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Sample records for anthelmintic antibacterial anticoagulant

  1. Marine pharmacology in 2001--2002: marine compounds with anthelmintic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities; affecting the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems and other miscellaneous mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alejandro M S; Hamann, Mark T

    2005-01-01

    During 2001--2002, research on the pharmacology of marine chemicals continued to be global in nature involving investigators from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, United Kingdom, and the United States. This current article, a sequel to the authors' 1998, 1999 and 2000 marine pharmacology reviews, classifies 106 marine chemicals derived from a diverse group of marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria, on the basis of peer-reviewed preclinical pharmacology. Anthelmintic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis or antiviral activities were reported for 56 marine chemicals. An additional 19 marine compounds were shown to have significant effects on the cardiovascular, immune and nervous system as well as to possess anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects. Finally, 31 marine compounds were reported to act on a variety of molecular targets and thus may potentially contribute to several pharmacological classes. Thus, during 2001--2002 pharmacological research with marine chemicals continued to contribute potentially novel chemical leads for the ongoing global search for therapeutic agents for the treatment of multiple disease categories.

  2. Anthelmintic and Antibacterial Activity of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STUDENT

    Organic solvent extracts of the stem bark of Hagenia abyssinica Bruce J.F. Gmel. (Rosaceae) were screened for anthelmintic and antibacterial activity. The methanol and dichloromethane/methanol extracts exhibited anthelmintic activity when tested using. Panagrellus redivivus model. Further, the stem bark methanol extract ...

  3. Anthelmintic, Antibacterial and Cytotoxicity Activity of Imidazole Alkaloids from Pilocarpus microphyllus Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Jefferson A; Andrade, Ivanilza M; Véras, Leiz M C; Quelemes, Patrick V; Lima, David F; Soares, Maria J S; Pinto, Pedro L S; Mayo, Simon J; Ivanova, Galya; Rangel, Maria; Correia, Manuela; Mafud, Ana Carolina; Mascarenhas, Yvonne P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; de Moraes, Josué; Eaton, Peter; Leite, José R S A

    2017-04-01

    Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardlew (Rutaceae), popularly known as jaborandi, is a plant native to the northern and northeastern macroregions of Brazil. Several alkaloids from this species have been isolated. There are few reports of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities for these compounds. In this work, we report the antibacterial and anthelmintic activity of five alkaloids found in P. microphyllus leaves, namely, pilosine, epiisopilosine, isopilosine, epiisopiloturine and macaubine. Of these, only anthelmintic activity of one of the compounds has been previously reported. Nuclear magnetic resonance, HPLC and mass spectrometry were combined and used to identify and confirm the structure of the five compounds. As regards the anthelmintic activity, the alkaloids were studied using in vitro assays to evaluate survival time and damaged teguments for Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. We found epiisopilosine to have anthelmintic activity at very low concentrations (3.125 μg mL -1 ); at this concentration, it prevented mating, oviposition, reducing motor activity and altered the tegument of these worms. In contrast, none of the alkaloids showed antibacterial activity. Additionally, alkaloids displayed no cytotoxic effect on vero cells. The potent anthelmintic activity of epiisopilosine indicates the potential of this natural compound as an antiparasitic agent. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Chemical composition, anthelmintic, antibacterial and antioxidant effects of Thymus bovei essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Nidal; Adwan, Lina; K'aibni, Shadi; Shraim, Naser; Zaid, Abdel Naser

    2016-10-26

    It has been recently recognized that oxidative stress, helminth and microbial infections are the cause of much illness found in the underdeveloped, developing and developed countries. The present study was undertaken to identify the chemical composition, and to assess anthelmintic, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Thymus bovei essential oil. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Antimicrobial activity was tested against the selected strains from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinical isolates such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans using MIC assay. The anthelmintic assay was carried out on adult earthworm (Pheretima posthuma), while antioxidant activity was analyzed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. Trans-geraniol (35.38 %), α-citral (20.37 %) and β-citral (14.76 %) were the major compounds comprising 70.51 % of the essential oil. Our results showed that T. bovei essential oil exhibited strong anthelmintic activity, even higher than piperazine citrate, the used reference standard, with potential antioxidant activity almost equal to the Trolox standard. Furthermore, T. bovei essential oil had powerful antibacterial and antifungal activities against the studied pathogens. Essential oil of T. bovei exerted excellent antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anthelmintic activities. Moreover, this study found that T. bovei volatile oil contains active substances that could potentially be used as natural preservatives in food and pharmaceutical industries, these substances could also be employed for developing new anthelmintic, antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

  5. Comparative evaluation of anthelmintic and antibacterial activities in leaves and fruits of Garcinia cambogia (Gaertn. desr. and Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars choisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tharachand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity and antibacterial activity of the extracts from the leaves and fruits of Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars Choisy and Garcinia cambogia(Gaertn. Desr. using the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg/mL of various extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water were tested. Albendazole at the concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/mL was used as the standard reference. Significant anthelmintic effects of the fruits and leaves of G. cambogia and G. indica (P<0.05 were observed and the results were expressed in terms of paralysis and death time. All the extracts showed the dose dependent paralysis and death of earthworms. Among all the extracts used, methanol extract exhibited the highest activity. G. cambogia leaf extract (50 mg/mL had 30% faster paralysis effect on earthworms than the standard reference. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extracts of the fruits and leaves showed significant (P<0.05 activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. At a concentration of 500 µg/mL, G. indica fruit extract presented higher zones of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Hence, it could be concluded that the leaves and fruits of G. indica and G. cambogia contained active anthelmintic and antibacterial phytochemicals, which could find their applications in pharmaceuticals.

  6. Antibacterial, cytotoxicity and anticoagulant activities from Hypnea esperi and Caulerpa prolifera marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Samy; Amin, Abeer; Hassan, Sherif; Hagazey, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Extracts from 2 algal species (Hypnea esperi and Caulerpa prolifera) from Suez Canal region, Egypt were screened for the production of antibacterial compounds against some pathogenic bacteria. The bacteria tested included Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Algal species displayed antibacterial activity. The methanolic extracts showed variable response by producing various zones of inhibition against studied bacteria. The tested Gram-negative bacteria were less affected by studied algal extracts than Gram-positive bacteria. We determined some biopotentials properties such as cytotoxicity and anticoagulant activity of most potent algal active extracts. The secondary metabolites of only Hypnea esperi algal extract effectively prevented the blood clotting to the extent of 120 seconds. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) indicated that all potent tested algal extract C inhibits Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was between 1 and 1.4mg/ml. The algal isolates from Egypt have been found showing promising results against infectious bacteria instead of some synthetic antibiotics.

  7. Roll-to-roll, shrink-induced superhydrophobic surfaces for antibacterial applications, enhanced point-of-care detection, and blood anticoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokes, Jolie McLane

    Superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces are desirable because of their unique anti-wetting behavior. Fluid prefers to bead up (contact angle >150°) and roll off (contact angle hysteresis micro- and nanostructure features trap air pockets. Fluid only adheres to the peaks of the structures, causing minimal adhesion to the surface. Here, shrink-induced SH plastics are fabricated for a plethora of applications, including antibacterial applications, enhanced point-of-care (POC) detection, and reduced blood coagulation. Additionally, these purely structural SH surfaces are achieved in a roll-to-roll (R2R) platform for scalable manufacturing. Because their self-cleaning and water resistant properties, structurally modified SH surfaces prohibit bacterial growth and obviate bacterial chemical resistance. Antibacterial properties are demonstrated in a variety of SH plastics by preventing gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial growth >150x compared to flat when fluid is rinsed and >20x without rinsing. Therefore, a robust and stable means to prevent bacteria growth is possible. Next, protein in urine is detected using a simple colorimetric output by evaporating droplets on a SH surface. Contrary to evaporation on a flat surface, evaporation on a SH surface allows fluid to dramatically concentrate because the weak adhesion constantly decreases the footprint area. On a SH surface, molecules in solution are confined to a footprint area 8.5x smaller than the original. By concentrating molecules, greater than 160x improvements in detection sensitivity are achieved compared to controls. Utility is demonstrated by detecting protein in urine in the pre-eclampsia range (150-300microgmL -1) for pregnant women. Further, SH surfaces repel bodily fluids including blood, urine, and saliva. Importantly, the surfaces minimize blood adhesion, leading to reduced blood coagulation without the need for anticoagulants. SH surfaces have >4200x and >28x reduction of blood residue area and

  8. Restrictions of anthelmintic usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup

    2009-01-01

    in 1966. The province of Quebec in Canada, and an increasing number of European countries, have implemented prescription-only restrictions on anthelmintic drugs. Denmark introduced this legislation ten years ago, and some evidence has been generated describing potential consequences. It is without dispute...... that Danish veterinarians are now deeply involved with parasite management in equine establishments. However, little is known about the impact on levels of anthelmintic resistance and the risk of parasitic disease under these circumstances. In addition, the legislation makes huge demands on diagnosis...

  9. Anticoagulant Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    Although sewer rat control is carried out in more than 80 % of all Danish municipalities, with usage of large amounts of anticoagulant rodenticides, knowledge on anticoagulant resistance among rats living in the sewers is limited. As rat problems in urban areas are believed to be related to sewer...... problems (70-90 % in UK and DK) unawareness of resistance amongst these populations of Brown rats may constitute a future control problem and knowledge on this issue has become crucial. Rats were captured in sewers from seven different locations in the suburban area of Copenhagen. Locations was chosen...... to represent different sewer rat management strategies i) no anticoagulants for approx. 20 years ii) no anticoagulants for the last 5 years and iii) continuous control for many years. Animals were tested for resistance to bromadiolone by Blood-Clotting Response test, as bromadiolone is the most frequently used...

  10. Anthelmintic activity of Pongamia glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Laware

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Leaves, wood, seed, bark and pericarp of the fruit of Pongamia glabra were separately dried, powdered and extracted with methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Anthelmintic activity of these various extracts was evaluatedon Indian adult earthworms, Pherentima posthuma. Results showed that the seed part of P. glabra took less time to cause paralysis and death of the earthworms; therefore, seeds were extracted successively withpetroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol in Soxhlet extractor. Again these extracts were screened for anthelmintic activity. Results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of seeds of P. glabra was most potentfollowed by petroleum ether extract. It can be concluded that anthelmintic activity of the seed of P. glabra is due to the active principles present mostly in the ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts.

  11. Anthelmintic activity procedure The anthelmintic assay was carried ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian adult earthworms Pheretima posthuma. The worms were procured from local supplier at Shimoga at the time of carrying out the experiment. The worms were washed with normal saline to remove all fecal matter used for the anthelmintic study. The earthworms of 4 -6 cm in length and 0.3-0.4 cm in width were used for ...

  12. Simultaneous antibacterial and anticoagulant properties of polypropylene non-woven textiles Elaboration d'un textile polypropylène non-tissé présentant simultanément des propriétés antibactériennes et anticoagulantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez Maude

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to prepare a non-woven Polypropylene (PP textile functionalized with bioactive molecules to improve simultaneously its anticoagulation and antibacterial properties. The immobilization of either heparin (anticoagulation agent or gentamicin (aminoglycoside antibiotic was already proven to be effective on non-woven PP textiles. This work details how we managed to immobilize both gentamicin and heparin on the textile [1]. The immobilization times were studied in order to determine the best compromise between cytocompatibility, anticoagulant effect and antimicrobial activity. Cetté étude décrit le procédé de fonctionnalisation d'un textile polypropylène (PP non-tissé afin d'améliorer à la fois ses propriétés antibactériennes et anticoagulantes. Dans des précédents travaux, l'immobilisation soit de l'héparine (agent anticoagulant, soit de la gentamicine (agent antibiotique aminoglycoside a déjà été reportée. Des effets respectivement anticoagulants et antibactériens ont été obtenus. Cette étude décrit la faç on d'immobiliser ces deux principes actifs sur un même textile. L'effet des temps d'imprégnation sur les propriétés antibactériennes et anticoagulantes a été étudié afin d'obtenir le meilleur compromis possible en termes de cytocompatibilité, effet anticoagulant et activité antimicrobienne.

  13. Anthelmintics for people with neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Katharine; Ramaratnam, Sridharan; Ranganathan, Lakshmi Narasimhan

    2010-03-17

    Neurocysticercosis is an infection of the brain by the larval stage of the pork tapeworm. In endemic areas it is a common cause of epilepsy. Anthelmintics (albendazole or praziquantel) may be given to kill the parasites. However, there are potential adverse effects, and the parasites may eventually die without treatment. To assess the effectiveness and safety of anthelmintics for people with neurocysticercosis. In May 2009 we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and the mRCT. Randomized controlled trials comparing anthelmintics with placebo, no anthelmintic, or other anthelmintic regimen for people with neurocysticercosis. Two authors independently selected trials, extracted data, and assessed each trial's risk of bias. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous variables, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We pooled data from trials with similar interventions and outcomes. For viable lesions in children, there were no trials. For viable lesions in adults, no difference was detected for albendazole compared with no treatment for recurrence of seizures (116 participants, one trial); but fewer participants with albendazole had lesions at follow up (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.70; 192 participants, two trials).For non-viable lesions in children, seizures recurrence was less common with albendazole compared with no treatment (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.75; 329 participants, four trials). There was no difference detected in the persistence of lesions at follow up (570 participants, six trials). For non-viable lesions in adults, there were no trials.In trials including viable, non-viable or mixed lesions (in both children and adults), headaches were more common with albendazole alone (RR 9.49, 95% CI 1.40 to 64.45; 106 participants, two trials), but no difference was detected in one trial giving albendazole with corticosteroids (116 participants, one trial). In

  14. Association between Oral Anticoagulation Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association between Oral Anticoagulation Knowledge, Anticoagulation Control, and Demographic Characteristics of Patients Attending an Anticoagulation Clinic in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Prospective Evaluation.

  15. Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood clots - lupus anticoagulants; DVT - anticoagulants ... Most often, lupus anticoagulants and aPL are found in people with diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lupus anticoagulants and ...

  16. Anthelmintics Resistance; How to Overcome it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem A Shalaby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many parasitic helminthes of veterinary importance have genetic features that favor development of anthelmintic resistance, this becoming a major worldwide constrain in livestock production. The develop­ment of anthelmintic resistance poses a large threat to future production and welfare of graz­ing animals. Development of variable degrees of resistance among different species of gastrointes­tinal nematodes has been reported for all the major groups of anthelmintic drugs. It has been ob­served that frequent usage of the same group of anthelmintic; use of anthelmintics in sub-optimal doses, prophylactic mass treatment of domestic animals and frequent and continuous use of a single drug have contributed to the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance in helminthes. The degree and extent of this problem especially with respect to multidrug resistance in nematode popula­tions is likely to increase. Maintaining parasites in refugia and not exposed to anthelmintics, seems to be a key point in controlling and delaying the development of resistance, because the suscepti­ble genes are preserved. Targeted selective treatments attract the interest of scientists to­wards this direction. Additionally, adoption of strict quarantine measures and a combination drug strategy are two important methods of preventing of anthelmintic resistance. Experience from the development of anthelmintic resistance suggests that modern control schemes should not rely on sole use of anthelmintics, but employ other, more complex and sustainable recipes, including parasite resistant breeds, nutrition, pasture management, nematode-trapping fungi, antiparasitic vaccines and botanical dewormers. Most of them reduce reliance on the use of chemicals and are environmental friendly. Finally, if new anthelmintic products are released, an important question will be raised about how they should be used. It is suggested that slowing the development of resistance to a new

  17. Anthelmintic efficacy of Albendazole, Levamisole and Ivermectin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthelmintic efficacy of Albendazole, Levamisole and Ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections in goats on natural pastures in Gomba District, Uganda. G Nsereko, P Emudong, JW Magona, T Odoch, J Okwee-Acai ...

  18. Voltammetric Determination of a Benzimidazole Anthelmintic Mixture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-10-17

    Oct 17, 2002 ... KEYWORDS. Electrochemistry, square-wave voltammetry, benzimidazole anthelmintics, poly(3-methylthiophene) electrode. 1. Introduction .... electrode and. (2) unmodified electrode. A, fenbendazole; B, mebendazole, C, oxibendazole, and D, thiabendazole. Arrows indicate the direction of potential scan.

  19. An Update Review on the Anthelmintic Activity of Bitter Gourd, Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolperm, Sutthaya; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2017-01-01

    Momordica charantia (Family: Cucurbitales ), as known as bitter melon or gourd, is a daily consumption as food and traditional medicinal plant in Southeast Asia and Indo-China. It has been shown to possess anticancer, antidepressant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antioxidant, and antiulcer properties. Its common phytochemical components include alkaloids, charantin, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, tannins, and terpenoids. This plant is rich in various saponins including momordicin, momordin, momordicoside, karavilagenin, karaviloside, and kuguacin, all of which have been reported to contribute to its remedial properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic infections. Based on established literature on the anthelmintic activity of M. charantia and possible mode of action, this review article has attempted to compile M. charantia could be further explored for the development of potential anthelmintic drug.

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity and anthelmintic activity. The structural assignments of compounds were made on the basis of spectroscopic data and elemental analysis. Keywords. 10H-phenothiazines; Smiles rearrangement; sulphones; ribofuranosides; antimicrobial activity; anthelmintic activity. 1.

  1. Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Nauclea latifolia Extract Against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct effects of Nauclea latifolia extracts on different gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep is described. In vivo and in vitro studies were conducted to determine possible anthelmintic effect of leaf extracts of Nauclea latifolia toward different ovine gastro intestinal nematodes. A larval development assay was used to ...

  2. Anticoagulant effect of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Wijesekara, Isuru

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries to isolate natural anticoagulant compounds from marine resources. Among marine resources, marine algae are valuable sources of novel bioactive compounds with anticoagulant effect. Phlorotannins and sulfated polysaccharides such as fucoidans in brown algae, carrageenans in red algae, and ulvans in green algae have been recognized as potential anticoagulant agents. Therefore, marine algae-derived phlorotannins and SPs have great potential for developing as anticoagulant drugs in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. This chapter focuses on the potential anticoagulant agents in marine algae and presents an overview of their anticoagulant effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The economic effects of whole-herd versus selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, J.; Levecke, B.; Devleesschauwer, B.; Vercruysse, J.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-01-01

    Current control practices against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cows rely strongly on anthelmintic use. To reduce the development of anthelmintic resistance or disposition of drug residues in the environment, novel control approaches are currently proposed that target anthelmintic treatment to

  4. Biotransformation of selected anthelmintics in sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa)

    OpenAIRE

    Němečková, Aneta

    2015-01-01

    Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Candidate: Aneta Bečanová Supervisor: Mgr. Hana Bártíková, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Biotransformation of selected anthelmintics in sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa) Biotransformation of anthelmintics is a process that prevents the parasite from adverse effects of xenobiotics. Therefore, it is the main factor that causes the reduction of an anthelmintic effect, resistance development and...

  5. Anthelmintic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Jasminum mesnyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhuti Dullu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Jasminum mesnyi. Methods: Anthelmintic activity was carried out on adult Indian earthworm Eisenia fetida. In this study, 20 mg/mL and 40 mg/mL concentrations of plant extract were tested which involved the time of paralysis and time of death of worm. Albendazole (10 mg/mL was taken as reference standard drug whereas distilled water was used as control. Results: The extract exhibited significant anthelmintic acitivity which was more in higher concentration extract. Conclusions: It was concluded from the present study that the plant exhibited significant anthelmintic activity.

  6. lupus anticoagulants: pathophysiology, clinical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-11-02

    Nov 2, 2003 ... report. East Afr. Med. J. 1998; 75:619-620. procainamide induced lupus anticoagulant. Acta Haematol. 13. Mateo, 1., Oliver, A., Borell, M. et al. Laboratory evaluation 1989; 82:50-52. and clinical characteristics of 2, 132 consecutive unselected 29. Rai, R., Cohen H., Dave M., and Regan, L. Randomised.

  7. Determination of anthelmintic resistance in goats and sheep using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nematode parasites are known to pose a challenge to small ruminant production in Tanzania due to their fast development of resistance to the commonly used anthelmintics. The objective of this study was to determine the resistance of anthelmintics in small ruminants. A total of 30 sheep and 30 goats aged between 6 and ...

  8. In vitro anthelmintic effects of Moringa oleifera leaves (FHI 109897 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to control helminths resistance to the conventional anthelmintics necessitated the evaluation of phytochemicals in Moringa oleifera leaves for their possible in vitro anthelmintic effects on bovine helminth eggs. The quantitative faecal egg counts (FEC) were determined using the modified McMaster technique.

  9. In vitro anthelmintic effects of crude aqueous extracts of Tephrosia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of anthelmintic resistance and the consumer demand for alternative farming systems that limit the use of chemical anthelmintics has made the search for alternative gastrointestinal nematode parasites control methods crucial. Traditional medicinal/herbal plants can offer an alternative to the reliance on ...

  10. Synthesis and anthelmintic activity of some hybrid Benzimidazolyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis and anthelmintic activity of some hybrid Benzimidazolyl-chalcone derivatives. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Purpose: To synthesize hybrid benzimidazolyl-chalcone derivatives, evaluate their anthelmintic activity, and establish some structural elements which could lead to induction and ...

  11. New Trends in Anticoagulation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Margaret; Wakam, Glenn; Wakefield, Thomas; Obi, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    Anticoagulation pharmacy has been dramatically altered with US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of 5 direct oral anticoagulants, 1 novel reversal agent and, a second designated for fast-track approval. Trial data surrounding current trends in anticoagulant choice for VTE, reversal, and bridging are constantly redefining practice. Extended therapy for unprovoked VTE has expanded to include low-dose direct oral anticoagulants, aspirin, and the use of the HERDOO2 system to identify women who can stop anticoagulant therapy without increased risk of recurrent VTE. Trends in thromboprophylaxis include extended duration low-dose direct oral anticoagulants to prevent VTE in high-risk patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic kidney disease and anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciascia, Savino; Radin, Massimo; Schreiber, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Anticoagulation in patients with impaired kidney function can be challenging since drugs' pharmacokinetics and bioavailability are altered in this setting. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) treated with conventional anticoagulant agents [vitamin K antagonist (VKA), low-molecular weight...... are eliminated via the kidneys pose additional challenges. More recently, two classes of direct oral anticoagulant agents (DOACs) have been investigated for the prevention and management of venous thromboembolic events: the direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban, and the direct thrombin...

  13. Comparative anthelmintic activity investigation of selected ethno-medicinal weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueblos, Kirstin Rhys S.; Bajalla, Mark; Pacheco, Dixie; Ganot, Sheila; Paig, Daisy; Tapales, Radyn; Lagare, Jeanne; Quimque, Mark Tristan J.

    2017-01-01

    Helminth infections are one of the seriously neglected potent diseases in many parts of the world. The problems of parasitic helminthes becoming resistant to currently available anthelmintic drugs pose a challenge for the search - relying on natural products - for new and better anthelmintics. In this paper, four abundant Philippine weeds: Chrysopogon aciculatus Trin. Cyperus brevifolius Rottb., Ruellia tuberosa Linn. and Saccharum spontaneum Linn. were investigated for their anthelmintic activities to establish basis of their folkloric claim. The hexane-soluble and chloroform-soluble extracts were obtained through sequential solvent partitioning of the crude ethanolic extract of the air-dried aerial part of each plant sample. Meanwhile, the decoction was obtained from fresh aerial part of the plant samples. All extracts were then subjected to in vitro anthelmintic screening at different concentration as per method of Ghosh, et al. against African nightcrawler earthworms (Eudrillus euginiae) in which the activity of the extracts was determined by correlation with time. The anthelmintic bioassay results revealed a dose-dependent toxicity relationship. It indicated relatively low anthelmintic activities of the decoction of the four plant samples as compared to their corresponding crude ethanol extracts. Among the crude ethanol extracts, C. brevifolius (CBE) gave fastest time to bring about paralysis and death to the test organisms at all concentrations tested. For the hexane extracts, R. tuberosa (RTH) gave better activity among other plant samples. Lastly, among the chloroform-soluble extracts, both that of C. brevifolius (CBC) and R. tuberosa (RTC) comparably showed strongest anthelmintic activities at all tested concentrations, thus, exhibited best anthelmintic activity that is remarkably comparable to the positive control, Mebendazole at the highest concentration tested. In fact, CBC and RTC showed highest anthelmintic potential compared to all extracts tested in

  14. Ethyl 3-oxo-2-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-3-ylbutanoate Derivatives: Anthelmintic and Cytotoxic Potentials, Antimicrobial, and Docking Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawad Mahmood

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of multidrug resistance (MDR to antimicrobial, antiparasitic and chemotherapeutic agents is a global challenge for the scientific community. Despite of the emergence of MDR pathogens, the development of novel and more effective drugs is slow and scientist even speculate that we are going back the pre-antibiotic era. This work aims to study and evaluate the preliminary antibacterial, anthelmintic and cytotoxic potentials of ethyl 3-oxo-2-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-3-ylbutanoates. Among all of the four compounds, compound 2 has displayed remarkable potency with MIC values of 0.125, 0.083, 0.073, and 0.109 mg/ml against E. sakazakii, E. coli. S. aureus, and K. pneumonia, respectively. Compared to etoposide (LC50 9.8 μg/ml, the compounds demonstrated LC50 values from 280 to 765 μg/ml. For anthelmintic assay, three concentrations of each compound and standard drug were studied in determination of time of death of the two species. Excellent anthelmintic activity was observed by all four compounds against P. posthuma and A. galli better than standard albendazole. High GOLD fitness score data from docking analysis toward the targets represent better protein–ligand binding affinity and thus indicate a high propensity for all the active compounds to bind to the active site. The promising in-vitro antimicrobial, anthelmintic activity, and cytotoxicity data conclusively revealed that these compounds may serve as viable lead compounds for the treatment of bacterial and parasitic infections, and therefore, could help the medicinal chemists to design future chemotherapeutic agents to avoid rapid drug resistance.

  15. Coagulation assays and anticoagulant monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Dorothy M Adcock

    2012-01-01

    Anticoagulant therapy, including conventional agents and a variety of new oral, fast-acting drugs, is prescribed for millions of patients annually. Each anticoagulant varies in its effect on routine and specialty coagulation assays and each drug may require distinct laboratory assay(s) to measure drug concentration or activity. This review provides an overview of the assorted assays that can measure anticoagulant drug concentration or activity and includes key assay interferences. The effect of these conventional and new anticoagulant agents on specialty coagulation assays used to evaluate for bleeding or clotting disorders, and whether this impact is physiological or factitious, is included. Also provided is a short review of superwarfarin poisoning and features distinguishing this from warfarin overdose. Knowledge of clinically significant pearls and pitfalls pertinent to coagulation assays in relation to anticoagulant therapy are important to optimize patient care.

  16. Direct oral anticoagulants: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Moreno, Ana Isabel; Martín Díaz, Rosa María; García Navarro, María José

    2017-12-30

    Vitamin K antagonists were the only choice for chronic oral anticoagulation for more than half a century. Over the past few years, direct oral anticoagulants have emerged, including one direct thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran etexilate) and three factor Xa inhibitors (apixaban, edoxaban and rivaroxaban). In randomised controlled trials comparing direct oral anticoagulants with traditional vitamin K antagonists, the direct oral anticoagulants all showed a favourable benefit-risk balance in their safety and efficacy profile, in prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation and in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and acute coronary syndrome. In 2008, dabigatran was the first direct oral anticoagulant approved by the European Medicine Agency. Subsequently, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban were also authorised. This article reviews the evidence related to the use of these drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnosis and control of anthelmintic-resistant Parascaris equorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinemeyer Craig R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since 2002, macrocyclic lactone resistance has been reported in populations of Parascaris equorum from several countries. It is apparent that macrocyclic lactone resistance developed in response to exclusive and/or excessively frequent use of ivermectin or moxidectin in foals during the first year of life. The development of anthelmintic resistance was virtually inevitable, given certain biological features of Parascaris and unique pharmacologic characteristics of the macrocyclic lactones. Practitioners can utilize the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test to detect anthelmintic resistance in Parascaris, and the same technique can be applied regularly to confirm the continued efficacy of those drugs currently in use. In the face of macrocyclic lactone resistance, piperazine or anthelmintics of the benzimidazole or pyrimidine classes can be used to control ascarid infections, but Parascaris populations that are concurrently resistant to macrocyclic lactones and pyrimidine drugs have been reported recently from Texas and Kentucky. Compared to traditional practices, future recommendations for ascarid control should feature: 1 use of only those anthelmintics known to be effective against indigenous populations, 2 initiation of anthelmintic treatment no earlier than 60 days of age, and 3 repetition of treatments at the longest intervals which prevent serious environmental contamination with Parascaris eggs. In the interest of decreasing selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, horse owners and veterinarians must become more tolerant of the passage of modest numbers of ascarid eggs by some foals. Anthelmintic resistance is only one of several potential responses to genetic selection. Although still only theoretical, changes in the immunogenicity of ascarid isolates or reduction of their prepatent or egg reappearance periods could pose far greater challenges to effective control than resistance to a single class of anthelmintics.

  18. Risk factor analysis of equine strongyle resistance to anthelmintics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sallé

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal strongyles are the most problematic endoparasites of equids as a result of their wide distribution and the spread of resistant isolates throughout the world. While abundant literature can be found on the extent of anthelmintic resistance across continents, empirical knowledge about associated risk factors is missing. This study brought together results from anthelmintic efficacy testing and risk factor analysis to provide evidence-based guidelines in the field. It involved 688 horses from 39 French horse farms and riding schools to both estimate Faecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR after anthelmintic treatment and to interview farm and riding school managers about their practices. Risk factors associated with reduced anthelmintic efficacy in equine strongyles were estimated across drugs using a marginal modelling approach. Results demonstrated ivermectin efficacy (96.3% ± 14.5% FECR, the inefficacy of fenbendazole (42.8% ± 33.4% FECR and an intermediate profile for pyrantel (90.3% ± 19.6% FECR. Risk factor analysis provided support to advocate for FEC-based treatment regimens combined with individual anthelmintic dosage and the enforcement of tighter biosecurity around horse introduction. The combination of these measures resulted in a decreased risk of drug resistance (relative risk of 0.57, p = 0.02. Premises falling under this typology also relied more on their veterinarians suggesting practitionners play an important role in the sustainability of anthelmintic usage. Similarly, drug resistance risk was halved in premises with frequent pasture rotation and with stocking rate below five horses/ha (relative risk of 0.53, p < 0.01. This is the first empirical risk factor analysis for anthelmintic resistance in equids. Our findings should guide the implementation of more sustained strongyle management in the field. Keywords: Horse, Nematode, Anthelmintic resistance, Strongyle, Cyathostomin

  19. [Anthelmintic resistance in ruminants: development, diagnostics, and procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knubben-Schweizer, Gabriela; Pfister, Kurt

    2017-08-10

    Anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants, but also in cattle and horses, is now found worldwide. The reason for increasing anthelmintic resistance is, in particular, the extensive use of all the anthelmintic agents available on the market. A non-targeted use leads to the selection of naturally occurring resistance genes within parasite populations. The most practical method for evaluating the efficacy of an anthelmintic is the fecal egg-count reduction test. To reduce the rate of anthelmintic resistance development, the available active substances must be applied less and in a targeted manner. When applying targeted (selective) treatment, part of the herd is left untreated. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the animals that require treatment for health or economic reasons. To decide on anthelmintic treatment, findings can be collected from single animals or from a group of animals in a herd. To determine which groups of animals are to be treated within a herd (targeted treatment), pooled fecal samples (cattle and small ruminants), serum pepsinogen concentration (cattle), or Ostertagia ostertagi antibodies in the bulk milk (cattle) can be analyzed. For individual animal (targeted selective) treatment, criteria including fecal egg count (cattle and small ruminants), conjuctival color as an indicator for infection with Haemonchus contortus (FAMACHA ® , small ruminants), body condition in adult animals (small ruminants), weight gain in juvenile animals (cattle and small ruminants), and the consistency of the feces (small ruminants) are used. These decision criteria can also be combined to enhance the informative value. Furthermore, an efficacy test of the anthelmintics used should be performed regularly at the beginning of the pasture season. During the pasture season, a low infection pressure should be maintained by pasture management strategies. The goal of sustainable parasite management is the reduction of anthelmintic

  20. An inconvenient truth: global worming and anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ray M; Vidyashankar, Anand N

    2012-05-04

    Over the past 10-15 years, we have witnessed a rapid increase in both the prevalence and magnitude of anthelmintic resistance, and this increase appears to be a worldwide phenomenon. Reports of anthelmintic resistance to multiple drugs in individual parasite species, and in multiple parasite species across virtually all livestock hosts, are increasingly common. In addition, since the introduction of ivermectin in 1981, no novel anthelmintic classes were developed and introduced for use in livestock until recently with the launch of monepantel in New Zealand. Thus, livestock producers are often left with few options for effective treatment against many important parasite species. While new anthelmintic classes with novel mechanisms of action could potentially solve this problem, new drugs are extremely expensive to develop, and can be expected to be more expensive than older drugs. Thus, it seems clear that the "Global Worming" approach that has taken hold over the past 40-50 years must change, and livestock producers must develop a new vision for parasite control and sustainability of production. Furthermore, parasitologists must improve methods for study design and data analysis that are used for diagnosing anthelmintic resistance, especially for the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Currently, standards for diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance using FECRT exist only for sheep. Lack of standards in horses and cattle and arbitrarily defined cutoffs for defining resistance, combined with inadequate analysis of the data, mean that errors in assigning resistance status are common. Similarly, the lack of standards makes it difficult to compare data among different studies. This problem needs to be addressed, because as new drugs are introduced now and in the future, the lack of alternative treatments will make early and accurate diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance increasingly important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk factor analysis of equine strongyle resistance to anthelmintics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallé, G; Cortet, J; Bois, I; Dubès, C; Guyot-Sionest, Q; Larrieu, C; Landrin, V; Majorel, G; Wittreck, S; Woringer, E; Couroucé, A; Guillot, J; Jacquiet, P; Guégnard, F; Blanchard, A; Leblond, A

    2017-12-01

    Intestinal strongyles are the most problematic endoparasites of equids as a result of their wide distribution and the spread of resistant isolates throughout the world. While abundant literature can be found on the extent of anthelmintic resistance across continents, empirical knowledge about associated risk factors is missing. This study brought together results from anthelmintic efficacy testing and risk factor analysis to provide evidence-based guidelines in the field. It involved 688 horses from 39 French horse farms and riding schools to both estimate Faecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) after anthelmintic treatment and to interview farm and riding school managers about their practices. Risk factors associated with reduced anthelmintic efficacy in equine strongyles were estimated across drugs using a marginal modelling approach. Results demonstrated ivermectin efficacy (96.3% ± 14.5% FECR), the inefficacy of fenbendazole (42.8% ± 33.4% FECR) and an intermediate profile for pyrantel (90.3% ± 19.6% FECR). Risk factor analysis provided support to advocate for FEC-based treatment regimens combined with individual anthelmintic dosage and the enforcement of tighter biosecurity around horse introduction. The combination of these measures resulted in a decreased risk of drug resistance (relative risk of 0.57, p = 0.02). Premises falling under this typology also relied more on their veterinarians suggesting practitionners play an important role in the sustainability of anthelmintic usage. Similarly, drug resistance risk was halved in premises with frequent pasture rotation and with stocking rate below five horses/ha (relative risk of 0.53, p risk factor analysis for anthelmintic resistance in equids. Our findings should guide the implementation of more sustained strongyle management in the field. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxocara canis: anthelmintic activity of quinone derivatives in murine toxocarosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Santos, T; Mata-Santos, H A; Carneiro, P F; De Moura, K C G; Fenalti, J M; Klafke, G B; Cruz, L A X; Martins, L H R; Pinto, N F; Pinto, M C F R; Berne, M E A; Da Silva, P E A; Scaini, C J

    2016-04-01

    Human toxocarosis is a chronic tissue parasitosis most often caused by Toxocara canis. The seroprevalence can reach up to 50%, especially among children and adolescents. The anthelmintics used in the treatment have moderate efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of quinones and their derivatives against T. canis larvae and the cytotoxicity of the larvicidal compounds. The compounds were evaluated at 1 mg mL(-1) concentration in microculture plates containing third stage larvae in an Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 h. Five naphthoxiranes were selected for the cytotoxicity analysis. The cell viability evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays using murine peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice revealed that the naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) were less cytotoxic at a concentration of 0.05 mg mL(-1). The efficacy of naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) was examined in murine toxocarosis also. The anthelmintic activity was examined by evaluating the number of larvae in the brain, carcass, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and eyes. Compound (3) demonstrated anthelmintic activity similar to that of albendazole by decreasing the number of larvae in the organs of mice and thus could form the basis of the development of a new anthelmintic drug.

  3. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Millettia auriculata leaves and stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Das

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the anthelmintic activity of phytochemically charaterized chloroform extracts of Millettia auriculata leaves and stems. Methods: Chloroform extracts of leaves and stems were prepared. Phytochemical characterisation involved preliminary screening, optimisation of solvent system in thin layer chromatography (TLC and UV absorption measurement of each bright yellow (in view of a common physical property of flavonoids TLC fraction for each extract. Anthelmintic activity of each extract was carried out for different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL using Pheretima posthuma. Results: Phytochemical characterisation of the extracts revealed the presence of steroids/ triterpenes, phenolics/flavonoids and carbohydrates with optimum TLC-separation in chloroformhexane, 19:1. All the investigated extracts possessed significant anthelmintic activity (P<0.001 at a minimal dose of 10 mg/mL when compared with the corresponding concentration of reference drug albendazole. Leaf extract was found to have more efficacy and potency than that of stem and albendazole. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that Millettia auriculata can be used as anthelmintic drug. It would be also interesting to find out any novel or existing chemical entities showing anthelmintic activity with mechanism of action.

  4. Anticoagulation Considerations for Travel to High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoughery, Thomas G

    2015-09-01

    DeLoughery, Thomas G. Anticoagulation considerations for travel to high altitude. High Alt Med Biol 16:181-185, 2015.-An increasing percentage of the population are on anticoagulation medicine for clinical reasons ranging from stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation to long term prevention of deep venous thrombosis. In recent years, several new direct oral anticoagulants have entered the market. The key questions that should be kept in mind when approaching a potential traveler on anticoagulation are: 1) why is the patient on anticoagulation? 2) do they need to stay on anticoagulation? 3) what are the choices for their anticoagulation? 4) will there be any drug interactions with medications needed for travel? and 5) how will they monitor their anticoagulation while traveling? Knowing the answers to these questions then can allow for proper counseling and planning for the anticoagulated traveler's trip.

  5. ECOLOGICALLY SAFE BENZIMIDAZOLE-BASED ANTHELMINTIC DRUGS: SYNTHESIS, PROPERTIES, MEDICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Khalikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study the process of mechanochemical modification of the physico-chemical and anthelmintic benzimidazole properties of drugs to change their water solubility and increase their efficiency.Methods. We have used the technology of solid phase mechanical processing of substances with polysaccharides to obtain the supramolecular complexes, which are characterized by a complex of physico-chemical methods (IR spectroscopy, DTA, XRF, solubility, etc. as well as tested for anthelmintic effect in laboratory models and experiments on sheep.Results. The drug has a high efficiency in laboratory models of helminthes and in experiments on sheep infested spontaneously with nematodes of gastrointestinal tract lowering the dosages of substance.Conclusion. Solid phase mechanochemical processing of certain substances of benzimidazole anthelmintic drugs with polysaccharides shows the possibility of obtaining environmentally friendly products with improved solubility, bioavailability and increased biological activity against nematodes.

  6. Novel anthelmintic compounds and molluscicides from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, P J

    1996-01-01

    This review assesses the role that can be played by allelochemicals (bioactive secondary compounds) from medicinal and other plants in the control of human helminthic diseases. In the search for new anthelmintics among plant allelochemicals, 3 practical issues have considerable significance. They are the range and capacity of anthelmintic bioassays utilised in preclinical studies in vitro on plant extracts, the phenomenon of coexistent allelochemicals with overlapping activity spectra within single plants, and the problem of non-specific cytotoxins among plant allelochemicals. These topics are discussed in the context of the present absence of any clinically useful plant anthelmintics. In the search for new plant molluscicides for schistosomiasis control, the characteristics of a range of molluscicidal plants are measured against those of the synthetic molluscicide of choice, niclosamide, and against the postulated attributes of practically useful plant molluscicides.

  7. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclu......The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met...... the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC) above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were...

  8. A report on anthelmintic activity of Cassia tora leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinu John

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction of Cassia tora L. leaves were evaluated for anthelmintic property using the Indian adult earthworm (Pheretima posthuma as a model. Among the earthworms the ethyl acetate fraction was potent. The results were compared with a standard drug, albendazole. The phytochemical analysis of both extracts showed the presence of phenolics like flavonoids and tannins as well as anthraquinones, which may be the active principle. The present study confirms the ethno-medicinal report of the plant as an anthelmintic drug.

  9. Does plasmin have anticoagulant activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Hoover-Plow

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Jane Hoover-PlowJoseph J Jacobs Center for Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, Departments of Cardiovascular Medicine and Molecular Cardiology, Lerner Research Institute Cleveland Clinic, Ohio, USAAbstract: The coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways regulate hemostasis and thrombosis, and an imbalance in these pathways may result in pathologic hemophilia or thrombosis. The plasminogen system is the primary proteolytic pathway for fibrinolysis, but also has important proteolytic functions in cell migration, extracellular matrix degradation, metalloproteinase activation, and hormone processing. Several studies have demonstrated plasmin cleavage and inactivation of several coagulation factors, suggesting plasmin may be not only be the primary fibrinolytic enzyme, but may have anticoagulant properties as well. The objective of this review is to examine both in vitro and in vivo evidence for plasmin inactivation of coagulation, and to consider whether plasmin may act as a physiological regulator of coagulation. While several studies have demonstrated strong evidence for plasmin cleavage and inactivation of coagulation factors FV, FVIII, FIX, and FX in vitro, in vivo evidence is lacking for a physiologic role for plasmin as an anticoagulant. However, inactivation of coagulation factors by plasmin may be useful as a localized anticoagulant therapy or as a combined thrombolytic and anticoagulant therapy.Keywords: thrombosis, anticoagulant, cardiovascular disease, plasminogen’s protease, blood

  10. Anticoagulant and antimicrobial finishing of non-woven polypropylene textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degoutin, S; Jimenez, M; Casetta, M; Bellayer, S; Chai, F; Blanchemain, N; Neut, C; Kacem, I; Traisnel, M; Martel, B

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work is to prepare non-woven polypropylene (PP) textile functionalized with bioactive molecules in order to improve its anticoagulation and antibacterial properties. This paper describes the optimization of the grafting process of acrylic acid (AA) on low-pressure cold-plasma pre-activated PP, the characterization of the modified substrates and the effect of these modifications on the in vitro biological response towards cells. Then, the immobilization of gentamicin (aminoglycoside antibiotic) and heparin (anticoagulation agent) has been carried out on the grafted samples by either ionic interactions or covalent linkages. Their bioactivity has been investigated and related to the nature of their interactions with the substrate. For gentamicin-immobilized AA-grafted samples, an inhibition radius and a reduction of 99% of the adhesion of Escherichia coli have been observed when gentamicin was linked by ionic interactions, allowing the release of the antibiotic. By contrast, for heparin-immobilized AA-grafted PP samples, a strong increase of the anticoagulant effect up to 35 min has been highlighted when heparin was covalently bonded on the substrate, by contact with the blood drop.

  11. Anticoagulant and antimicrobial finishing of non-woven polypropylene textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degoutin, S; Jimenez, M; Casetta, M; Bellayer, S; Chai, F; Blanchemain, N; Neut, C; Kacem, I; Traisnel, M; Martel, B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to prepare non-woven polypropylene (PP) textile functionalized with bioactive molecules in order to improve its anticoagulation and antibacterial properties. This paper describes the optimization of the grafting process of acrylic acid (AA) on low-pressure cold-plasma pre-activated PP, the characterization of the modified substrates and the effect of these modifications on the in vitro biological response towards cells. Then, the immobilization of gentamicin (aminoglycoside antibiotic) and heparin (anticoagulation agent) has been carried out on the grafted samples by either ionic interactions or covalent linkages. Their bioactivity has been investigated and related to the nature of their interactions with the substrate. For gentamicin-immobilized AA-grafted samples, an inhibition radius and a reduction of 99% of the adhesion of Escherichia coli have been observed when gentamicin was linked by ionic interactions, allowing the release of the antibiotic. By contrast, for heparin-immobilized AA-grafted PP samples, a strong increase of the anticoagulant effect up to 35 min has been highlighted when heparin was covalently bonded on the substrate, by contact with the blood drop. (paper)

  12. Synthesis and characterization of N-Mannich based prodrugs of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin: In vitro anthelmintic and cytotoxic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Piplani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Prodrugs, the inert derivatives of existing drugs have successfully contributed to the modification of their physicochemical properties. The improved antimicrobial potential due to enhanced lipophilicity of some of the synthesized prodrugs of antibacterial agents by various schemes has already been reported. In the current study, synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of some more lipid based prodrugs/compounds of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin has been carried out. The synthesized prodrugs/compounds have been screened for anthelmintic activity using Indian earthworms and cytotoxic activity against human lung cancer cell lines A-549 employing sulforhodamine B (SRB assay method. The prodrugs FQF1, 6b, 6c, and 6k were found to possess promising anthelmintic activity due to improved partition coefficient. Growth of selected cells lines was found to decrease with increase in concentration of prodrugs as compared to parent drug. Prodrug, 6k having GI50 value 28.8, has been proved to be the most active among all the synthesized prodrugs. Results of present investigation reveal that some of the synthesized prodrugs/compounds were found to possess promising biological activity.

  13. Anthelmintic efficacy of pawpaw ( Carica papaya ) seeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous and crude extract of Carica papaya seeds was studied in 40 Isa Brown commercial layers infected naturally with nematodes. They were randomly divided into 4 groups: A, B, C and D with 10 birds per group. Group A birds were untreated, while groups B, C and D were treated orally ...

  14. Anthelmintic drug dispensing in South Africa: An analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than two billion people worldwide are infected with helminths. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the dispensing patterns of anthelmintic products using dispensing data of South African community pharmacies. A retrospective, cross-sectional drug utilisation study was conducted on a 2013 community ...

  15. Synthesis and anthelmintic activity of some hybrid Benzimidazolyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    activities at 0.68 and 0.16 µg/ml. Conclusion: Preliminary structure-activity relationship studies revealed that arylpropenone group in position 2 of the benzimidazole ring can be considered as new pharmacophore for nematicidal activity. Keywords: Benzimidazole, Chalcone, Anthelmintic activity, Haemonchus contortus.

  16. Bioavailability of cobalt, zinc and selenium and anthelmintic effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to compare the use of liver and plasma analysis as methods of assessing the status of cobalt, zinc and selenium in sheep, and to assess the anthelmintic efficacy of fortified and non-fortified albendazole preparations. Plasma and liver samples were collected in duplicate from fourteen ...

  17. Anthelmintic and Other Pharmacological Activities of the Root Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anthelmintic activity of water, methanol and chloroform extracts of the root bark of Albizia anthelmintica on strongyle-type sheep nematode eggs and larvae were examined in vitro. In addition, pharmacological tests were carried out on the water extract to confirm other ethnomedical uses of the plant. The water extract ...

  18. [Influence of anthelmintics on enzyme systems of parasitic flatworms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burenina, E A

    2007-01-01

    Literary and original data on the influence of some anthelmintic preparations on the survival in vitro and activity of twenty enzymes of gluconeogenesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism in the trematode species Eurytrema pancreaticum and Calicophoron ijimai parasitizing cattle in the Russian Far East are summarized.

  19. Prevalence and anthelmintic resistance of strongyle parasites in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of infection and level of anthelmintic resistance (AR) of strongyle nematodes to ivermectin (IV), albendazole (AB) and levamisole (LV) in Dorper lambs were determined. The overall prevalence was 67.0% and mean eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces was 357. Infection was light in 92.5%, moderate in 4.5% and high ...

  20. Anthelmintic resistant nematodes in goats in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Pekelder, J.J.; Dercksen, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    A suspected case of anthelmintic resistance on a farm with Angora and Anglo-Nubian goats was confirmed in a controlled test. Twelve lambs of sheep were infected with larvae cultured from faeces of the goats. The lambs were allocated to four groups: untreated controls and lambs treated 21 days after

  1. Efficacy of some anthelmintics used in porcine practice in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety three (93) pigs (crosses of Large white, Landrace, Hampshire and Duroc) were screened for gastrointestinal worms before and after treatment with the following drugs: Levamisole, Albendazole, Morantel citrate, Piperazine., thiabendazole and Ivermectin. The anthelmintic efficacy (measure as reduction egg per gram ...

  2. Survey of gastrointestinal menatodes and anthelmintic resistance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2013 to April 2014 in pastoral area, Yabello districts, to estimate the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with gastrointestinal strongyle infection in sheep and goats. Moreover, to assess the anthelmintic resistance in goats gastrointestinal nematodes a total ...

  3. In vitro anthelmintic effect of two medicinal plants (Anogeissus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... A study was conducted to evaluate Anogeissus leiocarpus leaf and Daniellia oliveri stem barks as effective remedy for gastrointestinal parasites. The anthelmintic activity of these extracts on eggs, first stage larvae and adults of Haemonchus contortus was examined by in vitro tests. The extracts were.

  4. Chronic Urticaria in Returning Travellers: The Role of Anthelmintic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahshoni, Avishai; Baum, Sharon; Barzilai, Aviv; Schwartz, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Chronic urticaria often poses a therapeutic challenge. The human immune response to helminths has a high degree of similarity to an allergic response in terms of skin manifestations, eosinophilia, and IgE elevation. Unfortunately, it is often complicated to diagnose such infections. We sought to assess the effect of empirical anthelmintic treatment among returning travellers diagnosed with chronic urticaria, without clear proof of helminthic infection. This is a retrospective case series of 19 returning travellers with chronic urticaria. All patients were treated with anthelmintic treatment given based on clinical suspicion only. A randomly selected control group of 20 patients with chronic urticaria, with no history of travel, was also enrolled. A positive clinical response was reported in 68.4% (13 patients) of the travellers' group within 3 months after treatment with anthelmintic therapy compared with 10% (2 patients) of chronic urticaria patients in the control group. No adverse effects from treatment were recorded. In patients with chronic urticaria, travel history to developing countries must be obtained. Empiric anthelmintic therapy might be beneficial, even in the absence of findings suggestive of helminthic infection. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Anthelmintic resistance in a herd of alpacas (Vicugna pacos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R.; Nagy, Dusty W.; Schultz, Loren G.; Schaeffer, Josh W.

