anthelmintic properties through in vivo.

  3. Controlling internal parasites without anthelmintics (a review) OF0132

    OpenAIRE

    KEATINGE, Ray

    1996-01-01

    1.0 Executive summary 1. Internal parasites are a major source of economic loss in grazing ruminants. To a greater or lesser degree, most farms in the UK rely on anthelmintics for control. In most situations these products continue to be highly effective, but anthelmintic resistance is increasing to the limited range of products available, raising serious concerns over the future of worm control. 2. Internal parasites are also of concern on organic farms, where the prophylactic us...

  4. Anthelmintic activity of Indigofera tinctoria against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshisundaram, Ambalathaduvar; Harikrishnan, Tirunelveli Jayagopal; Anna, Thavasi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are considered as a major constraint for successful sheep production. Control of these parasites heavily relies on the use of chemical anthelmintics. Over the past decades, the development of anthelmintic resistance to various groups of anthelmintics and problem of drug residues in animal products has awakened interest in medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Indigofera tinctoria by scientifically validated in vitro and in vivo tests approved by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Materials and Methods: In vitro assays such as egg hatch assay for ovicidal and larval migration inhibition and larval development assay for larvicidal properties were used to investigate in vitro effect of extracts on strongyle egg and larvae, respectively. Fecal egg count reduction test was conducted in vivo to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the extracts administered orally at dose rates of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg to sheep naturally infected with mixed GI nematodes. Results: Ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria demonstrated significant (pactivity and could replace the chemical anthelmintics used presently. PMID:27051192

  5. In Vitro and In Vivo Anthelmintic Activity of Acacia nilotica (L. Willd.Ex Delile Bark and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Badar, Zafar Iqbal*, Muhammad Nisar Khan and Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the anthelmintic activity of Acacia nilotica bark and leave extracts in different solvents. Adult motility assay, egg hatch test and fecal egg count reduction test were carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity. Effect of plant extracts both of leaves and bark of A. nilotica was dose-dependent. Highest mortality of worms was observed 12 hours post-exposure @ 25 mg/ml. Extracts of leaves were more potent than the bark extracts. Ethyle acetate fractions both of bark and leaves exhibited higher anthelmintic effects compared with chloroform, petroleum spirit and aqueous fractions. Crude aqueous methanol extract (CAME of bark (LC50= 201.0032 µg/ml had higher inhibitory effects compared with that of leaves (LC50= 769.2485 µg/ml on egg hatching. Likewise, chloroform and ethyle acetate fractions of A. nilotica bark exhibited higher ovicidal activity. In vivo, maximum reduction (72.01% in fecal egg counts was recorded for CAME of bark followed by CAME of leaves (63.44% @ 8 g/kg at day 12 post-treatment. Results suggest lipophilic nature of the active principles having anthelmintic efficacy in A. nilotica bark and leaves.

  6. Anthelmintic and relaxant activities of Verbascum Thapsus Mullein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbascum thapsus is used in tribal medicine as an antispasmodic, anti-tubercular agent and wormicide. In this study, we investigated the antispasmodic and anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous methanolic extract of the plant. Methods V. thapsus extracts were tested against roundworms (Ascaridia galli and tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis. Each species of worm was placed into a negative control group, an albendazole treatment group, or a V. thapsus treatment group, and the time taken for paralysis and death was determined. In addition, relaxation activity tests were performed on sections of rabbit's jejunum. Plant extracts were tested on KCl-induced contractions and the relaxation activities were quantified against atropine. V. thapsus calcium chloride curves were constructed to investigate the mode of action of the plant extracts. Results We detected flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, fats and fixed oils in V. thapsus. For both species of worm, paralysis occurred fastest at the highest concentration of extract. The relative index values for paralysis in A. galli were 4.58, 3.41 and 2.08, at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 mg/ml of plant extract, respectively. The relative index for death in A. galli suggested that V. thapsus extract is wormicidal at high concentration. Similarly, the relative indexes for paralysis and death in R. spiralis suggested that the extract is a more potent wormicidal agent than albendazole. The mean EC50 relaxation activity values for spontaneous and KCl induced contractions were 7.5 ± 1.4 mg/ml (6.57-8.01, n = 6 and 7.9 ± 0.41 mg/ml (7.44-8.46, n = 6, respectively. The relaxation activity of the extract was 11.42 ± 2, 17.0 ± 3, 28.5 ± 4, and 128.0 ± 7% of the maximum observed for atropine at corresponding concentrations. The calcium chloride curves showed that V. thapsus extracts (3 mg/ml, had a mean EC50 (log molar [calcium] value of -1.9 ± 0

  7. Anthelmintic activity of Indigofera tinctoria against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambalathaduvar Meenakshisundaram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Gastrointestinal (GI nematodes are considered as a major constraint for successful sheep production. Control of these parasites heavily relies on the use of chemical anthelmintics. Over the past decades, the development of anthelmintic resistance to various groups of anthelmintics and problem of drug residues in animal products has awakened interest in medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Indigofera tinctoria by scientifically validated in vitro and in vivo tests approved by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Materials and Methods: In vitro assays such as egg hatch assay for ovicidal and larval migration inhibition and larval development assay for larvicidal properties were used to investigate in vitro effect of extracts on strongyle egg and larvae, respectively. Fecal egg count reduction test was conducted in vivo to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the extracts administered orally at dose rates of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg to sheep naturally infected with mixed GI nematodes. Results: Ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria demonstrated significant (p<0.01 inhibition on egg hatching at concentrations of 40 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml. In in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria reduced the fecal egg count ranging between 30.82% and 47.78% at various doses (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg. Although there was a slight variation, all the hematological parameters were within the normal range reported for sheep. Except for alanine transaminase, the overall mean of all the serum biochemical profile was within the normal range for sheep. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained by in vitro and in vivo assay, the ethanolic extract of I. tinctoria possesses anthelmintic activity and could replace the chemical anthelmintics used presently.

  8. To trace the active compound in mengkudu (morinda citrifolia with anthelmintic acvtivity against Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B Murdiati

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites such Haemonchus contortus is usually controlled by management improvement and regular administration of anthelmintic. However, there is an indication of H. contortus resistance to several anthelmintic available in the market, which makes medicinal plants as an alternative anthelmintic and mengkudu or noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia have been reported as an effective anthelmintic. To trace the active compounds responsible for anthelmintic activity against H. contortus, the mengkudu fruit was continuosly extracted into hexane, chloroform, metanol and water, followed by in-vitro study on the anthelmintic activity. The in-vitro anthelmintic activity was base on the ability of the extracts to kill the worm and the ability of the extracts to prevent egg development. The study suggested that chloroform fraction which contains alkaloid and anthraquinon have the highest anthelmintic activity and showed significant different compared to control (P≤ 0.05.

  9. Phytochemical, Anti-oxidant and Anthelmintic activities of various leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sreejith

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that the leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria exhibited strong antioxidant activity and possess significant anthelmintic activity and thus it is a good source of antioxidant and anthelmintic constituents.

  10. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA.

  11. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K.

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA. PMID:27301442

  12. RD and D Programme 98. Treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste. Programme for research, development and demonstration of encapsulation and geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    RD and D-Programme 98 is intended to provide an overview of SKBs activities and plans. The detailed research programme is presented in a separate background report. In parallel with RDD-Programme 98, SKB is publishing a number of reports that provide a more thorough background and a more detailed account, particularly on those issues that the Government mentioned in its decision regarding RD and D-Programme 95. The programme is divided into two parts: Background and Execution. The background part begins with a chapter on the basic premises. It deals with general principles, laws and the properties of the waste. The facilities that exist today for dealing with the nuclear waste are also described in the introductory chapter. The two following chapters have to do with the choice between different methods for disposing of nuclear waste and with the KBS-3 method, which SKB has chosen as its main alternative. These two chapters provide a broader account of both the KBS-3 method and different alternative methods than previous RD and D-programmes. The background part concludes with a chapter about the long-term safety of the deep repository. The second part, Execution, begins with an overview of SKBs strategy and the main features of the programme, both for the next few years and further in the future. The plans for siting, technology and safety assessment are then presented in greater detail. This is followed by an overview of our plans for supportive research and development, including continued R and D on other methods than the KBS-3 method. The programme concludes with a chapter on decommissioning of nuclear facilities. An important part of the ongoing and planned work is consultation on environmental impact assessments. A first draft of the contents of future environmental impact statements is therefore provided. By attaching it to RD and D-Programme 98, SKB wishes to give all reviewing bodies an opportunity to offer their viewpoints at an early stage on what future

  13. Interaction of benzimidazole anthelmintics with Haemonchus contortus tubulin: binding affinity and anthelmintic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubega, G W; Prichard, R K

    1991-08-01

    The ability of various benzimidazoles (BZs) to bind tubulin under different conditions was assessed by determining their IC50 values (the concentration of unlabeled drug required to inhibit 50% of the labeled drug binding), Ka (the apparent equilibrium association constant) and Bmax (the maximum binding at infinite [BZ] = [drug-receptor]). The ability of unlabeled benzimidazoles--fenbendazole, mebendazole (MBZ), oxibendazole (OBZ), albendazole (ABZ), rycobendazole (albendazole sulfoxide, ABZSO), albendazole sulfone, oxfendazole (OFZ), and thiabendazole--to bind tubulin was determined from their ability to inhibit the binding of [3H]MBZ or [3H]OBZ to tubulin in supernatants derived from unembryonated eggs or adult worms of Haemonchus contortus. The binding constants (IC50, Ka, and Bmax) correlated with the known anthelmintic potency (recommended therapeutic doses) of the BZ compounds except for OFZ and ABZSO whose Ka values were lower than could be expected from anthelmintic potency. The binding of [3H]ABZ or [3H]OFZ to tubulin in supernatants derived from BZ-susceptible and BZ-resistant H. contortus was compared. [3H]ABZ demonstrated saturable high-affinity binding but [3H]OFZ bound with low affinity. The high-affinity binding of [3H]ABZ was reduced for the R strain. Tubulin bound BZ drugs at 4 degrees C with lower apparent Ka than at 37 degrees C.

  14. Evaluation of anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites using observational data and hierarchical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Vidyashankar, Anand N.; Hanlon, Bret;

    Anthelmintic resistance is an increasing challenge in the control of parasites in livestock. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the practical gold standard method for evaluating resistance, but the interpretation is complicated due to high levels of variability. Several factors...... = 200 eggs per gram (EPG) and were treated. Post treatment samples and information on age, gender and farm zip code were collected for each horse. In addition, individual coprocultureswere performed on all pretreatment fecal samples to determine the presence of Strongylus vulgaris, with 31farms (48...... to handle FECRT data obtained from other livestock species, drug types, and parasite species....

  15. [The resistance status of gastrointestinal strongyles against anthelmintics in three Estonian sheep flocks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anupöld, Ann Mari; Hinney, Barbara; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Poor efficacy of anthelmintic drugs in sheep due to infections with resistant gastrointestinal strongyles is reported worldwide. The aim of this pilot study was to gain an insight into the current situation of anthelmintic efficacy in Estonian sheep flocks. From September to November 2012, faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were carried out in three Estonian sheep farms, evaluating the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin. Individual faecal samples were taken at the day of treatment and 10 to 14 days later and examined by a modified McMaster technique. Anthelmintic treatment was carried out with ivermectin (Bimectin 10 mg/ml, Bimeda Chemicals Export) subcutaneously with a dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight in the IVM group (n = 20 animals/farms 1 and 2; n = 5 for farm 3) or albendazol (Endospec 10%, Bimeda Chemicals Export) orally in the dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight in the ALB group (n = 20 animals/ farm); animals in the control group (n = 20 animals for farms 1 and 3, n = 18 for farm 2) were left untreated. The FECRT was carried out according to the WAAVP guidelines. On farm 1 the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin was reduced with 66% and 65% FECR, respectively. With a FECR of 26% the results of farm 2 showed a pronounced albendazole resistance while ivermectin was still sufficiently efficient (99% reduction). Farm 3 showed nearly 100% efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin, but earlier problems with high endoparasite burden and mortality may indicate a possible developing albendazole resistance which could not be detected with the FECRT yet. The results of this study show that in Estonia resistance against benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones does occur, indicating that close countrywide monitoring is advisable.

  16. Anthelmintic effects of Salix babylonica L. and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. extracts in growing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Pablo Mejia; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Elghandour, Mona M M Y; Cipriano-Salazar, Moisés; Cruz-Lagunas, Blas; Camacho, Luis Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Twenty Katahdin × Pelibuey crossbreed male lambs, 3 to 4 months of age and 24 ± 0.3 kg of body weight, were used to study the anthelmintic effects of administering extracts of Salix babylonica L. (SB) and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. (LL). Lambs had not been treated with anthelmintics previously and were randomly allocated into four groups of five lambs each in a completely randomized design. Treatments were as follows: control (lambs fed on total mixed ration without extracts), SB (as control plus S. babylonica L. extract at 30 ml/day), LL (as control plus L. leucocephala Lam. extract at 30 ml/day), and SBLL (as control plus 30 ml/day of S. babylonica L. and L. leucocephala Lam. extracts in a 1:1 (v/v) mixture) for 63 days. Extracts were orally administered before the 8:00 a.m. feeding to each lamb. Rectal fecal samples were collected from each lamb at day 22 (P1), day 43 (P2), and day 63 (P3) of the experiment. Adult worm and egg counts were determined in each fecal sample immediately after collection. Plant secondary metabolites of total phenolics, saponins, and the aqueous fraction were 50 % lower in the SB versus LL extracts. Overall, the oral administration of extracts has improved the egg and worm count reductions in lamb feces by 54, 47, and 40 % for LL, SB, and SBLL, respectively, versus the control lambs. Reductions of worm egg counts in lamb feces were higher (P < 0.05) in P2 and P3 versus P1. Extracts of SB and LL or possibly isolated bioactive compounds could be a promising alternative to conventional anthelmintics to treat gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. Such treatments could be used in control strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes in organic and conventional production systems.

  17. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclu......The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met...

  18. Comparative study on Anthelmintic property of Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Devi. S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For the present study Acacia catechu, Euphorbia heterophylla, Corallocarpus epigaeus and Caesalpinia bonducella plant parts were chosen to evaluate the comparative analysis on anthelmintic activity. Different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, 100mg/ml of methanolic extracts of these plant parts were used. The evaluation parameters involved the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. Piperazine citrate was used as standard drug at 10 mg/ml concentration and saline as control. The results obtained showed that Corallocarpus epigaeus showed the highest anthelmintic activity with death time of 9 minutes at 100 mg/ml concentration.

  19. Detoxification of medication-overuse headache by a multidisciplinary treatment programme is highly effective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, Signe B; Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-01-01

    the acceptability, feasibility and outcome of these two regimes in a non-randomised open-label study. Methods: Patients able to undergo outpatient detoxification, with medication-overuse headache that had previously been unsuccessfully treated by specialists and without significant co-morbidities were treated...... highly effective-80.0% of Group A and 85.4% of Group B were cured of medication-overuse headache. Headache-frequency reduction was 40.2% in Group A and 38.4% in group B. In 48.9% of group A and 48.8% of group B, headache-frequency reduction was >50%. Programme B required fewer resources from the staff...

  20. Managing anthelmintic resistance--use of a combination anthelmintic and leaving some lambs untreated to slow the development of resistance to ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, D M; Waghorn, T S; Miller, C M; Candy, P M; Oliver, A-M B

    2012-06-08

    A field study was conducted to test the hypotheses that use of a combination anthelmintic and/or increasing the pool of unselected worms 'in refugia' by leaving a proportion of lambs untreated would slow the development of resistance to ivermectin. Twelve suites of four paddocks (farmlets) were seeded with a mixture of resistant and susceptible isolates of both Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta calculated to yield a 95% reduction in faecal nematode egg count (FEC) after treatment with ivermectin. Each year for three years the farmlets were stocked in the spring with mobs of lambs which were treated five times at 28-day intervals with either ivermectin or an ivermectin+levamisole combination. In addition, in half the mobs the heaviest 10% of lambs remained untreated at each treatment occasion, resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial treatment structure (i.e. two drench types × two percentage treated) with three complete replicates. The development of resistance to ivermectin, and at the end to levamisole, was measured by larval development assays (LDA) and worm counts from treated and untreated tracer lambs. For T. colubriformis the development of resistance to ivermectin, as measured by tracer lamb worm burdens, was delayed by treatment with the combination and by leaving 10% of lambs untreated. In addition, the interaction between these factors approached significance (p=0.052). Similarly, results of the LDAs indicated a slower development of resistance when lambs were treated with the combination and when 10% of lambs were left untreated. For T. circumcincta, results were compromised by the rapid development of resistance, which appears to be the result of low viability in the field of the susceptible isolate used to contaminate the pastures. Although a small delay in the development of resistance to ivermectin was indicated, this was off-set by an increase in the level of resistance to levamisole. A post-study modelling

  1. Effect of combinations of marketed human anthelmintic drugs against Trichuris muris in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiser Jennifer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are responsible for a huge public health burden, however treatment options are limited. The discovery and development of novel efficacious drugs or drug combinations for the treatment of STH infections therefore has a high research priority. Methods We studied drug combination effects using the main standard anthelmintics, albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin in the Trichuris muris model. Drug combinations were first tested in vitro and additive and synergistic combinations investigated further in vivo in female mice using ratios based on the ED50 of the respective drugs. Results In vitro all 10 combinations of the standard anthelmintics tested against T. muris revealed synergistic behavior. We identified three drug combinations in vivo as strongly synergistic, namely mebendazole-ivermectin (Combination index (CI=0.16, mebendazole-levamisole (CI=0.17 and albendazole-mebendazole (CI=0.23. For albendazole-ivermectin, moderate synergism was observed (CI=0.81 and for albendazole-levamisole a nearly additive effect was documented (CI=0.93 in vivo. Five combinations (albendazole-pyrantel pamoate, mebendazole-pyrantel pamoate, levamisole-pyrantel pamoate, levamisole-ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate-ivermectin were antagonistic in vivo. Conclusion Our results strengthen the evidence that combination chemotherapy might play a role in the treatment of Trichuris infections. Albendazole-mebendazole should be studied in greater detail in preclinical studies.

  2. Efficacy of commonly used anthelmintics: first report of multiple drug resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, N; Persad, K; Sagam, R; Offiah, V N; Adesiyun, A A; Harewood, W; Lambie, N; Basu, A K

    2011-12-29

    In Trinidad, small ruminant farms are semi-intensively managed under tropical conditions which support the development and survival of the infective stages of the helminths. Local farmers use anthelmintics to control gastrointestinal nematodes frequently. Frequent use of anthelmintics has the potential to select for populations of nematodes resistance to those chemicals. Hence, an attempt was made to study the efficacy of commonly used drugs on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. Three farms situated in different counties in Trinidad were selected. Sheep aged 6-15 months and not treated with anthelmintics for a minimum of six months previous and with faecal egg count (FEC)>150 eggs per gram were selected for study. They were allocated into 5 groups, each consisting 10 animals. The Group TA animals were treated once with albendazole (5mg/kg. b.wt.), group TF with fenbendazole (5mg/kg.b.wt.), group TI animals with ivermectin (200 μg/kg b.wt.), group TL with levamisol (7.5mg/kg b.wt.). The group NTC animals were not given any drug and served as control. The number of nematode eggs per gram of faeces from each animal was determined before treatment and at 14 days after treatment. The anthelmintic susceptibility to different drugs was detected by FECRT (in vivo) with EPG recorded at 14 day post-treatment. The data analysis using FECRT revealed that efficacy of albendazole (46-62%), fenbendazole (44-61%) and levamisol (53-81%) were reduced compared to ivermectin (95-97%). An attempt has also been made to find a suitable method for calculation of FECR (%).

  3. Anthelmintic Activity of a Herbal Formulation Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arfan Zaman*§, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Nisar Khan and Ghulam Muhammad1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of a herbal formulation (HF based on aqueous extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica and Nicotiana tabacum, flowers of Calotropis procera and seeds of Trachyspermum ammi. In vitro, eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus were exposed to different concentrations of HF following the standard procedures of egg hatch test (EHT; 50 to 0.024414 mg ml-1 and adult motility assay (AMA; 200-0.1953125mg ml-1, respectively. The reference drugs used in the study were oxfendazole (0.0056704 to 0.0000027 mg ml-1 and levamisole (1.50 mg ml-1 for EHT and AMA, respectively. In vivo, pre and post-treatment (4 mg, 2 mg and 500 µg kg-1 body weight fecal egg counts were determined following standard fecal egg count reduction test in sheep naturally parasitized with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. In EHT, LC50 values of HF and oxfendazole (reference drug were 275.1 and 0.016 µg ml-1, respectively. In AMA, 100% mortality of H. contortus was observed 6 hr post-exposure to 3.125-200 mg ml-1 concentrations of HF and 2 hr post-exposure to levamisole. In vivo, maximum (96.2% fecal egg count (EPG reduction was recorded in sheep treated with HF @ 4 mg kg-1 body weight; whereas, 89.3% reduction in EPG was recorded in sheep treated with levamisole @ 7.5 mg kg-1 body weight. A graded dose response was noted in all the tests used in the present study to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of HF. Therefore, HF seems to be promising as an anthelmintic for animals. Large scale trials on efficacy and safety, however, are recommended before the HF is considered for commercialization in crude form.

  4. Hepatic biotransformation pathways and ruminal metabolic stability of the novel anthelmintic monepantel in sheep and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballent, M; Virkel, G; Maté, L; Viviani, P; Lanusse, C; Lifschitz, A

    2016-10-01

    Monepantel (MNP) is a new amino-acetonitrile derivative anthelmintic drug used for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in sheep. The present work investigated the main enzymatic pathways involved in the hepatic biotransformation of MNP in sheep and cattle. The metabolic stability in ruminal fluid of both the parent drug and its main metabolite (monepantel sulphone, MNPSO2 ) was characterized as well. Additionally, the relative distribution of both anthelmintic molecules between the fluid and particulate phases of the ruminal content was studied. Liver microsomal fractions from six (6) rams and five (5) steers were incubated with a 40 μm of MNP. Heat pretreatment (50 °C for 2 min) of liver microsomes was performed for inactivation of the flavin-monooxygenase (FMO) system. Additionally, MNP was incubated in the presence of 4, 40, and 80 μm of methimazole (MTZ), a FMO inhibitor, or equimolar concentrations of piperonyl butoxide (PBx), a well-known general cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitor. In both ruminant species, MNPSO2 was the main metabolite detected after MNP incubation with liver microsomes. The conversion rate of MNP into MNPSO2 was fivefold higher (P MNP oxidation in cattle liver microsomes. On the other hand, PBx inhibited the production of MNPSO2 in liver microsomes of both sheep (58 to 98%, in a dose-dependent manner) and cattle (almost 100%, independently of the PBx concentration added). The incubation of MNP and MNPSO2 with ruminal contents of both species showed a high chemical stability without evident metabolism and/or degradation as well as an extensive degree of adsorption (83% to 90%) to the solid phase of the ruminal content. Overall, these results are a further contribution to the understanding of the metabolic fate of this anthelmintic drug in ruminants.

  5. Treatment success in pragmatic randomised controlled trials: a review of trials funded by the UK Health Technology Assessment programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raftery James

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research reviewed treatment success and whether the collective uncertainty principle is met in RCTs in the US National Cancer Institute portfolio. This paper classifies clinical trials funded by the UK HTA programme by results using the method applied to the US Cancer Institute trials, and compares the two portfolios. Methods Data on all completed randomised controlled trials funded by the HTA programme 1993-2008 were extracted. Each trial's primary results was classified into six categories; 1 statistically significant in favour of the new treatment, 2 statistically significant in favour of the control treatment 3 true negative, 4 truly inconclusive, 5 inconclusive in favour of new treatment or 6 inconclusive in favour of control treatment. Trials were classified by comparing the 95% confidence interval for the difference in primary outcome to the difference specified in the sample size calculation. The results were compared with Djulbegovic's analysis of NCI trials. Results Data from 51 superiority trials were included, involving over 48,000 participants and a range of diseases and interventions. 85 primary comparisons were available because some trials had more than two randomised arms or had several primary outcomes. The new treatment had superior results (whether significant or not in 61% of the comparisons (52/85 95% CI 49.9% to 71.6%. The results were conclusive in 46% of the comparisons (19% statistically significant in favour of the new treatment, 5% statistically significant in favour of the control and 22% true negative. The results were classified as truly inconclusive (i.e. failed to answer the question asked for 24% of comparisons (20/85. HTA trials included fewer truly inconclusive and statistically significant results and more results rated as true negative than NCI trials. Conclusions The pattern of results in HTA trials is similar to that of the National Cancer Institute portfolio. Differences that

  6. A comparative study of the anthelmintic potential of Cleome Viscosa L. and Cleome Burmanni W. and A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi S Pillai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol, aqueous and chloroform extracts of Cleome viscosa and Cleome burmanni were tested for anthelmintic potential against the Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. Different concentrations of the extracts ranging from 50-2000 μg/ml were tested and results expressed as time required for paralysis and death of the worms. Piperazine citrate was used as a reference standard and DMSO (1% as the negative control. The methanol extracts of Cleome viscosa and Cleome burmanni exhibited significant anthelmintic activity. Methanol extract of Cleome viscosa at a concentration of 2000 μg/ml was detected to be the most effective treatment dose. Thin layer chromatography of methanol extracts of both plants revealed the presence of terpenoids.

  7. Poor efficacy of the most commonly used anthelmintics in sport horse nematodes in Morocco in relation to resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouiten H.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport and leisure horses in Morocco are treated with several anthelmintics, organophosphates (dichlorvos, benzimidazoles (mostly thiabendazole or tetrahydropyrimidines (mostly pyrantel pamoate against nematodes. We studied three horse stables in Rabat, one in Meknes and one in Bouznika. Two of the Rabat and Bouznika stables had introduced a large number of horses from countries (Argentina or Europe where resistance to benzimidazoles is frequent, whereas the Meknes stud farm remained without foreign introduction. The number of treatments was not very frequent (twice a year in adult horses but the same anthelmintics were used repeatedly. No resistance to dichlorvos was detected whereas benzimidazole and pyrantel pamoate resistances were detected for the first time in African horses, outside South Africa.

  8. [Resistance to anthelmintics in nematodes in sheep and goats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praslicka, J; Corba, J

    1995-08-01

    The article offers a brief view on the most important theoretical knowledge of resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to anthelmintic drugs in sheep and goats. Besides the definition and basic terms, factors of development and occurrence of resistance on farm are analyzed. Furthermore, methods for detection of resistant nematodes as well as complex of recommended preventive measures are given.

  9. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAQUE RABIUL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridia galli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control.Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 50 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves has been reported. Introduction Infections with helminth are among the most widespread infections in humans and other domestic animals affecting a large number of world population. The majority of these infections due to worms are generally restricted mainly to the tropical regions and the occurance is accelerated due to unhygienic lifestyle and poverty also resulting in the development of symtomps like anaemia, eosinophilia and pneumonia1. Parasitic diseases cause ruthless morbidity affecting principally in population.

  10. Anthelmintic resistant nematodes in goats in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Pekelder, J.J.; Dercksen, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    A suspected case of anthelmintic resistance on a farm with Angora and Anglo-Nubian goats was confirmed in a controlled test. Twelve lambs of sheep were infected with larvae cultured from faeces of the goats. The lambs were allocated to four groups: untreated controls and lambs treated 21 days after

  11. Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful model for anthelmintic discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Andrew R.; Luciani, Genna M.; Musso, Gabriel; Bagg, Rachel; Yeo, May; Zhang, Yuqian; Rajendran, Luckshika; Glavin, John; Hunter, Robert; Redman, Elizabeth; Stasiuk, Susan; Schertzberg, Michael; Angus McQuibban, G.; Caffrey, Conor R.; Cutler, Sean R.; Tyers, Mike; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Fraser, Andy G.; MacRae, Calum A.; Gilleard, John; Roy, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes infect one quarter of the world's population and impact all humans through widespread infection of crops and livestock. Resistance to current anthelmintics has prompted the search for new drugs. Traditional screens that rely on parasitic worms are costly and labour intensive and target-based approaches have failed to yield novel anthelmintics. Here, we present our screen of 67,012 compounds to identify those that kill the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We then rescreen our hits in two parasitic nematode species and two vertebrate models (HEK293 cells and zebrafish), and identify 30 structurally distinct anthelmintic lead molecules. Genetic screens of 19 million C. elegans mutants reveal those nematicides for which the generation of resistance is and is not likely. We identify the target of one lead with nematode specificity and nanomolar potency as complex II of the electron transport chain. This work establishes C. elegans as an effective and cost-efficient model system for anthelmintic discovery. PMID:26108372

  12. Efficacy of an anthelmintic combination in sheep infected with Fasciola hepatica resistant to albendazole and clorsulon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valladares, M; Cordero-Pérez, C; Rojo-Vázquez, F A

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we identified five sheep flocks with fasciolosis in the province of León (northwestern Spain) in order to determine the anthelmintic resistance status to three commonly used anthelmintics, namely albendazole (ABZ), triclabendazole (TCBZ) and clorsulon (CLOR). The identification of one flock resistant to ABZ and CLOR was shown after the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). The reductions in eggs per gram values were -17.6% and -68% against immature and adult flukes, respectively, after ABZ treatment; 85.15% and 44.91% against immature and adult flukes, respectively, after CLOR treatment; and 97.06% against both stages, after the administration of TCBZ. As an alternative to control the infection, two combinations of ABZ and CLOR were tested. In the first, both drugs were administered at the recommended dose of each; in this case, the efficiency reached values above 95% against both immature and adult flukes. However, when the combined drugs were administered at half the recommended dose of each, the efficiency of the combination was very low, i.e. 16.67% and -11.11% against mature and immature flukes, respectively. In conclusion, this preliminary report suggests a possible interaction between ABZ and CLOR after their joint administration. However, these results should be confirmed in other flocks.

  13. Anti-coccidial, anthelmintic and antioxidant activities of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhil, Mohammed A

    2013-07-01

    Coccidiosis and helminthosis in poultry are responsible for worldwide economic losses. The methanolic extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel was used in vivo for its pharmacological, antioxidant and anti-coccidial properties and in vitro for its anthelmintic activity. For the in vivo study, four groups of mice were investigated. The first group was inoculated only with sterile saline and served as the control group. The second group was treated by oral gavage with pomegranate extract (300 mg/kg) daily for 5 days. The third and fourth groups were infected with 10(3) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria papillata. The fourth group was also treated once daily with pomegranate peel extract for 5 days. For the in vitro study, the anthelmintic effect of pomegranate peel extract was observed on live adult Allolobophora caliginosa. Paraffin sections from jejunum as well as jejunal homogenate were prepared for the histopathological and biochemical investigations, respectively. The data showed that mice infected with E. papillata revealed an output of approximately 2.9 × 10(5) oocysts per gram faeces on day 5 p.i. This output is significantly decreased to 50 % in pomegranate-treated mice. Infection with E. papillata induced marked histopathological alterations in jejunum in the form of inflammation, vacuolation of the epithelium and destruction of some villi. In addition, pomegranate extract caused a great diminish in body weight loss of infected mice. Moreover, the number of goblet cells stained with Alcian blue within the infected villi was significantly increased by about 26 % after pomegranate treatment. In addition, Pomegranate significantly lowered the increased number of apoptotic cells due to E. papillata infection by about 36 %. The results showed that E. papillata enhanced hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production with concomitant reduction in glutathione. Pomegranate induced marked improvements in all of the studied parameters as well as

  14. Anthelmintic resistance to ivermectin and moxidectin in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Chartier, Christophe; Fanke, Jane; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane; Traversa, Donato; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina; Vanimisetti, Hima Bindu; Bartram, David J; Denwood, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has been increasingly reported in cattle worldwide over the last decade, although reports from Europe are more limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of injectable formulations of ivermectin and moxidectin at 0.2 mg per kg bodyweight against naturally acquired gastro-intestinal nematodes in cattle. A total of 753 animals on 40 farms were enrolled in Germany (12 farms), the UK (10 farms), Italy (10 farms), and France (8 farms). Animals were selected based on pre-treatment faecal egg counts and were allocated to one of the two treatment groups. Each treatment group consisted of between 7 and 10 animals. A post-treatment faecal egg count was performed 14 days (±2 days) after treatment. The observed percentage reduction was calculated for each treatment group based on the arithmetic mean faecal egg count before and after treatment. The resistance status was evaluated based on the reduction in arithmetic mean faecal egg count and both the lower and upper 95% confidence limits. A decreased efficacy was observed in half or more of the farms in Germany, France and the UK. For moxidectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in France, and on 1 farm in Germany and the UK. For ivermectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in the UK, and on 1 farm in Germany and France. The remaining farms with decreased efficacy were classified as having an inconclusive resistance status based on the available data. After treatment Cooperia spp. larvae were most frequently identified, though Ostertagia ostertagi was also found, in particular within the UK and Germany. The present study reports lower than expected efficacy for ivermectin and moxidectin (based on the reduction in egg excretion after treatment) on European cattle farms, with confirmed anthelmintic resistance on 12.5% of the farms.

  15. Category ii treatment of revised national tuberculosis control programme is it adequate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar Yadav

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Settings : Five DOT'S clinics in Lucknow District. Uttar Pradesh, India.Objectives :1-  To assess the adequacy of category II treatment.2-   To suggest measures to improve the quality and compliance.Study Design : Observational Cohort study.Result : In this study care rate 74.3% Default rate 2.8%, and failure rate 1.4%. Treatment completion 15.7%. Conclusion : It can be concluded from the study that Category II treatment regimen is quite good.

  16. Development and application of a delayed-release anthelmintic intra-ruminal bolus system for experimental manipulation of nematode worm burdens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Anja M; Wilson, Kenneth; Irvine, R Justin

    2012-07-01

    In order to quantify the impact of parasites on host population dynamics, experimental manipulations that perturb the parasite-host relationship are needed but, logistically, this is difficult for wild hosts. Here, we describe the use of a delayed-release anthelmintic delivery system that can be administered when the hosts can be captured and its activity delayed until a more appropriate period in the host-parasite cycle. Our model system is Svalbard reindeer infected with a nematode parasite, Marshallagia marshalli, which appears to accumulate during the Arctic winter. To determine the extent to which this occurs and the effect on host fitness, reindeer need to be treated with anthelmintics in late autumn but they can only be caught and handled in April. To solve this problem, we devised an intra-ruminal capsule that releases the anthelmintic from up to 6 months after being administered. The capsule was trialed in cannulated sheep and red deer to determine optimum capsule orifice size and release rates. Capsules were estimated to release placebo for 100-153 days followed by abamectin for 22-34 days. To test the efficacy of treatment in reindeer, capsules were administered in April and retrieved in October. All capsules had fully released the anthelmintic and treated reindeer had significantly lower worm burdens than controls. Thus, success of this system allows repeated treatment over several years to test the effect of winter parasitism on host fitness.

  17. Development, implementation and evaluation of a multidisciplinary cancer rehabilitation programme : The CANSURVIVOR Project : meeting post-treatment cancer survivors’ needs

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ivers, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer survivor numbers in Ireland are increasing due to the success of modern treatments. Although most survivors have a good quality of life not all survivors return to \\'normal\\' after treatment. The HSE funded CANSURVIVOR research project has found that many survivors have difficulties and need help to recover and adjust after cancer treatment. Over a number of exploratory studies using interviews, focus groups and a survey of 262 breast, prostate, colorectal and lung cancer survivors, the researchers found that over 25% of survivors experienced significant difficulties with physical, emotional and social functioning, including symptoms such as insomnia and fatigue, while 33% experienced high levels of anxiety. Of particular concern were the findings that over 50% of survivors were overweight, 35% had reduced their physical activity levels and 13% continued to smoke after cancer, putting them at risk for further health problems. This evidence led to the development of an 8-week multi-disciplinary pilot rehabilitation programme. Significant quality of life improvements were achieved with increases in strength and fitness as well as a reduction in anxiety levels and dietary improvements. The researchers highlight the need for a structured, co-ordinated survivorship service, education of health professionals about survivorship and the provision of high quality information to survivors. This research was led by the School of Psychology at UCD in collaboration with the Physiotherapy and Nutrition departments of St. Vincent\\'s hospital.

  18. Antiproliferative effect of benzimidazole anthelmintics albendazole, ricobendazole, and flubendazole in intestinal cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králová, Věra; Hanušová, Veronika; Staňková, Petra; Knoppová, Kateřina; Čáňová, Kristýna; Skálová, Lenka

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to test the antiproliferative effect of three benzimidazole anthelmintics in intestinal cancer cells and to investigate whether these drugs, which inhibit tubulin polymerization, can potentiate the efficacy of the microtubule-stabilizing drug paclitaxel (PTX). Four intestinal cancer cell lines, SW480, SW620, HCT8, and Caco2, with different origins and growth characteristics were used. The antiproliferative effect of albendazole (ABZ), ricobendazole (RBZ), flubendazole (FLU), and their combinations with PTX was tested using three different end-point viability assays, cell cycle distribution analysis, and the x-CELLigence System for real-time cell analysis. ABZ and FLU inhibited cell proliferation significantly in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner through cell arrest in the G2/M phase. RBZ was not effective at any concentration tested. The cell lines differed in sensitivity to FLU and ABZ, with HCT8 being the most sensitive, showing IC₅₀ values for ABZ and FLU that reached 0.3 and 0.9 μmol/l, respectively. Combinations of PTX+ABZ and PTX+FLU decreased cell viability more effectively when compared with treatment with individual drugs alone. The anthelmintic benzimidazole drugs ABZ and FLU show a significant cytostatic effect and potentiate the efficacy of PTX in intestinal cancer cells.

  19. Direct anthelmintic effects of Cereus jamacaru (Cactaceae) on trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep: in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, A F; Kandu-Lelo, C; Ademola, I O; Eloff, J N

    2011-08-25

    Following claims of anthelmintic activity of Cereus jamacaru DC (Cactaceae) by a commercial farmer, in vivo studies were conducted to determine the possible direct anthelmintic effects of the plant on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes. Eighteen sheep were infected with 4000 Haemonchus contortus and 6000 Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae given in three divided doses over a period of three days. Once the infections were patent, the sheep were allocated to three groups and were drenched once a week for six weeks with fresh blended C. jamacaru plant material at a single (32.3g/sheep) or double dose (64.6g/sheep) or they remained as undrenched controls. Faeces were collected from individual animals on the day of treatment and three days thereafter on a weekly basis for seven weeks for faecal egg count. While there were no statistically significant differences in the egg counts between the groups, a double dose of C. jamacaru was effective in reducing the egg counts in the sheep by 18-65% over the 49 days of the experiment. Given that all animals remained in good health throughout the course of the experiment, with no adverse events occurring during the study, further experiments using higher doses or administering the plant material for a longer period of time than in the present study would be warranted.

  20. [Anthelmintic control of multiresistant nematodes in the gastrointestinal tract of imported goats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corba, J; Várady, M; Praslicka, J; Veselý, L

    1993-01-01

    Multiple resistant strains of Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus were detected in a flock of cashmere and angora goats imported from New Zealand. The ED50 values detected by in vitro EHA test were from 0.27 to 0.36 micrograms/ml (while the reference value of sensitivity is 0.10 microgram/ml TBZ). Multiple resistance to all the types of currently used anthelmintics was confirmed by in vivo FECRT, when the efficacy of recommended doses was lower than 90% (albendazole 74%, levamisole 86%, ivermectin 83%). Two control schemes were investigated. In the simultaneous application of anthelmintics in the double or triple of recommended doses (0.4 mg/kg ivermectin s.c., 30 mg/kg levamisole and 20 mg/kg albendazole p.o.) was effective. Examination of goats 7 and 8 months after treatment revealed the repeated presence of multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. It is the first published case of intercontinental transfer of resistant strains of nematodes when importing small ruminants.

  1. The treatment of insomnia through mass media, the results of a televised behavioural training programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klip, EC

    1997-01-01

    An important trend in behavioural medicine is a psyche-educational approach to health problems. A training course aimed at the treatment of sleep disorders has been developed using the following basic principles: (1) a symptomatic approach, (2) emphasis on information on sleep and sleep disorders, (

  2. Limited availability of childhood overweight and obesity treatment programmes in Danish paediatric departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg, Marianne; Cortes, Dina; Johansen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of children and adolescents with overweight and obesity has tripled over the past 30 years. One in five children in Denmark is overweight, a condition which is accompanied by serious medical and psychosocial complications. So far, an overview of the Danish treatment o...

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech Comparing Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment and the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme-Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; McCabe, Patricia; Ballard, Kirrie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This randomized controlled trial compared the experimental Rapid Syllable Transition (ReST) treatment to the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme-Third Edition (NDP3; Williams & Stephens, 2004), used widely in clinical practice in Australia and the United Kingdom. Both programs aim to improve speech motor planning/programming for children…

  4. The role of a multidisciplinary team meeting in an antiretroviral treatment programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C van deventer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The multidisciplinary team at the wellness clinic, Potchefstroom hospital has been having regular meetings since the clinic was accredited as a treatment site for HAART. The meetings have concentrated on patients who have experienced problems on treatment. The aim was to understand and overcome barriers to adherence and any other patient related issues at the clinic. Method. Minutes of 2006 were audited in order to acquire an understanding of the difficulties faced by patients and to investigate outcomes of corrective interventions. Results 17% of the files could not be traced in order to obtain more information. 36% of patients had stabilized with improved or undetectable viral loads. Alcohol and work related matters played an important role in poor adherence. There were however many other factors identified

  5. HIV diversity and drug resistance from plasma and non-plasma analytes in a large treatment programme in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Kantor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antiretroviral resistance leads to treatment failure and resistance transmission. Resistance data in western Kenya are limited. Collection of non-plasma analytes may provide additional resistance information. Methods: We assessed HIV diversity using the REGA tool, transmitted resistance by the WHO mutation list and acquired resistance upon first-line failure by the IAS–USA mutation list, at the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH, a major treatment programme in western Kenya. Plasma and four non-plasma analytes, dried blood-spots (DBS, dried plasma-spots (DPS, ViveSTTM-plasma (STP and ViveST-blood (STB, were compared to identify diversity and evaluate sequence concordance. Results: Among 122 patients, 62 were treatment-naïve and 60 treatment-experienced; 61% were female, median age 35 years, median CD4 182 cells/µL, median viral-load 4.6 log10 copies/mL. One hundred and ninety-six sequences were available for 107/122 (88% patients, 58/62 (94% treatment-naïve and 49/60 (82% treated; 100/122 (82% plasma, 37/78 (47% attempted DBS, 16/45 (36% attempted DPS, 14/44 (32% attempted STP from fresh plasma and 23/34 (68% from frozen plasma, and 5/42 (12% attempted STB. Plasma and DBS genotyping success increased at higher VL and shorter shipment-to-genotyping time. Main subtypes were A (62%, D (15% and C (6%. Transmitted resistance was found in 1.8% of plasma sequences, and 7% combining analytes. Plasma resistance mutations were identified in 91% of treated patients, 76% NRTI, 91% NNRTI; 76% dual-class; 60% with intermediate-high predicted resistance to future treatment options; with novel mutation co-occurrence patterns. Nearly 88% of plasma mutations were identified in DBS, 89% in DPS and 94% in STP. Of 23 discordant mutations, 92% in plasma and 60% in non-plasma analytes were mixtures. Mean whole-sequence discordance from frozen plasma reference was 1.1% for plasma-DBS, 1.2% plasma-DPS, 2.0% plasma-STP and 2

  6. Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic-electrospray tandem mass spectrometric multiresidue method for anthelmintics in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ruyck, Hendrik; Daeseleire, Els; De Ridder, Herman; Van Renterghem, Roland

    2002-11-08

    A liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric multiresidue method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of the tetrahydroimidazole, levamisole and the benzimidazoles thiabendazole, oxfendazole, oxibendazole, albendazole, fenbendazole, febantel and triclabendazole in milk has been developed and validated. The anthelmintic residues were extracted with ethyl acetate. The liquid chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column with gradient elution. The analytes were detected by tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry after positive electrospray ionisation by multiple reaction monitoring. The confirmatory method is very sensitive and each component can be detected at a residue level lower than 1 microgram/l. The method is validated according to the revised European Union requirements and all parameters were found conform the criteria. The evaluated parameters were linearity, specificity, stability, recovery, precision (repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility) and analytical limits (detection limit, decision limit and detection capability). This analytical method is applied in the Belgian monitoring programme for classical anthelmintic veterinary drugs in raw farm cow's milk.

  7. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisale A B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata Linn belonging to family Fabaceae are used traditionally as appetizer, diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic. Seeds are coarse powdered and exhaustively with hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Alcoholic extract of Vigna unguiculata showed significant activity than aqueous extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed seeds of vigna unguiculata possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The seeds extract also showed presence of flavonoids, and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations.

  8. Anthelmintic-resistant nematodes in Irish commercial sheep flocks- the state of play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Good Barbara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anthelmintic resistance has been reported in most sheep producing countries. Prior to the mid 1990s, reports of anthelmintic resistance in Ireland were sparse and focused on benzimidazole, one of the three classes of anthelmintic available during this period. This evidence for efficacy issues on Irish farms combined with awareness that anthelmintic resistance was increasingly being reported in other countries prompted the need for more comprehensive investigations on Irish farms. Faecal egg count reduction and micro-agar larval development tests were employed to investigate resistance to benzimidazole, levamisole and macrocyclic lactone. There is compelling evidence for resistance to both benzimidazole (>88% of flocks and levamisole (>39% of flocks. Resistance of nematode populations to macrocyclic lactone was suspected on a small number of farms (11% but needs to be confirmed. The recent introduction of two new classes of anthelmintics, after over a 25 year interval, together with the evidence that anthelmintic resistance is reported within a relatively short time following the introduction of a new anthelmintic compound means that the challenge to the industry is immediate. Actions are urgently required to manage anthelmintic resistance so as to prolong the lifespan of anthelmintics.