    2012-01-01

    A herd of alpacas was examined because of a history of severe endoparasitism, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and weight loss. Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to albendazole, fenbendazole, and doramectin was documented. This report suggests that anthelmintic resistance may be an emerging problem in South American camelids in North America. PMID:23729829

  6. Anthelmintic Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. in Wild- caught Achatina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Indian earthworm, Pheritima posthuma. (Rastogi et al., 2009). This study assessed the anthelmintic effect of Moringa olei fera leaves in Achatina achatina. ... provide suitable habitat for the snails, and covered with non-medicated mosquito net and wire mesh to keep them in the box. The snails were randomly assigned to.

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    compounds were made on the basis of spectroscopic data and elemental analysis. Keywords. 10H-phenothiazines; Smiles rearrangement; sulphones; ribofuranosides; antimicrobial activity; anthelmintic activity. 1. Introduction. A large number of publications and patents registered worldwide gave much emphasis on the ...

  8. Heparin mimetics with anticoagulant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahain, Abdullah Al; Ignjatovic, Vera; Monagle, Paul; Tsanaktsidis, John; Ferro, Vito

    2018-02-15

    Heparin, a sulfated polysaccharide belonging to the glycosaminoglycan family, has been widely used as an anticoagulant drug for decades and remains the most commonly used parenteral anticoagulant in adults and children. However, heparin has important clinical limitations and is derived from animal sources which pose significant safety and supply problems. The ever growing shortage of the raw material for heparin manufacturing may become a very significant issue in the future. These global limitations have prompted much research, especially following the recent well-publicized contamination scandal, into the development of alternative anticoagulants derived from non-animal and/or totally synthetic sources that mimic the structural features and properties of heparin. Such compounds, termed heparin mimetics, are also needed as anticoagulant materials for use in biomedical applications (e.g., stents, grafts, implants etc.). This review encompasses the development of heparin mimetics of various structural classes, including synthetic polymers and non-carbohydrate small molecules as well as sulfated oligo- and polysaccharides, and fondaparinux derivatives and conjugates, with a focus on developments in the past 10 years. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Anthelmintic resistance in cattle nematodes in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Louis C

    2014-07-30

    The first documented case of macrocyclic lactone resistance in gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes of cattle was seen in the US approximately 10 years ago. Since that time the increase incidence of anthelmintic resistance has continued at an alarming rate. Currently parasites of the genera Cooperia and/or Haemonchus resistant to generic or brand-name macrocyclic lactones have be demonstrated in more than half of all operations examined. Both of these parasite genera are capable of causing economic losses by decreasing food intake and subsequently animal productivity. Currently, there are no easy and quick means to detect anthelmintic resistant GI nematodes. Definitive identification requires killing of cattle. The most commonly used field detection method is the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). This method can be adapted for use as a screening agent for Veterinarians and producers to identify less than desired clearance of the parasites after anthelmintic treatment. Further studies can then define the reasons for persistence of the egg counts. The appearance of anthelmintic resistance is largely due to the development of very effective nematode control programs that have significantly improved the productivity of the US cattle industry, but at the same time has placed a high level of selective pressure on the parasite genome. The challenges ahead include the development of programs that control the anthelmintic resistant nematodes but at the same time result in more sustainable parasite control. The goal is to maintain high levels of productivity but to exert less selective pressures on the parasites. One of the most effective means to slow the development of drug resistance is through the simultaneous use of multiple classes of anthelmintics, each of which has a different mode of action. Reduction of the selective pressure on the parasites can be attained through a more targeted approach to drug treatments where the producer's needs are met by selective

  10. Transitions of care in anticoagulated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michota F

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Franklin Michota Department of Hospital Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: Anticoagulation is an effective therapeutic means of reducing thrombotic risk in patients with various conditions, including atrial fibrillation, mechanical heart valves, and major surgery. By its nature, anticoagulation increases the risk of bleeding; this risk is particularly high during transitions of care. Established anticoagulants are not ideal, due to requirements for parenteral administration, narrow therapeutic indices, and/or a need for frequent therapeutic monitoring. The development of effective oral anticoagulants that are administered as a fixed dose, have low potential for drug-drug and drug-food interactions, do not require regular anticoagulation monitoring, and are suitable for both inpatient and outpatient use is to be welcomed. Three new oral anticoagulants, the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate, and the factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban and apixaban, have been approved in the US for reducing the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation; rivaroxaban is also approved for prophylaxis and treatment of deep vein thrombosis, which may lead to pulmonary embolism in patients undergoing knee or hip replacement surgery. This review examines current options for anticoagulant therapy, with a focus on maintaining efficacy and safety during transitions of care. The characteristics of dabigatran etexilate, rivaroxaban, and apixaban are discussed in the context of traditional anticoagulant therapy. Keywords: hemorrhagic events, oral anticoagulation, parenteral anticoagulation, stroke, transitions of care

  11. Preliminary analysis of the relationship between structure and anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins in cattle nemaotdes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Larsen Enemark, Heidi; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2013-01-01

    in anthelmintic activity, as measured in vitro. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between structure and anthelmintic activity using an in vitro assay. We used a series of purified tannins (from 65% to 100% of purity) characterized for their degree of polymerization (mDP), prodelphinidin...... inhibition which could be related to a very low cis/trans ratio. Based on these preliminary findings it is difficult to define a relationship between the structural parameters and anthelmintic activity....

  12. Effects of the anthelmintic drug PF1022A on mammalian tissue and cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dornetshuber, R.; Kamyar, M.R.; Rawnduzi, P.; Baburin, I.; Kouri, K.; Pilz, E.; Hornbogen, T.; Zocher, R.; Berger, W.; Lemmens-Gruber, R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Nematode infections cause human morbidity and enormous economic loss in livestock. Since resistance against currently available anthelmintics is a worldwide problem, there is a continuous need for new compounds. The cyclooctadepsipeptide PF1022A is a novel anthelmintic that binds to the latrophilin-like transmembrane receptor important for pharyngeal pumping in nematodes. Furthermore, PF1022A binds to GABA receptors, which might contribute to the anthelmintic effect. Like ...

  13. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF ARTEMISIA PALLENS WALL*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhare, Seema; Garg, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Helminthic infections are now being recognized as the cause of much chronic ill health and sluggishness among the tropical people. More than half of the world populations suffers from worm infections of one type or the other. Traditional system of medicine reports the efficacy of chenopodiul oil, Embelia ribes (Via-Varang), Trachyspermum ammi Ajwain and Biper betle (Pan) oils etc. for eliminating helminthes. The present study reports the strong anthelmintic activity of the essential oil of Artemisia pallens Wall. Against Pheritima posthuma (earth worm), Taenia solium (tape worm) and Ascaris lumbricoides (round worm). The helminthes have been found to be more susceptible to the oil than to piperazine phosphate of similar concentration. Artemisia pallens has been ascribed to possess anthelmintic and stomachic properties in indigenous system of medicine. The present screening not only confirms the correct usage of the plant by the rurals but also enhances the creditability of ethnobotanical explorations. PMID:22556530

  14. Anthelmintic activity of the essential oil of artemisia pallens wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhare, S; Garg, S C

    1991-01-01

    Helminthic infections are now being recognized as the cause of much chronic ill health and sluggishness among the tropical people. More than half of the world populations suffers from worm infections of one type or the other. Traditional system of medicine reports the efficacy of chenopodiul oil, Embelia ribes (Via-Varang), Trachyspermum ammi Ajwain and Biper betle (Pan) oils etc. for eliminating helminthes. The present study reports the strong anthelmintic activity of the essential oil of Artemisia pallens Wall. Against Pheritima posthuma (earth worm), Taenia solium (tape worm) and Ascaris lumbricoides (round worm). The helminthes have been found to be more susceptible to the oil than to piperazine phosphate of similar concentration. Artemisia pallens has been ascribed to possess anthelmintic and stomachic properties in indigenous system of medicine. The present screening not only confirms the correct usage of the plant by the rurals but also enhances the creditability of ethnobotanical explorations.

  15. Anthelmintic activities of three medicinal plants from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbolade, A A; Adeyemi, A A

    2008-04-01

    Aqueous extracts of the leaf, stem bark and root bark from Canna bidentata, Spondias mombin and Commiphora africana were examined for anthelmintic activity against earthworm. All the extracts demonstrated a concentration-dependent activity at tested concentrations of 10-80 mg/ml. Higher activities were observed at the higher concentrations, 40-80 mg/ml for all the plant extracts. C. bidentata with a paralysis time of 3-5 min and death time of 5-18 min at these concentrations for the stem bark, and S. mombin which exhibited comparatively higher efficacy (34-44 min paralysis time and 105 min death time for the leaf) at lower concentrations of 10-20 mg/ml were adjudged the outstanding anthelmintics of plant origin accordingly.

  16. Oral anticoagulation in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altirriba, J; Aparicio, P

    2017-06-01

    Oral anticoagulant therapy is currently widespread in the population and primary care plays an important role in its control in Spain. Younger populations, such as those in prisons, often require this treatment for reasons other than atrial fibrillation, often in relation to valvular or congenital or acquired hypercoagulability situations. The possibility of obtaining the INR by portable coagulometers has allowed primary care physicians to tackle the indication of this therapy and the control of these patients in coordination with haematology services. The emergence of new therapeutic alternatives (Dabigatran, Rivaroxaban, Apixaban and Edoxaban, the so called "ACOD") has permitted the expansion of options for oral anticoagulation in some cases, since they do not require systematic monitoring of their effect and interact with far fewer drugs than their predecessors, although there are still restrictions by the health authorities on their widespread use. This article reviews the different indications of oral anticoagulant therapy according to the new recommendations as well as the clinical scenarios in which it should be used.

  17. Anticoagulant rodenticides and wildlife: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Nico W.; Elliott, John E.; Shore, Richard F.; Rattner, Barnett A.; van den Brink, Nico W.; Elliott, John E.; Shore, Richard F.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2018-01-01

    Rodents have interacted with people since the beginning of systematic food storage by humans in the early Neolithic era. Such interactions have had adverse outcomes such as threats to human health, spoiling and consumption of food sources, damage to human infrastructure and detrimental effects on indigenous island wildlife (through inadvertent anthropogenic assisted introductions). These socio/economic and environmental impacts illustrate the clear need to control populations of commensal rodents. Different methods have been applied historically but the main means of control in the last decades is through the application of rodenticides, mainly anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) that inhibit blood clotting. The so-called First Generation Anticoagulant Rodenticides (FGARs) proved highly effective but rodents increasingly developed resistance. This led to a demand for more effective alternative compounds and paved the way to the development of Second Generation Anticoagulant Rodenticides (SGARs). These were more acutely toxic and persistent, making them more effective but also increasing the risks of exposure of non-target species and secondary poisoning of predatory species. SGARs often fail the environmental thresholds of different regulatory frameworks because of these negative side-effects, but their use is still permitted because of the overwhelming societal needs for rodent control and the lack of effective alternatives. This book provides a state-of-the-art overview of the scientific advancements in assessment of environmental exposure, effects and risks of currently used ARs. This is discussed in relation to the societal needs for rodent control, including risk mitigation and development of alternatives.

  18. Anthelmintic effects of forage chicory against parasitic nematodes in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Williams, Andrew; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    . ostertagi. L1 viability was evaluated after 12 hours incubation. RESULTS: Mean FECs (corrected for faecal dry matter) were not different between groups (p=0.14), but weight gains were higher in CHI calves (+ 35%; p... mg/mL). CONCLUSIONS: Based on these preliminary results, chicory silage (Spadona) has significant in vivo anthelmintic effects against O. ostertagi, possibly mediated by SL, and marked differences exist in the anti-parasitic activity of SL extracts from two different chicory cultivars....

  19. Parasite diversity and anthelmintic resistance in two herds of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K E; Garza, V; Snowden, K; Dobson, R J; Powell, D; Craig, T M

    1999-08-31

    Diversity of parasite populations was compared between two herds of horses, one a regularly treated herd the other a feral herd which has bad no anthelmintic treatment for at least 25 years. Eggs obtained from fecal samples of both herds were tested for anthelmintic resistance by use of an in-vitro larval hatch/development assay (LDA), DrenchRite. A fecal egg reduction test was also performed with the domesticated herd using fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin. Cyathostomes were the predominant group of worms present in both herds. Trichostrongylus axei was seen in both herds, but Strongylus equinus, Strongylus vulgaris, Gyalocephalus capitatus, Poteriostomum spp. and Strongyloides westeri were only found in the feral horses. Larvae of Strongylus edentatus were found in a single domesticated horse. Fecal egg reduction tests with the domesticated herd showed a 32% egg count reduction for fenbendazole, a 93% reduction with pyrantel, and a 99% reduction with ivermectin. From the LDA, anthelmintic resistance was evaluated by determining the resistance ratio of the domesticated herd compared with the feral herd. For benzimidazoles in the domesticated herd, 45% of the cyathostome population was 9.4 times more tolerant than the feral herd's parasite population. The parasite population in the domesticated herd was 1.5 times more tolerant to Levamisole, and 1.7 times more tolerant to the benzimidazole/levamisole combination than the parasite population within the feral herd. 9% of the parasite population in the domesticated herd was 90 times more tolerant to avermectins than the feral herd's parasite population, even though a subpopulation of worms in the feral herd were tolerant to low concentrations of avermectins despite never being previously exposed to this class of anthelmintic.

  20. Anthelmintic-resistant nematodes in Irish commercial sheep flocks- the state of play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Good Barbara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anthelmintic resistance has been reported in most sheep producing countries. Prior to the mid 1990s, reports of anthelmintic resistance in Ireland were sparse and focused on benzimidazole, one of the three classes of anthelmintic available during this period. This evidence for efficacy issues on Irish farms combined with awareness that anthelmintic resistance was increasingly being reported in other countries prompted the need for more comprehensive investigations on Irish farms. Faecal egg count reduction and micro-agar larval development tests were employed to investigate resistance to benzimidazole, levamisole and macrocyclic lactone. There is compelling evidence for resistance to both benzimidazole (>88% of flocks and levamisole (>39% of flocks. Resistance of nematode populations to macrocyclic lactone was suspected on a small number of farms (11% but needs to be confirmed. The recent introduction of two new classes of anthelmintics, after over a 25 year interval, together with the evidence that anthelmintic resistance is reported within a relatively short time following the introduction of a new anthelmintic compound means that the challenge to the industry is immediate. Actions are urgently required to manage anthelmintic resistance so as to prolong the lifespan of anthelmintics.

  1. Anthelmintic residues in goat and sheep dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedziniak Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A multiresidue method (LC-MS/MS for determination of wide range of anthelmintics was developed. The method covered benzimidazoles: albendazole (and metabolites, cambendazole, fenbendazol (and metabolites, flubendazole (and metabolites, mebendazole (and metabolites, oxibendazole, thiabendazole (and metabolites, triclabendazole (and metabolites; macrocyclic lactones: abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin; salicylanilides: closantel, ioxynil, nitroxynil, oxyclosamide, niclosamide, rafoxanid and others: clorsulon, derquantel, imidocarb, monepantel (and metabolites, morantel, praziquantel, and pyrantel. The method was used to examine the potential presence of anthelmintics in goat and sheep milk and dairy products from the Polish market. A total of 120 samples of milk, yoghurt, cottage cheese, cream cheese, and curd were analysed. None of the samples were found positive above CCα (1-10 μg/kg except for one cottage cheese in which traces of albendazole sulfone were detected (5.2 ug/kg and confirmed. The results of the study showed negligible anthelmintic residues in the goat and sheep milk and dairy products and confirm their good quality.

  2. Present-day anthelmintics and perspectives on future new targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taman, Amira; Azab, Manar

    2014-07-01

    In absence of vaccines for the majority of helminths, chemotherapy is still the mainstay for controlling human helminthiases. However, a limited number of drugs are available in the market to combat parasitic helminths in human. Besides, the development and spread of drug resistance have declined the use of most currently available anthelmintics. Clearly, availability of new anthelmintic agents will be essential in the next few years. More research into the mechanisms of drug actions and their targets are eminent for the discovery and development of novel anthelmintic agents. Recent drug discovery techniques mostly rely on mechanism-based screening of compounds on heterologously expressed targets in bacterial, mammalian or yeast cells. Although this is usually a successful approach, it is money- and time-consuming; meanwhile, pharmaceutical companies prefer the tested target that is chosen based on basic research. The nervous system is the site of action of several chemotherapeutics including pesticides and antinematode drugs; accordingly, the nervous system continues to be a promising target. Recent advances in exploring helminths' nervous system, neurotransmitters and receptors have paved the way for the development of potential agents targeting the nervous system and its components.

  3. Comparison of biotransformation and efficacy of aminoacetonitrile anthelmintics in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlíková, Lucie; Lecová, Lenka; Jirásko, Robert; Lamka, Jiří; Vokřál, Ivan; Szotáková, Barbora; Holčapek, Michal; Skálová, Lenka

    2016-02-01

    The present in vitro study was designed to test and compare anthelmintic activity, hepatotoxicity, and biotransformation of four selected aminoacetonitrile derivatives (AADs): monepantel (MOP, anthelmintic approved for the treatment), AAD-970, AAD-1154, and AAD-1336. Micro-agar larval development test, MTT test of cytotoxicity, and biotransformation study coupled with Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) technique were used for this purpose. Larvae of two Haemonchus contortus strains (drug susceptible and multi-drug resistant) and primary cultures of rat and ovine hepatocytes served as model systems. All AADs (including MOP) exhibited significant larvicidal effect in H. contortus susceptible as well as multi-resistant strains, much higher than those of reference anthelmintics thiabendazole and flubendazole. AAD-1154 provides the best results for most tested parameters among all AADs in this study. The cytotoxicity test showed that all AADs can be considered as nontoxic for hepatocytes. In the biotransformation study, Phase I and Phase II metabolites of AADs were identified and schemes of possible metabolic pathways in ovine hepatocytes were proposed. Biotransformation of MOP was much more extensive than biotransformation of other AADs. Based on obtained results, AAD-1154 and AAD-1336 can be considered as promising candidates for further in vivo testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Managing reversal of direct oral anticoagulants in emergency situations Anticoagulation Education Task Force White Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageno, Walter; Büller, Harry R.; Falanga, Anna; Hacke, Werner; Hendriks, Jeroen; Lobban, Trudie; Merino, Jose; Milojevic, Ivan S.; Moya, Francisco; van der Worp, H. Bart; Randall, Gary; Tsioufis, Konstantinos; Verhamme, Peter; Camm, A. John

    2016-01-01

    Anticoagulation is the cornerstone of prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the mechanisms by which anticoagulants confer therapeutic benefit also increase the risk of bleeding. As such, reversal strategies

  5. Direct oral anticoagulants and venous thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Franchini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE, consisting of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a major clinical concern associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The cornerstone of management of VTE is anticoagulation, and traditional anticoagulants include parenteral heparins and oral vitamin K antagonists. Recently, new oral anticoagulant drugs have been developed and licensed, including direct factor Xa inhibitors (e.g. rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban and thrombin inhibitors (e.g. dabigatran etexilate. This narrative review focusses on the characteristics of these direct anticoagulants and the main results of published clinical studies on their use in the prevention and treatment of VTE.

  6. ["Lupus anticoagulant" in immune hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, G; Alexopoulos, A; Hasler, K; Kerp, L

    1990-10-05

    A 56-year-old woman with autoimmune hyperthyroidism (Basedow) whose blood coagulation had at first been normal developed prolonged partial thromboplastin time (PTT) of 48 s and a fall in prothrombin time (Quick value) to 52%. At the same time, total activity of factor VIII was reduced to 18% and factor IX to 16%. These values not having changed after the addition of normal plasma, it is assumed that an acquired inhibitor of plasmatic coagulation was responsible. Such inhibitors were first described in lupus erythematodes and therefore called lupus anticoagulant, but later also demonstrated in other autoimmune diseases.

  7. Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic, and Antiviral Activity of Plants Traditionally Used for Treating Infectious Disease in the Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sujogya K; Padhi, Laxmipriya; Leyssen, Pieter; Liu, Maoxuan; Neyts, Johan; Luyten, Walter

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we tested in vitro different parts of 35 plants used by tribals of the Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR, Mayurbhanj district, India) for the management of infections. From each plant, three extracts were prepared with different solvents (water, ethanol, and acetone) and tested for antimicrobial ( E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans ); anthelmintic ( C. elegans ); and antiviral ( enterovirus 71 ) bioactivity. In total, 35 plant species belonging to 21 families were recorded from tribes of the SBR and periphery. Of the 35 plants, eight plants (23%) showed broad-spectrum in vitro antimicrobial activity (inhibiting all three test strains), while 12 (34%) exhibited narrow spectrum activity against individual pathogens (seven as anti-staphylococcal and five as anti-candidal). Plants such as Alangium salviifolium, Antidesma bunius, Bauhinia racemosa, Careya arborea, Caseria graveolens, Cleistanthus patulus, Colebrookea oppositifolia, Crotalaria pallida, Croton roxburghii, Holarrhena pubescens, Hypericum gaitii, Macaranga peltata, Protium serratum, Rubus ellipticus , and Suregada multiflora showed strong antibacterial effects, whilst Alstonia scholaris, Butea monosperma, C. arborea, C. pallida, Diospyros malbarica, Gmelina arborea, H. pubescens, M. peltata, P. serratum, Pterospermum acerifolium, R. ellipticus , and S. multiflora demonstrated strong antifungal activity. Plants such as A. salviifolium, A. bunius, Aporosa octandra, Barringtonia acutangula, C. graveolens, C. pallida, C. patulus, G. arborea, H. pubescens, H. gaitii, Lannea coromandelica, M. peltata, Melastoma malabathricum, Millettia extensa, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, P. serratum, P. acerifolium, R. ellipticus, S. multiflora, Symplocos cochinchinensis, Ventilago maderaspatana , and Wrightia arborea inhibit survival of C. elegans and could be a potential source for anthelmintic activity. Additionally, plants such as A. bunius, C. graveolens, C. patulus, C. oppositifolia, H. gaitii, M. extensa

  8. Anticoagulant Control Results among Patients with Mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patients with mechanical heart valves receive life long, oral anticoagulant therapy to prevent thromboembolic complications, but this treatment is associated with an increased risk of bleeding (1). However no study in Tanzania has been done to review the adequacy of anticoagulation monitoring and risk factors ...

  9. Isolation and characterization of anticoagulant compound from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GIS

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... The structural characterization of anticoagulant GAG was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Among the marine bivalve, D. faba purified showed more anticoagulant activity than that of crude sample. The results of this study suggest that the GAG from D. faba could be an alternative.

  10. Anticoagulant activity of ginger ( Zingiber officinale Rosc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medicines with anticoagulant therapeutic claims could serve as veritable sources of new oral anticoagulant drugs with possible wider safety margins than the currently available ones. Objectives: This work was aimed at evaluating a Ginger Rhizome Methanolic Extract in vivo in rats for its potential ...

  11. Anticoagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they last a long time. You participate in sports or other activities that put you at risk for bleeding or bruising. What are the side effects? Sometimes a medicine causes unwanted effects. These are ...

  12. Anticoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be hazardous. These medicines include most antibiotics, several pain medicines (e.g., non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and medications for acid reflux such as cimetidine (Tagamet). If you're taking warfarin and start a new prescription or over-the-counter medication, check with ...

  13. HEEADSSS assessment for adolescents requiring anticoagulation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sophie; Mertyn, Eliza; Alhucema, Paulina; Monagle, Paul; Newall, Fiona

    2012-05-01

    The care of adolescents with complex chronic illness needs to be developmentally appropriate to encourage adherence, knowledge retention and self-management. There has been an increase in the number of adolescents requiring long-term or lifelong anticoagulation therapy, related to either an underlying illness or idiopathic deep vein thrombosis. The burden of anticoagulant therapy, the associated risks and the required lifestyle changes can significantly impact on psychosocial well-being in the adolescent patient. This review identifies issues pertinent to adolescent anticoagulation management and discusses strategies to support optimal management. The HEEADSSS (Home, Education and employment, Eating, Activities with peers, Drugs, Sexual activity, Suicide and depression, and Safety) framework was used to provide guidance in undertaking a psychosocial assessment of adolescents requiring anticoagulant therapy in conjunction with a structured education strategy. Adolescent anticoagulant management strategies employing developmentally appropriate assessment and education will likely result in improved therapeutic outcomes for the patient and potentially facilitate transition to adult-based care.

  14. Repurposing salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs to combat drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Rajamuthiah

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that has become the leading cause of hospital acquired infections in the US. Repurposing Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved drugs for antimicrobial therapy involves lower risks and costs compared to de novo development of novel antimicrobial agents. In this study, we examined the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available anthelmintic drugs. The FDA approved drug niclosamide and the veterinary drug oxyclozanide displayed strong in vivo and in vitro activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC: 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml respectively; minimum effective concentration: ≤ 0.78 μg/ml for both drugs. The two drugs were also effective against another Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecium (MIC 0.25 and 2 μg/ml respectively, but not against the Gram-negative species Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of niclosamide and oxyclozanide were determined against methicillin, vancomycin, linezolid or daptomycin resistant S. aureus clinical isolates, with MICs at 0.0625-0.5 and 0.125-2 μg/ml for niclosamide and oxyclozanide respectively. A time-kill study demonstrated that niclosamide is bacteriostatic, whereas oxyclozanide is bactericidal. Interestingly, oxyclozanide permeabilized the bacterial membrane but neither of the anthelmintic drugs exhibited demonstrable toxicity to sheep erythrocytes. Oxyclozanide was non-toxic to HepG2 human liver carcinoma cells within the range of its in vitro MICs but niclosamide displayed toxicity even at low concentrations. These data show that the salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs niclosamide and oxyclozanide are suitable candidates for mechanism of action studies and further clinical evaluation for treatment of staphylococcal infections.

  15. Repurposing salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs to combat drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Conery, Annie L; Kim, Wooseong; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Kwon, Bumsup; Ausubel, Frederick M; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that has become the leading cause of hospital acquired infections in the US. Repurposing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs for antimicrobial therapy involves lower risks and costs compared to de novo development of novel antimicrobial agents. In this study, we examined the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available anthelmintic drugs. The FDA approved drug niclosamide and the veterinary drug oxyclozanide displayed strong in vivo and in vitro activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC): 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml respectively; minimum effective concentration: ≤ 0.78 μg/ml for both drugs). The two drugs were also effective against another Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecium (MIC 0.25 and 2 μg/ml respectively), but not against the Gram-negative species Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of niclosamide and oxyclozanide were determined against methicillin, vancomycin, linezolid or daptomycin resistant S. aureus clinical isolates, with MICs at 0.0625-0.5 and 0.125-2 μg/ml for niclosamide and oxyclozanide respectively. A time-kill study demonstrated that niclosamide is bacteriostatic, whereas oxyclozanide is bactericidal. Interestingly, oxyclozanide permeabilized the bacterial membrane but neither of the anthelmintic drugs exhibited demonstrable toxicity to sheep erythrocytes. Oxyclozanide was non-toxic to HepG2 human liver carcinoma cells within the range of its in vitro MICs but niclosamide displayed toxicity even at low concentrations. These data show that the salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs niclosamide and oxyclozanide are suitable candidates for mechanism of action studies and further clinical evaluation for treatment of staphylococcal infections.

  16. Basic and clinical pharmacology contribution to extend anthelmintic molecules lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian; Alvarez, Luis

    2015-08-15

    The correct use of pharmacology-based information is critical to design successful strategies for the future of parasite control in livestock animals. Integrated pharmaco-parasitological research approaches have greatly contributed to optimize drug activity. In an attempt to manage drug resistance in helminths of ruminants, combinations of two or more anthelmintics are being used or promoted, based on the fact that individual worms may have a lower degree of resistance to a multiple component formulation, when each chemical has a different mode of action compared to that observed when a single compound is used. However, as emphasized in the current review, the occurrence of potential pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interactions between drug components highlights the need for deeper and integrated research to identify the advantages or disadvantages associated with the use of combined drug preparations. This review article provides integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical pharmacology information pertinent to preserve the traditional and modern active ingredients as practical tools for parasite control. Novel pharmacological data on derquantel and monepantel, as representatives of modern anthelmintics for use in livestock, is summarized here. The article also summarizes the pharmaco-parasitological knowledge considered critical to secure and/or extend the lifespan of the recently available novel molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Anthelmintics efficacy against intestinal strongyles in horses of Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sanna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal strongyles (IS are the most important parasites of equids, due to their high prevalence worldwide, pathogenicity and the spread of drug-resistant populations. Despite the large number of horses bred in Sardinia Island, Italy, no data are available on the efficacy of anthelmintic compounds in the control of horse strongylosis. Therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of five commercial anthelmintic formulations containing fenbendazole (FBZ, pyrantel (PYR, moxidectin (MOX and two ivermectin formulations (IVM1 and IVM2 against IS in Sardinia by performing a fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT and investigating the egg reappearance period (ERP after treatment. In total, 74 horses from 7 farms were examined. Coprocultures performed for individual fecal samples collected at the day of the treatment revealed that cyathostomins were the predominant parasitic species (98.6%. The FECR for all horses belonging to the treatment groups after two weeks was ≥95% with a 95% C.I. >90%. The expected ERP did not decrease in any of the treatment group as FECR values 90% for the entire duration of the trial until D150. The results of the present survey indicate that drug-resistant cyathostomin populations are not present in the examined horse population, contrariwise to what observed in other Italian and European regions. The reasons and implications of these results are discussed.

  18. [Factors influenceing the activity of oral anticoagulants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Caamaño, A; Díaz Barreiro, L A

    1976-01-01

    Anticoagulants are drugs capable to retard or even cancell the process of blood coagulation. They are many factors who influences the intensity and duration of oral anticoagulant acitivity, such as drugs, body constitution, physical agents, diseases, etc. The oral anticoagulants interacts with other drugs at differents levels: at the gut, at the plasma, modiffing the protein binding or the metabolism of such drugs, at the enzimatic induction or inhibition, or at unknown places with many other drugs. These paper deals with the description of such interactions.

  19. Overview of a pharmacist anticoagulation certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Julienne K; Edwards, Rebecca; Brewer, Andrew; Miller, Cathey; Bray, Bryan; Groce, James B

    2017-07-01

    To describe the design of an ongoing anticoagulation certificate program and annual renewal update for pharmacists. Components of the anticoagulation certificate program include home study, pre- and posttest, live sessions, case discussions with evaluation and presentation, an implementation plan, and survey information (program evaluation and use in practice). Clinical reasoning skills were assessed through case work-up and evaluation prior to live presentation. An annual renewal program requires pharmacists to complete home study and case evaluations. A total of 361 pharmacists completed the anticoagulation certificate program between 2002 and 2015. Most (62%) practiced in ambulatory care and 38% in inpatient care settings (8% in both). In the past four years, 71% were working in or starting anticoagulation clinics in ambulatory and inpatient settings. In their evaluations of the program, an average of 90% of participants agreed or strongly agreed the lecture material was relevant and objectives were met. Pharmacists are able to apply knowledge and skills in management of anticoagulation. This structured practice-based continuing education program was intended to enhance pharmacy practice and has achieved that goal. The certificate program in anticoagulation was relevant to pharmacists who attended the program. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A survey of anthelmintic resistance on ten sheep farms in Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey to detect anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep was conducted on 10 randomly-distributed farms in the Chivhu District, Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe. Before the survey, a questionnaire was circulated to the farmers concerning nematode parasite control. Results showed that parasite control using anthelmintic treatment was the only method practised and that the benzimidazoles were the most frequently used anthelmintic drugs. The faecal egg count reduction test was used to detect resistance. The anthelmintic groups tested were benzimidazoles, levamisole and ivermectin. Resistance to benzimidazoles was detected on 6 of 10 farms and levamisole resistance on 2 of 3 farms. Ivermectin resistance was not observed on the farms surveyed. Post-treatment larval cultures indicated that Haemonchus contortus survived administration of fenbendazole, albendazole, oxfendazole and levamisole. A Cooperia sp. strain resistant to albendazole was detected and this is the first report in Zimbabwe of a resistant parasite in this genus.

  1. Development of Anthelmintic Resistance Detection Methods of Gastrointestinal Nematodes on Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Haryuningtyas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensive usage of anthelmintic in most of farms led to resistances of livestock gastrointestinal nematodes against anthelmintic. Many reports of resistance that increased every year happen following the continuing helminth control programmes. The succesful implementation of helminth control programmes that designed to minimize the development of resistance in nematode populations depends on the availability of effective and sensitive method for its detection and monitoring. A variety of in vivo and in vitro tests have been developed for detecting nematode population resistance to the main anthelmintic groups. This paper will discuss the development of detection method of anthelmintic resistance based on conventional and molecular approach according to their strengths and weakness.

  2. Anthelmintic activity of Cocos nucifera L. against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L M B; Bevilaqua, C M L; Costa, C T C; Macedo, I T F; Barros, R S; Rodrigues, A C M; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Morais, S M; Lima, Y C; Vieira, L S; Navarro, A M C

    2009-01-22

    The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinal plants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This work evaluated the efficacy of Cocos nucifera fruit on sheep gastrointestinal parasites. The ethyl acetate extract obtained from the liquid of green coconut husk fiber (LGCHF) was submitted to in vitro and in vivo tests. The in vitro assay was based on egg hatching (EHT) and larval development tests (LDT) with Haemonchus contortus. The concentrations tested in the EHT were 0.31, 0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg ml(-1), while in the LDT they were 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg ml(-1). The in vivo assay was a controlled test. In this experiment, 18 sheep infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were divided into three groups (n=6), with the following doses administered: G1-400 mg kg(-1) LGCHF ethyl acetate extract, G2-0.2 mg kg(-1) moxidectin (Cydectin) and G3-3% DMSO. The worm burden was analyzed. The results of the in vitro and in vivo tests were submitted to ANOVA and analyzed by the Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests, respectively. The extract efficacy in the EHT and LDT, at the highest concentrations tested, was 100% on egg hatching and 99.77% on larval development. The parameters evaluated in the controlled test were not statistically different, showing that despite the significant results of the in vitro tests, the LGCHF ethyl acetate extract showed no activity against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes.

  3. ANTHELMINTIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF COLEUS AMBOINICUS LOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee Prasenjit; Hullatti K.K.; Vijay Kumar M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports anthelmintic activity of alcoholic extracts of leaf, stem and root of Coleus amboinicus against Indian earthworms Pheritima posthuma. The results revealed that all the tested extracts of Coleus amboinicus possessed significant anthelmintic activity in a dose-dependent manner. The activities were comparable with the reference drug Piperazine citrate and Albendazole. Among the tested extracts, the leaf extract was found to be more promising in comparison to stem and ro...

  4. Response of preadult Necator americanus to some known anthelmintics in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekariah, G R; Deb, B N; Dhage, K R; Bose, S

    1986-01-01

    Hamsters infected with laboratory-adapted preadult Necator americanus were dosed with 6 reference anthelmintics. Their efficacy was measured in terms of percentage cure of infected animals as well as percentage worm reduction following treatment. Mebendazole and pyrantel were equally effective in this system. Other anthelmintics, including anti-hookworm compound, bephenium hydroxynaphthoate, were less effective. The comparative results revealed that the N. americanus model is sensitive and reliable for identifying and characterizing new anti-parasite preparations.

  5. APOLLO I: Anticoagulation control in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Costa, Luís; Moreira, Sónia; Azevedo, Cristiana; Azevedo, Pedro; Castro, Elisabete; Sousa, Hélder; Melo, Miguel

    2015-05-01

    Anticoagulation control as assessed by time in therapeutic range (TTR) correlates positively with the safety and efficacy of thromboprophylaxis in atrial fibrillation. We set out to assess TTR in our unit and to investigate determinants of better control. This was a case series study of atrial fibrillation patients anticoagulated with warfarin or acenocoumarol at the Family Health Unit of Fânzeres. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and TTR was calculated by the Rosendaal method, based on international normalized ratio tests performed in external laboratories in the preceding six months. SPSS 21.0 was used for the statistical analysis, with descriptive statistics, Spearman's correlation, and the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Of the 106 eligible patients, 70% participated in the study. Median TTR was 65.3% (P25=48.3%, P75=86.8%). We found a positive association between this variable and duration of atrial fibrillation (ρ=0.477, p0.05). Median TTR in our unit is similar to that in southern European countries and close to the good control threshold (70%) proposed by the European Society of Cardiology. The duration of atrial fibrillation and of anticoagulation explains only a small part of the measure's variability. Other determinants of anticoagulation control must be investigated in future studies and comparative studies should be carried out in family health units monitoring anticoagulation on the premises. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. [A new deal with new anticoagulants?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godier, A; Samama, C-M

    2010-06-01

    The anticoagulant market has been very active recently with the development of new compounds including injectable anti-Xa such as fondaparinux, already available, and idraparinux, already replaced by its new biotynilateed form, and new oral drugs which can be divided into anti-IIa with dabigatran already available, and anti-Xa, such as the recently marketed rivaroxaban and apixaban still in the development stage. Others are coming forward. The competition is strong and the place for each drug remains to be determined. This review discusses these new anticoagulants in terms of efficacy and tolerance based on data in the literature. These recent reports mainly concern prophylaxis for orthopedic surgery but also consider treatment of deep venous thrombosis. The results of studies in heart patients have raised much curiosity since they will be determinant in the future use of innovating compounds, which could replace current oral anticoagulants. This will be upcoming but not yet for tomorrow.

  7. Reversal of target-specific oral anticoagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, D.M.; Cuker, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) provide safe and effective anticoagulation for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis in a variety of clinical settings by interfering with the activity of thrombin (dabigatran) or factor Xa (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, betrixaban). Although TSOACs have practical advantages over vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), there are currently no antidotes to reverse their anticoagulant effect. Herein we summarize the available evidence for TSOAC reversal using nonspecific and specific reversal agents. We discuss important limitations of existing evidence, which is derived from studies in human volunteers, animal models and in vitro experiments. Studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of reversal agents on clinical outcomes such as bleeding and mortality in patients with TSOAC-associated bleeding are needed. PMID:24880102

  8. Citrate Anticoagulation during Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Davide; Panicali, Laura; Facchini, Maria Grazia; Mancini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    During extracorporeal dialysis, some anticoagulation strategy is necessary to prevent the coagulation of blood. Heparin has historically been used as an anticoagulant because of its efficacy combined with low cost. However, a variable incidence of hemorrhagic complications (5-30%) has been documented in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) with heparin as an anticoagulant. Citrate has anticoagulation properties secondary to its ability to chelate calcium, which is necessary for the coagulation cascade. Citrate may thus be used in a regional anticoagulation (RCA), limited to the extracorporeal circuit of CRRT, to avoid systemic anticoagulation. Recent meta-analysis confirmed the advantage of RCA over heparin in terms of incidence of bleeding during CRRT. Moreover, an increase in filter lifespan is documented, with a secondary advantage in reaching the prescribed dialysis dose. In our experience, we could confirm this positive effect. In fact, with a progressive increase in the proportion of CRRT with citrate as RCA, we obtained a reduction in the number of filters used for every 72 h of treatment (from 2.4 in 2011 to 1.3 in 2015), and most importantly, a reduction in the difference between the prescribed and delivered dialysis doses (from 22 to 7%). Citrate has an intense effect on the acid-base balance as well, if fully metabolized through the Krebs cycle, due to the production of bicarbonate. Even more severely ill patients, such as those with liver dysfunction, may be treated with RCA without severe complications, because modern machines for CRRT are equipped with simple systems that are able to manage the citrate infusion and control the calcium levels, with minimal risks of metabolic derangements. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Thymus capitatus from Tunisian arid zone: chemical composition and in vitro anthelmintic effects on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker Elandalousi, Ramzi; Akkari, Hafidh; B'chir, Fatma; Gharbi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Awadi, Soufia; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2013-10-18

    The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistant strains of helminths, the drug residues in animal products and the high cost of conventional anthelmintics has created an interest in studying medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Thymus capitatus (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) is used traditionally by people as spices and reported to possess some biological effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of T. capitatus in comparison to albendazole against the gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. To fulfil the objectives, in vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and crude ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of T. capitatus were investigated on the eggs and adults of the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. Both extract types of T. capitatus completely inhibited egg hatching at a concentration close to 2 mg/ml. LC₅₀ of ethanolic extract of T. capitatus was 0.368 mg/ml while that of aqueous extract was 6.344 mg/ml (p<0.05). The ethanolic extract showed higher in vitro activity against adult parasites than the aqueous one in terms of the paralysis and/or death of the worms at different hours post-treatment. Dose dependent effect was observed for both extracts. Chemical analyses revealed that the overall profile of both extracts was dominated by oxygenated constituents. In addition, ethanolic extract is mainly composed of phenols among which thymol (71.22%) and camphor (17.18%). As far as the literature could be ascertained, this is the first publication on anthelmintic activity of T. capitatus. The results of the present study suggest that T. capitatus extracts are a promising alternative to the commercially available anthelmintics like albendazole for the treatment of small ruminants' gastrointestinal nematodes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Host pharmacokinetics and drug accumulation of anthelmintics within target helminth parasites of ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, A; Lanusse, C; Alvarez, L

    2017-07-01

    Anthelmintic drugs require effective concentrations to be attained at the site of parasite location for a certain period to assure their efficacy. The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (pharmacokinetic phase) directly influence drug concentrations attained at the site of action and the resultant pharmacological effect. The aim of the current review article was to provide an overview of the relationship between the pharmacokinetic features of different anthelmintic drugs, their availability in host tissues, accumulation within target helminths and resulting therapeutic efficacy. It focuses on the anthelmintics used in cattle and sheep for which published information on the overall topic is available; benzimidazoles, macrocyclic lactones and monepantel. Physicochemical properties, such as water solubility and dissolution rate, determine the ability of anthelmintic compounds to accumulate in the target parasites and consequently final clinical efficacy. The transcuticular absorption process is the main route of penetration for different drugs in nematodes and cestodes. However, oral ingestion is a main route of drug entry into adult liver flukes. Among other factors, the route of administration may substantially affect the pharmacokinetic behaviour of anthelmintic molecules and modify their efficacy. Oral administration improves drug efficacy against nematodes located in the gastroinestinal tract especially if parasites have a reduced susceptibility. Partitioning of the drug between gastrointestinal contents, mucosal tissue and the target parasite is important to enhance the drug exposure of the nematodes located in the lumen of the abomasum and/or small intestine. On the other hand, large inter-animal variability in drug exposure and subsequent high variability in efficacy is observed after topical administration of anthelmintic compounds. As it has been extensively demonstrated under experimental and field conditions, understanding

  11. Fatal pulmonary hemorrhage after taking anticoagulation medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel P. Hammar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 64-year-old man with extensive diffuse acute lung hemorrhage, presumably as a result of anticoagulation therapy. We evaluated reports in the literature concerning acute exacerbation (acute lung injury of unknown cause in UIP and other forms of fibrotic interstitial pneumonias. We also evaluated autopsy tissue in this case in order to determine the cause of death in this 64-year-old man, who was initially thought to have an asbestos-related disease. Based on the autopsy findings, this man died as a result of anticoagulation therapy; specifically, the use of Xarelto® (rivaroxaban.

  12. Current State of Anticoagulants to Treat Deep Venous Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vo, Timothy; Vazquez, Sara; Rondina, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    Anticoagulation remains the cornerstone of treatment in patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). While parenteral anticoagulants and oral vitamin K antagonists (e.g. warfarin) have been used for many decades, the recent development of novel oral anticoagulants have provided clinicians with an expanding set of therapeutic options for DVT. This review summarizes the pharmacology and clinical trial results of these new oral anticoagulants. Several practical considerations to the use of these or...

  13. The pharmacology of recombinant hirudin, a new anticoagulant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new anticoagulant, recombinant hirudin, was given to healthy volunteers (5 per test dose) in single .intravenous doses of 0,01, 0,02, 0,04, 0,07 and 0,1 mg/kg to study its anticoagulant effects, how it was tolerated and its pharmacokinetics. Hirudin proved to be a potent anticoagulant with important effects on thrombin ...

  14. Anticoagulant Medicine: Potential for Drug-Food Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Anticoagulants and Drug-Food Interactions Anticoagulants and Drug-Food Interactions Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient ... Jewish Health wants you to be aware these drug-food interactions when taking anticoagulant medicine. Ask your health care ...

  15. Decline in faecal worm egg counts in lambs suckling ewes treated with lipophilic anthelmintics: implications for hastening development of anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, M L; Kahn, L P

    2015-04-30

    The aim for this experiment was to look for evidence of milk transfer of anthelmintic actives from ewes to their suckling lambs by reference to lambs' faecal worm egg count (WEC). The hypothesis was that WEC will decline in lambs suckling ewes treated with anthelmintics known to be lipophilic. One group of lactating Border Leicester×Merino ewes were treated (TX) with a combination of short (2.5mg/kg monepantel) and long-acting (1mg/kg moxidectin long-acting injection and a sustained release of 4.62g albendazole over 100 days) anthelmintics to remove gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) burden on day 0. The other group of lactating ewes (UTX) and all lambs (White Suffolk sires) were not treated. Ewes and lambs grazed as a single group and were exposed to GIN (predominately Haemonchus contortus) infection from pasture. Measurements were taken on days 0 and 7. WEC of lambs suckling UTX ewes increased from 6441 to 10,341 eggs per gram (epg) between days 0 and 7, while there was a 51% reduction in WEC for lambs suckling TX ewes. Packed cell volume (PCV) was significantly higher for lambs suckling TX ewes on day 7 compared to lambs suckling UTX ewes (28.5% vs. 24.9%, p=0.039). These results suggest that lambs suckling ewes treated with lipophilic anthelmintics received a sub-therapeutic dose via milk which would increase selection within the GIN (H. contortus) population for anthelmintic resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Trichostrongylus and Haemonchus anthelmintic resistance in naturally infected sheep from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANDERLEI KLAUCK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The anthelmintic resistance in small ruminants is a common problem and concern worldwide. The aim of this study was to verify anthelmintic treatment efficacy in naturally infected sheep. This study was conducted on nine herds that used the same anthelmintic management for over a year. In each farm, the animals were divided into two groups: untreated control group (n = 5 and treated (n = 10 according to the number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG. The treatment effect was checked based on EPG results and larval culture performed before treatment and 10 days after treatment. Significant differences were not observed (P> 0.05 on EPG results between untreated and treated groups. The coproculture showed that the animals were infected primarily byHaemonchus spp., Trichostrongylus spp.,Teladorsagia spp., Cooperia spp. andOesophagostomum spp. In all farms, anthelmintic resistance by genera Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus was found, but this resistance varied greatly between farms.Haemonchus spp. showed resistance to closantel, levamisole, and albendazole. Trichostrongylus spp. was shown to be resistant to closantel, levamisole, and albendazole. The drugs tested showed to be efficient against the genera Teladorsagia,Cooperia, and Oesophagostomum. Based on these results, we conclude that the anthelmintic resistance to the tested drugs is a problem present in the farms evaluated.

  17. Improving the quality of oral anticoagulant therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadisseur, Alain Peter Anton

    2006-01-01

    Oral anticoagulant therapy has changed little since the development of the coumarin drugs after the Second World War. The basic nature of the therapy, i.e. the balancing between thrombosis and haemorrhage, makes it a therapy difficult to manage. Add to this the many influences from co-morbidity,

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Guideline for Prophylactic Anticoagulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    situation. It is hoped that this will lead to improved anticoagulation practice in this country, which we believe will directly benefit patient outcome. S Afr Med J 2004; 94: 691-695. • Certain thrombophilic states (antithrombin/protein C/ protein S deficiency, antiphospholipid syndrome). • Inflammatory bowel disease. • Pregnancy.

  19. Anticoagulant property of sulphated polysaccharides extracted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The marine brown algae: Sargassum tenerrimum, Sargassum wightii, Turbinaria conoides, Turbinaria ornata and Padina tetrastromatica were collected from Mandapam Island, India. The crude sulphated polysaccharides (SPS) were extracted using hot water and examined for anticoagulation activity. The sugar, sulphate ...

  20. Periprocedural reversal and bridging of anticoagulant treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M.; Eerenberg, E.; Kamphuisen, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Anticoagulants are effective agents in reducing the risk of thromboembolism but the most important adverse effect of these agents is the occurrence of bleeding. Bleeding complications may occur spontaneously but the risk of bleeding is particularly increased in case of trauma or around invasive

  1. Antibacterial components of honey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman, Paulus H. S.; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of honey has been known since the 19th century. Recently, the potent activity of honey against antibiotic-resistant bacteria has further increased the interest for application of honey, but incomplete knowledge of the antibacterial activity is a major obstacle for clinical

  2. Anticoagulation duration in heterozygous factor V Leiden: a decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Anna K; Smith, Kenneth J; Ragni, Margaret V

    2013-01-01

    Current anticoagulation guidelines suggest that optimal anticoagulation duration for unprovoked venous thromboembolism is determined by an individual risk assessment, balancing risks of anticoagulation bleeding with venous thromboembolism recurrence. Among individuals heterozygous for the factor V Leiden mutation, while venous thromboembolism recurrence risk is greater, the risk for bleeding is recognized to be lower, suggesting longer duration anticoagulation could be considered. The objective of this study was to compare standard vs. lifelong anticoagulation in 20-year-old factor V Leiden heterozygotes with unprovoked venous thromboembolism. A Markov state-transition model was used, incorporating risks of major, minor, and fatal anticoagulation bleeding, bleeding and thromboembolism morbidity and mortality, and quality of life utilities. Model parameter values favoring lifelong anticoagulation in factor V Leiden heterozygotes were determined in sensitivity analyses. Outcomes were in quality-adjusted life years, discounted at 3% per year. In general population groups with odds ratios for venous thromboembolism recurrence and anticoagulation bleeding of 1.0, a short-term anticoagulation strategy gained 0.09 quality-adjusted life years more than a lifelong anticoagulation strategy. By contrast, in factor V Leiden heterozygotes, lifetime anticoagulation was favored if their relative risk of venous thromboembolism was greater than 1.07 or their relative risk for bleeding was less than 0.91. Results were relatively insensitive to individual variation in other parameter values. Lifelong anticoagulation may benefit individuals heterozygous for factor V Leiden and previous idiopathic venous thromboembolism. Studies assessing bleeding risk with anticoagulation in factor V Leiden heterozygotes and the costs of indefinite anticoagulation are needed to determine if lifelong anticoagulation is the optimal strategy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phytochemical screening and in vitro anthelmintic activity of methanol extract of Terminalia citrina leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narhari Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Terminalia citrina (T. citrina plant belonging to the Combretaceae family. Methods: The tests of phytochemical screening included alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, quinines, anthocyanins, glycosides, carbohydrates and reducing sugars. The anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of T. citrina was evaluated against Pheretima posthuma at three different concentrations (25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL of extracts which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of worms. Results: The phytochemical screening of T. citrina leaves revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, carbohydrates and reducing sugars. The present study indicated that methanolic extract significantly exhibited paralysis and also caused death of worms especially at highest concentration of 100 mg/mL, as compared to standard reference Albendazole (10 mg/mL. Conclusions: This study suggests that the leaves of T. citrina possess potent anthelmintic activity.