  9. Limited availability of childhood overweight and obesity treatment programmes in Danish paediatric departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Vibeke; Eg, Marianne; Cortes, Dina;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of children and adolescents with overweight and obesity has tripled over the past 30 years. One in five children in Denmark is overweight, a condition which is accompanied by serious medical and psychosocial complications. So far, an overview of the Danish treatment...... of childhood overweight and obesity has been lacking. METHODS: Telephone interviews with all Danish paediatric departments were conducted in 2014. The results, constituting a baseline, were analysed using the clinical guidelines for overweight and obesity published by the Danish Paediatric Society’s Overweight...... consultation. Body mass index was the primary parameter used to decide whether obesity management was indicated, varying from the > 90 to the > 99 percentile for sex and age. CONCLUSIONS: In Denmark, one third of paediatric departments nearly complied with the national clinical guidelines. Another third...

  10. Assessing the efficacy of a modified assertive community-based treatment programme in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botha Ulla A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recently published randomized controlled trials conducted in developed countries have reported no advantage for assertive interventions over standard care models. One possible explanation could be that so-called "standard care" has become more comprehensive in recent years, incorporating some of the salient aspects of assertive models in its modus operandi. Our study represents the first randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of a modified assertive treatment service on readmission rates and other measures of outcome in a developing country. Methods High frequency service users were randomized into an intervention (n = 34 and a control (n = 26 group. The control group received standard community care and the active group an assertive intervention based on a modified version of the international model of assertive community treatment. Study visits were conducted at baseline and 12 months with demographic and illness information collected at visit 1 and readmission rates documented at study end. Symptomatology and functioning were measured at both visits using the PANSS, CDSS, ESRS, WHO-QOL and SOFAS. Results At 12 month follow-up subjects receiving the assertive intervention had significantly lower total PANSS (p = 0.02 as well as positive (p Conclusions Our results indicate that assertive interventions in a developing setting where standard community mental services are often under resourced can produce significant outcomes. Furthermore, these interventions need not be as expensive and comprehensive as international, first-world models in order to reduce inpatient days, improve psychopathology and overall levels of functioning in patients with severe mental illness.

  11. PREVALENCE AND ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF ABAMECTIN AGAINST GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES IN HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAHFOOZ, M. Z. MASOOD, A. YOUSAF, N. AKHTAR AND M. A. ZAFAR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and anthelmintic efficacy of Abamectin against gastrointestinal parasites under field conditions in Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan was studied in 100 horses. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was 75%, including Strongylus spp. (50%, Oxyuris equi (12%, Parascaris equorum (8% and mixed infection (5%. Among these naturally infected animals, 15 were selected. These horses were assigned to three groups on the basis of prevalent species of gastrointestinal parasites. Each group had five animals, comprising four treatment horses and a control horse. Abamectin was evaluated against these gastrointestinal parasites with a single shot at the dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg body weight administered through subcutaneous route which resulted in 98% reduction in faecal egg count after day 14 post-treatment. Non-treated horses remained positive for gastrointestinal parasites. No adverse reactions were observed during the experimental period. It was concluded that Abamectin is highly effective against gastrointestinal parasites in horses.

  12. Safety and on-treatment efficacy of telaprevir: the early access programme for patients with advanced hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, M; Fernández, I; Abdurakhmanov, D; Ferreira, P A; Strasser, S I; Urbanek, P; Moreno, C; Streinu-Cercel, A; Verheyen, A; Iraqi, W; DeMasi, R; Hill, A; Läuffer, J M; Lonjon-Domanec, I; Wedemeyer, H

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim Severe adverse events (AEs) compromise the outcome of direct antiviral agent-based treatment in patients with advanced liver fibrosis due to HCV infection. HEP3002 is an ongoing multinational programme to evaluate safety and efficacy of telaprevir (TVR) plus pegylated-interferon-α (PEG-IFNα) and ribavirin (RBV) in patients with advanced liver fibrosis caused by HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1). Methods 1782 patients with HCV-1 and bridging fibrosis or compensated cirrhosis were prospectively recruited from 16 countries worldwide, and treated with 12 weeks of TVR plus PEG-IFN/RBV, followed by 12 or 36 weeks of PEG-IFN and RBV (PR) alone dependent on virological response to treatment and previous response type. Results 1587 patients completed 12 weeks of triple therapy and 4 weeks of PR tail (53% cirrhosis, 22% HCV-1a). By week 12, HCV RNA was undetectable in 85% of naives, 88% of relapsers, 80% of partial responders and 72% of null responders. Overall, 931 patients (59%) developed grade 1–4 anaemia (grade 3/4 in 31%), 630 (40%) dose reduced RBV, 332 (21%) received erythropoietin and 157 (10%) were transfused. Age and female gender were the strongest predictors of anaemia. 64 patients (4%) developed a grade 3/4 rash. Discontinuation of TVR due to AEs was necessary in 193 patients (12%). Seven patients died (0.4%, six had cirrhosis). Conclusions In compensated patients with advanced fibrosis due to HCV-1, triple therapy with TVR led to satisfactory rates of safety, tolerability and on-treatment virological response with adequate managements of AEs. PMID:24201995

  13. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa U

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera were screened for various bioactive constituents like glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids and alkaloids. The chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheritima postuma using Piperazine citrate and Rajah Pravartani Vati (Ayurvedic preparation as a reference standards. The results obtained indicated that the chloroform extract was more potent compared to other extracts.

  14. Antifungal and anthelmintic activities of Cleistopholis patens (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akendengué, Blandine; Champy, Pierre; Nzamba, Joseph; Roblot, François; Loiseau, Philippe M; Bories, Christian

    2009-08-01

    Basic CH2Cl2 extract of the trunk bark of Cleistopholis patens (Annonaceae) exhibited antifungal activities against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. glabrata using an agar well-diffusion assay method. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of 8-hydroxysampangine. The methanolic extract displayed anthelmintic activity against Rhabditis pseudoelongata. Purification of the neutral CH2Cl2 extract yielded bornyl-p-transcoumarate and bornyl-p-cis-coumarate.

  15. Direct and indirect anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar; Sarwar, Muhammad; Jabbar, Abdul; Ahmed, Shahbaz; Nisa, M; Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Mufti, Kamran Aftab; Yaseen, Muhammad

    2007-03-15

    Anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins (CT) was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro tests included egg hatch test and paralysis/mortality assay on adult Haemonchus contortus. In vivo anthelmintic effect was determined by faecal egg count reduction test in lambs. To this end, 18 lambs were divided into three groups (low tannin, high tannin and control). The lambs of low and high tannin groups were fed diets containing 2 and 3% CT while the control group was fed on diets without CT. In vitro trials showed a dose-dependent inhibition of nematode egg hatching; whereas, there was no effect of CT on adult H. contortus. In vivo trials indicated reduction in faecal egg counts in lambs fed diets containing CT. Feed intake and nutrient digestibility of CT-fed sheep was lower and nitrogen balance was higher as compared to control. Maximum weight gain was observed in animals fed diets containing 3% CT. The direct anthelmintic effect of CT, therefore, was evidenced by inhibited egg hatching; whereas, faecal egg counts reduction in sheep was through improved nutrient utilization.

  16. Anthelmintic residues in goat and sheep dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedziniak Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A multiresidue method (LC-MS/MS for determination of wide range of anthelmintics was developed. The method covered benzimidazoles: albendazole (and metabolites, cambendazole, fenbendazol (and metabolites, flubendazole (and metabolites, mebendazole (and metabolites, oxibendazole, thiabendazole (and metabolites, triclabendazole (and metabolites; macrocyclic lactones: abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin; salicylanilides: closantel, ioxynil, nitroxynil, oxyclosamide, niclosamide, rafoxanid and others: clorsulon, derquantel, imidocarb, monepantel (and metabolites, morantel, praziquantel, and pyrantel. The method was used to examine the potential presence of anthelmintics in goat and sheep milk and dairy products from the Polish market. A total of 120 samples of milk, yoghurt, cottage cheese, cream cheese, and curd were analysed. None of the samples were found positive above CCα (1-10 μg/kg except for one cottage cheese in which traces of albendazole sulfone were detected (5.2 ug/kg and confirmed. The results of the study showed negligible anthelmintic residues in the goat and sheep milk and dairy products and confirm their good quality.

  17. A psychological treatment programme for traumatised ex military personnel in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sánchez España

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A large proportion of homeless people in the UK are former members of the armed services and suffer from a mental illness. In fact, homelessness itself can be considered a symptom or manifestation of other underlying psychological difficulties. For these reasons Community Housing and Therapy (CHT considers that providing psychological therapies to treat the homeless population is a more effective way of tackling the problem of homelessness, as it addresses the roots of the problem. This approach is one which is beginning to be recognised by leading agencies in the field. At the same time, the provision of psychological therapies for symptoms such as depression and anxiety has become accepted through the Department of Health’s (DoH Increased Access to Psychological Therapies ( IAPT initiative. Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder that homeless people suffer and it is well documented that psychological treatments for depression can be extremely effective. As well as approaching homelessness from the angle of psychological therapies, CHT in its work with the ex-service community has become increasingly aware that there are a large number of non statutory homeless that do not get the same attention as rough sleepers.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and anthelmintic efficacy of topical eprinomectin in goats prevented from grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Steffen; Kellermann, Michael; Wehner, Teresa A

    2014-11-01

    Pharmacokinetics and anthelmintic activity of topical eprinomectin in goats prevented from physical contact to others and self-grooming were studied. Sixteen approximately 7 months old male castrated German White Noble goats harbouring induced infections of gastrointestinal nematode parasites were included in the study. They were blocked based on pre-treatment body weight (range 22.4 to 36.4 kg) and then randomly allocated to the untreated control group or the group treated with topical 0.5% w/v eprinomectin (EPRINEX Pour-on, Merial) at 1 mg/kg body weight. Plasma samples were collected prior to and at intervals up to 14 days following treatment and analyzed to determine the concentrations of eprinomectin (B1a component). Parasites were recovered, identified, and counted following necropsy 14 days after treatment. Goats treated with topical eprinomectin had significantly fewer (≥99% reduction, p < 0.01) adult Cooperia curticei, Haemonchus contortus, Nematodirus battus, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Ostertagia circumcincta, and Trichostrongylus colubriformis than the untreated controls. Basic pharmacokinetic parameters for eprinomectin B1a were AUCinfinity, 37.1 ± 15.2 day ng/mL; T½, 5.11 ± 2.83 days; and Cmax, 5.93 ± 1.87 ng/mL; individual maximal concentrations were observed 1 or 2 days after treatment. Results of this study indicate that oral ingestion is not required to achieve adequate exposure for excellent anthelmintic efficacy following topical administration of eprinomectin at 1 mg/kg body weight to goats.

  19. Hydrodynamics of the Certas™ programmable valve for the treatment of hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The new Certas™ shunt for the treatment of hydrocephalus has seven standard pressure settings that according to the manufacturer range from 36 to 238 mmH2O, and an additional “Virtual Off” setting with an opening pressure >400 mmH2O. Information on actual pressure response and reliability of shunt performance is important in clinical application, especially the “Virtual Off” setting as a non-surgical replacement for shunt ligation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in-vitro hydrodynamic performance of the Certas™ shunt. Methods Six new Certas™ shunts with proximal and distal catheters were tested with an automated, computerized test system that raised the pressure from zero to a maximum pressure and back to zero at each valve setting. Opening pressure and flow resistance were determined. Results For settings 1–7 the measured opening pressure range was 26 to 247 mmH2O, and the mean change in opening pressure for a one-step adjustment was between 33 and 38 mmH2O. For setting 8 (“Virtual Off”) the measured mean opening pressure was 494 ± 34 mmH2O (range 451 to 556 mmH2O). The mean outflow resistance was 7.0 mmHg/ml/min (outflow conductance 17.9 μl/s/kPa). Conclusions The six shunts had similar characteristics and closely matched the manufacturer’s specifications for opening pressure at settings 1–7. The opening pressure for the “Virtual Off” setting was nearly 500 mmH2O, which is 100 mmH2O higher than the manufacturer’s specification of “>400” and should be functionally off for most patients with communicating hydrocephalus. Clinical studies are needed to evaluate if the CSF dynamic profile persists after implantation in patients. PMID:22643114

  20. Hydrodynamics of the Certas™ programmable valve for the treatment of hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eklund Anders

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new Certas™ shunt for the treatment of hydrocephalus has seven standard pressure settings that according to the manufacturer range from 36 to 238 mmH2O, and an additional “Virtual Off” setting with an opening pressure >400 mmH2O. Information on actual pressure response and reliability of shunt performance is important in clinical application, especially the “Virtual Off” setting as a non-surgical replacement for shunt ligation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in-vitro hydrodynamic performance of the Certas™ shunt. Methods Six new Certas™ shunts with proximal and distal catheters were tested with an automated, computerized test system that raised the pressure from zero to a maximum pressure and back to zero at each valve setting. Opening pressure and flow resistance were determined. Results For settings 1–7 the measured opening pressure range was 26 to 247 mmH2O, and the mean change in opening pressure for a one-step adjustment was between 33 and 38 mmH2O. For setting 8 (“Virtual Off” the measured mean opening pressure was 494 ± 34 mmH2O (range 451 to 556 mmH2O. The mean outflow resistance was 7.0 mmHg/ml/min (outflow conductance 17.9 μl/s/kPa. Conclusions The six shunts had similar characteristics and closely matched the manufacturer’s specifications for opening pressure at settings 1–7. The opening pressure for the “Virtual Off” setting was nearly 500 mmH2O, which is 100 mmH2O higher than the manufacturer’s specification of “>400” and should be functionally off for most patients with communicating hydrocephalus. Clinical studies are needed to evaluate if the CSF dynamic profile persists after implantation in patients.

  1. Studies on the traditional herbal anthelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliks, M M

    1985-01-01

    Infusions and decoctions of the leaves, roots and inflorescences of the herbaceous shrub Chenopodium ambrosioides (American wormseed, goosefoot, epazote, paico) and related species indigenous to the New World have been used for centuries as dietary condiments and as traditional anthelmintics by native peoples for the treatment of intestinal worms. Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium and its active constituent, ascaridol, obtained by steam distillation, have been and continue to be, used with considerable success in mass treatment campaigns. Ethnopharmacological studies in a community of Mayan subsistence farmers in Chiapas, Mexico, confirmed that decoctions containing up to 300 mg of dry plant material per kg body weight (MGKGW) were widely used and traditionally highly regarded in the treatment of ascariasis. However, therapeutic doses of up to 6000 MGKGW of powdered, dried plant had no significant anthelmintic effect on the adults of Necator, Trichuris of Ascaris. Gas-liquid chromatographic analyses of plant samples used consistently demonstrated the presence of ascaridol in the expected amounts. Possible origins of subjective belief in the efficacy of C. ambrosioides as used, may be related to the positive association of spontaneous, or peristalsis-induced passage of senescent worms immediately following a therapeutic episode. It is also possible that in the past varieties of the plant containing much more ascaridol were used. The results of these controlled field studies did not sustain widely held traditional beliefs, nor the value of therapeutic practices regarding this plant. It is, therefore, essential that all indigenous ethnomedical practices be objectively evaluated for efficacy and safety using appropriate protocols before being considered for adoptation or promotion in health care programs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Application of mobile-technology for disease and treatment monitoring of malaria in the "Better Border Healthcare Programme"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meankaew Pongthep

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating the use of cell-phones into a routine malaria prevention and control programme, to improve the management of malaria cases among an under-served population in a border area. The module for disease and treatment monitoring of malaria (DTMM consisted of case investigation and case follow-up for treatment compliance and patients' symptoms. Methods The module combining web-based and mobile technologies was developed as a proof of concept, in an attempt to replace the existing manual, paper-based activities that malaria staff used in treating and caring for malaria patients in the villages for which they were responsible. After a patient was detected and registered onto the system, case-investigation and treatment details were recorded into the malaria database. A follow-up schedule was generated, and the patient's status was updated when the malaria staff conducted their routine home visits, using mobile phones loaded with the follow-up application module. The module also generated text and graph messages for a summary of malaria cases and basic statistics, and automatically fed to predetermined malaria personnel for situation analysis. Following standard public-health practices, access to the patient database was strictly limited to authorized personnel in charge of patient case management. Results The DTMM module was developed and implemented at the trial site in late November 2008, and was fully functioning in 2009. The system captured 534 malaria patients in 2009. Compared to paper-based data in 2004-2008, the mobile-phone-based case follow-up rates by malaria staff improved significantly. The follow-up rates for both Thai and migrant patients were about 94-99% on Day 7 (Plasmodium falciparum and Day 14 (Plasmodium vivax and maintained at 84-93% on Day 90. Adherence to anti-malarial drug therapy, based on self-reporting, showed high completion

  3. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes from grazing beef cattle in Campeche State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz-Lagunes, Abel; González-Garduño, Roberto; López-Arellano, Maria Eugenia; Ramírez-Valverde, Rodolfo; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; García-Muñiz, Guadalupe; Ramírez-Vargas, Gabriel; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; Torres-Hernández, Glafiro

    2015-08-01

    Production of beef cattle is one of the most important economic activities in Mexico. However, anthelmintic resistance (AR) has affected animal productivity. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of AR in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of beef cattle in Candelaria Municipality of Campeche State, Mexico. Sixty-five-month-old beef calves were selected for the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and the inhibition of egg hatch (IEH) assay. These parameters were determined using albendazole (benzimidazole, BZ), ivermectin (IVM, Macrocyclic lactone, ML) and levamisole (LEV, imidazothiazole, IMZ). Allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) confirmed polymorphisms at codon 200 of isotype 1 of the β-tubulin gene of Haemonchus placei. The results showed 32 % IVM toxicity by FECRT, indicating problems of AR in the GIN population. In contrast, BZ and LEV showed 95 and 100 % toxicity, respectively, against GIN from infected beef calves. The infective larvae (L3) of Cooperia, Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum were identified before anthelmintic treatment, and Cooperia L3 larvae were identified after treatment with IVM. The IEH assays had lethal dose 50 (LD50) of 187 nM to BZ, confirming the ovicidal effect of BZ. In contrast, the LD50 for LEV and IVM were 3.3 and 0.4 mM, respectively. The results obtained by AS-PCR confirmed two DNA fragments of 250 and 550 bp, corresponding to the resistant and susceptible alleles in the H. placei population. The nematode Cooperia showed AR against IVM, while the toxicity effect of BZ against GIN with both FECRT and IEH was confirmed.

  4. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of Coriandrum sativum against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguale, T; Tilahun, G; Debella, A; Feleke, A; Makonnen, E

    2007-04-04

    In vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the seeds of Coriandrum sativum (Apiaceae) were investigated on the egg and adult nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. The aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum was also investigated for in vivo anthelmintic activity in sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Both extract types of Coriandrum sativum inhibited hatching of eggs completely at a concentration less than 0.5 mg/ml. ED(50) of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum was 0.12 mg/ml while that of hydro-alcoholic extract was 0.18 mg/ml. There was no statistically significant difference between aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts (p>0.05). The hydro-alcoholic extract showed better in vitro activity against adult parasites than the aqueous one. For the in vivo study, 24 sheep artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each. The first two groups were treated with crude aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum at 0.45 and 0.9 g/kg dose levels, the third group with albendazole at 3.8 mg/kg and the last group was left untreated. Efficacy was tested by faecal egg count reduction (FECR) and total worm count reduction (TWCR). On day 2 post treatment, significant FECR was detected in groups treated with higher dose of Coriandrum sativum (pCoriandrum sativum (p>0.05). Significant (pCoriandrum sativum compared to the untreated group. Reduction in male worms was higher than female worms. Treatment with both doses of Coriandrum sativum did not help the animals improve or maintain their PCV while those treated with albendazole showed significant increase in PCV (p<0.05).

  5. Inhibiting Interference - a grounded theory of health professionals' pattern of behaviour related to the relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To generate a grounded theory explaining health professionals' pattern of behaviour and experience related to the relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programmes during total joint replacement. BACKGROUND: Health professionals uphold standardised care for patients, and effect...... on quality is seen when relatives support patients during total joint replacement. Since health professionals often have problematic relationships with relatives, knowledge is needed of the health professionals' pattern of behaviour in relation to relatives of older patients in fast-track treatment programme....... DESIGN: Grounded theory according to Glaser's methodology was used to generate substantive theory of health professionals' pattern of behaviour. METHODS: Data were collected from 2010 to 2011 by 44 health professionals in orthopaedic wards at two Danish hospitals. Data from nonparticipant observations...

  6. "That is why I stopped the ART": Patients' & providers' perspectives on barriers to and enablers of HIV treatment adherence in a South African workplace programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kielmann Karina

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As ART programmes in African settings expand beyond the pilot stages, adherence to treatment may become an increasing challenge. This qualitative study examines potential barriers to, and facilitators of, adherence to ART in a workplace programme in South Africa. Methods We conducted key informant interviews with 12 participants: six ART patients, five health service providers (HSPs and one human resources manager. Results The main reported barriers were denial of existence of HIV or of one's own positive status, use of traditional medicines, speaking a different language from the HSP, alcohol use, being away from home, perceived severity of side-effects, feeling better on treatment and long waiting times at the clinic. The key facilitators were social support, belief in the value of treatment, belief in the importance of one's own life to the survival of one's family, and the ability to fit ART into daily life schedules. Conclusion Given the reported uncertainty about the existence of HIV disease and the use of traditional medicines while on ART, despite a programme emphasising ART counselling, there is a need to find effective ways to support adherence to ART even if the individual does not accept biomedical concepts of HIV disease or decides to use traditional medicines. Additionally, providers should identify ways to minimize barriers in communication with patients with whom they have no common language. Finally, dissatisfaction with clinical services, due to long waiting times, should be addressed.

  7. Effective anthelmintic therapy of residents living in endemic area of high prevalence for Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni infections enhances the levels of allergy risk factor anti-Der p1 IgE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina S. Campolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were investigated the relationship between Hookworm/Schistosoma mansoni infections and allergy related risk factors in two endemic areas with distinct prevalence of infections and co-infection. The intensity of infections, eosinophilia, allergy risk factors, infections status and anti-Der p1 IgE levels before and 2 years (population 1 and 3 years (population 2 after anthelmintic treatment, were evaluated. It was observed that the population with lower prevalence and intensity of infection (population 2 had lower eosinophils counts (>600/mm3 and higher animal contact than the population with higher parasites intensity (population 1. After anthelmintic treatment the intensity of S. mansoni single infection decreased, but no changes were observed in Hookworm and co-infected individuals. The anthelmintic treatment also enhanced anti-Der p1 IgE optical density in ELISA on the subgroups that became negative for helminth infection regardless of their previous infection condition in population 1. Facing that, we evaluated the anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index, and the ratio (after/before treatment was significantly higher in patients co-infected before treatment. On the other hand, no association between anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index and the intensity of infections were observed. In conclusion, effective anthelmintic therapy of subjects from endemic areas with high prevalence of Hookworm and S. mansoni infections enhances anti-Der p1 IgE levels.

  8. Synthesis and In Vitro Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic and Insecticidal Activities Study of 4(4'-Bromophenyl-6-substituted-aryl-1-acetyl pyrimidine-2-thiols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bamnela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new series of 4(4'-bromophenyl-6-substituted aryl-1-acetyl pyrimidine-2-thiol derivatives were synthesized by heating chalcones with thiourea, in the presence of ethanolic potassium hydroxide, followed by treatment with acetyl chloride. The structure of the compounds was characterized by IR and H1 NMR spectral study and elemental analysis. The compounds were screened for their antimicrobial, anthelmintic and insecticidal activities. All the compounds exhibited significant to moderate biological activities.

  9. Anthelmintic Potential of Thymoquinone and Curcumin on Fasciola gigantica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rizwan; Rehman, Abdur; Zafeer, Mohd Faraz; Rehman, Lubna; Khan, Yasir A.; Khan, M. A. Hannan; Khan, Shahper N.; Khan, Asad U.; Abidi, S. M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis an economically important global disease of ruminants in the temperate and tropical regions, caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, respectively, also poses a potential zoonotic threat. In India alone it causes huge losses to stakeholders. Anthelmintics including triclabendazole have been used to control this menace but the emerging resistance against the available compounds necessitates identification of novel and alternative therapeutic measures involving plant derived natural compounds for their anthelmintic potential. Thymoquinone (T) and curcumin (C), the active ingredients of Nigella sativa and Curcuma longa respectively have been used as antiparasitic agents but the information on their flukicidal effect is very limited. Adult flukes of F. gigantica were in vitro exposed to different concentrations of thymoquinone and curcumin separately for 3h at 37+ 1°C. A significant (p<0.05) reduction in the worm motility at 60 μM concentration of both T and C was observed though all the worms remained alive after 3h exposure, whereas the effect on egg shedding was statistically insignificant. Pronounced tegumental disruptions and erosion of spines in the posterior region and around the acetabulum was evident. A significant (p<0.05) decrease in glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) level was observed, while protein carbonylation increased differentially. A significant inhibition of CathepsinL (CatL) gene expression in thymoquinone treated worms was also evident. Further, in silico molecular docking of T and C with CatL revealed a stronger interaction of curcumin with the involvement of higher number of amino acids as compared to thymoquinone that could be more effective in inhibiting the antioxidant enzymes of F. gigantica. It is concluded that both the compounds understudy will decrease the detoxification ability of F. gigantica, while inhibition of CatL will significantly affect their virulence

  10. Anthelmintic effect of Mentha spp. essential oils on Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces and metacestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, Marina A; Albanese, Adriana A; Gende, Liesel B; Eguaras, Martín J; Denegri, Guillermo M; Elissondo, María Celina

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of Mentha piperita and Mentha pulegium essential oils against Echinococcus granulosus and to compare the effectiveness of both oils according to the exposure time and concentration. Although both treatments had a protoscolicidal effect, M. pulegium had a considerably stronger effect than M. piperita. Essential oil of M. pulegium produced dose- and time-dependent effects. Maximal protoscolicidal effect was observed after 12 days of incubation and reached 0% after 18 days. This lack of viability was proved during the determination of infectivity into mice. Essential oil of M. piperita produced only a time-dependent effect. At 24 days p.i., the viability of protoscoleces decreased to approximately 50%. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) demonstrated the drug-induced ultrastructural damage. On the other hand, a loss of turgidity was detected in all M. pulegium-treated cysts respective of the drug concentration. There was a correlation between the intensity of damage and the concentration of the essential oil assayed. Studies by SEM revealed that the germinal layer of treated cysts lost the feature multicellular structure. M. pulegium essential oil showed piperitone oxide as main compound in their composition, and we suggest that this component could be responsible of the markedly anthelmintic effect detected. Our data suggest that essential oils of Mentha spp. can be a promising source of potential protoscolicidal agents. The isolation of active anthelmintic constituents is in progress and may lead to the discovery of compounds with improved therapeutic value.

  11. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B has potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F Urban

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the intestines. Ascaris lumbricoides infections in children are associated with malnutrition, growth and cognitive stunting, immune defects, and, in extreme cases, life-threatening blockage of the digestive tract and aberrant migration into the bile duct and peritoneum. Similar effects can be seen with A. suum infections in pigs related to poor feed efficiency and performance. New strategies to control Ascaris infections are needed largely due to reduced treatment efficacies of current anthelmintics in the field, the threat of resistance development, and the general lack of new drug development for intestinal soil-transmitted helminths for humans and animals. Here we demonstrate for the first time that A. suum expresses the receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein and novel anthelmintic Cry5B, which has been previously shown to intoxicate hookworms and which belongs to a class of proteins considered non-toxic to vertebrates. Cry5B is able to intoxicate A. suum larvae and adults and triggers the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway similar to that observed with other nematodes. Most importantly, two moderate doses of 20 mg/kg body weight (143 nM/kg of Cry5B resulted in a near complete cure of intestinal A. suum infections in pigs. Taken together, these results demonstrate the excellent potential of Cry5B to treat Ascaris infections in pigs and in humans and for Cry5B to work effectively in the human gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Clinical observation of the effect of a totally implantable programmable device for continuous intrathecal infusion in the treatment of intractable neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the curative effect and life quality improvement in patients with intractable neuropathic pain (NP after implanting a programmable continuous intrathecal infusion pump. Methods Three cases of intractable neuropathic pain with poor medicine efficacy or serious adverse drug reactions had been followed-up for 6-14 months after being implanted programmable intrathecal infusion pump. Pain relief, sleep quality improvement, dosage of oral analgesics and drug side effect were observed. Results After treatment the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS of 3 patients decreased significantly, with pain releasing from preoperative moderate or severe pain to postoperative mild pain and decrease of fulminating pain frequency. Dosage of oral analgesics declined to 10% of its preoperative dose and sleep quality was improved obviously. Neither postoperative complications nor side effect of morphine was observed during the follow-up. Conclusion The treatment of implanting a totally programmable continuous intrathecal infusion pump is eutherapeutic to the patients with intractable neuropathic pain who have achieved satisfactory analgesic effect in experimental therapy.

  13. Risk factors for anthelmintic resistance development in cattle gastrointestinal nematodes in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Humberto Suarez

    Full Text Available Risk factors for anthelmintic resistance (AR on bovine ranches were studied. Data were derived from a survey made to 50 ranch owners, who had conducted a faecal egg-count-reduction test. The questionnaire contained descriptors of bovine ranch management and nematode control. A case-control design study was undertaken and AR cases were present in 26 herds. Associations between the binary outcome variable (AR versus not AR and risk factors recorded in the questionnaire were evaluated. Variables associated with the presence of AR at P 2 were subjected to a multivariable logistic regression model. The main effects contributing to general AR (avermectin AVM and/or benzimidazole in the final model were total number of annual treatments (OR 7.68; 95% CI 2.4 to 28.3 and use of more than 75% of AVM in the past (OR= 18.6; 95% CI 1.3 to 97.3, whereas for AVM resistance alone were total number of AVM annual treatments (OR= 11.5; 95% CI 2.9 to 45.5 and number of AVM Nov-Jan treatments (OR= 5.8; 95% CI 1.71 to 47.9. The results showed that treatment frequency, date of treatment and frequency of treatment in the past with a single drug were the main risk factors involved in AR development.

  14. Risk factors for anthelmintic resistance development in cattle gastrointestinal nematodes in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Víctor Humberto; Cristel, Silvina Lujan

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for anthelmintic resistance (AR) on bovine ranches were studied. Data were derived from a survey made to 50 ranch owners, who had conducted a faecal egg-count-reduction test. The questionnaire contained descriptors of bovine ranch management and nematode control. A case-control design study was undertaken and AR cases were present in 26 herds. Associations between the binary outcome variable (AR versus not AR) and risk factors recorded in the questionnaire were evaluated. Variables associated with the presence of AR at P 2 were subjected to a multivariable logistic regression model. The main effects contributing to general AR (avermectin AVM and/or benzimidazole) in the final model were total number of annual treatments (OR 7.68; 95% CI 2.4 to 28.3) and use of more than 75% of AVM in the past (OR= 18.6; 95% CI 1.3 to 97.3), whereas for AVM resistance alone were total number of AVM annual treatments (OR= 11.5; 95% CI 2.9 to 45.5) and number of AVM Nov-Jan treatments (OR= 5.8; 95% CI 1.71 to 47.9). The results showed that treatment frequency, date of treatment and frequency of treatment in the past with a single drug were the main risk factors involved in AR development.

  15. Reasons for students’ poor clinical competencies in the Primary Health Care: Clinical nursing, diagnosis treatment and care programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Müller

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available ‘No member of [health] staff should undertake tasks unless they are competent to do so’ is stated in the Comprehensive Primary Health Care Service Package for South Africa (Department of Health 2001document. In South Africa, primary clinical nurses (PCNs, traditionally known as primary health care nurses (PHCNs, function as ‘frontline providers’ of clinical primary health care (PHC services within public PHC facilities, which is their extended role. This extended role of registered nurses(set out in section 38A of the Nursing Act 50 of 1978, as amended demands high clinical competency training by nursing schools and universities.

    The objectives of the study were to explore and describe the perceptions of both clinical instructors and students, in terms of the reasons for poor clinical competencies. Results established that two main challenges contributed to students’ poor clinical competencies: challenges within the PHC clinical field and challenges within the learning programme (University.

    Opsomming

    Die primêre kliniese verpleegkundiges, tradisioneel bekend as primêre gesondheidsorg verpleegkundiges, funksioneer in Suid-Afrika as eerste-linie verskaffers van kliniese primêre gesondheidsorg (PGS dienste binne die publieke PGS fasiliteite. Dit is hulle uitgebreide rol. Hierdie uitgebreide rol van die verpleegkundige (soos deur Wet op Verpleging,No 50 van 1978, artikel 38A voorgeskryf, vereis opleiding in kliniese vaardighede van hoë gehalte deur verpleegskole en universiteite.

    Die doelwitte van die navorsing was om die persepsies van beide kliniese dosente en leerders,met betrekking tot die redes vir swak kliniese vaardighede, repektiewelik te verken en te beskryf.Twee temas is deur die resultate as uitdagings (hoof redes vir die swak vaardighede van leerders aangetoon, naamlik uitdagings in die PGS kliniese praktyk en die uitdagings in die leerprogram (universiteit

  16. Anthelmintic efficacy on Parascaris equorum in foals on Swedish studs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensson Dan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last few years stud farms have experienced increasing problems with Parascaris equorum infections in foals despite intensive deworming programs. This has led to the question as to whether the anthelmintic drugs used against this parasite are failing. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole and pyrantel on the faecal output of ascarid eggs of foals. Methods A Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT was performed on nine large studs in Sweden. Anthelmintic drugs were given orally and faecal samples were examined for ascarid eggs on the day of deworming and 14 days later. Faecal Egg Count Reductions (FECRs were calculated on arithmetic means of transformed individual FECRs and on arithmetic means of individual FECRs. Results Seventy-nine (48% out of a total of 165 foals sampled were positive for P. equorum eggs before deworming and 66 of these met the criteria for being used in the efficacy assessment. It was shown that there was no, or very low activity of ivermectin on the output of ascarid eggs in the majority of the foals, whereas for fenbendazole and pyrantel it was >90%. Conclusion Ivermectin resistance was shown in 5 out of 6 farms. Therefore, ivermectin should not be the drug of choice in the control of P. equorum infections in foals. According to the results of this study, fenbendazole or pyrantel are still effective and should be used against this parasite.

  17. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY STUDY OF SARACA INDICA LEAVES EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak Sarojini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To know the anthelmintic property of leaves of Saraca indica, we used both maceration and soxhelet methods of extraction using solvents like ethanol and methanol. Each extract was tested for its anthelmintic activity by following standard method. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts (obtained from both the methods of extractions of Saraca indica displayed anthelmintic property in a dose-dependant manner. In both the methods of extraction, we found that the ethanolic as well as the methanolic extracts were more potent than the positive control as far as anthelminthic property was concerned. To correlate phytochemical screening with anthelmintic activity, phytochemical evaluation of the extracts was also performed. From our result, it may be mentioned that the ethanolic extract was relatively more potent as an anthelmintic agent due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. On the other hand, the methanolic extract was effective as an anthelmintic agent probably due to the involvement of glycosides and flavonoids. The presence of alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins and flavonoids seems to be the responsible phytochemical constituents for demonstrating anthelmintic activities of our extracts.

  18. Anthelmintic activity of Saba senegalensis (A.DC.) Pichon (Apocynaceae) extract against adult worms and eggs of Haemonchus contortus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Bonewend e Belemlilga; Aristide Traor e; Sylvin Ou edraogo; Adama Kabor e; Hamidou Hamadou Tamboura; Innocent Pierre Guissou

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anthelmintic property of Saba senegalensis (A.DC) Pichon (Apocynaceae) (S. senegalensis) on Haemonchus contortus that is traditionally used in Burkina Faso for its gastrointestinal parasites treatment. Methods: The lyophilized aqueous decoction of leaves of S. senegalensis at concen-trations of 0.10, 1.00, 3.00, 10.00 and 15.00 mg/mL was used on eggs and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus collected from gastrointestinal tract of small ruminant. Results: The LC50 on adult worms was 6.79 mg/mL and 3.25 mg/mL for the leaves of S. senegalensis and the levamisole (reference drug), respectively. Inhibition of hatching assay showed a concentration-dependent manner with an inhibition of 93.63% at the concentration of 15.00 mg/mL of S. senegalensis. Conclusions: These results indicate that the aqueous extract of S. senegalensis possesses an anthelmintic property and may justify its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal parasites.

  19. Progress in control of hydatidosis using vaccination--a review of formulation and delivery of the vaccine and recommendations for practical use in control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, D D; Jensen, O; Lightowlers, M W

    2003-02-01

    A vaccine to protect sheep, goats, and bovines against hydatid disease caused by the cysts of Echinococcus granulosus is prepared as a recombinant fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli. Solubilised inclusion bodies are injected, together with Quil A, subcutaneously on two occasions 1 month or more apart, and induce protection against infection which lasts for at least 12 months. A third injection given 6-12 months after the second injection induces a high and long-lasting protection against artificial or natural challenge infections. This review describes work carried out on the formulation, safety and efficacy of the vaccine under laboratory and field conditions, using artificial or natural challenges with E. granulosus eggs, followed by necropsy. Hydatid control programmes based on regular treatment of all dogs with the correct dose of a highly-efficient anthelmintic have sometimes not been successful in Continental environments. Access to dogs is difficult in summer because of the distances to summer pastures, and is often impossible in winter because of snow. A control program using strategic twice-yearly anthelmintic treatment of dogs is likely to be successful provided grazing animals are vaccinated as well. Vaccination as a control tool only requires the veterinarians to visit two times a year, and while the veterinarian is present, the dogs can be treated with anthelmintic for little additional cost. One visit should take place after the autumn kill of animals for winter consumption, and this is a good time to vaccinate animals born in the summer, and also all other animals while they are healthy and immunologically responsive. The other visit should take place in the spring, at which time animals born during winter can be vaccinated. Although a single immunization has been shown to induce a useful degree of protection, where possible it is best to give two initial injections, 1 month apart. If it is possible for veterinarians to stay in the field

  20. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of Tamarindus Indica linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent.

  1. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent.

  2. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  3. IDIOPATHIC THORACO SCOLIOSIS TREATMENT USING A COMBINATION OF DOCUMENTATION BASED CARE (DBC BACK ACTIVE RECONDITIONING PROGRAMME AND SCHROTH METHODS: A PROSPECTIVE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesan Kathiresan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available reconditioning programme and Schroth methods to lessen the curvature allied with idiopathic Thoracicscoliosis.ResearchDesign: Sampling-An 18 years old female, single case study,Setting-DBC Kuching Active rehabilitationcentre, Malaysia.Duration of the study-20 weeks,Outcome measures-A base line and follow-up outcomemeasures includes Borg pain scale, Functional Rating Index, Balance test, and Radiographic analysis.Interventions-Document Based Care (DBC Back active reconditioning programme and Schroth methodsConclusion-The combination of the Document Based Care (DBC Back active reconditioning programme andSchroth methods seemed to be effective at reducing a Thoracic dextroscoliosis by about 14° (50% andLumbarLevoscoliosis by about 7° (25%, Short form (SF-36 showed improvement inQuality of life,balance time on theBalance board improved to 52 seconds and Borg pain scale rated 8/10 at the onset of care, dropped to a 1/10after 20 weeks, in this single case study. The positive outcomes of this practice validate a policyof offeringconservative treatment as an alternative to Thoracic scoliosis patients, including those for whom surgery isdiscussed

  4. A questionnaire survey of the management and use of anthelmintics in cattle and antelope in mixed farming systems in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Madzingira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the management of mixed farming of cattle and antelope and use of anthelmintics was conducted on eleven farms between August and December 1999 by a self-administered questionnaire. Seventeen antelope species ranging from grey duikers (Sylvicapra grimmia to eland (Taurotragus oryx occurred on the farms. Impala (Aepyceros melampus was the most abundant antelope on the farms. Seventy-five per cent of the antelope species on the farms were grazers and mixed feeders and shared grazing with cattle. Most farmers (n =8 did not consider the stocking density for cattle and antelope as an important management factor. Fifty-four per cent of the farmers (n = 6 routinely dewormed both cattle and antelopes. Albendazole and fenbendazole were the most commonly used drugs for deworming cattle (72.7 % and antelope species (54.5 %. The deworming of antelope was carried out during the dry season, using albendazole-, fenbendazole-and rafoxanide-medicated supplementary feed blocks. Doramectin injections were given to antelopes on two farms. Cattle were dewormed preventively and according to the general body condition of the animal. Few farmers (n = 4 followed the recommended deworming programme for cattle in Zimbabwe and only one farmer followed a specified dosing programme for game. However, results from the survey on the deworming of game indicate that farmers perceived helminth infections in antelope to be important.

  5. Reasons for non-compliance among patients treated under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RN-TCP)and their treatment outcome after structured counsel-ling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Singhal S; Quazi Z; MahajanSN; Diwan SK; Gaidhane A

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To judge for reasons of interrupting the treatment as told by patient himself/herself and see for ad-herence to therapy and treatment outcome after counselling.Methods:All patients with history of interrupting the treatment presenting to chest OPD were included in this study.Counselling was done by medical officer on first interaction and by health care worker (as guidance of medical officer)subsequently.Reasons for interrup-ting the treatment were noted.Patients and their relatives were counselled about the urgent need for strict ad-herence to therapy with special focus on reasons for which that particular patient had defaulted.Results:Total 56 patients were included in the study during First Quarter of year 2007.Treatment outcomes of 40 patients were available.6 out of them had interrupted the treatment(15 %)(National figures:19 % and Maharashtra:21 %),13 patients died during the treatment (5 of them were Cat 2 defaulters).Multiple reasons for inter-rupting the treatment were present.Most common reasons were alcoholism and feeling of relief with treatment (46.4 %).Conclusion:There is an urgent need for stressing upon counselling during Revised National Tuber-culosis Control Programme (RNTCP)sensitization and training.Medical officers can play an important role in reducing the defaulter rate by counselling of patient and their relatives.

  6. F200Y polymorphism of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene in Haemonchus contortus and sheep flock management practices related to anthelmintic resistance in eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Alexandre Moura; Sampaio Junior, Francisco Dantas; Pacheco, Adlilton; da Cunha, Amanda Batista; Cruz, Juliana Dos Santos; Scofield, Alessandra; Góes-Cavalcante, Gustavo

    2016-08-15

    The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of the F200Y polymorphism in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene of Haemonchus contortus from various sheep flocks in eastern Amazon, and to identify management practices that may favor the emergence of resistance to anthelmintic drugs in the same area. In total, 305 specimens of H. contortus were collected from sheep at 12 farms located in the state of Pará. An allele-specific PCR was performed to detect the F200Y polymorphism, and questionnaires were used to obtain information about the farms and flocks. All genotypes were detected as follows: 31% of the parasites were RR, 37% of the parasites were SR, and 32% were SS. The completed questionnaires revealed that all farms employed semi-intensive farming systems, performed suppressive anthelmintic treatment, and based their choice of drug on cost and availability rather than on any knowledge regarding drugs that remained effective on their property. It can thus be concluded that the SNP in codon 200 of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene is present in the H. contortus populations from eastern Amazon, and that a series of management practices that favor the emergence of anthelmintic resistance are employed on these farms.

  7. Transport of anthelmintic benzimidazole drugs by breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merino, G; Jonker, JW; Wagenaar, E; Pulido, MM; Molina, AJ; Alvarez, AI; Schinkel, AH

    2005-01-01

    Methylcarbamate benzimidazoles [albendazole (ABZ), fenbendazole (FBZ), and their respective sulfoxide derivatives, albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO) and oxfendazole (OXF)] are therapeutically important anthelmintic agents with low bioavailability. We studied their in vitro interaction with the apical AT

  8. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ACACIA SUMA (ROXB BARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharyya Suman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to investigate the preliminary phytochemical studies and anthelmintic activities on the bark of Acacia suma (Roxb. Family- Fabaceae against adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (5-25 mg/ml of each extract along with the reference samples (Piperazine citrate, Albendazole were subjected for anthelmintic activity study. The qualitative test revealed that the petroleum ether extracts contained only terpenoids but chloroform and hydroalcoholic (Methanol 70% v/v extracts exhibited the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and saponins but amino acids and steroids were absent. All the extracts showed anthelmintic activity when compared with petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. The anthelmintic activity of hydroalcoholic extract was comparable with reference drugs.

  9. In vitro thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant and cytotoxic activity with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of Xanthium indicum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antara Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthium indicum is an important medicinal plant traditionally used in Bangladesh as a folkloric treatment. The current study was undertaken to evaluate thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant, cytotoxic properties with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of X. indicum leaves. The analysis of phytochemical screening confirmed the existence of phytosetrols and diterpenes. In thrombolytic assay, a significant clot lysis was observed at four concentrations of plant extract compare to the positive control streptokinase (30,000 IU, 15,000 IU and negative control normal saline. The extract revealed potent anthelmintic activity at different concentrations. In anti-oxidant activity evaluation by two potential experiments namely total phenolic content determination and free radical scavenging assay by 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, the leaves extract possess good anti-oxidant property. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the crude extract showed potent (LC50 1.3 μg/mL cytotoxic activity compare to the vincristine sulfate as a positive control (LC50 0.8 μg/mL.

  10. Comparison of ruminant anthelmintics, using multiple dose administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, D K; Holloway, E L; Brown, L J

    1982-03-01

    Eleven ruminant anthelmintics were administered to lambs over a 30-day period, using medicated feeds or multiple oral doses. Fenbendazole and its sulfinyl analog, oxfendazole, were effective (greater than 90%) in the control of clinical parasitism at feeding levels of 5 mg/kg of feed. Parbendazole and albendazole were effective at daily oral dose levels of 1 mg/kg of body weight and at feeding dose levels of 10 mg/kg of feed, respectively. Levamisole, mebendazole, and oxibendazole were ineffective in controlling intense natural parasitic infections of sheep at daily oral dose levels equal to or less than 1 mg/kg of body weight and/or a feeding level equal to or less than 10 mg/kg of feed.