  4. IN-VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF AERIAL ROOTS OF FICUS BENGHALENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti Tuse

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are among the most widespread infections in humans. Ficus benghalensis L. (Moraceae is traditionally used in Indian system of medicine. Anthelmintic activity was evaluated using worms as experimental models. Test sample of Ficus benghalensis aerial roots extracts was prepared at the concentration 10, 25, 50mg/ml in normal saline solution. Standard drug used Albendazole (20mg/ml. Time for death of worms were recorded after ascertaining that worms neither moved when shaken vigorously nor when dipped in warm water (50o c. Phytochemical constituents such as Phenolics, tannins, saponins, mucilage and alkaloids may be responsible for the anthelmintic activity. It may be concluded that methanolic extract of Ficus benghalensis possesses significant anthelmintic property.

  5. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina

    2014-01-01

    employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse...... plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth......-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover...

  6. Characterization of the inflammatory response to anthelmintic treatment in ponies naturally infected with cyathostomin parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Betancourt, Alejandra; Lyons, Eugene T.

    2013-01-01

    treatments groups. Anthelmintic efficacy was evaluated using the fecal egg count reduction test performed weekly between 2 and 8 weeks post-treatment. Inflammatory responses were evaluated on days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 14 after treatment using hematology, measurement of the acute phase inflammatory markers serum...... amyloid A, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, and iron, and real-time PCR measurement of expression of the genes for interleukins 1-b and 10, tumor necrosis factor-a, and interferon-c. There were subtle inflammatory responses to treatment, but cytokine expression was significantly associated with the interaction term...... between treatment group and anthelmintic efficacy (P markers, only fibrinogen associated with treatment group. The findings suggest that systemic inflammatory responses subsequent to anthelmintic treatment of cyathostomin infection are minimal. It is possible that this response...

  7. The place of new oral anticoagulants in travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwald, Juergen; Grauer, Martin; Eckstein, Reinhold; Jelinek, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    New oral anticoagulants are increasingly used instead of vitamin K antagonists or low molecular weight heparins. Hence, more individuals treated with new oral anticoagulants will seek travel medicine advice. Travel medicine experts should therefore become familiar with new oral anticoagulants and with their impact and role in travel medicine. This review summarizes pharmacological characteristics and approved indications of dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban, and highlights their relevance for travellers on permanent oral anticoagulation and for the prophylaxis of travellers' thrombosis. Compared to vitamin K antagonists, the new oral anticoagulants have many advantages: they do not have interactions with food, they have lower potential for drug-drug interactions and do not require regularly performed laboratory tests. The oral administration, obviating the need to carry needles and syringes during travel may give the new oral anticoagulants a further advantage over low molecular weight heparins. Clinical experience with the new oral anticoagulants, however, is still rather limited and there is concern regarding the clinical management of patients treated with new oral anticoagulants who suffer from severe bleeding or who need urgent invasive procedures. Overall, it remains an individual decision based on a risk/benefit analysis as to whether or not patients on long-term treatment with vitamin K antagonists should be switched to new oral anticoagulants for intended travel. Further caution is also indicated so that the availability of orally administered new anticoagulants should not lead to undifferentiated and unjustified prescription of anticoagulants for the prophylaxis of traveller's thrombosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct Anthelmintic Effects of Condensed Tannins from Diverse Plant Sources against Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of

  9. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of

  10. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Williams

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and

  11. Structure of the trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase from Brugia malayi reveals key design principles for anthelmintic drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah D Farelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes are responsible for devastating illnesses that plague many of the world's poorest populations indigenous to the tropical areas of developing nations. Among these diseases is lymphatic filariasis, a major cause of permanent and long-term disability. Proteins essential to nematodes that do not have mammalian counterparts represent targets for therapeutic inhibitor discovery. One promising target is trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (T6PP from Brugia malayi. In the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, T6PP is essential for survival due to the toxic effect(s of the accumulation of trehalose 6-phosphate. T6PP has also been shown to be essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of T6PP from B. malayi. The protein structure revealed a stabilizing N-terminal MIT-like domain and a catalytic C-terminal C2B-type HAD phosphatase fold. Structure-guided mutagenesis, combined with kinetic analyses using a designed competitive inhibitor, trehalose 6-sulfate, identified five residues important for binding and catalysis. This structure-function analysis along with computational mapping provided the basis for the proposed model of the T6PP-trehalose 6-phosphate complex. The model indicates a substrate-binding mode wherein shape complementarity and van der Waals interactions drive recognition. The mode of binding is in sharp contrast to the homolog sucrose-6-phosphate phosphatase where extensive hydrogen-bond interactions are made to the substrate. Together these results suggest that high-affinity inhibitors will be bi-dentate, taking advantage of substrate-like binding to the phosphoryl-binding pocket while simultaneously utilizing non-native binding to the trehalose pocket. The conservation of the key residues that enforce the shape of the substrate pocket in T6PP enzymes suggest that development of broad-range anthelmintic and antibacterial therapeutics employing this platform may be possible.

  12. Monitoring Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: Measuring Coagulant Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attermann, Jorn

    daily anticoagulant therapy. The therapy necessitates close monitoring of coagulant activity, since excess doses of anticoagulant medicine may lead to life-threatening bleedings. Traditionally, patients on OAT are required to pay regular visits to a physician, who decides on drug dosage adjustments....... There is general agreement that the quality of the therapy is too low, and often unexpected fluctuations in the coagulant activity are seen. Recently, OAT based on patient self-management has become a realistic alternative by the availability of small portable whole blood coagulometers. An important part...... of the new concept is the training and continuous support and monitoring of the patients, and a center with these purposes has been established at Skejby Sygehus. The main instrument for monitoring the coagulant activity is the prothrombin time (PT). This is the time until clotting can be observed...

  13. Anticoagulation in adults with congenital heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A S; Idorn, L; Nørager, B

    2015-01-01

    Adults with congenital heart disease are a growing population. One of the major challenges in the care of these patients is to prevent thromboembolic episodes. Despite relative young age and no typical cardiovascular risk factors, this cohort has a high prevalence of thrombotic events....... Furthermore, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding how to prevent thromboembolic events with anticoagulation in adults with congenital heart disease. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature pertaining to anticoagulation in adults with congenital heart disease and hence enable....... It is difficult to use treatment algorithms from the general adult population with acquired heart disease in this heterogeneous population due to special conditions such as myocardial scarring after previous surgery, atypical atrial flutter, prothrombotic conditions and the presence of interatrial shunts...

  14. Frontiers of anticoagulation therapy for atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takeshi

    2011-07-01

    In the management of atrial fibrillation (AF), stroke prevention has been proved to play a pivotal role in addition to therapy for concomitant diseases. And, hitherto, anticoagulation by warfarin has been the only effective choice that is known to decrease the stroke rate with ∼70% risk reduction. Although the evidence has been rigid, there are many barriers not to make warfarin therapy pervasive. However, the principle of "KISS (keep it short and simple)" seems to alter our situations. Changing the complex pharmacology with warfarin into the simple pharmacology with new anticoagulants would lead us to a new paradigm, where the old book is now rewritten by a new language. Copyright © 2011 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anticoagulation in acute ischemic stroke: A systematic search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara L. Froio

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Stroke is one of the most important diseases worldwide. Several clinical scenarios demand full dose of anticoagulants primary to stroke etiology or to the treatment of comorbidity. However, controversy exists over many issues regarding anticoagulation treatment in stroke such as time for initiation, efficacy according to stroke etiology, the ideal dose of anticoagulants, and whether novel anticoagulants should be used. Method: Computerized search for clinical trials and randomized controlled clinical trials was done to the present date at Medline, Scielo, Embase, PsychInfo, and Cochrane Library using MeSH terms and the keywords stroke, ischemic stroke, anticoagulation, anticoagulants, heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, warfarin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban. The PRISMA statement was used to evaluate clinical trials. Results: Fourteen clinical trials were selected based on inclusion criteria. No evidence was found supporting the early use of heparin, heparinoids or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH early after stroke. No consistent evidence for the use of warfarin and the newer oral anticoagulants were found. Argatroban was the only anticoagulant with significant positive results early after large-artery ischemic stroke. Conclusion: The ideal time for initiating anticoagulation remains undefined, requiring further investigation. Early anticoagulation for ischemic stroke is not recommended, with few exceptions, such as that of argatroban.

  16. New oral anticoagulants--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanima, Waleed; Atar, Dan; Sandset, Per Morten

    2013-10-01

    Dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban are three new oral anticoagulants that have recently been approved in Norway. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the mechanisms of action, the most important indications and practical advice on the use of these drugs. The review is based on published phase 3 studies, a literature search in PubMed and the authors' clinical experience. Indications for use of the new anticoagulants include thromboprophylaxis after total hip and knee replacement surgery (all three), prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (all three), treatment of acute venous thrombosis and secondary prophylaxis after venous thrombosis (currently only rivaroxaban). For the aforementioned indications, these drugs have proven to be non-inferior to standard established anticoagulation therapy. For atrial fibrillation, all three drugs have also shown a lower incidence of intracranial bleeding compared with standard treatment. It is important to limit the use of these drugs to approved indications, to select patients who show good compliance, to rule out contraindications and to identify drug interactions. Monitoring of coagulation is not required, but patients should be followed up regularly to detect conditions that may lead to changes in the expected efficacy or safety.

  17. Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Drugs in Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altenburg, Alexander; Haage, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In treating peripheral arterial disease, a profound knowledge of antiplatelet and anticoagulative drug therapy is helpful to assure a positive clinical outcome and to anticipate and avoid complications. Side effects and drug interactions may have fatal consequences for the patient, so interventionalists should be aware of these risks and able to control them. Aspirin remains the first-line agent for antiplatelet monotherapy, with clopidogrel added where dual antiplatelet therapy is required. In case of suspected antiplatelet drug resistance, the dose of clopidogrel may be doubled; prasugrel or ticagrelor may be used alternatively. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (abciximab or eptifibatide) may help in cases of hypercoagulability or acute embolic complications. Desmopressin, tranexamic acid, or platelet infusions may be used to decrease antiplatelet drug effects in case of bleeding. Intraprocedurally, anticoagulant therapy treatment with unfractionated heparin (UFH) still is the means of choice, although low molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) are suitable, particularly for postinterventional treatment. Adaption of LMWH dose is often required in renal insufficiency, which is frequently found in elderly patients. Protamine sulphate is an effective antagonist for UFH; however, this effect is less for LMWH. Newer antithrombotic drugs, such as direct thrombin inhibitors or factor X inhibitors, have limited importance in periprocedural treatment, with the exception of treating patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Nevertheless, knowing pharmacologic properties of the newer drugs facilitate correct bridging of patients treated with such drugs. This article provides a comprehensive overview of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs for use before, during, and after interventional radiological procedures.

  18. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    E-mail: a-ahmadi@kiau.ac.ir; ahmadikiau@yahoo.com. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIBACTERIAL EVALUATION OF. SOME NOVEL DERIVATIVES OF 2-BROMOMETHYL-BENZIMIDAZOLE. Abbas Ahmadi*. Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University,.

  19. Hydrogen peroxide-dependent antibacterial action of Melilotus albus honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, P; Grabek-Lejko, D; Wesołowska, M; Swacha, S; Dżugan, M

    2017-07-01

    Honey originating from different floral sources exhibits the broad spectrum of antibacterial activity as a result of the presence of hydrogen peroxide as well as nonperoxide bioactive compounds. The mechanisms of antibacterial activity of Polish melilot honey were investigated for the first time. Polish melilot honey samples (Melilotus albus biennial = 3 and annual = 5, Melilotus officinalis = 1) were collected directly from beekeepers and analysed for pollen profile, basic physicochemical parameters, antioxidant capacity, radical scavenging activity, total phenolic contents as well as antibacterial properties against pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella spp. The physicochemical properties of melilot honey were specific for light-coloured unifloral honey samples and were not dependent on its botanical and geographical origin (P > 0·05). All tested honey samples exhibited inhibitory activity (above 90%) against Gram-positive bacteria at the concentration of 12·5-25%. Above 30-50% of antibacterial activity of melilot honey was connected with glucose oxidase enzyme action and was destroyed in the presence of catalase. Hydrogen peroxide-dependent antibacterial activity of honey was inversely correlated with its radical scavenging activity (r = -0·67) and phenolic compounds (r = -0·61). Antibacterial action of melilot honey depends not only on hydrogen peroxide produced by glucose oxidase, but also on other nonperoxide bioactive components of honey. Melilot honey is used in traditional medicine as an anticoagulant agent due to the possibility of the presence of the coumarin compounds which are specific for Melilotus plant. Melilotus albus is rarely used to produce honey, and antibacterial properties of this variety of honey had not been studied yet. Nine samples of melilot honey produced in different regions of Poland were analysed according to their antibacterial activity which was correlated

  20. Anthelmintic potential of chicory forage is influenced by sesquiterpene lactone composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) herbage has been attributed to sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). Chicory leaves contain lactucin (LAC), 8-deoxylactucin (DOL), and lactucopicrin (LPIC), but the amounts of these three SLs vary among cultivars. The objective of this study was...

  1. [The adenosinetriphosphatases of trematodes parasitizing cattle and the effect on them of anthelmintic preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burenina, E A

    1993-01-01

    Activities and properties of adenosine triphosphatases in mitochondrial and microsomal fractions of trematodes Eurytrema pancreaticum and Calicophoron ijimai were studied. The highest ATPase activity was observed in mitochondrial fractions. The effect of anthelmintic preparations on activity of enzyme was investigated. Trichlorophene, bitionol, oxinide, G-937 and G-1028 turned out to be the most effective preparations.

  2. [Isocitrate dehydrogenases of trematodes parasitizing cattle and the feasibility of inhibiting them using anthelmintic preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burenina, E A

    1998-01-01

    Activities and properties of NADF-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases in cytosol and mitochondrial fractions from trematodes Eurytrema pancreaticum and Calicophoron ijimai were examined. Cytosol and mitochondrial enzymes were activated by ions Mn2+ and Mg2+ and inhibited by ions of heavy metals and p-chloromercuribenzoate. The effect of anthelmintic preparations on activity of enzymes was investigated.

  3. Anthelmintics, used for the treatment of fascioliasis as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation in warm blooded animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miert, A.S.J.P.A.M. van; Groeneveld, H.W.

    1969-01-01

    Dinitrophenol and liverfluke anthelmintics such as niclofolan, nitroxynil, bromophenophos and hexachlorophene increased ATP-ase activity of rat-liver mitochondria and caused a contracture of striated muscle in vitro. After lethal doses, rigidity occured soon after deatth. It is postulated that these

  4. First report of multiple anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of sheep in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M.B. Gárcia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to report the presence of parasites resistant to the most used anthelmintic drugs in sheep in Colombia. Four farms (denominated farm 1, 2, 3 and 4 were selected where the animals were not treated with anthelmintics for two months before the trial. Animals with faecal egg count (FEC above 150 and of different ages were allocated into six groups, each consisting of at least 5 animals. The drugs and dosages used were: ivermectin 1% (0.2 mg/kg, albendazole 25% (5 mg/kg, fenbendazole 10% (5 mg/kg, levamisole 10% (5 mg/kg, and moxidectin 1% (0.2 mg/kg. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined by the FEC reduction test (FECRT with a second sampling 14 days post-treatment. The efficacy of albendazole and fenbendazole at farm 1 was above 95%, which was different from the others farms. The FECRT indicated the presence of multidrug resistance in the other farms where no tested drugs showed activity higher than 79% (albendazole: 0 to 55%, fenbendazole: 51.4 to 76.6%, ivermectin: 67.3 to 93.1%, levamisole: 0 to 78.1%, and moxidectin: 49.2 to 64.1%.Haemonchus contortus was the predominant (96% species, followed by a small presence of Trichostrongylus sp. (3% andCooperia sp. (1%. Therefore, we report for the first time the existence of multiple anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in Colombia.

  5. Multiple Anthelmintic Resistance On A Sheep Farm In Kenya And Its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on these findings, it is necessary to educate farmers on adapting integrated approach to helminth control with appropriate use of anthelmintics. Les cas de résistance anthelminthique chez les nématodes gastro-intestinaux dans une ferme ovine à Kabete au Kenya ont fait l\\'objet d\\'enquête entre octobre 2005 et mars ...

  6. In-vitro anthelmintic activity of Coleus aromaticus root in Indian Adult Earthworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Hussain

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anthelmintic resistance creates a major hitch over the decades throughout the world. As per WHO only synthetic drugs are frequently used in the treatment of helminth infestations in human beings but these synthetic drugs are out of reach of millions of people and have a lot of side effects. In view of this, an attempt has been made to study the anthelmintic activity of herbal drug. Methods: All the prototypes and the standard drug solution were freshly prepared before commencement of the experiments. All the earthworms were washed in normal saline solution before they were released into 10 ml of respective formulation as follows, vehicle (2% v/v Tween 80 in normal saline, and Piperazine Citrate (10 mg/ml and prototypes (10, 20 and 50mg/ml. Results: All the investigational extract acquired the anthelmintic activity at minimal dose of 10 mg/ml. its significant activity (P<0.05 at 10 mg/ml for time taken to paralysis and death when compared to the standard drugs Piperzine citrate used at 10 mg/ml respectively. Conclusions: Herbal drugs and synthetic drugs have equally effective in helminth infestations but methanolic extract has the maximum anthelmintic activity potential than other root extract of Coleus aromaticus.

  7. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a

  8. Laboratory Assessment of the Anticoagulant Activity of Direct Oral Anticoagulants: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Bethany T; Cuker, Adam; Siegal, Deborah M; Crowther, Mark; Garcia, David A

    2017-01-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are the treatment of choice for most patients with atrial fibrillation and/or noncancer-associated venous thromboembolic disease. Although routine monitoring of these agents is not required, assessment of anticoagulant effect may be desirable in special situations. The objective of this review was to summarize systematically evidence regarding laboratory assessment of the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for studies reporting relationships between drug levels and coagulation assay results. We identified 109 eligible studies: 35 for dabigatran, 50 for rivaroxaban, 11 for apixaban, and 13 for edoxaban. The performance of standard anticoagulation tests varied across DOACs and reagents; most assays, showed insufficient correlation to provide a reliable assessment of DOAC effects. Dilute thrombin time (TT) assays demonstrated linear correlation (r 2  = 0.67-0.99) across a range of expected concentrations of dabigatran, as did ecarin-based assays. Calibrated anti-Xa assays demonstrated linear correlation (r 2  = 0.78-1.00) across a wide range of concentrations for rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. An ideal test, offering both accuracy and precision for measurement of any DOAC is not widely available. We recommend a dilute TT or ecarin-based assay for assessment of the anticoagulant effect of dabigatran and anti-Xa assays with drug-specific calibrators for direct Xa inhibitors. In the absence of these tests, TT or APTT is recommended over PT/INR for assessment of dabigatran, and PT/INR is recommended over APTT for detection of factor Xa inhibitors. Time since last dose, the presence or absence of drug interactions, and renal and hepatic function should impact clinical estimates of anticoagulant effect in a patient for whom laboratory test results are not available. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier

  9. Use of anticoagulants in elderly patients: practical recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helia Robert-Ebadi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Helia Robert-Ebadi, Grégoire Le Gal, Marc RighiniDivision of Angiology and Hemostasis (HRE, MR, Department of Internal Medicine, Geneva University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland, and Department of Internal Medicine and Chest Diseases, EA 3878 (GETBO, Brest University Hospital, Brest, France (GLGAbstract: Elderly people represent a patient population at high thromboembolic risk, but also at high hemorrhagic risk. There is a general tendency among physicians to underuse anticoagulants in the elderly, probably both because of underestimation of thromboembolic risk and overestimation of bleeding risk. The main indications for anticoagulation are venous thromboembolism (VTE prophylaxis in medical and surgical settings, VTE treatment, atrial fibrillation (AF and valvular heart disease. Available anticoagulants for VTE prophylaxis and initial treatment of VTE are low molecular weight heparins (LMWH, unfractionated heparin (UFH or synthetic anti-factor Xa pentasaccharide fondaparinux. For long-term anticoagulation vitamin K antagonists (VKA are the first choice and only available oral anticoagulants nowadays. Assessing the benefit-risk ratio of anticoagulation is one of the most challenging issues in the individual elderly patient, patients at highest hemorrhagic risk often being those who would have the greatest benefit from anticoagulants. Some specific considerations are of utmost importance when using anticoagulants in the elderly to maximize safety of these treatments, including decreased renal function, co-morbidities and risk of falls, altered pharmacodynamics of anticoagulants especially VKAs, association with antiplatelet agents, patient education. Newer anticoagulants that are currently under study could simplify the management and increase the safety of anticoagulation in the future.Keywords: anticoagulation, elderly patients, venous thromboembolism, hemorrhagic risk, atrial fibrillation, thrombin inhibitors, factor Xa

  10. Citrate anticoagulation in the ICU: the Leeds experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Charlotte

    2016-09-08

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is widely used in the management of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. It requires effective anticoagulation of the extracorporeal blood circuit. Although heparin is the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant, there are issues associated with heparin, and there has been increasing interest in regional citrate anticoagulation as an alternative. In 2013, The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust switched from heparin to citrate anticoagulant for CRRT in intensive care units (ICUs) across the Trust. This article examines the reasons for the switch, the implementation of citrate and the impact of this quality-improvement project in terms of patient outcome data and feedback from the ICU nursing team.

  11. The mythology of anticoagulation therapy interruption for dental surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Continuous anticoagulation therapy is used to prevent heart attacks, strokes, and other embolic complications. When patients receiving anticoagulation therapy undergo dental surgery, a decision must be made about whether to continue anticoagulation therapy and risk bleeding complications or briefly interrupt anticoagulation therapy and increase the risk of developing embolic complications. Results from decades of studies of thousands of dental patients receiving anticoagulation therapy reveal that bleeding complications requiring more than local measures for hemostasis have been rare and never fatal. However, embolic complications (some of which were fatal and others possibly permanently debilitating) sometimes have occurred in patients whose anticoagulation therapy was interrupted for dental procedures. Although there is now virtually universal consensus among national medical and dental groups and other experts that anticoagulation therapy should not be interrupted for most dental surgery, there are still some arguments made supporting anticoagulation therapy interruption. An analysis of these arguments shows them to be based on a collection of myths and half-truths rather than on logical scientific conclusions. The time has come to stop anticoagulation therapy interruption for dental procedures. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. PHARMACOGENETIC ASPECTS OF NEW ORAL ANTICOAGULANTS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kryukov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to assess the effect of genetic factors on the pharmacokinetic parameters of new oral anticoagulants. The review presents data from studies investigating the effect of gene polymorphisms that encode biotransformation enzymes and transporter proteins of new oral anticoagulants on the pharmacokinetics of these drugs. RE-LY study showed a 15% decrease in trough dabigatran concentration and 27% lower risk of bleeding in carriers of CES1 gene rs2244613 polymorphism, there was also a tendency to reduce the risk of major bleeding. Further study of CES1 gene rs8192935 polymorphism showed a 3% decrease in trough dabigatran concentration in heterozygotes and 11% in homozygotes. There was found a 2% and 3% decrease in trough concentrations in hetero- and homozygotes for the minor allele of CES1 gene rs2244613 polymorphism, respectively. There was no significant effect of ABCB1 gene rs2032582 and rs1045642 polymorphisms on dabigatran pharmacokinetics. It is known the case of gastrointestinal bleeding in the carrier of allelic variants of ABCB1 gene rs2032582 and rs1045642 polymorphisms. However, there was no significant effect of genotype on rivaroxaban pharmacokinetics in the study involving the carriers of ABCB1 gene rs2032582 and rs1045642 polymorphisms. ABCB1 gene rs4148738 polymorphism was associated with higher apixaban peak concentration. But groups of patients with acute cardioembolic stroke showed no statistically significant difference of apixaban peak concentration depending on ABCB1 gene rs1045642 polymorphism genotype. ABCB1 gene rs1045642 and SLCO1B1 gene rs4149056 polymorphisms have no effect on edoxaban pharmacokinetics. Elevation of edoxaban metabolite concentration in carriers of SLCO1B1 gene allelic variants was not clinically significant because the proportion of metabolite is about 10% of the concentration of the main substance. It is necessary to provide large population studies with control of treatment

  13. The Role of Anticoagulation Clinics in the Era of New Oral Anticoagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Testa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticoagulation Clinics (ACs are services specialized in management of patients on anticoagulant treatment. At present, ACs manage patients chiefly on antivitamin K antagonists (AVKs, but patient population has already changed in the last few years, because of an increase of treatments with other anticoagulant drugs, which require different management systems. The strong increase in the number of patients at AC, mainly on long-term treatment, has determined the development of web management, through telemedicine systems, improving the quality of life and maintaining the same clinical quality levels. New oral anticoagulants (NOAs have shown to be as effective as AVK antagonists in stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and for treatment of venous thromboembolism in addition to VTE prophylaxis in orthopaedic surgery, when administered at a fixed dose, but patient adherence and compliance are crucial for good quality treatment. At present, lacking data from the real world, an oversimplification of treatment with NOAs could cause unjustified risks for patients and also a possible future underuse of good drugs. For these reasons the vigilance must be high and ACs can have a crucial role in defining which is the best management for NOA patients and how to do it, as it happened for AVKs.

  14. MONITORING OF ANTICOAGULATION IN APROTININ-TREATED PATIENTS DURING HEART OPERATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TABUCHI, N; NJO, TL; TIGCHELAAR, [No Value; HUYZEN, RJ; BOONSTRA, PW; VANOEVEREN, W

    Since aprotinin has become extensively used during cardiopulmonary bypass the maintenance of safe anticoagulation is a concern. Aprotinin affects anticoagulation measurement by the activated clotting time. Therefore, a reliable new measurement is needed to monitor anticoagulation during

  15. Anthelmintic effect of plant extracts containing condensed and hydrolyzable tannins on Caenorhabditis elegans and their antioxidant capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although tannin-rich forages are known to increase protein uptake and to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infections in grazing ruminants, most published research involves forages with condensed tannins (CT), while published literature lacks information on the anthelmintic capacity, nutritional bene...

  16. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Barleria buxifolia on Indian adult earthworms and estimation of total flavonoid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purna A. Chander

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the anthelmintic activity of Barleria buxifolia leaf and to estimate the total flavonoid content. Methods: The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts were prepared and these were analyzed for total flavonoid content by aluminium chloride colorimetric method and Pheretima posthuma was used for anthelmintic activity by using the different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 80 and 100 mg/mL. Results: All the investigational extracts showed an anthelmintic activity at concentration of 10 mg/mL. The ethanolic extract of 100 mg/mL has produced an significant effect (P<0.001 when compared to aqueous extract. The total flavonoid content was found to be 5.67 mg QE/100 g. Conclusions: From the above study, the leaf extract has shown a good anthelmintic activity.

  17. Antibacterial Structural Color Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuoyue; Mo, Min; Fu, Fanfan; Shang, Luoran; Wang, Huan; Liu, Cihui; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2017-11-08

    Structural color hydrogels with lasting survivability are important for many applications, but they still lack anti-biodegradation capability. Thus, we herein present novel antibacterial structural color hydrogels by simply integrating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in situ into the hydrogel materials. Because the integrated AgNPs possessed wide and excellent antibacterial abilities, the structural color hydrogels could prevent bacterial adhesion, avoid hydrogel damage, and maintain their vivid structural colors during their application and storage. It was demonstrated that the AgNP-tagged poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) structural color hydrogels could retain their original thermal-responsive color transition even when the AgNP-free hydrogels were degraded by bacteria and that the AgNP-integrated self-healing structural color protein hydrogels could save their self-repairing property instead of being degraded by bacteria. These features indicated that the antibacterial structural color hydrogels could be amenable to a variety of practical biomedical applications.

  18. Vitamin K requirement in Danish anticoagulant-resistant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D.; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Nielsen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement......Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement...

  19. The pharmacology of recombinant hirudin, a new anticoagulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-01

    Sep 1, 1990 ... The pharmacology of recombinant hirudin, a new anticoagulant. B. H. MEYER, H. G. LUUS, F. O. MULLER, P. N. BADENHORST, H.-J. ROTHIG. Summary. A new anticoagulant, recombinant hirudin, was given to hea"hy volunteers (5 per test dose) in single .intravenous doses of 0,01, 0,02, 0,04, 0,07 and 0 ...

  20. MRI screening for chronic anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eFisher

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anticoagulation is highly effective in preventing stroke due to atrial fibrillation, but numerous studies have demonstrated low utilization of anticoagulation for these patients. Assessment of clinicians’ attitudes on this topic indicate that fear of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, rather than appreciation of anticoagulant benefits, largely drives clinical decision-making for treatment with anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation. Risk stratification strategies have been used for anticoagulation benefits and hemorrhage risk, but ICH is not specifically addressed in the commonly used hemorrhage risk stratification systems. Cerebral microbleeds are cerebral microscopic hemorrhages demonstrable by brain MRI, indicative of prior microhemorrhages, and predictive of future risk of ICH. Prevalence of cerebral microbleeds increases with age; and cross-sectional and limited prospective studies generally indicate that microbleeds confer substantial risk of ICH in patients treated with chronic anticoagulation. MRI thus is a readily available and appealing modality that can directly assess risk of future ICH in patients receiving anticoagulants for atrial fibrillation. Incorporation of MRI into routine practice is, however, fraught with difficulties, including the uncertain relationship between number and location of microbleeds and ICH risk, as well as cost-effectiveness of MRI. A proposed algorithm is provided, and relevant advantages and disadvantages are discussed. At present, MRI screening appears most appropriate for a subset of atrial fibrillation patients, such as those with intermediate stroke risk, and may provide reassurance for clinicians whose concerns for ICH tend to outweigh benefits of anticoagulation.

  1. Utilization of oral anticoagulation in a teaching hospital in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean age of the patients was 53.4 years and more females than males were on anticoagulation and monitoring (F14:M12). The most common indications for anticoagulation include deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation and mitral valve disease with atrial fibrillation.

  2. Atrial Fibrillation in Embolic Stroke: Anticoagulant Therapy at UNTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The decision to commence anticoagulation in a patient with embolic stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF) is often a difficult one for many clinicians. The result can have significant impact on the patient. This study was therefore undertaken to review the use of anticoagulation in embolic stroke in the setting of atrial ...

  3. [Therapeutic equivalence of the new oral anticoagulants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Villar, A; Nacle López, I; Barbero Hernández, M J; Lizan Tudela, L

    2015-10-01

    In an attempt to minimize the economic impact due to the incorporation of innovative drugs, health authorities have promoted and supported the evaluation and market positioning of drugs, as equivalent therapeutic alternatives. This issue has recently gained importance, possibly due to the current economic crisis. The equivalent therapeutic alternatives are justified by the need to compete on price, and by the authorities recommendation to establish therapeutic equivalence, price and financing of medicinal products at the same time. The establishment of the new oral anticoagulants and the equivalent therapeutic alternatives is a problematic issue if it is based on the absence of direct comparisons between different drugs and the questionable methodology used in the current indirect comparisons. Currently, it is difficult to determine when a new oral anticoagulant is more recommendable than others, but efforts are being made in order to propose alternatives for the decision based on patient characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning in animals of Apulia and Basilicata, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Marilena; Armentano, Antonio; Iammarino, Marco; Palermo, Carmen; Amorena, Michele

    2016-06-30

    This study evaluates the presence of anticoagulant rodenticides in animals with a diagnosis of suspected poisoning and in bait samples. The survey was carried out from 2010 to 2012, in 2 regions of South Italy (Puglia and Basilicata) on 300 organs of animals and 90 suspected bait samples. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted using an analytical method based on high‑performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric detection (FLD) for the simultaneous determination of 8 anticoagulant rodenticides (bromadiolone, brodifacoum, coumachlor, coumafuryl, coumatetralyl, difenacoum, flocoumafen, and warfarin). The presence of anticoagulant rodenticides was detected in 33 organs of animals (11% of the total) and 6 bait samples (7% of the total). The most commonly detected compound was coumachlor (47% of 39 positive samples) followed by bromadiolone (24%), and brodifacoum (11%). The species mostly involved in anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning were dogs and cats. This study emphasizes the relevance of the determinations of anticoagulant rodenticides in cases of suspected poisoning in veterinary practice.

  5. Effects of computer-assisted oral anticoagulant therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Corell, Pernille; Madsen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    : Patients randomized to computer-assisted anticoagulation and the CoaguChek® system reached the therapeutic target range after 8 days compared to 14 days by prescriptions from physicians (p = 0.04). Time spent in the therapeutic target range did not differ between groups. The median INR value measured...... prescribed by physicians, and the total time spent within the therapeutic target range was similar. Thus computer-assisted oral anticoagulant therapy may reduce the cost of anticoagulation therapy without lowering the quality. INR values measured by CoaguChek® were reliable compared to measurements......UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Computer-assistance and self-monitoring lower the cost and may improve the quality of anticoagulation therapy. The main purpose of this clinical investigation was to use computer-assisted oral anticoagulant therapy to improve the time to reach and the time spent within...

  6. Acupuncture safety in patients receiving anticoagulants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcculloch, Michael; Nachat, Arian; Schwartz, Jonathan; Casella-Gordon, Vicki; Cook, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Theoretically, acupuncture in anticoagulated patients could increase bleeding risk. However, precise estimates of bleeding complication rates from acupuncture in anticoagulated patients have not been systematically examined. To critically evaluate evidence for safety of acupuncture in anticoagulated patients. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and Google Scholar. Of 39 potentially relevant citations, 11 met inclusion criteria: 2 randomized trials, 4 case series, and 5 case reports. Seven provided reporting quality sufficient to assess acupuncture safety in 384 anticoagulated patients (3974 treatments). Minor-moderate bleeding related to acupuncture in an anticoagulated patient occurred in one case: a large hip hematoma, managed with vitamin K reversal and warfarin discontinuation following reevaluation of its medical justification. Blood-spot bleeding, typical for any needling/injection and controlled with pressure/cotton, occurred in 51 (14.6%) of 350 treatments among a case series of 229 patients. Bleeding deemed unrelated to acupuncture during anticoagulation, and more likely resulting from inappropriately deep needling damaging tissue or from complex anticoagulation regimens, occurred in 5 patients. No bleeding was reported in 2 studies (74 anticoagulated patients): 1 case report and 1 randomized trial prospectively monitoring acupuncture-associated bleeding as an explicit end point. Altogether, 1 moderate bleeding event occurred in 3974 treatments (0.003%). Acupuncture appears to be safe in anticoagulated patients, assuming appropriate needling location and depth. The observed 0.003% complication rate is lower than the previously reported 12.3% following hip/knee replacement in a randomized trial of 27,360 anticoagulated patients, and 6% following acupuncture in a prospective study of 229,230 all-type patients. Prospective trials would help confirm our findings.

  7. New solid state forms of antineoplastic 5-fluorouracil with anthelmintic piperazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisescu-Goia, C.; Muresan-Pop, M.; Simon, V.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to asses the formation of solid forms between the 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy drug and the anthelmintic piperazine. Two new solid forms of antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil with anthelmintic piperazine were obtained by liquid assisted ball milling and slurry crystallization methods. The Nsbnd H hydrogen bonding donors and C = O hydrogen bonding acceptors of 5-fluorouracil allow to form co-crystals with other drugs delivering improved properties for medical applications, as proved for other compounds of pharmaceutical interest. Both new solid forms were investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The XRD results show that by both methods were successfully synthesized new solid forms of 5-fluorouracil with piperazine. According to FTIR results the form prepared by lichid assisted grinding process was obtained as co-crystal and the other one, prepared by slurry method, resulted as a salt.

  8. Preliminary analysis of the relationship between structure and anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins in cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Oliver; Enemark, Heidi L.; Mueller-Harvey, I.

    2013-01-01

    Some plant secondary metabolites as tannins have direct anthelminthic properties and may play a role in the control of nematodes in livestock. However, their great diversity in structural characteristics and different levels of content in plants are responsible for a highly variable response...... in anthelmintic activity, as measured in vitro. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between tannin structure and anthelmintic activity using an in vitro assay. We used a series of purified tannins (from 65% to 100% of purity) characterized for their degree of polymerization (m......DP), prodelphinidin/procyanidin (PC/PD) ratio and cis/trans ratio by thiolytic degradation. Tannins diluted in two concentrations in water, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), positive (ivermectin) and negative (water) controls were examined by the Larval Feeding Inhibition Assay (LFIA) with first stage larvae (L1...

  9. Preliminary analysis of the relationship between structure and anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins in cattle nemaotdes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Larsen Enemark, Heidi; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Some plant secondary metabolites as tannins have direct anthelminthic properties and may play a role in the control of nematodes in livestock. However, their great diversity in structural characteristics and different levels of content in plants are responsible for a highly variable response...... in anthelmintic activity, as measured in vitro. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between structure and anthelmintic activity using an in vitro assay. We used a series of purified tannins (from 65% to 100% of purity) characterized for their degree of polymerization (mDP), prodelphinidin....../procyanidin ratio and cis/trans ratio by thiolytic degradation. Tannins diluted in two concentrations in water, epigallocatechin gallate, positive (ivermectin) and negative (water) controls were examined by the Larval Feeding Inhibition Assay (LFIA) with first stage larvae (L1) of the cattle nematode Cooperia...

  10. Field evaluation for anthelmintic-resistant ovine gastrointestinal nematodes by in vitro and in vivo assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Baños, P; Pedreira, J; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Francisco, I; Suárez, J L; Díaz, P; Panadero, R; Arias, M; Painceira, A; Paz-Silva, A; Morrondo, P

    2008-08-01

    A coprological survey to analyze the presence of flock resistance to benzimidazoles (BZ) and macrocyclic lactones (ML) was performed in sheep under field conditions. Fecal samples were collected from 2,625 sheep in 72 commercial farms from Galicia (NW Spain). The in vitro (FECRT, fecal egg count reduction test) and in vivo (EHA, egg hatch assay, and LFIA, larval feeding inhibition assay) tests were used to assess the efficacy of these anthelmintics. Coprocultures were also developed to obtain knowledge on the main genera of trichostrongylid nematoda prior to, and after, the administration of the anthelmintics. By using the FECRT, BZ resistance was observed in 13 (18%) flocks, whereas ML resistance was only detected in 2 (3%) farms. The number of resistant flocks to BZ was 21 (29%) by using the EHA and 7 (10%) by means of the LFIA. None of the flocks used in this study showed simultaneous resistance to both employed anthelmintics. The results from the in vitro and in vivo tests revealed that 92% of the flocks FECRT resistant to BZ were also resistant with the EHA. The LFIA confirmed all the farms resistant to ML by using the in vivo test. After the administration of BZ, nematode larvae belonging to Teladorsagia circumcincta (32.2%), Trichostrongylus spp. (29%), Nematodirus spp. (6.5%), and Chabertia ovis (3.2%) were identified. In the flocks receiving ML, only T. circumcincta was identified (57%). We recommend the use of in vitro tests because they are more efficient. As the use of macrocyclic lactones is increasing in this region, further investigation is needed for detecting resistance to the anthelmintic family compounds by the LFIA.

  11. Transcriptome analysis reveals molecular anthelmintic effects of procyanidins in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Spiegler

    Full Text Available Worldwide, more than 1 billion people are affected by infestations with soil-transmitted helminths and also in veterinary medicine helminthiases are a severe threat to livestock due to emerging resistances against the common anthelmintics. Proanthocyanidins have been increasingly investigated for their anthelmintic properties, however, except for an interaction with certain proteins of the nematodes, not much is known about their mode of action. To investigate the anthelmintic activity on a molecular level, a transcriptome analysis was performed in Caenorhabditis elegans after treatment with purified and fully characterized oligomeric procyanidins (OPC. The OPCs had previously been obtained from a hydro-ethanolic (1:1 extract from the leaves of Combretum mucronatum, a plant which is traditionally used in West Africa for the treatment of helminthiasis, therefore, also the crude extract was included in the study. Significant changes in differential gene expression were observed mainly for proteins related to the intestine, many of which were located extracellularly or within cellular membranes. Among the up-regulated genes, several hitherto undescribed orthologues of structural proteins in humans were identified, but also genes that are potentially involved in the worms' defense against tannins. For example, T22D1.2, an orthologue of human basic salivary proline-rich protein (PRB 2, and numr-1 (nuclear localized metal responsive were found to be strongly up-regulated. Down-regulated genes were mainly associated with lysosomal activity, glycoside hydrolysis or the worms' innate immune response. No major differences were found between the groups treated with purified OPCs versus the crude extract. Investigations using GFP reporter gene constructs of T22D1.2 and numr-1 corroborated the intestine as the predominant site of the anthelmintic activity. The current findings support previous hypotheses of OPCs interacting with intestinal surface proteins

  12. Testing for direct anthelmintic effects of bioactive forages against Trichostrongylus colubriformis in grazing sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadou, S; Tzamaloukas, O; Kyriazakis, I; Jackson, F; Coop, R L

    2005-02-28

    The aim of the present study was to investigate potential direct anthelmintic effects of forages that contain plant secondary metabolites (PSM) towards the intestinal nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis. For this purpose, we introduced an experimental design, which enabled us to investigate the direct anthelmintic effects of PSM-rich forages, without significant interference of possible indirect immunological effects of PSM. Sixty parasite naive sheep were infected with 8000 T. colubriformis L(3) on day 1 of the experiment. On day 28, sheep entered one of the experimental plots, which consisted of four PSM-rich forages and one control: Lotus pedunculatus (lotus), Hedysarium coronarium (sulla), Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin), Cichorium intybus (chicory) and Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens (grass/clover). On day 35 of the experiment, all sheep were re-infected with 8000 T. colubriformis L(3) and were killed on day 42. By day 42, all parasites of the primary infection would have been recovered as adults, whereas those of the secondary challenge would have only developed to the fourth stage larvae within a week (i.e. days 35-42). The first batch of larvae would enable us to investigate possible direct anthelmintic effects of PSM-rich forages against adult T. colubriformis, whereas the second one whether grazing on the PSM-rich forages could affect the establishment of the incoming infective larvae. Sheep grazing on lotus tended to have a lower FEC compared to sheep grazing on grass/clover (P = 0.06), whereas daily faecal output was higher in sheep grazing lotus compared to those grazing on the other forages (P forages for a period of 2 weeks did not affect the immature and adult parasite populations. Although the present experimental design enabled us to test the experimental hypothesis, the lack of evidence on a direct anthelmintic effect of PSM-rich forages can not be considered conclusive, as the composition of PSM-rich forages is variable within and across

  13. Herbal Antibacterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Modi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants are rich source of antibacterial agents because they produce wide array of bioactive molecules, most of which probably evolved as chemical defense against predation or infection. A major part of the total population in developing countries still uses traditional folk medicine obtained from plant resources With an estimation of WHO that as many as 80% of world population living in rural areas rely on herbal traditional medicines as their primary health care, the study on properties and uses of medicinal plants are getting growing interests. In recent years this interest to evaluate plants possessing antibacterial activity for various diseases is growing. Different solvent extracts (aqueous, alcohol and ethanol of leaves, flower and seed of various plants selected based on an ethnobotanical survey from India were subjected to in vitro antibacterial activity assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria employing different diffusion method. Based on local use of common diseases and Ethnobotanical knowledge, an attempt has been made to assess the antibacterial properties of selected medicinal plants viz. Argemone mexicana (Shialkanta, Aster lanceolatus (White panicle, Capparis thonningii and Capparis tomentosa (Woolly caper bush, Cardiospermum halicacabum (Balloonvine, Cassia alata (Herpetic alata, Centaurea sclerolepis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon, Curcuma longa (Turmeric, Cymbopogon nervatus, Ficus religiosa (Peepal, Indigofera aspalathoides (Ajara, Marrubium vulgare (Horehound, Medicago Spp.(Medick, Burclover, Morus alba (Mulberry, Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi, Origanum marjorana (Marjoram, Oxalis corniculata (Amli, Piper nigrum (Kala mirch, Plectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage, Patharchur, Plumeria acutifolia (Kachuchi, Salvadora persica (Piludi, Salvia repens and Syzygium aromaticum (Clove for potential antibacterial activity against some important bacterial strains, namely Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus

  14. Assessment of the anthelmintic activity of medicinal plant extracts and purified condensed tannins against free-living and parasitic stages of Oesophagostomum dentatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Ropiak, Honorata M.; Fryganas, Christos

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundPlant-derived condensed tannins (CT) show promise as a complementary option to treat gastrointestinal helminth infections, thus reducing reliance on synthetic anthelmintic drugs. Most studies on the anthelmintic effects of CT have been conducted on parasites of ruminant livestock...... and hypodermis. Purified CT fractions retained anthelmintic activity, and depletion of CT from extracts by pre-incubation in polyvinylpolypyrrolidone removed anthelmintic effects, strongly suggesting CT as the active molecules.ConclusionsThese results suggest that CT may have promise as an alternative parasite...

  15. First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, R.; Jiménez, A. E.; Romero, J. J.; Alvarez, V.; De Oliveira, J. B.; Hernández, J.

    2011-01-01

    As the prevalence and severity of anthelmintic resistance continue to rise, nematode infections in sheep correspondingly reduce the profitability of the sheep industry. In Costa Rica, sheep production systems are increasing in both number and importance. A field trial study was carried out to detect the level of anthelmintic resistance to albendazole and ivermectin in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep from seven farms in Costa Rica. Resistance was determined using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Three treatment groups were assessed on each farm: control, albendazole, and ivermectin. Haemonchus spp. (71%), Strongyloides sp. (57%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (43%) presented resistance levels to albendazole, whereas Strongyloides sp. (43%), Haemonchus spp. (29%), and Trichostrongylus spp. (29%) were resistant to ivermectin. Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most resistant GIN to both products. This study suggests that frequency of treatment, exclusive chemical control, and visual estimation of animal weight to calculate dosage may contribute to the high levels of anthelmintic resistance that were observed on the farms analyzed herein. PMID:21772962

  16. The efficacy of anthelmintic drugs against nematodes infecting free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Jemma; Beveridge, Ian; Coulson, Graeme

    2013-07-01

    Effective anthelmintics are valuable tools for biologists conducting manipulative field experiments to examine effects of parasites on wildlife. However, before such experiments are carried out the efficacy of these drugs must be determined. We conducted three field experiments (May 2010-September 2011) on free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) at a golf course in Victoria, Australia, treating animals with the anthelmintic drugs moxidectin (subcutaneous, 1 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg), ivermectin (subcutaneous, 200 μg/kg), and albendazole (oral, 3.8 mg/kg). After treatment we monitored strongylid fecal egg counts (FECs) over time and assessed anthelmintic efficacy using fecal egg count reduction tests (FECRTs). We also performed a larval development assay (LDA) to evaluate directly the efficacy in the nematode population. Unexpectedly, moxidectin and ivermectin had low efficacy with maximum FEC reductions of 82% and 28%, respectively. However, treatment with albendazole reduced FECs by 100% in all kangaroos and egg counts remained low for up to 3 mo. The results from the LDA supported the FECRTs, with low macrocyclic lactone efficacy and high albendazole efficacy. Macrocyclic lactones, at recommended dose rates, were much less effective against strongylid nematodes in kangaroos than has been reported for domestic herbivores. This may be partly due to pharmacokinetics in the host and partly due to low susceptibility in some of the nematodes infecting eastern grey kangaroos.

  17. Anthelmintic resistant Haemonchus contortus in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garretson, Pamela D; Hammond, Elizabeth E; Craig, Thomas M; Holman, Patricia J

    2009-03-01

    A young male giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) recently acquired by the Lion Country Safari in Loxahatchee, Florida, was diagnosed and successfully treated for Haemonchus infection while in quarantine. Seven weeks after introduction into a group of resident giraffes, this giraffe presented with diarrhea. Fecal evaluation revealed an extremely high count of 16,700 eggs/g, with larval identification of the parasite as Haemonchus. A larval development assay showed resistance to the three classes of anthelmintics currently used to treat Haemonchus contortus: the benzimidazoles, imidazothiazoles, and macrocyclic lactones. The giraffe was treated with a combination of moxidectin topically and fenbendazole orally, and follow-up fecal examination 2 wk later showed a marked reduction in strongyle-type eggs. However, within 2 mo the giraffe had a packed cell volume of 22% and an eggs per gram count of 11,900. The animal was then treated with moxidectin topically and copper oxide wire particles orally and removed from the contaminated area. Because of the unusual host, molecular analysis of the parasite was employed, which confirmed the nematode as H. contortus. It is likely that the monthly rotational deworming schedule first implemented more than 5 yr earlier contributed to the development of multiple anthelmintic resistance in this H. contortus population. The proper use of anthelmintics and good pasture management are crucial to reducing the parasite burden in captive giraffe.

  18. First Report of Anthelmintic Resistance in Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maroto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the prevalence and severity of anthelmintic resistance continue to rise, nematode infections in sheep correspondingly reduce the profitability of the sheep industry. In Costa Rica, sheep production systems are increasing in both number and importance. A field trial study was carried out to detect the level of anthelmintic resistance to albendazole and ivermectin in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN of sheep from seven farms in Costa Rica. Resistance was determined using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT. Three treatment groups were assessed on each farm: control, albendazole, and ivermectin. Haemonchus spp. (71%, Strongyloides sp. (57%, and Trichostrongylus spp. (43% presented resistance levels to albendazole, whereas Strongyloides sp. (43%, Haemonchus spp. (29%, and Trichostrongylus spp. (29% were resistant to ivermectin. Haemonchus spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichostrongylus spp. were the most resistant GIN to both products. This study suggests that frequency of treatment, exclusive chemical control, and visual estimation of animal weight to calculate dosage may contribute to the high levels of anthelmintic resistance that were observed on the farms analyzed herein.

  19. Determination of anthelmintic efficacy against Toxocara canis in dogs by use of capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice C Y; Epe, Christian; Bowman, Dwight D

    2015-09-15

    Industry guidelines for anthelmintic testing call for postmortem inspection of animals to verify treatment efficacy. A previous study showed that capsule endoscopy (CE) can be performed on dogs in vivo to quantify hookworms in the small intestine. Adoption of a minimally invasive procedure such as this could reduce the need for necropsy in efficacy trials. The present study employed CE to enumerate Toxocara canis in dogs, with two main goals: to determine if multiple capsule examinations improves the accuracy of worm counts compared to a single examination, and to establish if the efficacy of an anthelmintic compound is the same whether calculated using CE or necropsy data. To avoid needless animal sacrifice, the study was carried out on beagle dogs already in a product development trial with a planned terminal endpoint. Dogs were infected by oral inoculation with T. canis eggs. Untreated control dogs (n=8) were evaluated by CE three times while dogs treated with test compounds (3 groups of 4) were examined only once. Utilizing either the average count or just the last complete capsule examination, a robust correlation was found between CE and postmortem numbers (r=0.94, p<0.001). Calculated anthelmintic efficacy was essentially identical for the two enumeration methods, ranging from 94% to 100% for the three research compounds. CE may therefore be a viable alternative to necropsy for T. canis parasiticide trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anthelmintic potential of Calotropis procera, Azadirachta indica and Punica granatum against Gastrothylax indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rama; Kaur, Kiranjeet; Suri, Mansi; Bagai, Upma

    2016-12-01

    Anthelmintic activity of both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Calotropis procera flowers, Azadirachta indica leaves and Punica granatum fruit peel in comparison with albendazole was evaluated through in vitro studies by the worm motility inhibition assay. Significant anthelmintic effects (p granatum ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively, whereas it was 29.23 μg/ml ± 4.51 for albendazole. The mean mortality index (MI) was 1.0 and 0.90 for C. procera , 0.90 for A. indica and 0.73 and 0.80 for P. granatum ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively whereas for albendazole it was 1.0. Percent mean worm motility inhibition (%WMI) was observed to be between 70 and 100 % for different extracts.Various concentrations (5-5000 μg/ml) of all the plant extracts and albendazole were used to detect their cytotoxic effects against HeLa cell line to determine CC-50 by MTT assay. CC-50 values, of all the plant extracts were determined to be >1000 μg/ml and for albendazole it was found to be >10 μM. All the three plants can be potential sources for novel anthelmintics.

  1. New oral anticoagulants: key messages for clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giorgi-Pierfranceschi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New oral anticoagulants are an effective and safe alternative to vitamin K antagonists in many fields of clinical practice. The use of the direct inhibitors of activated Factor II (dabigatran and activated Factor X (apixaban and rivaroxaban, both in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF and those with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE, is of great interest for internal medicine physicians. This paper aims to give practical guidance on management (starting therapy, follow up and bleeding complications of patients treated with dabigatran, rivaroxaban or apixaban for NVAF or acute VTE providing practical tables concerning the phases of therapy, management of complications, drug interaction and dose adjustment if renal impairment occurs.

  2. Initiation of anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlund, A.; Staerk, L.; Fosbøl, E. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasing rapidly. We compared characteristics of AF patients initiated on NOACs versus vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Methods: Using Danish nationwide registry data, we...... identified AF patients initiating either a VKA or a NOAC from 22 August 2011 until 30 September 2016. We compared patient characteristics including age, gender, comorbidities, concomitant pharmacotherapy and CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores in patients initiated on a VKA, dabigatran, rivaroxaban or apixaban....... Differences were examined using multivariable logistic regression models. Results: The study population comprised 51 981 AF patients of whom 19 989 (38.5%) were initiated on a VKA, 13 242 (25.5%) on dabigatran, 8475 (16.3%) on rivaroxaban and 10 275 (19.8%) on apixaban. Those patients initiated on apixaban...

  3. Hemorrhagic stroke and oral anticoagulants: What is to be done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Domashenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic stroke (HS is associated with high mortality and disability rates. Due to the introduction of the current guidelines for the prevention of systemic thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillations and to an increase in the number of older patients, there has been a rise in the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH associated with the use of oral anticoagulants. The paper discusses medical treatment in patients with HS during therapy with vitamin K antagonists (warfarin and novel oral anticoagulants (dabigatran. rivaroxaban, apixaban, as well as an anticoagulant resumption policy after prior ICH in patients at high risk for thromboembolic events.

  4. Antibacterial Applications of Nanodiamonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Szunerits

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infectious diseases, sharing clinical characteristics such as chronic inflammation and tissue damage, pose a major threat to human health. The steady increase of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections adds up to the current problems modern healthcare is facing. The treatment of bacterial infections with multi-resistant germs is very difficult, as the development of new antimicrobial drugs is hardly catching up with the development of antibiotic resistant pathogens. These and other considerations have generated an increased interest in the development of viable alternatives to antibiotics. A promising strategy is the use of nanomaterials with antibacterial character and of nanostructures displaying anti-adhesive activity against biofilms. Glycan-modified nanodiamonds (NDs revealed themselves to be of great promise as useful nanostructures for combating microbial infections. This review summarizes the current efforts in the synthesis of glycan-modified ND particles and evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities.

  5. Antibacterial Applications of Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szunerits, Sabine; Barras, Alexandre; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-04-12

    Bacterial infectious diseases, sharing clinical characteristics such as chronic inflammation and tissue damage, pose a major threat to human health. The steady increase of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections adds up to the current problems modern healthcare is facing. The treatment of bacterial infections with multi-resistant germs is very difficult, as the development of new antimicrobial drugs is hardly catching up with the development of antibiotic resistant pathogens. These and other considerations have generated an increased interest in the development of viable alternatives to antibiotics. A promising strategy is the use of nanomaterials with antibacterial character and of nanostructures displaying anti-adhesive activity against biofilms. Glycan-modified nanodiamonds (NDs) revealed themselves to be of great promise as useful nanostructures for combating microbial infections. This review summarizes the current efforts in the synthesis of glycan-modified ND particles and evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities.

  6. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Hajipour Mohammad J.; Fromm Katharina M.; Ashkarran Ali A.; de Aberasturi Dorleta J.; de Larramendi Idoia R.; Rojo Teofilo; Serpooshan Vahid; Parak Wolfgang J.; Mahmoudi Morteza

    2012-01-01

    Antibacterial agents are very important in the textile industry, water disinfection, medicine, and food packaging. Organic compounds used for disinfection have some disadvantages, including toxicity to the human body, therefore, the interest in inorganic disinfectants such as metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing. This review focuses on the properties and applications of inorganic nanostructured materials and their surface modifications, with good antimicrobial activity. Such improved...

  7. In vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) against Haemonchus contortus from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L E; Castro, P M N; Chagas, A C S; França, S C; Beleboni, R O

    2013-07-01

    Despite the overall progress of sheep farming in Brazil, infections with the gastrointestinal parasite Haemonchus contortus represent one the most important problems in sheep production, aggravated by the increasing resistance of nematodes to traditional anthelmintic drugs caused by inadequate sheep flock management by breeders. Ethnopharmacological data indicate Annona muricata as a promising alternative for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes because of its general anthelmintic properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic effects of A. muricata aqueous leaf extract against eggs, infective larvae and adult forms of parasitic nematode H. contortus. At higher doses, A. muricata extract showed 84.91% and 89.08% of efficacy in egg hatch test (EHT) and larval motility test (LMT), respectively. In the adult worm motility test, worms were completely immobilized within the first 6-8h of nematode exposition to different dilutions of extract. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of phenolic compounds in A. muricata aqueous leaf extract that may be responsible for the anthelmintic effects observed. Moreover those results validate the traditional use of A. muricata as a natural anthelmintic and then the pharmacological potential of its compounds for future in vivo investigations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anthelmintic Therapy Modifies the Systemic and Mycobacterial Antigen-Stimulated Cytokine Profile in Helminth-Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Munisankar, Saravanan; Bhootra, Yukthi; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2017-04-01

    Helminth infections are known to modulate cytokine responses in latent tuberculosis (LTB). However, very few studies have examined whether this modulation is reversible upon anthelmintic therapy. We measured the systemic and mycobacterial (TB) antigen-stimulated levels of type 1, type 2, type 17, and regulatory cytokines in individuals with LTB and with or without coexistent Strongyloides stercoralis infection before and after anthelmintic therapy. Our data reveal that individuals with LTB and coexistent S. stercoralis infection have significantly lower levels of systemic and TB antigen-stimulated type 1 (gamma interferon [IFN-γ], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], and interleukin-2 [IL-2]) and type 17 (IL-17A and/or IL-17F) cytokines and significantly higher levels of systemic but not TB antigen-stimulated type 2 (IL-4 and IL-5) and regulatory (transforming growth factor beta [TGF-β]) cytokines. Anthelmintic therapy resulted in significantly increased systemic levels of type 1 and/or type 17 cytokines and in significantly decreased systemic levels of type 2 and regulatory (IL-10 and TGF-β) cytokines. In addition, anthelmintic therapy resulted in significantly increased TB antigen-stimulated levels of type 1 cytokines only. Our data therefore confirm that the modulation of systemic and TB antigen-stimulated cytokine responses in S. stercoralis -LTB coinfection is reversible (for the most part) by anthelmintic treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. How to manage new oral anticoagulants in case of surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Imberti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When a patient receiving new oral anticoagulants (NOACs requires an invasive procedure, the consequences of bleeding if anticoagulation is continued and the risk of thrombosis if it is omitted need to be carefully considered. In addition to the bleeding risk of the procedure, it is of paramount importance to evaluate the renal function, especially for dabigatran that is eliminated predominantly via the renal pathway. NOAC therapy should be stopped for at least 24 h before the intervention, and a longer interruption should be considered in cases of high bleeding risk procedures and/or renal failure. A base-line assessment of coagulation should be performed and intervention should be postponed (if possible if high levels of anticoagulation parameters are found. In the post-surgical period, if oral anticoagulant therapy cannot be re-started, patients should temporarily receive low molecular weight heparins and re-start NOACs as soon as possible.

  10. Do we have to anticoagulated patients with cerebral venous thrombosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feher, G; Illes, Z; Hargroves, D

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare form of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Although anticoagulation is recommended for the initial and long term treatment with regards to thrombotic risks for patients with CVT, the role of anticogalution has not been fully elucidated. The aim...... of our literature based review was collect articles showing the benefit of anticoagulation in CVT and gathering the data of follow-up studies focusing on the recurrence of CVT and other thrombotic events. RESULTS: We have identified 15 follow-up studies studies with 2422 patients . The mean duration...... of follow up was 37,9 months. Death occured in 6,5% and 76,4 % of the patients had favourable outcome. 85,5 % received initial anticoagulation with ultrafractionated or low molecular weight heparin and 82,1 % received long-term anticoagulation. Recurent CVT occured in 3,7% and other thrombotic event occured...

  11. [Management of new oral anticoagulants in gastrointestinal bleeding and endoscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Molino, Fátima; Gonzalez, Isabel; Saperas, Esteve

    2015-10-01

    New oral direct anticoagulants agents are alternatives to warfarin for long-term anticoagulation in a growing number of patients that require long-term anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation, deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. These new agents with predictable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics profiles offer a favorable global safety profile, but increased gastrointestinal bleeding compared to the vitamin K antagonists. Many gastroenterologists are unfamiliar and may be wary of these newer drugs, since Clinical experience is limited and no specific antidote is available to reverse their anticoagulant effect. In this article the risk of these new agents and, how to manage these agents in both the presence of acute gastrointestinal bleeding and in patients undergoing endoscopic procedures is reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  12. Generic switching of warfarin and risk of excessive anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Rathe, Jette; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Generic switching of warfarin was recently repealed in Denmark, as adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports suggested risk of excessive anticoagulation following switches from branded to generic warfarin. We investigated this putative association in a formalized pharmacoepidemiological analys...

  13. Utilization of Oral Anticoagulation in a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : Anticoagulation, Barriers, Nigeria, .... Cardiovascular disease (thromboembolic stroke). 2/26 (7.7). Heart valve replacement. 2/26 (7.7) ... accounts for approximately 2% of the reported hemorrhagic complications of warfarin therapy and is ...

  14. Extractions without eliminating anticoagulant treatment : a literature review.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Cabrera, Manuel Alejandro; Barona Dorado, Cristina; Leco Berrocal, María Isabel; Gómez Moreno, Gerardo; Martínez González, José María

    2011-01-01

    To establish whether there is a high enough risk of bleeding in patients who take oral anticoagulants, such that it would justify not using oral anticoagulants when performing a dental extraction, as well as if the reason for and anatomical location of the extraction increases such risk. Study We performed a bibliographic search in order to carry out a meta-analytic study using descriptive statistics. We compiled a sample of 1194 patients from the articles selected. Of these patients, a total...

  15. [Risk and benefit of oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotova, I V; Zateĭshchikov, D A

    2011-01-01

    Thromboembolism is the main cause of death and disability of patients with atrial fibrillation. Indirect anticoagulants are effective means of primary and secondary prevention of thromboembolic complications. However in a number of patients risk associated with therapy with indirect anticoagulants might exceed potential benefit. The principle problem requiring solution in a patient with atrial fibrillation is individual comparative assessment of risk of development of thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications. Modern stratification scales which allow solving this problem are considered in this review.

  16. Lupus Anticoagulant and Anticardiolipin Antibodies in Unexplained Fetal Losses

    OpenAIRE

    ALPER, Gülinnaz

    2014-01-01

    Lupus anticoagulant (LA) and anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACAs) are acquired antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs), which are considered to be important markers for pregnancy losses and intrauterine fetal demise. LA and ACAs have anticoagulant effects in vitro and thrombotic effects in vivo and are considered to be the cause of recur-rent pregnancy losses (RPLs), resulting from placental vascular thrombosis and infarction. The aim of this study was to identify the most sensitive and specific met...

  17. Adherence to a new oral anticoagulant treatment prescription: dabigatran etexilate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Bellamy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available L Bellamy1, N Rosencher1, BI Eriksson21Anaesthesiology Department, Hôpital Cochin (AP-HP, René Descartes University, Paris 75014 France; 2Orthopaedic Department, University Hospital Sahlgrenska/Ostra, Gothenburg, SwedenAbstract: The recent development of new oral anticoagulants, of which dabigatran etexilate is currently at the most advanced stage of development, is the greatest advance in the provision of convenient anticoagulation therapy for many years. A new oral anticoagulation treatment, dabigatran etexilate, is already on the market in Europe. The main interest probably will be to improve the prescription and the adherence to an effective thromboprophylaxis in medical conditions such as atrial fibrillation without bleeding side effects, without the need for monitoring coagulation, and without drug and food interactions such as vitamin K anticoagulant (VKA treatment. Dabigatran is particularly interesting for extended thromboprophylaxis after major orthopedic surgery in order to avoid daily injection for a month. However, oral long-term treatments such as VKA are not systematically associated with a higher compliance level than injected treatments such as low-molecular-weight heparins. Indeed, adherence to an oral treatment, instead of the usual daily injection in major orthopedic surgery, is complex, and based not only on the frequency of dosing but also on patient motivation, understanding, and socio-economic status. New oral anticoagulants may be useful in this way but education and detection of risk factors of nonadherence to treatment are still essential.Keywords: oral anticoagulant, adherence, compliance, education, dabigatran

  18. In vitro screening of six anthelmintic plant products against larval Haemonchus contortus with a modified methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium reduction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hördegen, P; Cabaret, J; Hertzberg, H; Langhans, W; Maurer, V

    2006-11-03

    Because of the increasing anthelmintic resistance and the impact of conventional anthelmintics on the environment, it is important to look for alternative strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes. Phytotherapy could be one of the major options to control these pathologies. Extracts or ingredients of six different plant species were tested against exsheathed infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus using a modified methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) reduction assay. Pyrantel tartrate was used as reference anthelmintic. Bromelain, the enzyme complex of the stem of Ananas comosus (Bromeliaceae), the ethanolic extracts of seeds of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae) and Vernonia anthelmintica (Asteraceae), and the ethanolic extracts of the whole plant of Fumaria parviflora (Papaveraceae) and of the fruit of Embelia ribes (Myrsinaceae) showed an anthelmintic efficacy of up to 93%, relative to pyrantel tartrate. Based on these results obtained with larval Haemonchus contortus, the modified MTT reduction assay could be a possible method for testing plant products with anthelmintic properties.

  19. [Progress of anticoagulation therapy in atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Olmedo, Miguel; Suárez Fernández, Carmen

    2015-08-07

    Atrial fibrillation is currently a very prevalent disease and it represents one of the most common causes of disabling stroke. Antithrombotic therapies have reduced the incidence of this complication although they pose many limitations and difficulties. As a result, a large number of high risk patients do not receive an appropriate treatment. In recent years, four new oral anticoagulants (NOAC) with relevant advantages in comparison to vitaminK antagonists have been released. Four large phaseiii clinical trials have demonstrated that NOAC are at least as safe and efficacious as warfarin in stroke prevention in non-valve atrial fibrillation patients with moderate-high thrombotic risk, being their main advantage the reduction in intracranial hemorrhage. The arrival of these drugs has caused great expectations in the management of these patients but also new doubts. Lacking data in some subgroups of frail patients, the absence of specific antidotes available and specially their high cost represent nowadays the main limitations for their generalization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel oral anticoagulants in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costopoulos, Charis; Niespialowska-Steuden, Maria; Kukreja, Neville; Gorog, Diana A

    2013-09-10

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with a prevalence that has now reached pandemic levels as a consequence of the rapid modernization of the developing world. Its presentation as an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a frequent reason for hospital admission and of profound implications for personal, societal and global health. Despite improvements in the management of ACS with anti-platelet and anticoagulant therapy and revascularization techniques, many patients continue to suffer recurrent ischemic events. The need to reduce future cardiovascular events has led to the development of novel therapies to prevent coronary thrombosis, targeting thrombin-mediated pathways. These include direct Xa inhibitors (apixaban, rivaroxaban and darexaban), direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran) and PAR 1 antagonists (vorapaxar and atopaxar). This article critically reviews the comparative mechanisms of action, the risks and benefits, together with the clinical evidence base for the use of these novel oral agents in the management of ACS patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Anthelmintic Activity of a Herbal Formulation Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arfan Zaman*§, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Nisar Khan and Ghulam Muhammad1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of a herbal formulation (HF based on aqueous extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica and Nicotiana tabacum, flowers of Calotropis procera and seeds of Trachyspermum ammi. In vitro, eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus were exposed to different concentrations of HF following the standard procedures of egg hatch test (EHT; 50 to 0.024414 mg ml-1 and adult motility assay (AMA; 200-0.1953125mg ml-1, respectively. The reference drugs used in the study were oxfendazole (0.0056704 to 0.0000027 mg ml-1 and levamisole (1.50 mg ml-1 for EHT and AMA, respectively. In vivo, pre and post-treatment (4 mg, 2 mg and 500 µg kg-1 body weight fecal egg counts were determined following standard fecal egg count reduction test in sheep naturally parasitized with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. In EHT, LC50 values of HF and oxfendazole (reference drug were 275.1 and 0.016 µg ml-1, respectively. In AMA, 100% mortality of H. contortus was observed 6 hr post-exposure to 3.125-200 mg ml-1 concentrations of HF and 2 hr post-exposure to levamisole. In vivo, maximum (96.2% fecal egg count (EPG reduction was recorded in sheep treated with HF @ 4 mg kg-1 body weight; whereas, 89.3% reduction in EPG was recorded in sheep treated with levamisole @ 7.5 mg kg-1 body weight. A graded dose response was noted in all the tests used in the present study to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of HF. Therefore, HF seems to be promising as an anthelmintic for animals. Large scale trials on efficacy and safety, however, are recommended before the HF is considered for commercialization in crude form.

  2. In vitro anthelmintic effects of Spigelia anthelmia protein fractions against Haemonchus contortus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Alves Araújo

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes are a significant concern for animal health and well-being, and anthelmintic treatment is mainly performed through the use of chemical products. However, bioactive compounds produced by plants have shown promise for development as novel anthelmintics. The aim of this study is to assess the anthelmintic activity of protein fractions from Spigelia anthelmia on the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus. Plant parts were separated into leaves, stems and roots, washed with distilled water, freeze-dried and ground into a fine powder. Protein extraction was performed with sodium phosphate buffer (75 mM, pH 7.0. The extract was fractionated using ammonium sulfate (0-90% and extensively dialyzed. The resulting fractions were named LPF (leaf protein fraction, SPF (stem protein fraction and RPF (root protein fraction, and the protein contents and activities of the fractions were analyzed. H. contortus egg hatching (EHA, larval exsheathment inhibition (LEIA and larval migration inhibition (LMIA assays were performed. Proteomic analysis was conducted, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC chromatographic profiles of the fractions were established to identify proteins and possible secondary metabolites. S. anthelmia fractions inhibited H. contortus egg hatching, with LPF having the most potent effects (EC50 0.17 mg mL-1. During LEIA, SPF presented greater efficiency than the other fractions (EC50 0.25 mg mL-1. According to LMIA, the fractions from roots, stems and leaves also reduced the number of larvae, with EC50 values of 0.11, 0.14 and 0.21 mg mL-1, respectively. Protein analysis indicated the presence of plant defense proteins in the S. anthelmia fractions, including protease, protease inhibitor, chitinase and others. Conversely, secondary metabolites were absent in the S. anthemia fractions. These results suggest that S. anthelmia proteins are promising for the control of the gastrointestinal nematode H

  3. Phytochemicals, antioxidant, and anthelmintic activity of selected traditional wild edible plants of lower Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swargiary, Ananta; Daimari, Abhijita; Daimari, Manita; Basumatary, Noymi; Narzary, Ezekiel

    2016-01-01

    Clerodendrum viscosum , Eryngium foetidum , Lippia javanica , and Murraya koenigii are one among the common wild edible plants in Northeast India which are also used as antidiabetic, stomach-ache relieving drugs, etc., The present study was aimed to reveal the phytochemical, antioxidant, and anthelmintic activity of the plants. The antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of plants was studied by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power, TBARS, and total antioxidant activity (TAA). Total phenolics, flavonoids, Vitamin C, carbohydrate, and protein are also estimated following standard protocols. Anthelmintic activity of the extracts has also been studied in vitro against trematode parasites. The result showed that the methanolic extracts of plants possess a substantial quantity of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates, and Vitamin C. Phenolics, flavonoids, and Vitamin C contents were found higher in C. viscosum followed by M. koenigii , L. javanica , and E. foetidum . The in vitro antioxidant assays revealed substantial free radical scavenging property in all the plants. TAA increased in the order C. viscosum > M. koenigii > L. javanica > E. foetidum . Similarly, C. viscosum displayed a better antioxidant capacity with IC 50 values 29.74 ± 3.63 μg and 148.77 ± 18.38 μg for DPPH and thiobarbituric acid reactive species, respectively. In addition, the plant extracts also showed good anthelmintic activity against Paramphistomum sp. Time taken for paralysis and death were 0:56 ± 0:09 h and 1:35 ± 0:07 h for L. javanica at 50 mg/mL concentration. The study therefore suggests the importance of tested plants as a natural source of free radical scavenger and plausible veterinary uses.

  4. P-glycoprotein in helminths: function and perspectives for anthelmintic treatment and reversal of resistance.

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    Kerboeuf, Dominique; Blackhall, William; Kaminsky, Ronald; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2003-09-01

    Infestation with parasitic helminths is a common problem in human populations of third world countries and is ubiquitous in livestock and other domestic animals. The cell-membrane efflux pump, P-glycoprotein (Pgp), appears to contribute to anthelmintic resistance. Pgp have been identified from both phyla of parasitic helminths, Platyhelmintha and Nematoda, and alterations in expression levels and allele frequencies of Pgp in anthelmintic-resistant populations have been observed in nematodes. Localisation of Pgp has been studied in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and in the sheep parasite Haemonchus contortus using specific monoclonal antibodies or lectins. Reversing agents used in human studies, such as the calcium-channel blocker verapamil (VPL), appear to have similar effects in helminths as they do in human cancer cells: the efficacy of drug treatment is increased in drug-resistant parasites when reversing agents are co-administered with the anthelmintic. The functional role of the Pgp glycosylation was also studied using a lectin specific for the alpha-mannosyl residues and showed that resistance can be associated with a decreased affinity of the lectin for Pgp sites and that up to 50% reversion in the resistance to benzimidazoles (BZ) can be obtained using this lectin. Furthermore, the current knowledge on the role of Pgp in molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in the parasitic protozoan genus Trypanosoma is discussed. In some Trypanosoma species it was shown that drug resistance was associated with reduced uptake and in other ones with increased efflux. Several trypanosome Pgp-coding sequences have been described. In contrast to earlier data, most recent observations, based on experimentally overexpressed Pgp in Trypanosoma brucei, indicate a possible involvement in the mechanism of drug resistance in this parasite.

  5. Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil and its main component thymol: Anthelmintic effects against Haemonchus contortus from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luis E; Benincasa, Bruno I; Fachin, Ana L; França, Suzelei C; Contini, Silvia S H T; Chagas, Ana C S; Beleboni, Rene O

    2016-09-15

    Haemonchus contortus is an important gastrointestinal parasite on sheep farms in tropical regions. The resistance of the parasite against most anthelmintic drugs represents a great economic problem to sheep farming and is a major challenge that needs to be overcome. The searches for new anthelmintic agents that act on different stages of the parasite's life cycle are necessary for the development of new therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil against H. contortus and of its main component, the monoterpene thymol. Despite the relative ineffectiveness of the oil in the in vivo test, which may be corrected in the future after technical improvements to increase the oil's bioavailability, the in vitro results validated the popular use of T. vulgaris oil as an anthelmintic agent, at least against H. contortus. In fact, both the essential oil and thymol, which accounts for 50.22% of the oil composition, were effective against the three main stages of H. contortus. The oil and thymol were able to inhibit egg hatching by 96.4-100%, larval development by 90.8-100%, and larval motility by 97-100%. Similar to the positive control (levamisole 20mg/mL), the oil and thymol completely inhibited the motility of H. contortus adults within the first 8h of the experiment. Since thymol reproduces the anthelmintic effects of the oil and because it is the main component of the oil, it is reasonable to assume that thymol is the most important compound responsible for the anthelmintic effect of T. vulgaris. These results are of ethnopharmacological importance and may contribute to the development of new drugs and even herbal medicines, increasing treatment options for the farm breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Managing anthelmintic resistance in small ruminant livestock of resource-poor farmers in South Africa : review article

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    A.F. Vatta

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal parasitism is one of the most important disease complexes of sheep and goats impacting on the resource-poor livestock farmer. Of the responsible nematodes, Haemonchus contortus, a blood-sucking worm of the abomasum, poses possibly the greatest threat. Over the past several decades, the worm has been controlled through the use of anthelmintics, but the emergence of anthelmintic resistance has threatened this chemotherapeutic approach. In Africa, the overall prevalence of anthelmintic resistance has not been extensively investigated, particularly within the resource-poor farming sector, but resistance has been reported from at least 14 countries with most of the reports emanating from Kenya and South Africa and the majority concerning H. contortus. While levels of resistance under commercial sheep farming systems in South Africa is considered to be amongst the worst in the world, resistance has also been reported from the resource-poor farming sector. Increases in productivity and reproduction of livestock and the development of markets for sale of animals are seen by international funding bodies as a way out of poverty for communities that keep livestock. This must lead to the greater need for parasite control. At such times, the risk of levels of anthelmintic resistance escalating is much greater and there is therefore a need to look at alternatives to their use. Proposed strategies include the appropriate, but judicious use of anthelmintics by application of the FAMACHA(c system and the use of alternatives to anthelmintics such as strategic nutrient supplementation. It is also very clear that there is a strong demand for knowledge about animal diseases, including helminthosis, and their effective management in the resource-poor livestock farming communities. This is an important challenge to meet.

  7. Evaluation of the anthelmintic activity and toxicity of an aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides in goats

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    Gisele Dias da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. da Silva G.D., Botura M.B., de Lima H.G., de Oliveira J.V.A., Moreira E.L.T., Santos F.O., de Souza T.S., de Almeida M.A.O. & Batatinha M.J.M. Evaluation of the anthelmintic activity and toxicity of an aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides in goats. [Avaliação da atividade anti-helmíntica e toxicidade do extrato aquoso de Chenopodium ambrosioides em caprinos.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(Supl.1:156-162, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ci- ência Animal nos Trópicos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Av. Ademar de Barros, 500, Ondina, Salvador, BA 40170-110, Brasil. E-mail: mjmb@ufba.br The objective of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of an aqueous extract (AE from Chenopodium ambrosioides on goat gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs and its toxic effects. The anthelmintic activity in vitro was investigated using the inhibition of egg hatching assay (EHA, while cytotoxicity on Vero cells was evaluated using the MTT test. In vivo, thirty goats that were naturally infected with GINs were divided into three groups: group I, treated with a daily dose of AE C. ambrosioides (700mg/kg for eight days; group II (positive control, treated with a single dose of levamisole phosphate (6.3mg/kg; and Group III, untreated (negative control. Treatment efficacy was assessed on the basis of egg counts (FEC, faecal cultures and post-mortem worm burden counts. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed to detect toxic effects associated with treatment. In the EHA, the EC50 and EC90 corresponded to 1.6 and 1.9mg/mL, respectively. The AE promoted a slight reduction in cell viability in the cytotoxicity test. The AE reduced (p <0.05 the number of infective larvae of the genera Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum. The anthelmintic treatment of goats with AE C.ambrosioides resulted in moderate efficacy against infective larvae, but revealed neither ovicidal nor toxic activity towards adult nematodes. No toxic

  8. Anti-coccidial, anthelmintic and antioxidant activities of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhil, Mohammed A

    2013-07-01

    Coccidiosis and helminthosis in poultry are responsible for worldwide economic losses. The methanolic extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel was used in vivo for its pharmacological, antioxidant and anti-coccidial properties and in vitro for its anthelmintic activity. For the in vivo study, four groups of mice were investigated. The first group was inoculated only with sterile saline and served as the control group. The second group was treated by oral gavage with pomegranate extract (300 mg/kg) daily for 5 days. The third and fourth groups were infected with 10(3) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria papillata. The fourth group was also treated once daily with pomegranate peel extract for 5 days. For the in vitro study, the anthelmintic effect of pomegranate peel extract was observed on live adult Allolobophora caliginosa. Paraffin sections from jejunum as well as jejunal homogenate were prepared for the histopathological and biochemical investigations, respectively. The data showed that mice infected with E. papillata revealed an output of approximately 2.9 × 10(5) oocysts per gram faeces on day 5 p.i. This output is significantly decreased to 50 % in pomegranate-treated mice. Infection with E. papillata induced marked histopathological alterations in jejunum in the form of inflammation, vacuolation of the epithelium and destruction of some villi. In addition, pomegranate extract caused a great diminish in body weight loss of infected mice. Moreover, the number of goblet cells stained with Alcian blue within the infected villi was significantly increased by about 26 % after pomegranate treatment. In addition, Pomegranate significantly lowered the increased number of apoptotic cells due to E. papillata infection by about 36 %. The results showed that E. papillata enhanced hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production with concomitant reduction in glutathione. Pomegranate induced marked improvements in all of the studied parameters as well as

  9. Anthelmintic resistance and multidrug resistance in sheep gastro-intestinal nematodes in France, Greece and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Hoste, Herve; Jacquiet, Philippe; Traversa, Donato; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Tzanidakis, Nikolaos; Kostopoulou, Despoina; Gaillac, Christie; Privat, Simon; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Zanardello, Claudia; Noé, Laura; Vanimisetti, Bindu; Bartram, David

    2014-03-17

    Anthelmintic resistance (AR) in ovine gastro-intestinal nematodes has been reported to affect the health and productivity of sheep globally. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of commonly used oral drenches in sheep in France, Greece and Italy. In each country, 10 farms were selected. On each farm, 50 animals were blocked based on the pre-treatment faecal egg count (FEC). Within each block, animals were randomly allocated to one of 5 treatment groups. In addition to an untreated control group, there were 4 groups treated per oral route: moxidectin (MOX) and ivermectin (IVM), both at 0.2mg/kg bodyweight, levamisole (LEV; at 7.5mg/kg bodyweight) and a benzimidazole (BZ; at 3.75-5mg/kg bodyweight). In France, animals were not treated with LEV, but with netobimin (NET; at 7.5mg/kg bodyweight). The FEC was monitored using a modified McMaster technique. Two weeks after treatment, individual faecal samples were taken from all animals and efficacy was calculated as the difference between arithmetic mean FEC of the control group versus each respective treatment group. The results of the present study indicate the high efficacy of treatment with oral formulations of MOX (99-100%) and IVM (98-100%) on all farms, except on 1 farm in Greece. On this farm, multi drug resistance (MDR) was identified involving 4 anthelmintics (efficacy MOX: 91%; IVM: 0%; BZ: 58% and LEV: 87%). In Greece and Italy, AR against LEV and BZ was observed on some farms, with MDR involving both anthelmintics on 3 farms in Greece and on 2 farms in Italy. In France, AR against BZ and NET was observed on all 10 farms included. In all countries, Teladorsagia sp. was the most common nematode larva identified after treatment, followed by Haemonchus sp. and Trichostrongylus sp., with differences among farms and treatments. The current study confirms the high efficacy of oral treatments with MOX and IVM, even on farms with worm populations resistant to BZ, LEV or NET. This study also

  10. Evaluation of anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites using observational data and hierarchical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Vidyashankar, Anand N.; Hanlon, Bret

    contribute to cause this high variability and these must be taken into account to accurately identify a reduction in anthelmintic efficacy. To address this problem, we developed a hierarchical statistical model for analysis of FECRT data from multiple farms. The model includes animal effect and farm clusters...... = 200 eggs per gram (EPG) and were treated. Post treatment samples and information on age, gender and farm zip code were collected for each horse. In addition, individual coprocultureswere performed on all pretreatment fecal samples to determine the presence of Strongylus vulgaris, with 31farms (48...

  11. Carbon Nanomaterials as Antibacterial Colloids

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    Michael Maas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials like graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes and the various forms of diamond have attracted great attention for their vast potential regarding applications in electrical engineering and as biomaterials. The study of the antibacterial properties of carbon nanomaterials provides fundamental information on the possible toxicity and environmental impact of these materials. Furthermore, as a result of the increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria strains, the development of novel antibacterial materials is of great importance. This article reviews current research efforts on characterizing the antibacterial activity of carbon nanomaterials from the perspective of colloid and interface science. Building on these fundamental findings, recent functionalization strategies for enhancing the antibacterial effect of carbon nanomaterials are described. The review concludes with a comprehensive outlook that summarizes the most important discoveries and trends regarding antibacterial carbon nanomaterials.

  12. Idarucizumab for Reversing Dabigatran-Induced Anticoagulation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Nathan; Morrill, Amanda M; Willett, Kristine C

    2016-05-12

    The approval of the oral direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate, gave patients an alternative to oral anticoagulation with warfarin. Like all anticoagulants, the primary adverse event (AE) associated with dabigatran is bleeding. Until the FDA approval of idarucizumab, there had been no reversal agent for dabigatran-induced anticoagulation in patients with life-threatening or uncontrollable bleeding, or those requiring emergent procedures. The primary purpose of this review is to summarize the safety and efficacy of idarucizumab, a monoclonal antibody fragment, and its use as a reversal agent for dabigatran. A literature search was conducted through MEDLINE (1946 to November week 1 2015) and Embase (1980-2015 week 46) using the search term idarucizumab. Clinicaltrials.gov was consulted for a comprehensive list of ongoing and completed studies. Additional studies were identified through bibliographical citations. Clinical trials in animals and humans published in English evaluating the safety and efficacy of idarucizumab for reversal of anticoagulant treatment with dabigatran were included for review. Idarucizumab has been shown to significantly reverse the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran in both healthy volunteers and patients requiring a reversal agent because of either overt bleeding or an emergency surgery or invasive procedure. The most common AEs were headache, nasopharyngitis, back pain, skin irritation, hypokalemia, delirium, constipation, pyrexia, and pneumonia. Deaths reported in idarucizumab studies were attributed to either the index event or a preexisting comorbidity. Most adverse effects were minor, but 21 serious AEs have been reported in the published data including thrombotic events. Given the increased use of direct oral anticoagulants, such as dabigatran, a need for specific reversal agents exists. Idarucizumab has been shown to be safe and effective in the reversal of dabigatran-induced anticoagulation in patients requiring emergent

  13. Anticoagulant rodenticides and wildlife: Concluding remarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Nico W.; Elliott, John E.; Shore, Richard F.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2018-01-01

    Rodents are known to affect human society globally in various adverse ways, resulting in a widespread demand for their continuous control. Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) have been, and currently remain, the cornerstone of rodent control throughout the world. Although alternative control methods exist, they are generally less effective. ARs work by affecting vitamin K metabolism, thereby preventing the activation of blood clotting factors and eventual coagulopathy. Since ARs are non-selective, their undoubted benefits for rodent control have to be balanced against the environmental risks that these compounds pose. Although they have been used for decades, pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic data are mainly available for laboratory mammals and have concentrated on acute effects. Limited information is available on chronic exposure scenarios and for wildlife species. Important gaps exist in our understanding of the large inter- and intra-species differences in sensitivity to ARs, especially for non-target species, and in our knowledge about the occurrence and importance of sub-lethal effects in wildlife. It is clear that mere presence of AR residues in the body tissues may not indicate the occurrence of effects, although unequivocal assessment of effects under field conditions is difficult. Ante-mortem symptoms, like lethargy, subdued behaviour and unresponsiveness are generally not very specific as is true for more generic post-mortem observations (e.g. pallor of the mucous membranes or occurrence of haemorrhages). It is only by combining ante or post-mortem data with information on exposure that effects in the field may be confirmed. We do know however that a wide variety of non-target species are directly exposed to ARs. Secondary exposure in predators is also widespread although there is limited information on whether this exposure causes actual effects. Exposure is driven by ecological factors and is context specific with respect to spatial habitat configuration

  14. Overview of anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants in Brazil

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    Jordana Andrioli Salgado

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Frequent and inappropriate use of all classes of antiparasitic drugs in small ruminants has led to failures in their effectiveness, culminating in a global problem of anthelmintic resistance. Brazil stands out as one of the world’s leaders in publications about anthelmintic resistance, and for having the most numerous reports of this resistance in small ruminants in the Americas. These studies have involved mainly the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT and its correlation with field management practices. In vivoeffectiveness testing is conducted in areas where livestock is of greater economic significance, e.g., in the South (sheep and Northeast (goats, or is important for research and economic centers, such as the Southeast (sheep. The most widely studied species is sheep, for which the widest range of drugs is also evaluated. Despite significant advances achieved in molecular research, laboratory analyses should include knowledge about the reality in the field so that they can become feasible for the producer. Moreover, molecular studies can be underpinned by the analysis of field studies, such as the maintenance of antiparasitic effectiveness over time and the mechanisms involved in this process.

  15. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

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    Donnan Alison A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 μmol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days, the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

  16. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used as anthelmintic remedies in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajin Ba Ndob, Idensi; Mengome, Line Edwige; Bourobou Bourobou, Henri-Paul; Lossangoye Banfora, Yvon; Bivigou, Francis

    2016-09-15

    In this article, we report on an ethnobotanical survey realized at the Peyrie market in Libreville on Gabonese medicinal plants used to treat helminthiasis. While several alerts about cases of resistance to conventional anthelmintic treatments are causing to fear a public and animal health issue, the search for new sources of active compounds becomes an urgent issue. In Gabon like in many developing countries, people regularly turn to traditional medicine in case of physical ailments and/or spiritual healing therapies. To determine which medicinal plants are traditionally used by the populations of Libreville to fight against nematodes, medicinal plant traders were interviewed with standardized questionnaires. The surveys were conducted in the main market of Libreville. Ethnobotanical data such as frequency and percentage of families, species, administrations pathways, modes of preparations and parts of plants used were analyzed and summarized. Thirty-four (34) traders were interviewed belonging to five (5) different ethnic groups. Twenty-four 24 plants used to treat intestinal, cutaneous and ocular helminthiasis were listed. The healers mainly turned towards to ligneous species. The parts of the plant used are mostly leaves and trunk bark. Most of the traditional remedies are prepared directly in water and four (4) principal routes were used for administration namely, oral, rectal, ocular and dermal. This study allowed us to list anthelmintic species which will be subjected to a series of chemical and pharmacological assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of combinations of marketed human anthelmintic drugs against Trichuris muris in vitro and in vivo

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    Keiser Jennifer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are responsible for a huge public health burden, however treatment options are limited. The discovery and development of novel efficacious drugs or drug combinations for the treatment of STH infections therefore has a high research priority. Methods We studied drug combination effects using the main standard anthelmintics, albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin in the Trichuris muris model. Drug combinations were first tested in vitro and additive and synergistic combinations investigated further in vivo in female mice using ratios based on the ED50 of the respective drugs. Results In vitro all 10 combinations of the standard anthelmintics tested against T. muris revealed synergistic behavior. We identified three drug combinations in vivo as strongly synergistic, namely mebendazole-ivermectin (Combination index (CI=0.16, mebendazole-levamisole (CI=0.17 and albendazole-mebendazole (CI=0.23. For albendazole-ivermectin, moderate synergism was observed (CI=0.81 and for albendazole-levamisole a nearly additive effect was documented (CI=0.93 in vivo. Five combinations (albendazole-pyrantel pamoate, mebendazole-pyrantel pamoate, levamisole-pyrantel pamoate, levamisole-ivermectin and pyrantel pamoate-ivermectin were antagonistic in vivo. Conclusion Our results strengthen the evidence that combination chemotherapy might play a role in the treatment of Trichuris infections. Albendazole-mebendazole should be studied in greater detail in preclinical studies.

  18. The anthelmintic levamisole is an allosteric modulator of human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandoski, Mark M; Piket, Barbara; Chang, Jane

    2003-06-13

    L-[-]-2,3,5,6-Tetrahydro-6-phenylimidazo[2,1b]-thiazole hydrochloride (levamisole) is an anthelmintic that targets the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of parasitic nematodes. We report here the effects of levamisole on human neuronal alpha 3 beta 2 and alpha 3 beta 4 nicotinic receptors, heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and studied with the voltage clamp method. Applied alone, levamisole was a very weak partial agonist for the two subunit combinations. When co-applied with acetylcholine, micromolar concentrations of levamisole potentiated responses, while millimolar concentrations inhibited them; these effects were complex functions of both acetylcholine and levamisole concentrations. The differences in the levamisole effects on the two receptor combinations suggest that the effects are mediated by the beta subunit. Several combinations of agonist and anthelmintic gave the dual potentiation/inhibition behavior, suggesting that the modulatory effects are general. Levamisole inhibition showed macroscopic characteristics of open channel block. Several results led us to conclude that levamisole potentiation occurs through noncompetitive binding to the receptor. We propose pseudo-site binding for noncompetitive potentiation by levamisole.

  19. Synthesis and anthelmintic activity of arctigenin derivatives against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Liu, Lei; Liu, Guang-Lu; Tu, Xiao; Wang, Gao-Xue; Ling, Fei

    2017-08-01

    To control the parasitic disease of Dactylogyrus intermedius, a series of new arctigenin derivatives were designed, synthesized and tested in our study. The anthelmintic activity of most of the derivatives ranged from 1 to 10mg/L. Compared to traditional drug praziquantel (EC 50 =2.69mg/L), ether derivatives 2g and 2h exhibited slightly higher anti-parasitic activity, with the EC 50 values of 2.48 and 1.52mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, the arctigenin-imidazole hybrids 4a and 4b also removed D. intermedius effectively, with the EC 50 values of 2.13 and 2.07mg/L, respectively. The structure-activity relationship analysis indicated that four carbon atoms length of linker and imidazole substitute group could significantly increase the anthelmintic activity, and reduced the toxicity. Through the scanning electron microscope observation, compounds 4a and 4b caused the D. intermedius tegumental damage such as intensive wrinkles, holes and nodular structures. Overall, the structural optimization analysis of arctigenin suggested that 4a and 4b can be used for preventing and controlling Dactylogyrus infections and considered as promising lead compounds for the development of commercial drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Host genetic influences on the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya-derived cysteine proteinases in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoga, Wenceslaus; Mansur, Fadlul; Stepek, Gillian; Lowe, Ann; Duce, Ian R; Buttle, David J; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-06-01

    Eight strains of mice, of contrasting genotypes, infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri were studied to determine whether the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya latex varied between inbred mouse strains and therefore whether there is an underlying genetic influence on the effectiveness of removing the intestinal nematode. Infected mice were treated with 330 nmol of crude papaya latex or with 240 nmol of papaya latex supernatant (PLS). Wide variation of response between different mouse strains was detected. Treatment was most effective in C3H (90·5-99·3% reduction in worm counts) and least effective in CD1 and BALB/c strains (36·0 and 40·5%, respectively). Cimetidine treatment did not improve anthelmintic efficacy of PLS in a poor drug responder mouse strain. Trypsin activity, pH and PLS activity did not differ significantly along the length of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract between poor (BALB/c) and high (C3H) drug responder mouse strains. Our data indicate that there is a genetic component explaining between-mouse variation in the efficacy of a standard dose of PLS in removing worms, and therefore warrant some caution in developing this therapy for wider scale use in the livestock industry, and even in human medicine.

  1. Gastrointestinal nematodes infections and anthelmintic resistance in grazing sheep in the Eastern Inner Mongolia in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tianlong; Wang, Min; Zhang, Guanghe; Han, Dongsheng; Li, Xinwei; Liu, Guowen; Li, Xiaobing; Wang, Zhe

    2017-12-20

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a crucial restraint to grazing sheep production worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the infections and anthelmintic resistance (AR) of GIN in pasture-based sheep in the Eastern Inner Mongolia, China. GIN eggs were tested from 600 grazing sheep feces of 10 farms using saturated saline flotation method and McMaster's method. The egg hatch test (EHT) and the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) were used to evaluate resistance of GIN to anthelmintics. We found that the average infection rate was 79.2% (range: 45%-100%). The grand mean faecal egg count (FEC) was 1813.2 eggs per gram (EPG) (range: 0-32400 EPG). There were significant differences in GIN infection among different breeds of sheep. The sequence of infection intensity and infection rate were Small fat tail > Ujimqin > Ju Ud (pgrazing sheep were very common. AR, especially in Haemonchus, was a serious problem in these sheep flocks. Thus, actions are urgently required to taken to mitigate the worsening situation.

  2. IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC EFFECT OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF Gliricidia sepium AGAINST GASTROINTESTINALE NEMATODES OF SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mateo Hernandez-Villegas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of local resources for food and health care of animals is a highly profitable and sustainable strategy. Among these resources are native trees and shrubs which in addition to providing good quality nutrients, produce secondary metabolites with anthelmintic (AH effect. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro AH effect of Gliricidia sepium leaves methanol extract (GSME, through the egg hatch inhibition assay (EHA. Three concentrations of the extracts were tested: 125, 250 and 500 μg/mL.  Also a negative control (distilled water and a positive control (levamisole 2 mg/mL were included. The GSME showed significant differences P<0.05 when compared with the positive control. The GSME also showed a dose-dependent response in inhibition of eggs hatching. Effectiveness percentages found were: 27.7%, 46.2%, 49.7% of inhibition at 125, 250, and 500 μg/mL respectively. The average dose (ED50 obtained through probit analysis was 394.96 μg/mL. These results suggest that the ME of leaves of G. sepium has anthelmintic activity against eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes.

  3. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

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    Rong-Jyh Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae, commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant, liriodenine (1, lysicamine (2, (--anonaine (3, (--asimilobine (4, (--caaverine (5, (--N-methylasimilobine (6, (--nuciferine (7, (--nornuciferine (8, (--roemerine (9, 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10 and cepharadione B (11 were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis. However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana.

  4. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of extracts from Artemisia parviflora and A. sieversiana

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    Irum S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the northern areas of Pakistan, the use of Artemisia based therapeutics is a common practice. Plants of genus Artemisia are known to possess anthelmintic and therapeutic effect. Infections caused by gastrointestinal nematodes are major threat to livestock industry across the world resulting in loss of production and indirect economic losses due to high cost of anthelmintic drugs. Present study was carried out to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effect of Artemisia sieversiana and Artemisia parviflora on Haemonchus contortus, a parasitic nematode of small ruminants. Methanolic plant extract was tested against three different developmental stages using an egg hatch assay, infective larvae and adult worm motility assay. Different concentrations were used for the bioassays and post exposure mortality was recorded after 8 hr for adult worms and infective larvae, while egg inhibition percentage was observed after 27 hr. A highly significant ability to inhibit the egg hatching (100 % was recorded for both plant extracts while, the highest activity for adult worm assay and larvicidal assay was 90 % for A. sieversiana. The highest activity for adult motility and larvicidal assay for A. parviflora was 89 % and 86.6 % respectively. For in vivo trials maximum parentage reduction was 77.0 % for A. sieversiana and 73.6 % for A. parviflora. It is concluded that selected plant extracts were effective in reducing worm burden in animals.

  5. Factors affecting the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya latex in vivo: host sex and intensity of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoga, Wenceslaus; Mansur, Fadlul; Lowe, Ann; Duce, Ian R; Buttle, David J; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-07-01

    The development of plant-derived cysteine proteinases, such as those in papaya latex, as novel anthelmintics requires that the variables affecting efficacy be fully evaluated. Here, we conducted two experiments, the first to test for any effect of host sex and the second to determine whether the intensity of the worm burden carried by mice would influence efficacy. In both experiments, we used the standard C3H mouse reference strain in which papaya latex supernatant (PLS) consistently shows >80 % reduction in Heligmosomoides bakeri worm burdens, but to broaden the perspective, we also included for comparison mice of other strains that are known to respond more poorly to treatment with papaya latex. Our results confirmed that there is a strong genetic influence affecting efficacy of PLS in removing adult worm burdens. However, there was no effect of host sex on efficacy (C3H and NIH) and no effect of infection intensity (C3H and BALB/c). These results offer optimism that plant-derived cysteine proteinases (CPs), such as these from papaya latex, can function as effective anthelmintics, with neither host sex nor infection intensity presenting further hurdles to impede their development for future medicinal and veterinary usage.

  6. Extractions without eliminating anticoagulant treatment: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cabrera, Manuel-Alejandro; Barona-Dorado, Cristina; Leco-Berrocal, Isabel; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Martínez-González, José-Maria

    2011-09-01

    To establish whether there is a high enough risk of bleeding in patients who take oral anticoagulants, such that it would justify not using oral anticoagulants when performing a dental extraction, as well as if the reason for and anatomical location of the extraction increases such risk. We performed a bibliographic search in order to carry out a meta-analytic study using descriptive statistics. We compiled a sample of 1194 patients from the articles selected. Of these patients, a total of 2392 simple, serial surgical extractions were performed; none of the patients interrupted their anticoagulant treatment with warfarin sodium. Of the sample, 83 patients presented a certain degree of bleeding; in 77 of such cases, the bleeding was controlled with local hemostasis, whereas 6 patients required their dose of oral anticoagulants to be adjusted. There was a higher incidence of bleeding in patients presenting a periodontal pathology, compared to deep caries and pericoronitis. Patients being treated with oral anticoagulants represent a risk that we should be aware of, but local hemostasis has proven to be effective when performing extractions, provided that the INR value is less than 4. There is an increased incidence of bleeding in patients with periodontal problems, due to the greater presence of inflammation in the soft tissues. If the extraction is performed in the maxilla, the incidence of hemorrhagic complications is slightly higher than in the mandible, although this difference is considered to be insignificant.