  11. Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and goats in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, Atle V Meling; Chartier, Christophe; Gjerde, Bjørn; Höglund, Johan; Leine, Nils; Vatn, Synnøve; Stuen, Snorre

    2012-07-01

    In the period of 2008–2009, the efficacies of the benzimidazole (BZ) albendazole and the macrocyclic lactone (ML) ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants were evaluated by means of the fecal egg count reduction (FECR) test and by post-treatment identification of surviving third stage (L3) larvae after coproculture. Sheep (n=28) and goat (n=28) flocks from three areas of Norway were randomly selected to assess the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance (AR), whereas only lambs from non-randomly selected sheep flocks (n=32) with a farm management that could select for AR were investigated the second year. Only flocks with a mean excretion of nematode eggs per gram feces (EPG) ≥ 150 at time of treatment were included in the survey. In total, 48 (80%) and 13 (46.4%) of the selected sheep and goat flocks, respectively, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The proportions of flocks classified as resistant (i.e., FECR nematode genera were Teladorsagia/Trichostrongylus in five flocks, Haemonchus in two flocks, and a mixture of these genera in the remaining two flocks. In the goat flocks, the pre-treatment infection levels of GIN were low compared to what was found in the sheep flocks. Still, in one flock, AR against BZ in Teladorsagia/Trichostrongylus was found. New strategies and recommendations to face the emerging AR situation in Rogaland County in order to limit the spread of resistant nematodes within and into other areas are urgently needed.

  12. Good adherence to HAART and improved survival in a community HIV/AIDS treatment and care programme: the experience of The AIDS Support Organization (TASO, Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyango Joan N

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART may result in treatment failure and death. Most reports of the effect of adherence to HAART on mortality come from studies where special efforts are made to provide HAART under ideal conditions. However, there are few reports of the impact of non-adherence to HAART on mortality from community HIV/AIDS treatment and care programmes in developing countries. We therefore conducted a study to assess the effect of adherence to HAART on survival in The AIDS Support Organization (TASO community HAART programme in Kampala, Uganda. Methods The study was a retrospective cohort of 897 patients who initiated HAART at TASO clinic, Kampala, between May 2004 and December 2006. A total of 7,856 adherence assessments were performed on the data. Adherence was assessed using a combination of self-report and pill count methods. Patients who took ≤ 95% of their regimens were classified as non-adherent. The data was stratified at a CD4 count of 50 cells/mm3. Kaplan Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used in the analysis. Results A total of 701 (78.2% patients had a mean adherence to ART of > 95%. The crude death rate was 12.2 deaths per 100 patient-years, with a rate of 42.5 deaths per 100 patient-years for non-adherent patients and 6.1 deaths per 100 patient-years for adherent patients. Non-adherence to ART was significantly associated with mortality. Patients with a CD4 count of less than 50 cells/mm3 had a higher mortality (HR = 4.3; 95% CI: 2.22–5.56 compared to patients with a CD4 count equal to or greater than 50 cells/mm3 (HR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.79–2.38. Conclusion Our study showed that good adherence and improved survival are feasible in community HIV/AIDS programmes such as that of TASO, Uganda. However, there is need to support community HAART programmes to overcome the challenges of funding to provide sustainable supplies particularly of

  13. Impact of community-based support services on antiretroviral treatment programme delivery and outcomes in resource-limited countries: a synthetic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouters Edwin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Task-shifting to lay community health providers is increasingly suggested as a potential strategy to overcome the barriers to sustainable antiretroviral treatment (ART scale-up in high-HIV-prevalence, resource-limited settings. The dearth of systematic scientific evidence on the contributory role and function of these forms of community mobilisation has rendered a formal evaluation of the published results of existing community support programmes a research priority. Methods We reviewed the relevant published work for the period from November 2003 to December 2011 in accordance with the guidelines for a synthetic review. ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, BioMed Central, OVID Medline, PubMed, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts and a number of relevant websites were searched. Results The reviewed literature reported an unambiguous positive impact of community support on a wide range of aspects, including access, coverage, adherence, virological and immunological outcomes, patient retention and survival. Looking at the mechanisms through which community support can impact ART programmes, the review indicates that community support initiatives are a promising strategy to address five often cited challenges to ART scale-up, namely (1 the lack of integration of ART services into the general health system; (2 the growing need for comprehensive care, (3 patient empowerment, (4 and defaulter tracing; and (5 the crippling shortage in human resources for health. The literature indicates that by linking HIV/AIDS-care to other primary health care programmes, by providing psychosocial care in addition to the technical-medical care from nurses and doctors, by empowering patients towards self-management and by tracing defaulters, well-organised community support initiatives are a vital part of any sustainable public-sector ART programme. Conclusions The review demonstrates that community support initiatives are a

  14. Technology Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  15. The influence of programme differences on crime reduction in opioid maintenance treatment. An analysis of regional patterns in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bukten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Design: Official national criminal records were cross linked with all patients who started opioid maintenance treatment in Norway from 1997-2003 (n=3221, including patients from four different health regions in Norway; the Eastern region (n=1717, the Southern region (n=751, the Western region (n=586 and the Central-Northern region (n=167. Patients in each region were divided into separate groups according to whether they were retained or not retained in continuous treatment.Findings: During opioid maintenance treatment, patients in all four treatment regions had a considerable reduction in criminal convictions compared to pre-treatment levels. Criminal convictions during treatment were associated with retention in treatment. Among patients in continuous treatment, significant differences were found in levels of criminal convictions among the four treatment regions during treatment. Compared to patients in the Eastern region, patients in the Southern and the Central-Northern region had respectively 44 and 81 percent less criminal convictions during treatment, and patients in the Western region had 60 percent more convictions. For patients not in continuous treatment, no statistically significant differences were found between the four regions during treatment.Conclusions: Differences in criminal convictions during treatment may be related to regional differences in treatment practice within the national OMT system. In all regions, criminal convictions during OMT were higher for patients dropping out of treatment. It is suggested that clinical staff should offer more support to patients at risk of dropping out of treatment.Background: Reduced criminal activity is an important outcome for opioid maintenance treatment (OMT.

  16. CMV retinitis screening and treatment in a resource-poor setting: three-year experience from a primary care HIV/AIDS programme in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tun NiNi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a neglected disease in resource-poor settings, in part because of the perceived complexity of care and because ophthalmologists are rarely accessible. In this paper, we describe a pilot programme of CMV retinitis management by non-ophthalmologists. The programme consists of systematic screening of all high-risk patients (CD4 3 by AIDS clinicians using indirect ophthalmoscopy, and treatment of all patients with active retinitis by intravitreal injection of ganciclovir. Prior to this programme, CMV retinitis was not routinely examined for, or treated, in Myanmar. Methods This is a retrospective descriptive study. Between November 2006 and July 2009, 17 primary care AIDS clinicians were trained in indirect ophthalmoscopy and diagnosis of CMV retinitis; eight were also trained in intravitreal injection. Evaluation of training by a variety of methods documented high clinical competence. Systematic screening of all high-risk patients (CD4 3 was carried out at five separate AIDS clinics throughout Myanmar. Results A total of 891 new patients (1782 eyes were screened in the primary area (Yangon; the majority of patients were male (64.3%, median age was 32 years, and median CD4 cell count was 38 cells/mm3. CMV retinitis was diagnosed in 24% (211/891 of these patients. Bilateral disease was present in 36% of patients. Patients with active retinitis were treated with weekly intravitreal injection of ganciclovir, with patients typically receiving five to seven injections per eye. A total of 1296 injections were administered. Conclusions A strategy of management of CMV retinitis at the primary care level is feasible in resource-poor settings. With appropriate training and support, CMV retinitis can be diagnosed and treated by AIDS clinicians (non-ophthalmologists, just like other major opportunistic infections.

  17. The identification of cattle nematode parasites resistant to multiple classes of anthelmintics in a commercial cattle population in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Louis C; Smith, Larry L; Lichtenfels, J Ralph; Pilitt, Patricia A

    2009-12-23

    Resistance to modern anthelmintics by ruminant nematode parasites is an increasing problem throughout the world. To date the problem has largely been reported in parasites of small ruminants, but there are increasing reports of such resistance in nematodes recovered from cattle. Until now there have been no published reports of drug resistant parasites from cattle in North America. In 2002 a producer in the upper Midwest who backgrounds young cattle acquired from the southeastern US experienced lower than expected weight gain as well as apparent parasitic gastroenteritis in his cattle during the fall. Fecal sample results supported the suspicion that decreased productivity and diarrhea were the result of GI nematode parasitism. The operation used intensive grazing management and practiced strategically timed deworming for >17 year. In 2003, all animals were dewormed the first week of May with Ivomec Plus, then with Dectomax Injectable on 4 June and 17 July. On 31 July, 10 randomly taken fecal samples showed EPG values from 0 to 55. To assess whether the apparent decreased drug efficacy was the result of drug resistance in the nematode population, on 18 August approximately 150 heads, previously strategic timed dewormed, of 9-11 month old cattle from one pasture were selected for study. The calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatment groups: untreated (U), ivermectin injectable (I), moxidectin pour-on (M), doramectin injectable (D), eprinomectin pour-on (E), albendazole oral (A). Cattle were weighed prior to treatment and the drug was dosed according to label directions. Seven days later, 3 calves from each group were slaughtered for worm recovery. Fecal samples taken from the remaining animals at 14 days after treatment showed that the reduction of mean fecal EPG value for each group was: U-46%, I-52%, M-72%, D-61%, E-8%, and A-68%. Worm recovery from the slaughter calves showed that all groups harbored significant numbers of Haemonchus placei and H

  18. Outcome of tuberculosis treatment in patients with diabetes mellitus treated in the revised national tuberculosis control programme in Malappuram District, Kerala, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandakumar K V

    Full Text Available SETTINGS: Kerala State, India has reported the greatest dual burden of Tuberculosis (TB and Diabetes Mellitus (DM. Malappuram district in Kerala has monitored and recorded DM status and its control from 2010 under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP. OBJECTIVES: To assess, under programme conditions, comprehensiveness of recording DM status among TB cases and the TB treatment outcomes among DM patients (disaggregated by glycemic control and compare with-non DM patients. DESIGN: This retrospective record review included 3,116TB patients from April 2010 to September 2011.DM was defined as per international guidelines and TB treatment outcomes were categorized as favourable(cured and treatment completed and unfavourable(death, default, failure and transfer out. Relative Risk (RR and 95% confidence intervals(CI were calculated to assess the risk of unfavourable outcomes. RESULTS: DM status was recorded in 90% of TB cases and 667 (24% had DM. 17% of DM patients and 23% of patients with unknown DM status had unfavourable outcomes but this difference was not statistically significant. Unadjusted RR for poor glycemic control or unknown control status for unfavourable outcome were (2.00; 95% CI 0.97-4.13 and (2.14; 95% CI 1.11-4.13. CONCLUSION: This study could not confirm an adverse association between DM or its control during treatment and the course of response to TB treatment.DM screening in TB cases and recording of DM care needs to be improved to enable more conclusive evidence.

  19. Structural and qualitative evaluation of microscopy and directly observed treatment centers under revised national tuberculosis control programme in Nanded city of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Manohar Bhagat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural and qualitative evaluation of Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP is important to determine actual status of the programme in the field settings and to uncover the concealed gaps. The present cross-sectional study assessed the infrastructural facilities and quality of services provided through microscopy and directly observed treatment (DOT centers at Nanded city of Maharashtra. The investigator made on spot observation on the activities at microscopy and DOT centers and assessed the infrastructural facilities using an observational checklist. Expert microbiologist cross checked the microscopy report done by the laboratory technicians. It revealed that retrieval mechanism was not functioning in more than half of the DOT centers. Only 5 DOT providers were trained in RNTCP. Stock of sputum containers, methylene blue, and carbol fuchsin was found to be inadequate at some microscopy centers. Half of the laboratory technicians reported high false positive result in spite of being trained. Improvement of infrastructural and logistic support along with the refreshing training for the workers are needed for effective implementation of RNTCP.

  20. The RESCueH Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard Nielsen, Anette; Nielsen, Bent; Andersen, Kjeld;

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the most important lifestyle factors affecting the disease burden in the Western world. The results of treatment in daily practice are modest at best. The aim of the RESCueH programme is to develop and evaluate methods, which are as practice-near as possible......, and therefore can be implemented quickly and easily in everyday clinical practice. It is the first clinical alcohol programme to be transatlantic in scope, with implementation in treatment centers located in Denmark, Germany and the US. The RESCueH programme comprises 5 randomized controlled trials......, and the studies can be expected to result in (1) more patients starting treatment in specialized outpatient clinics, (2) a greater number of elderly patients being treated, (3) increased patient motivation for treatment and thus improved adherence, (4) more patients with stable positive outcomes after treatment...

  1. ISOLDE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Fedosseev, V; Lynch, K M; Grob, L K; Herfurth, F; Scheidenberger, C; Geppert, C; Gorges, C; Ratajczyk, T; Vogel, S; Munch, M K; Nieminen, P; Pakarinen, J J A; Lecesne, N; Bouzomita, H; Grinyer, J; Marques moreno, F M; Parlog, M; Pedroza, J; Ghetta, V; Lozeva, R; Guillemaud mueller, D S; Cottereau, E; Cheikh mhamed, M; Tusseau nenez, S; Tungate, G; Walker, P M; Smith, A G; Fitzpatrick, C; Dominik, W M; Karny, M; Ciemny, A A; Nyman, G H; Thies, R M A; Lindberg, S K G; Langouche, G F; Delaure, B J P; Mayet, P; Ory, G T; Kesteloot, N J K; Papuga, J; Dehairs, M H R; Callens, M; Boudreau, M; Domnanich, K A; Richter, D; Lutter, R J; Wiehr, S; Nacher gonzalez, E; Jungclaus, A; Ribeiro jimenez, G; Marroquin alonso, I; Cal gonzalez, J; Paziy, V; Salsac, M; Murphy, C; Podolyak, Z F; Bajoga, A D; Butler, P; Pritchard, A; Steer, A N; Fox, S P; Wadsworth, B A; Truesdale, V L; Al monthery, M; Guttormsen, M S; Ingeberg, V W; Badea, M N; Calinescu, S; Cederkall, J A; Zemlyanoy, S; Donets, E D; Golovkov, M; Wu, C; Harrichunder, S; Ncube, M; Gerten, R F; Lehnert, J; Gladnishki, K A; Rainovski, G I; Pospisil, S; Datta pramanik, U; Benzoni, G; Fedorov, D; Molkanov, P; Pfeiffer, B; Griesel, T; Wehner, L W; Mikkelsen, M; Recchia, F; Smith, J F; Kelly, C M; De melo bandeira tavares, P M; Vieira, J M; Martins da silva, M A; Lima lopes, A M; Mader, J; Kessler, P; Laurent, B G; Schweikhard, L C; Marx, G H; Kulczycka, E; Komorowska, M; Da silva, M F; Goncalves marques, C P; Baptista peres, M A; Welander, J E; Leimbach, D; Coeck, S; Ryssens, W A M; Knoops, G; Vanbuel, J; Reiter, P; Miller, C; Martin sanchez-cano, D; Wiens, A; Blazhev, A A; Braun, N; Cappellazzo, M V; Birkenbach, B; Gerst, R; Dannhoff, M F; Sithole, M J; Bilgier, B; Nardelli, S; Vetter, U; Araujo mendes, C M; Agramunt ros, J; Valencia marin, E; Pantea, E; Hessberger, F P; Leduc, A J; Mitsuoka, S; Carbonari, A W; Buchegger, F J; Garzon camacho, A; Stachura, M K; Stora, T; Marsh, B A; Thiboud, J A; Antalic, S; Stahl, C; Bauer, C; Thurauf, M; Maass, B; Sturm, S; Boehm, C; Ways, M; Heylen, H; Riisager, K; Ruotsalainen, P A; Bastin, B; Duval, F T; Penessot, G; Flechard, X D; Desrues, P; Giovinazzo, J; Blank, B A; Kurtukian nieto, T; Ascher, P E L; Roccia, S; Matea, I; Croizet, H A G; Bonnin, C M; Morfouace, P; Smith, A J; Guin, R; Banerjee, D; Gunnlaugsson, H P; Ohtsubo, T; Zhukov, M V; Tengborn, E A; Dessagne, P; Juscamaita vivanco, Y; De rydt, M A E; Vermaelen, P; Monten, R; Yang, X; De coster, A; Kruecken, R; Nowak, A K; Cano ott, D; Murphy, A S J; Shand, C M; Regan, P H; Jones, G D; Herzberg, R; Ikin, P; Napoli, D R; Scarel, G; Larsen, A; Tornyi, T G; Pascu, S G; Stroe, L; Toma, S; Jansson, K; Dronjak fahlander, M; Krupko, S; Hurst, A M; Veskovic, M; Nikolov, J; Sibanda, W N; Rocchini, M; Klimo, J; Deicher, M; Wichert, T; Wolf, E; Kronenberg, J; Helmke, A; Meliani, Z; Ivanov, V S; Kuti, I; Halasz, Z; Henry, M O; Bras de sequeira amaral, V; Espirito santo, F; Da silva, D J; Carvalho teixeira, R C; Rosendahl, S; Speidel, K; Agarwal, I; Faul, T; Kownacki, J M; Martins correia, J G; Lorenz, K; Costa miranda, S M; Granadeiro costa, A R; Da costa pereira, L M; Keupers, M; Stukken, R; Wursten, E J; Kotthaus, T; Pfeiffer, M; Gironi, L; Cakirli, R B; Jensen, A; Romstedt, F; Constantino silva furtado, I; Heredia cardona, J A; Jordan martin, M D; Montaner piza, A; Zacate, M O; Plewinski, F; Mesli, A; Pichard, A; Hergemoller, F; Fallis starhunter, J P; Voulot, D; Mrazek, J; Ugryumov, V; Savreux, R P; Kojouharov, I M; Stegmann, R; Kern, R O; Fitting, J; Lauer, M; Kirsebom, O S; Jensen, K L; Jokinen, A; Rahkila, P J; Hager, U D K; Konki, J P; Dubois, M; Orr, N A; Fabian, X; Huikari, J E; Goigoux, T; Magron, C; Zakari, A A; Maietta, M; Bachelet, C E M; Roussiere, B; Li, R; Foster, R M; Mertzimekis, T; Gislason, H P; Shayestehaminzadeh, S; Qi, B; Mukai, M; Watanabe, Y; Willmann, L; Kurcewicz, W; Wimmer, K; Meisel, Z P; Dorvaux, O; Nowacki, F; Lievens, P; Neyens, G; Darby, I G; Descamps, B O; Ceruti, S; Bunka, M; Vermeulen, C; Umbricht, C A; De boer, J; Podadera aliseda, I; Alcorta moreno, M; Pesudo fortes, V; Zielinska, M; Korten, W; Wang, C H; Lotay, G J; Mason, P; Rice, S J; Willenegger, L M; Judson, D S; Revill, J P; Andreev, A; Yavuzkanat, N; Hass, M; Kumar, V; Crespo campo, L; Zamfir, N - V; Deleanu, D; Jeppesen, H B; Pain, S D; Stracener, D W; Matousek, V; Venhart, M; Birova, M; Li, X; Stuchbery, A E; Lellep, G M; Chakraborty, S; Leoni, S; Chupp, T; Yilmaz, C; Severin, G; Garcia ramos, J E; Hadinia, B; Mc glynn, E; Monteiro de sena silvares de carvalho, I; Friedag, P; Koos, V; Meot, V H; Pauwels, D B; Jancso, A; Srebrny, J; Alves, E J; David bosne, E; Dexters, W M M; Velten, P; Kalkuehler, M; Albers, M; Bharuth-ram, K; Akkus, B; Hemmingsen, L B S; Pedersen, J T; Dos santos redondo, L M; Rubio barroso, B; Algora, A; Kozlov, V; Mokhles gerami, A; Bernardo da silva, E; Unzueta solozabal, I; Schell, J; Szybowicz, M; Lassen, J; Johnston, K; Miyazaki, A; Macko, M; Coquard, L; Bloch, T P; Bonig, E S; Ignatov, A; Paschalis, S; Fernandez martinez, G; Schilling, M; Habermann, T; Von hahn, R; Minaya ramirez, E E; Manea, V; De roubin, A A J; Karthein, J; Moore, I D; Wang, Y; Saastamoinen, A J; Grahn, T; Herzan, A; Stolze, S M; Clement, E; Dijon, A; Shornikov, A; Lienard, E; Gibelin, J D; Pain, C; Canchel, G; Simpson, G S; Latrasse, L P; Huang, W; Forest, D H; Billowes, J; Flanagan, K; Strashnov, I; Binnersley, C L; Simpson, J; Morrall, P S; Grant, A F; Charisopoulos, S; Lagogiannis, A; Bhattacharya, C; Olafsson, S; Tornqvist, H T; Heinz, A M; White iv, E R; Vermote, S L; Courtin, S; Marechal, F; Randisi, G; Rajabali, M M; Lannoo, B J M; Frederickx, R; De coster, T J C; Roovers, N; De lemos lima, T A; Haller, S; Rizzi, M; Reichert, S B; Bonn, J; Thirolf, P G; Garcia rios, A R; Gugliermina, V M; Cubero campos, M A; Sanchez tembleque, V; Benito garcia, J; Senoville, M; Mountford, D J; Gelletly, W; Alharbi, T S T; Wilson, E; Rigby, S V; Andreoiu, C; Paul, E S; O'neill, G G; Harkness, L J; Wraith, C; Van esbroeck, K; Wadsworth, R; Cubiss, J G; Doherty, D T; Harding, R D; Vaintraub, S; Mandal, S K; Hadynska-klek, K; Scarpa, D; Hoff, P; Syed naeemul, H; Borcea, R; Balabanski, D L; Marginean, R; Rotaru, F; Rudolph, D; Fahlander, C H; Chudoba, V; Naidoo, D; Veselsky, M; Kliman, J; Raisanen, J A; Dietrich, M; Maung maung than, M M T; Reed, M W; Danchev, M T; Ray, J; Roy, M; Hammen, M; Capponi, L; Veghne csatlos, M M; Fryar, J; Mirzadeh vaghefi, S P; Trindade pereira, A M; Bakenecker, A; Tramm, C; Germic, V; Morel, P A; Kowalczyk, M; Matejska-minda, M; Ringvall moberg, A; Kana, T; Vermeeren, B R M; Dockx, K; Mantovan, R; Fransen, C H; Radeck, F; Schneiders, D W; Steinbach, T; Vibenholt, J E; Magnussen, M J; Stevnhoved, H M; Comas lijachev, V; Dasenbrock-gammon, N M; Perkowski, J; Matveev, Y; Wegner, M; Garcia borge, M J; Molholt, T E; Srnka, D; Dlouhy, Z; Beck, D; Homm, I; Eliseev, S; Blaum, K; Probst, M B; Kaiser, C J; Martin, J A; Refsgaard, J; Papadakis, F; Peura, P J; Greenlees, P T; Auranen, K; Delahaye, P; Traykov, E K; Perez loureiro, D; Mery, A A; Couratin, C; Tsekhanovich, I; Lunney, D; Gaulard, C V; Althubiti, N A S; Mottram, A D; Das, S K; Van de walle, J; Mazzocchi, C; Jonson, B N G; Woehr, A; Lesher, S R; Zuber, K T; Koudriavtsev, I; De witte, H J; Van den bergh, P A M; Raabe, R; Depuydt, M J F; Radulov, D P; Elseviers, J; Reynders, K L T; Sels, S M C; Verlinde, M; Delombaerde, L; De maesschalck, D; Dunlop, R A; Tarasava, K; Gernhaeuser, R A; Weinzierl, W; Berger, C; Wendt, K; Achtzehn, T; Gottwald, T; Schug, M; Rossel, R E; Dominguez reyes, R R; Briz monago, J A; Koester, U H; Bunce, M R; Bowry, M D; Nakhostin, M; Shearman, R; Cresswell, J R; Joss, D T; Gredley, A; Groombridge, D; Laird, A M; Aslanoglou, X; Siem, S; Weterings, J A; Renstrom, T; Szpak, B T; Luczkowski, M J; Ghita, D; Bezbakh, A; Bollmann, J; Bhattacharya, P; Roy, S; Rahaman, M A; Wlodarski, T; Carvalho soares, J; Barzakh, A; Werner, V R; Schertz, F; Froemmgen, N E; Liberati, V; Foy, B E; De pinho oliveira, G N; Weinheimer, C P; Zboril, M; Figuera, P; Simon, R E; Popescu, L A; Czosnyka, T; Miranda jana, P A; Buescher, J S L; Plociennik, W A; Ruchowska, E E; Chiara, C J; Eberth, J H; Thomas, T; Thole, P; Queiser, M T; Lo bianco, G; D'amico, F; Muller, S; Sanchez alarcon, R M; Tain enriquez, J L; Orrigo, S E A; Orlandi, R; Plazaola muguruza, F C; Pallada, S; Lepareur, N G; Wildner, E; Kowalska, M; Malbrunot, S; Slezak, M; Roeckl, E; Schrieder, G H; Ilieva, S K; Koenig, K L; Amoretti, M A; Lommen, J M; Fynbo, H O U; Weyer, G O P; Koldste, G T; Madsboll, K; Jensen, J H; Nieminen, A M; Reponen, M; Villari, A; Thomas, J; Saint-laurent, M; Sorlin, O H; Carniol, B; Pereira lopez, J; Grevy, S; Plaisir, C; Marie-jeanne, M J; Georgiev, G P; Etile, A M; Le blanc, F M; Verney, D; Stefan, G I; Assie, M; Suzuki, D; Guillot, J; Vazquez rodriguez, L; Campbell, P; Deacon, A N; Ware, T; Flueras, A; Xie, L; Banerjee, K; Piersa, M; Johansson, H T; Schwarz, S; Welker, A; Krauth, M R; Perrot, F; Aumont, J; Sferrazza, M; Van duppen, P L E; Versyck, S; Dehaes, J; Bree, N C F; Neyskens, P; Martinez palenzuela, Y; De groote, R P; Carlier, L M F; De schepper, S; Dewolf, K W A; Kabir, L R; Garcia ruiz, R F; Khodery ahmad, M A; Zadvornaya, A; Xu, Z; Smolders, P; Krastev, P; Rapisarda, E; Reber, J A; Mattolat, C F; Raeder, S; Habs, D; Martinez perez, T; Fraile prieto, L M; Vidal, M; Perez liva, M; Calvo portela, P; Ulla pedrera, F J; Wood, R T; Lalkovski, S; Page, R; Petri, M; Barton, C J; Nichols, A J; Vermeulen, M J; Bloor, D M; Henderson, J; Wilson, G L; De angelis, G; Buerger, A; Klintefjord, M L; Fornal, B A; Marginean, R; Sava, T; Suvaila, R; Lica, R; Costache, C; Mihai, R; Ionescu, A; Baeck, T M; Masenda, H; Sedlak, M; Koskelo, O K; Kyaw myat, K M; Ganguly, B; Goncalves marques, J; Cardoso, S; Seliverstov, M; Niessen, B D; Gutt, L E; Chapman, R; Spagnoletti, P N; Lopes, C; De oliveira amorim, C; Batista lopes, C M; Araujo, J; Schielke, S J; Daugas, J R; Gaudefroy, L; Chevrier, R; Szunyogh, D M; Napiorkowski, P J; Wrzosek-lipska, K; Wahl, U; Catarino, N; Pereira carvalho alves de sequeira, M; Decoster, S J; Porobic, T; Babo, M; Walters, W; Hess, H E; Holler, A; Bettermann, L; Geibel, K; Taprogge, J; Lewandowski, L T N; Manchado de sola, F; Das gupta, S; Thulstrup, P W; Heinz, U; Nogwanya, T; Neidherr, D M; Domingo pardo, C; Morales lopez, A I; Gumenyuk, O; Peaker, A R; Wakabayashi, Y; Abrahams, K J; Mach, H A; Souza ribeiro junior, I; He, J; Giles, T J; Dorsival, A; Kalaninova, Z; Venos, D; Kraemer, J; Saha, S; Neugart, R; Eronen, T O; Kreim, K D; Heck, M K; Goncharov, M; Julin, R J; Jakobsson, E H U; Eleon, C; Achouri, N L; Grinyer, G F; Fontbonne, C M; Alfaurt, P; Kusoglu, A; Wilkins, S G; Brown, A R; Imai, N; Pomorski, M J; Janiak, L; Nilsson, T; Stroke, H H; Stanja, J; Dangelser, E; Heenen, P; Mallion, S N; Diriken, J V J; Ghys, L H L; Khamehchi, M A; Van beveren, C; Gins, W A M; Bouma, J T; Koszorus, A; Mcnulty, J F; Ohlert, C M; Schwerdtfeger, W; Tengblad, O; Becerril reyes, A D; Perea martinez, A; Martinez perez, M C; Margerin, V; Rudigier, M; Alexander, T D; Patel, Z V; Hammond, N; Wearing, F; Patel, A; Jenkins, D G; Debernardi, A; Giacoppo, F; Tveten, G M; Malatji, K L; Krolas, W A; Stanoiu, M A; Rickert, E U; Ter-akopian, G; Cline, D; Riihimaeki, I A; Simon, K D; Wagner, F E; Turker, M; Neef, M H; Jakubek, J; Vagena, E; Bottoni, S; Nishimura, K; Correia, J; Rodrigues valdrez, C J; Ostrowski, A N; Hallmann, O; Scheck, M; Wady, P T; Lane, J; Krasznahorkay, A J; Kunne sohler, D; Meaney, A J; Baptista barbosa, M; Hochschulz, F; Roig, O; Houngbo, D; Behan, C C; Kargoll, S; Kemnitz, S; Redondo cubero, A; Dirkx, D; Stegemann, S T; Tallarida, G; Kaczarowski, R; Finke, F; Linnemann, A; Altenkirch, R; Saed-samii, N; Ansari, S H; Dlamini, W B; Adoons, V N; Ronning, C R; Wiedeking, M; Guadilla gomez, V; Herlert, A J; Mehl, C V; Judge, S M; Catherall, R; Lettry, J; Wenander, F J C; Zakoucky, D; Catchen, G L; Noertershaeuser, W; Kroell, T; Leske, J; Shubina, D; Murray, I M; Pancin, J; Delaunay, F; Poincheval, J J L; Audirac, L L; Gerbaux, M T; Aouadi, M; Sole, P G P; Fallot, M P; Onillon, A; Duchemin, C; Formento cavaier, R; Audi, G; Boukhari, A; Lau, C; Martin, J A; Barre, N H; Berry, T A; Procter, T J; Farooq-smith, G J; Bladen, L K; Axiotis, M; Muto, S; Jeong, S C; Hirayama, Y; Korgul, A B; Minamisono, K; Bingham, C R; Aprahamian, A; Bucher, B M; Huyse, M L; Himpe, P; Ferrer garcia, R; Sambi, S; Budincevic, I; Neven, M; Bomans, P; Romano, N; Maugeri, E A; Klupp, S C; Dehn, M H; Heinke, R M; Naubereit, P; Maira vidal, A; Vedia fernandez, M V; Ibanez garcia, P B; Bruyneel, B J E; Materna, T; Al-dahan, N; Alazemi, N; Carroll, R J; Babcock, C; Eleme, Z; Dhal, A; Valiente dobon, J J; Sahin, E; Goergen, A; Maj, A; Bednarczyk, P A; Borcea, C; Negoita, F; Suliman, G; Marginean, N M; Sotty, C O; Negret, A L; Nae, S A; Nita, C; Golubev, P I; Knyazev, A; Jost, C U; Petrik, K; Strisovska, J; Vaeyrynen, S A; Dracoulis, G D; Uher, J; Fernandez dominguez, B; Chakraborty, P; Avigo, R; Galaviz redondo, D; Castro ribeiro da silva, M; Bernards, C W; Falahat, S; Lekovic, F; Dorrer, H J; Derkx, X; Angus, L J; Sandhu, K S; Gregor, E; Byrne, D J; Haas, H; Lourenco, A A; Sousa pereira, S M; Sousa, J B; De melo mendonca, T M; Tavares de sousa, C; Guerreiro dos santos oliveira custodio, L M; Da rocha rodrigues, P M; Yamaguchi, T; Thompson, P C; Rosenbusch, M; Wienholtz, F; Fischer, P; Iwanicki, J S; Rusek, K M; Hanstorp, D; Severijns, N; Vanpoucke, B R S; Finlay, P E J; Park, S H; Warr, N V; Doornenbal, P C; Imig, A; Seidlitz, M; Moschner, K; Vogt, A; Kaya, L; Martel bravo, I; Orduz, A K; Serot, O; Majola, S N; Litvinov, Y; Bommert, M; Hensel, S; Markevich, V; Nishio, K; Ota, S; Matos, I; Zenkevich, A; Picado sandi, E; Forstner, O

    2002-01-01

    The experiments aim at a broad exploration of the properties of atomic nuclei far away from the region of beta stability. Furthermore, the unique radioactive beams of over 60~elements produced at the on-line isotope separators ISOLDE-2 and ISOLDE-3 are used in a wide programme of atomic, solid state and surface physics. Around 300 scientists are involved in the project, coming from about 70 laboratories. \\\\ \\\\ The electromagnetic isotope separators are connected on-line with their production targets in the extracted 600 MeV proton or 910~MeV Helium-3 beam of the Synchro-Cyclotron. Secondary beams of radioactive isotopes are available at the facility in intensities of 10$^1

  2. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Santos, Taís; Pinto, Nitza França; Mata-Santos, Hilton Antônio; De Moura, Kelly Gallan; Carneiro, Paula Fernandes; Carvalho, Tatiane Dos Santos; Del Rio, Karina Pena; Pinto, Maria do Carmo Freire Ribeiro; Martins, Lourdes Rodrigues; Fenalti, Juliana Montelli; Da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Scaini, Carlos James

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis) is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate) of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC) test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL), lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL), β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL). The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds.

  3. Anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Caltha palustris var. alba Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubashir, Sofi; Dar, Mohd Yousuf; Lone, Bashir A; Zargar, M Iqbal; Shah, Wajaht A

    2014-08-01

    The methanolic extract obtained from the root portion of Caltha palustris var. alba was evaluated for its anthelmintic efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep under both in vitro and in vivo conditions using worm motility inhibition (WMI) assay and fecal egg count reduction (FECR) assay, respectively. The extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity using agar-well diffusion method against different bacterial strains. In addition the extract was evaluated for cytotoxic and antioxidant activity against cultured THP-1(Leukemia), A-549 (Lung), HCT-15 (Colon), Cervix (HeLa) and PC-3(Prostrate) cell lines by SRB and DPPH radical scavenging assays. The extract used resulted in mean %WMI of 94.44%, as observed when the worms were put in lukewarm buffer for 30 min after exposure to different treatments. The mean mortality index of the sample was 0.95. The lethal concentration (LC50) was 0.11 mg·mL(-1). Cell lines were exposed to concentration of 100 μg·mL(-1) of extract for 48 h, which reduced the viability of these cell lines. The same plant extract also showed 55.58% DPPH radical scavenging activity.

  4. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís MATA-SANTOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL, lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL, β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL. The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds.

  5. Anthelmintic effect of condensed tannins in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eidi Yoshihara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal helminthiasis infections are considerate one of the main limiting factors in sheep production worldwide. The development of parasite resistance to anthelmintics has caused significant losses of small ruminant production. In the search for new alternatives for effective control of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants, phytotherapy is a promising field of research in an attempt to reduce the usage of chemical treatments, aimed at ecological production. Many plants play a crucial role in maintaining animal and human life. During human evolution many interactions with other organisms were established and they have affected each other in many ways. Plants have developed biochemical mechanisms to defend themselves from biological antagonists that act as their natural enemies. This principle has led scientists to search for bio-active compounds produced by plants against pathogens. Since these discovers their metabolites are evaluated against diseases of importance not only in public health, but also in animal production. This article presents a review of studies with tanniniferous plants scientifically tested worldwide for the control of gastrointestinal parasites in ruminants.

  6. Performance and treatment outcome of tuberculosis among patients on Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in Urban and Tribal areas of a district in Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivshakti Dattatray Pawar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP was introduced in the country as a pilot project since 1993 in a phased manner and expanded throughout the country by the year 2005. Although studies have shown the success of RNTCP, data pertaining to the indicators of programme performance in urban and tribal set up are rare. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess and compare the RNTCP in urban and tribal areas of Maharashtra through the indicators of performance and outcome of the patients. Patients and Methods: A retrospective comparative record-based study was conducted in selected urban and tribal areas' tuberculosis (TB units. Records of patients enrolled newly for TB treatment and those already undergoing treatment under RNTCP from April 2015 to September 2015 (6 months were considered for analysis. Chi-square test and Z-test (test of significance are applied where required by using Epi Info 7 and Microsoft Excel 2010.Results: Sputum smear collection was significantly higher in urban areas (P = 0.001. In urban areas, new TB case detection was 35%, while in tribal areas, it was 42% as per the RNTCP norms. Sputum positivity was marginally more in tribal (5.87% than urban (3.28% areas. Cure rate was more in urban areas than tribal (P = 0.001 areas. There were statistically significantly high default cases in tribal areas. Conclusions: Sputum collection and sputum positivity rate were low in urban and tribal areas, but TB screening, especially in tribal areas, was significantly low. Sputum positivity was significantly higher in tribal areas. Significantly low cure rate and high default rate in tribal area warrant the need for strengthening of RNTCP activities in tribal areas.

  7. A field study on the effect of some anthelmintics on cyathostomins of horses in sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, E Osterman; Kuzmina, T; Uggla, A; Waller, P J; Höglund, J

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate different aspects on the efficacy of three anthelmintics on cyathostomin nematodes of Swedish horses. A faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test was performed on 26 farms. Horses were treated orally with recommended doses of ivermectin, pyrantel pamoate or fenbendazole. Faecal samples were collected on the day of deworming and 7, 14 and 21 days later. No resistance was shown against ivermectin; the FECR was constantly >99%. The effect of pyrantel was assessed as equivocal in 6 farms 14 days after treatment; the mean FECR was 99%. As many as 72% of the fenbendazole-treated groups met the criteria for resistance; the mean FECR was 86%, ranging from 56% to 100%. A re-investigation of two farms where pyrantel resistance had been suspected clearly revealed unsatisfactory efficacy of pyrantel on one of these farms; the FECR varied from 72% to 89%. Twenty-six of the horses previously dosed with pyrantel or fenbendazole, and which still excreted >/=150 eggs per gram of faeces 14 days after treatment, were dewormed with ivermectin and fenbendazole or pyrantel in order to eliminate the remaining cyathostomins. A total of 13 cyathostomin species were identified from horses that initially received fenbendazole and seven species were identified from pyrantel-treated individuals. The egg reappearance period (ERP) following treatment with ivermectin and pyrantel was investigated on two farms. The shortest ERP after ivermectin treatment was 8 weeks and after pyrantel was 5 weeks. We conclude that no substantial reversion to benzimidazole susceptibility had taken place, although these drugs have scarcely been used (<5%) in horses for the last 10 years. Pyrantel-resistant populations of cyathostomins are present on Swedish horse farms, but the overall efficacy of pyrantel is still acceptable.

  8. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF FRUIT PULP OF CORDIA DICHOTOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisale A B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Cordia dichotoma Forst belonging to family Boraginaceae are used traditionally as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and anthelmentic activities. Pulp obtained after separation of seeds was shade dried, powdered and subjected to successive hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether (40-60 C ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Aqueous extract of Cordia dichotoma showed significant activity than ethanolic extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed fruits of Cordia dichotoma possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The fruit pulp extract of Cordia dichotoma also showed presence of flavonoid, alkaloid and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations, TLC and HPTLC methods.

  9. Anthelmintic Activity of Musa paradisiaca (L. cv. Puttabale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh, V. Krishna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale (AB group is an indigenous banana cultivar commonly cultivated in the Malnad region of Karnataka, India. Helminthes infections are acute and chronic illness in human beings and cattle. About 3 million people are infected with helminthes worldwide. Traditionally, the plant M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale was used to expel parasitic worms. In order to justify the ethanomedicinal claim with scientific report, sincere attempts have been made to investigate the Anthelmintic activity from corm ethanol extracts of M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale using Pheretima posthuma as an experimental model. Three concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml of corm ethanol extract were used to study their effect in time of paralysis and death of worm. The results suggest that the ethanol extract at the concentration of 100 mg/ml showed significant effect in time of paralysis at 42.33±1.45 min and death time was 54.00±0.58 min than control group in time of paralysis (142.67±1.45 min and death (168.00±1.53 min. Standard drug piperazine citrate showed paralysis on 39.67±0.88 min and death at 59.00±0.58 min. The corm ethanol extract confirmed antihelmintic activity in dose depend manure and efficient, than standard drug piperazine citrate. This investigation revealed that the antihelmintic property of ethanol extracts of Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale against Pheretima posthuma to support its medicinal claims.

  10. Anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus): in vitro effects on swine nematodes and relationship to sesquiterpene lactone composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Boas, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Chicory is a perennial crop that has been investigated as a forage source for outdoor-reared ruminants and pigs, and has been reported to have anthelmintic properties. Here, we investigated in vitro anthelmintic effects of forage chicory-extracts against the highly prevalent swine parasites Ascar...

  11. Growth rates and the prevalence and progression of scoliosis in short-statured children on Australian growth hormone treatment programmes

    OpenAIRE

    McPhee Ian; Day Gregory A; Batch Jenny; Tomlinson Francis H

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Study design and aim This was a longitudinal chart review of a diverse group (cohort) of patients undergoing HGH (Human Growth Hormone) treatment. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed with the aim to identify the presence and progression of scoliosis. Methods and cohort 185 patients were recruited and a database incorporating the age at commencement, dose and frequency of growth hormone treatment and growth charts was compiled from their Medical Records. The presence...

  12. Influence of sustained deworming pressure on the anthelmintic resistance status in strongyles of sheep under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarathi, M K; Sreekumar, C; Venkataramanan, R; Raman, M

    2016-10-01

    Anthelmintic resistance (AR) status in Madras Red sheep from selected field flocks of a government funded scheme, covered by regular, sustained anthelmintic treatment for more than 10 years was determined. Parameters such as fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), larval paralysis assay (LPA), and allele-specific-PCR (AS-PCR) were used to test the efficacy of fenbendazole, tetramisole, and ivermectin at recommended doses, in two seasons. Sheep belonging to non-beneficiary farmers were used as controls. Mean FECRT values of beneficiary group during winter and summer seasons were 77.77 and 76.04, 93.65 and 92.12, and 95.37 and 98.06 %, respectively, for fenbendazole, tetramisole, and ivermectin. In the non-beneficiary groups, the corresponding values were 74.82 and 81.09 %, 96.05 and 97.40 %, and 97.26 and 98.23 %, respectively. The results revealed resistance to fenbendazole, suspect resistance to tetramisole and susceptibility to ivermectin in beneficiary flock. In non-beneficiary flock, while resistance was noticed against fenbendazole, both tetramisole and ivermectin were effective. FECR values were found to be significantly different between beneficiary and non-beneficiary groups against tetramisole. The results of LPA confirmed this finding, as 50 % of the Haemonchus contortus larvae were paralyzed at the concentration of 0.0156 μg/ml in the beneficiary group, while those of non-beneficiary groups required lower concentrations of 0.0078 μg/ml. AS-PCR revealed the predominance of heterozygous susceptible population of H. contortus in the beneficiary group. In this study, resistance to fenbendazole was confirmed in both the beneficiary and non-beneficiary groups and this could be attributed to frequent use of benzimidazoles as seen from the deworming records. Emergence of tetramisole resistance was detected in the beneficiary group, where the drug was used continuously for 4 years. Ivermectin was found to be effective in all the flocks. It is

  13. Assessment of financial impact of implementation of operational programme on discharge and treatment of waste water for settlements which will not be equipped with public sewage system until 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Pregelj, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Slovenia has with its accession to the European Union committed to construct public sewage system and wastewater treatment plant within deadlines that are written in the Operational programme on discharge and treatment of waste water. Due to scattered settlements in Slovenia the construction of public sewage system and waste water treatment plants for each settlement is not economically eligible. Residents of scattered areas which will not be equipped with public sewage systems will have to d...

  14. Multiple anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus on a sheep farm in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, C L; Kumar, R; Uppal, R P; Verma, S P

    1995-12-01

    Multiple resistance to benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, albendazole and mebendazole) in a strain of Haemonchus contortus in sheep was detected on a farm where fenbendazole resistance had already been identified. Following a faecal egg count reduction test, this was confirmed by both critical and controlled anthelmintic tests. Different groups of sheep infected naturally or given an experimental infection with the fenbendazole-resistant strain were treated with the recommended doses of various anthelmintics. Compared to the control group, percentage reductions in faecal egg counts of sheep treated with fenbendazole, albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole and morantel varied between 56% and 81% and worm counts between 71% and 86%. The results indicate the presence of multiple anthelmintic resistance in this strain of H. contortus on this farm. Sheep treated with ivermectin and closantel showed 100% reductions in faecal egg and worm counts, suggesting high efficacy of these drugs against the population of H. contortus on this farm.