  7. Adherence to oral anticoagulant therapy in secondary stroke prevention – impact of the novel oral anticoagulants

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    Luger S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sebastian Luger,1 Carina Hohmann,2 Daniela Niemann,1 Peter Kraft,3 Ignaz Gunreben,3 Tobias Neumann-Haefelin,2 Christoph Kleinschnitz,3 Helmuth Steinmetz,1 Christian Foerch,1 Waltraud Pfeilschifter1 1Department of Neurology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, 2Department of Neurology, Klinikum Fulda gAG, Fulda, 3Department of Neurology, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany Background: Oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT potently prevents strokes in patients with atrial fibrillation. Vitamin K antagonists (VKA have been the standard of care for long-term OAT for decades, but non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOAC have recently been approved for this indication, and raised many questions, among them their influence on medication adherence. We assessed adherence to VKA and NOAC in secondary stroke prevention. Methods: All patients treated from October 2011 to September 2012 for ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack with a subsequent indication for OAT, at three academic hospitals were entered into a prospective registry, and baseline data and antithrombotic treatment at discharge were recorded. At the 1-year follow-up, we assessed the adherence to different OAT strategies and patients’ adherence to their respective OAT. We noted OAT changes, reasons to change treatment, and factors that influence persistence to the prescribed OAT. Results: In patients discharged on OAT, we achieved a fatality corrected response rate of 73.3% (n=209. A total of 92% of these patients received OAT at the 1-year follow-up. We observed good adherence to both VKA and NOAC (VKA, 80.9%; NOAC, 74.8%; P=0.243 with a statistically nonsignificant tendency toward a weaker adherence to dabigatran. Disability at 1-year follow-up was an independent predictor of lower adherence to any OAT after multivariate analysis, whereas the choice of OAT did not have a relevant influence. Conclusion: One-year adherence to OAT after stroke is strong (>90% and patients

  8. Anti-bacterial and cytotoxic properties of plasma sprayed silver-containing HA coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yikai; Zheng, Xuebin; Xie, Youtao; Ding, Chuanxian; Ruan, Hongjiang; Fan, Cunyi

    2008-12-01

    Silver-containing hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings have been prepared on titanium substrate by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) method and anti-bacterial properties of the coatings were examined. Three types of bacteria stains, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, were employed in this test. The results showed that the silver-containing HA coatings exhibited significant anti-bacterial effects against the three bacteria with anti-bacterial ratios higher than 95%. The release of silver ions in the physiological environment ensured excellent anti-bacterial properties of the silver-containing HA coatings. International standard ISO 10993-12 was adopted for cytotoxicity evaluation using fibroblast cell line L929, and it was found that the cytotoxicity for the coatings ranked 0 that showed no cytotoxicity for the coatings. Hemolysis test was processed according to ASTM F 756 standard with anti-coagulated rabbit blood, and the hemolysis ratios of the coatings were below 0.4%, indicating of non-hemolysis for the coatings.

  9. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Kotze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance.

  10. Recent advances in candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to the discovery of anthelmintic resistance markers and the description of drug/receptor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Andrew C.; Hunt, Peter W.; Skuce, Philip; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Martin, Richard J.; Sager, Heinz; Krücken, Jürgen; Hodgkinson, Jane; Lespine, Anne; Jex, Aaron R.; Gilleard, John S.; Beech, Robin N.; Wolstenholme, Adrian J.; Demeler, Janina; Robertson, Alan P.; Charvet, Claude L.; Neveu, Cedric; Kaminsky, Ronald; Rufener, Lucien; Alberich, Melanie; Menez, Cecile; Prichard, Roger K.

    2014-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS) provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance. PMID:25516826

  11. Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to screen plant extracts and compounds as natural anthelmintics for veterinary use

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most challenging obstacles to testing plant products for their anthelmintic activity are: 1) establishing a suitable nematode in vitro assay from which results can be indicative of potential use against a parasitic nematode of interest, and 2) preparing the extracts in a way that, once lyophiliz...

  12. Anthelmintic resistance: Management of parasite refugia for Haemonchus contortus through the replacement of resistant with susceptible populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchiut, Sebastián Manuel; Fernández, Alicia Silvina; Steffan, Pedro Eduardo; Riva, Eliana; Fiel, César Alberto

    2018-04-30

    Sheep production in tropical and temperate regions is hampered by the presence of Haemonchus contortus, the blood-sucking nematode that is the major cause of economic losses in small ruminant enterprises. The most limiting factor in the control of this parasitic disease is the steady progress of anthelmintic resistance worldwide. The search for control strategies that minimise the use of anthelmintics is therefore central to various efforts worldwide. One strategy is the introduction of susceptible parasites in refugia when these refugia are at low levels. This strategy could lead to a renewed possibility anthelmintics being effective. At farm level, this management practice could recover the use of anthelmintics in flocks with high levels of resistance. This review explores the possibility of replacing resistant H. contortus populations with susceptible ones through refugia management and. highlights the experiences of on-farm research attempts carried out in different geographical areas, reaching various degrees of success. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An in vitro larval migration assay for assessing anthelmintic activity of different drug classes against Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianguo; Williams, Andrew R; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Thamsborg, Stig M; Cai, Jianping; Song, Shuaibao; Chen, Gang; Kang, Ming; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Liu, Qun; Han, Qian

    2017-04-30

    In vitro methods have been developed for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in a range of nematode species. However, the life cycle of Ascaris suum renders the commonly used egg hatch assay and larval development assay unusable. In this study we developed a combined multi-well culture and agar gel larval migration assay to test the effect of benzimidazole and tetrahydropyrimidin/imidazothiazole anthelmintics against nine isolates of A. suum collected from locations in China and Denmark. Drugs tested were thiabendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel. The percentages of larvae that migrated to the surface of each treated and control well were used to calculate the drug concentration which inhibits 50% of the larvae migration (EC 50 ). The values of EC 50 of thiabendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel against A. suum isolates ranged 74-150, 4.9-13.9, 2.3-4.3, 358-1150 and 1100-4000nM, respectively. This combined multi-well culture and agar gel larval migration assay was a sensitive bioassay for anthelmintic activity and could serve as an in vitro method to detect for lowered drug efficacy against A. suum or possibly to screen for anthelmintic drug candidates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic profiling and in vitro assessment of anthelmintic fractions of Picria fel-terrae Lour.

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    Rasika Kumarasingha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance is widespread in gastrointestinal nematode populations, such that there is a consistent need to search for new anthelmintics. However, the cost of screening for new compounds is high and has a very low success rate. Using the knowledge of traditional healers from Borneo Rainforests (Sarawak, Malaysia, we have previously shown that some traditional medicinal plants are a rich source of potential new anthelmintic drug candidates. In this study, Picria fel-terrae Lour. plant extract, which has previously shown promising anthelmintic activities, was fractionated via the use of a solid phase extraction cartridge and each isolated fraction was then tested on free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. We found that a single fraction was enriched for nematocidal activity, killing ≥90% of C. elegans adults and inhibiting the motility of exsheathed L3 of H. contortus, while having minimal cytotoxic activity in mammalian cell culture. Metabolic profiling and chemometric analysis of the effective fraction indicated medium chained fatty acids and phenolic acids were highly represented.

  15. Investigating anthelmintic efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle by considering appropriate probability distributions for faecal egg count data

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    J.W. Love

    2017-04-01

    Where FEC data were obtained with less sensitive counting techniques (i.e. McMaster 30 or 15 epg, zero-inflated distributions and their associated central tendency were the most appropriate and would be recommended to use, i.e. the arithmetic group mean divided by the proportion of non-zero counts present; otherwise apparent anthelmintic efficacy could be misrepresented.

  16. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF BENZIMIDAZOLES 2-THIO, 2-AMINODERIVATIVES AND COMPLEXES OF BENZIMIDAZOLES WITH TRANSITIONAL METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Mayboroda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature data about antibacterial properties of benzimidazole 2-thio-, 2-aminoderivatives and benzimidazole complexes have been generalized and systematized in the review. Today prevention and treatment of diseases caused by microorganisms is an actual problem of modern therapy. Therefore, the search for active molecules, the based on them development of some new, more effective antimicrobial agents is an important task of modern pharmaceutical chemistry. Promising compounds for solving these problems are benzimidazole derivatives. They are available, functionally capable, stable and have a wide spectrum of biological activities (antiviral, anthelmintic, antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic.The purpose of this paper is to generalize and systematize information about the antimicrobial action of 2-thio-, 2-amino-substituted benzimidazoles and benzimidazole derivatives complexes with transition metals.These compounds and their complexes with transition metals are active against pathogenic strains Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Helicobacter рylori and others.

  17. Efficiency of three anti-coagulant rodenticides on commensal rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, M W; Kamilia; Allam, A M; Soliman, M I

    2007-08-01

    Susceptibiliy level to bromadilone, difencoum and coumtertraly anticoagulants were studied in different species of Norway rat Rattus norvegicus and roof rat Rattus rattus trapped from El-Qualyobia Governorate in which the anticoagulant rodenticides were used to control rodents for long periods in some rural regions at Qualyobia. Complete mortality was showed for both species and sex within a standard feeding period (6 days) indicated to be susceptible to the three anticoagulant rodenticides. The bait eaten and corresponding active ingredient showed a noticeable more intake for R. rattus than R. norvegicus for the three compounds. The time to death showed highest mean values for R. rattus comparison to R. norvegicus. Difencoum recorded highest values of time to death compare with bromadilone and coumatetralyl.

  18. Extended anticoagulation in venous thromboembolism disease. In favour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Capitan, M C

    Venous thromboembolism disease can be considered a chronic disease because, after the first episode, there is a life-long risk of recurrence. Recurrence is a severe complication. Anticoagulation is effective while it is maintained, but when it is discontinued, the risk of new thrombotic events persists indefinitely. Clinical practice guidelines offer specific recommendations on the treatment duration for patients with provoked or recurrent disease but are not specific for those with a first unprovoked episode. The decision should be made after a careful individual assessment of the risk-benefit of anticoagulation. This article reviews the evidence in favour of extending the anticoagulation and the current therapeutic options. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  19. [Tranexamic acid gel in patients treated with oral anticoagulants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripollés-de Ramón, Jorge; Muñoz-Corcuera, Marta; Bravo-Llatas, Carmen; Bascones-Martínez, Antonio

    2014-12-09

    Patients treated with oral anticoagulants have increased susceptibility to bleeding, and therefore any surgical medical procedure and especially oral surgery requires a therapeutic approach that minimizes bleeding effects in these patients. The working hypothesis was based on studies of local application of tranexamic acid after maxillofacial interventions as effective therapeutic alternative for the prevention and control of bleeding. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of the application of a gel solution tranexamic acid after tooth extraction in anticoagulated patients in terms of healing time and degree of healing. The results indicate that application of tranexamic acid gel is very effective for consistency and maintenance in the place of action and shows its efficacy as a procoagulant material. The application of a gel solution of tranexamic acid in oral anticoagulants patients ameliorates healing time and the bleeding time within the first 48-72 h. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [Novel anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumhäkel, M; Schirmer, S H; Böhm, M

    2010-11-01

    The most frequent cardiac arrhythmia and main cause for cardio-embolic stroke is atrial fibrillation. Prophylaxis for thrombembolic events is performed regarding individual risk of patients with either ASS or vitamin-K-antagonists. Efficacy and safety of oral anticoagulation is limited by a narrow therapeutical range as well as by inter- and intraindividual variability of INR-values due to genetic disposition, differences in alimentation, dosage errors, rare control of INR-levels and drug-interactions. New oral anticoagulants with different mechanisms of action may be a promising therapeutic option in future. This review addresses the new anticoagulants Apixaban, Rivaroxban and Dabigatranetexilat with the design and as available the results of the corresponding phase-III-trials in atrial fibrillation (ARISTOTLE, ROCKET-AF, RE-LY). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Management of Periprocedural Anticoagulation: A Survey of Contemporary Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaker, Greg C; Theriot, Paul; Binder, Lea G; Dobesh, Paul P; Cuker, Adam; Doherty, John U

    2016-07-12

    Interruption of oral anticoagulation (AC) for surgery or an invasive procedure is a complicated process. Practice guidelines provide only general recommendations, and care of such patients occurs across multiple specialties. The availability of direct oral anticoagulants further complicates decision making and guidance here is limited. To evaluate current practice patterns in the United States for bridging AC, a survey was developed by the American College of Cardiology Anticoagulation Work Group. The goal of the survey was to assess how general and subspecialty cardiologists, internists, gastroenterologists, and orthopedic surgeons currently manage patients who receive AC and undergo surgery or an invasive procedure. The survey was completed by 945 physicians involved in the periprocedural management of AC. The results provide a template for educational and research projects geared toward the development of clinical pathways and point-of-care tools to improve this area of health care. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanical Prosthetic Valves and Pregnancy: A therapeutic dilemma of anticoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Panduranga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Choosing the best anticoagulant therapy for a pregnant patient with a mechanical prosthetic valve is controversial and the published international guidelines contain no clear-cut consensus on the best approach. This is due to the fact that there is presently no anticoagulant which can reliably decrease thromboembolic events while avoiding damage to the fetus. Current treatments include either continuing oral warfarin or substituting warfarin for subcutaneous unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH in the first trimester (6–12 weeks or at any point throughout the pregnancy. However, LMWH, while widely-prescribed, requires close monitoring of the blood anti-factor Xa levels. Unfortunately, facilities for such monitoring are not universally available, such as within hospitals in developing countries. This review evaluates the leading international guidelines concerning anticoagulant therapy in pregnant patients with mechanical prosthetic valves as well as proposing a simplified guideline which may be more relevant to hospitals in this region.

  3. Antibacterial Metallic Touch Surfaces

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    Victor M. Villapún

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to present a comprehensive review of the development of modern antibacterial metallic materials as touch surfaces in healthcare settings. Initially we compare Japanese, European and US standards for the assessment of antimicrobial activity. The variations in methodologies defined in these standards are highlighted. Our review will also cover the most relevant factors that define the antimicrobial performance of metals, namely, the effect of humidity, material geometry, chemistry, physical properties and oxidation of the material. The state of the art in contact-killing materials will be described. Finally, the effect of cleaning products, including disinfectants, on the antimicrobial performance, either by direct contact or by altering the touch surface chemistry on which the microbes attach, will be discussed. We offer our outlook, identifying research areas that require further development and an overview of potential future directions of this exciting field.

  4. Differences in patient outcomes and chronic care management of oral anticoagulant therapy: an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drewes, H.W.; Lambooij, M.S.; Baan, C.A.; Meijboom, B.R.; Graafmans, W.C.; Westert, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The oral anticoagulant therapy - provided to prevent thrombosis - is known to be associated with substantial avoidable hospitalization. Improving the quality of the oral anticoagulant therapy could avoid drug related hospitalizations. Therefore, this study compared the patient outcomes

  5. Differences in patient outcomes and chronic care management of oral anticoagulant therapy : An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drewes, H.W.; Lambooij, M.; Baan, C.A.; Meijboom, B.R.; Graafmans, W.C.; Westert, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The oral anticoagulant therapy - provided to prevent thrombosis - is known to be associated with substantial avoidable hospitalization. Improving the quality of the oral anticoagulant therapy could avoid drug related hospitalizations. Therefore, this study compared the patient outcomes

  6. Anticoagulation activity of salivary gland extract of oriental blackfly Simulium indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhalaxmi Borah

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that the mode of action of the anticoagulant(s is mainly on the inhibition of thrombin and factor Xa along with other target factors of the coagulation cascade.

  7. A comparative assessment of efficacy of three anticoagulant rodenticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renapurkar, D M

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of feeding tests carried out with three common anticoagulant rodenticides viz., coumatetralyl, fumarin and warfarin on three common species of commensal rodents i.e., Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus and Bandicota bengalensis. All three species of rodents were susceptible to anticoagulant rodenticides. However, the action of these compounds in B. bengalensis was comparatively slow. Coumatetralyl was found to be the most effective rodenticide followed by fumarin and warfarin. Liquid baits of these compounds are more effective in comparison to food baits.

  8. Inhibition of warfarin anticoagulation associated with chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebe, Heidi Braun; Gregory, Philip J

    2002-08-01

    Chelation therapy originally was administered exclusively to patients with heavy metal poisoning. Now some physicians are administering this therapy for numerous conditions, most commonly coronary heart disease. A 64-year-old man experienced impaired warfarin anticoagulation after undergoing chelation therapy His international normalized ratio (INR) fell from 2.6 the day before to 1.6 the day after therapy was administered. Whether chelation therapy decreases the effectiveness of warfarin anticoagulation is uncertain. However, because of this potential interaction, clinicians should consider increased INR monitoring in patients undergoing chelation therapy.

  9. Novel oral anticoagulants in the treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feher, G; Illes, Z; Komoly, S

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon cause of stroke with extremely diverse clinical features, predisposing factors, brain imaging findings, and outcome. Anticoagulation is the cornerstone of CVT management, however, it is not supported by high-quality evicence. Novel oral anticoagulants...... (NOACs) have been extensively studied in patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE) and non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). The aim of our work to review the available evidence for NOACs in the treatment of CVT. Based on our literature search there is insufficient evidence...... to support the use of NOACs in CVT, although case series with rivaroxaban and dabigatran have showed promising results....

  10. Direct anticoagulants and nursing: an approach from patient's safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Ruiz, Adolfo; Romero-Arana, Adolfo; Gómez-Salgado, Juan

    In recent years, a new line of treatment for the prevention of stroke in non-valvular atrial fibrillation, the so-called direct anticoagulants or new anticoagulants has appeared. The proper management and follow-up of these patients is essential to minimize their side effects and ensure patient safety. In this article, a description of these drugs is given, analyzing their characteristics, functioning and interactions together with the most habitual nursing interventions, as well as a reflection on the implications for the practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. New oral anticoagulants in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmar Vega, Lara; de Francisco, A L M; Bada da Silva, Jairo; Galván Espinoza, Luis; Fernández Fresnedo, Gema

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) develop bleeding and thrombotic tendencies, so the indication of anticoagulation at the onset of atrial fibrillation (AF) is complex. AF is the most common chronic cardiac arrhythmia, and thromboembolism and ischemic stroke in particular are major complications. In recent years, new oral anticoagulant drugs have been developed, and they have shown superiority over the classical AVK in preventing stroke, systemic embolism and bleeding risk, constituting an effective alternative to those resources. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Fibrinolytic and anticoagulative activities from the earthworm Eisenia foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrzenjak, T; Popović, M; Bozić, T; Grdisa, M; Kobrehel, D; Tiska-Rudman, L

    1998-04-01

    Biologically active glycolipoprotein complex (G-90) isolated from whole earthworm tissue extract shows anticoagulative and fibrinolytic activities. We isolated two tyrosine like serine peptidases with molecular masses of 34 kDa (P I) and 23 kDa (P II), respectively. P I peptidase is autocatalytically degraded to P II. Both peptidases exhibit fibrinolytic and anticoagulative activities. The activity of P I is much higher. P I in concentration of 10(5) ng ml-1 of plasma shortened the physiological time of fibrin clot lysis by 54% and completely inhibited blood clotting at a concentration of 10(3) ng ml-1 of venous blood.

  13. Regulatory, legislative, and policy updates with anticoagulant use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanikos, John; Buckley, Leo F; Aldemerdash, Ahmed; Terry, Kimberly J; Piazza, Gregory; Connors, Jean M; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2015-04-01

    Thromboembolism afflicts millions of patients annually in the United States and is associated with a significant cost burden. Recent advances in oral anticoagulation have provided clinicians with more options for management of these diseases. Accordingly, regulatory, legislative, and policy-making organizations have intervened with the aim of improving patient outcomes, ensuring patient safety, and reducing costs. There have been a number of recent developments in surveillance, litigation, and regulatory oversight that clinicians should recognize. In this review article we summarize key updates related to the management of anticoagulant therapy as it relates to thrombosis prevention and treatment.

  14. Anticoagulant therapy duration. In favour of short-term courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Rodríguez, J A; Ramírez Luna, J C

    In recent years, we have observed a tendency to extend anticoagulant therapy for patients with venous thromboembolism disease (VTE). This practice exposes patients to a greater risk of severe and fatal haemorrhage, which, in certain conditions, outweighs the benefits related to the reduction in disease recurrence. This review examines the evidence in favour of reducing anticoagulant therapy as much as possible, especially for patients with VTE "caused" by temporary risk factors, with isolated deep vein thrombosis and with unprovoked VTE and a high risk of haemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  15. A novel high throughput assay for anthelmintic drug screening and resistance diagnosis by real-time monitoring of parasite motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Smout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helminth parasites cause untold morbidity and mortality to billions of people and livestock. Anthelmintic drugs are available but resistance is a problem in livestock parasites, and is a looming threat for human helminths. Testing the efficacy of available anthelmintic drugs and development of new drugs is hindered by the lack of objective high-throughput screening methods. Currently, drug effect is assessed by observing motility or development of parasites using laborious, subjective, low-throughput methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a novel application for a real-time cell monitoring device (xCELLigence that can simply and objectively assess anthelmintic effects by measuring parasite motility in real time in a fully automated high-throughput fashion. We quantitatively assessed motility and determined real time IC(50 values of different anthelmintic drugs against several developmental stages of major helminth pathogens of humans and livestock, including larval Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides ratti, and adult hookworms and blood flukes. The assay enabled quantification of the onset of egg hatching in real time, and the impact of drugs on hatch rate, as well as discriminating between the effects of drugs on motility of drug-susceptible and -resistant isolates of H. contortus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that this technique will be suitable for discovery and development of new anthelmintic drugs as well as for detection of phenotypic resistance to existing drugs for the majority of helminths and other pathogens where motility is a measure of pathogen viability. The method is also amenable to use for other purposes where motility is assessed, such as gene silencing or antibody-mediated killing.

  16. Antibacterial diterpenoids from Astragalus brachystachys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassbi, Amir Reza; Zamanizadehnajari, Simin; Azar, Parviz Aberoomand; Tahara, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Antibacterial bioassay guided fractionation of acetone extracts of Astragalus brachystachys resulted in isolation of sclareol and two related labdane-type diterpenoids, 14R-epoxysclareol and 6beta-hydroxysclareol. The antibacterial activity of the isolated compounds was measured and it was deduced that the epoxidation at the double bond of sclareol or hydroxylation at C-6 decreased the activity of the resulting compounds. Salvigenin (5-hydroxy-4',6,7-trimethoxyflavone) was also separated from this plant for the first time.

  17. Antibacterial triterpenoids from Melia toosendan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new lanostan-type triterpenoid with hydroperoxy group, toosendanin A (1, together with two known triterpenoids, meliastatin 3 (2 and ursolic acid (3, w ere isolated and identified from the stems of Melia toosendan. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra and other spectroscopic studies. These compounds were assayed for the antibacterial activities against some hospital pathogenic bacteria. Toosendanin A (1 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae .

  18. Antibacterial resistance: an emerging 'zoonosis'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labro, Marie-Thérèse; Bryskier, Jean-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Antibacterial resistance is a worldwide threat, and concerns have arisen about the involvement of animal commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance and spread of resistance genes. However, beyond the facts related to the occurrence of resistant microorganisms in food, food-producing animals and companion animals and their transmission to humans, it is important to consider the vast environmental 'resistome', the selective pathways underlying the emergence of antibacterial resistance and how we can prepare answers for tomorrow.

  19. Bleeding in patients using new anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents: Risk factors and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M.M.; Eerenberg, E.; Löwenberg, E.; Kamphuisen, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    The most important adverse effect of antithrombotic treatment is the occurrence of bleeding. in case of serious or even life-threatening bleeding in a patient who uses anticoagulant agents or when patient on anticoagulants needs to undergo an urgent invasive procedure, anticoagulant treatment can be

  20. Anthelmintic activity of Cocos nucifera L. on intestinal nematodes of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C T C; Bevilaqua, C M L; Morais, S M; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Maciel, M V; Braga, R R; Oliveira, L M B

    2010-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the anthelmintic activity of the liquid extracted from the bark of the green coconut (LBGC), as well as butanol extract obtained from LBGC, on mouse intestinal nematodes. Thirty-six naturally infected mice were distributed into six groups receiving the following treatments: Group I: 1000 mg/kg of LBGC; Group II: 2000 mg/kg of LBGC; Group III: 500 mg/kg of butanol extract; Group IV: 1000 mg/kg of butanol extract; Group V: 0.56 mg/kg febendazole; and Group VI: 3% dimethylsulfoxide. The chemical composition of the LBGC and its butanol extract was determined by phytochemical tests. A dose of 1000 mg/kg of butanol extract had 90.70% efficacy in reducing the mouse worm burden (pCocos nucifera extracts may be useful in the control of intestinal nematodes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis, Anthelmintic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Some Novel Imidazothiazole Sulfides and Sulfones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, Nitinkumar S.; Khazi, Imtiyaz Ahmed M.; Ahn, Chuljin [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    A series of new 6-aryl-3-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-2-phenylsulfanyl-imidazo[2,1-b]-thiazole (5a-c) and 6-aryl-2- benzenesulfonyl-3-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)imidazo[2,1-b]- thiazole (6a-c) have been prepared and characterized by analytical and spectral methods. The title compounds 5a-c and 6a-c were obtained by the reaction of 4-(3,4- dimethoxy-phenyl)-5-phenylsulfanyl-thiazol-2-ylamine and 5-benzenesulfonyl-4-(3,4-dimethoxy -phenyl)thiazol- 2-ylamine with various phenacyl bromides in anhydrous ethanol. These newly synthesized compounds (5a-c and 6a-c) were screened for their anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory activities, where they have displayed better activities.

  2. Effect of anthelmintics on reproductive performance and first-lactation culling rate in Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, M E; Perri, A F; Miglierina, M M; Formía, N; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2009-12-26

    Female Holstein calves were treated with ivermectin from birth to first oestrus to study the effect of parasitic burden and anthelmintic treatment on reproductive and productive performance. First oestrus, age at first service and age at calving were advanced by 30, 70 and 110 days, respectively (P<0.05), in ivermectin-treated animals compared with controls. No significant differences were observed in the conception rate, the number of services and the characteristics of the newborn calves and any problems at calving between the two groups. Daily milk yield, fat content in milk during first lactation, and the concentrations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor type 1, insulin and prolactin in serum were similar in both groups of cows. Culling during the first lactation was more common in untreated (47 per cent) than in treated (11 per cent) cows (P<0.05).

  3. Peroxides with Anthelmintic, Antiprotozoal, Fungicidal and Antiviral Bioactivity: Properties, Synthesis and Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vil', Vera A; Yaremenko, Ivan A; Ilovaisky, Alexey I; Terent'ev, Alexander O

    2017-11-02

    The biological activity of organic peroxides is usually associated with the antimalarial properties of artemisinin and its derivatives. However, the analysis of published data indicates that organic peroxides exhibit a variety of biological activity, which is still being given insufficient attention. In the present review, we deal with natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic peroxides exhibiting anthelmintic, antiprotozoal, fungicidal, antiviral and other activities that have not been described in detail earlier. The review is mainly concerned with the development of methods for the synthesis of biologically active natural peroxides, as well as its isolation from natural sources and the modification of natural peroxides. In addition, much attention is paid to the substantially cheaper biologically active synthetic peroxides. The present review summarizes 217 publications mainly from 2000 onwards.

  4. Anthelmintic efficacy of gold nanoparticles derived from a phytopathogenic fungus, Nigrospora oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip Kumar Kar

    Full Text Available Exploring a green chemistry approach, this study brings to the fore, the anthelmintic efficacy of gold nanoparticles, highlighting the plausible usage of myconanotechnology. Gold nanoparticles of ∼6 to ∼18 nm diameter were synthesized by treating the mycelia-free culture filtrate of the phytopathogenic fungus with gold chloride. Their size and morphology were confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, DLS data, AFM and TEM images. The XRD studies reveal a crystalline nature of the nanoparticles, which are in cubic phase. The FTIR spectroscopic studies before and after the formation of nanoparticles show the presence of possible functional groups responsible for the bio-reduction and capping of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The latter were tested as vermifugal agents against a model cestode Raillietina sp., an intestinal parasite of domestic fowl. Further, ultrastructural and biochemical parameters were used to corroborate the efficacy study.

  5. WIPO Re:Search: Accelerating anthelmintic development through cross-sector partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthi, Roopa; Graef, Katy M.; Dent, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), malaria, and tuberculosis have a devastating effect on an estimated 1.6 billion people worldwide. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Re:Search consortium accelerates the development of new drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics for these diseases by connecting the assets and resources of pharmaceutical companies, such as compound libraries and expertise, to academic or nonprofit researchers with novel product discovery or development ideas. As the WIPO Re:Search Partnership Hub Administrator, BIO Ventures for Global Health (BVGH) fields requests from researchers, identifies Member organizations able to fulfill these requests, and helps forge mutually beneficial collaborations. Since its inception in October 2011, WIPO Re:Search membership has expanded to more than 90 institutions, including leading pharmaceutical companies, universities, nonprofit research institutions, and product development partnerships from around the world. To date, WIPO Re:Search has facilitated over 70 research agreements between Consortium Members, including 11 collaborations focused on anthelmintic drug discovery. PMID:25516832

  6. In vitro evaluation of anthelmintic activity of various tannin structures against Cooperia oncophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Enemark, Heidi L.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2013-01-01

    The use of tannin-rich plants against gastro-intestinal nematodes is an alternative currently investigated to avoid the exclusive use of anthelmintic (AH) synthetic drugs and prevent the spread of resistance among these nematode populations. Studies of AH effects on cattle nematodes using tannin......-rich legumes such as Onobrychis viciifolia have been carried out in vitro but the contribution of all structural parameters from their condensed tannins has not been yet completely elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between structure and AH activity in vitro. A series...... of condensed tannins extracts and fractions from various plants was chosen according to their monomeric composition (prodelphinidin/procyanidin ratio) and also characterised for their degree of polymerisation (mDP) and cis/trans ratio by thiolytic degradation. These tannins have been examined for their AH...

  7. Synthesis, Spectral and Anthelmintic Activity Studies on Some Novel Imidazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Dahiya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study describes the synthesis of a novel series of 3,5-diiodo-4-(5-nitro-1H-2-imidazolylbenzoyl amino acids and di/tri/tetrapeptides using diisopropylcarbodiimide/dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DIPC/DCC as coupling agents and N-methylmorpholine/triethylamine (NMM/TEA as bases. Structure elucidation of all the newly synthesized compounds was done by elemental analysis and IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data. Synthesized imidazolopeptides were screened for their anthelmintic activity and found to possess moderate to good bioactivity against earthworms Megascoplex konkanensis, Pontoscotex corethruses and Eudrilus eugeniea when compared to reference drugs - albendazole and mebendazole at dose level of 2 mg mL−1.

  8. Anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity in six dogs presenting for ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Angela N; Allbaugh, Rachel A; Tofflemire, Kyle L; Ben-Shlomo, Gil; Whitley, David; Paulsen, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    To describe cases of suspected anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity manifesting with predominantly ocular signs. Six canine cases that presented to veterinary referral hospitals for ocular abnormalities and were diagnosed with suspected or confirmed anticoagulant rodenticide ingestion were reviewed for commonalities in presentation and outcome. Five dogs had unilateral ocular signs and one dog had bilateral manifestations. Signs included subconjunctival hemorrhage, exophthalmos, and commonly orbital pain without other significant physical examination findings. Prothrombin time was measured in 5 of 6 dogs and was prolonged in all. Partial thromboplastin time was measured in 4 of 6 dogs and was prolonged in all. Complete blood cell count and serum chemistry profiles demonstrated mild, if any, abnormalities. Five dogs had known anticoagulant rodenticide exposure, and rodenticide ingestion was suspected in 1 additional case based on clinical signs, clinical pathologic abnormalities, and response to treatment. Five of 6 cases were hospitalized overnight for plasma transfusions along with oral or injectable vitamin K1 , and all dogs were treated with oral vitamin K1 for 30 days. All dogs experienced complete resolution of clinical signs within 6 weeks of initiating treatment. Anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity can present with predominantly ocular manifestations. Rodenticide ingestion should be considered in dogs with unilateral or bilateral subconjunctival hemorrhage, exophthalmos, and orbital pain. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  9. Prevalence of Lupus Anticoagulant in Women with Spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Presence of lupus anticoagulant (LA), one of the antiphospholipid antibodies, has been associated with SA in many ... (a hexagonal-phase phospholipid) test and calculated Rosner index for prolonged. KCT were used for the ... marker for APL syndrome, the demonstration that β2-GPI can bind to anionic ...

  10. Citrate Anticoagulation for CRRT in Children: Comparison with Heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nicole Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional anticoagulation with citrate is an alternative to heparin in continuous renal replacement therapies, which may prolong circuit lifetime and decrease hemorrhagic complications. A retrospective comparative cohort study based on a prospective observational registry was conducted including critically ill children undergoing CRRT. Efficacy, measured as circuit survival, and secondary effects of heparin and citrate were compared. 12 patients on CRRT with citrate anticoagulation and 24 patients with heparin anticoagulation were analyzed. Median citrate dose was 2.6 mmol/L. Median calcium dose was 0.16 mEq/kg/h. Median heparin dose was 15 UI/kg/h. Median circuit survival was 48 hours with citrate and 31 hours with heparin (P=0.028. 66.6% of patients treated with citrate developed mild metabolic alkalosis, which was directly related to citrate dose. There were no cases of citrate intoxication: median total calcium/ionic calcium index (CaT/I of 2.16 and a maximum CaT/I of 2.33, without metabolic acidosis. In the citrate group, 45.5% of patients developed hypochloremia and 27.3% hypomagnesemia. In the heparin group, 27.8% developed hypophosphatemia. Three patients were moved from heparin to citrate to control postoperatory bleeding. In conclusion citrate is a safe and effective anticoagulation method for CRRT in children and it achieves longer circuit survival than heparin.

  11. Anticoagulant activity of a natural protein purified from Hypomesus olidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Mengxing; Wang, Liyan; Liu, Xuejun

    2017-05-01

    A novel anticoagulant protein (E-II-1) was separated and purified from Hypomesus olidus, a unique freshwater fish in northern China. E-II-1 had a molecular mass of approximately 40 kDa with no subunits. The high content of hydrophobic amino acids and negatively charged amino acids in E-II-1 demonstrated that the amino acid compositions might contribute to the anticoagulant activity. E-II-1 contained α-helices 16.75%, β-sheets 42.67%, β-turn 25.58% and random coil 15.00%. In vitro blood coagulation time assay, E-II-1 significantly prolonged the activated partial thrombin time in a dose-dependent manner. Results indicated that E-II-1 acted as anticoagulants through the endogenous pathway with an inhibition of FXa. The specific activity of E-II-1 was 103.50 U/mg at a concentration of 1.00 mg/mL. Therefore, E-II-1 might be one of the promising anticoagulants originated from natural food sources with more safety and less side effects.

  12. Haemorrhage in the labyrinth caused by anticoagulant therapy: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callonnec, F.; Gerardin, E.; Thiebot, J. [Department of Radiology, Rouen University Hospital, 1 rue de Germont, F-76031 Rouen cedex (France); Marie, J.P.; Andrieu Guitrancourt, J. [Department of Otolaryngology, Rouen University Hospital (France); Marsot-Dupuch, K. [Department of Radiology, St. Antoine, Paris University Hospital (France)

    1999-06-01

    We report a patient who experienced a severe vertiginous episode with bilateral tinnitus and progressive right-sided hearing loss. She had Marfan`s disease and was on anticoagulant treatment. The fluid in the labyrinth gave higher signal than cerebrospinal fluid on T1-weighted images, suggesting haemorrhage. The radiological follow-up is discussed. (orig.) With 2 figs., 11 refs.

  13. Vitamin K and stability of oral anticoagulant therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombouts, Eva Karolien

    2011-01-01

    One of the causes of unstable anticoagulation is a variable vitamin K intake. The main objective of this thesis was to test the hypothesis that the INR is particularly sensitive to changes in vitamin K intake when vitamin K status is low, and that patients with a low vitamin K intake would therefore

  14. Synthesis and anticoagulant activity of the quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lihong; Wu, Penghui; Zhang, Jinrong; Gao, Song; Wang, Libo; Li, Mingjia; Sha, Mingming; Xie, Weiguo; Nie, Min

    2012-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates with diverse degrees of substitution (DS) ascribed to sulfate groups between 0.52 and 1.55 were synthesized by reacting quaternary ammonium chitosan with an uncommon sulfating agent (N(SO(3)Na)(3)) that was prepared from sodium bisulfite (NaHSO(3)) through reaction with sodium nitrite (NaNO(2)) in the aqueous system homogeneous. The structures of the derivatives were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The factors affecting DS of quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates which included the molar ratio of NaNO(2) to quaternary ammonium chitosan, sulfated temperature, sulfated time and pH of sulfated reaction solution were investigated in detail. Its anticoagulation activity in vitro was determined by an activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay, a thrombin time (TT) assay and a prothrombin time (PT) assay. Results of anticoagulation assays showed quaternary ammonium chitosan sulfates significantly prolonged APTT and TT, but not PT, and demonstrated that the introduction of sulfate groups into the quaternary ammonium chitosan structure improved its anticoagulant activity obviously. The study showed its anticoagulant properties strongly depended on its DS, concentration and molecular weight. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of Lupus Anticoagulant in Women with Spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Spontaneous abortion (SA) is a common complication of pregnancy. Presence of lupus anticoagulant (LA), one of the antiphospholipid antibodies, has been associated with SA in many studies, especially in Caucasians. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of LA in women with SA in ABUTH, ...

  16. Challenges in management of Warfarin anti-coagulation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges in management of Warfarin anti-coagulation in advanced HIV/AIDS patients with venous thrombotic events - A case series from a research clinic in rural Kericho, Kenya. ... VTE was diagnosed 52 (1-469) days after ART initiation, and 81.8% of cases were outpatients at presentation. All patients received at least ...

  17. pattern of anticoagulation control after heart valve surgery at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-07-07

    Jul 7, 2000 ... Regular attendance by the patients, supplemented by a system of quality control anticaogulation are the prerequisites of such a service. In some centres where such quality control systems are in place, levels of adequate. INR control maintained up to 80% of the patients attending the anticoagulation clinic ...

  18. Perioperative anticoagulation for children with prosthetic mechanical valves

    OpenAIRE

    Grech, Victor E.; Rees, Philip G.

    2000-01-01

    The insertion of a mechanical heart valve predisposes to thrombosis and embolism, and for this reason, individuals with mechanical valves who undergo dental/surgical procedures must take special precautions. In this article, we illustrate a protocol for anticoagulation during such procedures in individuals with mechanical valves.

  19. Anticoagulant drugs increase natural killer cell activity in lung cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bobek, M.; Boubelík, Michael; Fišerová, Anna; Luptovcová, Martina; Vannucci, Luca; Kacprzak, G.; Kolodzej, J.; Majewski, A.M.; Hoffman, R. M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2005), s. 215-223 ISSN 0169-5002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : anticoagulant drugs * lung cancer * NK cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.172, year: 2005

  20. New developments in parenteral anticoagulation for arterial and venous thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, Nick; Bleker, Suzanne M.; Büller, Harry R.; Coppens, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of heparin and low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are well documented in venous and arterial thromboembolism. Several drawbacks of heparins have inspired the development of newer parenteral anticoagulants for specific indications, including heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

  1. Antithrombotic/anticoagulant and anticancer activities of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine plants available in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa were tested for antithrombotic and/or anticoagulant activity. Organic (methanol) and aqueous (distilled water) extractions were performed on the various plant parts. The thrombin assay and clotting time assays (thrombin-induced and CaCl2-induced) were ...

  2. Standardisation of the Laboratory Control of Anticoagulant Therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-09-11

    Sep 11, 1974 ... Anticoagulant therapy with the coumarin group of drugs has been used in clinical practice for more than a quarter of a century. The most widely used form of laboratory control of the treatment is the Quick one-stage prothrom·- bin time. I. This simple test proved to be satisfactory in most cases, but discrepant ...

  3. Risk of bleeding after dentoalveolar surgery in patients taking anticoagulants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, Ferdinand I.; van Minnen, Baucke; Jansma, Johan; Bos, Rudolf R. M.

    To avoid increasing the risk of thromboembolic events, it is recommended that treatment with anticoagulants should be continued during dentoalveolar operations. We have evaluated the incidence of bleeding after dentoalveolar operations in a prospective study of 206 patients, 103 who were, and 103

  4. In vitro analysis of the anthelmintic activity of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) sesquiterpene lactones against a predominatly Haemonchus contortus egg population

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) herbage has been attributed to sesquiterpene lactones. Chicory leaves contain significant amounts of lactucin (LAC), 8-deoxylactucin (DOL), and lactucopicrin (LPIC), but the proportions of these three sesquiterpene lactones vary among fora...

  5. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of Coriandrum sativum against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguale, T; Tilahun, G; Debella, A; Feleke, A; Makonnen, E

    2007-04-04

    In vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the seeds of Coriandrum sativum (Apiaceae) were investigated on the egg and adult nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. The aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum was also investigated for in vivo anthelmintic activity in sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Both extract types of Coriandrum sativum inhibited hatching of eggs completely at a concentration less than 0.5 mg/ml. ED(50) of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum was 0.12 mg/ml while that of hydro-alcoholic extract was 0.18 mg/ml. There was no statistically significant difference between aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts (p>0.05). The hydro-alcoholic extract showed better in vitro activity against adult parasites than the aqueous one. For the in vivo study, 24 sheep artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each. The first two groups were treated with crude aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum at 0.45 and 0.9 g/kg dose levels, the third group with albendazole at 3.8 mg/kg and the last group was left untreated. Efficacy was tested by faecal egg count reduction (FECR) and total worm count reduction (TWCR). On day 2 post treatment, significant FECR was detected in groups treated with higher dose of Coriandrum sativum (pCoriandrum sativum (p>0.05). Significant (pCoriandrum sativum compared to the untreated group. Reduction in male worms was higher than female worms. Treatment with both doses of Coriandrum sativum did not help the animals improve or maintain their PCV while those treated with albendazole showed significant increase in PCV (p<0.05).

  6. Studies on the traditional herbal anthelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliks, M M

    1985-01-01

    Infusions and decoctions of the leaves, roots and inflorescences of the herbaceous shrub Chenopodium ambrosioides (American wormseed, goosefoot, epazote, paico) and related species indigenous to the New World have been used for centuries as dietary condiments and as traditional anthelmintics by native peoples for the treatment of intestinal worms. Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium and its active constituent, ascaridol, obtained by steam distillation, have been and continue to be, used with considerable success in mass treatment campaigns. Ethnopharmacological studies in a community of Mayan subsistence farmers in Chiapas, Mexico, confirmed that decoctions containing up to 300 mg of dry plant material per kg body weight (MGKGW) were widely used and traditionally highly regarded in the treatment of ascariasis. However, therapeutic doses of up to 6000 MGKGW of powdered, dried plant had no significant anthelmintic effect on the adults of Necator, Trichuris of Ascaris. Gas-liquid chromatographic analyses of plant samples used consistently demonstrated the presence of ascaridol in the expected amounts. Possible origins of subjective belief in the efficacy of C. ambrosioides as used, may be related to the positive association of spontaneous, or peristalsis-induced passage of senescent worms immediately following a therapeutic episode. It is also possible that in the past varieties of the plant containing much more ascaridol were used. The results of these controlled field studies did not sustain widely held traditional beliefs, nor the value of therapeutic practices regarding this plant. It is, therefore, essential that all indigenous ethnomedical practices be objectively evaluated for efficacy and safety using appropriate protocols before being considered for adoptation or promotion in health care programs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Zanthoxylum simulans essential oil against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, H; Wang, W X; Dai, J L; Zhu, L

    2015-07-30

    The need for new anthelmintic agents with low impact on the environment is becoming urgent. Phytotherapy is an alternative method to control gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants. This study aims to determine the composition of Zanthoxylum simulans essential oil (ZSEO) and evaluate the in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal effects of ZSEO on Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay, larval development assay (LDA), and larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA). The chemical composition of ZSEO was determined through gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and 94 compounds were identified from the ZSEO. The major constituents of ZSEO were borneol (18.61%), β-elemene (10.87%). ZSEO and borneol both at 40 mg/mL inhibited larval hatching by 100%, with LC50 values of 3.98 and 1.50mg/mL, respectively. The LC50 value of β-elemene was not determined because of its insufficient activity. The results of LDA showed that ZSEO, borneol, and β-elemene all at 40 mg/mL inhibited larval development by 99.8%, 100%, and 55.4%, respectively, and exhibited dose-dependent responses with LC50 values of 4.02, 1.99, and 32.17 mg/mL, respectively. The results of LMIA showed that ZSEO, borneol, and β-elemene all at 40 mg/mL inhibited larval migration by 74.3%, 97.0%, and 53.2%, respectively. ZSEO presented ovicidal and larvicidal activities in vitro. Therefore, Zanthoxylum may be an alternative source of anthelmintic agents to control gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Anthelmintic activity of botanical extracts against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes, Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Elango, Gandhi; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz

    2011-07-01

    The source of chemical anthelmintics (levamisole, flubendazole, and thiabendazole) had limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiasis control in sheep and goats and thus awakened interest in the study of medicinal plant extracts as alternative sources of anthelmintics. The egg hatching and larvicidal effect of indigenous plant extracts were investigated against the sheep parasite, Haemonchus contortus. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of leaf, bark, and seed ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees., Anisomeles malabarica (L.) R. Br., Annona squamosa L., Datura metel L., and Solanum torvum Swartz were tested against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA). The assays were run in 24-well cell culture plates at room temperature with five replicates. All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 48 and exposure for egg hatching and LDA, respectively; however, 100% egg hatching and larvicidal inhibition were found in the methanol extracts of A. paniculata, A. squamosa, D. metel, and S. torvum at 25 mg/ml and the effect was similar to positive control of Albendazole (0.075 mg/ml) and Ivermectin (0.025mg/ml) against H. contortus, respectively. The EHA result showed the ED(50) of methanol extracts of A. paniculata and D. metel, which were 2.90 and 3.08 mg/ml, and in larval development assay, the ED(50) was 4.26 and 3.86 mg/ml, respectively. These effects remain to be confirmed through in vivo studies.

  9. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B has potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Joseph F; Hu, Yan; Miller, Melanie M; Scheib, Ulrike; Yiu, Ying Y; Aroian, Raffi V

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the intestines. Ascaris lumbricoides infections in children are associated with malnutrition, growth and cognitive stunting, immune defects, and, in extreme cases, life-threatening blockage of the digestive tract and aberrant migration into the bile duct and peritoneum. Similar effects can be seen with A. suum infections in pigs related to poor feed efficiency and performance. New strategies to control Ascaris infections are needed largely due to reduced treatment efficacies of current anthelmintics in the field, the threat of resistance development, and the general lack of new drug development for intestinal soil-transmitted helminths for humans and animals. Here we demonstrate for the first time that A. suum expresses the receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein and novel anthelmintic Cry5B, which has been previously shown to intoxicate hookworms and which belongs to a class of proteins considered non-toxic to vertebrates. Cry5B is able to intoxicate A. suum larvae and adults and triggers the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway similar to that observed with other nematodes. Most importantly, two moderate doses of 20 mg/kg body weight (143 nM/kg) of Cry5B resulted in a near complete cure of intestinal A. suum infections in pigs. Taken together, these results demonstrate the excellent potential of Cry5B to treat Ascaris infections in pigs and in humans and for Cry5B to work effectively in the human gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Polymorphism in ion channel genes of Dirofilaria immitis: Relevant knowledge for future anthelmintic drug design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangadurai Mani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial parasite, causes cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and wild canids. The macrocyclic lactone (ML class of drugs has been used to prevent heartworm infection. There is confirmed ML resistance in D. immitis and thus there is an urgent need to find new anthelmintics that could prevent and/or control the disease. Targeting ion channels of D. immitis for drug design has obvious advantages. These channels, present in the nematode nervous system, control movement, feeding, mating and respond to environmental cues which are necessary for survival of the parasite. Any new drug that targets these ion channels is likely to have a motility phenotype and should act to clear the worms from the host. Many of the successful anthelmintics in the past have targeted these ion channels and receptors. Knowledge about genetic variability of the ion channel and receptor genes should be useful information for drug design as receptor polymorphism may affect responses to a drug. Such information may also be useful for anticipation of possible resistance development. A total of 224 ion channel genes/subunits have been identified in the genome of D. immitis. Whole genome sequencing data of parasites from eight different geographical locations, four from ML-susceptible populations and the other four from ML-loss of efficacy (LOE populations, were used for polymorphism analysis. We identified 1762 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP sites (1508 intronic and 126 exonic in these 224 ion channel genes/subunits with an overall polymorphic rate of 0.18%. Of the SNPs found in the exon regions, 129 of them caused a non-synonymous type of polymorphism. Fourteen of the exonic SNPs caused a change in predicted secondary structure. A few of the SNPs identified may have an effect on gene expression, function of the protein and resistance selection processes.

  11. Primary care monitoring of patients under oral anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnelo, Pedro; Alexandra, Denise; Matias, Sara

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of new oral anticoagulants that do not require regular laboratory control but are significantly more expensive, there has been renewed interest in the quality of the classic agents and the monitoring of patients taking them. We set out to analyze time in therapeutic range of patients under oral anticoagulation monitored in our health unit, to determine whether primary care monitoring is comparable to that in anticoagulation clinics. At the same time, we aimed to ascertain whether there was any association between the dosing method (unit protocol vs. computer-assisted) and the time in therapeutic range achieved.Methods We analyzed all INR values determined in our health unit during the first six months of 2012, using Excel 2007 and SPSS version 17.0, and applying the Student's t test for a level of significance of 0.05. All INR assessments during the first six months of 2012 were recorded, a total of 320 tests; mean patient age was 69.9±11.25 years, 63% male. Dose adjustments were made according to the unit protocol in 77% of cases. Atrial fibrillation was the most prevalent indication. Most values (65.3%) were within the target therapeutic range; 24.1% were subtherapeutic and 10.6% supratherapeutic. Computer-assisted dosing achieved better control than the protocol (72.5% vs. 62.9%), without statistical significance. Primary care monitoring of oral anticoagulation appears to be comparable to that in anticoagulation clinics, while affording better access and cost reductions. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Adverse effects of anticoagulation treatment: clinically significant upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skok

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the last years, the use of oral anticoagulant treatment has increased dramatically, principally for the prevention of venous thrombosis and thrombembolic events. This treatment is demanding, especially among the elderly with concommitant diseases and different medication. Aim of the study to evaluate the rate of serious complications, clinically significant hemorrhage from upper gastointestinal tract in patients treated with oral antiocoagulants in a prospective cohort study.Patients and methods: Included were patients admitted to our institution between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2003 due to gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Emergency endoscopy and laboratory testing was performed in all patients.Results: 6416 patients were investigated: 2452 women (38.2 % and 3964 men (61.8 %, mean age 59.1 years, SD 17.2. Among our patients, 55 % were aged over 60 years. In 86.4 % of patients the source of bleeding was confirmed in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In the last week prior to bleeding, 20.4 % (1309/6416 of all patients were regularly taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticoagulant therapy or antiplatelet agents in single daily doses at least. 6.3 % of patients (82/1309 with abundant hemorrhage from upper gastrointestinal tract were using oral anticoagulant therapy and had INR > 5 at admission, 25.6 % of them had INR > 10. The mortality of patients using oral anticoagulants and INR > 5 was 17.1 %.Conclusions: Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a serious complication of different medications, particularly in elderly patients. Safe use of anticoagulant therapy is based on careful selection of patients and correct intake of the prescribed drugs.

  13. THE ANTICOAGULANT AND ANTILYMPHOMA PROPERTIES OF ARSENIC AZOPROTEINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, J. D.; Kidd, John G.

    1964-01-01

    Experiments given in this paper have shown that 4-arsonophenylazoproteins possess marked anticoagulant activity both in vivo and in vitro. Mice and rabbits given moderate amounts of the arsenic azoprotein, for example, often bled to death from injuries that proved trivial in control animals, and their blood remained liquid during many hours' postmortem even when left in contact with transected tissues, fibrinolysis having no part in the outcome. So, too, the addition of minute amounts of 4-arsonophenylazoprotein to plasma procured from citrated rabbit or human blood greatly prolonged the time required for clotting after recalcification. Other arsenic-containing compounds,—for example, those in which arsenic See PDF for Structure was joined to amino acids or peptides through the azo linkage, or to proteins through couplings other than the azo linkage,—were largely devoid of anticoagulant and antilymphoma effects. The findings as a whole show clearly that the structural requirements for anticoagulant and antilymphoma effects are: (a) possession of negatively charged arsonic or arsinoso groups, (b) large molecular size (protein), and (c) linkage of arsenic-containing groups to protein through the azo bond. Two acidic azoproteins that were devoid of arsenic,—namely 4-carboxyphenylazoprotein and 4-sulfonophenylazoprotein,—were also found to have marked anticoagulant effects in vitro, but they had no inhibitory action against cells of Lymphoma 6C3HED in vivo, even when they were given to mice in maximum tolerated amounts. The essential part played by arsenic in the antilymphoma activity of arsenic azoproteins was further emphasized by the action of dimercaprol (BAL) in preventing the antilymphoma effects of 4-arsonophenylazoprotein on Lymphoma 6C3HED cells in vivo. In an associated paper the anticoagulant and antilymphoma effects of 4-arsonophenylazoproteins are studied further, and consideration is given to the ways in which these effects may be brought about

  14. In vitro screening of six anthelmintic plant products against larval Haemonchus contortus with a modified methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium reduction assay

    OpenAIRE

    Hördegen, P.; Cabaret, J.; Hertzberg, H.; Langhans, W.; Maurer, V.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the increasing anthelmintic resistance and the impact of conventional anthelmintics on the environment, it is important to look for alternative strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes. Phytotherapy could be one of the major options to control these pathologies. Extracts or ingredients of six different plant species were tested against exsheathed infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus using a modified methyl-thiazolyltetrazolium (MTT) reduction assay. Pyrantel tartrate was u...

  15. phytochemical screening, antibacterial and toxicological activities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dealer

    The phytochemical screening, antibacterial and toxicological activities of extracts of the stem bark of Acacia senegal were investigated. ... Keywords: Phytochemical Screening, Antibacterial Activity, Toxicological Activity Acacia senegal,. Extracts. INTRODUCTION ..... Vegetable Drugs; Chemical Industries. Branch; Division of ...

  16. Antibacterial liamocins with alternative carbohydrate headgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamocins are unique polyol lipids with biosurfactant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties, produced by certain strains of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. Liamocins have potential agricultural and pharmaceutical applications as antibacterials with specificity against Streptococcus sp. There...

  17. Antibacterial surface design - Contact kill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajbir; Liu, Song

    2016-08-01

    Designing antibacterial surfaces has become extremely important to minimize Healthcare Associated Infections which are a major cause of mortality worldwide. A previous biocide-releasing approach is based on leaching of encapsulated biocides such as silver and triclosan which exerts negative impacts on the environment and potentially contributes to the development of bacterial resistance. This drawback of leachable compounds led to the shift of interest towards a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach: contact-killing surfaces. Biocides that can be bound onto surfaces to give the substrates contact-active antibacterial activity include quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), quaternary phosphoniums (QPs), carbon nanotubes, antibacterial peptides, and N-chloramines. Among the above, QACs and N-chloramines are the most researched contact-active biocides. We review the engineering of contact-active surfaces using QACs or N-chloramines, the modes of actions as well as the test methods. The charge-density threshold of cationic surfaces for desired antibacterial efficacy and attempts to combine various biocides for the generation of new contact-active surfaces are discussed in detail. Surface positive charge density is identified as a key parameter to define antibacterial efficacy. We expect that this research field will continue to attract more research interest in view of the potential impact of self-disinfective surfaces on healthcare-associated infections, food safety and corrosion/fouling resistance required on industrial surfaces such as oil pipes and ship hulls.

  18. Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kolmas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency.

  19. Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmas, Joanna; Groszyk, Ewa; Kwiatkowska-Różycka, Dagmara

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions) and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency. PMID:24949423

  20. Oral Anticoagulant Use After Bariatric Surgery: A Literature Review and Clinical Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karlyn A; Lee, Craig R; Farrell, Timothy M; Moll, Stephan

    2017-05-01

    Bariatric surgery may alter the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or elimination (disposition) of orally administered drugs via changes to the gastrointestinal tract anatomy, body weight, and adipose tissue composition. As some patients who have undergone bariatric surgery will need therapeutic anticoagulation for various indications, appropriate knowledge is needed regarding anticoagulant drug disposition and resulting efficacy and safety in this population. We review general considerations about oral drug disposition in patients after bariatric surgery, as well as existing literature on oral anticoagulation after bariatric surgery. Overall, available evidence on therapeutic anticoagulation is very limited, and individual drug studies are necessary to learn how to safely and effectively use the direct oral anticoagulants. Given the sparsity of currently available data, it appears most prudent to use warfarin with international normalized ratio monitoring, and not direct oral anticoagulants, when full-dose anticoagulation is needed after bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Condensed Tannins in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Cattle after Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) Intake and Their Possible Relationship with Anthelmintic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrues, Olivier; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Pellikaan, Wilbert F; Enemark, Heidi L; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2017-02-22

    Condensed tannins' (CTs) fate along the digestive tract of ruminants may account for the variable efficacy of CTs against gastrointestinal nematodes. We analyzed CTs in the digesta of cattle fed sainfoin. With the acetone-butanol-HCl assay, the total CTs concentrations in the digesta were close to those in the diets (6.3 and 1.5% of DM in experiments 1 and 2, respectively); thus, CTs remained potentially largely undegraded/unabsorbed. With the thiolysis assay, CTs concentration was much higher in the abomasum (2.3% of DM; expt 1) compared with the rumen and intestines, along with higher mean size and prodelphinidins percentage, corroborating CTs efficacy reported only against Ostertagia ostertagi in the abomasum. In expt 2, the dietary levels of CTs were probably too low to demonstrate anthelmintic effects in the rumen. Overall, the level of CTs accessible to thiolysis is favored under the acidic conditions of the abomasum, which seems critical for anthelmintic activity.

  2. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA.

  3. Antiplatelet and anticoagulation for patients with prosthetic heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massel, David R; Little, Stephen H

    2013-07-09

    Patients with prosthetic heart valves are at increased risk for valve thrombosis and arterial thromboembolism. Oral anticoagulation alone, or the addition of antiplatelet drugs, has been used to minimise this risk. An important issue is the effectiveness and safety of the latter strategy. This is an update of our previous review; the goal was to create a valid synthesis of all available, methodologically sound data to further assess the safety and efficacy of combined oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy versus oral anticoagulant monotherapy in patients with prosthetic heart valves. We updated the previous searches from 2003 and 2010 on 16 January 2013 and searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on The Cochrane Library (2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE (OVID, 1946 to January Week 1 2013), and EMBASE (OVID, 1980 to 2013 Week 02). We have also looked at reference lists of individual reports, review articles, meta-analyses, and consensus statements. We included reports published in any language or in abstract form. All reports of randomised controlled trials comparing standard-dose oral anticoagulation to standard-dose oral anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy in patients with one or more prosthetic heart valves. Two review authors independently performed the search strategy, assessed trials for inclusion and study quality, and extracted data. We collected adverse effects information from the trials. One new study has been identified and included in this update. In total, 13 studies involving 4122 participants were included in this review update. Years of publication ranged from 1971 to 2011. Compared with anticoagulation alone, the addition of an antiplatelet agent reduced the risk of thromboembolic events (odds ratio (OR) 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32 to 0.59; P heart valves. The risk of major bleeding is increased with antiplatelet therapy. These results apply to patients with mechanical prosthetic valves or those with

  4. COMPARATIVE IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF METHANOLIC AND PETROLEUM ETHER EXTRACTS OF WOODFERDIA FRUTICOSA (L). FLOWER

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta Rupa

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims at preliminary phytochemical investigation and anthelmintic activity of dried flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa (L). The dried flowers were extracted individually with methanol and petrolium ether. The extracts were evaluated for phytochemical studies. Preliminary screening of the flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa revealed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins and glycosides in major quantities, phenols in moderate quantities and anthraquinones and flavonoids in minor quan...

  5. Managing anthelmintic resistance-Variability in the dose of drug reaching the target worms influences selection for resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, Dave M; Luo, Dongwen

    2017-08-30

    The concentration profile of anthelmintic reaching the target worms in the host can vary between animals even when administered doses are tailored to individual liveweight at the manufacturer's recommended rate. Factors contributing to variation in drug concentration include weather, breed of animal, formulation and the route by which drugs are administered. The implications of this variability for the development of anthelmintic resistance was investigated using Monte-Carlo simulation. A model framework was established where 100 animals each received a single drug treatment. The 'dose' of drug allocated to each animal (i.e. the concentration-time profile of drug reaching the target worms) was sampled at random from a distribution of doses with mean m and standard deviation s. For each animal the dose of drug was used in conjunction with pre-determined dose-response relationships, representing single and poly-genetic inheritance, to calculate efficacy against susceptible and resistant genotypes. These data were then used to calculate the overall change in resistance gene frequency for the worm population as a result of the treatment. Values for m and s were varied to reflect differences in both mean dose and the variability in dose, and for each combination of these 100,000 simulations were run. The resistance gene frequency in the population after treatment increased as m decreased and as s increased. This occurred for both single and poly-gene models and for different levels of dominance (survival under treatment) of the heterozygote genotype(s). The results indicate that factors which result in lower and/or more variable concentrations of active reaching the target worms are more likely to select for resistance. The potential of different routes of anthelmintic administration to play a role in the development of anthelmintic resistance is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeted and Untargeted Metabolic Profiling of Wild Grassland Plants identifies Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Compounds Targeting Pathogen Physiology, Metabolism and Reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    French, Katherine E.; Harvey, Joe; McCullagh, James S. O.

    2018-01-01

    Plants traditionally used by farmers to manage livestock ailments could reduce reliance on synthetic antibiotics and anthelmintics but in many cases their chemical composition is unknown. As a case study, we analyzed the metabolite profiles of 17 plant species and 45 biomass samples from agricultural grasslands in England using targeted and untargeted metabolite profiling by liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry. We identified a range of plant secondary metabolites, including 32 compounds w...

  7. Targeted and untargeted metabolic profiling of wild grassland plants identifies antibiotic and anthelmintic compounds targeting pathogen physiology, metabolism and reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    French, KE; Harvey, J; Mccullagh, J

    2018-01-01

    Plants traditionally used by farmers to manage livestock ailments could reduce reliance on synthetic antibiotics and anthelmintics but in many cases their chemical composition is unknown. As a case study, we analyzed the metabolite profiles of 17 plant species and 45 biomass samples from agricultural grasslands in England using targeted and untargeted metabolite profiling by liquid‐chromatography mass‐spectrometry. We identified a range of plant secondary metabolites, including 32 compounds w...

  8. A Novel Application of an Anthelmintic Mixture for Use against Gastrointestinal Parasites of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Hughes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of proprietary anthelmintics delivering 0.5 mg/kg moxidectin, 9.06 mg/kg oxfendazole, 15 mg/kg levamisole, and 0.08 mg/kg selenium on bodyweight basis per os to red deer is investigated. On a deer farm with a history of parasite problems, six weaner red deer were treated orally with a 50/50 mixture of Exodus Pour-On and Oxfen C Plus (Ex/Ox at a dose rate of 1 ml/5 kg bodyweight. Six herd mates were untreated. Eleven days later abomasal worm counts for the untreated deer revealed an arithmetic mean burden of 2,566 Ostertagia-type worms and 300 Trichostrongylus axei. No worms were detected in the abomasa of the treated group. Six yearling red deer were treated with the Ex/Ox combination and sent 39 days later to a slaughter plant where tissue samples were collected for residue analysis. Moxidectin was the only anthelmintic compound to show residues and the concentrations measured were well below maximum residue limits. Laboratory analysis of the Ex/Ox product after six-week storage at ambient temperature indicated good physical and chemical stability. These investigations support the hypothesis that the Ex/Ox combination can be an effective and practical anthelmintic option for use in red deer against a background of widespread gastrointestinal parasite resistance to the registered alternatives.

  9. The anthelmintic effects of the ethanol extract of Terminalia catappa L. leaves against the ruminant gut parasite, Fischoederius cobboldi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuracpreeda, Panat; Chankaew, Kanokwan; Puttarak, Panupong; Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Chawengkirttikul, Runglawan; Panyarachun, Busaba; Ngamniyom, Arin; Chanchai, Sumalee; Sobhon, Prasert

    2016-04-01

    Presently, no effective anthelmintic drugs have been used to treat and control paramphistomosis, a severe disease of ruminants. In this study, we have investigated the in vitro anthelmintic effect of the leaves of Terminalia catappa L. crude extract (TcCE) and albendazole (ABZ) on adult Fischoederius cobboldi after incubating the flukes in RPMI-1640 medium containing the TcCE at various doses and times. The TcCE-treated flukes at all dosages exhibited rapid decrease of motility, and the relative motility (RM) values were decreased sharply from start to 3 h. Worms were killed after 6 and 12 h of treatment with 1000, 1500 and 2000 µg mL(-1) as well as 500 µg mL(-1) of TcCE, respectively. By light microscopy examination, the flukes exhibited the earliest alteration in a limited area of the tegument. At scanning electron microscopy level, the flukes' tegument showed similar sequence of morphological alterations after treatment with ABZ and TcCE that consisted of swelling of ridges and folds, followed by blebbing and rupturing of the blebs, leading to the erosion, lesion and disruption of the tegument. Hence, in vivo studies should be performed to examine whether the TcCE may serve as a powerful anthelmintic drug for treatment of paramphistomosis.

  10. Survey of anthelmintic resistance on Danish horse farms, using 5 different methods of calculating faecal egg count reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Henriksen, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    This study reports on the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in strongyles of horses in Denmark; Of 5 methods used for the calculation of faecal egg count reduction (FECR) the method recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, for the detection of resis......This study reports on the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in strongyles of horses in Denmark; Of 5 methods used for the calculation of faecal egg count reduction (FECR) the method recommended by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, for the detection...... of resistance in sheep was the most sensitive procedure for detecting resistance. Using this method benzimidazole resistance was detected on 33 of 42 farms (79%) examined. Pyrantel was tested on 15 farms and FECR tests indicate resistance on 3 (30%) farms. On 2 farms on which resistance to pyrantel was detected...... resistance to benzimidazoles was also detected. On one of 16 farms examined ivermectin resistance was indicated at Day 14 but not at Day 19. On the 15 remaining farms ivermectin was effective. Due to the high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in Danish horse herds it is recommended that tests...

  11. Targeted and Untargeted Metabolic Profiling of Wild Grassland Plants identifies Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Compounds Targeting Pathogen Physiology, Metabolism and Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Katherine E; Harvey, Joe; McCullagh, James S O

    2018-01-26

    Plants traditionally used by farmers to manage livestock ailments could reduce reliance on synthetic antibiotics and anthelmintics but in many cases their chemical composition is unknown. As a case study, we analyzed the metabolite profiles of 17 plant species and 45 biomass samples from agricultural grasslands in England using targeted and untargeted metabolite profiling by liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry. We identified a range of plant secondary metabolites, including 32 compounds with known antimicrobial/anthelmintic properties which varied considerably across the different plant samples. These compounds have been shown previously to target multiple aspects of pathogen physiology and metabolism in vitro and in vivo, including inhibition of quorum sensing in bacteria and egg viability in nematodes. The most abundant bioactive compounds were benzoic acid, myricetin, p-coumaric acid, rhamnetin, and rosmarinic acid. Four wild plants (Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim., Prunella vulgaris L., Centuarea nigra L., and Rhinanthus minor L.) and two forage legumes (Medicago sativa L., Trifolium hybridium L.) contained high levels of these compounds. Forage samples from native high-diversity grasslands had a greater abundance of medicinal compounds than samples from agriculturally improved grasslands. Incorporating plants with antibiotic/anthelmintic compounds into livestock feeds may reduce global drug-resistance and preserve the efficacy of last-resort drugs.

  12. Anthelmintic activity of silver-extract nanoparticles synthesized from the combination of silver nanoparticles and M. charantia fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Md Mamun Or; Ferdous, Jannatul; Banik, Sujan; Islam, Md Rabiul; Uddin, A H M Mazbah; Robel, Fataha Nur

    2016-07-26

    Present study has been conducted to know the anthelmintic activity of polyaniline coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from Momordica charantia fruit extract. By reduction of AgNO3 in presence of NaBH4, silver nanoparticles were prepared. After mixing silver nanoparticles and extracts, coating was given on nanoparticles using polyaniline. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Visual, UV, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM techniques, and TEM analysis. The FTIR results implied that AgNPs were successfully synthesized and capped with bio-compounds present in the extract. The result showed that death times of worm were 35.12 ± 0.5 and 59.3 ± 0.3 minutes for M. charantia extract and Ag-nanoparticles individually. But when these two combined together, paralysis and death time fall drastically which were only 6.16 ± 0.6 and 9.1 ± 0.4 minutes respectively. Albendazole tablet was used as standard, which made worms death in 3.66 ± 0.1 minutes. Ag-Extract NPs showed strong anthelmintic activity against worm. This study has paved the way for further research to design new anthelmintic drug from the combination of M. charantia and AgNPs.

  13. Oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoo, Keitaro; Lane, Deirdre A; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2014-09-01

    The availability of 4 non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs), that is, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, has changed the landscape of stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. This review article provides an overview of the 4 phase III studies that have compared these NOACs, examining major outcomes of efficacy and safety. A range of practical questions relating to the NOACs have emerged, including topics such as patient selection, treating patients with renal impairment, treating elderly patients, and combining anticoagulant therapy with antiplatelet drugs. We also address the interaction of various patient characteristics with the treatments and suggest the features can assist the physician in the choice of a particular NOAC for a particular patient(s). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Recent developments in the use of oral anticoagulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    For many years, vitamin K antagonists, unfractionated heparins, low-molecular-weight heparins and a pentasaccharide were the only anticoagulant drugs available for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after surgery. However, their benefits were associated with disadvantages, such as their sub......For many years, vitamin K antagonists, unfractionated heparins, low-molecular-weight heparins and a pentasaccharide were the only anticoagulant drugs available for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after surgery. However, their benefits were associated with disadvantages......, such as their subcutaneous route of administration or the need for coagulation monitoring. Research was challenged to develop new drugs that would simplify thromboprophylaxis while showing equivalent or better efficacy. Rivaroxaban and dabigatran are now available in some countries for the prevention of venous...

  15. Direct Oral Anticoagulants: An Overview for the Interventional Radiologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pradesh, E-mail: pradeshkumar@doctors.org.uk; Ravi, Rajeev, E-mail: rajeev.ravi@aintree.nhs.uk; Sundar, Gaurav, E-mail: gaurav.sundar@aintree.nhs.uk [Aintree University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Shiach, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.shiach@aintree.nhs.uk [Aintree University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Haematology Department (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have emerged as a good alternative for the treatment of thromboembolic diseases, and their use in clinical practice is increasing rapidly. The DOACs act by blocking the activity of one single step in the coagulation cascade. These drugs act downstream in the common pathway of the coagulation cascade by directly antagonising the action of thrombin or factor Xa. The development of DOACs represents a paradigm shift from the oral vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin. This article aims to describe the properties of the currently available DOACs including pharmacology and dosing. We also address the strategies for periprocedural management and reversal of anticoagulation of patients treated with these agents.

  16. Anticoagulant activity of Moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) tentacle extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Akriti; Biswas, Sumit; Sarkar, Angshuman; Chakrabarty, Dibakar

    2012-10-01

    Moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) tentacle extract was studied for its anticoagulant activity in vitro. The Jellyfish Tentacle Extract (JFTE) showed very strong fibrinogenolytic activity by cleaving Aα and Bβ chain of fibrinogen molecule. The fibrinogenolytic activity was found to be stronger than some snake venom derived anticoagulants. JFTE also completely liquefied fibrin clots in 24 h. JFTE was found to contain both high and low molecular weight proteins/peptides. The fibrinogenolysis appears to be caused by high molecular weight fractions of the extract. It has been also noted that PMSF significantly reduced fibrinogenolytic activity and heating totally abolished it. Autolytic degradation of the high molecular weight protein was also noted. Autolysis slowed down, but did not abolish the fibrinogenolytic activity of the extract. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-management of oral anticoagulant therapy in two centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Hanna; Grove, E; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard

    Self-management of oral anticoagulant therapy in two centers: 11.000 patient-years of follow-up H Nilsson1,2,3, EL Grove2, TB Larsen3, M Maegaard1, TD Christensen1 1Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery & Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus; 2Department...... of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus; 3Department of Cardiology, Aalborg Hospital & Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark haana_86@hotmail.com Objectives: Patient-self-management (PSM) of oral anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists have...... clinical practice. Materials and methods: A case-series study including all patients who had passed an exam in PSM in the period 1995-2012 at Aarhus University Hospital or Aalborg University Hospital, including 2200 patients and 11000 patient-years in total. The effectiveness was measured using...

  18. Net clinical benefit of combination anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy versus anticoagulation alone in atrial fibrillation patients: Results from the amadeus trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lane, Deirdre; Kamphuisen, Pieter; Minini, Pascal; De Peuter, Olaf R.; Buller, Harry R.; Lip, Gregory Y. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: To compare the effect of combination anticoagulant and antiplatelet (AP) therapy with anticoagulation alone on stroke and bleeding risk in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients and examine predictors of clinically relevant bleeding. Methods: Post-hoc analysis of 4576 AF patients [mean (SD)

  19. Conservatively managed pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werder, Gabriel M.; Razdan, Rahul S.; Gagliardi, Joseph A.; Chaddha, Shashi K.B.

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated and hypertensive 56-year-old Hispanic male. At presentation, the patient's international normalized ratio (INR) was 10.51 and his blood pressure was 200/130 mmHg. His presenting symptoms included acute onset of headache, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and visual disturbance. Neuroimaging demonstrated hemorrhage into a morphologically normal pineal gland. Under conservative management, the patient experienced gradual resolution of all symptoms excluding the disturbance of upward gaze

  20. Patients' preferences in anticoagulant therapy: discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafzadeh, Mehdi; Gagne, Joshua J; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Polinski, Jennifer M; Avorn, Jerry; Schneeweiss, Sebastian S

    2014-11-01

    With proliferating treatment options for anticoagulant therapy, physicians and patients must choose among them based on their benefits and risks. Using a Discrete Choice Experiment, we elicited patients' relative preferences for specific benefits and risks of anticoagulant therapy. We selected a sample of US patients with cardiovascular disease from an online panel and elicited their preferences for benefits and risks of anticoagulant therapy: nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, minor bleeding, major bleeding, bleeding death, and need for monitoring. These attributes were used to design scenarios describing hypothetical treatments that were labeled as new drug, old drug, or no drug. Latent class analysis was used to identify groups of patients with similar preferences. A total of 341 patients completed all Discrete Choice Experiment questions. On average, patients valued a 1% increased risk of a fatal bleeding event the same as a 2% increase in nonfatal myocardial infarction, a 3% increase in nonfatal stroke, a 3% increase in cardiovascular death, a 6% increase in major bleeding, and a 16% increase in minor bleeding. The odds of choosing no drug or old drug versus new drug were 0.72 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.84) and 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.81-0.93), respectively. Previous stroke or myocardial infarction was associated with membership in the class with larger negative preferences for these outcomes. Patients' preferences for various outcomes of anticoagulant therapy vary and depend on their previous experiences with myocardial infarction or stroke. Incorporating these preferences into benefit risk calculation and treatment decisions can enhance patient-centered care. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. In-vitro anticoagulant activity of fucoidan derivatives from brown seaweed Laminaria japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Quanbin; Zhang, Zhongshan; Hou, Yun; Zhang, Hong

    2011-05-01

    Fucoidan, a group of sulfated heteropolysaccharides, was extracted from Laminaria japonica, an important economic alga species in China. The anticoagulant activity of fucoidan and its derivatives (including sulfated, phosphorylated, and aminated fucoidan) was examined using in-vitro anticoagulant systems. The correlation between chemical variations within the fucoidan group and anticoagulant activity was determined. The in-vitro anticoagulant properties of fucoidan and its derivatives were determined by measuring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT). The results indicate anticoagulant activity in all samples using APTT and TT assays; however, only the fucoidan derivatives affected the PT assay. Thus, the fucoidan derivatives were able to inhibit both intrinsic and extrinsic blood coagulants. Fucoidan (FPS) and its derivatives presented better anticoagulant activity than low molecular weight fucoidan (DFPS) and its derivatives, suggesting that molecular weight and proper conformation are contributing factors for anticoagulant activity of polysaccharides. Amino groups have a positive charge and can thus change the charge density of fucoidan. Accordingly, among the tested samples, aminated fucoidan (NF) was the most active reflecting the importance of charge density for anticoagulant activity. Available data obtained using in-vitro models suggest that the sulfate content, sulfate/total-sugar ratio, molecular weight, and the substituted group of fucoidan are important factors for anticoagulant activity but that the influence of sulfate, phosphate and amino groups on anticoagulant activity was different.

  2. New Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOAC and Their Use Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Schwarb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ideal anticoagulant is oral, has a wide therapeutic range, predictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, a rapid onset of action, an available antidote, minimal side effects and minimal interactions with other drugs or food. With the development of the novel direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC, we now have an alternative to the traditional vitamin K antagonists (VKA for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis. DOACs have limited monitoring requirements and very predictable pharmacokinetic profiles. They were shown to be non-inferior or superior to VKA in the prophylaxis or treatment of thromboembolic events. Particularly in terms of safety they were associated with less major bleeding, including intracranial bleeding, thus providing a superior benefit for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Despite these advantages, there are remaining limitations with DOACs: their dependence on renal and hepatic function for clearance and the lack of an approved reversal agent, whereas such antidotes are successively being made available. DOACs do not need regular monitoring to assess the treatment effect but, on the other hand, they interact with other drugs and interfere with functional coagulation assays. From a practical point of view, the properties of oral administration, simple dosing without monitoring, a short half-life allowing for the possibility of uncomplicated switching or bridging, and proven safety overwhelm the disadvantages, making them an attractive option for short- or long-term anticoagulation.

  3. Spontaneous pharyngo-laryngeal hematoma and anticoagulation. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleny CASASOLA-GIRÓN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objective: Spontaneous pharyngeal-laryngeal hematoma shows the importance of a complete ENT examination in the face of symptoms of banal appearance and a correct history that, in the case reported, unveiled the therapeutic use of anticoagulants. Case description: A 55 year old woman comes to emergency because of unexplained dysphagia. The inspection shows the presence of a hematoma in the pharyngeal-laryngeal region that, after the anticoagulant therapy was reversed, evolved favorably with conservative treatment. Discussion: In this case, apart from medical management performed by the hematology department, we focus our therapeutic approach in the protection of the airway and the prevention of a possible massive bleeding. Determining which patients require endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy and hemostatic surgery is the key to treatment. Conclusions: The anticoagulant therapy involves several complications that ENT specialists must consider in the face of clinical symptoms of dysphagia, dysphonia, dyspnea or signs of bleeding and they must know the possibilities of performance depending on the severity of each case.

  4. [Oral anticoagulants and medicinal plants. An emerging interaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, A; Tiraferri, E; Marzaloni, M

    2000-01-01

    The consumption of herbal medicines is increasing steadily throughout the world, although to our knowledge there are neither studies on their effectiveness nor controls over the quality and safety of these preparations. Considered "food integrators", these preparations are marketed without restriction. It is a common notion that natural therapy has neither side nor toxic effects: allergic reactions, direct toxic effects or those due to contamination, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and heavy metal toxicity have been reported as adverse events caused by herbs. Rather than replacing traditional therapy, most herbal medical treatment is used in conjunction with it. Also, the attending physician is generally not informed that the patient is using herbs. Because Passionflower, hydroalcoholic extracts, Juniper and Verbena officinalis supply variable quantities of vitamin K, they can lessen the effect of oral anticoagulant therapy. Ganoderma Japonicum, Papaw, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Ginseng, Devil's claw, Garlic, Quinine, Ginkgo, Ginger, Red Clover and Horse-Chestnut reinforce warfarin action by heterogeneous mechanisms. They should thus not be used in patients on oral anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet therapy. The scientific community must take into account the adverse events caused by interaction between herbal medicine and conventional therapy, and patients must be informed of the dangers of these preparations. If a bleeding event occurs or the quality of anticoagulant therapy is poor, the clinician should consider the possibility of interaction between conventional therapy and herbal medicine that the patient has neglected to mention he is taking.

  5. Exploring potential anticoagulant drug formulations using thrombin generation test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zavyalova

    2016-03-01

    The thrombin generation test was used to assess the whole coagulation cascade in normal and factor-deficient human blood plasma. Potential therapeutic windows were estimated for coagulation factors, ranking them as targets for anticoagulant drugs. Thrombin and factor Xa have been revealed as the most promising targets, which fully agrees with the current drug development strategy. Inhibitors of factors Va and VIIa are expected to have narrow therapeutic windows. Inhibitors of factors VIIIa and IXa are expected to have a moderate anticoagulant effect. Factors XI and XII are poor targets for anticoagulant drugs. Compared with plasma that is deficient in factor II, the thrombin inhibitors bivalirudin and aptamer HD1 had increased activity. Both inhibitors were tested in deficient plasma providing a model of potential drug combination. The most promising combinations were anti-thrombin with anti-V/Va and also anti-thrombin with anti-IX/IXa. Each combination had an incremental dose-effect dependence that is promising from the standpoint of the therapeutic window.

  6. Electroconvulsive therapy and anticoagulation after pulmonary embolism: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Lazaro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is considered the most effective treatment for catatonia regardless its underlying condition. The rigid fixed posture and immobility observed in catatonia may lead to several clinical complications, of which, pulmonary embolism (PE is one of the most severe. The rapid improvement of the psychiatric condition in catatonia-related PE is essential, since immobility favors the occurrence of new thromboembolic events and further complications. In that scenario, ECT should be considered, based on a risk-benefit analysis, aiming at the faster resolution of the catatonia. Methods Case report and literature review. Results A 66-years-old woman admitted to the psychiatric ward with catatonia due to a depressive episode presented bilateral PE. Clinically stable, but still severely depressed after a trial of antidepressants, she was treated with ECT in the course of full anticoagulation with enoxaparin. After five ECT sessions, her mood was significantly better and she was walking and eating spontaneously. She did not present complications related either to PE or to anticoagulation. After the eighth ECT session, she evolved with hypomania, which was managed with oral medication adjustments. The patient was completely euthymic at discharge. Conclusion The case we presented provides further evidence to the anecdotal case reports on the safety of ECT in the course of concomitant full anticoagulant therapy after PE, and illustrates how, with the proper precautions, the benefits of ECT in such condition might outweigh its risks.

  7. Personalized prophylactic anticoagulation decision analysis in patients with membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taewoo; Biddle, Andrea K.; Lionaki, Sofia; Derebail, Vimal K.; Barbour, Sean J.; Tannous, Sameer; Hladunewich, Michelle A.; Hu, Yichun; Poulton, Caroline J.; Mahoney, Shannon L.; Jennette, J. Charles; Hogan, Susan L.; Falk, Ronald J.; Cattran, Daniel C.; Reich, Heather N.; Nachman, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Primary membranous nephropathy is associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolic events, which are inversely correlated with serum albumin levels. To evaluate the potential benefit of prophylactic anticoagulation (venous thromboembolic events prevented) relative to the risk (major bleeds), we constructed a Markov decision model. The venous thromboembolic event risk according to serum albumin was obtained from an inception cohort of 898 patients with primary membranous nephropathy. Risk estimates of hemorrhage were obtained from a systematic literature review. Benefit-to-risk ratios were predicted according to bleeding risk and serum albumin. This ratio increased with worsening hypoalbuminemia from 4.5:1 for an albumin under 3 g/dl to 13.1:1 for an albumin under 2 g/dl in patients at low bleeding risk. Patients at intermediate bleeding risk with an albumin under 2 g/dl have a moderately favorable benefit-to-risk ratio (under 5:1). Patients at high bleeding risk are unlikely to benefit from prophylactic anticoagulation regardless of albuminemia. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis, to account for uncertainty in risk estimates, confirmed these trends. From these data, we constructed a tool to estimate the likelihood of benefit based on an individual’s bleeding risk profile, serum albumin level, and acceptable benefit-to-risk ratio (http://www.gntools.com). This tool provides an approach to the decision of prophylactic anticoagulation personalized to the individual’s needs and adaptable to dynamic changes in health status and risk profile. PMID:24336031

  8. Selection of an aptamer antidote to the anticoagulant drug bivalirudin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Martin

    Full Text Available Adverse drug reactions, including severe patient bleeding, may occur following the administration of anticoagulant drugs. Bivalirudin is a synthetic anticoagulant drug sometimes employed as a substitute for heparin, a commonly used anticoagulant that can cause a condition called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT. Although bivalrudin has the advantage of not causing HIT, a major concern is lack of an antidote for this drug. In contrast, medical professionals can quickly reverse the effects of heparin using protamine. This report details the selection of an aptamer to bivalirudin that functions as an antidote in buffer. This was accomplished by immobilizing the drug on a monolithic column to partition binding sequences from nonbinding sequences using a low-pressure chromatography system and salt gradient elution. The elution profile of binding sequences was compared to that of a blank column (no drug, and fractions with a chromatographic difference were analyzed via real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction and used for further selection. Sequences were identified by 454 sequencing and demonstrated low micromolar dissociation constants through fluorescence anisotropy after only two rounds of selection. One aptamer, JPB5, displayed a dose-dependent reduction of the clotting time in buffer, with a 20 µM aptamer achieving a nearly complete antidote effect. This work is expected to result in a superior safety profile for bivalirudin, resulting in enhanced patient care.

  9. Optimal Anticoagulation for Pregnant Women with Mechanical Heart Valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Rohan; Silversides, Candice K; McLintock, Claire

    2016-10-01

    The prothrombotic state of pregnancy increases the risk of thromboembolic complications and death in women with mechanical heart valves (MHVs). Although it is accepted that these women must be on therapeutic anticoagulation throughout pregnancy, competing maternal and fetal risks, as well as the lack of high-quality data from prospective studies, make the choice of the optimal method of anticoagulation challenging. Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are associated with fewer maternal complications, but conversely also the lowest live birth rates as well as warfarin-related embryopathy and fetopathy. Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) does not cross the placenta and is associated with fewer fetal risks but more maternal complications. Sequential treatment involving VKAs in the second and third trimesters and either low-molecular-weight or unfractionated heparin in the first trimester, although appealing is still associated with maternal complications, especially around the time of bridging. As absolute equipoise of maternal versus fetal wellbeing is unlikely, patient preferences should be considered in decision making. A multidisciplinary team including hematologists, cardiologists, obstetric physicians, and high-risk obstetricians with expertise in the management of pregnant women with cardiac disease is required to optimize outcomes. Prospective studies are needed to determine the anticoagulant regimen for women with MHVs that provides optimal and acceptable maternal and fetal outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. The first reported case of resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to benzimidazole anthelmintic in goats in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickiewicz, Marcin; Czopowicz, Michał; Górski, Paweł; Kaba, Jarosław

    2017-01-01

    Fecal egg count reduction (FECR) test with albendazole and egg hatch test (EHT) with thiabendazole (TBZ) were performed in a dairy goat herd suspected of anthelmintic resistance to benzimidazoles. The herd had been regularly dewormed with fenbendazole for 5 previous years and despite that it remained infected with several species of gastrointestinal nematodes (Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Teladorsagia circumcincta, and Haemonchus contortus). Albendazole was administered per os at dose of 20 mg/kg to 10 goats (treated group), while 10 other goats remained untreated (control group). Fecal egg count (FEC) was determined using McMaster egg counting method before and 7 days after the treatment in the treated group, and once (at the latter moment) in the control group. EHT was performed on the pooled rectal sample collected from treated goats. EHT comprised the negative control and 7 consecutive concentrations of TBZ (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 μg/ml) according to the standard procedure. Two hundred eggs/larvae were counted to determine percentage of unhatched eggs, which was adjusted by the natural mortality. TBZ dose effective in preventing hatching of 50% of eggs (ED50) was determined using the log-probit transformation. Median FEC (range) before the treatment was 1000 (250–3450) epg in the treated group and dropped to 150 (50–500) epg after the treatment (p=0.005). Median FEC (range) after the treatment was also significantly lower in the treated than in control group (p=0.009), where it was 725 (0–5050) epg. FECR between the treated and control group was 81% (95% CI: 49%, 93%). FECR in the treated group was 83% and 74% based on average and individual approach, respectively. ED50 value of TBZ was 0.78 μg/ml. Only H. contortus persisted in the treated group after treatment. The results indicate resistance of H. contortus to a benzimidazole anthelmintic, which is the first such case reported in Polish goats.

  11. Utilization of composite fecal samples for detection of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Melissa M; Paras, Kelsey L; Howell, Sue B; Kaplan, Ray M

    2017-06-15

    Recent reports indicate that anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. Presently, the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the only means available for detection of resistance to anthelmintics in cattle herds at the farm level. However, the FECRT is labor and cost intensive, and consequently is only rarely performed on cattle farms unless for research purposes. If costs could be reduced, cattle producers might be more likely to pursue drug resistance testing on their farms. One approach to reducing the cost of the FECRT, is the use of composite fecal samples for performing fecal egg counts (FEC), rather than conducting FEC on fecal samples from 15 to 20 individual animals. In this study FECRT were performed on 14 groups of cattle using both individual and composite FEC methods To measure how well the results of composite sampling reproduce those of individual sampling, Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient was utilized to describe both the linear relationship between methods and the slope and y-intercept of the line relating the data sets. There was little difference between the approaches with 98% agreement in mean FEC found between methods Mean FEC based on individual counts ranged between 0 and 670.6 eggs per gram of feces, indicating that the results of this study are applicable to a wide range of FEC levels. Standard error of the mean FEC and range of FEC are reported for each group prior to and following treatment to describe the variability of the data set. There was greater than 95% agreement in drug efficacy between individual and composite sampling methods, demonstrating composite sampling is appropriate to evaluate drug efficacy. Notably, for all groups tested the efficacy calculated by composite sampling was within the 95% confidence interval for efficacy calculated using individual sampling. The use of composite samples was shown to reduce the number of FEC required by 79

  12. synthesis, physical characterization, antibacterial activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Cobalt (III) Schiff base complex, Thermodynamic parameters, Amines, Antibacterial activity. INTRODUCTION. For a long time tetradentate Schiff base complexes of transition metal ions have attracted many researchers interest in the field of coordination chemistry [1-4]. Though a large number of papers have ...

  13. Antibacterial activity of Ficus capensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... cholesterol levels and to boost immune system; it lowers high blood pressure and its oil has been seen to have antibacterial properties (Juurlink, 2001). .... extracts can sometimes change after fractionation and a pure component eventually obtained may lack the activity of the original extract. REFERENCES.

  14. Underuse of Anticoagulation in Older Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and CHADS2 Score ≥ 2: Are We Doing Better Since the Marketing of Direct Oral Anticoagulants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrard, Séverine; Vandenabeele, Caroline; Marien, Sophie; Boland, Benoit; Dalleur, Olivia

    2017-11-01

    Our objectives were to (1) describe the evolution of the underuse of anticoagulants in older people with atrial fibrillation (AF) and a CHADS 2 score ≥ 2 since direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) were introduced to the market and (2) describe factors associated with this underuse. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study including geriatric patients admitted during the pre-DOAC (2008-2011) and post-DOAC (2013-2015) periods in an academic hospital in Belgium. Five inclusion criteria were met: age ≥ 75 years, diagnosis of AF, indication for anticoagulation (CHADS 2 score ≥ 2), risk of functional decline (Identification of Seniors At Risk [ISAR] score ≥ 2), and comprehensive geriatric assessment. The use of anticoagulants and antiplatelets at home before admission was recorded. Risks of stroke and bleeding were calculated using CHADS 2 and HEMORR 2 HAGES scores, respectively. Three different logistic regression models were performed to describe the evolution of and factors associated with the underuse of anticoagulants after DOAC marketing. Anticoagulant underuse, present in 209 of 614 (34%) geriatric patients with AF, was lower in patients with a history of stroke (28.5%) or congestive heart failure (26.9%) but higher in those receiving antiplatelets (56.2%) and in older individuals. Anticoagulant underuse decreased significantly from the pre-DOAC (37.3%) to the post-DOAC (29.7%) era, as shown by two analyses using propensity scores. In older patients with AF, anticoagulant underuse was mainly associated with antiplatelet use. Anticoagulant underuse and antiplatelet use have both decreased since DOAC marketing. Underuse of anticoagulants was still a concern for three in ten geriatric patients with AF at high risk of stroke (CHADS 2 score ≥ 2).

  15. Treatment Changes among Users of Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants in Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Husted, Steen Elkjaer; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2016-01-01

    Patients with atrial fibrillation discontinuing anticoagulant therapy are left unprotected against ischaemic stroke. Further, switching between oral anticoagulants may be associated with a transiently increased risk of bleeding or thromboembolism. However, there is a paucity of real-life data...... on pattern of switching and discontinuation of oral anticoagulants. To address this, we conducted a nationwide drug utilization study including all registered Danish atrial fibrillation patients initiating a non-VKA oral anticoagulant (NOAC) between August 2011 and February 2016. We assessed changes...... in anticoagulant treatment, including switching between oral anticoagulants and discontinuation of NOACs, and explored patient characteristics predicting these changes. We identified 50,632 patients with atrial fibrillation initiating NOAC therapy within the study period. The majority initiated dabigatran (49...

  16. [Anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. leaves (Rutaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peneluc, Taíse; Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; de Almeida, Gisele Nunes; Ayres, Maria Consuelo Caribé; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Trindade; da Cruz, Ana Carla Ferreira; dos Santos Calmon de Bittencourt, Thereza Cristina Bório; de Almeida, Maria Angela Ornelas; Batatinha, Maria José Moreira

    2009-12-01

    The study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium leaves in two experiments. In vitro test, cultures of goat fecal samples were treated with different concentrations of extract (134.5 to 335.0 mg.mL(-1)). In vivo test was composed of 20 sheep: G1: treated with 0.63 g.kg(-1), during four days; G2: same dose, for eight days; G3: ivermectin (200 microg.kg(-1)) and G4 untreated group. In vitro results showed a reduction of Haemonchus spp, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. larvae greater than 95% in the concentrations between 335.0 and 193.7 mg.mL(-1). Faecal egg counting reduction was 51, 56 and 90% in G1, G2 and G3, respectively, while immature stages and adults ranged from 0 to 91% in G1 and from 26 to 94% in G2. Ivermectin effectiveness was 99% for L4 and L5 of H. contortus and 100% for other nematodes species. Clinical and biochemical parameters have remained in the normality and histophatologic analyses did not show alteration suggesting absence of toxicity. Although the great effectiveness of Z. rhoifolium leaves extract in vitro test, it displayed poor efficiency in vivo regarding gastrointestinal nematodes reduction.

  17. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís MATA-SANTOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL, lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL, β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL. The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds.

  18. The anthelmintic drug niclosamide induces apoptosis, impairs metastasis and reduces immunosuppressive cells in breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinghong Ye

    Full Text Available Breast carcinoma is the most common female cancer with considerable metastatic potential. Discovery of new therapeutic approaches for treatment of metastatic breast cancer is still needed. Here, we reported our finding with niclosamide, an FDA approved anthelmintic drug. The potency of niclosamide on breast cancer was assessed in vitro and in vivo. In this investigation, we found that niclosamide showed a dramatic growth inhibition against breast cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis of 4T1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Further, Western blot analysis demonstrated the occurrence of its apoptosis was associated with activation of Cleaved caspases-3, down-regulation of Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Survivin. Moreover, niclosamide blocked breast cancer cells migration and invasion, and the reduction of phosphorylated STAT3(Tyr705, phosphorylated FAK(Tyr925 and phosphorylated Src(Tyr416 were also observed. Furthermore, in our animal experiments, intraperitoneal administration of 20 mg/kg/d niclosamide suppressed 4T1 tumor growth without detectable toxicity. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed a decrease in Ki67-positive cells, VEGF-positive cells and microvessel density (MVD and an increase in Cleaved caspase-3-positive cells upon niclosamide. Notably, niclosamide reduced the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs in tumor tissues and blocked formation of pulmonary metastases. Taken together, these results demonstrated that niclosamide may be a promising candidate for breast cancer.

  19. The anthelmintic drug niclosamide induces apoptosis, impairs metastasis and reduces immunosuppressive cells in breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tinghong; Xiong, Ying; Yan, Yupeng; Xia, Yong; Song, Xuejiao; Liu, Li; Li, Deliang; Wang, Ningyu; Zhang, Lidan; Zhu, Yongxia; Zeng, Jun; Wei, Yuquan; Yu, Luoting

    2014-01-01

    Breast carcinoma is the most common female cancer with considerable metastatic potential. Discovery of new therapeutic approaches for treatment of metastatic breast cancer is still needed. Here, we reported our finding with niclosamide, an FDA approved anthelmintic drug. The potency of niclosamide on breast cancer was assessed in vitro and in vivo. In this investigation, we found that niclosamide showed a dramatic growth inhibition against breast cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis of 4T1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Further, Western blot analysis demonstrated the occurrence of its apoptosis was associated with activation of Cleaved caspases-3, down-regulation of Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and Survivin. Moreover, niclosamide blocked breast cancer cells migration and invasion, and the reduction of phosphorylated STAT3(Tyr705), phosphorylated FAK(Tyr925) and phosphorylated Src(Tyr416) were also observed. Furthermore, in our animal experiments, intraperitoneal administration of 20 mg/kg/d niclosamide suppressed 4T1 tumor growth without detectable toxicity. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed a decrease in Ki67-positive cells, VEGF-positive cells and microvessel density (MVD) and an increase in Cleaved caspase-3-positive cells upon niclosamide. Notably, niclosamide reduced the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in tumor tissues and blocked formation of pulmonary metastases. Taken together, these results demonstrated that niclosamide may be a promising candidate for breast cancer.

  20. Anthelmintic Treatment Does Not Change Foraging Strategies of Female Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus.

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    Jemma K Cripps

    Full Text Available Large mammalian herbivores are commonly infected with gastrointestinal helminths. Heavily parasitised hosts are likely to have increased nutritional requirements and would be predicted to increase their food intake to compensate for costs of being parasitised, but experimental tests of the impacts of these parasites on the foraging efficiency of hosts are lacking, particularly in free-ranging wildlife. We conducted a field experiment on a population of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus to test this prediction, removing nematodes from one group of adult females using an anthelmintic treatment. We then carried out observations before and following treatment to assess the influence of parasites on foraging behaviour. Contrary to our predictions, the manipulation of parasite burdens did not result in changes in any of the key foraging variables we measured. Our results suggest that despite carrying large burdens of gastrointestinal parasites, the foraging strategy of female kangaroos is likely be driven by factors unrelated to parasitism, and that kangaroos in high nutritional environments may be able acquire sufficient nutrients to offset the costs of parasitism. We conclude that the drivers of forage intake likely differ between domesticated and free-ranging herbivores, and that free-ranging hosts are likely more resilient to parasitism.

  1. Anthelmintic Treatment Does Not Change Foraging Strategies of Female Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Jemma K; Martin, Jennifer K; Coulson, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Large mammalian herbivores are commonly infected with gastrointestinal helminths. Heavily parasitised hosts are likely to have increased nutritional requirements and would be predicted to increase their food intake to compensate for costs of being parasitised, but experimental tests of the impacts of these parasites on the foraging efficiency of hosts are lacking, particularly in free-ranging wildlife. We conducted a field experiment on a population of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) to test this prediction, removing nematodes from one group of adult females using an anthelmintic treatment. We then carried out observations before and following treatment to assess the influence of parasites on foraging behaviour. Contrary to our predictions, the manipulation of parasite burdens did not result in changes in any of the key foraging variables we measured. Our results suggest that despite carrying large burdens of gastrointestinal parasites, the foraging strategy of female kangaroos is likely be driven by factors unrelated to parasitism, and that kangaroos in high nutritional environments may be able acquire sufficient nutrients to offset the costs of parasitism. We conclude that the drivers of forage intake likely differ between domesticated and free-ranging herbivores, and that free-ranging hosts are likely more resilient to parasitism.

  2. Risk factors for anthelmintic resistance development in cattle gastrointestinal nematodes in Argentina

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    Víctor Humberto Suarez

    Full Text Available Risk factors for anthelmintic resistance (AR on bovine ranches were studied. Data were derived from a survey made to 50 ranch owners, who had conducted a faecal egg-count-reduction test. The questionnaire contained descriptors of bovine ranch management and nematode control. A case-control design study was undertaken and AR cases were present in 26 herds. Associations between the binary outcome variable (AR versus not AR and risk factors recorded in the questionnaire were evaluated. Variables associated with the presence of AR at P 2 were subjected to a multivariable logistic regression model. The main effects contributing to general AR (avermectin AVM and/or benzimidazole in the final model were total number of annual treatments (OR 7.68; 95% CI 2.4 to 28.3 and use of more than 75% of AVM in the past (OR= 18.6; 95% CI 1.3 to 97.3, whereas for AVM resistance alone were total number of AVM annual treatments (OR= 11.5; 95% CI 2.9 to 45.5 and number of AVM Nov-Jan treatments (OR= 5.8; 95% CI 1.71 to 47.9. The results showed that treatment frequency, date of treatment and frequency of treatment in the past with a single drug were the main risk factors involved in AR development.