  15. A retrospective observational analysis to identify patient and treatment-related predictors of outcomes in a community mental health programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stuart A; Honeybourne, Emmi; Chalkley, Sylvia R; Price, Geraint; Bell, Derek; Green, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to identify patient and treatment factors that affect clinical outcomes of community psychological therapy through the development of a predictive model using historic data from 2 services in London. In addition, the study aims to assess the completeness of data collection, explore how treatment outcomes are discriminated using current criteria for classifying recovery, and assess the feasibility and need for undertaking a future larger population analysis. Design Observational, retrospective discriminant analysis. Setting 2 London community mental health services that provide psychological therapies for common mental disorders including anxiety and depression. Participants A total of 7388 patients attended the services between February 2009 and May 2012, of which 4393 (59%) completed therapy, or there was an agreement to end therapy, and were included in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Different combinations of the clinical outcome scores for anxiety Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 and depression Patient Health Questionnaire-9 were used to construct different treatment outcomes. Results The predictive models were able to assign a positive or negative clinical outcome to each patient based on 5 independent pre-treatment variables, with an accuracy of 69.4% and 79.3%, respectively: initial severity of anxiety and depression, ethnicity, deprivation and gender. The number of sessions attended/missed were also important factors identified in recovery. Conclusions Predicting whether patients are likely to have a positive outcome following treatment at entry might allow suitable modification of scheduled treatment, possibly resulting in improvements in outcomes. The model also highlights factors not only associated with poorer outcomes but inextricably linked to prevalence of common mental disorders, emphasising the importance of social determinants not only in poor health but also poor recovery. PMID:25995234

  16. Falling through the gaps: how should HIV programmes respond to families that persistently deny treatment to children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Busza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children living with HIV rely on adult caregivers for access to HIV testing and care, including clinical monitoring and adherence to treatment. Yet, many caregivers confront barriers to ensuring children's care, including fear of disclosure of the child's or the parents’ HIV status, competing family demands, fluctuating care arrangements and broader structural factors such as entrenched poverty or alternative beliefs about HIV's aetiology and treatment. Thus, many children are “falling through the gaps” because their access to testing and care is mediated by guardians who appear unable or unwilling to facilitate it. These children are likely to suffer treatment failure or death due to their caregivers’ recalcitrance. Discussion: This Commentary presents three cases from paediatric HIV services in Zimbabwe that highlight the complexities facing health care providers in providing HIV testing and care to children, and discusses the implications as a child's rights issue requiring both legal and programmatic responses. The cases provide examples of how disagreements between family members about appropriate care, conflicts between a child and caregiver and religious objections to medical treatment interrupt children's engagement with HIV services. In all three cases, no social or legal mechanisms were in place for health staff to intervene and prevent “loss to follow up.” Conclusions: We suggest that conceptualizing this as a child's rights issue may be a useful way to raise the debate and move towards improved treatment access. Our cases reflect policy failure to facilitate access to children's HIV testing and treatment, and are likely to be similar across international settings. We propose sharing experiences and encouraging dialogue between health practitioners and global advocates for children's right to health to raise awareness that children are the bearers of rights even if they lack legal capacity, and that the

  17. Growth rates and the prevalence and progression of scoliosis in short-statured children on Australian growth hormone treatment programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPhee Ian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design and aim This was a longitudinal chart review of a diverse group (cohort of patients undergoing HGH (Human Growth Hormone treatment. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed with the aim to identify the presence and progression of scoliosis. Methods and cohort 185 patients were recruited and a database incorporating the age at commencement, dose and frequency of growth hormone treatment and growth charts was compiled from their Medical Records. The presence of any known syndrome and the clinical presence of scoliosis were included for analysis. Subsequently, skeletally immature patients identified with scoliosis were followed up over a period of a minimum four years and the radiologic type, progression and severity (Cobb angle of scoliosis were recorded. Results Four (3.6% of the 109 with idiopathic short stature or hormone deficiency had idiopathic scoliosis (within normal limits for a control population and scoliosis progression was not prospectively observed. 13 (28.8% of 45 with Turner syndrome had scoliosis radiologically similar to idiopathic scoliosis. 11 (48% of 23 with varying syndromes, had scoliosis. In the entire cohort, the growth rates of those with and without scoliosis were not statistically different and HGH treatment was not ceased because of progression of scoliosis. Conclusion In this study, there was no evidence of HGH treatment being responsible for progression of scoliosis in a small number of non-syndromic patients (four. An incidental finding was that scoliosis, similar to the idiopathic type, appears to be more prevalent in Turner syndrome than previously believed.

  18. Phyto chemical Screening, Antibacterial, Antifungal and Anthelmintic Activity of Morinda citrifolia stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. D. Gopala Krishna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the Petroleum Ether and Alcoholic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni stem were subjected to preliminary screening for Antimicrobial and Aanthelmintic activity. The alcoholic extract exhibited significant Anti bacterial, Antifungal activity, comparable to the standard drug Tetracycline. The Petroleum Ether and Alcoholic extract were evaluated for Anthelmintic activity on adult Indian Earthworms, ‘Pheretima posithuma’. The Alcoholic extract produced more significant Anthelmintic activity than Petroleum ether extract and the activities are comparable with the reference drug Piperazine citrate

  19. Preliminary analysis of the relationship between structure and anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins in cattle nemaotdes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Larsen Enemark, Heidi; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2013-01-01

    in anthelmintic activity, as measured in vitro. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between structure and anthelmintic activity using an in vitro assay. We used a series of purified tannins (from 65% to 100% of purity) characterized for their degree of polymerization (mDP), prodelphinidin....../procyanidin ratio and cis/trans ratio by thiolytic degradation. Tannins diluted in two concentrations in water, epigallocatechin gallate, positive (ivermectin) and negative (water) controls were examined by the Larval Feeding Inhibition Assay (LFIA) with first stage larvae (L1) of the cattle nematode Cooperia...

  20. Preliminary analysis of the relationship between structure and anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins in cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Oliver; Enemark, Heidi L.; Mueller-Harvey, I.

    2013-01-01

    in anthelmintic activity, as measured in vitro. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between tannin structure and anthelmintic activity using an in vitro assay. We used a series of purified tannins (from 65% to 100% of purity) characterized for their degree of polymerization (m......DP), prodelphinidin/procyanidin (PC/PD) ratio and cis/trans ratio by thiolytic degradation. Tannins diluted in two concentrations in water, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), positive (ivermectin) and negative (water) controls were examined by the Larval Feeding Inhibition Assay (LFIA) with first stage larvae (L1...

  1. A survey on anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in the Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernanská, D; Várady, M; Corba, J

    2006-01-15

    The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance on 27 sheep farms in Slovakia was investigated in 2003 and 2004 using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) according to the WAAVP guidelines. Resistance to albendazole was detected on one farm (3.7%) and suspected on two farms (7.4%) out of 27 sheep flocks. Resistance to ivermectin was tested on 26 farms. On six (23.1%) farms, results indicated the presence of ivermectin resistance. Resistance to ivermectin was suspected on eight farms (30.8%). However, it is also possible that generic ivermectin anthelmintics used in survey have a lower efficacy against sheep nematodes.

  2. Improving bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole by preparing albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Rodriguez J.J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The bioavailability and anthelmintic activity of albendazole-cyclodextrin complexes (ABZ-CDC compared to albendazole suspensions in carboxymethylcellulose (ABZ-CMC was assessed in a mouse model for Trichinella infections. Swiss CD-1 mice experimentally infected with T. spiralis were treated with both formulations against enteral (adult worms and parenteral (migrating and encysted larvae. Oral bioavailability was assessed in age matched mice treated with 50 mg/kg of both formulations. The anthelmintic effects and plasma concentration of the active metabolite albendazole-sulphoxide (ABZSO enantiomer (– were significantly increased following administration of ABZ-CDC in relation to ABZ-CMC.

  3. In Vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Lagenaria Siceraria Leaves in Indian Adult Earthworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Different extracts of Lagenaria siceraria were taken for anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. Two concentrations (50 and 100 mg/ml of various extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Albendazole (20 mg/ml was used as reference standard and carboxy methyl cellulose (0.5% as a control group. Dose dependent activity was observed in the plant extracts but methanolic extract exhibited more activity as compared to others. The anthelmintic activity of Lagenaria sicerarialeaves extract has therefore been demonstrated for the first time.

  4. High levels of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in new and treatment-failure patients from the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in an urban metropolis (Mumbai in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicol Mark

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India, China and Russia account for more than 62% of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB globally. Within India, locations like urban metropolitan Mumbai with its burgeoning population and high incidence of TB are suspected to be a focus for MDRTB. However apart from sporadic surveys at watched sites in the country, there has been no systematic attempt by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP of India to determine the extent of MDRTB in Mumbai that could feed into national estimates. Drug susceptibility testing (DST is not routinely performed as a part of programme policy and public health laboratory infrastructure, is limited and poorly equipped to cope with large scale testing. Methods From April 2004 to January 2007 we determined the extent of drug resistance in 724 {493 newly diagnosed, previously untreated and 231 first line treatment failures (sputum-smear positive at the fifth month after commencement of therapy} cases of pulmonary tuberculosis drawn from the RNTCP in four suboptimally performing municipal wards of Mumbai. The observations were obtained using a modified radiorespirometric Buddemeyer assay and validated by the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Stockholm, a supranational reference laboratory. Data was analyzed utilizing SPSS 10.0 and Epi Info 2002. Results This study undertaken for the first time in RNTCP outpatients in Mumbai reveals a high proportion of MDRTB strains in both previously untreated (24% and treatment-failure cases (41%. Amongst new cases, resistance to 3 or 4 drug combinations (amplified drug resistance including isoniazid (H and rifampicin (R, was greater (20% than resistance to H and R alone (4% at any point in time during the study. The trend for monoresistance was similar in both groups remaining highest to H and lowest to R. External quality control revealed good agreement for H and R resistance (k = 0.77 and 0.76 respectively. Conclusion

  5. Anthelmintic activity of some Mediterranean browse plants against parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolaraki, F; Sotiraki, S; Stefanakis, A; Skampardonis, V; Volanis, M; Hoste, H

    2010-04-01

    The anthelmintic properties of tannin-rich plants are being explored as an alternative to chemical drugs. Most data have been acquired on legume forages, but only few on browse plants. The present study aimed to (i) screen the in vitro effects of extracts from 7 Mediterranean plants on Haemonchus contortus, (ii) verify the role of tannins using an inhibitor, polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) and (iii) verify the in vivo effects of extracts from 4 plants. Significant inhibition was shown in vitro using a larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay for all extracts except that from Olea europaea var. koroneiki. After adding PVPP, the LMI values were restored to control levels for all plants except Pistacia lentiscus and Ceratonia siliqua, confirming a role for tannins in the activity. In the in vivo experiment, 48 lambs composed 6 groups, depending on diet. On Day 0, groups G1-G5 received H. contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae and G6 remained uninfected. The various diets were distributed from Days 14 to 45: P. lentiscus (G1), Quercus coccifera (G2), C. siliqua (G3), Onobrychis viciifolia (G4), or Medicago sativa for the 2 control groups (G5, G6). Egg excretion, packed cell volumes (PCVs) and inorganic phosphate were measured weekly throughout the entire experimental period. At slaughter, the worms were enumerated and their fecundity assessed. Consumption of the 4 browser plants did not provoke differences in pathophysiological measurements but there were significant decreases in egg excretion, mainly explained by significant decreases in worm fecundity for both species, without any statistical difference in worm numbers.

  6. Initial findings from a mixed-methods evaluation of computer-assisted therapy for substance misuse in prisoners: Development, implementation and clinical outcomes from the ‘Breaking Free Health & Justice’ treatment and recovery programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Elison

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the United Kingdom’s ‘Transforming Rehabilitation’ agenda, reshaping drug and alcohol interventions in prisons is central to the Government’s approach to addressing substance dependence in the prison population and reduce reoffending. To achieve this, a through-care project to support offenders following release, ‘Gateways’, is taking place providing ‘through the gate’ support to released offenders, including help with organising accommodation, education and employment, and access to a peer supporter. In addition, Gateways is providing access to an evidence-based computer-assisted therapy (CAT programme for substance misuse, Breaking Free Health & Justice (BFHJ. Developed in partnership with the Ministry of Justice (MoJ National Offender Management Services (NOMS, and based on a community version of the programme, Breaking Free Online (BFO, BFHJ provides access to clinically-robust techniques based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT and promotes the role of technology-enhanced approaches in recovery from substance misuse. The BFHJ programme is provided via ‘Virtual Campus’ (VC, a secure, web-based learning environment delivered by NOMS and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, which has no links to websites not approved by MoJ, and provides prisoners with access to online training courses around work and skills. Providing BFHJ on VC makes the programme the world’s first online healthcare programme to be provided in prisons. Aims: Although here is an emerging evidence-base for the effectiveness of the community version of the BFO programme and its implementation within community treatment settings (Davies, Elison, Ward, & Laudet, 2015; Elison, Davies, & Ward, 2015a, 2015b; Elison, Humphreys, Ward, & Davies, 2013; Elison, Ward, Davies, Lidbetter, et al., 2014; Elison, Ward, Davies, & Moody, 2014, its potential within prison settings requires exploration. This study therefore sought to

  7. Comparison of calculation methods used for the determination of anthelmintic resistance in sheep in a temperate continental climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzon, L C; van Leeuwen, J; Menzies, P I; Jones-Bitton, A; Sears, W; Jansen, J T; Peregrine, A S

    2015-04-01

    This study compared results obtained with five different fecal egg count reduction (FECR) calculation methods for defining resistance to ivermectin, fenbendazole, and levamisole in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in a temperate continental climate: FECR1 and FECR2 used pre-and posttreatment fecal egg count (FEC) means from both treated and control animals, but FECR1 used arithmetic means, whereas FECR2 used geometric means; FECR3 used arithmetic means for pre- and posttreatment FECs from treated animals only; FECR4 was calculated using only arithmetic means for posttreatment FECs from treated and control animals; and FECR5 was calculated using mean FEC estimates from a general linear mixed model. The classification of farm anthelmintic resistance (AR) status varied, depending on which FECR calculation method was used and whether a bias correction term (BCT, i.e., half the minimum detection limit) was added to the zeroes or not. Overall, agreement between all methods was higher when a BCT was used, particularly when levels of resistance were low. FECR4 showed the highest agreement with all the other FECR methods. We therefore recommend that small ruminant clinicians use the FECR4 formula with a BCT for AR determination, as this would reduce the cost of the FECRT, while still minimizing bias and allowing for comparisons between different farms. For researchers, we recommend the use of FECR1 or FECR2, as the inclusion of both pre- and posttreatment FECs and use of randomly allocated animals in treatment and control groups makes these methods mathematically more likely to estimate the true anthelmintic efficacy.

  8. Antibacterial, anthelmintic and antioxidant activity of Argyreia elliptica extracts: Activity enhancement by the addition of metal salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Prashanth

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Argyreia elliptica extracts were prepared with solvents at different polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol and evaluate their antibacterial, anthelmintic and antioxidant properties first time. An antioxidant activity was analyzed using different in vitro tests namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging methods. Quantitative determination of phenols was carried out using spectrophotometric methods. In addition, the extracts were screened for their biological activity in absence and in presence of metal salts [Fe(III and Zn(II] ions. Results indicate that, the tested bacterial strains were most sensitive to the chloroform (CE and methanol extract (ME. Ethyl acetate (EA, CE and ME extracts showed potent radical scavenging activity. CE and ME extracts showed the highest total phenolic content and its enhanced anthelmintic and antioxidant activities were found in Fe(III combination. The extracts-Zn(II ion combination showed enhanced antibacterial activity against tested bacterial strains compare to the extracts alone.Industrial relevance. Herbal medicines have gained increasing attention worldwide for the treatment of various diseases because of their effectiveness and small side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. In general, the essential trace elements have been found to possess a very important role in biological system and also therapeutic activity depends on some trace elements. The present research reports the phytochemical screening of Argyrea elliptica leaves extracts. The antibacterial, anthilmentic and in vitro antioxidant activity activity of extracts and its metal salt combination was studied. The results scientifically establish the efficacy of the plant extracts and its metal salt combination as antibacterial, anthilmentic and antioxidant agents.Keywords. Argyreia elliptica; Antioxidant; Antibacterial activity; Total phenolic content.

  9. Anthelmintic efficacy of five tropical native Australian plants against Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis in experimentally infected goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, F C; Gordon, I J; Knox, M R; Summer, P M; Skerrat, L F; Benvenutti, M A; Saumell, C A

    2012-06-08

    The study of the anthelmintic properties of plants rich in plant secondary metabolites can provide ecologically sound methods for the treatment of parasites on grazing animals. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic effect of five tropical native Australian plant species rich in plant secondary metabolites on adult Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis in experimentally infected goats. Thirty young, nematode-free goats were infected with 2500 H. contortus and 5000 T. colubriformis infective larvae thrice weekly for a week (day 1-7 of the experiment). On day 27 after first infection, the goats were allocated into six groups of five animals per group. From day 28 to day 35, fresh leaves from Acacia salicina, Acacia nilotica, Eucalyptus corymbia, Casuarina cunninghamiana and Eucalyptus drepanophylla were included in the goats diet. Five groups were offered leaves from one of these plant species and one group, the untreated control, received only the basal diet formulated with 20% Medicago sativa and 80% Avena sativa. Following plant material administration, the goats were monitored daily until day 40 and then slaughtered on day 41. Total faecal worm egg output, total production of larvae recovered from faecal cultures, total post-mortem worm burdens and the per capita fecundity of female worms were estimated. The toxicity of the plant species for the goats was measured by histopathological analyses of liver and kidney samples. Results showed that goats feeding on the plant material rich in plant secondary metabolites had significantly lower egg output compared to the control goats (P0.05), the per capita fecundity was significantly reduced by E. corymbia, A. nilotica and A. salicina (P<0.05). No signs of toxicity were detected in the liver or kidney samples. It is concluded that goats can benefit from the short-term ingestion of plant secondary metabolites, which reduce the total faecal egg output and thus decrease the

  10. Anthelmintic activity ofSecuridaca longepedunculata (Family:Polygalaceae) root extract in mice, in vitro andin vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adiele RC; Fakae BB; Isuzu IU

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To elucidate the pharmacological bases of oral administration ofSecuridaca longepedunculata(S. longepedunculata) root extract as an anthelmintic in folkloric medicine. Methods:Albino mice were infected with infective third(L3) larval stage ofHeligmosomoides polygyrus(H. polygyrus) by esophageal intubation.Following establishment of the adult worms in the intestine, the mice were treated with0-2000 mg/kg body weight(bw) of methanolic root extract ofS. longepedunculata and100 mg/kg bw of pyrantel embonate, the reference drugin vivo. Bioactivity and larvicidal effects of the extract were tested by exposing brine shrimps(Artemia salina) to0.00-1.00 mg/mL and theL3 stage ofHeligmosomoidescontortus(H. contortus) and H. polygyrus to0.00-2.50 mg/mL of the extractin vitro.Results:The percentage yield of the extract was7.13% w/w dry matter.The brine shrimps toxicity bioassay resulted in anLC50 of 74.18μg/mL.The extract had a significant, dose-dependent larvicidal effect on theL3 stage ofH. contortus andH. polygyrus with the terminal effect of75% and70% at the highest exposure concentrations, respectively.The extract however, did not affect the number of worm eggs per gram(epg) of fecal materials(P<0.05) and total worm burden(twb) of adultH. polygyrus in infected mice.Treatment with pyrantel embonate significant reduced both the fecal egg count and twb to0 compared to the untreated control(P<0.05).Conclusions:These results indicate that S. longepedunculata root extract contains potent bioactive compounds and has larvicidal effect onL3 stage ofH. contortus andH. polygyrus, substantiating its use as anthelmintic in alternative medicine.

  11. Reference programme: Diagnosis and treatment of headache disorders and facial pain. Danish Headache Society, 2nd Edition, 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Lars; Birk, Steffen; Kasch, Helge

    2012-01-01

    and trigeminal neuralgia are largely in accordance with the European guidelines produced by the European Federation of Neurological Societies. The guideline provides a practical tool for use in daily clinical practice for primary care physicians, neurologists with a common interest in headache, as well as other......Headache and facial pain are among the most common, disabling and costly disorders in Europe. Correct diagnosis and treatment is important for achieving a high quality of care. As a national organisation whose role is to educate and advocate for the needs of patients with primary headaches......, the Danish Headache Society has set up a task force to develop a set of guidelines for the diagnosis, organisation and treatment of the most common types of headaches and for trigeminal neuralgia in Denmark. The guideline was published in Danish in 2010 and has been a great success. The Danish Headache...

  12. Directly observed treatment short course in immunocompetent patients of tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy treated in revised national tuberculosis control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu Kandala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prospective observation analysis to evaluate the cure in tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy with directly observed treatment short course category III (DOTS CAT III treatment as per revised national tuberculosis control program (RNTCP at a tertiary care hospital in AP, India, from October 2007 to September 2009. These cases were followed up for period of 22 months. Materials and Methods: Total 1521 tuberculous cases were screened in KIMS both pulmonary and extra pulmonary cases out of which 146 cases were tuberculous lymphadenitis. Fifty cases of tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy were included after diagnostic and treatment algorithm and fine needle biopsy or excision biopsy. Patients below 5 yrs, immunocompromised, having diabetes mellitus, pulmonary tuberculosis and with other co-morbid conditions were excluded from the study. All patients were put on DOTS CAT III as per RNTCP guidelines. Follow-up was done every 2 months till 6 months for 1 Constitution symptoms 2 Weight gain or loss 3 Appetite gain or loss 4 Regression of lymph nodes or increase 5 Compliance 6 Side effects 7 Failures by demonstration of organism by direct smear, culture or histopathological examination. Results: In this study, lymph node regression was found in 78% at the end of 2 months, 94% at the end of 4 months and 96% at the end of 6 months, 9 patients had regression in size though the nodes were palpable, 2 had no regression but fresh lymph nodes appeared on the same side and sinus discharge was present, culture was negative in these cases. Two cases had immune reconstitution syndrome, constitutional symptoms disappeared and showed clinical improvement. Four cases were subjected for surgical intervention. Conclusion: DOTS CAT III is effective in the treatment of tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy. Compliance was good with minimal, minor side effects, only two had immune reconstitution syndrome and two had sinus formation; they were referred for

  13. Anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Garcinia mangostana extract in hamster opisthorchiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Sriraj, Pranee; Songsri, Jiraporn; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Waraasawapati, Sakda; Boonyarat, Chantana; Rattanasuwan, Panaratana; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip

    2015-07-01

    Administration of praziquantel for treatment of liver fluke infection may affect the host, with mild and severe effects after treatment caused by host immune response. Therefore, we focused on the antioxidant property, inflammatory and anthelmintic effects of the traditional folk medicine, G. mangostana pericarp extract, in hamster opisthorchiasis. Syrian hamsters were divided into four groups: normal (control) (N); administered G. mangostana alone (GM); infected with Opisthorchis viverrini alone (OV); and infected with O. viverrini and administered G. mangostana extract for 1.5 months (OVGM). Hamster livers were collected 45 days after infection to determine histopathological changes, i.e. aggregation of inflammatory cells. The morphology of adult O. viverrini (body size and sizes of reproductive organs) was analyzed, as well as worm burden, eggs per worm and eggs per gram of feces. Toxicity was tested by kidney function (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine); the results demonstrated that G. mangostana had no renal toxic effect. ABTS radical-scavenging assay indicated that the extract had antioxidant property. Reduction in aggregation of inflammatory cells surrounding the hepatic bile duct, especially at the hilar region, was found in the OVGM group. Worm burden was similar in both infected groups (treated or untreated with G. mangostana), but the average size of adults in the OV group was larger than in the OVGM group; moreover, eggs per worm and eggs per gram of feces were also comparatively higher. The present study suggests that G. mangostana extract possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and can interfere with parasite development by affecting adult size and egg production. This may be useful for controlling the spread of OV infection and other parasites in endemic areas.

  14. Mortality and loss-to-follow-up during the pre-treatment period in an antiretroviral therapy programme under normal health service conditions in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin Jonathan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many HIV programmes in Africa, patients are assessed clinically and prepared for antiretroviral treatment over a period of 4–12 weeks. Mortality rates following initiation of ART are very high largely because patients present late with advanced disease. The rates of mortality and retention during the pre-treatment period are not well understood. We conducted an observational study to determine these rates. Methods HIV-infected subjects presenting at The AIDS Support Clinic in Jinja, SE Uganda, were assessed for antiretroviral therapy (ART. Eligible subjects were given information and counselling in 3 visits done over 4–6 weeks in preparation for treatment. Those who did not complete screening were followed-up at home. Survival analysis was done using poisson regression. Results 4321 HIV-infected subjects were screened of whom 2483 were eligible for ART on clinical or immunological grounds. Of these, 637 (26% did not complete screening and did not start ART. Male sex and low CD4 count were associated independently with not completing screening. At follow-up at a median 351 days, 181 (28% had died, 189 (30% reported that they were on ART with a different provider, 158 (25% were alive but said they were not on ART and 109 (17% were lost to follow-up. Death rates (95% CI per 100 person-years were 34 (22, 55 (n.18 within one month and 37 (29, 48 (n.33 within 3 months. 70/158 (44% subjects seen at follow-up said they had not started ART because they could not afford transport. Conclusion About a quarter of subjects eligible for ART did not complete screening and pre-treatment mortality was very high even though patients in this setting were well informed. For many families, the high cost of transport is a major barrier preventing access to ART.

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY BETWEEN ACETONE AND ETHANOLIC STEM BARK EXTRACTS OF SPONDIAS PINNATA (LINN.F KURZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda B.K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Spondias Pinnata (Linn.F Kurz is found in tribal area of Mayurbhanj district and extensively used traditionally by the tribal people as Anthelmintic, Anti-inflammatory, Regulate menstruation, Anti-pyretic, Anti-tumor and Anti-bacterial activity1-6. The present study is attempted to explore the anthelmintic activity of acetone and ethanol extract of bark of plant Spondias Pinnata in a comparative study. The various doses of acetone and ethanol extracts were evaluated for their anthelmintic activities on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima postuma. All extracts of both the solvents were able to show anthelmintic activity at (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml concentration. The activities are well comparable with standard drugs, Piperazine citrate and Albendazole (10 mg/ml.All the doses of acetone and ethanol extract of Spondias Pinnata showed better anthelmintic activities than the standard drugs. When the dose of extract is increased, a gradual increase in anthelmintic activity was observed. Ethanol extract showed better anthelmintic activity in comparison to the acetone extract of Spondias Pinnata. The data was verified as statistically significance by using ANOVA at 5% level of significance (P< 0.05.

  16. Peer mentors, mobile phone and pills: collective monitoring and adherence in Kenyatta National Hospital's HIV treatment programmeospital’s HIV treatment programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moyer, E.

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Kenyan state joined the international commitment to make antiretroviral treatment free in public health institutions to people infected with HIV. Less than a decade later, treatment has reached over 60% of those who need it in Kenya. This paper, which is based on an in-depth ethnographi

  17. Needs assessment for adapting TB directly observed treatment intervention programme in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A community-based participatory research approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabu T. Mabunda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limpopo Province is one of the hardest hit by tuberculosis and human immune virus infections in the country. The province has been implementing directly observed treatment strategy since 1996. However, the cure rate was 64% in 2015 and remains far from the set target by the World Health Organization of 85%. Poor health-care seeking and adherence behaviours were identified as major risk behaviours.Aim: To apply a community-based participatory research approach in identifying barriers and facilitators to health-care seeking and adherence to treatment, and to determine strategies and messages in order to inform the design of an adapted intervention programme.Setting: This study was conducted in three districts in the Limpopo Province, Capricorn, Mopani and Sekhukhune districts.Methods: Community participatory research approach was applied. Purposive sampling was used to sample participants. Focus group discussions were used to collect data. Participatory analysis was used comparing findings within and across all the participants.Results: A total of 161 participated in the study. Participants included coordinators, professional nurses, supporters and patients. Major modifiable behavioural-related barriers were lack of knowledge about tuberculosis, misinformation and misperceptions cultural beliefs, stigma and refusal of treatment support. Environment-related barriers were attitudes of health workers, lack of support by family and community, lack of food and use of alcohol and drugs. Strategies and messages included persuasive and motivational messages to promote healthy behaviour.Conclusion: Joint programmatic collaboration between the community and academic researchers is really needed for interventions to address the needs of the community.Keywords: Health seeking, Adherence, Community based participatory research, Tuberculosis

  18. Anthelmintic effects of Oroxylum indicum stem bark extract on juvenile and adult stages of Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda), an in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deori, Khirod; Yadav, Arun K

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide, traditional usage of herbal medicines is a common practice to treat various parasitic infections. In India, bark decoction of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz. (Bignoniaceae) is used as a traditional medicine to cure intestinal-helminthic infections. This study investigated the anthelmintic efficacy of methanolic bark extract of O. indicum on Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda), using both in vitro and in vivo methods. Utilizing a mini-questionnaire, first, we collected information about the pattern of anthelmintic use of this plant. Later, in vitro efficacy of extract was tested at 10, 20 and 30 mg/ml on both the artificially excysted juveniles and adult H. diminuta worms. Herein, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also utilized to determine the possible effects of extract on tegumental surfaces of juvenile and adult cestode. In vivo, extract was tested at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg in H. diminuta albino rat model, against juvenile and adult cestode. Praziquantel (PZQ) served as reference drug in anthelmintic assays. The acute toxicity of extract was determined as per the OECD guidelines. The field questionnaire data revealed that 78 % of people in the area use O. indicum stem bark against intestinal helminths, and of these, 75 % of people also believed it highly efficacious anthelmintic remedy. In vitro testing of extract revealed significant effects on juvenile worms, and 30 mg/ml of extract caused mortality of juveniles at the initial period (0.25 ± 0.00 h). Conversely, PZQ (1 mg/ml) showed paralysis and mortality of juvenile cestodes in 0.44 ± 0.04 and 1.11 ± 0.06 h, respectively. As determined by SEM, in vitro exposure to extract showed substantial effects on both juveniles and adult worms in the form of wrinkled scolex, distorted tegument and eroded microtriches. In vivo study revealed better efficacy of extract against juveniles than adult stages of parasite. Treatment of rats with 1000 mg/kg of extract caused 79.3 % reduction in EPG counts

  19. Anthelmintic resistance on sheep and goat farms in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is recognized as a severe problem for small ruminant production worldwide. In the United States, a high prevalence of drug resistance to multiple drug classes was reported in GIN of goats in Georgia, but no studies have examined the prevale...

  20. In vitro evaluation of anthelmintic activity of various tannin structures against Cooperia oncophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Enemark, Heidi L.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2013-01-01

    The use of tannin-rich plants against gastro-intestinal nematodes is an alternative currently investigated to avoid the exclusive use of anthelmintic (AH) synthetic drugs and prevent the spread of resistance among these nematode populations. Studies of AH effects on cattle nematodes using tannin...... agro-industrial resources could likewise be helpful in sustainable control of cattle nematodes....

  1. Anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus staigeriana encapsulated oil on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino Mesquita, Mayara; E Silva Júnior, João Batista; Panassol, Andressa Machado; de Oliveira, Erick Falcão; Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Camurça Fernandes; de Paula, Haroldo Cesar Beserra; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

    2013-09-01

    The anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus staigeriana essential oil has previously been inferred through both in vitro and in vivo tests. Thus, the encapsulation process generally improves oil stability, promotes controlled release in target organs, reduces dosage, and increases efficacy. The aims of this study were to analyze and encapsulate E. staigeriana essential oil and to verify its anthelmintic activity in sheep. The encapsulation process was accomplished through emulsion using a 4% chitosan solution as the matrix. Anthelmintic activity was established through controlled testing using 18 sheep that were separated into three groups: group 1 was treated with a single dose of 365 mg/kg of E. staigeriana encapsulated oil, group 2 was treated with 200 μg/kg of ivermectin, and group 3 was treated with a 4% chitosan solution as a negative control. The sheep were euthanized and necropsied 13 days posttreatment to evaluate worm burden. Limonene was the major oil component (72.91%). The final product was a hydrogel with 36.5% (m/m) E. staigeriana essential oil per gram. Its efficacy on gastrointestinal nematodes was 60.79%. The highest efficacy was against abomasal nematodes, with 83.75% efficacy. Further studies are necessary to explore the possibility of increasing the hydrogel efficacy; nevertheless, we can state that E. staigeriana encapsulated oil had anthelmintic activity and can be used in gastrointestinal nematode control.

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC POTENTIAL OF CUCURBITA MAXIMA (PUMPKIN SEEDS AND CARICA PAPAYA (PAPAYA SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Rupa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The crude extract of Carica papaya (papaya seeds (CP and Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin seeds (CM were assayed against adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma for the evaluation of anthelmintic activity. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis (P and time for death (D of worms. Albendazole was used as a reference standard. The result showed that in both of the extracts (i.e. CP and CM dose of 60 mg / ml possesses more wormicidal activity. The time of paralysis was 1.88 ± 0.52 minute and 1.93 ± 0.57 minute whereas the time of death was 3.45 ± 0.17 minute and 4.90 ± 0.18 minute in the case of Carica papaya and Cucurbita maxima respectively. In conclusion, the use of seeds of Carica papaya (CP and Cucurbita maxima (CM for anthelmintic activity have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity. Both the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity, but the comparative study showed that out of these two, Carica papaya proves to be a better anthelmintic remedy.

  3. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharma

  4. Determination of anthelmintic drug residues in milk using UPLC-MS/MS with rapid polarity switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new UPLC-MS/MS (ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry) method was developed and validated to detect 38 anthelmintic drug residues, consisting of benzimidazoles, avermectins and flukicides. A modified QuEChERS-type extraction method was developed with an added...

  5. Evaluation of anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites using observational data and hierarchical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Vidyashankar, Anand N.; Hanlon, Bret;

    Anthelmintic resistance is an increasing challenge in the control of parasites in livestock. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the practical gold standard method for evaluating resistance, but the interpretation is complicated due to high levels of variability. Several factors...... to handle FECRT data obtained from other livestock species, drug types, and parasite species....

  6. Phytochemical, Anti-oxidant and Anthelmintic activities of various leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Sreejith; N Kannappan; A Santhiagu; Ajith P Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential and anthelmintic activities of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb leaves. Methods: The dried powdered leaves of Flacourtia sepiaria were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol by a soxhlet extractor and preliminary phytochemical screening was performed using standard protocols. All the extract was evaluated for their potential antioxidant activities using test such as DPPH, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical scavenging abilities, ferrous chelating ability and total phenolic and flavanoid content. Anthelmintic activity of extract was screened in adult Indian earthworm model. Results: Preliminary screening revealed the presence of bioactive compounds especially phenolics, tannins and terpenoids in all extracts. The phenolic and flavanoid content was highest in methanolic extract and lowest in petroleum ether extract. The paralytic (9.46±0.212) and death time (31.43±0.148) of methanolic extract was found to be significant (P Conclusions:The results of the present study indicate that the leaf extracts of Flacourtia sepiaria exhibited strong antioxidant activity and possess significant anthelmintic activity and thus it is a good source of antioxidant and anthelmintic constituents.

  7. A reappraisal of the virtues of private sector employment programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Brian Krogh; Jensen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the employment effects of active labour market programmes for Danish welfare benefit recipients, focusing on private sector employment (PSE) programmes. Using a latent variable model that allows for heterogeneous treatment effects among observationally identical persons, we...

  8. Melaleuca alternifolia anthelmintic activity in gerbils experimentally infected by Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grando, Thirssa H; Baldissera, Matheus D; Gressler, Lucas T; de Sá, Mariângela Facco; Bortoluzzi, Bruna N; Schafer, Andressa S; Ebling, Rafael C; Raffin, Renata P; Santos, Roberto C V; Stefani, Lenita M; Vaucher, Rodrigo; Leal, Marta L R; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2016-11-01

    Gastrointestinal parasites are one of the biggest health problems faced in sheep, mainly due to their pathogenicity and resistance to drugs used to control these parasites. Thus, the following study aimed to assess the anthelmintic efficacy of Melaleuca alternifolia against Haemonchus contortus in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) experimentally infected. Three treatments were tested: M. alternifolia essential oil, popularly known as tea tree oil (TTO), a solid lipid nanocarrier made with essential oil of Melaleuca (nanoTTO), and terpinen-4-ol (terp-4-ol). In vivo studies were performed by determining the mean worm burden of H. contortus in gerbils TTO (0.75 mL/kg); nanoTTO (0.5 mL/kg) and terp-4-ol (0.5 mL l/kg) were able to reduce 46.36%; 48.64%, and 43.18% worm burden, respectively. H. contortus increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, as demonstrated by liver injury. It was found that the TTO, nanoTTO, and terp-4-ol were not toxic to liver and kidneys since hepatic and renal functions were not affected. Moreover, terp-4-ol was able to prevent increased levels of seric AST and ALT in infected animals, indicating a hepatoprotective effect. Thus, our results indicate that TTO, nanoTTO, and terp-4-ol are safe and efficient against H. contortus infection in gerbils, and possibly the terp-4-ol may be considered the compound present in the Melaleuca alternifolia responsible for parasitic action against H. contortus.

  9. Anthelmintic constituents from ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Lu, Chin-Mei; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Wang, Jiun-Jye; Lee, June-Der; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the anthelmintic activity of gingerenone A, [6]-dehydrogingerdione, [4]-shogaol, 5-hydroxy-[6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol, [6]-gingerol, [10]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol, hexahydrocurcumin, 3R,5S-[6]-gingerdiol and 3S,5S-[6]-gingerdiol, a constituent isolate from the roots of ginger, for the parasite Hymenolepis nana. The cestocidal activity or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement (oscillation/peristalsis) in H. nana of above constituents was reached from 24 to 72h in a time- and dose-dependent manner, respectively. The [10]-shogaol and [10]-gingero1 have maximum lethal efficacy and loss of spontaneous movement than the others at 24-72h. In addition, worms treated with 1 and 10μM [10]-gingero1, more than 30% had spontaneous movement of oscillation at 72h but [10]-shogaol at 72h only about 15-20% of oscillation. This showing that [10]-gingero1 had less loss of spontaneous movement efficacy than [10]-shogaol. After exposure to 200μM [10]-shogaol, 100% of H. nana had died at 12h rather than died at 24h for [10]-gingerol, showing that [10]-gingero1 had less lethal efficacy than [10]-shogaol. In addition, these constituents of ginger showed effects against peroxyl radical under cestocidal activity. In order to evaluate the cestocidal activity and cytokine production caused by ginger's extract R0 in the H. nana infected mice, we carried out in vivo examination about H. nana infected mice BALB/c mice were inoculated orally with 500 eggs. After post-inoculation, R0 (1g/kg/day) was administered orally for 10 days. The R0 exhibited cestocidal activity in vivo of significantly reduced worms number and cytokines production by in vitro Con A-stimulated spleen cells showed that INF-γ and IL-2 were significantly increases by R0. IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 were significantly decreases and Murine KC and IL-12 were not significantly changes by R0. Together, these findings first suggest that these constituents of ginger might be used as cestocidal

  10. Practical experience with the treatment of recipient mares with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in an equine embryo transfer programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblischke, P; Budik, S; Müller, J; Aurich, C

    2010-12-01

    As part of a commercial embryo transfer programme, 20 embryos were transferred to spontaneously synchronous or synchronized recipient mares. In 14 cases, embryo recipients were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), receiving flunixin meglumine i.v. at the time of transfer and vedaprofen orally twice a day on the 3 days after embryo transfer, while six embryos were transferred to untreated mares that served as controls. Out of the 14 recipient mares treated with NSAID, 11 (79%) were pregnant at 6-8 days after transfer and in 10 mares, the pregnancy was continued. From the six untreated recipients, only one became pregnant but underwent early embryonic death between day 14 and 35 after ovulation. In conclusion, pregnancy rate in NSAID-treated recipients is higher than that in untreated recipients and above reported average values, indicating that treatment of recipient mares with NSAID helps to increase pregnancy rates after transcervical transfer and can be recommended for equine embryo transfer.

  11. Retention and mortality outcomes from a community-supported public–private HIV treatment programme in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Gitau; Paing, Aung Zayar; Myint, Nwe Ni; Di, Win; Thu, Kaung Htet; Ram, Mala; Hoffmann, Christopher J; Wang, Bangyuan; Naing, Soe

    2016-01-01

    was 48.6/1000 person-years; 42% (n=74) of deaths occurred during the pre-ART period and 39.8% (n=70) occurred during the first six months of ART. Of those who died during the pre-ART period, 94.5% were eligible for ART. In multivariate regression, baseline CD4 count and ART status were independent predictors of mortality, whereas ART status, younger age and patient volumes per provider were predictors of loss to follow-up. Probability of being alive and retained in care at six months was 96.8% among those on ART, 38.5% among pre-ART but eligible patients, and 20.0% among ART-ineligible patients. Conclusions Effectively supported private sector GPs successfully administered and monitored ART in Myanmar, suggesting that community-supported private sector partnerships can contribute to expansion of HIV treatment and care capacity. To further improve patient outcomes, early testing and initiation of ART, combined with close clinical monitoring and support during the initial periods of enrolling in treatment and care, are required. PMID:27784509

  12. Anxiety and depression amongst patients enrolled in a public sector antiretroviral treatment programme in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappin Michele

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS and depression are projected to be the two leading causes of disability by 2030. HIV/AIDS and anxiety/depression are interlinked. People suffering from depression may be more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviour, and therefore at greater risk of contracting HIV. An HIV + diagnosis may trigger symptoms of anxiety and depression, which may in turn result in risky sexual behaviour and the spread of HIV. This study explores correlates of anxiety and depression in patients enrolled in a public sector ART programme in South Africa. Methods Interviews were conducted with 716 patients initiating ART at twelve public health care facilities in the Free State. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. An 8+ cut-off was used to identify possible cases of anxiety and depression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis, using STATA Version 11, was performed to identify correlates of anxiety and depression. Results The prevalence of symptoms of respectively anxiety and depression amongst this study population in the Free State was 30.6% and 25.4%. The multivariate logistic regression analyses identified five correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression. Disruptive side effects (OR = 3.62, CI 1.95-6.74 and avoidant coping (OR = 1.42, CI 1.22-1.65 were associated with a greater number of symptoms of anxiety. Stigma was associated with an increase in symptoms of anxiety (OR = 1.14, CI 1.07-1.21 and of depression (OR = 1.13, CI 1.06-1.20, while being a widow (OR = 0.30, CI 0.13-0.69 and participating in a support group (OR = 0.21, CI 0.05-0.99 were associated with decreased symptoms of depression. Conclusions The findings from the study provide valuable insights into the psychosocial aspects of the Free State public-sector ART programme. Combined with the literature on the intricate link between mental health problems and treatment outcomes our results emphasise

  13. The Validation of Nematode-Specific Acetylcholine-Gated Chloride Channels as Potential Anthelmintic Drug Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, Claudia M; Farrington, Danielle; Dent, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    New compounds are needed to treat parasitic nematode infections in humans, livestock and plants. Small molecule anthelmintics are the primary means of nematode parasite control in animals; however, widespread resistance to the currently available drug classes means control will be impossible without the introduction of new compounds. Adverse environmental effects associated with nematocides used to control plant parasitic species are also motivating the search for safer, more effective compounds. Discovery of new anthelmintic drugs in particular has been a serious challenge due to the difficulty of obtaining and culturing target parasites for high-throughput screens and the lack of functional genomic techniques to validate potential drug targets in these pathogens. We present here a novel strategy for target validation that employs the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to demonstrate the value of new ligand-gated ion channels as targets for anthelmintic discovery. Many successful anthelmintics, including ivermectin, levamisole and monepantel, are agonists of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, suggesting that the unexploited pentameric ion channels encoded in parasite genomes may be suitable drug targets. We validated five members of the nematode-specific family of acetylcholine-gated chloride channels as targets of agonists with anthelmintic properties by ectopically expressing an ivermectin-gated chloride channel, AVR-15, in tissues that endogenously express the acetylcholine-gated chloride channels and using the effects of ivermectin to predict the effects of an acetylcholine-gated chloride channel agonist. In principle, our strategy can be applied to validate any ion channel as a putative anti-parasitic drug target.

  14. The Validation of Nematode-Specific Acetylcholine-Gated Chloride Channels as Potential Anthelmintic Drug Targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M Wever

    Full Text Available New compounds are needed to treat parasitic nematode infections in humans, livestock and plants. Small molecule anthelmintics are the primary means of nematode parasite control in animals; however, widespread resistance to the currently available drug classes means control will be impossible without the introduction of new compounds. Adverse environmental effects associated with nematocides used to control plant parasitic species are also motivating the search for safer, more effective compounds. Discovery of new anthelmintic drugs in particular has been a serious challenge due to the difficulty of obtaining and culturing target parasites for high-throughput screens and the lack of functional genomic techniques to validate potential drug targets in these pathogens. We present here a novel strategy for target validation that employs the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to demonstrate the value of new ligand-gated ion channels as targets for anthelmintic discovery. Many successful anthelmintics, including ivermectin, levamisole and monepantel, are agonists of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, suggesting that the unexploited pentameric ion channels encoded in parasite genomes may be suitable drug targets. We validated five members of the nematode-specific family of acetylcholine-gated chloride channels as targets of agonists with anthelmintic properties by ectopically expressing an ivermectin-gated chloride channel, AVR-15, in tissues that endogenously express the acetylcholine-gated chloride channels and using the effects of ivermectin to predict the effects of an acetylcholine-gated chloride channel agonist. In principle, our strategy can be applied to validate any ion channel as a putative anti-parasitic drug target.

  15. The Validation of Nematode-Specific Acetylcholine-Gated Chloride Channels as Potential Anthelmintic Drug Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, Claudia M.; Farrington, Danielle; Dent, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    New compounds are needed to treat parasitic nematode infections in humans, livestock and plants. Small molecule anthelmintics are the primary means of nematode parasite control in animals; however, widespread resistance to the currently available drug classes means control will be impossible without the introduction of new compounds. Adverse environmental effects associated with nematocides used to control plant parasitic species are also motivating the search for safer, more effective compounds. Discovery of new anthelmintic drugs in particular has been a serious challenge due to the difficulty of obtaining and culturing target parasites for high-throughput screens and the lack of functional genomic techniques to validate potential drug targets in these pathogens. We present here a novel strategy for target validation that employs the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to demonstrate the value of new ligand-gated ion channels as targets for anthelmintic discovery. Many successful anthelmintics, including ivermectin, levamisole and monepantel, are agonists of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, suggesting that the unexploited pentameric ion channels encoded in parasite genomes may be suitable drug targets. We validated five members of the nematode-specific family of acetylcholine-gated chloride channels as targets of agonists with anthelmintic properties by ectopically expressing an ivermectin-gated chloride channel, AVR-15, in tissues that endogenously express the acetylcholine-gated chloride channels and using the effects of ivermectin to predict the effects of an acetylcholine-gated chloride channel agonist. In principle, our strategy can be applied to validate any ion channel as a putative anti-parasitic drug target. PMID:26393923

  16. The new anthelmintic tribendimidine is an L-type (levamisole and pyrantel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic nematodes such as hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura are amongst most prevalent tropical parasites in the world today. Although these parasites cause a tremendous disease burden, we have very few anthelmintic drugs with which to treat them. In the past three decades only one new anthelmintic, tribendimidine, has been developed and taken into human clinical trials. Studies show that tribendimidine is safe and has good clinical activity against Ascaris and hookworms. However, little is known about its mechanism of action and potential resistance pathway(s. Such information is important for preventing, detecting, and managing resistance, for safety considerations, and for knowing how to combine tribendimidine with other anthelmintics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate how tribendimidine works and how resistance to it might develop, we turned to the genetically tractable nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. When exposed to tribendimidine, C. elegans hermaphrodites undergo a near immediate loss of motility; longer exposure results in extensive body damage, developmental arrest, reductions in fecundity, and/or death. We performed a forward genetic screen for tribendimidine-resistant mutants and obtained ten resistant alleles that fall into four complementation groups. Intoxication assays, complementation tests, genetic mapping experiments, and sequencing of nucleic acids indicate tribendimidine-resistant mutants are resistant also to levamisole and pyrantel and alter the same genes that mutate to levamisole resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrate that eleven C. elegans mutants isolated based on their ability to resist levamisole are also resistant to tribendimidine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the mechanism of action of tribendimidine against nematodes is the same as levamisole and pyrantel, namely, tribendimidine is an L-subtype nAChR agonist. Thus

  17. The New Anthelmintic Tribendimidine is an L-type (Levamisole and Pyrantel) Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Xiao, Shu-Hua; Aroian, Raffi V.