  3. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LAPACHOL, β-LAPACHONE AND ITS DERIVATIVES AGAINST Toxocara canis LARVAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Santos, Taís; Pinto, Nitza França; Mata-Santos, Hilton Antônio; De Moura, Kelly Gallan; Carneiro, Paula Fernandes; Carvalho, Tatiane Dos Santos; Del Rio, Karina Pena; Pinto, Maria do Carmo Freire Ribeiro; Martins, Lourdes Rodrigues; Fenalti, Juliana Montelli; Da Silva, Pedro Eduardo Almeida; Scaini, Carlos James

    2015-01-01

    Anthelmintics used for intestinal helminthiasis treatment are generally effective; however, their effectiveness in tissue parasitosis (i.e. visceral toxocariasis) is moderate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of lapachol, β-lapachone and phenazines in relation to the viability of Toxocara canis larvae. A concentration of 2 mg/mL (in duplicate) of the compounds was tested using microculture plates containing Toxocara canis larvae in an RPMI-1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 hours. In the 2 mg/mL concentration, four phenazines, lapachol and three of its derivatives presented a larvicide/larvistatic activity of 100%. Then, the minimum larvicide/larvistatic concentration (MLC) test was conducted. The compounds that presented the best results were nor-lapachol (MLC, 1 mg/mL), lapachol (MLC 0.5 mg/mL), β-lapachone, and β-C-allyl-lawsone (MLC, 0.25 mg/mL). The larvae exposed to the compounds, at best MLC with 100% in vitro activity larvicide, were inoculated into healthy BALB/c mice and were not capable of causing infection, confirming the larvicide potential in vitro of these compounds.

  4. Anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds on Hymenolepis diminuta infections in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapaat, A; Satrija, F; Mahsol, H H; Ahmad, A H

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to see the anthelmintic activity potential of papaya seeds against Hymenolepis diminuta in rats. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the effectiveness of papaya seeds on helminths especially H. diminuta in rats and (2) to determine the effective dose level on helminths in rats. Thirty six male rats from strain Sprague-Dawley were chosen as samples in this experiment. Two types of dose level were used for papaya seeds treatments such as 0.6 g kg-1 and 1.2 g kg-1. The geometric mean (GEM) was used to calculate mean for eggs per gram (EPG) before and after the treatment to be included in the reduction percentage calculation. After 21 days post treatment, necropsies were done to get the worm count and the GEM was used to calculate the efficacy percentage for the treatment. Results from this study showed that the reduction percentages in EPG for papaya seeds treatment for both doses level were very high which is 96.8% for 0.6g kg-1 dose level and 96.2% for 1.2 g kg-1 dose level. Whereas the efficacy percentage based on the worm counts for both doses level were also very high that was 90.77% for 0.6 g kg-1 dose level and 93.85% for 1.2 g kg-1.

  5. WIPO Re:Search: Accelerating anthelmintic development through cross-sector partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa Ramamoorthi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs, malaria, and tuberculosis have a devastating effect on an estimated 1.6 billion people worldwide. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO Re:Search consortium accelerates the development of new drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics for these diseases by connecting the assets and resources of pharmaceutical companies, such as compound libraries and expertise, to academic or nonprofit researchers with novel product discovery or development ideas. As the WIPO Re:Search Partnership Hub Administrator, BIO Ventures for Global Health (BVGH fields requests from researchers, identifies Member organizations able to fulfill these requests, and helps forge mutually beneficial collaborations. Since its inception in October 2011, WIPO Re:Search membership has expanded to more than 90 institutions, including leading pharmaceutical companies, universities, nonprofit research institutions, and product development partnerships from around the world. To date, WIPO Re:Search has facilitated over 70 research agreements between Consortium Members, including 11 collaborations focused on anthelmintic drug discovery.

  6. Anthelmintic effect of thymol and thymol acetate on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes and their toxicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibson Paz Pinheiro André

    Full Text Available Abstract Thymol is a monoterpene and acetylation form of this compound can reduce the toxicity and enhance its biological effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of thymol and thymol acetate (TA on egg, larva and adult Haemonchus contortus and the cuticular changes, acute toxicity in mice and the efficacy on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. In vitro tests results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA and followed by comparison with Tukey test or Bonferroni. The efficacy of in vivo test was calculated by the BootStreet program. In the egg hatch test (EHT, thymol (0.5 mg/mL and TA (4 mg/mL inhibited larval hatching by 98% and 67.1%, respectively. Thymol and TA (8 mg/mL inhibited 100% of larval development. Thymol and TA (800 µg/mL reduced the motility of adult worms, by 100% and 83.4%, respectively. Thymol caused cuticular changes in adult worm teguments. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 of thymol and TA were 1,350.9 mg/kg and 4,144.4 mg/kg, respectively. Thymol and TA reduced sheep egg count per gram of faeces (epg by 59.8% and 76.2%, respectively. In in vitro tests thymol presented better anthelmintic activity than TA. However TA was less toxic and in in vivo test efficacy was similar.

  7. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products with emphasis on anthelmintics in human sanitary waste, sewage, hospital wastewater, livestock wastewater and receiving water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Hee-Young; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2013-03-15

    We investigated 33 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) with emphasis on anthelmintics and their metabolites in human sanitary waste treatment plants (HTPs), sewage treatment plants (STPs), hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWTPs), livestock wastewater treatment plants (LWTPs), river water and seawater. PPCPs showed the characteristic specific occurrence patterns according to wastewater sources. The LWTPs and HTPs showed higher levels (maximum 3000 times in influents) of anthelmintics than other wastewater treatment plants, indicating that livestock wastewater and human sanitary waste are one of principal sources of anthelmintics. Among anthelmintics, fenbendazole and its metabolites are relatively high in the LWTPs, while human anthelmintics such as albendazole and flubendazole are most dominant in the HTPs, STPs and HWTPs. The occurrence pattern of fenbendazole's metabolites in water was different from pharmacokinetics studies, showing the possibility of transformation mechanism other than the metabolism in animal bodies by some processes unknown to us. The river water and seawater are generally affected by the point sources, but the distribution patterns in some receiving water are slightly different from the effluent, indicating the influence of non-point sources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. New anticoagulants: how to deal with treatment failure and bleeding complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmi, Rashid S; Lwaleed, Bashir A

    2011-10-01

    Conventional anticoagulants have proven efficacy in the management of thromboembolism. Their adverse effects and a narrow therapeutic window, necessitating regular need for monitoring, however, have long been an incentive for the development of safer anticoagulants without compromising efficacy. Over the last decade or so several new parenteral and oral anticoagulants have been launched with efficacy comparable with conventional agents. From fondaparinux to its long acting derivative idraparinux, and the factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban to the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran, the advent of new anticoagulants is radically changing anticoagulation. For conventional anticoagulants, despite their shortcomings, effective methods of reversing their anticoagulant effects exist. Moreover, strategies to deal with the occurrence of fresh thrombotic events in the face of therapeutic anticoagulation with the conventional agents have also been addressed. Nevertheless, for the new anticoagulants, the optimal management of these complications remains unknown. This review explores these issues in the light of current evidence. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Abnormal uterine bleeding in women receiving direct oral anticoagulants for the treatment of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Richard; Marcoux, Violaine; Tagalakis, Vicky

    2017-08-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common complication of anticoagulant therapy in premenopausal women affected with acute venous thromboembolism. AUB impacts quality of life, and can lead to premature cessation of anticoagulation. There is increasing data to suggest that the direct oral anticoagulants when used for the treatment of venous thromboembolism differ in their menstrual bleeding profile. This article aims to review the existing literature regarding the association between AUB and the direct oral anticoagulants and make practical recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Major cerebral events in Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis: is anticoagulant therapy safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Olaison, Lars

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the impact of anticoagulation on major cerebral events in patients with left-sided Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE). METHODS: A prospective cohort study; the use of anticoagulation and the relation to major cerebral events was evaluated separately at onset......-19%), and cerebral haemorrhage in 5 patients (3%; 95% CI: 0.5-6%). Patients receiving anticoagulation were less likely to have experienced a major cerebral event at the time of admission (15%) compared with those without anticoagulation (37%, p = 0.009; adjusted OR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.075-0.96; p = 0.04). In...

  11. Postoperative anticoagulation in patients with mechanical heart valves following surgical treatment of subdural hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Anubhav G; Ng, Julie; Hsu, Wesley; Pradilla, Gustavo; Raza, Shaan; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Lim, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Thromboembolic events and anticoagulation-associated bleeding events represent frequent complications following cardiac mechanical valve replacement. Management guidelines regarding the timing for resuming anticoagulation therapy following a surgically treated subdural hematoma (SDH) in patients with mechanical valves remains to be determined. To determine optimal anticoagulation management in patients with mechanical heart valves following treatment of SDH. Outcomes were retrospectively reviewed for 12 patients on anticoagulation therapy for thromboembolic prophylaxis for mechanical cardiac valves who underwent surgical intervention for a SDH at the Johns Hopkins Hospital between 1995 and 2010. The mean age at admission was 71 years. All patients had St. Jude's mechanical heart valves and were receiving anticoagulation therapy. All patients had their anticoagulation reversed with vitamin K and fresh frozen plasma and underwent surgical evacuation. Anticoagulation was withheld for a mean of 14 days upon admission and a mean of 9 days postoperatively. The average length of stay was 19 days. No deaths or thromboembolic events occurred during the hospitalization. Average follow-up time was 50 months, during which two patients had a recurrent SDH. No other associated morbidities occurred during follow-up. Interruptions in anticoagulation therapy for up to 3 weeks pose minimal thromboembolic risk in patients with mechanical heart valves. Close follow-up after discharge is highly recommended, as recurrent hemorrhages can occur several weeks after the resumption of anticoagulation.

  12. Patients' knowledge on oral anticoagulant treatment in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Reka; Fekete, Helga; Csoka, Ildiko

    2017-12-01

    Background A key element for an effective and safe oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT) is to have the relevant information delivered to patients in an easy-to-understand way and thus have them apply this knowledge in their own therapy. Objective To assess knowledge about OAT, reveal knowledge gaps and identify at-risk patients in terms of limited knowledge about their anticoagulant therapy. Setting Community pharmacies in Hungary. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study used a structured, validated, self-developed questionnaire to assess patients' knowledge about OAT. Scores were calculated on each domain and the association between knowledge and patients' or treatment characteristics were analysed. Responses in all domains were assessed to identify at-risk patients and knowledge gaps. Main outcome measures Knowledge and knowledge gaps on OAT, and risk factors for limited knowledge. Results The questionnaire developed based on four validated questionnaires passed the field test and had a good internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.795). Our full patient population (N = 427) had a mean percentage score of 59.39 (29.7% good, 41.2% average, 29.0% poor knowledge on OAT). Poor knowledge level was found to significantly correlate with advanced age (> 75 years), lower education, diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, and unawareness of the indication of OAT. The lowest frequency of correct answers regarded the questions on drug interactions (10.2%) and diet (11.4%). Pharmacists were infrequently indicated as the healthcare professionals to share information with regarding OAT (12.7%). Conclusion Findings of our study offer a valuable insight into the required directions of developing new strategies for patient education to improve knowledge on the treatment with oral anticoagulants.

  13. Management of anticoagulation in hip fractures: A pragmatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, Rafik; Khalfaoui, Mahdi Yacine; Hujazi, Ihab; Sevenoaks, Hannah; Dunkow, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Hip fractures are common and increasing with an ageing population. In the United Kingdom, the national guidelines recommend operative intervention within 36 hours of diagnosis. However, long-term anticoagulant treatment is frequently encountered in these patients which can delay surgical intervention. Despite this, there are no set national standards for management of drug-induced coagulopathy pre-operatively in the context of hip fractures.The aim of this study was to evaluate the management protocols available in the current literature for the commonly encountered coagulopathy-inducing agents.We reviewed the current literature, identified the reversal agents used in coagulopathy management and assessed the evidence to determine the optimal timing, doses and routes of administration.Warfarin and other vitamin K antagonists (VKA) can be reversed effectively using vitamin K with a dose in the range of 2 mg to 10 mg intravenously to correct coagulopathy.The role of fresh frozen plasma is not clear from the current evidence while prothrombin complex remains a reliable and safe method for immediate reversal of VKA-induced coagulopathy in hip fracture surgery or failed vitamin K treatment reversal.The literature suggests that surgery should not be delayed in patients on classical antiplatelet medications (aspirin or clopidogrel), but spinal or regional anaesthetic methods should be avoided for the latter. However, evidence regarding the use of more novel antiplatelet medications (e.g. ticagrelor) and direct oral anticoagulants remains a largely unexplored area in the context of hip fracture surgery. We suggest treatment protocols based on best available evidence and guidance from allied specialties.Hip fracture surgery presents a common management dilemma where semi-urgent surgery is required. In this article, we advocate an evidence-based algorithm as a guide for managing these anticoagulated patients. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:394-402. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160083.

  14. Anticoagulation in heart failure: current status and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiade, Mihai; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Fonarow, Gregg C; Greene, Stephen J; Greenberg, Barry H; Liu, Peter P; Massie, Barry M; Mehra, Mandeep R; Metra, Marco; Zannad, Faiez; Cleland, John G F; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Shah, Ami N; Butler, Javed

    2013-11-01

    Despite therapeutic advances, patients with worsening heart failure (HF) requiring hospitalization have unacceptably high post-discharge mortality and re-admission rates soon after discharge. Evidence suggests a hypercoagulable state is present in patients with HF. Although thromboembolism as a direct consequence of HF is not frequently clinically recognized, it may contribute to mortality and morbidity. Additionally, many patients with HF have concomitant disorders conferring additional thrombotic risk, including atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), a known consequence of coronary thrombosis, is a common precipitating factor for worsening HF. Coronary thrombosis may also cause sudden death in patients with HF and CAD. Because data are largely derived from observational studies or trials of modest size, guideline recommendations on anticoagulation for HF vary between organizations. The recently presented Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction trial of HF patients in sinus rhythm suggested anticoagulation reduces the risk of stroke, although rates of the combined primary endpoint (death, ischemic stroke, or intracerebral hemorrhage) were similar for acetylsalicylic acid and warfarin. Newer oral anticoagulants dabigatran, apixaban, and rivaroxaban have successfully completed trials for the prevention of stroke in patients with AF and have shown benefits in the subpopulation of patients with concomitant HF. Positive results of the Anti-Xa Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events in Addition to Standard Therapy in Subjects with Acute Coronary Syndrome-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 51 (ATLAS ACS 2-TIMI 51) trial of rivaroxaban in ACS are also encouraging. These data suggest there is a need to assess the potential role for these newer agents in the management of patients hospitalized for HF who continue to have a high post-discharge event rate despite available therapies.

  15. Anticoagulant Effect of Sugammadex: Just an In Vitro Artifact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkmann, Daniel; Britten, Martin W; Pauling, Henning; Weidle, Juliane; Volbracht, Lothar; Görlinger, Klaus; Peters, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Sugammadex prolongs activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) suggestive of anticoagulant effects. To pinpoint its presumed anticoagulant site of action, the authors assessed Sugammadex's impact on a panel of coagulation assays. Sugammadex, Rocuronium, Sugammadex and Rocuronium combined, or saline were added to blood samples from healthy volunteers and analyzed using plasmatic (i.e., aPTT, thrombin time, and fibrinogen concentration) (n = 8 each), PT (quick), activities of plasmatic coagulation factors, and whole blood (extrinsically and intrinsically activated thromboelastometry) assays (n = 18 each). Furthermore, dose-dependent effects of Sugammadex were also assessed (n = 18 each) in diluted Russel viper venom time (DRVVT) assays with low (DRVVT1) and high (DRVVT2) phospholipid concentrations and in a highly phospholipid-sensitive aPTT assay. Sugammadex increased PT (+9.1%; P IX, XI, and XII decreased (-7%, P = 0.009; -7.8%, P < 0.0001; -6.9%, P < 0.0001; and -4.3%, P = 0.011, respectively). Sugammadex dose-dependently prolonged both DRVVT1 and the highly phospholipid-sensitive aPTT assays, but additional phospholipids in the DRVVT2 assay almost abolished these prolongations. Thrombin time, a thromboelastometric thrombin generation assay, clot firmness, clot lysis, fibrinogen concentration, and activities of other coagulation factors were unaltered. Rocuronium, Sugammadex and Rocuronium combined, and saline exerted no effects. Sugammadex significantly affects various coagulation assays, but this is explainable by an apparent phospholipid-binding effect, suggesting that Sugammadex`s anticoagulant effects are likely an in vitro artifact.

  16. Increased use of oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadsbøll, Kasper; Staerk, Laila; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to examine temporal trends in the use oral anticoagulants (OAC) as stroke prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and to examine factors associated with OAC initiation. Methods and results From Danish nationwide registries, we identified patients diagnosed...... initiation rates increased (P age > 75 years and high risk of stroke). The increased OAC...... initiation was accompanied by introduction and increased uptake of the NOACs. By the end of the study, NOACs accounted for 72.5% of all OACs prescribed in newly diagnosed AF patients. OAC initiation was associated with male gender, age 65-74 years, few comorbidities and increased risk of stroke. Conclusion...

  17. Direct Oral Anticoagulant Drugs in Dental Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasko J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The direct oral anticoagulant drugs (DOAC are generally safe and effective in several clinical settings including acute venous thromboembolic disease, prophylaxis in the postoperative setting, prevention of thromboembolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, and in the management of acute coronary syndrome. The relatively short half-life, rapid onset of action, and predictable pharmacokinetics should simplify periprocedural use of the DOAC. The aim of this work is to propose and summarize periprocedural management of patients treated with the DOAC in dental practice and to inform about the principal specifications of this treatment.

  18. Novel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Dobreanu, Dan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to assess clinical practice in relation to stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF), particularly into the use of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for stroke prevention, among members of the EHRA electrophysiology (EP......) research network. In this EP Wire survey, we have provided some insights into current practice in Europe for the use of NOACs for stroke prevention in AF. There were clear practice differences evident, and also the need for greater adherence to the guidelines, especially since guideline adherent management...

  19. Anthelmintic effect of plant extracts containing condensed and hydrolyzable tannins on Caenorhabditis elegans, and their antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiki, Luciana M; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Gonzalez, Javier M; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S; Chagas, Ana Carolina S; Amarante, Alessandro F T

    2013-02-18

    Although tannin-rich forages are known to increase protein uptake and to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infections in grazing ruminants, most published research involves forages with condensed tannins (CT), while published literature lacks information on the anthelmintic capacity, nutritional benefits, and antioxidant capacity of alternative forages containing hydrolyzable tannins (HT). We evaluated the anthelmintic activity and the antioxidant capacity of plant extracts containing either mostly CT, mostly HT, or both CT and HT. Extracts were prepared with 70% acetone, lyophilized, redissolved to doses ranging from 1.0mg/mL to 25mg/mL, and tested against adult Caenorhabditis elegans as a test model. The extract concentrations that killed 50% (LC(50)) or 90% (LC(90)) of the nematodes in 24h were determined and compared to the veterinary anthelmintic levamisole (8 mg/mL). Extracts were quantified for CT by the acid butanol assay, for HT (based on gallic acid and ellagic acid) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and total phenolics, and for their antioxidant activity by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Extracts with mostly CT were Lespedeza cuneata, Salix X sepulcralis, and Robinia pseudoacacia. Extracts rich in HT were Acer rubrum, Rosa multiflora, and Quercus alba, while Rhus typhina had both HT and CT. The extracts with the lowest LC(50) and LC(90) concentrations, respectively, in the C. elegans assay were Q. alba (0.75 and 1.06 mg/mL), R. typhina collected in 2007 (0.65 and 2.74 mg/mL), A. rubrum (1.03 and 5.54 mg/mL), and R. multiflora (2.14 and 8.70 mg/mL). At the doses of 20 and 25mg/mL, HT-rich, or both CT- and HT-rich, extracts were significantly more lethal to adult C. elegans than extracts containing only CT. All extracts were high in antioxidant capacity, with ORAC values ranging from 1800 μmoles to 4651 μmoles of trolox equivalents/g, but ORAC did not correlate with anthelmintic activity. The total phenolics test had a

  20. Anticoagulants Influence the Performance of In Vitro Assays Intended for Characterization of Nanotechnology-Based Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedrone, Edward; Neun, Barry W; Rodriguez, Jamie; Vermilya, Alison; Clogston, Jeffrey D; McNeil, Scott E; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Szebeni, Janos; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A

    2017-12-21

    The preclinical safety assessment of novel nanotechnology-based drug products frequently relies on in vitro assays, especially during the early stages of product development, due to the limited quantities of nanomaterials available for such studies. The majority of immunological tests require donor blood. To enable such tests one has to prevent the blood from coagulating, which is usually achieved by the addition of an anticoagulant into blood collection tubes. Heparin, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and citrate are the most commonly used anticoagulants. Novel anticoagulants such as hirudin are also available but are not broadly used. Despite the notion that certain anticoagulants may influence assay performance, a systematic comparison between traditional and novel anticoagulants in the in vitro assays intended for immunological characterization of nanotechnology-based formulations is currently not available. We compared hirudin-anticoagulated blood with its traditional counterparts in the standardized immunological assay cascade, and found that the type of anticoagulant did not influence the performance of the hemolysis assay. However, hirudin was more optimal for the complement activation and leukocyte proliferation assays, while traditional anticoagulants citrate and heparin were more appropriate for the coagulation and cytokine secretion assays. The results also suggest that traditional immunological controls such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS ) are not reliable for understanding the role of anticoagulant in the assay performance. We observed differences in the test results between hirudin and traditional anticoagulant-prepared blood for nanomaterials at the time when no such effects were seen with traditional controls. It is, therefore, important to recognize the advantages and limitations of each anticoagulant and consider individual nanoparticles on a case-by-case basis.

  1. Anticoagulation Quality and Complications of using Vitamin K Antagonists in the Cardiac Surgery Outpatient Clinic

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    Mário Augusto Cray da Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: In patients with mechanical prosthetic heart valves or atrial fibrillation requiring anticoagulation to prevent thromboembolic events, several factors influence adherence and anticoagulation complications. Objective: To evaluate the factors that interfere with the quality and complications of anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 100 patients, in the period from 2011 to 2014, was performed. Anticoagulation conditions in the last year, regarding the presence of complications (embolisms/bleeding and inadequate treatment were assessed: achievement of less than 8 annual prothrombin times and International Normalized Ratio outside therapeutic target in more than 40% of prothrombin times. Results: There were 31 complications (22 minor bleeding without hospitalization and 9 major complications: 7 bleeding with hospitalization and two emboli; 70 were with International Normalized Ratio outside the target in more than 40% of the tests and 36 with insufficient number of prothrombin times. Socioeconomic factors, anticoagulant type and anticoagulation reason had no relationship with complications or with inadequate treatment. There were more complications in patients with longer duration of anticoagulation (P=0.001. Women had more International Normalized Ratio outside the target range (OR 2.61, CI:1.0-6.5; P=0.04. Patients with lower number of annual prothrombin times had longer times of anticoagulation (P=0.03, less annual consultations (P=0.02 and less dose adjustments (P=0.003. Patients with longer duration of anticoagulation have more complications (P=0.001. Conclusion: There was a high rate of major complications and International Normalized Ratio was outside the goal. Less annual prothrombin times was related to longer duration of anticoagulation, less annual consultations and less dose adjustments. More major complications occurred in patients with longer duration of

  2. Anticoagulants Influence the Performance of In Vitro Assays Intended for Characterization of Nanotechnology-Based Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Cedrone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The preclinical safety assessment of novel nanotechnology-based drug products frequently relies on in vitro assays, especially during the early stages of product development, due to the limited quantities of nanomaterials available for such studies. The majority of immunological tests require donor blood. To enable such tests one has to prevent the blood from coagulating, which is usually achieved by the addition of an anticoagulant into blood collection tubes. Heparin, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, and citrate are the most commonly used anticoagulants. Novel anticoagulants such as hirudin are also available but are not broadly used. Despite the notion that certain anticoagulants may influence assay performance, a systematic comparison between traditional and novel anticoagulants in the in vitro assays intended for immunological characterization of nanotechnology-based formulations is currently not available. We compared hirudin-anticoagulated blood with its traditional counterparts in the standardized immunological assay cascade, and found that the type of anticoagulant did not influence the performance of the hemolysis assay. However, hirudin was more optimal for the complement activation and leukocyte proliferation assays, while traditional anticoagulants citrate and heparin were more appropriate for the coagulation and cytokine secretion assays. The results also suggest that traditional immunological controls such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS are not reliable for understanding the role of anticoagulant in the assay performance. We observed differences in the test results between hirudin and traditional anticoagulant-prepared blood for nanomaterials at the time when no such effects were seen with traditional controls. It is, therefore, important to recognize the advantages and limitations of each anticoagulant and consider individual nanoparticles on a case-by-case basis.

  3. Modified Silica Nanofibers with Antibacterial Activity

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    Ivana Veverková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on development of functionalized inorganic-organic nanofibrous material with antibacterial activity for wound dressing applications. The nanofibers combining poly(vinyl alcohol and silica were produced by electrospinning from the sol and thermally stabilized. The PVA/silica nanofibers surface was functionalized by silver and copper nanoparticles to ensure antibacterial activity. It was proven that quantity of adsorbed silver and copper nanoparticles depends on process time of adsorption. According to antibacterial tests results, this novel nanofibrous material shows a big potential for wound dressing applications due to its significant antibacterial efficiency.

  4. Anthelmintic effect of Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta on wild-type and Levamisole-resistant Caenorhabditis elegans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Vázquez, Denia M; Mayoral-Peña, Zyanya; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Arellano-Carbajal, Fausto

    2017-04-18

    Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta have been used traditionally to treat gastrointestinal parasites, but their active metabolites and mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. To evaluate the anthelmintic potential of Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta extracts on Levamisole-sensitive and Levamisole-resistant strains of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Aqueous extracts of Psidium guajava (PGE) and Tagetes erecta (TEE) were assayed on locomotion and egg-laying behaviors of the wild-type (N2) and Levamisole-resistant (CB193) strains of Caenorhabditis elegans. Both extracts paralyzed wild-type and Levamisole-resistant nematodes in a dose-dependent manner. In wild-type worms, TEE 25mg/mL induced a 75% paralysis after 8h of treatment and PGE 25mg/mL induced a 100% paralysis after 4h of treatment. PGE exerted a similar paralyzing effect on N2 wild-type and CB193 Levamisole-resistant worms, while TEE only partially paralyzed CB193 worms. TEE 25mg/mL decreased N2 egg-laying by 65% with respect to the untreated control, while PGE did it by 40%. Psidium guajava leaves and Tagetes erecta flower-heads possess hydrosoluble compounds that block the motility of Caenorhabditis elegans by a mechanism different to that of the anthelmintic drug Levamisole. Effects are also observable on oviposition, which was diminished in the wild-type worms. The strong anthelmintic effects in crude extracts of these plants warrants future work to identify their active compounds and to elucidate their molecular mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro screening of plant lectins and tropical plant extracts for anthelmintic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-de Álvarez, L; Jackson, F; Greer, A; Bartley, Y; Bartley, D J; Grant, G; Huntley, J F

    2012-05-25

    Lectins are plant secondary metabolites (PSM) found in many forages and which may confer anthelmintic properties to gastrointestinal parasites through disrupting the development of parasitic larvae throughout its life cycle. In experiment 1, the ability of the plant lectins jacalin (JAC), concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin E2L2 (PHA-E2L2), phytohemagglutinin L4 (PHA-L4), phytohemagglutinin E3L (PHA-E3L), kidney bean albumin (KBA), Robinia pseudoacacia agglutinin (RPA), Maackia amurensis lectin (MAA), Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MAA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) to disrupt the feeding of the first stage larvae (L(1)) of the sheep gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis was investigated using a larval feeding inhibition test (LFIT). Only PHA-E3L, WGA and Con A had a potent effect on disrupting larval feeding of all of the three species of GIN investigated. The lectin concentration required to inhibit feeding in 50% of L(1) (IC50) was 7.3±1.2, 8.3±1.4 and 4.3±1.7 μg/ml for PHA-E3L; 59.1±32.4, 58.7±11.9 and 8.1±7.0 μg/ml for Con A and 78.9±11.2, 69.4±8.1 and 28.0±14.1 μg/ml for WGA for T. circumcincta, H. contortus and T. colubriformis larvae, respectively (P=0.006). The addition of the lectin inhibitors fetuin, glucose/mannose or N-acetylglucosamine for PHA-E3L, Con A and WGA, respectively, caused an increase in the proportion of larvae that had fed at all concentrations for PHA-E3L only. In experiment 2, the effect of extracts from the tropical plants Azadiractha indica, Trichanthera gigantea, Morus alba, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala on the feeding behaviour of H. contortus L(1,) was examined. A. indica, T. gigantea and M. alba failed to inhibit 50% of larvae from feeding at concentrations up to 10mg plant extract per ml. In contrast, both G. sepium and L. leucocephala demonstrated

  6. BETLE LEAF ESSENTIAL OIL FOR HEMOPHILIAC PATIENTS AND ITS ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS ON MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Hari Sucipto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Betle leaf (Piper betle L. is a medicinal plant. It contains essential oil and shows various biological activities, such as antibacterial, anticoagulant, etc. It is further reported to have low anticoagulant activities; thus, it is highly potential as a candidate for coagulant drug. Coagulant is used to prevent bleeding for patients with blood clotting disorders like hemophilia. In Indonesia, 1,236 people were reported with hemophilia. The standard parameters of anticoagulant activity are the freezing period and the compound concentrations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of betle leaf’s essential oil on blood coagulation in patients with factor VIII and IX of blood plasma disorders. The isolation of essential oil is conducted through steam distillation method with two kinds of solvents, namely distilled water and n-hexane. The obtained n-hexane extract is then separated from the liquid-liquid extraction and rotary evaporator. Essential oil is diluted with citrate plasma solution. The test results of blood clots increase as the concentration of essential oils increase. The results are recorded as such: essential oils ½ times dilution of 99.67 seconds; ¼ times dilution of 127 seconds; 1/8 times dilution of 179 seconds; and 1/16 times dilution of 242.67 seconds. The test above proves that the piper betle extract possesses a coagulant activity. The ethanol extract contained in the piper betle could stimulate clotting in the blood cells. It is caused by the increase of blood plasma concentration which further escalate the plasma fluid into the blood cells. Based on this study, the activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be obstructed by betle leaf in ½ times dilution. The extract significantly reduces acid which accelerates bacteria development.

  7. Heterologous Expression in Remodeled C. elegans: A Platform for Monoaminergic Agonist Identification and Anthelmintic Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Law

    2015-04-01

    the identification of ligands for a host of potential anthelmintic targets.

  8. Electrochemical and DFT study of an anticancer and active anthelmintic drug at carbon nanostructured modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalkhani, Masoumeh; Beheshtian, Javad; Salehi, Maryam

    2016-12-01

    The electrochemical response of mebendazole (Meb), an anticancer and effective anthelmintic drug, was investigated using two different carbon nanostructured modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). Although, compared to unmodified GCE, both prepared modified electrodes improved the voltammetric response of Meb, the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified GCE showed higher sensitivity and stability. Therefore, the CNTs-GCE was chosen as a promising candidate for the further studies. At first, the electrochemical behavior of Meb was studied by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse and square wave voltammetry. A one step reversible, pH-dependent and adsorption-controlled process was revealed for electro-oxidation of Meb. A possible mechanism for the electrochemical oxidation of Meb was proposed. In addition, electronic structure, adsorption energy, band gap, type of interaction and stable configuration of Meb on the surface of functionalized carbon nanotubes were studied by using density functional theory (DFT). Obtained results revealed that Meb is weakly physisorbed on the CNTs and that the electronic properties of the CNTs are not significantly changed. Notably, CNTs could be considered as a suitable modifier for preparation of the modified electrode for Meb analysis. Then, the experimental parameters affecting the electrochemical response of Meb were optimized. Under optimal conditions, high sensitivity (b(Meb)=dIp,a(Meb)/d[Meb]=19.65μAμM(-1)), a low detection limit (LOD (Meb)=19nM) and a wide linear dynamic range (0.06-3μM) was resulted for the voltammetric quantification of Meb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrochemical and DFT study of an anticancer and active anthelmintic drug at carbon nanostructured modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalkhani, Masoumeh; Beheshtian, Javad; Salehi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical response of mebendazole (Meb), an anticancer and effective anthelmintic drug, was investigated using two different carbon nanostructured modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). Although, compared to unmodified GCE, both prepared modified electrodes improved the voltammetric response of Meb, the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modified GCE showed higher sensitivity and stability. Therefore, the CNTs-GCE was chosen as a promising candidate for the further studies. At first, the electrochemical behavior of Meb was studied by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse and square wave voltammetry. A one step reversible, pH-dependent and adsorption-controlled process was revealed for electro-oxidation of Meb. A possible mechanism for the electrochemical oxidation of Meb was proposed. In addition, electronic structure, adsorption energy, band gap, type of interaction and stable configuration of Meb on the surface of functionalized carbon nanotubes were studied by using density functional theory (DFT). Obtained results revealed that Meb is weakly physisorbed on the CNTs and that the electronic properties of the CNTs are not significantly changed. Notably, CNTs could be considered as a suitable modifier for preparation of the modified electrode for Meb analysis. Then, the experimental parameters affecting the electrochemical response of Meb were optimized. Under optimal conditions, high sensitivity (b(Meb) = dI p,a (Meb) / d[Meb] = 19.65 μA μM −1 ), a low detection limit (LOD (Meb) = 19 nM) and a wide linear dynamic range (0.06–3 μM) was resulted for the voltammetric quantification of Meb. - Highlights: • Electrochemical oxidation mechanism of Meb was investigated. • A carbon nanostructure modified electrode was developed for the determination of Meb. • The modified electrode surface was characterized by SEM and impedance studies. • This study provides an effective chemically modified electrode with satisfactory repeatability and reproducibility

  10. Response of pre-adult and adult stages of Trichuris muris to common anthelmintics in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekariah, G R; Deb, B N; Jones, M P; Dhage, K R; Bose, S

    1991-10-01

    The common anthelmintics, oxantel, mebendazole, albendazole and pyrantel were assessed for their comparative activity against Trichuris muris in mice. Mice were infected with T. muris and the infection was maintained by a brief cortisone administration during the second week of infection. Mice carrying the infection with different life cycle stages, viz. fourth stage larvae (L4), pre-adult and adult stages were dosed with anthelminitics. The worm burdens in control infection groups varied although infection dose and other conditions were uniformly followed. With various dose regimens tested, oxantel was highly potent; it eliminated completely pre-adult and adult stages, respectively at 25 and 12.5 mg kg-1 dose levels with significant activity also against adult worms at a 1.56 mg kg-1 dose level and against pre-adults at a 6.25 mg kg-1 level. Pre-adults required twice the dose given to that of adults for complete (100%) activity. Mebendazole was the next most active; a dosage of 37.5 mg kg-1 was completely active against pre-adults whereas a dosage of 2 x 50 mg kg-1 was required for complete elimination of adult worms. In addition, about 90% of the worms were eliminated with a single dose of 150 mg kg-1. However, a significant activity was seen against adults at a 25 mg kg-1 level and pre-adults at 37.5 mg kg-1, the lowest level tested. In comparison, albendazole did not induce complete clearance of pre-adult and adult stages even when tested at dose levels as high as 150 and 2 x 75 mg kg-1, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Using existing drugs as leads for broad spectrum anthelmintics targeting protein kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Taylor

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As one of the largest protein families, protein kinases (PKs regulate nearly all processes within the cell and are considered important drug targets. Much research has been conducted on inhibitors for PKs, leading to a wealth of compounds that target PKs that have potential to be lead anthelmintic drugs. Identifying compounds that have already been developed to treat neglected tropical diseases is an attractive way to obtain lead compounds inexpensively that can be developed into much needed drugs, especially for use in developing countries. In this study, PKs from nematodes, hosts, and DrugBank were identified and classified into kinase families and subfamilies. Nematode proteins were placed into orthologous groups that span the phylum Nematoda. A minimal kinome for the phylum Nematoda was identified, and properties of the minimal kinome were explored. Orthologous groups from the minimal kinome were prioritized for experimental testing based on RNAi phenotype of the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog, transcript expression over the life-cycle and anatomic expression patterns. Compounds linked to targets in DrugBank belonging to the same kinase families and subfamilies in the minimal nematode kinome were extracted. Thirty-five compounds were tested in the non-parasitic C. elegans and active compounds progressed to testing against nematode species with different modes of parasitism, the blood-feeding Haemonchus contortus and the filarial Brugia malayi. Eighteen compounds showed efficacy in C. elegans, and six compounds also showed efficacy in at least one of the parasitic species. Hypotheses regarding the pathway the compounds may target and their molecular mechanism for activity are discussed.

  12. Utility of capsule endoscopy for evaluating anthelmintic efficacy in fully conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice C Y; Epe, Christian; Simpson, Kenneth W; Bowman, Dwight D

    2011-11-01

    The current accepted standard for evaluating the efficacy of gastrointestinal anthelmintic drugs is necropsy of infected animals followed by a comparison of worm counts between treated and non-treated groups. In this study capsule endoscopy, a minimally invasive method of imaging the small intestine of humans, is evaluated as a possible alternative to necropsy for the purposes of worm quantification in dogs. Eighteen Beagle dogs were included in this study. These dogs were part of a separate trial intended to determine the efficacy of various candidate parasiticides against Ancylostoma caninum via the necropsy standard. Dogs were inoculated with A. caninum L3s 4 weeks prior to treatment with one of the candidate compounds; a control group (n=8) received no treatment. Capsule endoscopy was performed 6-14 days post-treatment, followed by necropsy the following day. Seventeen dogs had complete examinations, i.e. the capsule traversed the small intestine and reached the colon within the battery life of the capsule. A strong correlation (r(s)=0.87, Pcapsule endoscopy and necropsy. There was no clear relationship between the ability of the capsule endoscope to detect hookworms and either visibility of the intestinal lumen or small intestinal transit time. Generation of a virtual spatial record of hookworm location from the capsule endoscopy data revealed a temporal trend, with the majority of worms present in the proximal small intestine in the morning versus the central to distal small intestine in the afternoon. Worm distribution as determined by capsule endoscopy closely resembled post-mortem findings. In conclusion, capsule endoscopy shows promise as an alternative to necropsy for the enumeration of A. caninum in the canine small intestine, although further work is required to improve completion rates and optimise intestinal examination. Copyright © 2011 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anthelmintic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis against Dactylogyrus minutus (Monogenea) infections in Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoral, M A; Futami, K; Endo, M; Maita, M; Katagiri, T

    2017-11-30

    Monogenean parasites are important ectoparasites of fish, and are responsible for severe economic impacts in the aquaculture industry. They are usually treated with chemicals, but the chemicals can have harmful side effects in the fish and may pose threats to human health. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a common medicinal herb, with antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Here, we examined the anthelmintic activity of rosemary extract against the monogenean (Dactylogyrus minutus) in vitro and in vivo using bath treatment and oral administration. The in vitro experiments showed that parasite survival was affected by both rosemary extract concentration and the solvent (water and ethanol). Parasites were dead at 61.8±5.6 and 7.8±1.4min when exposed to 100 and 200g aqueous rosemary extract solution/L of water respectively. It took 166.7±48.2 and 5.4±1.01min to kill the parasites when exposed to 1 and 32g ethanol rosemary extract solution/L of water respectively. Moreover, pure component of rosemary extract obtained commercially used in in vitro experiments showed that 1,8-Cineole was the most toxic component of the main components tested. Parasite intensity and prevalence in fish exposed to 50 and 100g aqueous rosemary solution/L water for 30min were significantly lower than they were in controls (p<0.05). In oral treatment experiments, diets of Cyprinus carpio were supplemented with eight different concentrations of aqueous rosemary extract. The intensity of parasites was significantly less in fish fed for 30days with feed containing 60, 80 and 100ml aqueous extract/100g feed than in control (p<0.05). Together these results indicate that rosemary is a promising candidate for prevention and control of monogenean infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The diterpenoid 7-keto-sempervirol, derived from Lycium chinense, displays anthelmintic activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke. These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA (praziquantel for schistosomiasis or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB, this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 μM against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening, oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 μM. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental

  15. Direct anthelmintic effects of a purified chicory extract against free-living stages of Cooperia oncophora: preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Williams, A.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    concentrations ranging from 5 to 0.12 mg dry matter (DM)/mL. Two Jersey calves (4 months old) mono-infected with C. oncophora were used for collection of nematode eggs. Isolated eggs were used in an egg hatch assay (EHA) with 6 concentrations of the chicory extract (tested in duplicates, final DMSO concentration......Direct anthelmintic effects of a purified extract from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) were assessed on eggs and first-stage larvae (L1) of C. oncophora. Chicory leaves (cv. Spadona) were collected from an organic dairy farm in Denmark. Dried leaf tissue was extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus...

  16. Targeted anthelmintic treatment of parasitic gastroenteritis in first grazing season dairy calves using daily live weight gain as an indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A; Ellis, K A; McGoldrick, J; Jonsson, N N; Stear, M J; Forbes, A B

    2017-09-15

    Control of parasitic gastroenteritis in cattle is typically based on group treatments with anthelmintics, complemented by grazing management, where feasible. However, the almost inevitable evolution of resistance in parasitic nematodes to anthelmintics over time necessitates a reappraisal of their use in order to reduce selection pressure. One such approach is targeted selective treatment (TST), in which only individual animals that will most benefit are treated, rather than whole groups of at-risk cattle. This study was designed to assess the feasibility of implementing TST on three commercial farms, two of which were organic. A total of 104 first-grazing season (FGS), weaned dairy calves were enrolled in the study; each was weighed at monthly intervals from the start of the grazing season using scales or weigh-bands. At the same time dung and blood samples were collected in order to measure faecal egg counts (FEC) and plasma pepsinogen, respectively. A pre-determined threshhold weight gain of 0.75kg/day was used to determine those animals that would be treated; the anthelmintic used was eprinomectin. No individual animal received more than one treatment during the grazing season and all treatments were given in July or August; five animals were not treated at all because their growth rates consistently exceeded the threshold. Mean daily live weight gain over the entire grazing season ranged between 0.69 and 0.82kg/day on the three farms. Neither FEC nor pepsinogen values were significantly associated with live weight gain. Implementation of TST at farm level requires regular (monthly) handling of the animals and the use of weigh scales or tape, but can be integrated into farm management practices. This study has shown that acceptable growth rates can be achieved in FGS cattle with modest levels of treatment and correspondingly less exposure of their nematode populations to anthelmintics, which should mitigate selection pressure for resistance by increasing the

  17. Impact of chemical structure of flavanol monomers and condensed tannins on in vitro anthelmintic activity against bovine nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desrues, Olivier; Fryganas, Christos; Ropiak, Honorata M.

    2016-01-01

    Plants containing condensed tannins (CT) may have potential to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle. The aim was to investigate the anthelmintic activities of four flavan-3-ols, two galloyl derivatives and 14 purified CT fractions, and to define which structural features of CT...... susceptible to all CT fractions than C. oncophora L1. The mean degree of polymerization of CT (i.e. average size) was the most important structural parameter: large CT reduced larval feeding more than small CT. The flavan-3-ols of prodelphinidin (PD)-type tannins had a stronger negative influence on parasite...

  18. INR targets and site-level anticoagulation control: results from the Veterans AffaiRs Study to Improve Anticoagulation (VARIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, A J; Berlowitz, D R; Miller, D R; Hylek, E M; Ozonoff, A; Zhao, S; Reisman, J I; Ash, A S

    2012-04-01

    Not all clinicians target the same International Normalized Ratio (INR) for patients with a guideline-recommended target range of 2-3. A patient's mean INR value suggests the INR that was actually targeted. We hypothesized that sites would vary by mean INR, and that sites of care with mean values nearest to 2.5 would achieve better anticoagulation control, as measured by per cent time in therapeutic range (TTR). To examine variations among sites in mean INR and the relationship with anticoagulation control in an integrated system of care. We studied 103,897 patients receiving oral anticoagulation with an expected INR target between 2 and 3 at 100 Veterans Health Administration (VA) sites from 1 October 2006 to 30 September 2008. Key site-level variables were: proportion near 2.5 (that is, percentage of patients with mean INR between 2.3 and 2.7) and mean risk-adjusted TTR. Site mean INR ranged from 2.22 to 2.89; proportion near 2.5, from 30 to 64%. Sites' proportions of patients near 2.5, below 2.3 and above 2.7 were consistent from year to year. A 10 percentage point increase in the proportion near 2.5 predicted a 3.8 percentage point increase in risk-adjusted TTR (P < 0.001). Proportion of patients with mean INR near 2.5 is a site-level 'signature' of care and an implicit measure of targeted INR. This proportion varies by site and is strongly associated with site-level TTR. Our study suggests that sites wishing to improve TTR, and thereby improve patient outcomes, should avoid the explicit or implicit pursuit of non-standard INR targets. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  19. Warfarin anticoagulation in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation: comparison of nephrologist-led and anticoagulation clinic-led management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahbahani, Hamad; AlTurki, Ahmed; Dawas, Ahmed; Lipman, Mark L

    2018-01-08

    There is conflicting evidence of benefit versus harm for warfarin anticoagulation in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation. This equipoise may be explained by suboptimal Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR), which correlates well with thromboembolic and bleeding complications. This study aimed to compare nephrologist-led management of warfarin therapy versus that led by specialized anticoagulation clinic. In a retrospective cohort of chronic hemodialysis patients from two institutions (Institution A: Nephrologist-led warfarin management, Institution B: Anticoagulation clinic-led warfarin management), we identified patients with atrial fibrillation who were receiving warfarin for thromboembolic prophylaxis. Mean TTRs, proportion of patients achieving TTR ≥ 60%, and frequency of INR testing were compared using a logistic regression model. In Institution A, 16.7% of hemodialysis patients had atrial fibrillation, of whom 36.8% were on warfarin. In Institution B, 18% of hemodialysis patients had atrial fibrillation, and 55.5% were on warfarin. The mean TTR was 61.8% (SD 14.5) in Institution A, and 60.5% (SD 15.8) in Institution B (p-value 0.95). However, the proportion of patients achieving TTR ≥ 60% was 65% versus 43.3% (Adjusted OR 2.22, CI 0.65-7.63) and mean frequency of INR testing was every 6 days versus every 13.9 days in Institutions A and B respectively. There was no statistical difference in mean TTR between nephrologist-led management of warfarin and that of clinic-led management. However, the former achieved a trend toward a higher proportion of patients with optimal TTR. This improved therapeutic results was associated with more frequent INR monitoring.

  20. Does novel oral anticoagulant improve anticoagulation for non-valvular atrial fibrillation associated stroke: An inpatient registration study in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Di Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts: Objective: To summarize the use rate, safety, efficacy of antithrombotics in stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA prevention, and reasons for not using dabigatran etexilate (DE in Shanghai, China. Methods: Non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF-associated stroke patients were prospectively registered as an electronic database. Use rate of antithrombotics and reasons for not using DE were extracted during follow-up. Patients' baseline characteristics, recurrent ischemic stroke/TIA events and bleeding complications were analyzed. Patients: From April 2012 to August 2014, 110 inpatients with NVAF-associated stroke were studied in our hospital. NVAF was diagnosed by 12-lead electrocardiogram, 24 h Holter and echocardiography. Results: Before introduction of DE (April 2013, use rates of warfarin and antiplatelets were 28.9% (11/38 and 60.5% (23/38 respectively; after that, use rates of warfarin, DE, and antiplatelets were 20.8% (15/72, 12.5% (9/72, and 43.1% (31/72. The DE did not improve use of anticoagulants (P = 0.639. There were 19 (17.3% recurrent ischemic stroke events up to October 2015; two (9.5% in the non-user group, 10 (18.5% in the antiplatelet group, and seven (20.0% in the anticoagulants group (P = 0.570. Furthermore, recurrence rates were similar between the DE group (20.0% and the Warfarin group (20.0%, P = 1.000. The most common reason for not using DE was financial concerns (61.0%, followed by inconvenience to purchase (14.0% and hemorrhage concerns (11.0%. Two patients using warfarin found fecal occult blood so they stopped warfarin and began to use antiplatelet drugs. No bleeding event occurred in the other groups. Only one patient had side effects (dyspepsia and gastroesophageal reflux from DE. Conclusion: The use rate of either DE or warfarin in Shanghai was low; DE had not improved anticoagulation therapy for NVAF patients in Shanghai mainly because DE had not been covered by health insurance. Keywords

  1. Anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation. Is there a gap in care for ambulatory patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Wayne; Nicol, Kelly; Anderson, David; Brownell, Brenda; Chiasson, Meredith; Burge, Frederick I.; Flowerdew, Gordon; Cox, Jafna

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) substantially increases risk of stroke. Evidence suggests that anticoagulation to reduce risk is underused (a "care gap"). Our objectives were to clarify measures of this gap in care by including data from family physicians and to determine why eligible patients were not receiving anticoagulation therapy. DESIGN: Telephone survey of family physicians regarding specific patients in their practices. SETTING: Nova Scotia. PARTICIPANTS: Ambulatory AF patients not taking warfarin who had risk factors that made anticoagulation appropriate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of patients removed from the care gap; reasons given for not giving the remainder anticoagulants. RESULTS: Half the patients thought to be in the care gap had previously unknown contraindications to anticoagulation, lacked a clear indication for anticoagulation, or were taking warfarin. Patients' refusal and anticipated problems with compliance and monitoring were among the reasons for not giving patients anticoagulants. CONCLUSION: Adding data from primary care physicians significantly narrowed the care gap. Attention should focus on the remaining reasons for not giving eligible patients anticoagulants. PMID:15508374

  2. Safety and efficacy of anticoagulation for secondary stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation patients: The AMADEUS trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lane, D.A.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Minini, P.; Buller, H.R.; Lip, G.Y.H.

    2010-01-01

    ackground: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and previous ischemic stroke are at high risk of recurrent stroke, but are also perceived to be at increased bleeding risk while treated with anticoagulants. Methods: Post-hoc analyses examined the efficacy and safety of anticoagulation of 4576 AF

  3. Conservative approach to dental extractions in patients on anticoagulant therapy: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, Francesco; Grande, Nicola Maria; Plotino, GianLuca; Cameli, Giorgio; Pameijer, Cornelis H

    2010-01-01

    This clinical study reviewed dental surgical extractions that were performed on 532 patients diagnosed at risk of thromboembolism without interrupting their anticoagulant therapy. The results confirmed that anticoagulant therapy can be modified successfully and does not need to be interrupted, which can carry significant risks.