    2009-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic nematodes such as hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura are amongst most prevalent tropical parasites in the world today. Although these parasites cause a tremendous disease burden, we have very few anthelmintic drugs with which to treat them. In the past three decades only one new anthelmintic, tribendimidine, has been developed and taken into human clinical trials. Studies show that tribendimidine is safe and has good clinical activity against Ascaris and hookworms. However, little is known about its mechanism of action and potential resistance pathway(s). Such information is important for preventing, detecting, and managing resistance, for safety considerations, and for knowing how to combine tribendimidine with other anthelmintics. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate how tribendimidine works and how resistance to it might develop, we turned to the genetically tractable nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. When exposed to tribendimidine, C. elegans hermaphrodites undergo a near immediate loss of motility; longer exposure results in extensive body damage, developmental arrest, reductions in fecundity, and/or death. We performed a forward genetic screen for tribendimidine-resistant mutants and obtained ten resistant alleles that fall into four complementation groups. Intoxication assays, complementation tests, genetic mapping experiments, and sequencing of nucleic acids indicate tribendimidine-resistant mutants are resistant also to levamisole and pyrantel and alter the same genes that mutate to levamisole resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrate that eleven C. elegans mutants isolated based on their ability to resist levamisole are also resistant to tribendimidine. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that the mechanism of action of tribendimidine against nematodes is the same as levamisole and pyrantel, namely, tribendimidine is an L-subtype nAChR agonist. Thus, tribendimidine may not be a

  18. A xenodiagnostic method using Musca domestica for the diagnosis of gastric habronemosis and examining the anthelmintic efficacy of moxidectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rolf K; Sivakumar, Saritha

    2013-10-18

    Equine habronematidosis has a global distribution and is caused by three spirurid species, Habronema muscae, Habronema microstoma and Draschia megastoma. A case of cutaneous habronematidosis in a stallion in a stable in Dubai, UAE gave occasion to investigate the parasite situation on the farm. Patent H. muscae infections were diagnosed in 18 out of 49 horses in a stable in Dubai, UAE with a xenodiagnostic test using houseflies as indicator host. All horses in the stable were treated with a single dose of moxidectin administered orally as 2% gel in a dosage of 0.4 mg/kg body weight and the efficacy of this targeted treatment was studied. Habronema infection was terminated in all horses. A fly survey conducted at the farm prior and after treatment revealed two muscid species: Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans. Only M. domestica caught at the farm showed a natural infection with Habronema larvae prior and shortly after anthelmintic treatment. Later, examination of flies caught at the farm in monthly intervals up to the end of observation (8 months after treatment) gave negative results. The absence of infection in the intermediate host was an indication of the eradication of stomach worms. The described xenodiagnostic test is a useful tool to diagnose H. muscae infections and can be used to evaluate the efficacy of nematocides in equines.

  19. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon martinii, Cymbopogon schoenanthus and Mentha piperita essential oils evaluated in four different in vitro tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthelmintic resistance is a worldwide concern in small ruminant industry and new plant derived compounds are being studied for their potential use against gastrointestinal nematodes. Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oils were evaluated against developmenta...

  20. Anthelmintic effect of plant extracts containing condensed and hydrolyzable tannins on Caenorhabditis elegans and their antioxidant capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although tannin-rich forages are known to increase protein uptake and to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infections in grazing ruminants, most published research involves forages with condensed tannins (CT), while published literature lacks information on the anthelmintic capacity, nutritional bene...

  1. A Statistical Programme Assignment Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Staghøj, Jonas; Svarer, Michael

    When treatment effects of active labour market programmes are heterogeneous in an observable way  across the population, the allocation of the unemployed into different programmes becomes a particularly  important issue. In this paper, we present a statistical model designed to improve the present...... assignment  mechanism, which is based on the discretionary choice of case workers. This is done in a duration model context, using the timing-of-events framework to identify causal effects. We compare different assignment  mechanisms, and the results suggest that a significant reduction in the average...... duration of unemployment spells may result if a statistical programme assignment model is introduced. We discuss several issues regarding the  plementation of such a system, especially the interplay between the statistical model and  case workers....

  2. Olympic Partner Programme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Olympic Partner Programme (TOP) is an international Olympic marketing programme created by the International Olympic Committee (IOC),which includes the Organising Committees of the Games,the National Olympic Committees and the TOP Partners.

  3. Effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work rate for persons with work-related stress. A non-randomized controlled study from a stress clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    was to test the effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work (RTW) rate in persons with work-related stress and establish predictive factors for this outcome. METHODS: During a two-year period 63 out of 73 referrals to the Stress Clinic (a section of a Clinic of Occupational...... and after four months. A specialist in occupational medicine carried out all sessions.Return To Work (RTW), defined as having a job and not being on sick leave at the census, was used as outcome measure four months after baseline, and after one and two years. RESULTS: The level of sick leave in the stress...... the two groups was observed after one and two years. Age below 50 years and being a manager increased the odds ratio for RTW after one and two years, while gender and depression had no predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: The stress treatment programme showed a significant effect on the return to work rate...

  4. Effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work rate for persons with work-related stress. A non-randomized controlled study from a stress clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    Medicine) completed a stress treatment programme consisted of the following:1) Identification of relevant stressors. 2. Changing the coping strategies of the participants. 3. Evaluating/changes in participant workload and tasks. 4. Relaxation techniques. 5. Physical exercise. 6. Psychiatric evaluation when...... indicated by depression test score.On average each patient attended six one-hour sessions over the course of four months.A group of 34 employees referred to the Clinic of Occupational Medicine by their general practitioners served as a control group. Each participant had a one-hour consultation at baseline...... the two groups was observed after one and two years. Age below 50 years and being a manager increased the odds ratio for RTW after one and two years, while gender and depression had no predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: The stress treatment programme showed a significant effect on the return to work rate...

  5. UNESCO's Ethics Education Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, H.A.M.J. ten

    2008-01-01

    Unesco initiated the Ethics Education Programme in 2004 at the request of member states to reinforce and increase the capacities in the area of ethics teaching. The programme is focused on providing detailed information about existing teaching programmes. It also develops and promotes teaching throu

  6. In vitro anthelmintic efficacy of inhibitors of phosphoethanolamine Methyltransferases in Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witola, William H; Matthews, Kwame; McHugh, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The essential phosphobase methylation pathway for synthesis of phosphocholine is unique to nematodes, protozoa and plants, and thus an attractive antiparasitic molecular target. Herein, we screened compounds from the National Cancer Institute (Developmental Therapeutics Program Open Chemical Repository) for specific inhibitory activity against Haemonchus contortus phosphoethanolamine methyltransferases (HcPMT1 and HcPMT2), and tested candidate compounds for anthelmintic activity against adult and third-stage larvae of H. contortus. We identified compound NSC-641296 with IC50 values of 8.3 ± 1.1 μM and 5.1 ± 1.8 μM for inhibition of the catalytic activity of HcPMT1 alone and HcPMT1/HcPMT2 combination, respectively. Additionally we identified compound NSC-668394 with inhibitory IC50 values of 5.9 ± 0.9 μM and 2.8 ± 0.6 μM for HcPMT1 alone and HcPMT1/HcPMT2 combination, respectively. Of the two compounds, NSC-641296 depicted significant anthelmintic activity against third-stage larvae (IC50 = 15 ± 2.9 μM) and adult stages (IC50 = 7 ± 2.9 μM) of H. contortus, with optimal effective in vitro concentrations being 2-fold and 4-fold, respectively, lower than its cytotoxic IC50 (29 ± 2.1 μM) in a mammalian cell line. Additionally, we identified two compounds, NSC-158011 and NSC-323241, with low inhibitory activity against the combined activity of HcPMT1 and HcPMT2, but both compounds did not show any anthelmintic activity against H. contortus. The identification of NSC-641296 that specifically inhibits a unique biosynthetic pathway in H. contortus and has anthelmintic activity against both larval and adult stages of H. contortus, provides impetus for the development of urgently needed new efficacious anthelmintics to address the prevailing problem of anthelmintic-resistant H. contortus.

  7. Assessment of the anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole in school children in seven countries where soil-transmitted helminths are endemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Vercruysse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Necator americanus/Ancylostoma duodenale are among the most widespread parasites worldwide. Despite the global expansion of preventive anthelmintic treatment, standard operating procedures to monitor anthelmintic drug efficacy are lacking. The objective of this study, therefore, was to define the efficacy of a single 400 milligram dose of albendazole (ALB against these three STH using a standardized protocol. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seven trials were undertaken among school children in Brazil, Cameroon, Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Tanzania and Vietnam. Efficacy was assessed by the Cure Rate (CR and the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR using the McMaster egg counting technique to determine fecal egg counts (FEC. Overall, the highest CRs were observed for A. lumbricoides (98.2% followed by hookworms (87.8% and T. trichiura (46.6%. There was considerable variation in the CR for the three parasites across trials (country, by age or the pre-intervention FEC (pre-treatment. The latter is probably the most important as it had a considerable effect on the CR of all three STH. Therapeutic efficacies, as reflected by the FECRs, were very high for A. lumbricoides (99.5% and hookworms (94.8% but significantly lower for T. trichiura (50.8%, and were affected to different extents among the 3 species by the pre-intervention FEC counts and trial (country, but not by sex or age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that a FECR (based on arithmetic means of >95% for A. lumbricoides and >90% for hookworms should be the expected minimum in all future surveys, and that therapeutic efficacy below this level following a single dose of ALB should be viewed with concern in light of potential drug resistance. A standard threshold for efficacy against T. trichiura has yet to be established, as a single-dose of ALB is unlikely to be satisfactory for

  8. Effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work rate for persons with work-related stress. A non-randomized controlled study from a stress clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bech Per

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years an increasing number of patients have been referred to the medical sector with stress symptoms. Moreover, these conditions imply increased sickness absence. This indicates a need for treatment programmes in general medical practice. The aim of this study was to test the effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work (RTW rate in persons with work-related stress and establish predictive factors for this outcome. Methods During a two-year period 63 out of 73 referrals to the Stress Clinic (a section of a Clinic of Occupational Medicine completed a stress treatment programme consisted of the following: 1 Identification of relevant stressors. 2. Changing the coping strategies of the participants. 3. Evaluating/changes in participant workload and tasks. 4. Relaxation techniques. 5. Physical exercise. 6. Psychiatric evaluation when indicated by depression test score. On average each patient attended six one-hour sessions over the course of four months. A group of 34 employees referred to the Clinic of Occupational Medicine by their general practitioners served as a control group. Each participant had a one-hour consultation at baseline and after four months. A specialist in occupational medicine carried out all sessions. Return To Work (RTW, defined as having a job and not being on sick leave at the census, was used as outcome measure four months after baseline, and after one and two years. Results The level of sick leave in the stress treatment group dropped from 52% to 16% during the first four months of follow-up and remained stable. In the control group, the reduction in sick leave was significantly smaller, ranging from 48% at baseline to 27% after four months and 24% after one year. No statistically significant difference between the two groups was observed after one and two years. Age below 50 years and being a manager increased the odds ratio for RTW after one and two years

  9. Field efficacy of four anthelmintics and confirmation of drug-resistant nematodes by controlled efficacy test and pyrosequencing on a sheep and goat farm in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Thamsborg, Stig M; Demeler, Janina; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-12-15

    We describe a case of anthelmintic resistance on one of the largest organic small ruminant farms in Denmark. The flock was established in 2007 by purchase of animals from other Danish farms and had history of clinical parasitism, high mortality of young stock and anthelmintic treatment failure. In October 2011, 40 lambs and 40 kids were selected for a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) with fenbendazole (FBZ), ivermectin (IVM), moxidectin (MOX) and levamisole (LEV). Lambs were treated with the recommended sheep dose of each product while kids received the sheep dose of IVM, 1.5× sheep dose of MOX and 2× sheep dose of FBZ and LEV. Untreated lambs and kids were also included and three methods for calculating faecal egg count (FEC) reduction were compared. In a subsequent investigation, a controlled efficacy test (CET) with FBZ and IVM was performed in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis isolated from adult goats on the farm. Recovered specimens of H. contortus were subjected to pyrosequencing for detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to benzimidazole (BZ) resistance. During the FECRT, FECs in untreated lambs dropped significantly by 47%. No FEC reduction was detected in untreated kids. After FBZ treatments, FEC reductions in lambs and kids ranged from 15 to 54% and 49-56%, respectively, according to the different calculation methods. Post IVM treatments, FEC reductions in lambs and kids varied between 71-90% and 81-83%, correspondingly. LEV and MOX reduced FECs by 98-100% in both species. In the CET, FBZ reduced H. contortus worm counts by 52-56% and no reduction in T. colubriformis counts were detected after treatment. IVM eliminated 100% of H. contortus and reduced T. colubriformis counts by 84-92%, according to different calculation methods. Pyrosequencing of isolated H. contortus revealed increased frequencies of the BZ resistance-related SNP in codon 200 of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene

  10. Modulation of porcine biotransformation enzymes by anthelmintic therapy with fenbendazole and flubendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savlík, M; Fimanová, K; Szotáková, B; Lamka, J; Skálová, L

    2006-06-01

    Fenbendazole (FEN) and flubendazole (FLU) are benzimidazole anthelmintics often used in pig management for the control of nematodoses. The in vivo study presented here was designed to test the influence of FLU and FEN on cytochrome P4501A and other cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase and several carbonyl reducing enzymes. The results indicated that FEN (in a single therapeutic dose as well as in repeated therapeutic doses) caused significant induction of pig CYP1A, while FLU did not show an inductive effect towards this isoform. Some of the other hepatic and intestinal biotransformation enzymes that were assayed were moderately influenced by FEN or FLU. Strong CYP1A induction following FEN therapy in pigs may negatively affect the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of FEN itself or other simultaneously or consecutively administered drugs. From the perspective of biotransformation enzyme modulation, FLU would appear to be a more convenient anthelmintic therapy of pigs than FEN.

  11. Anthelmintic efficiency of doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, in combination or individually, in sheep worm control

    OpenAIRE

    Luciane Holsback; Pedro Alex Ramsey Luppi; Camile Sanches Silva; Gustavo Kremer Negrão; Gabriel Conde; Hugo Vinícius Gabriel; João Vitor Balestrieri; Lucas Tomazella

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The anthelmintic efficiency of doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, used individually or in combination, was determined by the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) test and cultivation of larvae of anthelminthic-treated sheep grouped as follows: G1 (doramectin), G2 (fenbendazole), G3 (nitroxynil), G4 (doramectin + fenbendazole), G5 (doramectin + nitroxynil), G6 (fenbendazole + nitroxynil), G7 (doramectin + nitroxynil + fenbendazole), G8 (untreated). In addition to individually used ...

  12. IN VITRO STUDY OF THE ANTHELMINTIC ACTION OF TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM L. GROWN IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Ghafagaai

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available The water extract of Trigonella foenum graecum stem and leaves was tested for lethal activity against Hymenolepis nana, Syphacia obvelata, and Moniezia expansa. The plant extract demonstrated good anthelmintic activity in vitro which is directly related to the concentration of the extract used. The extract also prevents the formation of Ascaris larvae from the eggs of Ascaris lumbrico- ides (human. Department of Pharmacology and Department of Pathobiology, School of Medicine, Universety of Isfahan, Isfahan IRAN.

  13. Anthelmintic Avermectins Kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Including Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Leah E.; Vilchèze, Catherine; Ng, Carol; Jacobs, William R.; Ramón-García, Santiago; Thompson, Charles J

    2013-01-01

    Avermectins are a family of macrolides known for their anthelmintic activities and traditionally believed to be inactive against all bacteria. Here we report that members of the family, ivermectin, selamectin, and moxidectin, are bactericidal against mycobacterial species, including multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Avermectins are approved for clinical and veterinary uses and have documented pharmacokinetic and safety profiles....

  14. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Different Fractions of Azadirachta indica A. Juss Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Iqbal*, Wasim Babar, Zia ud Din Sindhu, Rao Zahid Abbas and Muhammad Sohail Sajid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was aimed at determination of anthelmintic activity of different fractions of Azadirachta indica seed prepared from the crude aqueous methanol extract (CAME. For this purpose, eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus were exposed to aqueous, ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum spirit fractions of A. indica seeds employing standard bioassays. All the fractions of A. indica seeds exhibited dose and/or time dependent ovicidal and wormicidal effects against H. contortus. The best ovicidal activity was demonstrated by the ethyl acetate fraction with LC50=21.32 µg/ml; whereas, it was 6-14 times lower for the other fractions. Likewise, ethyl acetate fraction @ 50 mg ml-1 exhibited the best wormicidal effects by killing 83% adult H. contortus one hour post-exposure. For in vivo anthelmintic activity faecal egg count reduction test was perform on sheep naturally infected with helminthes. Maximum reduction (98.9% was observed with CAME. Therefore, it is concluded that future studies aimed at identification of active anthelmintic principles of A. indica may be focused on ethyl acetate fraction of the plant.

  15. Phenolics and Terpenoids; the Promising New Search for Anthelmintics: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Niladri; Mukherjee, Suprabhat; Saini, Prasanta; Roy, Priya; Babu, Santi P Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Ailments caused by helminth parasites are global causing different types of clinical complications with permanent and long term morbidity in humans. Although huge advances have been made in medical sciences the effectiveness of available anthelmintics are still quite limited. Starting from the 50's, most importance was given to synthetic compounds for developing remedies from them, however, the traditional knowledge of medicine of different countries continued to provide us clues against this widespread health problem. Natural products or structural analogs with diverse structures are always been the major sources for discovering new therapeutics and in recent past different active compounds have also been identified form these plant sources having anthelmintic properties. Although compounds of diverse chemical nature and classes were identified, most active ones belong to either phenol or terpene in broad chemical nature. The mechanism of action of these phytotherapeutics is usually multi-targeted and can act against the helminth parasites through diverse spectrum of activities. In this review we summarized the effective anthelmintics belong to either phenolics or terpenoids and highlighted the major way of their effectiveness. This also highlights the recent development of new therapeutic strategies against helminth parasites in the light of recent advances of knowledge. In addition, developing efficient strategies to promote apoptosis and disturbing redox status in them by natural products can provide us a clue in antifilarial drug developmental research and crucial unmet medical need.

  16. Anthelmintic activity of acetone extracts from South African plants used on egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Fouche

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The nematode, Haemonchus contortus, is responsible for major economic losses in the livestock industry. The management of parasites such as H. contortus has been through the use of synthetic parasiticides. This has resulted in the presence of residues in meat and milk, which affects food safety. The development of resistance to available anthelmintics coupled with their high cost has further complicated matters. This has led to the investigation of alternative methods to manage nematodes, including the use of plants and plant extracts as a potential source of novel anthelmintics. Acetone extracts were prepared from 15 South African plant species and their anthelmintic activity determined using the egg hatch assay (EHA. The leaf extract of Cleome gynandra had the best inhibitory activity (68% ± 3% at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, followed by the stem extract of Maerua angolensis (65% ± 5%. The extracts had a relatively low toxicity on Vero cells determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide cellular assay.

  17. How have ART treatment programmes changed the patterns of excess mortality in people living with HIV? Estimates from four countries in East and Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Slaymaker

    2014-04-01

    similar to that of the general population. Further research is urgently needed to establish why the different impacts on mortality were observed and how the care and treatment programmes in these countries can be more effective in reducing mortality further.

  18. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982 at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA and Teucrium stocksianum (CST had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development.

  19. Automated, high-throughput, motility analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans and parasitic nematodes: Applications in the search for new anthelmintics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Buckingham

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The scale of the damage worldwide to human health, animal health and agricultural crops resulting from parasitic nematodes, together with the paucity of treatments and the threat of developing resistance to the limited set of widely-deployed chemical tools, underlines the urgent need to develop novel drugs and chemicals to control nematode parasites. Robust chemical screens which can be automated are a key part of that discovery process. Hitherto, the successful automation of nematode behaviours has been a bottleneck in the chemical discovery process. As the measurement of nematode motility can provide a direct scalar readout of the activity of the neuromuscular system and an indirect measure of the health of the animal, this omission is acute. Motility offers a useful assay for high-throughput, phenotypic drug/chemical screening and several recent developments have helped realise, at least in part, the potential of nematode-based drug screening. Here we review the challenges encountered in automating nematode motility and some important developments in the application of machine vision, statistical imaging and tracking approaches which enable the automated characterisation of nematode movement. Such developments facilitate automated screening for new drugs and chemicals aimed at controlling human and animal nematode parasites (anthelmintics and plant nematode parasites (nematicides.

  20. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  1. Characteristics and comprehensiveness of adult HIV care and treatment programmes in Asia-Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas: results of a site assessment conducted by the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephany N Duda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV care and treatment programmes worldwide are transforming as they push to deliver universal access to essential prevention, care and treatment services to persons living with HIV and their communities. The characteristics and capacity of these HIV programmes affect patient outcomes and quality of care. Despite the importance of ensuring optimal outcomes, few studies have addressed the capacity of HIV programmes to deliver comprehensive care. We sought to describe such capacity in HIV programmes in seven regions worldwide. Methods: Staff from 128 sites in 41 countries participating in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS completed a site survey from 2009 to 2010, including sites in the Asia-Pacific region (n=20, Latin America and the Caribbean (n=7, North America (n=7, Central Africa (n=12, East Africa (n=51, Southern Africa (n=16 and West Africa (n=15. We computed a measure of the comprehensiveness of care based on seven World Health Organization-recommended essential HIV services. Results: Most sites reported serving urban (61%; region range (rr: 33–100% and both adult and paediatric populations (77%; rr: 29–96%. Only 45% of HIV clinics that reported treating children had paediatricians on staff. As for the seven essential services, survey respondents reported that CD4+ cell count testing was available to all but one site, while tuberculosis (TB screening and community outreach services were available in 80 and 72%, respectively. The remaining four essential services – nutritional support (82%, combination antiretroviral therapy adherence support (88%, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT (94% and other prevention and clinical management services (97% – were uniformly available. Approximately half (46% of sites reported offering all seven services. Newer sites and sites in settings with low rankings on the UN Human Development Index (HDI, especially those in the President's Emergency

  2. In vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) against Haemonchus contortus from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L E; Castro, P M N; Chagas, A C S; França, S C; Beleboni, R O

    2013-07-01

    Despite the overall progress of sheep farming in Brazil, infections with the gastrointestinal parasite Haemonchus contortus represent one the most important problems in sheep production, aggravated by the increasing resistance of nematodes to traditional anthelmintic drugs caused by inadequate sheep flock management by breeders. Ethnopharmacological data indicate Annona muricata as a promising alternative for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes because of its general anthelmintic properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic effects of A. muricata aqueous leaf extract against eggs, infective larvae and adult forms of parasitic nematode H. contortus. At higher doses, A. muricata extract showed 84.91% and 89.08% of efficacy in egg hatch test (EHT) and larval motility test (LMT), respectively. In the adult worm motility test, worms were completely immobilized within the first 6-8h of nematode exposition to different dilutions of extract. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of phenolic compounds in A. muricata aqueous leaf extract that may be responsible for the anthelmintic effects observed. Moreover those results validate the traditional use of A. muricata as a natural anthelmintic and then the pharmacological potential of its compounds for future in vivo investigations.

  3. Assessment of the anthelmintic activity of medicinal plant extracts and purified condensed tannins against free-living and parasitic stages of Oesophagostomum dentatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Ropiak, Honorata M.; Fryganas, Christos;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundPlant-derived condensed tannins (CT) show promise as a complementary option to treat gastrointestinal helminth infections, thus reducing reliance on synthetic anthelmintic drugs. Most studies on the anthelmintic effects of CT have been conducted on parasites of ruminant livestock. Oesop...

  4. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN audiovisual service

    2009-01-01

    The SET-Routes programme, launched in 2007 with the goal of attracting girls and young women to careers in science, came to an end in April this year. The result of a collaboration between EMBL, EMBO and CERN, the programme established a network of "ambassadors", women scientists who went out to talk about their careers in science at schools and universities across Europe.

  5. Programmable Logic Controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen

    This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…

  6. Anthelmintic resistance of nematodes in communally grazed goats in a semi-arid area of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. Bakunzi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted on the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance of nematodes in communally grazed goats in a semi-arid area in SouthAfrica. In herds belonging to 10 smallholder goat farmers, the efficacies of fenbendazole, levamisole and rafoxanide were tested by faecal egg count reduction (FECR tests. Efficacies of 80 % were considered a threshold for anthelmintic resistance. The FECR tests showed that all drugs tested more than 80 % effective in most instances, but there were notable exceptions. In 1 case, rafoxanide was only 31 % effective and in another case fenbendazole was only 47 % effective. The occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in this farming sector is of concern. Steps should be taken to prevent its further spread and to avoid the development of a situation as onnumerous commercial sheep farms in South Africa where resistance is very common.

  7. Survey of anthelmintic resistance on Danish horse farms, using 5 different methods of calculating faecal egg count reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Henriksen, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    This study reports on the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in strongyles of horses in Denmark; Of 5 methods used for the calculation of faecal egg count reduction (FECR) the method recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, for the detection of resis......This study reports on the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in strongyles of horses in Denmark; Of 5 methods used for the calculation of faecal egg count reduction (FECR) the method recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, for the detection...... resistance to benzimidazoles was also detected. On one of 16 farms examined ivermectin resistance was indicated at Day 14 but not at Day 19. On the 15 remaining farms ivermectin was effective. Due to the high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in Danish horse herds it is recommended that tests...

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF MUSA ACUMINATE COLLA AND CAJANUS CAJAN (LINN. LEAF EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakta Tejendra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract of leaf of Musa acuminate colla and seed of Cajanus cajan (Linn. were taken for the examination of anthelmintic activity on Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30 mg/ml of both plant extract were tested and results were expressed in terms of time of paralysis and time of death of worms. Albendazole of same concentration as like as plant extracts was taken as reference standard and normal saline solution as control. Paralysis time can be determined by vigorous shaking when no movement was observed. When whitish substances were secreted from the body that one was termed as death time. Both the extracts show significant anthelmintic activity but among these two Musa acuminate colla showed more anthelmintic activity than Cajanus cajan (Linn.. Future scope involves isolation of active constituents responsible for this action.

  9. National and regional asthma programmes in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Selroos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review presents seven national asthma programmes to support the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership in developing strategies to reduce asthma mortality and morbidity across Europe. From published data it appears that in order to influence asthma care, national/regional asthma programmes are more effective than conventional treatment guidelines. An asthma programme should start with the universal commitments of stakeholders at all levels and the programme has to be endorsed by political and governmental bodies. When the national problems have been identified, the goals of the programme have to be clearly defined with measures to evaluate progress. An action plan has to be developed, including defined re-allocation of patients and existing resources, if necessary, between primary care and specialised healthcare units or hospital centres. Patients should be involved in guided self-management education and structured follow-up in relation to disease severity. The three evaluated programmes show that, thanks to rigorous efforts, it is possible to improve patients' quality of life and reduce hospitalisation, asthma mortality, sick leave and disability pensions. The direct and indirect costs, both for the individual patient and for society, can be significantly reduced. The results can form the basis for development of further programme activities in Europe.

  10. Managing anthelmintic resistance in small ruminant livestock of resource-poor farmers in South Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Vatta

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal parasitism is one of the most important disease complexes of sheep and goats impacting on the resource-poor livestock farmer. Of the responsible nematodes, Haemonchus contortus, a blood-sucking worm of the abomasum, poses possibly the greatest threat. Over the past several decades, the worm has been controlled through the use of anthelmintics, but the emergence of anthelmintic resistance has threatened this chemotherapeutic approach. In Africa, the overall prevalence of anthelmintic resistance has not been extensively investigated, particularly within the resource-poor farming sector, but resistance has been reported from at least 14 countries with most of the reports emanating from Kenya and South Africa and the majority concerning H. contortus. While levels of resistance under commercial sheep farming systems in South Africa is considered to be amongst the worst in the world, resistance has also been reported from the resource-poor farming sector. Increases in productivity and reproduction of livestock and the development of markets for sale of animals are seen by international funding bodies as a way out of poverty for communities that keep livestock. This must lead to the greater need for parasite control. At such times, the risk of levels of anthelmintic resistance escalating is much greater and there is therefore a need to look at alternatives to their use. Proposed strategies include the appropriate, but judicious use of anthelmintics by application of the FAMACHA(c system and the use of alternatives to anthelmintics such as strategic nutrient supplementation. It is also very clear that there is a strong demand for knowledge about animal diseases, including helminthosis, and their effective management in the resource-poor livestock farming communities. This is an important challenge to meet.

  11. REHABILITATION PRACTICAL PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana KRANJC JOLDIKJ

    Full Text Available Centre for Education and Rehabilitation of Physi­cally Handicapped Children and Adolescents Kamnik (Zavod za usposabljanje invalidne mlad­ine Kamnik; hereinafter: ZUIM perform verified or state-ap­proved programme the Rehabilitation practical pro­gramme. The programme is intended for all those young people, who have completed primary school education, but cannot continue regular schooling in secondary school pro­grammes. The programme con­sists of several equivalent parts: education, practical work, train­ing work, health, therapeutic, psychologi­cal, and other activities. For every beginner in the first month of education members of the operative team create an individualized programme, which in­cludes individualized school work, individualized training programme, and other expert activities. The programme can last for 6 years maximum, it can however be completed earlier, when the op­erative team feels the training is no longer neces­sary. Pro­gress of a young person is what matters the most, and if there is no progress, the training is brought to an end. Training of young people in the Rehabilitation practical programme is only the be­ginning. The country will have to start considering social enter­prises, which are found elsewhere in the world, for example in Scandinavian countries and in the USA.

  12. Comparison of two versions of larval development test to detect anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, Marián; Corba, Július; Letková, Valéria; Kovác, Gabriel

    2009-03-23

    Larval development (LDT) and micro-agar larval development tests (MALDT) were used to compare the reliability and sensitivity of two methods for detecting anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus. The tests were conducted using three resistant and four susceptible isolates of H. contortus. Both versions of the tests provided comparable results with regard to the characterization of benzimidazole and levamisole susceptibility but neither test was sufficiently sensitive to discrimination between an ivermectin (IVM) susceptible and an IVM resistant isolate. Each test has its own merits with the LDT having the advantage of being less time-consuming.

  13. Screening of indigenous plants for anthelmintic action against human Ascaris lumbricoides: Part--II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, R K

    1975-01-01

    Alcoholic extracts of the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, rind of Citrus decumana, Desmodium triflorum, seeds of Hydnocarpus wightiana, rhizomes of Kaempfaria galanga, Lippia nodiflora, tender leaves of Morinda citrifolia, rhizomes of Pollia serzogonian, Tephrosia purpuria and rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbeth showed good in vitro anthelmintic activity against human Ascaris lumbricoides. While, the alcoholic extracts of the bark of Alibzzia lebbek, the bulb of Allium sativum, rhizomes of Alpinia calcaratta, rind of Citrus acida, rind of Citrus aromatium, rind of Citrus medica, rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica and rind of Punica granatum showed moderate invitro activity.

  14. CORRELATION BETWEEN PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITIES OF ELAEOCARPUS SERRATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayal Sriti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform and acetone extracts of Elaeocarpus serratus were prepared by following Soxhlet method of extraction. Subsequently, phytochemical screening of the extracts was performed by following standard methods. While from the chloroform extract, alkaloids and anthraquinone glycosides were found, flavonoids and anthraquinone glycosides were present in the acetone extract. In addition, from petroleum ether extract, flavonoids were detected. On the other hand, anthraquinone glycosides were found in the benzene extract. None of the extracts showed any antibacterial and anthelmintic activities.

  15. Comparative pharmacology of flatworm and roundworm glutamate-gated chloride channels: Implications for potential anthelmintics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Lynagh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological targeting of glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls is a potent anthelmintic strategy, evidenced by macrocyclic lactones that eliminate numerous roundworm infections by activating roundworm GluCls. Given the recent identification of flatworm GluCls and the urgent need for drugs against schistosomiasis, flatworm GluCls should be evaluated as potential anthelmintic targets. This study sought to identify agonists or modulators of one such GluCl, SmGluCl-2 from the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. The effects of nine glutamate-like compounds and three monoterpenoid ion channel modulators were measured by electrophysiology at SmGluCl-2 recombinantly expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. For comparison with an established anthelmintic target, experiments were also performed on the AVR-14B GluCl from the parasitic roundworm Haemonchus contortus. l-Glutamate was the most potent agonist at both GluCls, but l-2-aminoadipate, d-glutamate and d-2-aminoadipate activated SmGluCl-2 (EC50 1.0 ± 0.1 mM, 2.4 ± 0.4 mM, 3.6 ± 0.7 mM, respectively more potently than AVR-14B. Quisqualate activated only SmGluCl-2 whereas l-aspartate activated only AVR-14B GluCls. Regarding the monoterpenoids, both GluCls were inhibited by propofol, thymol and menthol, SmGluCl-2 most potently by thymol (IC50 484 ± 85 μM and least potently by menthol (IC50 > 3 mM. Computational docking suggested that agonist and inhibitor potency is attributable to particular interactions with extracellular or membrane-spanning amino acid residues. These results reveal that flatworm GluCls are pharmacologically susceptible to numerous agonists and modulators and indicate that changes to the glutamate γ-carboxyl or to the propofol 6-isopropyl group can alter the differential pharmacology at flatworm and roundworm GluCls. This should inform the development of more potent compounds and in turn lead to novel anthelmintics.

  16. Atividade anti-helmíntica de plantas nativas do continente americano: uma revisão Anthelmintic activity of native American plants: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho faz uma revisão de plantas nativas do continente americano com atividade anti-helmíntica com a finalidade de subsidiar pesquisas e o desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos na área de produtos naturais. Na literatura, foram citadas 22 famílias de plantas, tais como: Moraceae, Asteraceae e Cucurbitaceae, e estudadas cerca de 35 espécies, como a Ficus sp, Cucurbita máxima, e Ruta graveolens, usadas por sua alegada atividade anti-helmíntica. Destas espécies, 26 foram ativas contra alguns helmintos: Strongyloides stercolaris, Ancylostomidae, Trichostrongylus sp, Capillaria sp, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia saginata, Haemonchus contortus, e Hymenolepsis diminuta. Foi verificado maior número de estudos com parasitas de animais, possivelmente devido ao desenvolvimento de resistência dos helmintos aos tratamentos convencionais disponíveis.This paper is a review of native American plants showing anthelmintic activity in order to give support to research and development of new drugs in the field of natural products. In the literature, 22 plant families were cited, such as: Moraceae, Asteraceae and Cucurbitaceae, and around 35 species were studied, including Ficus sp, Cucurbita maxima and Ruta graveolens, used for their putative anthelmintic activity. From these species, 26 were active against some helminthes: Strongyloides stercolaris, Ancylostomidae, Trichostrongylus sp, Capillaria sp, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia saginata, Haemonchus contortus and Hymenolepsis diminuta. Data indicated a larger number of studies with animal parasites, probably due to the resistance of these helminthes to the conventional treatments available.

  17. Anthelmintic Effect of Biocompatible Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NPs on Gigantocotyle explanatum, a Neglected Parasite of Indian Water Buffalo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Akhtar Khan

    Full Text Available Helminth parasites of veterinary importance cause huge revenue losses to agrarian economy worldwide. With the emergence of drug resistance against the current formulations, there is a need to focus on the alternative approaches in order to control this menace. In the present study, biocompatible zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs were used to see their in vitro effect on the biliary amphistomes, Gigantocotyle explanatum, infecting Bubalus bubalis because these nanoparticles are involved in generation of free radicals that induce oxidative stress, resulting in disruption of cellular machinery. The ZnO NPs were synthesized by using egg albumin as a biotemplate and subsequently characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, X-ray Diffraction and Spectrophotometrical, which showed that ZnO NPs were highly purified wurtzite type polycrystals, with a mean size of 16.7 nm. When the parasites were treated with lower concentrations (0.004% and 0.008% of the ZnO NPs, the worms mounted a protective response by stimulating the antioxidant system but the treatment of G. explanatum with 0.012% ZnO NPs produced significant inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD (p< 0.05 and glutathione S- transferase (GST (p<0.01, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA, a lipid peroxidation marker, was significantly (p< 0.01 elevated. SEM and histopathology revealed pronounced tegumental damage showing the disruption of surface papillae and the annulations, particularly in the posterior region near acetabulum. The under expression of a number of polypeptides, loss of worm motility in a time dependent manner, further reflect strong anthelmintic potential of ZnO NPs. It can be concluded that the anthelmintic effect might be due to the production of reactive oxygen species that target a variety of macromolecules such as nucleic acid, protein and lipids which are involved in different cellular processes.

  18. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo-Lopez Celia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT and negative (treated, T control groups (treatment with albendazole. On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05. At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers. However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and

  19. Anthelmintic effect of carob pods and sainfoin hay when fed to lambs after experimental trickle infections with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Lopez, Celia; Manolaraki, Foteini; Saratsis, Anastasios; Saratsi, Katerina; Stefanakis, Alexandros; Skampardonis, Vasileios; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Hoste, Hervé; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the in vivo anthelmintic activity of sainfoin hay (Onobrychis viciifolia) and carob pod meal (Ceratonia siliqua) against gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven days before infection, 64 naive lambs were assigned to four different groups: Group S received sainfoin hay and group CAR was fed with carob pods. The remaining lambs received lucerne hay (Medicago sativa) and were assigned to positive (non-treated, NT) and negative (treated, T) control groups (treatment with albendazole). On day 0, lambs were artificially trickle infected for 6 weeks, with a mixture of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Parasitological and pathophysiological parameters were measured repeatedly during the 2-month study. Compared to the NT group, decreases in egg excretion were observed in the CAR and S groups with significant differences only found for sainfoin (p < 0.05). At necropsy, group S showed decreases in the total worm numbers of both nematode species with significant differences for H. contortus. In contrast, no differences were noticed for the CAR group. Compared to the NT group, lower values for fecundity of female H. contortus were found in the S and CAR groups, however differences were non-significant. No differences in body weight gains were found between groups. Consistent results were found showing significantly higher packed cell volume (PCV) values in the T and S groups compared to NT and CAR groups. Overall, these results confirm a positive effect associated with the feeding of lambs with tanniniferous resources on host resilience (PCV values) and against gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes by affecting some biological traits of worm populations (e.g. eggs per gram of faeces and worm numbers). However, the anthelmintic effects differed between the two tannin-containing resources, which might be associated with the quantity and/or quality of secondary metabolites (condensed tannins and/or other

  20. Toxicity of anthelmintic drugs (fenbendazole and flubendazole) to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagil, Marta; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Puckowski, Alan; Wychodnik, Katarzyna; Maszkowska, Joanna; Mulkiewicz, Ewa; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Flubendazole (FLU) and fenbendazole (FEN) belong to benzimidazoles-pharmaceuticals widely used in veterinary and human medicine for the treatment of intestinal parasites as well as for the treatment of systemic worm infections. In recent years, usage of these drugs increased, which resulted in a larger contamination of the environment and possible negative effects on biota. Hence, in our research, we investigated an aquatic ecotoxicity of these pharmaceuticals towards: marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus), duckweed (Lemna minor) and crustacean (Daphnia magna). Ecotoxicity tests were combined with chemical analysis in order to investigate the actual exposure concentration of the compounds used in the experiment as well as to stability and adsorption studies. As a result, study evaluating sensitivity of different aquatic organisms to these compounds and new ecotoxicological data is presented. The strongest negative impact of FLU and FEN was observed to D. magna.

  1. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; Santos, Estela Dos; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-05-24

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community's participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed.

  2. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irabedra, Pilar; Ferreira, Ciro; Sayes, Julio; Elola, Susana; Rodríguez, Miriam; Morel, Noelia; Segura, Sebastian; dos Santos, Estela; Guisantes, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed. PMID:27223652

  3. Control programme for cystic echinococcosis in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Irabedra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed.

  4. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  5. Greek Teachers Programme 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this year's Greek Teachers Programme was co-organized by CERN Education Group and the Hellenic Physical Society and took place from 8 to 12 November 2015. The programme targets physics high-school teachers from all over Greece. It aims to help teachers inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers by motivating their students to understand and appreciate how science works at the world's largest physics laboratory, whereby increasing their interest in pursuing studies in STEM fields in secondary and post-secondary education. 33 teachers took part in this programme which comprised lectures by Greek members of the CERN scientific community, with visits to experimental facilities, hands-on activities and dedicated sessions on effective and creative ways through which participants may bring physics, particle physics and CERN closer to their school classroom. In 2015, more than 100 teachers took part in the three editions of the Greek Teachers Programme.

  6. The HAWC GRB Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennarz, D.; Taboada, I.

    2016-10-01

    HAWC is a very-high-energy gamma-ray extensive air shower detector located in central Mexico at an altitude of 4,100 m above sea level. This contribution summarises recent results of the HAWC GRB programme.

  7. FAST joins Breakthrough programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The 180m Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) - the world's largest single-aperture radio receiver - has become part of the Breakthrough Listen programme, which launched in July 2015 to look for intelligent life beyond Earth.

  8. Elukestva õppe programm : Erasmus+

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Erasmus+ programm liidab senised koostööprogrammid „Euroopa elukestva õppe programm“, „Euroopa Noored“ ning Euroopa komisjoni rahvusvahelised kõrgharidusprogrammid. Elukestva õppe programmi 2013 kokkuvõte

  9. Fellows, Associates & Students Programmes

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The present document reviews the CERN Fellows, Associates and Students Programmes emphasizing the developments since 2000, when the previous review was presented to the Scientific Policy Committee, Finance Committee and Council (CERN/2325), and makes proposals for the coming five years. In summary, it is proposed to â?¢ Simplify the payment scheme for the Paid Scientific Associates Programme, which will no longer depend on candidateâ??s home support and age; â?¢ Broaden the scope of the Fellowship Programme, in order to facilitate the recruitment of young graduates in computing and engineering. Age-related eligibility conditions and payment levels will be replaced with experience-based criteria; â?¢ Modify subsistence rates for the Doctoral and Technical Student Programme in order to harmonize CERNâ??s payment levels with those offered by other research establishments. This document is presented for discussion and recommendation by the Scientific Policy Committee and approval by the Council. Additiona...

  10. The use of fenbendazole in the treatment of commercial turkeys infected with Ascaridia dissimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazwinsri, T A; Rosenstein, M; Schwartz, R D; Wilson, K; Johnson, Z

    1993-03-01

    Birds on a commercial turkey Farm were treated with fenbendazole on two separate occasions. For each treatment, fenbendazole was administered in the feed for 3 days at 30 mg/kg. Mean Ascaridia dissimilis total counts in randomly selected birds were 14.4 and 33.0 prior to the first and second treatments, respectively, whilst post-treatment counts averaged only 0.1 and 0.3, respectively. Anthelmintic effectiveness as demonstrated by both treatments was >99.0%. No untoward effects were noted with either fenbendazole treatment. After fenbendazole withdrawal, routine treatments with piperazine dihydrochloride were commenced with no apparent anthelmintic effectiveness. Mean total nematode burdens rose to 153.9 with a high individual count of 451. The potential for severe ascaridiasis when effective anthelmintic intervention is precluded was demonstrated.

  11. Visual Basic educational programme

    OpenAIRE

    Pranaitis, Arūnas

    2005-01-01

    Visual basic educational programme Informational Technologies has become such a popular subject that they are applied in all works of life. However, Informational Technologies are still rarely used in the lessons at school. There are such reasons of the mentioned issue: · Insufficient base of computers, · The old software and its disadvantages, · The lack of computerized educational programmes. The aim of the work was to prove that it is actual to create computerized educat...

  12. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    George Korir; Manu Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external component...

  13. Enhanced bioavailability and anthelmintic efficacy of mebendazole in redispersible microparticles with low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torre-Iglesias PM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Paloma Marina de la Torre-Iglesias,1,2 Juan José García-Rodriguez,3 Guillermo Torrado,4 Susana Torrado,1,2 Santiago Torrado-Santiago,1,5 Francisco Bolás-Fernández3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain; 2Institute of Industrial Pharmacy, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain; 3Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain; 4Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alcala University, Alcala de Henares (Madrid, Spain; 5Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD, Madrid, Spain Background: Mebendazole (MBZ is an extremely insoluble and therefore poorly absorbed drug and the variable clinical results may correlate with blood concentrations. The necessity of a prolonged high dose treatment of this drug increases the risk of adverse effects. Methods: In the present study we prepared redispersible microparticles (RDM containing MBZ, an oral, poorly water-soluble drug, in different proportions of low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC. We investigated the microparticulate structures that emerge spontaneously upon dispersion of an RDM in aqueous medium and elucidated their influence on dissolution, and also on their oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficiency using a murine model of infection with the nematode parasite Trichinella spiralis.Results: Elevated percentages of dissolved drug were obtained with RDM at 1:2.5 and 1:5 ratios of MBZ: L-HPC. Thermal analysis showed an amorphization of MBZ in the RDM by the absence of a clear MBZ melting peak in formulations. The rapid dissolution behavior could be due to the decreased drug crystallinity, the fast dissolution time of carriers as L-HPC, together with its superior dispersibility and excellent wetting properties. RDM-1:2.5 and RDM-1:5 resulted in increased maximum plasma concentration and area(s under the curve (AUC0

  14. Anthelmintic efficiency of doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, in combination or individually, in sheep worm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsback, Luciane; Luppi, Pedro Alex Ramsey; Silva, Camile Sanches; Negrão, Gustavo Kremer; Conde, Gabriel; Gabriel, Hugo Vinícius; Balestrieri, João Vitor; Tomazella, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    The anthelmintic efficiency of doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, used individually or in combination, was determined by the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) test and cultivation of larvae of anthelminthic-treated sheep grouped as follows: G1 (doramectin), G2 (fenbendazole), G3 (nitroxynil), G4 (doramectin + fenbendazole), G5 (doramectin + nitroxynil), G6 (fenbendazole + nitroxynil), G7 (doramectin + nitroxynil + fenbendazole), G8 (untreated). In addition to individually used doramectin and fenbendazole, the helminths were also resistant to the combination of doramectin + fenbendazole; nitroxynil + fenbendazole; and doramectin + nitroxynil + fenbendazole, with their FECR rates ranging from 62-83%. The helminths showed possible nitroxynil-resistance, but had low resistance when the drug was administered in combination with doramectin. The evaluation of individual helminth species revealed that fenbendazole was fully effective against Cooperia; doramectin (G1), moderately effective against Haemonchus and insufficiently active against Cooperia; nitroxynil, effective against Haemonchus and insufficiently active against Cooperia. It was concluded from the results that herd nematodes are resistant to doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, and that the combined use of the drugs not only fails to significantly improve the anthelmintic efficiency against Haemonchus and Cooperia, but is also cost-ineffective.

  15. Anthelmintic efficiency of doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, in combination or individually, in sheep worm control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Holsback

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anthelmintic efficiency of doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, used individually or in combination, was determined by the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR test and cultivation of larvae of anthelminthic-treated sheep grouped as follows: G1 (doramectin, G2 (fenbendazole, G3 (nitroxynil, G4 (doramectin + fenbendazole, G5 (doramectin + nitroxynil, G6 (fenbendazole + nitroxynil, G7 (doramectin + nitroxynil + fenbendazole, G8 (untreated. In addition to individually used doramectin and fenbendazole, the helminths were also resistant to the combination of doramectin + fenbendazole; nitroxynil + fenbendazole; and doramectin + nitroxynil + fenbendazole, with their FECR rates ranging from 62-83%. The helminths showed possible nitroxynil-resistance, but had low resistance when the drug was administered in combination with doramectin. The evaluation of individual helminth species revealed that fenbendazole was fully effective against Cooperia; doramectin (G1, moderately effective against Haemonchus and insufficiently active againstCooperia; nitroxynil, effective againstHaemonchus and insufficiently active againstCooperia. It was concluded from the results that herd nematodes are resistant to doramectin, fenbendazole, and nitroxynil, and that the combined use of the drugs not only fails to significantly improve the anthelmintic efficiency against Haemonchus andCooperia, but is also cost-ineffective.

  16. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintoan-Uta, C; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P J; Coles, G C

    2014-04-07

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml(-1) ± 0.13 µg ml(-1)) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms.

  17. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF PINEAPPLE FRUIT EXTRACT USING INDIAN EARTHWORM (PHERITIMA POSTHUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple is a favorite for the lovers of fruit in its fresh forms as well as in preserves like jams, jellies and squashes. Two varieties of Pineapples (Queen and Kew are available in Tripura during mid-May to mid-September. The plant is well known for its different folk medicines like the root and fruit are either eaten or applied topically as an anti-inflammatory, digestive and anthelmintic. It was observed that the people of Tripura especially the Tribes are use the juice of matured root or fruit in worm. Research shows that, mainly bromelain is responsible for all its therapeutic activity.The agriculture of Tripura, each year, gets a special boost from pineapple production between the middle of May and middle of September, both inclusive. Pineapple’s leaves are used as the source of a textile fiber and are employed as a component of wall paper and furnishings, amongst other uses. This allows the crop to contribute a significant proportion in the economy of the state.The present study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of fruit extract (Aqueous of Pineapple using Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma.All the extracts were found not only to paralysis (vermifuge but also to kill the earthworms (vermicidal. But the concentration of 40mg/ml fruit extract showed the maximum effect in respect of 20 and 10 mg/ml.

  18. Anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of extracts of Markhamia obtusifolia Sprague (Bignoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchu, F; Githiori, J B; McGaw, L J; Eloff, J N

    2011-12-29

    The anthelmintic activity of Markhamia obtusifolia Sprague (Bignoniaceae) leaf extracts was evaluated against the ruminant gastrointestinal nematode parasite Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Nematoda: Strongylida) using the in vitro egg hatch test. Also, the cytotoxic activity of aqueous extracts of M. obtusifolia was evaluated in cell line cytotoxicity assays. The results indicated that the effective concentration (EC(50)) for the water extract of M. obtusifolia leaves (0.46 mg/mL; Confidence Interval [CI] 0.3-0.5mg/mL) was significantly lower than the EC(50) for the acetone extract of M. obtusifolia (0.8 mg/mL; CI 0.7-1mg/mL). Aqueous extracts were twice as potent as the acetone extracts. The EC(90) (0.2mg/mL; CI 0.1-0.02) for thiabendazole (positive control) was significantly lower than the EC(90) for the water extract of M. obtusifolia (10.7 mg/mL; CI 8.3-13.7 mg/mL). In the cytotoxicity bioassay, the lethal concentration (LC(50)) for the aqueous extract of M. obtusifolia was 0.476 mg/mL, which was relatively high (low toxicity) in comparison to the highly toxic berberine (LC(50)=9.80 μg/mL). The current study showed that M. obtusifolia plant extracts possess anthelmintic activity and are relatively non-cytotoxic, thus providing support for their use in traditional veterinary practices.

  19. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Jyh Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae, commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant, liriodenine (1, lysicamine (2, (--anonaine (3, (--asimilobine (4, (--caaverine (5, (--N-methylasimilobine (6, (--nuciferine (7, (--nornuciferine (8, (--roemerine (9, 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10 and cepharadione B (11 were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis. However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana.

  20. Anthelmintic activity of continuous low doses of fenbendazole into the rumen of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvenue, R J; Colestock, E L; Hendrix, J C

    1988-01-01

    Fenbendazole (FBZ) was continuously infused for 30 days into the rumen of 103 lambs which had mature or developing benzimidazole-susceptible or thiabendazole-resistant Haemonchus contortus and susceptible Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections. Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities were exhibited against benzimidazole-susceptible and benzimidazole-resistant H. contortus worms by FBZ at a dose level of greater than or equal to 0.2 mg kg-1 body weight day-1. Reasonably consistent high level efficacy against H. contortus was obtained with dose levels greater than 0.4 mg kg-1. Excellent control of susceptible T. colubriformis worms was achieved with the lowest dose tested of 0.4 mg kg-1 day-1. The intraruminal infusion critical study method is a tool to determine the feasibility of incorporating a candidate anthelmintic compound in a continuous sustained-release rumen device formulation. The anthelmintic profile of FBZ obtained by low-level intraruminal administration suggests that it would be a potential candidate.

  1. Effects of feeding on the plasma disposition kinetics of the anthelmintic albendazole in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistoletti, M; Alvarez, L; Lanusse, C; Moreno, L

    2014-01-01

    1. To optimise the use of albendazole (ABZ) as an anthelmintic in hens, the effects of fasting and type of diet on the plasma kinetics of ABZ and its metabolites were evaluated. 2. Twenty-four hens were distributed into 4 groups: In experiment I the Fed group were fed ad libitum, while the Fasted group was fasted over a 12-h period. In experiment II the Pelleted group was fed with pelleted commercial food, while the Grain group was fed with cereal grains. All the groups were treated with ABZ by oral route. Blood samples were taken and plasma analysed by HPLC. 3. ABZ and its metabolites albendazole-sulphoxide (ABZSO) and albendazole-sulphone (ABZSO2) were recovered in plasma in all the groups. The 12-h fasting period did not modify the disposition kinetics of ABZ in hens. The type of feed affected ABZ kinetics. ABZSO concentration profile was higher and detected for longer in the Grain group compared to the Pelleted group. Statistical differences were not found for AUC0-∞ values, whereas the T1/2for and T1/2el were different between groups. 4. Factors affecting ABZ kinetic behaviour should be taken into account to optimise its use to ensure the sustainability of the limited available anthelmintic therapeutic tools in avian parasite control.

  2. Anthelmintic activities of aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-02-27

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana.

  3. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Kotze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance.

  4. Anthelmintic activity of praziquantel on Raillietina tetragona in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurelhuda, I E; Elowni, E E; Hassan, T

    1989-01-01

    Praziquantel was tested against mature (17-day-old) and immature (7-day-old) Raillietina tetragona in experimentally infected chickens using single oral doses of 10, 7.5, 5, or 2.5 mg/kg body wt. The compound showed potent anticestodal activity, with 100% efficacy at 10, 7.5, and 5 mg/kg against immature worms and an efficacy of 100% 97.1%, and 95% against mature worms when given at 10, 5, and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively. Residual worms surviving drug treatment had less biomass than the controls. Praziquantel appears to be well tolerated by chickens, and treated birds showed no clinical reactions at any of the doses tested.

  5. Anthelmintic tests on Toxocara canis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, P E; Clarkson, M J; Kerslake, M

    1981-04-04

    One hundred and forty mice were infected orally with 1000 embryonated Toxocara canis eggs. Groups of 10 mice were then treated with high doses of piperazine, mebendazole, oxfendazole, albendazole, fenbendazole and diethylcarbamazine for four days, either immediately after infection or three weeks after infection. The mice were killed three to six weeks after treatment and the number of larvae in the brains and muscles estimated and compared with those in untreated mice. Few larvae were recovered from the muscles of any of the mice, including the untreated controls, despite the use of a variety of recognised techniques. Large numbers of live larvae were recovered from the brains of the mice and there was no significant difference between the treated and untreated mice.

  6. Association between health systems performance and treatment outcomes in patients co-infected with MDR-TB and HIV in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: implications for TB programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Loveday

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To improve the treatment of MDR-TB and HIV co-infected patients, we investigated the relationship between health system performance and patient treatment outcomes at 4 decentralised MDR-TB sites. METHODS: In this mixed methods case study which included prospective comparative data, we measured health system performance using a framework of domains comprising key health service components. Using Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficients we quantified the direction and magnitude of the association between health system performance and MDR-TB treatment outcomes. Qualitative data from participant observation and interviews analysed using systematic text condensation (STC complemented our quantitative findings. FINDINGS: We found significant differences in treatment outcomes across the sites with successful outcomes varying from 72% at Site 1 to 52% at Site 4 (p<0.01. Health systems performance scores also varied considerably across the sites. Our findings suggest there is a correlation between treatment outcomes and overall health system performance which is significant (r = 0.99, p<0.01, with Site 1 having the highest number of successful treatment outcomes and the highest health system performance. Although the 'integration' domain, which measured integration of MDR-TB services into existing services appeared to have the strongest association with successful treatment outcomes (r = 0.99, p<0.01, qualitative data indicated that the 'context' domain influenced the other domains. CONCLUSION: We suggest that there is an association between treatment outcomes and health system performance. The chance of treatment success is greater if decentralised MDR-TB services are integrated into existing services. To optimise successful treatment outcomes, regular monitoring and support are needed at a district, facility and individual level to ensure the local context is supportive of new programmes and implementation is according to guidelines.

  7. High-levels of acquired drug resistance in adult patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapy in a rural HIV treatment programme in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justen Manasa

    Full Text Available To determine the frequency and patterns of acquired antiretroviral drug resistance in a rural primary health care programme in South Africa.Cross-sectional study nested within HIV treatment programme.Adult (≥ 18 years HIV-infected individuals initially treated with a first-line stavudine- or zidovudine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART regimen and with evidence of virological failure (one viral load >1000 copies/ml were enrolled from 17 rural primary health care clinics. Genotypic resistance testing was performed using the in-house SATuRN/Life Technologies system. Sequences were analysed and genotypic susceptibility scores (GSS for standard second-line regimens were calculated using the Stanford HIVDB 6.0.5 algorithms.A total of 222 adults were successfully genotyped for HIV drug resistance between December 2010 and March 2012. The most common regimens at time of genotype were stavudine, lamivudine and efavirenz (51%; and stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (24%. Median duration of ART was 42 months (interquartile range (IQR 32-53 and median duration of antiretroviral failure was 27 months (IQR 17-40. One hundred and ninety one (86% had at least one drug resistance mutation. For 34 individuals (15%, the GSS for the standard second-line regimen was <2, suggesting a significantly compromised regimen. In univariate analysis, individuals with a prior nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI substitution were more likely to have a GSS <2 than those on the same NRTIs throughout (odds ratio (OR 5.70, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.60-12.49.There are high levels of drug resistance in adults with failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy in this rural primary health care programme. Standard second-line regimens could potentially have had reduced efficacy in about one in seven adults involved.

  8. Attrition and weight loss outcomes for patients with complex obesity, anxiety and depression attending a weight management programme with targeted psychological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R C; Morrison, D S; Shearer, R; Boyle, S; Logue, J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of baseline anxiety and depression, using different definitions for caseness, on attrition and weight outcomes following a multidisciplinary weight management programme. The study design is a prospective observational study. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure anxiety and depression with 'caseness' scoring ≥11 and severity ≥14. The participants were all patients who began a weight management programme between 1 October 2008 and 30 September 2009 (n = 1838). The setting was the Glasgow and Clyde Weight Management Service (GCWMS), a specialist multidisciplinary service, which aims to achieve a minimum of ≥5 kg weight loss. The results were as follows: patients with HADS score ≥14 were referred to the integrated psychology service for psychological assessment or intervention. Patients with caseness (HADS ≥11) for anxiety (33%) and depression (27%) were significantly younger, heavier, more socio-economically deprived and a higher proportion was female. There was a significant positive correlation between HADS anxiety and depression scores and increasing body mass index (r(2)  = 0.094, P anxiety or depression. More patients with HADS score ≥11 achieved ≥5 kg or ≥5% weight loss and by 12 months those with anxiety had a significantly higher mean weight loss (P = 0.032). Participants who scored for severe anxiety (HADS ≥14) achieved similar weight loss to those without, whilst participants who scored for severe depression achieved significantly greater weight loss than non-cases at 3, 6 and 12 months of follow-up (P anxiety or depression and were offered additional psychological input achieved similar or better weight loss outcomes.

  9. In vitro anthelmintic activity of active compounds of the fringed rue Ruta chalepensis against dairy ewe gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortu, E; Sanna, G; Scala, A; Pulina, G; Caboni, P; Battacone, G

    2016-06-22

    Infections by gastrointestinal nematodes negatively affect small ruminant health and at the same time cause substantial economic losses worldwide. Because resistance to conventional anthelmintic compounds is growing, target studies evaluating the effectiveness of alternative ingredients of botanical origin on gastrointestinal nematodes are needed. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anthelmintic activity of Ruta chalepensis L. extracts on the third-stage larvae of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. A methanol extract showed the highest anthelmintic activity, with an EC50 = 0.10 ± 0.06 mg/ml after 96 h, while the essential oil had an EC50 = 1.45 ± 1.22 mg/ml after 48 h. Moreover, three secondary metabolites of the essential oil, i.e. 2-decanone, 2-nonanone and 2-undecanone, showed EC50 values of 0.07 ± 0.06, 0.25 ± 0.29 and 0.88 ± 0.73 mg/ml at 24 h, respectively. The present study indicated that the R. chalepensis methanol extract, the essential oil and its metabolites 2-decanone, 2-nonanone and 2-undecanone showed promising anthelmintic activity on gastrointestinal nematodes.

  10. Investigating anthelmintic efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle by considering appropriate probability distributions for faecal egg count data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Love

    2017-04-01

    Where FEC data were obtained with less sensitive counting techniques (i.e. McMaster 30 or 15 epg, zero-inflated distributions and their associated central tendency were the most appropriate and would be recommended to use, i.e. the arithmetic group mean divided by the proportion of non-zero counts present; otherwise apparent anthelmintic efficacy could be misrepresented.

  11. Impact of chemical structure of flavanol monomers and condensed tannins on in vitro anthelmintic activity against bovine nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Fryganas, Christos; Ropiak, Honorata M.;

    2016-01-01

    Plants containing condensed tannins (CT) may have potential to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle. The aim was to investigate the anthelmintic activities of four flavan-3-ols, two galloyl derivatives and 14 purified CT fractions, and to define which structural features of CT deter...

  12. Metabolic profiling and in vitro assessment of anthelmintic fractions of Picria fel-terrae Lour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasika Kumarasingha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance is widespread in gastrointestinal nematode populations, such that there is a consistent need to search for new anthelmintics. However, the cost of screening for new compounds is high and has a very low success rate. Using the knowledge of traditional healers from Borneo Rainforests (Sarawak, Malaysia, we have previously shown that some traditional medicinal plants are a rich source of potential new anthelmintic drug candidates. In this study, Picria fel-terrae Lour. plant extract, which has previously shown promising anthelmintic activities, was fractionated via the use of a solid phase extraction cartridge and each isolated fraction was then tested on free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. We found that a single fraction was enriched for nematocidal activity, killing ≥90% of C. elegans adults and inhibiting the motility of exsheathed L3 of H. contortus, while having minimal cytotoxic activity in mammalian cell culture. Metabolic profiling and chemometric analysis of the effective fraction indicated medium chained fatty acids and phenolic acids were highly represented.

  13. Direct anthelmintic effects of a purified chicory extract against free-living stages of Cooperia oncophora: preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Williams, A.; Enemark, Heidi L.;

    2013-01-01

    Direct anthelmintic effects of a purified extract from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) were assessed on eggs and first-stage larvae (L1) of C. oncophora. Chicory leaves (cv. Spadona) were collected from an organic dairy farm in Denmark. Dried leaf tissue was extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus with m...

  14. Biotransformation of albendazole and activities of selected detoxification enzymes in Haemonchus contortus strains susceptible and resistant to anthelmintics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokřál, Ivan; Jirásko, Robert; Stuchlíková, Lucie; Bártíková, Hana; Szotáková, Barbora; Lamka, Jiří; Várady, Marián; Skálová, Lenka

    2013-09-23

    The increased activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes can protect helminths against the toxic effect of anthelmintics. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolism of the anthelmintic drug albendazole (ABZ) and the activities of selected biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in three different strains of Haemonchus contortus: the ISE strain (susceptible to common anthelmintics), the BR strain (resistant to benzimidazole anthelmintics) and the WR strain (multi-resistant). H. contortus adults were collected from the abomasum of experimentally infected lambs. In vitro (subcellular fractions of H. contortus homogenate) as well as ex vivo (living nematodes cultivated in flasks with medium) experiments were performed. HPLC with spectrofluorimetric and mass-spectrometric detection was used in the analysis of ABZ metabolites. The in vitro activities of oxidation/antioxidation and conjugation enzymes toward model substrates were also assayed. The in vitro data showed significant differences between the susceptible (ISE) and resistant (BR, WR) strains regarding the activities of peroxidases, catalase and UDP-glucosyltransferases. S-oxidation of ABZ was significantly lower in BR than in the ISE strain. Ex vivo, four ABZ metabolites were identified: ABZ sulphoxide and three ABZ glucosides. In the resistant strains BR and WR, the ex vivo formation of all ABZ glucosides was significantly higher than in the susceptible ISE strain. The altered activities of certain detoxifying enzymes might partly protect the parasites against the toxic effect of the drugs as well as contribute to drug-resistance in these parasites.

  15. Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to screen plant extracts and compounds as natural anthelmintics for veterinary use

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most challenging obstacles to testing plant products for their anthelmintic activity are: 1) establishing a suitable nematode in vitro assay from which results can be indicative of potential use against a parasitic nematode of interest, and 2) preparing the extracts in a way that, once lyophiliz...

  16. A comparison of in vitro tests and a faecal egg count reduction test in detecting anthelmintic resistance in horse strongyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Barnes, E.H.;

    1999-01-01

    This study reports a comparison between faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA) for detecting anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyles. Resistance to benzimidazoles was demonstrated in 33 of 42 (79%) farms tested by FECRT and in 32 (62...

  17. Smart Cu(II)-aptamer complexes based gold nanoplatform for tumor micro-environment triggered programmable intracellular prodrug release, photodynamic treatment and aggregation induced photothermal therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da; Zheng, Aixian; Li, Juan; Wu, Ming; Wu, Lingjie; Wei, Zuwu; Liao, Naishun; Zhang, Xiaolong; Cai, Zhixiong; Yang, Huanghao; Liu, Gang; Liu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jingfeng

    2017-01-01

    This study describes smart Cu(II)-aptamer complexes based gold nanoplatform for tumor micro-environment triggered programmable prodrug release, in demand photodynamic therapy and aggregation induced photothermal ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. The nanoplatform is consist of monodispersed gold nanoparticle (GNP) that is binding to HCC cell specific targeting aptamers (TLS11a) through Au-S bond; the aptamer is labeled with Ce6 at the 5'end and coordinated with Cu(II) through (GA)10 repeating bases to load AQ4N at the 3' end. In normal physiological conditions, the fluorescence and ROS generation ability of Ce6 are quenched by GNPs via RET; but in cancerous cells, the fluorescence and the ROS generation of Ce6 could be recovered by cleavage of Au-S bond through high level of intracellular GSH for real-time imaging and in demand PDT. Meanwhile, the prodrug AQ4N release could be triggered by acid-cleavage of coordination bonds, then accompanied by a release of Cu(II) that would induce the electrostatic aggregation of GNPs for photo-thermal ablation; furthermore, the significantly enhanced chemotherapy efficiency could be achieved by PDT produced hypoxia to convert AQ4N into AQ4. In summary, here described nanoplatform with tumor cell specific responsive properties and programmable PDT/PTT/chemotherapy functions, might be an interesting synergistic strategy for HCC treatment. PMID:28042325

  18. Pro and cons of targeted selective treatment against digestive-tract strongyles of ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabaret J.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of resistance to anthelmintics among gastrointestinal nematodes and the desire for lower input agriculture have promoted the idea that targeted selective treatment (treating the animals in need of such a treatment and only them could be a sustainable solution for controlling internal parasites of ruminants. The pros are the slowing of resistance prevalence, lower residues of anthelmintics in meat and milk, and lower cost; the cons are the difficulty and time spent on selecting animals in need of treatment and the possibility of lower production. Using actual experiments and modelling we show that targeted selective treatment can be used to sustainably control gastrointestinal nematode infections in flock.

  19. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and in vitro anthelmintic activities ofMaesa lanceolata solvent extracts againstLymnatis nilotica (aquatic leech)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wondu Dagnaw; Alemayehu Mekonnen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate phytochemicals constituents and check the anthelmintic activities of Maesa lanceolata (M. lanceolata) solvent extracts against aquatic leech. Methods: Several phytochemicals were tested and screened from petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts ofM. lanceolata extracts and their anthelmintic activities were done based on the standard procedure against aquatic leech. Piperazine citrate (20 mg/mL) was used as a reference standard while distilled water was used as a control. Results:Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts ofM. lanceolata revealed the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids in chloroform extracts and alkaloids in methanol extracts. In addition to the qualitative analysis of the plant extracts, the anthelmintic effects were also evaluated against aquatic leech (Lymnatis nilotica). Accordingly, various concentrations (10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/mL) of each solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts and 20 mg/mL of standard drug were prepared and tested against the selected leech. All the tested concentrations showed anthelmintic activities in a dose-dependent manner. From petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts, chloroform extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration was effective with the paralytic time of (29.00 ± 1.06) min and death time of (65.00 ± 2.00) min in gradient extraction method. But in the case of extraction without gradient method, methanol extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration showed effective paralysis and death time (26.00 ± 1.73) and (56.00 ± 1.56) min, respectively, against the selected aquatic leech. Conclusions:The present study revealed thatM. lanceolata extracts have magic anthelmintic activities which are helpful to treat aquatic leeches (Lymnatis nilotica) which are associated with the nasal cavities of animals and human beings.

  20. A novel high throughput assay for anthelmintic drug screening and resistance diagnosis by real-time monitoring of parasite motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Smout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth parasites cause untold morbidity and mortality to billions of people and livestock. Anthelmintic drugs are available but resistance is a problem in livestock parasites, and is a looming threat for human helminths. Testing the efficacy of available anthelmintic drugs and development of new drugs is hindered by the lack of objective high-throughput screening methods. Currently, drug effect is assessed by observing motility or development of parasites using laborious, subjective, low-throughput methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a novel application for a real-time cell monitoring device (xCELLigence that can simply and objectively assess anthelmintic effects by measuring parasite motility in real time in a fully automated high-throughput fashion. We quantitatively assessed motility and determined real time IC(50 values of different anthelmintic drugs against several developmental stages of major helminth pathogens of humans and livestock, including larval Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides ratti, and adult hookworms and blood flukes. The assay enabled quantification of the onset of egg hatching in real time, and the impact of drugs on hatch rate, as well as discriminating between the effects of drugs on motility of drug-susceptible and -resistant isolates of H. contortus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that this technique will be suitable for discovery and development of new anthelmintic drugs as well as for detection of phenotypic resistance to existing drugs for the majority of helminths and other pathogens where motility is a measure of pathogen viability. The method is also amenable to use for other purposes where motility is assessed, such as gene silencing or antibody-mediated killing.

  1. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS; including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to

  2. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    CERN Document Server

    Korir, George

    2014-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes a series of operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series ...

  3. External Mobility Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Every year, a significant number of highly-skilled staff members leave the Organization and offer their talents on the European job market. CERN is launching a programme aiming to help staff members to whom the Organization cannot offer an indefinite contract in the transition towards their next employment. The programme, which is based on the establishment of a number of partnerships with potential employers in the private sector, will run on a voluntary basis. Staff members who have received confirmation that they will not be offered an indefinite contract and who are interested in availing themselves of the opportunities offered by the programme, are invited to enrol by following the procedure described at: https://ert.cern.ch/browse_intranet/wd_pds?p_web_page_id=5841 Applications will be processed in the strictest confidence by the Human Resources Department and eligible profiles will then be made available to partner companies for recruitment purposes. Any subsequent ...

  4. Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to the most commonly used anthelmintics in sheep, cattle and horses in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valladares, M; Geurden, T; Bartram, D J; Martínez-Pérez, J M; Robles-Pérez, D; Bohórquez, A; Florez, E; Meana, A; Rojo-Vázquez, F A

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the status of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in ruminants and horses in Spain. The efficacy of commonly used macrocyclic lactones (MLs) - ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) - was measured in sheep, cattle and horses. In addition, albendazole (ABZ) and levamisole (LEV) were evaluated in sheep and oxibendazole (OXI) and pyrantel (PYR) in horses. Efficacy was evaluated based on the difference between the arithmetic mean pre- and post-treatment faecal egg count (in cattle and horses), or compared to an untreated control group (in sheep). AR was present when the percentage reduction in egg count was <95% and the lower 95% confidence interval (CI) was <90%; if only one of these two criteria was met, the finding was recorded as suspected AR (SAR). In horses, AR-PYR and OXI was considered when the percentage reduction in egg count was ≤ 90% and the lower 95% CI was ≤ 80%. For each animal species, at least 10 study sites were selected. AR to at least one of the drugs was detected in all 10 sheep flocks; the main parasite identified after treatment was Teladorsagia circumcincta. Moreover, in 5 flocks multidrug resistance was identified, on 4 farms to drugs from different families, on one farm to both MOX and IVM and on another farm to all drugs tested. In cattle, the efficacy of both MOX and IVM was 100% on 4 and 3 farms, respectively, and therefore 60% of these farms were considered to have AR or SAR to both MLs. The most frequent parasite identified after treatment was Trichostrongylus spp., although Ostertagia ostertagi was also identified after treatment on one farm. In contrast to ruminants, the 4 drugs evaluated in horses were highly efficacious against strongyles, with efficacies for the MLs and OXI between 95 and 100% and between 94 and 100% for PYR, although 3 herds were SAR against PYR. In conclusion, AR to at least one of the commonly used drugs was identified on all sheep flocks investigated in the northwest of

  5. Computer mathematics for programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Abney, Darrell H; Sibrel, Donald W

    1985-01-01

    Computer Mathematics for Programmers presents the Mathematics that is essential to the computer programmer.The book is comprised of 10 chapters. The first chapter introduces several computer number systems. Chapter 2 shows how to perform arithmetic operations using the number systems introduced in Chapter 1. The third chapter covers the way numbers are stored in computers, how the computer performs arithmetic on real numbers and integers, and how round-off errors are generated in computer programs. Chapter 4 details the use of algorithms and flowcharting as problem-solving tools for computer p

  6. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002....... The PM10 results from 2000 are spares, only TSP are thus included in this report. The data sets for year 2000 is complete for many stations. The monitoring programme consists of 10 stations plus 2 extra stations under the Municipality of Copenhagen. The SO2 and lead levels are still decreasing and far...

  7. A programmer's geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowyer, Adrian

    1983-01-01

    A Programmer's Geometry provides a guide in programming geometric shapes. The book presents formulas and examples of computer representation and coding of geometry. Each of the nine chapters of the text deals with the representation and solution of a specific geometrical problem, such as areas, vectors, and volumes. The last chapter provides a brief discussion on generating image through a computer. The codes presented in the book are written in FORTRAN 77. The text will be of great use to programmers who are working on projects that involve geometric calculations.

  8. Costs and benefits of Danish active labour market programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Svend; Munch, Jakob Roland; Skipper, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Since 1994, unemployed workers in the Danish labour market have participated in active labour market programmes on a large scale. This paper contributes with an assessment of costs and benefits of these programmes. Long-term treatment effects are estimated on a very detailed administrative dataset...

  9. Anthelmintic activity of benzimidazole derivatives against Toxocara canis second-stage larvae and Hymenolepis nana adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Navarro, Adrián; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; Hernández-Campos, Alicia; Soria-Arteche, Olivia; Castillo, Rafael; Rodríguez-Morales, Sergio; Yépez-Mulia, Lilián; Hernández-Luis, Francisco

    2009-03-01

    The anthelmintic activity of 11 benzimidazole derivatives (A1-A11) and 2 thioureides N,N'-disubstituted (B1-B2) was determined. Each compound and albendazole was tested in vitro against Toxocara canis larvae and in vivo against Hymenolepis nana adult. Compounds A1-A6 and B1-B2 were designed as albendazole prodrugs. Compounds A8-A11 were designed as direct analogues of A7, which had previously proved to be an effective agent against Fasciola hepatica. Results of the in vitro screening showed that A6 was more active than albendazole at 0.18 microM (relative mobility 40% and 80%, respectively). Whereas that the in vivo evaluation against H. nana, compounds A7-A11 demonstrated significant activity in terms of removing cestode adults in the range of 88-97%, displaying better efficacy than albendazole (83%).

  10. Evaluation of fenbendazole as an anthelmintic for gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, T M; Bell, R R

    1978-06-01

    Calves naturally infected with Ostertagia, Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, and Cooperia were used in a controlled experiment to determine the anthelmintic efficacy of fenbendazole, methyl-5-(phenylthio)-2-benzimidazolecarbamate, and to compare this with the efficacy of levamisole. The calves were placed in dry lots for approximately 3 weeks, ensuring that immature Ostertagia larvae were in arrested development before the calves were treated. In calves given doses of 8 mg of levamisole/kg of body weight and 5 and 7.5 mg of fenbendazole/kg, reductions of adult Ostertagia were 95%, 99%, and 99% respectively. Reductions of developing Ostertagia L4 were 29%, 99%, and 100%; of arrested Ostertagia L4--5%, 24%, and 72%; of adult Haemonchus--97%, 100%, and 100%; of adult Trichostrongylus--97%, 99%, and 100%, and of adult Cooperia--100%, 100%, and 100%--as compared with data in untreated controls.

  11. Anthelmintic efficacy of gold nanoparticles derived from a phytopathogenic fungus, Nigrospora oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip Kumar Kar

    Full Text Available Exploring a green chemistry approach, this study brings to the fore, the anthelmintic efficacy of gold nanoparticles, highlighting the plausible usage of myconanotechnology. Gold nanoparticles of ∼6 to ∼18 nm diameter were synthesized by treating the mycelia-free culture filtrate of the phytopathogenic fungus with gold chloride. Their size and morphology were confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, DLS data, AFM and TEM images. The XRD studies reveal a crystalline nature of the nanoparticles, which are in cubic phase. The FTIR spectroscopic studies before and after the formation of nanoparticles show the presence of possible functional groups responsible for the bio-reduction and capping of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The latter were tested as vermifugal agents against a model cestode Raillietina sp., an intestinal parasite of domestic fowl. Further, ultrastructural and biochemical parameters were used to corroborate the efficacy study.

  12. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

    2008-01-01

    Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

  13. VAM programme 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngman, Michael [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    Since 1988, the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) has supported a Valid Analytical Measurement (VAM) initiative. VAM programming 14 is concerned with sampling and measurement of aerosols and particulates in the gas phase. The programme of work is summarised here. (author).

  14. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.;

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  15. User programmable virtualized networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.J.; Strijkers, R.J.; Gommans, L.; Laat, C.de

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of a User Programmable Virtualized Network, which allows networks to deliver application specific services using network element components that developers can program as part of a users application. The use of special tokens in data or control packets is the basis

  16. Progressive Retirement Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 2 December 2008, please note that the Progressive Retirement Programme has been extended by one year, i.e. until 31 March 2010. Further information is available on : https://hr-services.web.cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/prp/prp.asp HR Department, tel. 73903

  17. En model for programmer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    Dette undervisningsmateriale beskriver en model for, hvordan programmer er opbygget. Materialet er skrevet til brug i det gymnasiale forsøgsfag Informationsteknologi. Seneste version af dette undervisningsmateriale kan findes på http:// www.imhotep.dk. Tak til Elisabeth Husum for en kritisk...

  18. The effectiveness and perception of the use of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy programme in Offinso district of ashanti region, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutu Emmanuel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in pregnant women has been shown to be associated with low birth weight, stillbirth and mortality in newborns. The WHO has adopted the use of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP to control malaria, a disease which worsens the plight of pregnant women leading to low birth weight, stillbirths and increased neonatal mortality. The present study assessed the effectiveness of SP and perception of its use in pregnant women in Offinso district (Ashanti Region, Ghana. Method Pregnant women, gestational age 32 weeks prior to term, were studied from November 2006 to October 2007. Their haemoglobin levels (Hb, parasitaemia and other quantitative determinants were assessed. In-depth interviews (IDIs and focus group discussions (FGDs were used to assess the perception of SP usage and its effectiveness. Results Of the 306 study participants, 92 (30% took one dose, 100 (33% two doses and 114 (37% three doses of SP, respectively. There was significant association between gravidity and SP dosage taken (Pearson χ2 = 18.9, p χ2 = 2.3, p ≥ 0.32. Peripheral parasitaemia was present in 47 (15% of the subjects. There was a poor negative relationship of doses of SP with parasitaemia (r = -0.07, p ≥ 0.24. Mean Hb was 11.3 ± 1.6 g/dl, with 118 (39% of the subjects anaemic (Hb r = 0.15, p Conclusions This study points to the effectiveness of IPTp using SP as an evidence-based measure for control of malaria and malaria-related anaemia in pregnancy. Therefore, the Ghana Health Service should improve current programme strategies to increase the proportion of pregnant women who take three doses of SP, paying attention to improved face-to-face health education, focussed antenatal care and better social mobilization.

  19. Protection and Delivery of Anthelmintic Protein Cry5B to Nematodes Using Mesoporous Silicon Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Chen; Hu, Yan; Miller, Melanie; Aroian, Raffi V; Sailor, Michael J

    2015-06-23

    The ability of nano- and microparticles of partially oxidized mesoporous silicon (pSi) to sequester, protect, and deliver the anthelmintic pore-forming protein Cry5B to nematodes is assessed in vitro and in vivo. Thermally oxidized pSi particles are stable under gastric conditions and show relatively low toxicity to nematodes. Fluorescence images of rhodamine-labeled pSi particles within the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Ancylostoma ceylanicum show that ingestion is dependent on particle size: particles of a 0.4 ± 0.2 μm size are noticeably ingested by both species within 2 h of introduction in vitro, whereas 5 ± 2 μm particles are excluded from C. elegans but enter the pharynx region of A. ceylanicum after 24 h. The anthelmintic protein Cry5B, a pore-forming crystal (Cry) protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis, is incorporated into the pSi particles by aqueous infiltration. Feeding of Cry5B-loaded pSi particles to C. elegans leads to significant intoxication of the nematode. Protein-loaded particles of size 0.4 μm display the highest level of in vitro toxicity toward C. elegans on a drug-mass basis. The porous nanostructure protects Cry5B from hydrolytic and enzymatic (pepsin) degradation in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) for time periods up to 2 h. In vivo experiments with hookworm-infected hamsters show no significant reduction in worm burden with the Cry5B-loaded particles, which is attributed to slow release of the protein from the particles and/or short residence time of the particles in the duodenum of the animal.

  20. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Zanthoxylum simulans essential oil against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, H; Wang, W X; Dai, J L; Zhu, L

    2015-07-30

    The need for new anthelmintic agents with low impact on the environment is becoming urgent. Phytotherapy is an alternative method to control gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. This study aims to determine the composition of Zanthoxylum simulans essential oil (ZSEO) and evaluate the in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal effects of ZSEO on Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay, larval development assay (LDA), and larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The chemical composition of ZSEO was determined through gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and 94 compounds were identified from the ZSEO. The major constituents of ZSEO were borneol (18.61%), β-elemene (10.87%). ZSEO and borneol both at 40 mg/mL inhibited larval hatching by 100%, with LC50 values of 3.98 and 1.50mg/mL, respectively. The LC50 value of β-elemene was not determined because of its insufficient activity. The results of LDA showed that ZSEO, borneol, and β-elemene all at 40 mg/mL inhibited larval development by 99.8%, 100%, and 55.4%, respectively, and exhibited dose-dependent responses with LC50 values of 4.02, 1.99, and 32.17 mg/mL, respectively. The results of LMIA showed that ZSEO, borneol, and β-elemene all at 40 mg/mL inhibited larval migration by 74.3%, 97.0%, and 53.2%, respectively. ZSEO presented ovicidal and larvicidal activities in vitro. Therefore, Zanthoxylum may be an alternative source of anthelmintic agents to control gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep.

  1. Polymorphism in ion channel genes of Dirofilaria immitis: Relevant knowledge for future anthelmintic drug design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangadurai Mani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial parasite, causes cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and wild canids. The macrocyclic lactone (ML class of drugs has been used to prevent heartworm infection. There is confirmed ML resistance in D. immitis and thus there is an urgent need to find new anthelmintics that could prevent and/or control the disease. Targeting ion channels of D. immitis for drug design has obvious advantages. These channels, present in the nematode nervous system, control movement, feeding, mating and respond to environmental cues which are necessary for survival of the parasite. Any new drug that targets these ion channels is likely to have a motility phenotype and should act to clear the worms from the host. Many of the successful anthelmintics in the past have targeted these ion channels and receptors. Knowledge about genetic variability of the ion channel and receptor genes should be useful information for drug design as receptor polymorphism may affect responses to a drug. Such information may also be useful for anticipation of possible resistance development. A total of 224 ion channel genes/subunits have been identified in the genome of D. immitis. Whole genome sequencing data of parasites from eight different geographical locations, four from ML-susceptible populations and the other four from ML-loss of efficacy (LOE populations, were used for polymorphism analysis. We identified 1762 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP sites (1508 intronic and 126 exonic in these 224 ion channel genes/subunits with an overall polymorphic rate of 0.18%. Of the SNPs found in the exon regions, 129 of them caused a non-synonymous type of polymorphism. Fourteen of the exonic SNPs caused a change in predicted secondary structure. A few of the SNPs identified may have an effect on gene expression, function of the protein and resistance selection processes.

  2. Multi-class determination of anthelmintics in soil and water by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Marivil D; Haberhauer, Georg; Kist, Alla; Rathor, M Nasir; Gerzabek, Martin; Cannavan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The translocation of antiparasitic drugs from animal excrement through soil and water to crops and forages and their recycling to food-producing animals is a potential concern with respect to the contamination of the food chain. To facilitate the investigation of this problem, an LC-MS/MS method for selected anthelmintics in soil and water was developed. The soil sample preparation involved a simple solvent extraction and dispersive clean-up technique. The method was validated at 10, 20 and 40 µg kg(-1) for levamisole, fenbendazole, fenbendazole sulphoxide and fenbendazole sulphone and at 20, 40 and 80 µg kg(-1) for eprinomectin. LOQs were 10 µg kg(-1) for the first four compounds and 20 µg kg(-1) for eprinomectin. The overall mean recoveries ranged from 76.1% to 89% for loamy soils and from 79.9% to 96.9% for sandy soils. Analysis of water samples was performed by extraction/concentration on an Oasis-HLB (Aschaffenburg, Germany) cartridge. Validation was performed at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 µg l(-1). The LOQ for all compounds was 0.25 µg l(-1). Method recovery (and RSD) varied between 35.4% (28) for eprinomectin and 125.1% (16) for fenbendazole sulphone. The validated methods were applied to soil and water samples in a study on the behaviour of anthelmintic drugs in a soil-plant-water system (manuscript on "transport investigation of antiparasitic drugs based on a lysimeter experiment" in preparation).

  3. Anthelmintic activity of botanical extracts against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes, Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Elango, Gandhi; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz

    2011-07-01

    The source of chemical anthelmintics (levamisole, flubendazole, and thiabendazole) had limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiasis control in sheep and goats and thus awakened interest in the study of medicinal plant extracts as alternative sources of anthelmintics. The egg hatching and larvicidal effect of indigenous plant extracts were investigated against the sheep parasite, Haemonchus contortus. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of leaf, bark, and seed ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Anisomeles malabarica (L.) R. Br., Annona squamosa L., Datura metel L., and Solanum torvum Swartz were tested against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA). The assays were run in 24-well cell culture plates at room temperature with five replicates. All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 48 and exposure for egg hatching and LDA, respectively; however, 100% egg hatching and larvicidal inhibition were found in the methanol extracts of A. paniculata, A. squamosa, D. metel, and S. torvum at 25 mg/ml and the effect was similar to positive control of Albendazole (0.075 mg/ml) and Ivermectin (0.025mg/ml) against H. contortus, respectively. The EHA result showed the ED(50) of methanol extracts of A. paniculata and D. metel, which were 2.90 and 3.08 mg/ml, and in larval development assay, the ED(50) was 4.26 and 3.86 mg/ml, respectively. These effects remain to be confirmed through in vivo studies.

  4. A reappraisal of the virtues of private sector employment programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Graversen, Brian Krogh

    In this paper, we evaluate the employment effects of Danish active labour market programmes aimed at welfare benefit recipients. We estimate an econometric model with treatment effects and discrete outcomes and we allow the responses to treatment to vary among observationally identical persons....... The empirical analysis is based on a register-based dataset that gives infor-mation on participation in labour market programmes and subsequent employment. Using a latent variable model, we estimate commonly defined treatment effects, and in particular, the distribution of treatment effects. We do not find any...... significant mean effects of participation in private sector employment programmes compared to participation in other programmes, but we find evidence of heterogeneity in the treatment effects....

  5. Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutwyche, P. R.; Challinor, S. F.

    2003-02-24

    The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted.

  6. The INTEGRAL Core Observing Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Gehrels, N.; Lund, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The Core Programme of the INTEGRAL mission is defined as the portion of the scientific programme covering the guaranteed time observations for the INTEGRAL Science Working Team. This paper describes the current status of the Core Programme preparations and summarizes the key elements...

  7. The ACIGA Data Analysis programme

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, S M; Cusack, B J; McClelland, D E; Scott, Susan M; Searle, Antony C; Cusack, Benedict J; Clelland, David E Mc

    2004-01-01

    The Data Analysis programme of the Australian Consortium for Interferometric Gravitational Astronomy (ACIGA) was set up in 1998 by the first author to complement the then existing ACIGA programmes working on suspension systems, lasers and optics, and detector configurations. The ACIGA Data Analysis programme continues to contribute significantly in the field; we present an overview of our activities.

  8. High ratings of satisfaction with fertility treatment are common: findings from the Copenhagen Multi-centre Psychosocial Infertility (COMPI) Research Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Holstein, B E; Boivin, J

    2003-01-01

    /delivery and the report of marital benefits resulting from the infertility experience. Lower social class was a significant predictor for satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Both men and women in fertility treatment had high ratings on medical and patient-centred care. It seemed that satisfaction with the psychosocial services...

  9. Use of two in vitro methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistant nematode parasites on Slovak sheep farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, Marián; Cernanská, Dana; Corba, Július

    2006-02-18

    A survey of the prevalence of anthelmintic resistant nematode populations was conducted on 32 sheep farms in the Slovak Republic. In vitro egg hatch test and larval development tests were used for the detection of resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics and they were compared with in vivo faecal egg count reduction tests. There was agreement in the declaration of resistance between the faecal egg count reduction test and both in vitro tests. The presence of resistant populations was determined on two farms using egg hatch test. In both farms, the LD(50) values were higher than 0.1 microg TBZ/ml, indicating resistance. By using LD(99) values it might be possible to reveal relatively small proportion of resistant larvae in the population. The prevalence of benzimidazole resistance has not change on Slovak sheep farms during last decade.

  10. Inequities in Receipt of Iron and Vitamin A Supplements, and Anthelmintic Medications by Young Children in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Devin D; McLennan, John D

    2015-11-01

    Gaps in the receipt of micronutrients and anthelmintic medications by children in low-and middle-income countries undermine efforts to reduce the burden of vitamin A and iron deficiencies, and soil transmitted helminthiases. This study aimed to identify the extent of equitable receipt of these interventions in the Dominican Republic (DR) using indices of need and socioeconomic status with data derived from the DR 2007 Demographic and Health Survey. Receipt of anthelmintic medication, iron, and vitamin A were reported for 55.0% (last six months), 30.3% (last seven days), and 24.0% (last six months) of young children, respectively. No relationships were found between indices of need and receipt of any of the interventions using bivariate and multivariate analysis. However, receipt of each intervention was related to higher maternal education, and iron was additionally related to greater family wealth. Systematic efforts to improve equitability of receipt of these core child health interventions are needed.

  11. The Mathematica programmer

    CERN Document Server

    Maeder, Roman E

    1994-01-01

    The Mathematica Programmer covers the fundamental programming paradigms and applications of programming languages. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters. Part 1 begins with an overview of the programming paradigms. This part also treats abstract data types, polymorphism and message passing, object-oriented programming, and relational databases. Part 2 looks into the practical aspects of programming languages, including in lists and power series, fractal curves, and minimal surfaces.This book will prove useful to mathematicians and computer scientists.

  12. Programmable mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florijn, Bastiaan; Coulais, Corentin; van Hecke, Martin

    2014-10-24

    We create mechanical metamaterials whose response to uniaxial compression can be programmed by lateral confinement, allowing monotonic, nonmonotonic, and hysteretic behavior. These functionalities arise from a broken rotational symmetry which causes highly nonlinear coupling of deformations along the two primary axes of these metamaterials. We introduce a soft mechanism model which captures the programmable mechanics, and outline a general design strategy for confined mechanical metamaterials. Finally, we show how inhomogeneous confinement can be explored to create multistability and giant hysteresis.

  13. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, George; Prakash, Manu

    2015-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world.

  14. Punch card programmable microfluidics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Korir

    Full Text Available Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series of holes in punched paper tapes, we demonstrate independent control of 15 on-chip pumps with enhanced mixing, normally-closed valves and a novel on-demand impact-based droplet generator. We demonstrate robustness of operation by encoding a string of characters representing the word "PUNCHCARD MICROFLUIDICS" using the droplet generator. Multiplexing is demonstrated by implementing an example colorimetric water quality assays for pH, ammonia, nitrite and nitrate content in different water samples. With its portable and robust design, low cost and ease-of-use, we envision punch card programmable microfluidics will bring complex control of microfluidic chips into field-based applications in low-resource settings and in the hands of children around the world.

  15. SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Academic Training; Tel. 73127

    2001-01-01

    Main Auditorium bldg. 500 Date Time Lecturer Title Monday 13 August 9:15 10:15 11:15 Student Session (3/3) Course Review Course Review Tuesday 14 August 16:00 Poster Session Further information can be obtained on the web at the following URL: Summer Student Lecture ProgrammeSummer Student Lectures are available at: http://agenda.cern.ch/SSLP2001

  16. NSF announces diversity programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative - Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) - aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  17. A new video programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN video productions

    2011-01-01

    "What's new @ CERN?", a new monthly video programme, will be broadcast on the Monday of every month on webcast.cern.ch. Aimed at the general public, the programme will cover the latest CERN news, with guests and explanatory features. Tune in on Monday 3 October at 4 pm (CET) to see the programme in English, and then at 4:20 pm (CET) for the French version.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1383406', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-...

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MANGIFERA INDICA L. VAR. THOTAPURI AND MANGIFERA INDICA L. VAR. NEELAM ROOT CRUDE EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Pet ether, ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts of Mangifera indica L. Var. Thotapuri and Mangifera indica L. Var. Neelam were taken for anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheritima posthuma. Various concentrations of both extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for evoked response, paralysis and time for death of worms. Piperazine citrate was used as a reference standard and distilled water as a control group. Dose dependent activity was observed in both ...

  19. Anthelmintic activity of a standardized extract from the rhizomes of Acorus calamus Linn. (Acoraceae) against experimentally induced cestodiasis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, Purobi; Yadav, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rhizomes of a herb Acorus calamus Linn. (Acoraceae) have been widely used as a traditional medicine to cure intestinal-helminthic infections in India and South Africa. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo anthelmintic activity of a standardized methanolic extract obtained from the rhizomes A. calamus in a rodent model. Materials and Methods: A methanolic extract obtained from rhizomes of A. calamus was characterized for active principle using nuclear magne...

  20. Synthesis, in vitro antioxidant, anthelmintic and molecular docking studies of novel dichloro substituted benzoxazole-triazolo-thione derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyendra, R V; Vishnumurthy, K A; Vagdevi, H M; Rajesh, K P; Manjunatha, H; Shruthi, A

    2011-07-01

    A novel 6,8-dichloro [1,2,4]triazolo [3,4-b] [1,3]benzoxazole-3(2H)-thione 4 and its derivatives 5a and 5b are synthesized from 5,7-dichloro-2-hydrazinyl-1,3-benzoxazole 3, obtained by reaction of hydrazine hydrate with ethyl [(5,7-dichloro-1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)sulfanyl]acetate 2. The newly synthesized compounds are characterized by analytical (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, LC-MS mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. All synthesized compounds are screened for in vitro antioxidant and anthelmintic activities. In correlation to anthelmintic activity, compounds are subjected to molecular docking studies for the binding to β-Tubulin, target protein elite to the parasites. Compounds 3, 4 and 5a exhibited potential radical scavenging capacity with good anthelmintic activity. In molecular docking study also, compounds showed minimum binding energy and have good affinity toward the active pocket thus, they may be considered as good inhibitor of β-Tubulin.

  1. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon martinii, Cymbopogon schoenanthus and Mentha piperita essential oils evaluated in four different in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiki, L M; Chagas, A C S; Bizzo, H R; Ferreira, J F S; Amarante, A F T

    2011-12-29

    Anthelmintic resistance is a worldwide concern in small ruminant industry and new plant-derived compounds are being studied for their potential use against gastrointestinal nematodes. Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oils were evaluated against developmental stages of trichostrongylids from sheep naturally infected (95% Haemonchus contortus and 5% Trichostrogylus spp.) through the egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA), and the larval exsheathment assay (LEA). The major constituent of the essential oils, quantified by gas chromatography for M. piperita oil was menthol (42.5%), while for C. martinii and C. schoenanthus the main component was geraniol (81.4% and 62.5%, respectively). In all in vitro tests C. schoenanthus essential oil had the best activity against ovine trichostrongylids followed by C. martini, while M. piperita presented the least activity. Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil had LC(50) value of 0.045 mg/ml in EHA, 0.063 mg/ml in LDA, 0.009 mg/ml in LFIA, and 24.66 mg/ml in LEA. The anthelmintic activity of essential oils followed the same pattern in all in vitro tests, suggesting C. schoenanthus essential oil could be an interesting candidate for nematode control, although in vivo studies are necessary to validate the anthelmintic properties of this oil.

  2. Anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins on Trichostrongylus colubriformis in experimentally infected sheep Efeito anti-helmíntico de taninos condensados sobre Trichostrongylus colubriformis em ovinos experimentalmente infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Francisco Talamine do Amarante

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent surveys have identified anthelmintic effects from many bioactive substances particularly from condensed tannin (CT sources. The aims of the present study were to investigate the potential anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins (CT on Trichostrongylus colubriformis in experimentally infected sheep and the nutritional consequences on animals. Twenty helminth-free lambs were divided into five groups of four animals. Groups I to IV were artificially infected with 6,000 third stage larvae (L3 of T. colubriformis. Group I was the infected control and group V was the uninfected control. Twenty-eight days post-infection (p. i. lambs from GII were supplemented with tanniniferous sorghum (350 g/animal/day, during seven days; GIII were drenched with Acacia mearnsii extract (15% CT for just one day and GIV during two days (1.6 g extract/kg BW. At day 36 p. i., animals from infected group (GI to GIV were slaughtered. Faecal egg counts (FEC values present a reduction on GII when compared with GI at day 29 p. i. (P 0.05. No difference was related on total worm burden between treatments; however, GIV presented lower number of females than GI (P O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial efeito anti-helmíntico dos taninos condensados sobre Trichostrongylus colubriformis em ovinos experimentalmente infectados e as conseqüências nutricionais destes produtos sobre os animais. Vinte ovinos livres de infecção parasitária foram divididos em cinco grupos de quatro animais. Os grupos GI a GIV foram experimentalmente infectados com 6000 larvas infectantes (L3 de T. colubriformis. O GI foi mantido como controle infectado e o GV como controle não infectado. Vinte e oito dias pós-infecção (p.i. os animais foram tratados com fontes de taninos condensados (TC: o GII suplementado com 350 g de sorgo taninífero, durante sete dias; os grupos GIII e GIV receberam extrato de Acacia mearnsii (1,6 g de extrato/kg de peso vivo, durante um ou dois

  3. Anthelmintic efficacy of an oral formulation of Aurixazol against gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally and experimentally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Claudio Alessandro M; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Buzzulini, Carolina; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Felippelli, Gustavo; de Lima, Roberto Cesar Araújo; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; Santana, Luis Fernando; de Mendonça, Rafael Paranhos; Soares, Vando Edésio; Henrique, Carlos Henrique; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2013-12-06

    As a result of the need to develop new active principles for the control of endoparasites in ruminants, the present in vivo study evaluated a formulation containing 24% Aurixazol (48 mg/kg), a parasiticide molecule based on disophenolate of levamisole. Two experiments were conducted: one evaluating the anthelmintic efficacy of 24% Aurixazol (48 mg/kg) against gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected sheep, compared to an association of ivermectin (0.2mg/kg)+albendazole (5.0mg/kg)+levamisole (7.5mg/kg) (IAL), and a second one which evaluated the persistent efficacy of the same formulation against immature stages (L4) and adults of Haemonchus contortus in experimentally infected animals. In experiment I, against H. contortus, the formulation of Aurixazol and the IAL association reached efficacies (arithmetic means) of 99.32% and 96.11%, respectively. For Trichostrongylus colubriformis, the efficacy values were 88.92% and 98.08% for Aurixazol and the IAL association, respectively. Both formulations were totally effective against Oesophagostomum columbianum (100%). The results of the statistical analysis demonstrated that the mean parasitic burden of treated animals was significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) compared to the average number of helminths diagnosed in animals from the control group for H. contortus, T. colubriformis and O. columbianum. Comparing only the treated groups, it was possible to verify that the average number of H. contortus recovered from animals treated with Aurixazol was different (P ≤ 0.05) when compared to the mean amount recovered from sheep treated with the IAL association. When evaluating the prevention of H. contortus infection in experiment II, Aurixazol did not present preventive efficacy. Up until 21 days after treatment the groups treated with Aurixazol contained less adults and L4 of H. contortus (P ≤ 0.05) when compared to the non-medicated control group. However, future studies will be necessary to assess the

  4. Compounds Derived from the Bhutanese Daisy, Ajania nubigena, Demonstrate Dual Anthelmintic Activity against Schistosoma mansoni and Trichuris muris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark S.; Giacomin, Paul R.; Becker, Luke; Sotillo, Javier; Pickering, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Background Whipworms and blood flukes combined infect almost one billion people in developing countries. Only a handful of anthelmintic drugs are currently available to treat these infections effectively; there is therefore an urgent need for new generations of anthelmintic compounds. Medicinal plants have presented as a viable source of new parasiticides. Ajania nubigena, the Bhutanese daisy, has been used in Bhutanese traditional medicine for treating various diseases and our previous studies revealed that small molecules from this plant have antimalarial properties. Encouraged by these findings, we screened four major compounds isolated from A. nubigena for their anthelmintic properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we studied four major compounds derived from A. nubigena for their anthelmintic properties against the nematode whipworm Trichuris muris and the platyhelminth blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni using the xWORM assay technique. Of four compounds tested, two compounds—luteolin (3) and (3R,6R)-linalool oxide acetate (1)—showed dual anthelmintic activity against S. mansoni (IC50 range = 5.8–36.9 μg/mL) and T. muris (IC50 range = 9.7–20.4 μg/mL). Using scanning electron microscopy, we determined luteolin as the most efficacious compound against both parasites and additionally was found effective against the schistosomula, the infective stage of S. mansoni (IC50 = 13.3 μg/mL). Luteolin induced tegumental damage to S. mansoni and affected the cuticle, bacillary bands and bacillary glands of T. muris. Our in vivo assessment of luteolin (3) against T. muris infection at a single oral dosing of 100 mg/kg, despite being significantly (27.6%) better than the untreated control group, was markedly weaker than mebendazole (93.1%) in reducing the worm burden in mice. Conclusions/Significance Among the four compounds tested, luteolin demonstrated the best broad-spectrum activity against two different helminths—T. muris and S. mansoni—and was

  5. Correlation of polyphenolic content with radical-scavenging capacity and anthelmintic effects of Rubus ulmifolius (Rosaceae) against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkari, Hafidh; Hajaji, Soumaya; B'chir, Fatma; Rekik, Mourad; Gharbi, Mohamed

    2016-05-15

    Phenolic content, antioxidant and anthelmintic activities of herbal extracts are of particular interest to drug industry; plant extracts with significant anthelmintic activity have the potential to be used as alternatives to conventional chemical drugs. In the present study, Rubus ulmifolius fruit extracts obtained using solvents of increasing polarity (water, methanol, chloroform and hexane) were examined for their antioxidant and anthelmintic activities in correlation with their polyphenolic content. In vitro antioxidant activity of all extracts was carried out using free radical-scavenging activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethilenebenzotiazolin)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation. In vitro anthelmintic activities were investigated on the egg and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus from sheep in comparison to albendazole. Total polyphenol content of R. ulmifolius was higher in more polar extract, ranging from 64.5 in aqueous extract to 1.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight (GAE/g DW) in hexanic extract. Likewise, highest amounts of flavonoids and condensed tannins were found in aqueous extract (28.06 mg QE/g and 7.42 mg CE/g DW, respectively) compared to hexanic extract (0.71 mg QE/g and 0.29 mg CE/g DW, respectively) (pIC50) range values were similar for both assays (2.13-45.54 μg/mL and 1.2-43.82 μg/mL, respectively). All plant extracts showed ovicidal activity at all tested concentrations. Fruit methanolic (IC50=2.76mg/mL) and aqueous (IC50=2.08 mg/mL) extracts showed higher inhibitory effects than chloroformic (IC50=7.62 mg/mL) and hexanic (IC50=12.93 mg/mL) extracts on egg hatching (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation of total polyphenol, flavonoids and tannins content with scavenging of either DPPH (r=0.722, 0.764 and 0.752, p<0.01, respectively) or ABTS radicals (r=0.893, 0.765 and 0.722, p<0.01, respectively) and with inhibition of egg hatching (r=0.874, 0.883 and 0.862, p<0

  6. Use of thermo-coagulation as an alternative treatment modality in a 'screen-and-treat' programme of cervical screening in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christine; Kafwafwa, Savel; Brown, Hilary; Walker, Graeme; Madetsa, Belito; Deeny, Miriam; Kabota, Beatrice; Morton, David; Ter Haar, Reynier; Grant, Liz; Cubie, Heather A

    2016-08-15

    The incidence of cervical cancer in Malawi is the highest in the world and projected to increase in the absence of interventions. Although government policy supports screening using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), screening provision is limited due to lack of infrastructure, trained personnel, and the cost and availability of gas for cryotherapy. Recently, thermo-coagulation has been acknowledged as a safe and acceptable procedure suitable for low-resource settings. We introduced thermo-coagulation for treatment of VIA-positive lesions as an alternative to cryotherapy within a cervical screening service based on VIA, coupled with appropriate, sustainable pathways of care for women with high-grade lesions and cancers. Detailed planning was undertaken for VIA clinics, and approvals were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Regional and Village Chiefs. Educational resources were developed. Thermo-coagulators were introduced into hospital and health centre settings, with theoretical and practical training in safe use and maintenance of equipment. A total of 7,088 previously unscreened women attended VIA clinics between October 2013 and March 2015. Screening clinics were held daily in the hospital and weekly in the health centres. Overall, VIA positivity was 6.1%. Almost 90% received same day treatment in the hospital setting, and 3- to 6-month cure rates of more than 90% are observed. Thermo-coagulation proved feasible and acceptable in this setting. Effective implementation requires comprehensive training and provider support, ongoing competency assessment, quality assurance and improvement audit. Thermo-coagulation offers an effective alternative to cryotherapy and encouraged VIA screening of many more women.

  7. CASINDO Programme Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, N.; Smekens, K.; Bole-Rentel, T.; Saidi, R. [Unit ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Wijnker, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kamphuis, E. [ETC Netherlands, Leusden (Netherlands); Winarno, Oetomo Tri [Institute of Technology, Bandung (Indonesia); Permana, Iman [Technical Education Development Centre, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2012-06-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. CASINDO stands for Capacity development and strenghtening for energy policy formulation adn implementation of sustainable energy projects in Indonesia.

  8. Programmable pulse generator

    CERN Document Server

    Xue Zhi Hua; Duan Xiao Hui

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the design of programmable pulse generator that is based on a micro-controller and controlled by RS232 interface of personal computer. The whole system has good stability. The pulse generator can produce TTL pulse and analog pulse. The pulse frequency can be selected by EPLD. The voltage amplitude and pulse width of analog pulse can be adjusted by analog switches and digitally-controlled potentiometers. The software development tools of computer is National Instruments LabView5.1. The front panel of this virtual instrumentation is intuitive and easy-to-use. Parameters can be selected and changed conveniently by knob and slide

  9. Binary mask programmable hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P W M; Poon, T-C; Zhou, Changhe; Cheung, K W K

    2012-11-19

    We report, for the first time, the concept and generation of a novel Fresnel hologram called the digital binary mask programmable hologram (BMPH). A BMPH is comprised of a static, high resolution binary grating that is overlaid with a lower resolution binary mask. The reconstructed image of the BMPH can be programmed to approximate a target image (including both intensity and depth information) by configuring the pattern of the binary mask with a simple genetic algorithm (SGA). As the low resolution binary mask can be realized with less stringent display technology, our method enables the development of simple and economical holographic video display.

  10. The ONTARGET trial programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unger, Thomas; Kintscher, Ulrich; Kappert, Kai;

    2009-01-01

    The ONTARGET trial programme tested the effects of the angiotensin AT1 receptor blocker (ARB), telmisartan, alone or in combination with the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramipril, in more than 25.000 patients at high cardiovascular risk including diabetes on a combined endpoint ....... Telmisartan thus proved to be the first and so far the only representative of the ARB class that can be used as an alternative to the "gold standard" ACE-inhibitor, ramipril, in patients at high cardiovascular risk with or without hypertension. © 2009 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd....

  11. Flexible programmable logic module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hutchinson, Robert L. (Albuquerque, NM); Pierson, Lyndon G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  12. Developing an integrated, Internet-based self-help programme for young people with depression and alcohol use problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Deady

    2014-07-01

    Overall, the DEAL Project programme was well-received and provides an innovative new platform for the treatment of co-occurring depression and alcohol use problems in young people. The next phase will include an evaluation of programme efficacy. If found to be efficacious, the programme has the potential to improve outcomes, reduce disease burden, and increase treatment uptake in this vulnerable group.

  13. Finnish energy technology programmes 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Finnish Technology Development Centre (Tekes) is responsible for the financing of research and development in the field of energy production technology. A considerable part of the financing goes to technology programmes. Each technology programme involves major Finnish institutions - companies, research institutes, universities and other relevant interests. Many of the energy technology programmes running in 1998 were launched collectively in 1993 and will be completed at the end of 1998. They are complemented by a number of other energy-related technology programmes, each with a timetable of its own. Because energy production technology is horizontal by nature, it is closely connected with research and development in other fields, too, and is an important aspect in several other Tekes technology programmes. For this reason this brochure also presents technology programmes where energy is only one of the aspects considered but which nevertheless contribute considerably to research and development in the energy production sector

  14. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    27 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 28 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 29 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 30 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 4.45 p.m. Auditorium (Main Building) After the success of the preparation seminars held in recent years, it has been decided that the programme should continue. The forthcoming seminar has been prepared in close collaboration with the CERN Pensioners' Association. The programme will be organised over several half-day sessions. Once again this year, a special session will be devoted to the 10th revision of the Swiss state pension scheme, the 'AVS' (Assurance-Vieillesse et Survivants), and the consequences for international civil servants. A talk will be given by Mrs Danièle Siebold, Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation, aimed mainly at those residing in or intending to move to Switzerland, or who worked in Switzerland before joining CERN. To enable Mrs Siebold to respond to your concerns as effectively as possible, please ...

  15. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  16. Copernicus Earth observation programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žlebir, Silvo

    European Earth observation program Copernicus is an EU-wide programme that integrates satellite data, in-situ data and modeling to provide user-focused information services to support policymakers, researchers, businesses and citizens. Land monitoring service and Emergency service are fully operational already, Atmosphere monitoring service and Marine environment monitoring service are preoperational and will become fully operational in the following year, while Climate change service and Security service are in an earlier development phase. New series of a number of dedicated satellite missions will be launched in the following years, operated by the European Space Agency and EUMETSAT, starting with Sentinel 1A satellite early this year. Ground based, air-borne and sea-borne in-situ data are provided by different international networks and organizations, EU member states networks etc. European Union is devoting a particular attention to secure a sustainable long-term operational provision of the services. Copernicus is also stated as a European Union’s most important contribution to Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The status and the recent development of the Copernicus programme will be presented, together with its future perspective. As Copernicus services have already demonstrated their usability and effectiveness, some interesting cases of their deployment will be presented. Copernicus free and open data policy, supported by a recently adopted EU legislative act, will also be presented.

  17. Cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos: use of a mouse model to investigate effects upon zona hardness and formulate treatment strategies in an in-vitro fertilization programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, P L; Graefling, J; Junk, S M; Yovich, J L; Edirisinghe, W R

    1997-07-01

    Mouse oocytes and embryos were obtained following ovulation induction of (C57B16 x CBA) F1 animals. Zonae pellucidae were exposed to alpha-chymotrypsin in phosphate-buffered medium (PB1) supplemented with 3 mg/ml bovine serum albumin upon a heated stage (37 degrees C) and were observed constantly through an inverted microscope. The endpoint of the bioassay was the limits of the zona no longer being seen clearly at x 200 magnification, and the time taken for each zona to dissolve was recorded. A dose-dependent response in dissolution time was clearly seen, with 1% alpha-chymotrypsin being chosen as the routine working solution. Cryopreservation of 2-cell mouse embryos using propanediol did not cause zona hardening but induced a small and significant softening, as gauged by the time taken for zona dissolution (2181 +/- 167 versus 1864 +/- 82 s). Zona hardening was not suspected to occur after the freezing of human embryos as there was no difference in implantation rates per embryo for in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment cycles between fresh [IVF: 63/644 (9.7%); ICSI: 51/330 (15.5%)] and frozen embryos [IVF: 36/458 (7.9%); ICSI: 18/112 (16.1%)]. Conversely, significant hardening of the zonae of mature oocytes was seen following cryopreservation (747 +/- 393 s) compared with freshly ovulated oocytes (151 +/- 68 s). It is concluded that (i) the freezing of murine oocytes with propanediol results in zona hardening, implying a possible benefit of ICSI after the cryopreservation of human oocytes, and (ii) the cryopreservation of embryos is not associated with zona hardening or reduced implantation, making microdissection of the zona in such cases generally unwarranted.

  18. Walking in Balance: Native American Recovery Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Owen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews Native American ritual practices, frameworks and key concepts employed by several substance abuse treatments centres in the U.S. and Canada. It also examines the way Alcoholics Anonymous’ Twelve Step programme has been modified to attract and serve the needs of Native Americans and First Nations and its potential impact on the ritual practices. Native concepts of wellbeing are highlighted and linked to the idea of living in “balance”.

  19. Constructing MBBR whit computer programme Aquifas

    OpenAIRE

    Belca, Matjaž

    2008-01-01

    I am describing MBBR reactor in dissertation (moving bed biofilm reactor) and contemporarily use of procedure at cleaning of sewage. I tested a different programmes of useful at design waste water treatment plants. Only some from these is alow design MBBR reactor. MBBR reactor is in large extent was used for BOD/COD removal, as also for nitrification and denitrification at public utility and industrial sewages. I am concentrating on public utility sewages in dissertation. Showed is use MBBR i...

  20. Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernatus Martin Mkupasi

    Full Text Available Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs.

  1. Anthelmintic Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains against the Gill Fish Trematode Centrocestus formosanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Estrada, Luis Javier; Hernández-Velázquez, Víctor Manuel; Arenas-Sosa, Iván; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Peña-Chora, Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic agents, such as helminths, are the most important biotic factors affecting aquaculture, and the fluke Centrocestus formosanus is considered to be highly pathogenic in various fish species. There have been efforts to control this parasite with chemical helminthicides, but these efforts have had unsuccessful results. We evaluated the anthelmintic effect of 37 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against C. formosanus metacercariae in vitro using two concentrations of total protein, and only six strains produced high mortality. The virulence (CL50) on matacercariae of three strains was obtained: the GP308, GP526, and ME1 strains exhibited a LC50 of 146.2 μg/mL, 289.2 μg/mL, and 1721.9 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, these six B. thuringiensis strains were evaluated against the cercariae of C. formosanus; the LC50 obtained from the GP526 strain with solubilized protein was 83.8 μg/mL, and it could be considered as an alternative control of the metacercariae and cercariae of this parasite in the productivity systems of ornamental fishes. PMID:27294137

  2. A review of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions with the anthelmintic medications albendazole and mebendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluk, Shane Ashley; Roels, Craig Allan; Wilby, Kyle John; Ensom, Mary H H

    2015-04-01

    Medications indicated for helminthes and other parasitic infections are frequently being used in mass populations in endemic areas. Currently, there is a lack of guidance for clinicians on how to appropriately manage drug interactions when faced with patients requiring short-term anthelmintic therapy with albendazole or mebendazole while concurrently taking other agents. The objective of this review was to systematically summarize and evaluate published literature on the pharmacokinetics of albendazole or mebendazole when taken with other interacting medications. A search of MEDLINE (1946 to October 2014), EMBASE (1974 to October 2014), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to October 2014), Google, and Google Scholar was conducted for articles describing the pharmacokinetics of albendazole or mebendazole when given with other medications (and supplemented by a bibliographic review of all relevant articles). Altogether, 17 articles were included in the review. Studies reported data on pharmacokinetic parameters for albendazole or mebendazole when taken with cimetidine, dexamethasone, ritonavir, phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, ivermectin, praziquantel, diethylcarbamazine, azithromycin, and levamisole. Cimetidine increased the elimination half-life of albendazole and maximum concentration (Cmax) of mebendazole; dexamethasone increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of albendazole; levamisole decreased the Cmax of albendazole; anticonvulsants (phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine) decreased the AUC of albendazole; praziquantel increased the AUC of albendazole; and ritonavir decreased the AUC of both albendazole and mebendazole. No major interactions were found with ivermectin, azithromycin, or diethylcarbamazine. Future research is required to clarify the clinical relevance of the interactions observed.

  3. Anthelmintic effects of the essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae) against Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Kamila A L; de Melo, Nathalya I; Aguiar, Daniela P; de Oliveira, Pollyanna F; Groppo, Milton; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Cunha, Wilson R; Tavares, Denise C; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Crotti, Antônio E M

    2015-07-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae), known as fennel, is a widespread aromatic herbaceous plant, and its essential oil is used as additive in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and perfume industries. The in vitro antischistosomal activity and cytotoxic effects against V79 cells of the essential oil of F. vulgare cultivated in southeastern Brazil (FV-EO) was investigated. The FV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. (E)-Anethole (69.8%) and limonene (22.5%) were identified as the major constituents. Its anthelmintic activity against Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg/ml, and it was found to be active against adult S. mansoni worms, although it was less effective than the positive control praziquantel (PZQ) in terms of separation of the coupled pairs, mortality, and decreased motor activity. However, FV-EO elicited an interesting dose-dependent reduction in the number of S. mansoni eggs. On their own, (E)-anethole and the limonene enantiomers were much less effective than FV-EO and PZQ. An XTT-cytotoxicity-based assay evidenced no FV-EO cytotoxicity against V79 cells. In summary, FV-EO displayed moderate in vitro schistosomicidal activity against adult S. mansoni worms, exerted remarkable inhibitory effects on the egg development, and was of low toxicity.

  4. Anthelmintic efficacy against tissue-arrested larvae of Ancylostoma caninum in murine hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasu, P

    1998-12-01

    Third-stage larvae of the major human and canine Ancylostoma hookworm species have the capacity to undergo developmental arrest in the somatic tissues of an infected host. Arrested larvae reactivate at opportune periods such as pregnancy, which results in the transmammary transmission of infection to the nursing neonates. Using murine paratenic hosts to focus specifically on tissue-arrested stages of Ancylostoma caninum, the present study found that neither recommended nor elevated doses of commonly used anthelmintics were effective in eliminating latent infections at the accepted standard of greater than 90% reduction in parasite burden. Of the drugs tested, i.e., pyrantel, fenbendazole, ivermectin, and milbemycin, ivermectin was the most effective and engendered an 80% reduction in the burden of tissue-arrested A. caninum larvae but only if administered repeatedly or at elevated doses. Studies in 2 inbred mouse strains, BALB/c (H-2b) and C57BL/6 (H-2d), that typically display divergent immune responses to various infections showed no significant differences in the efficacies of the drugs tested. The results of this study indicate that there is still a need for effective strategies of eradicating latent infections with tissue-arrested hookworm larvae.

  5. Efficacy and safety of anthelmintics tested against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    Porcine cysticercosis, an infection caused by Taenia solium metacestodes, is continuously being reported in low-income countries of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The disease was declared eradicable by the International Task Force for Diseases Eradication (ITFDE) in 1993, and it is listed among the 17 WHO Neglected Tropical Diseases and Neglected Zoonoses that are potentially eradicable. In view of that, WHO has proposed a step-wise approach to its elimination, including chemotherapy of infected pigs. Different drugs have been tested on porcine cysticercosis with varying efficacies. These include flubendazole, fenbendazole, albendazole, albendazole sulphoxide, oxfendazole, praziquantel, and nitazoxanide. This review summarises available information on the efficacies and adverse effects shown by these drugs in pigs. Oxfendazole has shown to be effective for the control of porcine cysticercosis; however, it needs to be integrated with other control approaches. There is a need for standardised guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics against porcine cysticercosis, and more efficacy studies are needed since the conclusions so far are based on a limited number of studies using few infected pigs.

  6. WIPO Re:Search: Accelerating anthelmintic development through cross-sector partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa Ramamoorthi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, malaria, and tuberculosis have a devastating effect on an estimated 1.6 billion people worldwide. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO Re:Search consortium accelerates the development of new drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics for these diseases by connecting the assets and resources of pharmaceutical companies, such as compound libraries and expertise, to academic or nonprofit researchers with novel product discovery or development ideas. As the WIPO Re:Search Partnership Hub Administrator, BIO Ventures for Global Health (BVGH fields requests from researchers, identifies Member organizations able to fulfill these requests, and helps forge mutually beneficial collaborations. Since its inception in October 2011, WIPO Re:Search membership has expanded to more than 90 institutions, including leading pharmaceutical companies, universities, nonprofit research institutions, and product development partnerships from around the world. To date, WIPO Re:Search has facilitated over 70 research agreements between Consortium Members, including 11 collaborations focused on anthelmintic drug discovery.

  7. [Anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves (Rutaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peneluc, Taíse; Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; de Almeida, Gisele Nunes; Ayres, Maria Consuelo Caribé; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Trindade; da Cruz, Ana Carla Ferreira; dos Santos Calmon de Bittencourt, Thereza Cristina Bório; de Almeida, Maria Angela Ornelas; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

    2009-12-01

    The study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium leaves in two experiments. In vitro test, cultures of goat fecal samples were treated with different concentrations of extract (134.5 to 335.0 mg.mL(-1)). In vivo test was composed of 20 sheep: G1: treated with 0.63 g.kg(-1), during four days; G2: same dose, for eight days; G3: ivermectin (200 microg.kg(-1)) and G4 untreated group. In vitro results showed a reduction of Haemonchus spp, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. larvae greater than 95% in the concentrations between 335.0 and 193.7 mg.mL(-1). Faecal egg counting reduction was 51, 56 and 90% in G1, G2 and G3, respectively, while immature stages and adults ranged from 0 to 91% in G1 and from 26 to 94% in G2. Ivermectin effectiveness was 99% for L4 and L5 of H. contortus and 100% for other nematodes species. Clinical and biochemical parameters have remained in the normality and histophatologic analyses did not show alteration suggesting absence of toxicity. Although the great effectiveness of Z. rhoifolium leaves extract in vitro test, it displayed poor efficiency in vivo regarding gastrointestinal nematodes reduction.

  8. Anthelmintic drug albendazole arrests human gastric cancer cells at the mitotic phase and induces apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhao, Jing; Gao, Xiangyang; Pei, Dongsheng; Gao, Chao

    2017-01-01

    As microtubules have a vital function in the cell cycle, oncologists have developed microtubule inhibitors capable of preventing uncontrolled cell division, as in the case of cancer. The anthelmintic drug albendazole (ABZ) has been demonstrated to inhibit hepatocellular, ovarian and prostate cancer cells via microtubule targeting. However, its activity against human gastric cancer (GC) cells has remained to be determined. In the present study, ABZ was used to treat GC cells (MKN-45, SGC-7901 and MKN-28). A a CCK-8 cell proliferation assay was performed to assess the effects of ABZ on cell viability and cell cycle changes were assessed using flow cytometry. SGC-7901 cells were selected for further study, and flow cytometry was employed to determine the apoptotic rate, immunofluorescence analysis was employed to show changes of the microtubule structure as well as the subcellular localization and expression levels of cyclin B1, and western blot analysis was used to identify the dynamics of microtubule assembly. The expression levels of relevant proteins, including cyclin B1 and Cdc2, the two subunits of mitosis-promoting factor as well as apoptosis-asociated proteins were also assessed by western blot analysis. The results showed that ABZ exerted its anti-cancer activity in GC cell lines by disrupting microtubule formation and function to cause mitotic arrest, which is also associated with the accumulation of cyclin B1, and consequently induces apoptosis.

  9. Free radical scavenging, antidiarrheal and anthelmintic activity of Pistia stratiotes L. extracts and its phytochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Karim, Mohammed Faisal; Imam, Hasan; Sarker, Md Moklesur-Rahman; Uddin, Nizam; Hasan, Nahid; Paul, Nirmala; Haque, Tahmina

    2015-05-01

    In this phyto-pharmacological screening of Pistia stratiotes L leaf and root extracts each separately in two different solvents demonstrated its potential medicinal value. Apparent antioxidant value is demonstrated by DPPH, Nitric oxide scavenging and Ferric ion reducing method. Additionally, total flavonoid and phenolic compounds were measured. The leaf methanolic extract scavenged both nitric oxide (NO) and DPPH radical with a dose dependent manner. But the pet ether fraction of root was found to have highest efficacy in Fe(3±) reducing power assay. Flavonoid was found to contain highest in the pet ether fraction of root (411.35mg/g) in terms of quercetin equivalent, similarly highest amount (34.96mg/g) of total phenolic compounds (assayed as gallic acid equivalents) were found to contain in the same fraction. The methanolic fractions appeared less cytotoxic compared to pet ether extracts. The plant extracts caused a dose dependent decrease in faecal droppings in both castor oil and magnesium sulphate induced diarrhea, where as leaf extracts in each solvent appeared most effective. Also, the plant extracts showed anthelmintic activity in earthworm by inducing paralysis and death in a dose dependent manner. At highest doses (50 mg/ml) all fractions were almost effective as the positive control piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml). Thus, besides this cytotoxic effect it's traditional claim for therapeutic use can never be overlooked.

  10. Cassia alata L: potential role as anthelmintic agent against Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Suman; Roy, Saptarshi; Lyndem, Larisha M

    2012-09-01

    The efficacy of Cassia alata against cestode Hymenolepis diminuta was evaluated in our study. Worms were maintained between rat model and beetle. Air-dried leaves of C. alata were subjected to ethanol extraction. Different concentrations (10-80 mg/ml) of the extract were prepared in phosphate buffer saline and tested on the parasite in vitro. Parasites treated with C. alata showed a decrease in motility with an increase in concentrations and complete immobilization took lesser time compared to control. The paralyzed parasites were further processed for electron microscopic studies. Ultrastructural micrographs revealed swelling of the tegument and blebbing on the tegumental surface throughout the body accompanied with destruction of microtriches and changes such as shrinkage in the scolex region. Depletion of parenchyma cells and destruction in the connective tissues along with sparsely cytoplasmic cytons were also observed, and these observations are similar with worms treated with a known drug praziquantel. These results may suggest that the plant leaves could be considered for controlling helminth infection and can represent a step forward in the search for alternative anthelmintic drug.

  11. UV/Visible Spectroscopic Quantification of Veterinary Anthelmintic Drug Oxfendazole in Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendraprasad, N.; Basavaiah, K.

    2016-07-01

    Oxfendazole (OFA) is a broad spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic medication used to treat veterinary diseases. Two new, simple, rapid, precise and accurate, and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the assay of OFA in its pure form and in its boluses. The first method (method A) is based on the measurement of green colored manganate obtained due to oxidation of OFA by permanganate in an alkaline medium at 610 nm. In the second method (Method B), the chromophoric activity of OFA is measured at 290 nm in the acetic acid-water (1:1) solvent system. OFA has been quantified over the linear ranges of 1.25-12.5 and 1.25-10 μg/mL in method A and method B, respectively, with apparent molar absorptivity values of 2.54 × 104 and 2.13 × 104 L·mol-1·cm-1. The limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and Sandell sensitivity values are 0.15 u 0.18 μg/mL, 0.46 and 0.56 μg/mL, and 0.0124 and 0.0148 μg/cm2. The developed methods were successfully applied to determine OFA in the bolus. No interference from adjuvants was observed.

  12. Programmable fast data acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montebugnoli, S.; Bianchi, G.; Zoni, L.

    The goal of this work is to investigate the possibility to install on modern radiotelescopes a fast and programmable backend instead of several backends, each dedicated to a single acquisition task. Such an approach could lower the costs and make available a more compact and flexible back end. Exploiting the state-of-the-art of the FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) and innovative architectures, a programmable system might be conceived.

  13. Programmable pH buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  14. 可调压式分流管治疗小儿脑积水的临床观察%Clinical efficiency of programmable shunt valve in treatment of hydrocephalus in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟碹; 梁平; 夏佐中; 周渝冬; 李禄生

    2011-01-01

    Objective To summarize our experience and assess the clinical value of the programmable shunt valve in treatment of hydrocephalus in children. Methods A total of 24 children (at age of 8 months to 11.2 years old, and mean age of 5. 7 years old) with hydrocephalus who underwent Ventriculo-peritoneal (V-P) shunt surgery and programmable valve implantation during operation were retrospectively analyzed. The opening pressure was settled based on intraoperative intraventricular pressure, clinical manifestation and imaging results. Postoperative regulator opening pressure was adjusted according to clinical improvement and imaging results after operation. Results After operation, adjusting valve pressure was performed for 0 to 4 times, mean 2.6 times. All the cases were followed up for 3 to 28 months, and their clinical symptoms were relieved or disappeared. CT examination showed size of ventricle was reduced compared with preoperative in all cases. Postoperative infection was found in 2 cases, and shunt obstruction in 1 case. Conclusion Programmable shunt valve has the advantages of individual pressure setting, and effectively preventing excessive and insuffi-cient segregation postoperatively.%目的 总结可调压式分流管治疗小儿脑积水的经验,探讨其临床应用价值.方法 回顾性分析24例植入可调压式分流管治疗的不同类型脑积水患儿的病情转归.患儿均行脑室-腹腔分流术,根据术中脑脊液测压结果并结合患儿临床表现、影像学检查等因素设定调压阀开放压力的初始值,术后根据患儿临床表现的改善情况及影像学复查结果进行调压阀开放压力调整.结果 术后调压次数0~4次,平均2.6次.随访3~28个月,患儿临床症状均明显缓解或消失,CT检查显示脑室均较术前缩小.术后感染2例,分流管梗阻1例.结论 可调压式分流管具有压力设定个体化的优点,在小儿脑积水治疗中疗效优于固定压力分流管,可有效避免

  15. Resistência anti-helmíntica em rebanhos caprinos no Estado do Ceará Anthelmintic resistance in goat herds in the State of Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Silva Vieira

    1999-07-01

    treatment and 7 days later, to provide material for egg counts and larval cultures. Among 34 surveyed herds 20.6% showed levamisole resistance, 17.6% showed resistance to benzimidazole, and 35.3% had multiple resistance. At the time of the assessment 52.9% of the farmers were using broad spectrum anthelmintics. Only 26.5% of the surveyed herds had nematode populations susceptible to the anthelmintics assessed. The results of larval cultures showed that larvae surviving the treatment with oxfendazole were mainly Haemonchus sp and, to a lesser extent, Oesophagostomum sp; those surviving levamisole treatment were Haemonchus sp, Oesophagostomum sp and Trichostrongylus sp.

  16. Photovoltaic programme - edition 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules and building integration, system technologies, planning and operating aids is summarised. Also, PV for applications in developing countries, thermo-photovoltaics and international co-operation are commented on. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and noise barriers as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and further PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents the abstracts of reports made by the project managers of 73 research and pilot and demonstration projects in these areas for 2002.

  17. Programmable ferroelectric tunnel memristor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy eQuindeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an analogously programmable memristor based on genuine electronic resistive switching combining ferroelectric switching and electron tunneling. The tunnel current through an 8 unit cell thick epitaxial Pb(Zr[0.2]Ti[0.8]O[3] film sandwiched between La[0.7]Sr[0.3]MnO[3] and cobalt electrodes obeys the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model for bidimensional growth with a characteristic switching time in the order of 10^-7 seconds. The analytical description of switching kinetics allows us to develop a characteristic transfer function that has only one parameter viz. the characteristic switching time and fully predicts the resistive states of this type of memristor.

  18. World association for the advancement of veterinary parasitology (WAAVP): second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, D R; Bauer, C; Boray, J C; Conder, G A; Daugschies, A; Johansen, M-V; Maddox-Hyttel, C; Roepstorff, A

    2006-10-10

    Guidelines are provided for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine which, in conjunction with other sets of guidance such as those of the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH GL7 and VICH GL16), should encourage the adoption of uniform registration requirements globally. Testing of efficacy should be carried out according to the principles of "Good Clinical Practice" (VICH GL9, 2000). Data obtained according to these guidelines should be internationally acceptable for the registration of anthelmintics for swine. Further, the use of the guidelines should expedite development, government review, and approval of anthelmintics for swine, as well as contribute towards reducing costs and the number of experimental animals used for drug testing.

  19. Comparison of the caries-protective effect of fluoride varnish with treatment as usual in nursery school attendees receiving preventive oral health support through the Childsmile oral health improvement programme. The Protecting Teeth@3 Study: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, William; Turner, Stephen; Anopa, Yulia; McIntosh, Emma; Wu, Olivia; Conway, David I.; Macpherson, Lorna M. D.; Alex D McMahon

    2015-01-01

    Background The Scottish Government set out its policy on addressing the poor oral health of Scottish children in 2005. This led to the establishment of Childsmile, a national programme designed to improve the oral health of children in Scotland. One element of the programme promotes daily tooth brushing in all nurseries in Scotland (Childsmile Core). A second targeted component (Childsmile Nursery) offers twice-yearly application of fluoride varnish to children attending nurseries in deprived...

  20. Treatment of multiple resistant field strain of Ostertagia spp. in Cashmere and Angora goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, M; Praslicka, J; Corba, J

    1994-05-01

    A multiple resistant field strain of gastro-intestinal nematodes was detected in Cashmere and Angora goats imported from New Zealand. Different treatments with three types of broad spectrum anthelmintics (albendazole, levamisole/tetramisole and ivermectin) at various dose rates are described. Satisfactory effect in Angora goats was not achieved until all three anthelmintics were administered simultaneously at twice the normal sheep dose. Post mortem worm counts and identification revealed that the resistant population consisted of 89% Ostertagia circumcincta, 6% Ostertagia ostertagi and 5% Ostertagia trifurcata. However, egg hatch assay carried out seven months later detected the presence of resistant nematodes again.

  1. Programmable architecture for quantum computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Wang, L.; Charbon, E.; Wang, B.

    2013-01-01

    A programmable architecture called “quantum FPGA (field-programmable gate array)” (QFPGA) is presented for quantum computing, which is a hybrid model combining the advantages of the qubus system and the measurement-based quantum computation. There are two kinds of buses in QFPGA, the local bus and t

  2. SWOV programme 2003-2006.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    SWOV uses a four-year programme to structure its activities over a longer period of time. The current four-year programme, for 2003-2006, includes proposals for so-called planning office activities, anticipatory research, knowledge management, and knowledge dissemination. The research activities are

  3. An automatic bibliography indexing programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Morris

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available A relatively simple FORTRAN IV programme, designed for a small computer, for author and key-word indexes to bibliographic records is described, and examples of output are given. It is com­pared with some other systems. Suggested improvements to the programme are given.

  4. Japan's Eco-School Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, several ministries in Japan have collaborated on an eco-school programme, which applies to both newly constructed and renovated school buildings, in an effort to make its schools more environmentally friendly. The programme equips school buildings with ecological features such as photovoltaic cells, solar thermal collectors, other new…

  5. In vivo anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa in village chickens naturally infected with Heterakis gallinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwale, Marizvikuru; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa against Heterakis gallinarum in village chickens. The chickens naturally infected with H. gallinarum were randomly divided into 14 groups of eight chickens and orally administered distilled water (negative control), mebendazole (positive control), and graded levels (50-, 100-, 200-, and 400-mg/kg doses) of the three plant extracts. At days 0, 7, and 14, the floatation technique was used to determine fecal egg counts and H. gallinarum worms from chicken ceca were counted at days 0 and 14. Egg count reduction percentage (ECR%) was high at day 7 for all the test materials except for A. sisalana (100 mg/kg) that had 33%. At day 14, ECR% was high for all the other test materials save for A. ferox (200 mg/kg), mebendazole, and distilled water which was 50, 32, and 50%, respectively. A. ferox (200 mg/kg), G. perpensa (200 and 400 mg/kg), and A. sisalana (50 and 100 mg/kg) had the highest (85, 78, 74, 86, and 73%, respectively) worm count reduction percentage. The plants had anthelmintic properties. Advocacy and utilization of these plants in improving the health of village chickens could lead to increased productivity, boosting profits for the poultry industry thereby enabling it to meet the supply of animal protein and enhance livelihoods. It is imperative to determine compounds in the crude extracts of these medicinal plants which are responsible for the anthelmintic activities and their mechanism of action.

  6. A comparative study on the efficacy of four anthelmintics on some important reindeer parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Nordkvist

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available Four anthelmintic preparations were tested against some of the most important parasites of reindeer, i.e. warble fly (Oedemagena tarandi, nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe, brainworm (Elaphostrongylus rangiferi, and lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus. Their efficacy against intestinal nematodes was also registered. Test drugs were Fenthion (Bayer, Fenbendazole (Hoechst, Mebendazole (Janssen, and Ivermectin (Merk Sharp & Dohme. Against O. tarandi and C. trompe Ivermectin was 100% effective and Fenthion 86 and 100% respectively. The efficacy of Fen- and Mebendazole against these parasites was not significant. Against E. rangiferi the benzimidazole compounds were highly effective, with Mebendazole a bit ahead. Ivermectin had a moderate effect and Fenthion had no effect on this parasite. Against D. viviparus Fenbendazole, Mebendazole and Ivermectin were of equal, moderate-high effectiveness. No drug had a complete effect on the «arrested» larvae of D. viviparus. Fenthion had no effect at all. Fenbendazole and Ivermectin were both 100% effective against intestinal nematodes. Mebendazole was less effective and Fenthion had no effects. Ivermectin is considered to be the overall most effective anthelmintic in this test.En jamforande studie av effekten av fyra anthelmintika mot några betydelsesfulla parasiter hos ren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag: Fyra antiparasitmedel har prôvats mot några av renens viktigaste parasiter, nàmligen hudkorm (Oedemagena tarandi, svalgkorm (Cephenemyia trompe, hjårnmask (Elaphostrongylus rangiferi och lungmask (Dictyocaulus viviparus. Vidare har medlens effekt på mag- tarmnematoder (Trichostongylider också noterats. De prôvade medicinerna var Fenthion (Bayer, Mebendazole (Leo/Janssen, Fenbendazole (Hoechst och Ivermectin (Merck Sharp & Dohme. Mot hud- och svalgkorm var Ivermectin 100% effektivt medan for Fenthion effekten var 86 resp 100%. Effekten av Fen- och Mebendazole mot de båda parasiterna var inte

  7. In vitro screening of plant lectins and tropical plant extracts for anthelmintic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-de Álvarez, L; Jackson, F; Greer, A; Bartley, Y; Bartley, D J; Grant, G; Huntley, J F

    2012-05-25

    Lectins are plant secondary metabolites (PSM) found in many forages and which may confer anthelmintic properties to gastrointestinal parasites through disrupting the development of parasitic larvae throughout its life cycle. In experiment 1, the ability of the plant lectins jacalin (JAC), concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin E2L2 (PHA-E2L2), phytohemagglutinin L4 (PHA-L4), phytohemagglutinin E3L (PHA-E3L), kidney bean albumin (KBA), Robinia pseudoacacia agglutinin (RPA), Maackia amurensis lectin (MAA), Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MAA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) to disrupt the feeding of the first stage larvae (L(1)) of the sheep gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis was investigated using a larval feeding inhibition test (LFIT). Only PHA-E3L, WGA and Con A had a potent effect on disrupting larval feeding of all of the three species of GIN investigated. The lectin concentration required to inhibit feeding in 50% of L(1) (IC50) was 7.3±1.2, 8.3±1.4 and 4.3±1.7 μg/ml for PHA-E3L; 59.1±32.4, 58.7±11.9 and 8.1±7.0 μg/ml for Con A and 78.9±11.2, 69.4±8.1 and 28.0±14.1 μg/ml for WGA for T. circumcincta, H. contortus and T. colubriformis larvae, respectively (P=0.006). The addition of the lectin inhibitors fetuin, glucose/mannose or N-acetylglucosamine for PHA-E3L, Con A and WGA, respectively, caused an increase in the proportion of larvae that had fed at all concentrations for PHA-E3L only. In experiment 2, the effect of extracts from the tropical plants Azadiractha indica, Trichanthera gigantea, Morus alba, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala on the feeding behaviour of H. contortus L(1,) was examined. A. indica, T. gigantea and M. alba failed to inhibit 50% of larvae from feeding at concentrations up to 10mg plant extract per ml. In contrast, both G. sepium and L. leucocephala demonstrated

  8. Impact of chemical structure of flavanol monomers and condensed tannins on in vitro anthelmintic activity against bovine nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Fryganas, Christos; Ropiak, Honorata M.

    2016-01-01

    Plants containing condensed tannins (CT) may have potential to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle. The aim was to investigate the anthelmintic activities of four flavan-3-ols, two galloyl derivatives and 14 purified CT fractions, and to define which structural features of CT...... determine the anti-parasitic effects against the main cattle nematodes. We used in vitro tests targeting L1 larvae (feeding inhibition assay) and adults (motility assay) of Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora. In the larval feeding inhibition assay, O. ostertagi L1 were significantly more...

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity of novel fluorinated 7-ethyl-10-phenothiazines, their sulphones and ribofuranosides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naveen Gautam; Abhilasha Yadav; Nishidha Khandelwal; D C Gautam

    2014-01-01

    A series of novel fluorinated 10-phenothiazines were synthesized via Smiles rearrangement. 10-phenothiazines on refluxing with 30% hydrogen peroxide in glacial acetic acid gave 10-phenothiazines-5, 5-dioxides (sulphones). These synthesized 10-phenothiazines were then used as base to prepare ribofuranosides by treating them with sugar (-D-ribofuranosyl- 1-acetate-2, 3, 5-tribenzoate). The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity and anthelmintic activity. The structural assignments of compounds were made on the basis of spectroscopic data and elemental analysis.

  10. Impact of chemical structure of flavanol monomers and condensed tannins on in vitro anthelmintic activity against bovine nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Fryganas, Christos; Ropiak, Honorata M.;

    2016-01-01

    Plants containing condensed tannins (CT) may have potential to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle. The aim was to investigate the anthelmintic activities of four flavan-3-ols, two galloyl derivatives and 14 purified CT fractions, and to define which structural features of CT...... susceptible to all CT fractions than C. oncophora L1. The mean degree of polymerization of CT (i.e. average size) was the most important structural parameter: large CT reduced larval feeding more than small CT. The flavan-3-ols of prodelphinidin (PD)-type tannins had a stronger negative influence on parasite...

  11. Achilles and Patellar Tendinopathy Loading Programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malliaras, Peter; Barton, Christian J; Reeves, Neil D;

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Achilles and patellar tendinopathy are overuse injuries that are common among athletes. Isolated eccentric muscle training has become the dominant conservative management strategy for Achilles and patellar tendinopathy but, in some cases, up to 45 % of patients may not respond....... Eccentric-concentric progressing to eccentric (Silbernagel combined) and eccentric-concentric isotonic (heavy-slow resistance; HSR) loading have also been investigated. In order for clinicians to make informed decisions, they need to be aware of the loading options and comparative evidence. The mechanisms...... of loading also need to be elucidated in order to focus treatment to patient deficits and refine loading programmes in future studies. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are to evaluate the evidence in studies that compare two or more loading programmes in Achilles and patellar tendinopathy...

  12. Analysis of putative inhibitors of anthelmintic resistance mechanisms in cattle gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGusbi, Salha; Krücken, Jürgen; Ramünke, Sabrina; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina

    2014-08-01

    Effects of the cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide and the P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil on the efficacy of ivermectin and thiabendazole were studied in vitro in susceptible and resistant isolates of the cattle parasitic nematodes Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi. The effects of combined use of drug and piperonyl butoxide/verapamil, respectively, were investigated in the Egg Hatch Assay, the Larval Development Assay and the Larval Migration Inhibition Assay. The effects of piperonyl butoxide and verapamil as inhibitors of thiabendazole and ivermectin responses were particularly marked for larval development, where both inhibitors were able to completely eliminate all differences between susceptible and resistant isolates. Even the lowest concentrations of anthelmintics used in combination with inhibitors caused complete inhibition of development. Differences and/or similarities among responses in different isolates were only obtained in the two other assays: in the Egg Hatch Assay piperonyl butoxide caused a shift in concentration-response curves obtained with thiabendazole to the left for all isolates tested, changing relative differences between isolates. In contrast, an effect of verapamil in the Egg Hatch Assay was only apparent for benzimidazole-resistant isolates. In the Larval Migration Inhibition Assay only ivermectin was tested and piperonyl butoxide shifted the concentration-response curves for all isolates to the left, again eliminating differences in EC50 values between susceptible and resistant isolates. This was not the case using verapamil as an inhibitor, where curves for both susceptible and benzimidazole-resistant isolates shifted to the left in Ostertagia isolates. In Cooperia the picture was more complex with ivermectin-resistant isolates showing a larger shift than the susceptible isolate. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene were investigated. Significantly increased frequencies of

  13. Characterization of Haemonchus contortus P-glycoprotein-16 and its interaction with the macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, P; Che, H; Beech, R N; Prichard, R K

    2015-11-01

    Anthelmintic resistance in veterinary nematodes, including Haemonchus contortus, has become a limitation to maintaining high standards of animal health. Resistance in this parasite, to all drug families including the macrocyclic lactones (MLs) is a serious issue worldwide. Mechanisms of resistance to the MLs appear to be complex and to include the elimination of these compounds by ABC transporter-like proteins present in nematodes. In order to investigate the potential involvement of ABC transporters in ML resistance in H. contortus, we have characterized the functionality of the ABC transporter H. contortus P-glycoprotein-16 (Hco-PGP-16) expressed in mammalian cells. This has included a study of its interaction with different MLs, including the avermectins, abamectin (ABA) and ivermectin (IVM), and the milbemycin, moxidectin (MOX). Hco-PGP-16 transport activity was studied using the fluorophore Rhodamine 123 (Rho 123). Transfected cells expressing Hco-PGP-16 accumulated less than 50% of Rho 123 than control cells, suggesting an active transport of this tracer dye by Hco-PGP-16. The influence of the MLs on the Rho123 transport by Hco-PGP-16 was then investigated. A marked inhibition of Rho123 transport by ABA and IVM was observed. In contrast, MOX showed less effect on inhibition of Rho123 transport by Hco-PGP-16, and the inhibition was not saturable. The difference in the interaction of the avermectins and MOX with Hco-PGP-16 may help explain the slower rate of development of resistance to MOX compared with the avermectins in H. contortus.

  14. [Anthelmintic Effects Of Single Doses Of Fenbendazole And Oxantel-Pyrantel Pamoate To The Intestinal Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Han Jong; Lee, Joon Sang; Joo, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Yung Shik

    1981-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anthelmintic effects of fenbendazole against intestinal nematode; Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura, and to compare the efficacy in fenbendazole, oxantel-pyrantel pamoate and placebo by means of double blind method. Out of 114 subjects harbouring Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura, 36 cases were treated with single dose of fenbendazole, 38 cases with oxantel-pyrantel pamoate, and the remaining 40 cases had received the placebo. The results were as follows: 1. In the group treated with fenbendazole (30~50 mg/kg), the cure rates were 83.9 per cent in 31 subjects with Ascaris lumbricoides and 83.3 per cent in 18 subjects with hookworm, and only 28.6 per cent in 28 subjects with T. trichiura respectively. 2. In the group treated with a single dose of oxantel-pyrantel pamoate (10 mg/mg), the cure rates were 96.7 per cent in 30 subjects with A. lumbricoides, 95.2 per cent in 21 subjects with hookworm, and 54.6 per cent in 33 subjects with T. trichiura. Egg reduction rate was 85.7 per cent in T. trichiura cases. 3. On the other hand, the egg negative conversion rates in placebo group were 9.7, 8.3 and 33.3 per cent in Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm infections respectively. 4. The above results showed that fenbendazole was highly effective against Ascaris and hookworm. However, incomparisom with oxantel-pyrantel pamoate, fenbendazole was less effective in regards of A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura infections.

  15. Heterologous Expression in Remodeled C. elegans: A Platform for Monoaminergic Agonist Identification and Anthelmintic Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Law

    2015-04-01

    the identification of ligands for a host of potential anthelmintic targets.

  16. Evaluation of a communication and stress management training programme for infertile couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lone; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Boivin, Jackey;

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluates a patient education programme focussed on improving communication and stress management skills among couples in fertility treatment.......This study evaluates a patient education programme focussed on improving communication and stress management skills among couples in fertility treatment....

  17. Summer Student Lecture Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 More Information DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Wednesday 7 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Fayard, O. Ullaland, D. Heagerty (CERN) Programme Presentation Workshops presentation Information on Computing Rules 10:15 - 11:00 R. Aymar (CERN) Introduction to CERN (1/2) 11:15 - 12:00 J. Engelen (CERN) Introduction to CERN (2/2) 15:00 - 16:30 H. Menzel (CERN) An Introduction to Radiation Protection DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Thursday 8 july 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (1/4) 10:15 - 11:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (2/4) 11:15 - 12:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Fundamental questions in modern nuclear physics: The challenge of exotic nuclei (1/2) DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Friday 9 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (3/4) 10:15 - 11:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Fundamental questions in modern nuclear physics: The challenge of exotic nuclei (2/2) 11:15 - 12:00 P....

  18. SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500   DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Monday 29 July 09:15 - 10:00 R. RATTAZZI Beyond the Standard Model (3/3) 10:15 - 11:00 P. WELLS Experimental test of the SM - LEP (3/3) 11:15 - 12:00 P. WELLS Discussion Session 14:00 - 16:00 R. ASSMANN The CLIC Concept for a Future Particle Collider at the Energy Frontier Tuesday 30 July 09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (1/2) 10:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (1&2/4) Wednesday 31 July  09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (2/2) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (3/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK / F. ANTINORI Discussion Session Thursday 1 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (1/4) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (4/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (1/2) Friday 2 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (2/4) 10:15 ? 11:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (2/2) 11:15 ? 12:00 F. BEDESCHI / T. NAKADA Di...

  19. FPGAs for software programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Hannig, Frank; Ziener, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book makes powerful Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and reconfigurable technology accessible to software engineers by covering different state-of-the-art high-level synthesis approaches (e.g., OpenCL and several C-to-gates compilers). It introduces FPGA technology, its programming model, and how various applications can be implemented on FPGAs without going through low-level hardware design phases. Readers will get a realistic sense for problems that are suited for FPGAs and how to implement them from a software designer’s point of view. The authors demonstrate that FPGAs and their programming model reflect the needs of stream processing problems much better than traditional CPU or GPU architectures, making them well-suited for a wide variety of systems, from embedded systems performing sensor processing to large setups for Big Data number crunching. This book serves as an invaluable tool for software designers and FPGA design engineers who are interested in high design productivity through behavi...

  20. Summer Student Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Date Time Title Speaker 05/07/2006 09:15 - 10:00 Presentation of the Summer Student Programme F. CERUTTI Information on Computing Rules D. HEAGERTY Workshops presentation O. ULLALAND 10:15 - 11:00 Introduction to CERN J. ENGELEN 11:15 Film on CERN 11:00 Introduction to Particle Physics F. CLOSE 11:15 - 12:00 Accelerators (1/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 12:00 Discussion Session 7/07/2006 09:15 - 11:00 Introduction to Particle Physics F. CLOSE 11:15 - 12:00 Accelerators (2/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 12:00 Discussion Session 09:15 - 10:00 Accelerators (3/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 10:15 - 12:00 Detectors (1-2/5) O. ULLALAND 12:00 Discussion Session 11/07/2006 09:15 - 10:00 Accelerators (4/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 10:15 - 11:00 Detectors (3/5) O. ULLALAND 11:15 - 12:00 Introduction to Nuclear Physics (1/4) P. CHOMAZ P. CHOMAZ 10:15 - 11:00 Accelerators (5/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 11:15 - 12:00 Detectors (4/5) O. ULLALAND 12:00 Discus...

  1. Management and Communication programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2005-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of three new courses in the Management and Communication programme: 1.     Managing Time (Open to all Staff Members) The objectives are: To enhance your personal effectiveness through better organisation skills To acquire ways of making the most of your time through improved work habits To reduce stress For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/S8E_e.asp 2.     Service Orientation (Open to all Staff Members working in a service-related function) The objectives are: To understand the key elements in an effective client/service provider relationship To develop a client focused approach to providing services For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/serv_e.asp 3.   Introduction to Leadership (Open to Staff in Career Paths E & above, including newly appointed supervisors and Sect...

  2. Management and Communication programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2005-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of three new courses in the Management and Communication programme: 1.     Managing Time (Open to all Staff Members) The objectives are: To enhance your personal effectiveness through better organisation skills To acquire ways of making the most of your time through improved work habits To reduce stress For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/S8E_e.asp 2.     Service Orientation (Open to all Staff Members working in a service-related function) The objectives are: To understand the key elements in an effective client/service provider relationship To develop a client focused approach to providing services For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/serv_e.asp 3.   Introduction to Leadership (Open to Staff in Career Paths E & above, including newly appointed supervisors and Secti...

  3. The BGAN extension programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  4. ALICE pp physics programme

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The physics programme of the ALICE experiment at CERN-LHC comprises besides studies of high-energy heavy-ion collisions measurements of proton-proton interactions at unprecedented energies, too. This paper focuses on the global event characterisation in terms of the multiplicity distribution of charged hadrons and mean transverse momentum. These bulk observables become accessible because the detector features excellent track reconstruction, especially at low transverse momenta. The measurement of strange hadrons is of particular interest since the strange-particle phase-space was found to be suppressed beyond canonical reduction at lower center-of-mass energies and the production mechanism of soft particles is not yet fully understood. Here we benefit in particular from particle identification down to very low transverse momentum, i.e. 100 - 300 MeV/c, giving access to spectra and integrated yields of identified hadrons. Equipped with these features, ALICE will play a complementary role w.r.t. other LHC exper...

  5. Photovoltaic programme, edition 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration areas in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in future solar cell technologies as well as in the area of modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links and is completed with a collection of project abstracts.

  6. SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    Main Auditorium, bldg. 500   DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Wednesday 3 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. FAYARD, O. ULLALAND Presentation of the Summer Student Programm 10:15 - 12:00 L. MAIANI Introduction to CERN (1&2/2) 14:00 - 15:00 G. Stevenson Radiation Protection (Council Chamber, bldg.503) Thursday 4 July 09:15 - 11:00 F. CLOSE Introduction to Particle Physics for non Physics Students (1&2/4) 11:15 - 12:00 C. JORAM Particle Detectors (1/5) Friday 5 July 09:15 - 11:00 F. CLOSE Introduction to Particle Physics for non Physics Students (3&4/4) 11:15 - 12:00 Discussion Session Monday 8 July 09:15 - 10:00 R. KLEISS Fundamental Concepts of Particle Physics (1/6) 10:15 - 11:00 C. JORAM Particle Detectors (2/5) 11:15 - 12:00 M. FRANKLIN Classic Experiments (1/3) 14:00 - 15:00 M. LINDROOS Isolde 15:30 - 16:30 M. LINDROOS Visit of the Experiment Tuesday 9 july 09:15 - 10:00 R. KLEISS Fundamental Concepts of Particle Physics (2/6) 10:15 - 11:00 C. JORAM Part...

  7. CERN openlab summer student programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    CERN openlab is currently taking applications for its summer student programme. The closing date for applications is 31 March 2013.   The openlab summer student programme is open for applications from bachelor, master and PhD students in computer science and physics. Successful applicants will spend 9 weeks at CERN, during the period from June to September 2013, working with some of the latest hardware and software technologies. The programme is more than just a summer at CERN: it can lead to follow-on projects at the home institute and may even inspire students to become entrepreneurs in cutting-edge computing technologies. A series of lectures will be given by experts in various domains of CERN-related high-throughput computing. Study tours of external companies and universities as well as of CERN facilities are also part of the programme. Please visit the CERN openlab website for more information.

  8. CERN openlab Summer Student Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN openlab is currently taking applications for its summer student programme. The closing date for applications is 30 March 2012.   The openlab Summer Student Programme is open for applications from bachelor, master and PhD students in computer science and physics. Successful applicants will spend 8 weeks at CERN, during the period June to September 2012, to work with some of the latest hardware and software technologies. The programme is more than just a summer at CERN: it can lead to follow-on projects at the home institute and may even inspire the students to become entrepreneurs in cutting-edge computing technologies. A series of lectures will be given by experts in various domains of CERN related high-throughput computing. Study tours to external companies and universities as well as to CERN facilities are also part of the programme. Please visit www.cern.ch/openlab-students for more information.

  9. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, O. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Tiefenbeck, V. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Duvier, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Qin, A. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Cheney, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Akers, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Roth, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. The Fraunhofer team hypothesized that home occupants with high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostats. In this report, the team discusses results of a project in which the team monitored and compared programmable thermostats with basic thermostats in an affordable housing apartment complex.

  10. Assessment of the anthelmintic activity of medicinal plant extracts and purified condensed tannins against free-living and parasitic stages of Oesophagostomum dentatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Ropiak, Honorata M.; Fryganas, Christos

    2014-01-01

    . Oesophagostomum dentatum is an economically important parasite of pigs, as well as serving as a useful laboratory model of helminth parasites due to the ability to culture it in vitro for long periods through several life-cycle stages. Here, we investigated the anthelmintic effects of CT on multiple life cycle...

  11. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia annua L. extracts in vitro and the effect of an aqueous extract and artemisinin in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no effective natural alternative control for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants, with Haemonchus contortus being the most economically important GIN. Despite frequent reports of multidrug-resistant GIN, there is no new commercial anthelmintic to substitute failing ones. Alt...

  12. Analysis of anthelmintics in surface water by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrnčić, Mirta; Gros, Meritxell; Babić, Sandra; Kaštelan-Macan, Marija; Barcelo, Damia; Petrović, Mira

    2014-03-01

    A method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqLIT-MS) has been developed to investigate occurrence of 10 anthelmintic drugs from different structural groups (moxidectin, flubendazole, fenbendazole, levamisol, mebendazole, oxibendazole, albendazole, triclabendazole, febantel and praziquantel) in surface water. Analytes were pre-concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) using hydrophilic-lipophilic polymeric based sorbent. Quantification of investigated analytes was done using deuterated compounds as internal standards in order to minimize matrix effect. Analyte recoveries from spiked samples at two concentration levels were above 75% for most of the analytes. The main advantages of developed method are fast separation using UHPLC and therefore short analysis time, combined with good sensitivity which is demonstrated by low ngL(-1) detection limits. The developed method was applied for analysis of anthelmintics in the Llobregat River (NE Spain) and its main tributaries (rivers Anoia and Cardener). Eight out of ten anthelmintics were detected in all analyzed samples with the concentrations in low ngL(-1) level. The method fills the gap on analytical methodologies for determination of anthelmintic drugs in the environment.

  13. World association for the advancement of veterinary parasitology (WAAVP): Second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennessy, D.R.; Bauer, C.; Boray, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine which, in conjunction with other sets of guidance such as those of the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH GL7 and VICH GL16), sho...

  14. Selective effect of the anthelmintic bephenium on Haemonchus contortus levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Claude L.; Robertson, Alan P.; Cabaret, Jacques; Martin, Richard J.; Neveu, Cédric

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels involved in the neurotransmission of both vertebrates and invertebrates. A number of anthelmintic compounds like levamisole and pyrantel target the AChRs of nematodes producing spastic paralysis of the worms. The muscle AChRs of nematode parasites fall into three pharmacological classes that are preferentially activated by the cholinergic agonists levamisole (L-type), nicotine (N-type) and bephenium (B-type), respectively. Despite a number of studies of the B-type AChR in parasitic species, this receptor remains to be characterized at the molecular level. Recently, we have reconstituted and functionally characterized two distinct L-AChR subtypes of the gastro-intestinal parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system by providing the cRNAs encoding the receptor subunits and three ancillary proteins (Boulin et al. in Br J Pharmacol 164(5):1421–1432, 2011). In the present study, the effect of the bephenium drug on Hco-L-AChR1 and Hco-L-AChR2 subtypes was examined using the two microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. We demonstrate that bephenium selectively activates the Hco-L-AChR1 subtype made of Hco-UNC-29.1, Hco-UNC-38, Hco-UNC-63, Hco-ACR-8 subunits that is more sensitive to levamisole than acetylcholine. Removing the Hco-ACR-8 subunit produced the Hco-L-AChR2 subtype that is more sensitive to pyrantel than acetylcholine and partially activated by levamisole, but which was bephenium-insensitive indicating that the bephenium-binding site involves Hco-ACR-8. Attempts were made to modify the subunit stoichiometry of the Hco-L-AChR1 subtype by injecting five fold more cRNA of individual subunits. Increased Hco-unc-29.1 cRNA produced no functional receptor. Increasing Hco-unc-63, Hco-unc-38 or Hco-acr-8 cRNAs did not affect the pharmacological characteristics of Hco-L-AChR1 but reduced the currents elicited by acetylcholine and the other agonists. Here

  15. Therapeutic effects of exercise-based treatment programme on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder%小脑运动训练对注意缺陷多动障碍患儿疗效的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军; 文飞球; 张佳楠; 肖金利; 张蔚; 周克英; 陈言钊

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨小脑运动训练(DDAT)对不同亚型注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)伴直立平衡功能异常患儿的治疗作用.方法 对符合美国《精神障碍诊断与统计手册(第4版)》ADHD诊断标准,伴直立平衡功能失调的91例ADHD患儿,其中,注意缺陷型ADHD(ADHD-I) 43例、多动-冲动型ADHD(ADHD-HI) 15例、混合型ADHD(ADHD-C) 33例均予DDAT治疗6个月,分别于DDAT治疗前、开始治疗后3个月和6个月、治疗结束后3个月对各亚型进行SNAP-Ⅳ量表评估,治疗前后进行直立平衡功能、Conners父母症状问卷分析.结果 ADHD-I、ADHD-HI、ADHD-C的注意缺陷评分治疗前(1.99±0.34、0.96 ±0.31、2.17 ±0.31)均高于治疗结束后3个月(1.19 ±0.45、0.81 ±0.28、1.32 ±0.37),ADHD-I和ADHD-C差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).ADHD-I、ADHD-HI、ADHD-C治疗前和治疗结束后3个月的多动/冲动评分分别为0.81 ±0.35、2.01±0.35、1.96±0.33vs.0.45±0.33、0.79 ±0.41、1.10 ±0.35,各亚型差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).Conners父母症状问卷调查中,品行问题(1.11 ±0.48vs.0.76 ±0.44)、学习问题(1.97 ±0.58vs.1.60±0.67)、身心问题(0.61±0.49 vs.0.29±0.35)、多动-冲动(1.46±0.69vs.1.09 ±0.55)、焦虑(1.05±0.63vs.0.62±0.47)评分较治疗前均有显著降低,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).平衡功能测试仪检测,治疗后平衡功能失调改善的有效率87.9%,亚型之间有效率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 DDAT对有直立平衡功能异常的ADHD患儿安全有效,针对改善小脑功能的运动训练能明显改善ADHD患儿的症状和平衡功能.%Objective To evaluate the effects of an exercise-based treatment programme (dyslexia,dyspraxia and attention-deficit treatment,DDAT) on various subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Method Ninety-one ADHD children with standing balance dysfunction (ADHD-I 43,ADHD-HI 15 and ADHD-C 33) were given DDAT for 6 months,the efficacy of DDAT was

  16. On the Treatment of Water Gushing of Maijishan Tunnel 2# Inclined Well and Reverse Slope Drainage Programme%麦积山隧道2#斜井涌水处理及反坡排水方案浅谈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁振华

    2014-01-01

    There appeared large quantity of water gushing and concentrated water flowing, and the combination of reverse slope drainage and post grouting water plugging is used to effectively divert, intercept, drain and plug water, minimize the effect of water gushing of the tunnel, and effectively improve the construction efficiency, the key point of reverse slope drainage is setting up the location of pumping station reasonably according to the actual site, equipping with enough pumping and drainage equipment as deeded, and taking maximum water flowing into full consideration and preparing drainage capacity to flexiblely and timely treat the effects of water increases on tunnel digging. Combined with water gushing and constantly optimization and adjustment of the construction programme and drainage facilities of Maijishan tunnel 2# inclined well of Baoji-Lanzhou passenger dedicated line, this paper summarizes a construction method that applies to the treatment of water gushing.%隧道出现大的涌水和集中出水,采用反坡排水和后注浆堵水相结合的方式,对出水做到有效地“引、截、排、堵”,将隧道涌水对施工进度的影响降到最低,有效提高施工工效,反坡排水重点是根据现场实际合理设置泵站位置,按需配备足够的抽排水设备并充分考虑最大出水可能预备排水能力,以便灵活、及时地处理出水增大对隧道掘进的影响;本文结合宝兰客运专线铁路麦积山隧道2#斜井施工出现涌水及处理过程中施工方案和排水设施配置的不断优化调整,总结出的一套适用于隧道涌水处理的施工方法。

  17. Assessing the Financial Viability of Academic Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Lynette

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews and examines approaches to determining the financial viability of academic programmes as a critical component of assessing a programme's overall sustainability. Key to assessing the financial viability of a programme is understanding the teaching activities required to deliver the programme and the cost of those activities. A…

  18. The efficacy and plasma profiles of abamectin plus levamisole combination anthelmintics administered as oral and pour-on formulations to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, D M; Miller, C M; Sauermann, C W; Candy, P M; Ganesh, S; Fraser, K; Waghorn, T S

    2016-08-30

    In phase I, faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were conducted on six commercial cattle farms to compare the performance of two pour-on and one oral combination anthelmintic. Groups of 12-15 calves were sampled for faecal nematode egg count (FEC) before treatment with either abamectin oral, levamisole oral, an abamectin+levamisole oral combination or one of two abamectin+levamisole combination pour-ons. Samples were collected again 14days after treatment to calculate the percentage reduction in FEC. The proportions of infective stage larvae (L3) in faecal cultures were used to apportion egg counts to, and calculate efficacy against, the main parasite genera. Abamectin oral was effective against Ostertagia except on one farm where resistance was indicated, but had reduced efficacy against Cooperia on four farms. Levamisole oral was effective against Cooperia on all farms, but had variable efficacy against Ostertagia. The abamectin+levamisole oral was effective against both species on all farms. The abamectin+levamisole pour-ons were effective on some farms but not on others. In particular, pour-on 2 failed to achieve 95% efficacy in 45% of evaluations, 4/6 against Cooperia and 1/5 against Ostertagia. On some farms the combination pour-ons were less effective than their constituent actives administered alone as orals. In phase II, 8 groups of 6 calves, grazing parasite-free pasture, were infected with putatively ML-resistant isolates of Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi. Once infections were patent groups were treated with oral or pour-on formulations of abamectin alone, levamisole alone, abamectin+levamisole (two pour-ons) or remained untreated. Blood samples were collected for analysis and after 8days all calves were euthanized and abomasa and intestines recovered for worm counts. All treatments were effective against O. ostertagi and all treatments containing levamisole were effective against C. oncophora. Animals treated with the oral combination

  19. Microfluidic platform for electrophysiological recordings from host-stage hookworm and Ascaris suum larvae: A new tool for anthelmintic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis C. Weeks

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device (‘chip’ that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. Microfluidic technologies have transformed C. elegans research and the goal of the current study was to validate hookworm and Ascaris suum host-stage larvae in the microfluidic EPG platform. Ancylostoma ceylanicum and A. caninum infective L3s (iL3s that had been activated in vitro generally produced erratic EPG activity under the conditions tested. In contrast, A. ceylanicum L4s recovered from hamsters exhibited robust, sustained EPG activity, consisting of three waveforms: (1 conventional pumps as seen in other nematodes; (2 rapid voltage deflections, associated with irregular contractions of the esophagus and openings of the esophogeal-intestinal valve (termed a ‘flutter’; and (3 hybrid waveforms, which we classified as pumps. For data analysis, pumps and flutters were combined and termed EPG ‘events.’ EPG waveform identification and analysis were performed semi-automatically using custom-designed software. The neuromodulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT increased EPG event frequency in A. ceylanicum L4s at an optimal concentration of 0.5 mM. The anthelmintic drug ivermectin (IVM inhibited EPG activity in a concentration-dependent manner. EPGs from A. suum L3s recovered from pig lungs exhibited robust pharyngeal pumping in 1 mM 5HT, which was inhibited by IVM. These experiments validate the use of A

  20. Termo technology programme. Final report 1993-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The TERMO-technology programme was realised in 1993-1997. The aim of the programme was to promote the profitability and sustainable development of district heating by means of research and development actions. The programme included 36 research projects that were distributed to four research areas. These included heat distribution, metering, information and control systems, the economy of district heating as well as system development. The costs totaled to FIM 12 million. The programme was financed by the participating companies and the Technology Development Centre TEKES. Around eighty Finnish companies and institutions participated in the programme. In addition, the programme participated in international research cooperation in the framework of the Nordic Council of Ministers and the International Energy Agency programmes. The research area Heat Distribution included projects on rehabilitation and status control of district heating networks, pumping, thermal stresses in district heating pipes, material questions, water treatment, steam pipe systems as well as drag reducing additives in district heating water. The research area Metering, Information and Control Systems included projects on forecasts of district heating load, calibration of flow meters, heat cost allocation in buildings, control systems and their qualifications in buildings and improved cooling of district heating water in the consumer equipment. The research area Economy included projects on determination of subscribed heat demand, pricing methods of district heating, success factors of energy companies as well as long term prospects of district heating in Finland. The research area System Development included projects on changing heat loads, district cooling as well as combined heat and power production. After the TERMO programme joint efforts will be continued for the development of district heating technology. The emphasis will be to improve the feasibility of combined heat and power

  1. Structured patient education: the X-PERT Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Trudi; Whitham, Claire

    2009-09-01

    The X-PERT Programme seeks to develop the knowledge, skills and confidence in diabetes treatment for health-care professionals and diabetes self-management. The programme trains health-care professionals to deliver the six-week structured patient education programme to people with diabetes. Over 850 health-care professionals have attended the X-PERT 'Train the Trainer' course and audit results document improved job satisfaction and competence in diabetes treatment and management. National audit statistics for X-PERT implementation to people with diabetes illustrate excellent attendance rates, improved diabetes control, reduced weight, blood pressure, cholesterol and waist circumference and more confidence in self-managing diabetes that has impacted positively on quality of life.

  2. Prescription only on anthelmitic drugs - a questionnaire survey on strategies for daignosis and treatment of eguine strongyles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Monrad, Jesper; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup

    2005-01-01

    In 1999´, legislation in Denmark made anthelmintic available by prescription only and proghibited use for prophylactic treatment. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 2004 among Danish equine veterinary practises to determine current strategies for surveillance and control of equine strongyles....

  3. Energy Management Programmes for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    The IEA Policy Pathway publications provide details on how to implement specific recommendations drawn from the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations. This Policy Pathway, jointly produced by the International Energy Agency and the Institute for Industrial Productivity, develops the critical steps for policy makers implementing energy management programmes for industry. Optimising energy use in industry is essential to improve industrial competitiveness and achieve wider societal goals such as energy security, economic recovery and development, climate change mitigation and environmental protection. While there is significant potential to decrease energy consumption in this sector, opportunities to improve energy efficiency are still under-exploited. Energy management programmes have shown to be instrumental in addressing many of the barriers that inhibit wide-scale uptake of energy management in industry. The Policy Pathway builds on lessons learned from country experiences and provides actionable guidance on how to plan and design, implement, evaluate and monitor energy management programmes for industry.

  4. The internationalisation of postgraduate programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Flemming Kobberøe; Andersen, Ole K.; Bak, Thomas;

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the efforts and experiences of globalisation of the study programmes within electronic engineering at Aalborg University. The Project-Organised Problem-Based Learning Model, which have been employed since 1974 is presented and discussed. The consequences this has for the inter......This paper presents the efforts and experiences of globalisation of the study programmes within electronic engineering at Aalborg University. The Project-Organised Problem-Based Learning Model, which have been employed since 1974 is presented and discussed. The consequences this has...... for the international students are presented and discussed in terms of e.g. the teamwork situation, professional and cultural differences. A student enrolment programme, implemented through the provision of scholarships, jointly paid by government and industry funds is presented...

  5. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed.

  6. Anthelmintic action of Morinda citrifolia (noni on Heterakis gallinarumAção anti-helmíntica da Morinda citrifolia (noni sobre Heterakis gallinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Rodrigues Barros Brito

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The anthelmintic effect of Morinda citrifolia (noni on Heterakis gallinarum was evaluated in chicken naturally infected. The anthelmintic activity in vitro was determined in adults helminthes in disposable petri dishes, containing Tyrode solution, pre warmed in which aqueous or ethanolic extracts were added. The material was maintained in a BOD at 37ºC (±1. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts presented the following concentrations: 1.69; 3.37; 6.74; 13.48 e 26.96 mg.mL-1 and 4.17; 8.34; 16.68; 33.36 e 66.72 mg.mL-1, respectively. It was used as positive control, a solution of tetrahidrate citrate of piperazin in the concentration of 50 mg/mL. The anthelmintic activity in vivo was determined by the administration of aqueous or ethanolic extracts (10 mL/Kg/PV during three consecutive days. The feces were collected during four days in each group, washed in water and sifted. In the fifth day post-treatment, the chickens were slaughtered and necropsy was performed in order to count and identify remaining helminthes. The data were analyzed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. In the in vivo test there was no significant difference between the aqueous extract and the control group (water (p>0.05 in the elimination of H. gallinarum. The ethanolic extract presented an elimination of 20.35%, differing statistically from the control group (p A ação anti-helmíntica da Morinda citrifolia (noni sobre Heterakis gallinarum foi avaliada em galinhas poedeiras naturalmente infectadas. A atividade anti-helmíntica in vitro foi determinada em helmintos adultos colocados em placas de petri descartáveis, contendo solução Tyrode pré-aquecida, nas quais foi adicionado o extrato aquoso ou etanólico e mantidas em BOD a uma temperatura de 37oC (±1. Os extratos aquoso e etanólico foram usados nas seguintes concentrações: 1,69; 3,37; 6,74; 13,48 e 26,96 mg.mL-1 e 4,17; 8,34; 16,68; 33,36 e 66,72 mg.mL-1, respectivamente. Como controle positivo usou-se uma solu

  7. In vitro studies on the effects of some anthelmintics on Cotylophoron cotylophorum (Digenea, Paramphistomidae): a structural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakumari, L; Munuswamy, N

    1999-01-01

    The effects of the anthelmintics praziquantel (PZQ), levamisole (LEV), mebendazole (MBZ), fenbendazole (FBZ) and albendazole (ABZ), on the morphology and the histology of a digenetic trematode, Cotylophoron cotylophorum, were studied. Scanning electron micrographs of the drug-treated worms revealed that PZQ was the most effective drug inducing surface damages to a great extent. The parasite exposed to PZQ for 6 h, showed smaller blebs on the oral sucker region as well as on the sensory papillae. These blebs enlarged in size after 24 h and ruptured after 30 h of exposure. The worms treated with LEV showed a few smaller blebs on the ventrolateral margin. In MBZ- and FBZ-treated worms the blebs appeared between the oral and genital sucker after 6 h of incubation. The changes were not apparent in the ABZ-treated worms.

  8. Eficacia antihelmíntica de tres endectocidas administrados por vía oral en caballos Anthelmintic efficacy of three endectocides administered by oral route in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. RUBILAR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar la eficacia antihelmíntica de los endectocidas ivermectina, doramectina y moxidectina sobre el control del parasitismo gastrointestinal en equinos, se seleccionaron 20 caballos clínicamente sanos con recuentos fecales positivos a huevos de nemátodos. Los caballos fueron distribuidos homogéneamente considerando el peso vivo y el recuento fecal de huevos en 4 grupos de 5 animales cada uno. Grupo 1: control, sin tratamiento antihelmíntico; Grupo 2: tratados con ivermectina en dosis de 0,2 mg/kg vía oral; Grupo 3 tratados con doramectina inyectable , en dosis 0.2 mg/kg, reformulado mediante caolín y miel de abejas para la administración vía oral; Grupo 4: tratados con moxidectina , en dosis 0,4 mg/kg vía oral. De cada uno de los caballos se obtuvieron muestras de heces para recuento de huevos y coprocultivos, antes del tratamiento y a los 3, 6, 10, 20, 40, 60,90, 105, 125, 145 y 175 días post tratamiento. Los resultados obtenidos indican una reducción significativa (pIn naturally gastrointestinal nematodes infected horses the anthelmintic efficacy of the endectocides ivermectin (IVM, doramectin (DRM and moxidectin (MXD was evaluated. Animals were evenly distributed to 4 experimental groups: Group I, non treated horses, control; Group II treated with an oral dose of 0.2 mg/kg of IVM by oral route; Group III treated with a reformulated oral dose of 0,2 mg/kg of DRM; Group IV treated with an oral dose of 0.4 mg/kg of MXD. Faecal samples for parasites eggs count and larval cultures were collected before treatment at 3,6,10,20,40,60,90,105,125,145 and 175 days postreatment. Results obtained showed a significant reduction (p <0,05 in the faecal eggs count in treated group, from day 3 to day 145 post treatment. This level of significance remained until day 175 post treatment only in the group treated with moxidectin

  9. Work as treatment? The effectiveness of re-employment programmes for unemployed persons with severe mental health problems on health and quality of life: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Rogier M; Carlier, Bouwine E; Schuring, Merel; Burdorf, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Given the importance of unemployment in health inequalities, re-employment of unemployed persons into paid employment may be a powerful intervention to increase population health. It is suggested that integrated programmes of vocational reintegration with health promotion may improve the likelihood of entering paid employment of long-term unemployed persons with severe mental health problems. However, the current evidence regarding whether entering paid employment of this population will contribute to a reduction in health problems remains unambiguous. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effects of re-employment programmes with regard to health and quality of life. Three electronic databases were searched (up to March 2015). Two reviewers independently selected articles and assessed the risk of bias on prespecified criteria. Measures of effects were pooled and random effect meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials was conducted, where possible. Sixteen studies were included. Nine studies described functioning as an outcome measure. Five studies with six comparisons provided enough information to calculate a pooled effect size of -0.01 (95% CI -0.13 to 0.11). Fifteen studies presented mental health as an outcome measure of which six with comparable psychiatric symptoms resulted in a pooled effect size of 0.20 (95% CI -0.23 to 0.62). Thirteen studies described quality of life as an outcome measure. Seven of these studies, describing eight comparisons, provided enough information to calculate a pooled effect size of 0.28 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.52). Re-employment programmes have a modest positive effect on the quality of life. No evidence was found for any effect of these re-employment programmes on functioning and mental health.

  10. Anthelmintic effects of Prosopis laevigata n-hexanic extract against Haemonchus contortus in artificially infected gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesús-Gabino, A F; Mendoza-de Gives, P; Salinas-Sánchez, D O; López-Arellano, M E; Liébano-Hernández, E; Hernández-Velázquez, V M; Valladares-Cisneros, G

    2010-03-01

    The anthelmintic effect of Prosopis laevigata (mezquite) n-hexanic extract was evaluated against Haemonchus contortus endoparasitic stages in artificially infected gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Prosopis laevigata leaves were collected from the Sierra de Huautla, Ecological Reserve of the Biosphere, in Morelos State, Mexico; dehydrated under shade and macerated with n-hexane for 3 days, followed by distillation for 8 h. This procedure was repeated three times and the final extract was kept at 4 degrees C. The in vivo effect of the plant extract was evaluated in gerbils artificially infected with H. contortus. Plant extract concentration was 40 mg/ml. Three groups of gerbils were as follows: group 1 (n = 7), P. laevigata extract at 100 microl intraperitoneally (IP); group 2 (n = 6), control--Tween 20 in water at a single dose of 100 microl IP; group 3 (n = 8) also served as a control, receiving water only, to determine the mortality due to causes other than the plant extract. An additional group of seven gerbils (group 4) was administered fenbendazole, as a positive control. Five days later the animals were euthanized and stomach and mucosa removed to quantify the nematodes. Data were analysed using the Student's t-test to compare the mean of nematodes obtained in groups 1, 2 and 3. The parasite population in the plant extract treated group 1 was reduced by 42.5% (P < 0.05) with respect to the control group 2; and when control group 3 was used for comparison the parasitic reduction was estimated as 53.11%. This study shows the in vivo anthelmintic effect of P. laevigata n-hexane extract for the first time, using gerbils as an in vivo model, with potential use in sheep.

  11. Chinese integrative medicine:inclusion of a Chinese medicine programme in a conventional medical institute

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yong Chen; Yibin Feng; Lixing Lao

    2014-01-01

    To meet community demands with optimal Chinese and conventional medical treatment, the University of Hong Kong is promoting integrative medicine by developing Chinese medicine programmes that train students of both Western and Chinese medicine. The programmes emphasize multi-disciplinary training and interaction between the two therapeutic approaches, enabling students to establish reliable, consistent, and respectful mutual cooperation in their future careers.

  12. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  13. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Ravinet

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN infection can impair milk production (MP in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1 the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2 herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR, faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd. Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average. This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season.

  14. Programme documentation to control programme for Solar-tracker; Programdokumentation til styringsprogram til Solar-tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudbeck, C.

    1995-07-01

    The report contains the programme documentation partly for a programme to control of a tracking system and partly a programme, which uses this programme to make measurements of transmittance for covering layer. Both the transmittance measurement programme and the programme is built in Borland Pascal v7.0, and is compiled in Real mode for the use on a processor of the 80X86-family. The source code for the programme for transmittance measurements and the programmes (the positioning routines) are described in Appendix B. (EHS)

  15. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights the…

  16. The Massey Kiwi Friend Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Philip; Ramsey, Deborah; Mason, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    Like many institutions, Massey University has experienced growth in enrolments of international students. Increasing numbers of international students has led to frustrations for international and domestic students, and for staff. This paper describes an innovative programme designed to help with the orientation of international students. Domestic…

  17. Summer Student Programme – Report

    CERN Document Server

    Bellora, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This is the report on the studies about radiation damage on silicon strips detectors I've performed during my Summer Student Programme. A parameter to describe the damage amount has been defined, as well as his behaviour over time and absorbed dose.

  18. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights…

  19. The Danish bioenergy programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Danish Technological Inst., Section for Biotechnology (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    In Denmark biogas is produced from several different types of facilities: Anaerobic industrial waste and waste water treatment plants, anaerobic sludge stabilization plants, landfill gas plants and single farm and centralized biogas plants. Centralized biogas plants account for approximately 40% of the total production of biogas. In the recent 5 years the single farm plant technology has been considerably improved. Standardized concepts has been developed, which have decreased the construction price of single farm plants, and the introduction of dual fuel gas engines has lowered the cost and increased the efficiency of the energy production unit. Dual fuel gas engines use 7-10% diesel oil together with the gas. They are based on diesel engine principles, often they are modified standard diesel engines, which are cheaper and more simple than ignition gas engines. The construction cost for a typical single farm plant with a 150-200 m{sup 3} reactor is 200,000 USD. As the farmer can obtain a 30% funding from the Danish Energy Agency, the net cost for the farmer is 134,000 USD. The annual income if manure and some industrial waste in co-digested is around 30,000-35,000 USD and the annual running costs is in the level of 5,000-6,000 USD. (EG)

  20. Further evaluation in field tests of the activity of three