  4. Comparing Direct Oral Anticoagulants and Warfarin for Atrial Fibrillation, Venous Thromboembolism, and Mechanical Heart Valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcy, Todd R; Truong, Teresa; Rai, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    To summarize available data for use of direct oral anticoagulants in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism, and mechanical heart valves including dose-response consistency to offer considerations for pharmacotherapeutic decision-making for oral anticoagulants. A Medline search of English-language studies published between 2000 and March 2015 was conducted to identify pertinent papers using combinations of the following words: apixaban, atrial fibrillation, dabigatran, direct oral anticoagulant, edoxaban, factor IIa inhibitors, factor Xa inhibitors, mechanical heart valves, novel oral anticoagulant, rivaroxaban, venous thromboembolism, and warfarin. Original studies, guidelines, and approved prescribing information were evaluated and included if contributing new or complementary data toward the objective. References for all identified studies were reviewed and entries included if contributory. Randomized controlled trials have established the safety and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism for most patient groups. Direct oral anticoagulants should not be used in patients with mechanical heart valves until proven safe and effective. There are groups for which questions remain regarding inter-patient dose-response consistency for direct oral anticoagulants. There are postmarketing data suggesting poorer real-world performance of dabigatran relative to clinical trial data. Direct oral anticoagulants offer several advantages over warfarin, and large clinical trial data establish the appropriateness of their use in broad populations. There remain groups for whom the relative benefit and risk of these agents relative to warfarin are uncertain. A patient-specific approach in pharmacotherapeutic decision-making is appropriate.

  5. The use of prophylactic anticoagulation during induction and consolidation chemotherapy in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Rachael F; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Stevenson, Kristen E; Neuberg, Donna; Sallan, Stephen E; Mourad, Yasser R Abou; Bergeron, Julie; Seftel, Matthew D; Kokulis, Caroline; Connors, Jean M

    2018-02-01

    Treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adults confers a high risk of venous thromboembolic (VTE) complications. We describe the implementation and results of prophylactic anticoagulation guidelines in adults (18-50 years) treated on a Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL pediatric inspired consortium protocol from 2007 to 2013. A high rate of asparaginase related toxicity events, including thrombosis, resulted in a protocol amendment adding guidelines for prophylactic anticoagulation and a modified asparaginase dose and schedule. After excluding patients with Philadelphia positive ALL, a cohort of 36 patients were treated after the protocol amendment with prophylactic anticoagulation and compared to 49 patients who received no prophylactic anticoagulation. Bleeding complications were not significantly different in those treated with prophylactic anticoagulation compared with those enrolled prior to the amendment (p = 0.26). No patients on prophylactic anticoagulation had grade ≥ 3 bleeding. Prior to the amendment, the 2 year cumulative incidence of VTE post-induction was 41% compared to 28% while on prophylactic anticoagulation (p = 0.32). The 2 year cumulative incidence pulmonary embolus pre-amendment was 16% compared with 8% post-amendment (p = 0.34). Prophylactic anticoagulation can be safely administered to adults with ALL without increasing the number or severity of bleeding events and, in addition to modifications in the asparaginase regimen, resulted in a reduction in the cumulative incidence of VTE.

  6. Anticoagulant effects of an antidiabetic drug on monocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, C E; Hellum, M; Haug, K B F; Aass, H C; Joø, G B; Øvstebø, R; Trøseid, A M; Klingenberg, O; Kierulf, P

    2011-11-01

    Monocyte- and microparticle (MP)-associated tissue factor (TF) is upregulated in diabetes. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces expression of TF and alternatively spliced TF (asTF) and increases MP release from monocytes. Using LPS-stimulated TF-bearing human monocytes, we examined whether glibenclamide, a sulfonylurea used to treat diabetes type 2, might possess anticoagulant properties. We studied the effects of glibenclamide on cell- and supernatant-associated procoagulant activity (Factor Xa-generating assay and clot formation assay), on expression of TF and asTF (flow cytometry, RT-qPCR, western blot) and on cell viability and MP release (flow cytometry). Glibenclamide dose-dependently decreased procoagulant activity of cells and supernatants. The reduction in cellular procoagulant activity coincided with reduced expression of TF and asTF in cells, whereas cell viability remained almost unchanged. The glibenclamide-induced reduction in procoagulant activity of supernatants appeared to be associated with a decreased number of released MPs. Reduction of monocyte- and supernatant-associated procoagulant activity by glibenclamide is associated with decreased expression of TF and asTF and possibly with a reduced MP number. Our data indicate that glibenclamide reduces the prothrombotic state in LPS-stimulated monocytes in vitro. Glibenclamide might therefore also have an anticoagulant effect in vivo, but this needs to be further evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stabilization of the E* Form Turns Thrombin into an Anticoagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Alaji; Carrell, Christopher J.; Chen, Zhiwei; Gandhi, Prafull S.; Di Cera, Enrico; (WU-MED)

    2009-07-31

    Previous studies have shown that deletion of nine residues in the autolysis loop of thrombin produces a mutant with an anticoagulant propensity of potential clinical relevance, but the molecular origin of the effect has remained unresolved. The x-ray crystal structure of this mutant solved in the free form at 1.55 {angstrom} resolution reveals an inactive conformation that is practically identical (root mean square deviation of 0.154 {angstrom}) to the recently identified E* form. The side chain of Trp215 collapses into the active site by shifting >10 {angstrom} from its position in the active E form, and the oxyanion hole is disrupted by a flip of the Glu192-Gly193 peptide bond. This finding confirms the existence of the inactive form E* in essentially the same incarnation as first identified in the structure of the thrombin mutant D102N. In addition, it demonstrates that the anticoagulant profile often caused by a mutation of the thrombin scaffold finds its likely molecular origin in the stabilization of the inactive E* form that is selectively shifted to the active E form upon thrombomodulin and protein C binding.

  8. Self-monitoring and self-management of oral anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneghan, Carl J; Garcia-Alamino, Josep M; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Ward, Alison M; Perera, Rafael; Bankhead, Clare; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Fitzmaurice, David; Mahtani, Kamal R; Onakpoya, Igho J

    2016-07-05

    The introduction of point-of-care devices for the management of patients on oral anticoagulation allows self-testing by the patient at home. Patients who self-test can either adjust their medication according to a pre-determined dose-INR (international normalized ratio) schedule (self-management), or they can call a clinic to be told the appropriate dose adjustment (self-monitoring). Increasing evidence suggests self-testing of oral anticoagulant therapy is equal to or better than standard monitoring. This is an updated version of the original review published in 2010. To evaluate the effects on thrombotic events, major haemorrhages, and all-cause mortality of self-monitoring or self-management of oral anticoagulant therapy compared to standard monitoring. For this review update, we re-ran the searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), 2015, Issue 6, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to June week 4 2015), Embase (Ovid, 1980 to 2015 week 27) on 1 July 2015. We checked bibliographies and contacted manufacturers and authors of relevant studies. We did not apply any language restrictions . Outcomes analysed were thromboembolic events, mortality, major haemorrhage, minor haemorrhage, tests in therapeutic range, frequency of testing, and feasibility of self-monitoring and self-management. Review authors independently extracted data and we used a fixed-effect model with the Mantzel-Haenzel method to calculate the pooled risk ratio (RR) and Peto's method to verify the results for uncommon outcomes. We examined heterogeneity amongst studies with the Chi(2) and I(2) statistics and used GRADE methodology to assess the quality of evidence. We identified 28 randomised trials including 8950 participants (newly incorporated in this update: 10 trials including 4227 participants). The overall quality of the evidence was generally low to moderate. Pooled estimates showed a reduction in thromboembolic events (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.45 to 0

  9. When and in which patients can anticoagulation be resumed after intracerebral haemorrhage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marietta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Whether to resume the anticoagulant or the antiaggregant therapy after an episode of major haemorrhage is a difficult dilemma for the physician. The physician has to take into consideration two major questions: whether the benefits of restarting anticoagulation outweigh the risk, and if so, when and how should anticoagulation be restarted. Although some case reports suggest that anticoagulation can be withheld safely for short periods after ICH, even in patients with mechanical heart valves, it is still not clear if long-term anticoagulation can be safely reinstituted after haemorrhage, for example in patients with atrial fibrillation. In fact, no large and well-conducted randomised clinical trials are available, and there is lack of strong evidence on which guidelines recommendations can be based. The article summarise the available literature findings. Finally, a protocol is suggested which may represent a useful tool for assessing treatment options.

  10. Optical sensing of anticoagulation status: Towards point-of-care coagulation testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M Tshikudi

    Full Text Available Anticoagulant overdose is associated with major bleeding complications. Rapid coagulation sensing may ensure safe and accurate anticoagulant dosing and reduce bleeding risk. Here, we report the novel use of Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR for measuring anticoagulation and haemodilution status in whole blood. In the LSR approach, blood from 12 patients and 4 swine was placed in disposable cartridges and time-varying intensity fluctuations of laser speckle patterns were measured to quantify the viscoelastic modulus during clotting. Coagulation parameters, mainly clotting time, clot progression rate (α-angle and maximum clot stiffness (MA were derived from the clot viscoelasticity trace and compared with standard Thromboelastography (TEG. To demonstrate the capability for anticoagulation sensing in patients, blood samples from 12 patients treated with warfarin anticoagulant were analyzed. LSR clotting time correlated with prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin time (r = 0.57-0.77, p<0.04 and all LSR parameters demonstrated good correlation with TEG (r = 0.61-0.87, p<0.04. To further evaluate the dose-dependent sensitivity of LSR parameters, swine blood was spiked with varying concentrations of heparin, argatroban and rivaroxaban or serially diluted with saline. We observed that anticoagulant treatments prolonged LSR clotting time in a dose-dependent manner that correlated closely with TEG (r = 0.99, p<0.01. LSR angle was unaltered by anticoagulation whereas TEG angle presented dose-dependent diminution likely linked to the mechanical manipulation of the clot. In both LSR and TEG, MA was largely unaffected by anticoagulation, and LSR presented a higher sensitivity to increased haemodilution in comparison to TEG (p<0.01. Our results establish that LSR rapidly and accurately measures the response of various anticoagulants, opening the opportunity for routine anticoagulation monitoring at the point-of-care or for patient self-testing.

  11. Antibacterial evaluation of Anacardium occidentale (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    inhibitory concentration (MIC) revealed that both parts of the plant have antibacterial activity, but the .... flavonols, xanthones, chalcones, auron, flavononois, ... Table 2. Antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of stem peels and leaves of Anacardium occidentale L. Plant part. Concentrations of the extracts in % (mg/ml).

  12. Antibacterial effects and toxigenesis of Penicillium aurantiogriseum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxigenesis of one Penicillium aurantiogriseum and one Penicillium viridicatum isolates was investigated. Sterile culture filtrates of both fungi had a clear antibacterial effect only against Bacillus subtilis. The effect on B. subtilis varied with amount of filtrate used and temperature. The antibacterial activity of chloroform ...

  13. Anticancer and antibacterial secondary metabolites from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The emergence of multiple-drug resistance bacteria has become a major threat and thus calls for an urgent need to search for new effective and safe anti-bacterial agents. Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the anticancer and antibacterial activities of secondary metabolites from Penicillium sp., ...

  14. Antibacterial activity of some powdered herbal preparations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of some powdered herbal preparations marketed in Kaduna metropolis. D Abba, H.I Inabo, S.E Yakubu, OS Olonitola. Abstract. The aim of the study was to investigate the phytochemical components and the antibacterial activities of some powdered herbal medicinal preparations sourced from identified ...

  15. Antibacterial activity from Siamese crocodile ( Crocodylus siamensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial agents were purified from Siamese crocodile serum by anion exchange, gel filtration and reversed phase HPLC. Six antibacterial agents designed as Hp14, Hp15, Hp17, Hp31, Hp36 and Hp51 were purified and proved to carry activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, ...

  16. Antibacterial Effect of Surface Pretreatment Techniques against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... Self-etching adhesive systems with acidic primers demonstrates only limited antibacterial activities because of the buffering effect of dentin tubular fluid and the existence of aciduric bacteria.[42]. Moreover, dentin bonding systems possessing antibacterial activity even after being cured are beneficial for ...

  17. Studies on Buddleja asiatica antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-27

    Jul 27, 2011 ... Crude extract of Buddleja asiatica Lour and its fractions, chloroform (F1), ethyl acetate (F2) and n- butanol (F3) were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic and Ca++ antagonist activities. The antibacterial activity was performed against 11 types of bacteria. The crude extract and fractions F2.

  18. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SALACIA PYRIFORMIS | Poh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An in-vitro antibacterial action of the plant material was evaluated, using the disc diffusion method. The extracts exhibited marked inhibitory action on the growth of Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli at the concentration of 100mg/ml. Key Words: Salacia pyrriformis, Celastraceae, root chemical constituents, antibacterial ...

  19. What makes a natural clay antibacterial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynda B.; Metge, David W.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Turner, Amanda G.; Prapaipong, Panjai; Port-Peterson, Amisha T.

    2011-01-01

    Natural clays have been used in ancient and modern medicine, but the mechanism(s) that make certain clays lethal against bacterial pathogens has not been identified. We have compared the depositional environments, mineralogies, and chemistries of clays that exhibit antibacterial effects on a broad spectrum of human pathogens including antibiotic resistant strains. Natural antibacterial clays contain nanoscale (2+ solubility.

  20. In vitro thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant and cytotoxic activity with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of Xanthium indicum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antara Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthium indicum is an important medicinal plant traditionally used in Bangladesh as a folkloric treatment. The current study was undertaken to evaluate thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant, cytotoxic properties with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of X. indicum leaves. The analysis of phytochemical screening confirmed the existence of phytosetrols and diterpenes. In thrombolytic assay, a significant clot lysis was observed at four concentrations of plant extract compare to the positive control streptokinase (30,000 IU, 15,000 IU and negative control normal saline. The extract revealed potent anthelmintic activity at different concentrations. In anti-oxidant activity evaluation by two potential experiments namely total phenolic content determination and free radical scavenging assay by 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, the leaves extract possess good anti-oxidant property. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the crude extract showed potent (LC50 1.3 μg/mL cytotoxic activity compare to the vincristine sulfate as a positive control (LC50 0.8 μg/mL.

  1. Effects of anthelmintic treatment and feed supplementation on grazing Tuli weaner steers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Magaya

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Tuli cattle and the effect of dietary protein supplementation and anthelmintic treatment on productivity in young growing cattle. Forty steers with an average age of 18 months were divided into 4 groups; 1 fenbendazole (slow release bolus and cottonseed meal (FCSM group, 2 fenbendazole (FBZ group, 3 cottonseed meal (CSM group and 4 control (no cottonseed meal and no fenbendazole (control group. Performance parameters measured included wormeggs per gram of faeces (EPG, packed cell volume (PCV, albumin and live-weight gain. Results showed that faecal worm egg counts were lower and PCV was higher in the FCSM and FBZ groups than in the CSM and control groups (P < 0.01. Weight gains were higher in the CSMand FCSM groups than in the FBZ and control groups (P < 0.05. The cost benefits of anthelmintic treatment and dietary supplementation were apparent in this study. The improved growth performance of the FCSM, FBZ and CSM groups reflected a financial gain over the controls on termination of the study. The dominant genera of gastrointestinal nematodes on faecal culture, pasture larval counts and necropsy were Cooperia and Haemonchus. The incidences of Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum and Bunostomum were low.

  2. Antibacterial activity of baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, D

    1997-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque.

  3. Antibacterial graphene oxide coatings on polymer substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiming; Wen, Jing; Gao, Yang; Li, Tianyang; Wang, Huifang; Yan, Hong; Niu, Baolong; Guo, Ruijie

    2018-04-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was thought to be a promising antibacterial material. In this work, graphene oxide coatings on polymer substrate were prepared and the antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus was investigated. It was demonstrated that the coatings exhibited stronger antibacterial activity against E. coli with thin membrane than S. aureus with thick membrane. Take into consideration the fact that the coatings presented smooth, sharp edges-free morphology and bonded parallelly to substrate, which was in mark contrast with their precursor GO nanosheets, oxidative stress mechanism was considered the main factor of antibacterial activity. The coatings, which are easy to recycle and have no inhalation risk, provide an alternative for application in antibacterial medical instruments.

  4. Antibacterial activity of selected Myanmar medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwe Yee Win; Nyunt Wynn; Mar Mar Nyein; Win Myint; Saw Hla Myint; Myint Khine

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen plants which are traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea in Myanmar were selected and tested for antibacterial activity by using agar disc diffusion technique. Polar and nonpolar solvents were employed for extraction of plants. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts with the most significant predominant activity were evaluated by plate dilution method. The plants Eugenia jambolana, Quisqualis indica, Leucaena glauca and Euphorbia splendens var. 1 were found to show significant antibacterial activity. It was also observed that extracts using nonpolar solvents did not show any antibacterial activity and extracts using polar solvents showed antibacterial activity on tested bacteria, indicating that the active chemical compound responsible for the antibacterial action must be a polar soluble compound. (author)

  5. DNA Topoisomerases as Targets for Antibacterial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiasa, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    DNA topoisomerases are proven therapeutic targets of antibacterial agents. Quinolones, especially fluoroquinolones, are the most successful topoisomerase-targeting antibacterial drugs. These drugs target type IIA topoisomerases in bacteria. Recent structural and biochemical studies on fluoroquinolones have provided the molecular basis for both their mechanism of action, as well as the molecular basis of bacterial resistance. Due to the development of drug resistance, including fluoroquinolone resistance, among bacterial pathogens, there is an urgent need to discover novel antibacterial agents. Recent advances in topoisomerase inhibitors may lead to the development of novel antibacterial drugs that are effective against fluoroquinolone-resistant pathogens. They include type IIA topoisomerase inhibitors that either interact with the GyrB/ParE subunit or form nick-containing ternary complexes. In addition, several topoisomerase I inhibitors have recently been identified. Thus, DNA topoisomerases remain important targets of antibacterial agents.

  6. Antibacterial activity of statins: a comparative study of atorvastatin, simvastatin, and rosuvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed; Mhaidat, Nizar; Alzoubi, Karem; Al-Azzam, Sayer; Alnasser, Ziad

    2012-05-07

    Statins have several effects beyond their well-known antihyperlipidemic activity, which include immunomodulatory, antioxidative and anticoagulant effects. In this study, we have tested the possible antimicrobial activity of statins against a range of standard bacterial strains and bacterial clinical isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values were evaluated and compared among three members of the statins drug (atorvastatin, simvastatin, and rosuvastatin). It was revealed that statins are able to induce variable degrees of antibacterial activity with atorvastatin, and simvastatin being the more potent than rosuvastatin. Methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE), vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), acinetobacter baumannii, staphylococcus epidermidis, and enterobacter aerogenes, were more sensitive to both atorvastatin, and simvastatin compared to rosuvastatin. On the other hand, escherichia coli, proteus mirabilis, and enterobacter cloacae were more sensitive to atorvastatin compared to both simvastatin and rosuvastatin. Furthermore, most clinical isolates were less sensitive to statins compared to their corresponding standard strains. Our findings might raise the possibility of a potentially important antibacterial class effect for statins especially, atorvastatin and simvastatin.

  7. Antibacterial activity of statins: a comparative study of Atorvastatin, Simvastatin, and Rosuvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masadeh Majed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins have several effects beyond their well-known antihyperlipidemic activity, which include immunomodulatory, antioxidative and anticoagulant effects. In this study, we have tested the possible antimicrobial activity of statins against a range of standard bacterial strains and bacterial clinical isolates. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC values were evaluated and compared among three members of the statins drug (atorvastatin, simvastatin, and rosuvastatin. Results It was revealed that statins are able to induce variable degrees of antibacterial activity with atorvastatin, and simvastatin being the more potent than rosuvastatin. Methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE, vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE, acinetobacter baumannii, staphylococcus epidermidis, and enterobacter aerogenes, were more sensitive to both atorvastatin, and simvastatin compared to rosuvastatin. On the other hand, escherichia coli, proteus mirabilis, and enterobacter cloacae were more sensitive to atorvastatin compared to both simvastatin and rosuvastatin. Furthermore, most clinical isolates were less sensitive to statins compared to their corresponding standard strains. Conclusion Our findings might raise the possibility of a potentially important antibacterial class effect for statins especially, atorvastatin and simvastatin.

  8. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activities of Novel 4-Hydroxy-7-hydroxy- and 3-Carboxycoumarin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Wen Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Coumarin derivatives are used as fluorescent dyes and medicines. They also have some notable physiological effects, including the acute hepatoxicity and carcinogenicity of certain aflatoxins, the anticoagulant action of dicoumarol, and the antibiotic activity of novobicin and coumerymycin A1. Because the number of drug resistant strains is increasing at present, the synthesis of new antibacterial compounds is one of the critical methods for treating infectious diseases. Therefore, a series of coumarin-substituted derivatives, namely 4-hydroxy- and 7-hydroxycoumarins, and 3-carboxycoumarins were synthesized. 4-Hydroxycoumarin derivatives 4a–c underwent rearrangement reactions. Both 4- and 7-hydroxycoumarins were treated with activated aziridines which produced series of ring-opened products 7, 8, 10, and 11. 3-Carboxy-coumarin amide dimer derivatives 14–21 were prepared by reacting aliphatic alkylamines and alkyldiamines with PyBOP and DIEA. In this study, we use a new technique called modified micro-plate antibiotic susceptibility test method (MMAST, which is more convenient, more efficient, and more accurate than previous methods and only a small amount of the sample is required for the test. Some of the compounds were produced by reactions with acid anhydrides and demonstrated the ability to inhibit Gram-positive microorganisms. The dimer derivatives displayed lower antibacterial activities.

  9. Combined effectiveness of anthelmintic chemotherapy and WASH among HIV-infected adults.

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    Arianna R Means

    2018-01-01

    .05. Across all species, there was no evidence of synergy or antagonism between anthelmintic chemotherapy with albendazole or praziquantel and WASH resources.Deworming is effective in reducing the probability of helminth infections amongst HIV-infected adults. With the exception of safe flooring, WASH offers minimal additional benefit. However, WASH does appear to significantly reduce infection prevalence in adults who are not treated with chemotherapy.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00507221.

  10. Low cost whole-organism screening of compounds for anthelmintic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Sarah; Jabbar, Abdul; Nowell, Cameron; Joachim, Anja; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Baell, Jonathan; Cardno, Tony; Korhonen, Pasi K; Piedrafita, David; Ansell, Brendan R E; Jex, Aaron R; Hofmann, Andreas; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-04-01

    Due to major problems with drug resistance in parasitic nematodes of animals, there is a substantial need and excellent opportunities to develop new anthelmintics via genomic-guided and/or repurposing approaches. In the present study, we established a practical and cost-effective whole-organism assay for the in vitro-screening of compounds for activity against parasitic stages of the nematode Haemonchus contortus (barber's pole worm). The assay is based on the use of exsheathed L3 (xL3) and L4 stages of H. contortus of small ruminants (sheep and goats). Using this assay, we screened a panel of 522 well-curated kinase inhibitors (GlaxoSmithKline, USA; code: PKIS2) for activity against H. contortus by measuring the inhibition of larval motility using an automated image analysis system. We identified two chemicals within the compound classes biphenyl amides and pyrazolo[1,5-α]pyridines, which reproducibly inhibit both xL3 and L4 motility and development, with IC50s of 14-47 μM. Given that these inhibitors were designed as anti-inflammatory drugs for use in humans and fit the Lipinski rule-of-five (including bioavailability), they show promise for hit-to-lead optimisation and repurposing for use against parasitic nematodes. The screening assay established here has significant advantages over conventional methods, particularly in terms of ease of use, throughput, time and cost. Although not yet fully automated, the current assay is readily suited to the screening of hundreds to thousands of compounds for subsequent hit-to-lead optimisation. The current assay is highly adaptable to many parasites of socioeconomic importance, including those causing neglected tropical diseases. This aspect is of major relevance, given the urgent need to deliver the goals of the London Declaration (http://unitingtocombatntds.org/resource/london-declaration) through the rapid and efficient repurposing of compounds in public-private partnerships. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for

  11. In vitro anthelmintic activity and chemical composition of methanol extracts and fractions of Croton paraguayensis and Vernonia brasiliana against Eisenia fetida

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    Andrea Leticia Cáceres

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the chemical composition and the anthelmintic activity of the methanol extracts and the acid and basic fractions of Croton paraguayensis (C. paraguayensis and Vernonia brasiliana (V. brasiliana against Eisenia fetida. Methods: A preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed to assess the presence of groups of secondary metabolites. The plants were extracted with methanol to obtain the crude extracts. A differential pH extraction was performed to isolate basic compounds like alkaloids. The methanolic extracts and the fractions obtained were tested for anthelmintic activity against Eisenia fetida, using albendazole as positive control. Results: The phytochemical test demonstrated the presence of alkaloids in the crude extracts and alkaline fractions, along with flavonoids, coumarins, steroids/triterpenes and tannins. The anthelmintic activity of the extracts and fractions of C. paraguayensis and V. brasiliana showed a statistically significant decrease of the times for paralysis and death compared to albendazole. Conclusions: The methanolic extracts and fractions of C. paraguayensis and V. brasiliana contain compounds that possess anthelmintic activity. The isolation of the substances responsible for the biological effect described could result in the development of new drugs to treat helminth diseases.

  12. World association for the advancement of veterinary parasitology (WAAVP): Second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennessy, D.R.; Bauer, C.; Boray, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in swine which, in conjunction with other sets of guidance such as those of the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH GL7 and VICH GL16), sho...

  13. Structure and anticoagulant properties of sulfated glycosaminoglycans from primitive Chordates

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    MAURO S. G. PAVÃO

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatan sulfates and heparin, similar to the mammalian glycosaminoglycans, but with differences in the degree and position of sulfation were previously isolated from the body of the ascidian Styela plicata and Ascidia nigra. These differences produce profound effects on their anticoagulant properties. S. plicata dermatan sulfate composed by 2-O-sulfatedalpha-L-iduronic acid and 4-O-sulfated N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosamine residues is a potent anticoagulant due to a high heparin cofactor II activity. Surprisingly, it has a lower potency to prevent thrombus formation on an experimental model and a lower bleeding effect in rats than the mammalian dermatan sulfate. In contrast, A. nigra dermatan sulfate, also enriched in 2-O-sulfated alpha-L-iduronic acid, but in this case sulfated at O-6 of the N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosamine units, has no in vitro or in vivo anticoagulant activity, does not prevent thrombus formation but shows a bleeding effect similar to the mammalian glycosaminoglycan. Ascidian heparin, composed by 2-O-sulfated alpha-L-iduronic acid, N- and 6-O-sulfated glucosamine (75% and alpha-L-iduronic acid, N- and 6-O-sulfated glucosamine (25% disaccharide units has an anticoagulant activity 10 times lower than the mammalian heparin, is about 20 times less potent in the inhibition of thrombin by antithrombin, but has the same heparin cofactor II activity as mammalian heparin.Dermatam sulfato e heparina semelhantes aos glicosaminoglicanos de mamíferos, mas apresentando diferenças no grau e posição de sulfatação foram previamente isolados do corpo das ascídias Styela plicata e Ascidia nigra. Estas diferenças produzem efeitos profundos nas suas propriedades anticoagulantes. O dermatam sulfato de S. plicata, composto por resíduos de ácido alfa-L-idurônico 2-O-sulfatados e N-acetilgalactosamina 4-O-sulfatados é um potente anticoagulante devido a sua alta atividade de cofator II da heparina. Surpreendentemente, este polímero possui uma

  14. Cerebrovascular Accident due to Thyroid Storm: Should We Anticoagulate?

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    Alex Gonzalez-Bossolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid storm is a life-threatening condition that occurs secondary to an uncontrolled hyperthyroid state. Atrial fibrillation is a cardiovascular complication occurring in up to 15% of patients experiencing thyroid storm, and if left untreated this condition could have up to a 25% mortality rate. Thyroid storm with stroke is a rare presentation. This case report details a left middle cerebral artery (MCA stroke with global aphasia and thyroid storm in a 53-year-old Hispanic male patient. Although uncommon, this combination has been reported in multiple case series. Although it is well documented that dysfunctional thyroid levels promote a hypercoagulable state, available guidelines from multiple entities are unclear on whether anticoagulation therapy is appropriate in this situation.

  15. New oral anticoagulants in the prevention of stroke

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    Konrad Jarząbek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation is associated with a few folds higher risk of stroke. Traditional vitamin K antagonists used in the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation are often not efficient enough due to their interactions with a broad range of substances including medicines or food ingridients and problems with monitoring the treatment. New oral anticoagulants pose an alternative for the vitamin K antagonists. They are equally efficient in the prevention of stroke, but are safer and have no requirement for routine coagulation monitoring. We present a case of a patient with atrial fibrillation, high risk of tromboembolism and recurring episodes of hemorrhages. Considering the possible complications, rivaroxaban was administered.

  16. Prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis in pregnancy: from thrombolysis to anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Gonçalo; Aguiar, Carlos; Andrade, Maria João; Patrício, Lino; Freire, Isabel; Serrano, Fátima; Anjos, Rui; Mendes, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves are at increased risk for valve thrombosis. Management decisions for this life-threatening complication are complex. Open-heart surgery has a very high risk of maternal mortality and fetal loss. Bleeding and embolic risks associated with thrombolytic agents, the limited efficacy of thrombolysis in certain subgroups, and a lack of experience in the setting of pregnancy raise important concerns. We report a case of mitral prosthetic valve thrombosis in early pregnancy, which was successfully treated with streptokinase. Ten years later, the same patient had an uneventful pregnancy, throughout which acenocoumarol was maintained. With this case we review the prevention (with oral anticoagulant therapy) and treatment of prosthetic valve thrombosis during pregnancy, which is important for both obstetrician and cardiologist. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of novel anticoagulants for patients with mechanical heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Peter; DeSancho, Maria T

    2014-11-01

    The introduction of the target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) has led to a major shift in the management of patients at risk for thrombosis. The landscape continues to evolve as the evidence regarding their efficacy and safety in various clinical situations emerges. Antithrombotic therapy for thromboprophylaxis in patients with mechanical heart valves is challenging. To date, the RE-ALIGN trial comparing dabigatran etexilate to warfarin is the only randomized controlled study in this patient population. The higher risk of thromboembolic and bleeding events in the group of patients who received dabigatran compared with warfarin reinforced current guidelines recommending against the use of TSOACs in patients with mechanical heart valves. However, additional studies are needed to find suitable alternatives to vitamin K antagonists in this unique patient population.

  18. Ischaemic stroke in patients treated with oral anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, L M; Cardona, P; Quesada, H; Lara, B; Rubio, F

    2016-01-01

    Cardioembolic stroke is associated with poorer outcomes. Prevention is based on oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy. Haemorrhage is the main complication of OACs, which are sometimes ineffective. We retrospectively reviewed 1014 consecutive patients who suffered an ischaemic stroke between 2011 and 2013, analysing those who were receiving OAC treatment at stroke onset (107 patients in total) with special attention to aetiology, outcomes, and INR value in the acute phase. The mean age (SD) was 71.9 (10) years. Patients had been treated with OACs for 5.9 (5.5) years; 98.1% of them were being treated for heart disease. INR was strokes were cardioembolic and 1.9% were atherothrombotic. Anticoagulation therapy was discontinued in 48 patients (44.9%) due to haemorrhagic transformation (24 patients), extensive infarction (23), or endarterectomy (1). Therapy was resumed in 24 patients (50%) after a mean lapse of 36 days. This was not possible in the remaining patients because of death or severe sequelae. New OACs (NOACs) were prescribed to 9 patients (18.7% of all potential candidates). At 3 months, patients with INR>1.7 in the acute phase exhibited better outcomes than patients with INR≤1.7 (mRS 0-2 in 62% vs 30.8%; death in 10% vs 38.4%; P=.0004). Some patients taking OACs suffer ischaemic strokes that are usually cardioembolic, especially if INR is below the therapeutic range. OACs can be resumed without complications, and NOACs are still underused. Despite cases in which treatment is ineffective, outcomes are better when INR is above 1.7 at stroke onset. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in patients taking direct oral anticoagulants: A case series and discussion of management

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    Joseph H. McMordie, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct oral anticoagulants are becoming more commonplace for the treatment of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and deep vein thrombosis. Unfortunately, effective reversal agents are not widely available limiting options for neurosurgical intervention during active anticoagulation. We report a case series of 3 patients treated for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage while taking direct oral anticoagulants. All three underwent open surgical clipping after adequate time was allowed for drug metabolism. Decision-making must take into account timing of intervention, drug half-life, and currently available reversal agents.

  20. Lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome and catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome in a patient with antidomain I antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Joris; Mohamed, Shirine; Revuz, Sabine; de Maistre, Emmanuel; de Laat, Bas; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Zuily, Stéphane; Lévy, Bruno; Regnault, Véronique; Wahl, Denis

    2016-07-01

    Lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome is a rare condition characterized by the association of acquired factor II deficiency and lupus anticoagulant. Contrary to classical antiphospholipid syndrome, it may cause severe life-threatening bleeding (89% of published cases). We report a patient, positive for antidomain I antibodies, with initially primary lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome without previous clinical manifestation or underlying systemic disease. Five years later, he experienced the first systemic lupus erythematous flare. Within a few days, catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome was diagnosed with heart, liver and kidney involvement. The patient recovered under pulse steroids, intravenous heparin and intravenous immunoglobulins.

  1. Treatment of metabolic alkalosis during continuous renal replacement therapy with regional citrate anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindgen-Milles, D; Amman, J; Kleinekofort, W; Morgera, S

    2008-04-01

    The use of citrate as an anticoagulant in continuous renal replacement therapy is an effective method to achieve regional anticoagulation of the extracorporeal blood circuit and to avoid systemic anticoagulation. This allows bleeding complications to be reduced and filter life time to be prolonged. However, citrate enters the systemic circulation and is metabolized in the liver to bicarbonate, causing metabolic alkalosis in some patients. In this case report, we discuss therapeutic interventions to control the acid-base status and to restore normal pH during continuous citrate hemodialysis.

  2. Monitoring the Effects and Antidotes of the Non-vitamin K Oral Anticoagulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahmat, Nur A; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, we have witnessed the emergence of the oral non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs), which have numerous advantages compared with the vitamin K antagonists, particularly their lack of need for monitoring; as a result their use is increasing. Nonetheless, the NOACs face two...... major challenges: the need for reliable laboratory assays to assess their anticoagulation effect, and the lack of approved antidotes to reverse their action. This article provides an overview of monitoring the anticoagulant effect of NOACs and their potential specific antidotes in development....

  3. Anticoagulation and delayed bowel resection in the management of mesenteric venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Kee; Chun, Jae Min; Huh, Seung

    2013-08-14

    Acute mesenteric venous thrombosis is potentially lethal because it can result in mesenteric ischemia and, ultimately, bowel infarction requiring surgical intervention. Systemic anticoagulation for the prevention of thrombus propagation is a well-recognized treatment modality and the current mainstay therapy for patients with acute mesenteric venous thrombosis. However, the decision between prompt surgical exploration vs conservative treatment with anticoagulation is somewhat difficult in patients with suspected bowel ischemia. Here we describe a patient with acute mesenteric venous thrombosis who presented with bowel ischemia and was treated with anticoagulation and delayed short-segment bowel resection.

  4. Therapeutic Anticoagulant Does not Modify Thromboses Rate Vein after Venous Reconstruction Following Pancreaticoduodenectomy

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    Mehdi Ouaïssi

    2008-01-01

    confluent SMV (n=12; type III (n=1 resulted from a primary end-to-end anastomosis above confluent and PTFE graph was used for reconstruction for type IV (n=2. Curative anticoagulant treatment was always indicated after type IV (n=2 resection, and after resection of type II when the length of venous resection was longer than ≥2 cm. Results. Venous thrombosis rate reached: 0%, 41%, and 100% for type I, II, IV resections, respectively. Among them four patients received curative anticoagulant treatment. Conclusion. After a portal vein resection was achieved in the course of a PD, curative postoperative anticoagulation does not prevent efficiently the onset of thrombosis.

  5. Will NOACs become the new standard of care in anticoagulation therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergene Oktay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the general population, with a prevalence of 1–3%, which increases with age, reaching 15% in elderly people. Prophylaxis of ischemic stroke with warfarin was the gold standard of medical management for many years. On the other hand heparin and warfarin was the main pharmacologic agents for the prophylaxis/treatment of venous thromboembolism. In the last 5 years warfarin is getting replaced by non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants at least partly. In this article it is attempted to foresee whether new oral anticoagulants will become the new standard of care in anticoagulation therapy.

  6. Where do we go from here? Reappraising the data on anticoagulation in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirulis, Meghan M; Ryan, John J

    2016-05-01

    The use of anticoagulation as part of the treatment regimen in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a topic of debate. A recently published analysis of anticoagulation use in the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL) study offers conflicting conclusions regarding the benefit of this therapeutic strategy. There remains no robust randomized trial in PAH weighing the risks versus benefits of including anticoagulation in treatment regimens, leaving clinicians to surmise value in individual patients. Reexamination of available data may help to provide guidance on this controversial topic in the absence of future dedicated investigations.

  7. Practical considerations in emergency management of bleeding in the setting of target-specific oral anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael P; Trujillo, Toby C; Nordenholz, Kristen E

    2014-04-01

    The recent arrival of the target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) offers potential advantages in the field of anticoagulation. However, there are no rapid and accurate and routinely available laboratory assays to evaluate their contribution to clinical bleeding. With the expanding clinical indications for the TSOACs, and the arrival of newer reversal agents on the market, the emergency clinician will need to be familiar with drug specifics as well as methods for anticoagulation reversal. This review offers a summary of the literature and some practical strategies for the approach to the patient taking TSOACs and the management of bleeding in these cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A mainframe interfacing computer management system for the control of oral anticoagulant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, P; Stear, M

    1992-01-01

    A unique computerized management system has been used to control the anticoagulation of over 400 patients at a large teaching hospital for the last eighteen months. The system is located on the main pathology computer which can be interfaced with the patient administration system (PAS). This enables files in the anticoagulant program to be linked with files in the PAS and files in the haematology database. This system has many advantages over a stand-alone microcomputer system and will form the basis for the next generation of computerized anticoagulant management systems.

  9. The effect on liveweight gain of using anthelmintics with incomplete efficacy against resistant Cooperia oncophora in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, Paul M; Waghorn, Tania S; Miller, Chris M; Ganesh, Siva; Leathwick, Dave M

    2018-02-15

    A replicated field trial was conducted to measure the effect on liveweight gain of failing to adequately control anthelmintic resistant populations of Cooperia oncophora and to determine whether populations, and hence production losses, increased with time. Eight mobs of 10 Friesian-Hereford calves were run on independent farmlets from January to December, over each of two years. All mobs were routinely treated with a pour-on formulation of eprinomectin every six weeks, which controlled parasites other than Cooperia. Four mobs also received six weekly treatments with an oral levamisole plus albendazole combination anthelmintic to control Cooperia. Liveweights, condition scores, faecal egg counts and larval numbers on pasture were measured throughout. In the first year animals treated with eprinomectin alone were 12.9 kg lighter in November than those treated with eprinomectin plus albendazole and levamisole, however, in the second year there was no difference between the treatment groups. The data, therefore, support the view that while C. oncophora is less pathogenic than other cattle parasite species it can still cause production losses when present in sufficient numbers. In the first year of the study, parasite load, as measured by faecal nematode egg count and larval numbers on herbage, tended to be higher and calf growth rates lower than in the second year. In both years, counts of infective larvae on herbage declined over winter-spring to be at low levels before mid-summer. This suggests that the carry-over of infection from one crop of calves to the next was relatively small and hence that the level of challenge to the young calves at the start of each year was largely due to the effectiveness of the quarantine treatments administered when the animals arrived on the trial site. Low survival of larvae on pasture between grazing seasons, resulting in small larval populations on pasture when drenching programmes start each summer, might help to explain the

  10. Microfluidic platform for electrophysiological recordings from host-stage hookworm and Ascaris suum larvae: A new tool for anthelmintic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Janis C; Roberts, William M; Robinson, Kristin J; Keaney, Melissa; Vermeire, Jon J; Urban, Joseph F; Lockery, Shawn R; Hawdon, John M

    2016-12-01

    The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device ('chip') that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping) of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs) are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. Microfluidic technologies have transformed C. elegans research and the goal of the current study was to validate hookworm and Ascaris suum host-stage larvae in the microfluidic EPG platform. Ancylostoma ceylanicum and A. caninum infective L3s (iL3s) that had been activated in vitro generally produced erratic EPG activity under the conditions tested. In contrast, A. ceylanicum L4s recovered from hamsters exhibited robust, sustained EPG activity, consisting of three waveforms: (1) conventional pumps as seen in other nematodes; (2) rapid voltage deflections, associated with irregular contractions of the esophagus and openings of the esophogeal-intestinal valve (termed a 'flutter'); and (3) hybrid waveforms, which we classified as pumps. For data analysis, pumps and flutters were combined and termed EPG 'events.' EPG waveform identification and analysis were performed semi-automatically using custom-designed software. The neuromodulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT) increased EPG event frequency in A. ceylanicum L4s at an optimal concentration of 0.5 mM. The anthelmintic drug ivermectin (IVM) inhibited EPG activity in a concentration-dependent manner. EPGs from A. suum L3s recovered from pig lungs exhibited robust pharyngeal pumping in 1 mM 5HT, which was inhibited by IVM. These experiments validate the use of A. ceylanicum L4s and A

  11. Mechanistic and single-dose in vivo therapeutic studies of Cry5B anthelmintic action against hookworms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hu

    Full Text Available Hookworm infections are one of the most important parasitic infections of humans worldwide, considered by some second only to malaria in associated disease burden. Single-dose mass drug administration for soil-transmitted helminths, including hookworms, relies primarily on albendazole, which has variable efficacy. New and better hookworm therapies are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein Cry5B has potential as a novel anthelmintic and has been extensively studied in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we ask whether single-dose Cry5B can provide therapy against a hookworm infection and whether C. elegans mechanism-of-action studies are relevant to hookworms.To test whether the C. elegans invertebrate-specific glycolipid receptor for Cry5B is relevant in hookworms, we fed Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm adults Cry5B with and without galactose, an inhibitor of Cry5B-C. elegans glycolipid interactions. As with C. elegans, galactose inhibits Cry5B toxicity in A. ceylanicum. Furthermore, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, which controls one of the most important Cry5B signal transduction responses in C. elegans, is functionally operational in hookworms. A. ceylanicum hookworms treated with Cry5B up-regulate p38 MAPK and knock down of p38 MAPK activity in hookworms results in hypersensitivity of A. ceylanicum adults to Cry5B attack. Single-dose Cry5B is able to reduce by >90% A. ceylanicum hookworm burdens from infected hamsters, in the process eliminating hookworm egg shedding in feces and protecting infected hamsters from blood loss. Anthelmintic activity is increased about 3-fold, eliminating >97% of the parasites with a single 3 mg dose (∼30 mg/kg, by incorporating a simple formulation to help prevent digestion in the acidic stomach of the host mammal.These studies advance the development of Cry5B protein as a potent, safe single-dose anthelmintic for hookworm therapy and make available the information of how

  12. Microfluidic platform for electrophysiological recordings from host-stage hookworm and Ascaris suum larvae: A new tool for anthelmintic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis C. Weeks

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device (‘chip’ that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. Microfluidic technologies have transformed C. elegans research and the goal of the current study was to validate hookworm and Ascaris suum host-stage larvae in the microfluidic EPG platform. Ancylostoma ceylanicum and A. caninum infective L3s (iL3s that had been activated in vitro generally produced erratic EPG activity under the conditions tested. In contrast, A. ceylanicum L4s recovered from hamsters exhibited robust, sustained EPG activity, consisting of three waveforms: (1 conventional pumps as seen in other nematodes; (2 rapid voltage deflections, associated with irregular contractions of the esophagus and openings of the esophogeal-intestinal valve (termed a ‘flutter’; and (3 hybrid waveforms, which we classified as pumps. For data analysis, pumps and flutters were combined and termed EPG ‘events.’ EPG waveform identification and analysis were performed semi-automatically using custom-designed software. The neuromodulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT increased EPG event frequency in A. ceylanicum L4s at an optimal concentration of 0.5 mM. The anthelmintic drug ivermectin (IVM inhibited EPG activity in a concentration-dependent manner. EPGs from A. suum L3s recovered from pig lungs exhibited robust pharyngeal pumping in 1 mM 5HT, which was inhibited by IVM. These experiments validate the use of A

  13. Anthelmintic treatment in horses : the extra-label use of products and the danger of under-dosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matthee

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthelmintic products form the basis of helminth control practices on horse stud farms at present. Regular evaluation of the efficacy of these products is advisable, as it will provide information on the worm egg reappearance period and the resistance status in the worm population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of doramectin, pyrantel pamoate, ivermectin and moxidectin on a Thoroughbred stud farm in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. The study also compared the anthelmintic efficacy of two moxidectin formulations administered at their recommended dosages (an injectable, at 0.2 mg / kg, not registered for horses, and an oral gel at 0.4 mg / kg, registered for horses. Two mixed-sex groups of 30 yearlings and 40 weaners were tested in 2001 and 2002, respectively, divided into 3 and 4 groups of equal size. In 2001, moxidectin was one of 3 drugs administered orally and at a dose rate of 0.4 mg / kg. In 2002, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin were orally administered at 19 and 0.2 mg / kg. Moxidectin and doramectin (the latter not registered for horses were administered by intramuscular injection at a dose of 0.2 mg / kg, the dosage registered for other host species. The faecal egg count reduction test was used to determine the anthelmintic efficacies in both years. Each animal acted as its own control and the arithmetic mean faecal egg count and lower 95 % confidence limit was calculated for each of the groups. A 100 % reduction in the faecal egg counts and a 100 % lower 95 % confidence limit was recorded for moxidectin (0.4 mg / kg in 2001. In 2002, a 99 % and 96% reduction was recorded for pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin, respectively. In the same year doramectin and moxidectin (both injectable and given at 0.2 mg / kg did not have any effect on worm egg counts. Of the 4 drugs tested in 2002, only pyrantel pamoate recorded lower 95 % confidence limits above 90 %.

  14. Antibacterial-induced nephrotoxicity in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanos, V; Cataldi, L

    1999-03-01

    Antibacterials are the primary cause of drug-induced kidney disease in all age groups and these agents bring about renal damage by 2 main mechanisms, namely, direct and immunologically mediated. For some antibacterials (aminoglycosides and vancomycin) nephrotoxicity is very frequent but generally reversible upon discontinuation of the drug. However, the development of acute renal failure with these agents is possible and its incidence in the newborn seems to be increasing. Antibacterials are very often used in the neonatal period especially in very low birthweight neonates. The role of neonatal age in developing nephrotoxicity has still to be defined. Since the traditional laboratory parameters of nephrotoxicity are abnormal only in the presence of substantial renal damage, the identification of early non-invasive markers of the renal damage (urinary microglobulins, enzymes and growth factors) is of importance. Aminoglycosides and glycopeptides are still frequently used, either alone or in combination, despite their low therapeutic index. Numerous factors intervene in bringing about the kidney damage induced by these 2 classes of antibacterials, such as factors related to the antibacterial itself and others related to the associated pathology as well as pharmacological factors. Nephrotoxicity can be caused by the beta-lactams and related compounds. Their potential to cause nephrotoxicity decreases in the order: carbapenems > cephalosporins > penicillins > monobactams. Third generation cephalosporins are frequently used in neonates. However, they are well tolerated compounds at the renal level. The nephrotoxicity of other classes of antibacterials is not discussed either because they are only used in neonates in exceptional circumstances, for example, chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) or are not associated with significant nephrotoxicity, for example macrolides, clindamicin, quinolones, rifampicin (rifampin) and metronidazole

  15. Optical control of antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velema, Willem A.; van der Berg, Jan Pieter; Hansen, Mickel J.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial resistance is a major problem in the modern world, stemming in part from the build-up of antibiotics in the environment. Novel molecular approaches that enable an externally triggered increase in antibiotic activity with high spatiotemporal resolution and auto-inactivation are highly desirable. Here we report a responsive, broad-spectrum, antibacterial agent that can be temporally activated with light, whereupon it auto-inactivates on the scale of hours. The use of such a ‘smart’ antibiotic might prevent the build-up of active antimicrobial material in the environment. Reversible optical control over active drug concentration enables us to obtain pharmacodynamic information. Precisely localized control of activity is achieved, allowing the growth of bacteria to be confined to defined patterns, which has potential for the development of treatments that avoid interference with the endogenous microbial population in other parts of the organism.

  16. Enhanced bioavailability and anthelmintic efficacy of mebendazole in redispersible microparticles with low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torre-Iglesias PM

    2014-09-01

    –∞ values. Likewise, after oral administration of the RDM-1:2.5 and RDM-1:5 the AUC0–∞ were 2.67- and 2.97-fold higher, respectively, compared to those of pure MBZ. Therapeutic activity, assessed on the Trichinella spiralis life cycle, showed that RDM-1:5 was the most effective in reducing the number of parasites (4.56-fold as compared to pure MBZ, on the encysted stage.Conclusion: The MBZ: L-HPC RDM might be an effective way of improving oral bioavailability and therapeutic activity using low doses of MBZ (5 mg/kg, which implies a low degree of toxicity for humans. Keywords: benzimidazole carbamates, redispersible microparticles, in vitro dissolution, pharmacokinetics, anthelmintic activity, Trichinella spiralis

  17. Disruption of the blood–brain barrier in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium, untreated and after anthelmintic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Marzal, Miguel; Cangalaya, Carla; Balboa, Diana; Orrego, Miguel Ángel; Paredes, Adriana; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Arroyo, Gianfranco; García, Hector H.; González, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a widely prevalent disease in the tropics that causes seizures and a variety of neurological symptoms in most of the world. Experimental models are limited and do not allow assessment of the degree of inflammation around brain cysts. The vital dye Evans Blue (EB) was injected into 11 pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium cysts to visually identify the extent of disruption of the blood brain barrier. A total of 369 cysts were recovered from the 11 brains and classified according to the staining of their capsules as blue or unstained. The proportion of cysts with blue capsules was significantly higher in brains from pigs that had received anthelmintic treatment 48 and 120 h before the EB infusion, indicating a greater compromise of the blood brain barrier due to treatment. The model could be useful for understanding the pathology of treatment-induced inflammation in neurocysticercosis. PMID:23684909

  18. Anticoagulant Prairie Dog Bait Risk Mitigation Measures to Protect Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web page contains information on how certified pesticide applicators can use anticoagulant prairie dog bait products such as Rozol and Kaput-D while minimizing exposure risks to listed and non-target species.

  19. Guideline-related barriers to optimal prescription of oral anticoagulants in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukenhorst, A. L.; Arts, D. L.; Lucassen, W.; Jager, K. J.; van der Veer, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines provide recommendations for antithrombotic treatment to prevent stroke in people with atrial fibrillation, but oral anticoagulant prescriptions in Dutch primary care are often discordant with these recommendations. Suboptimal guideline features (i.e. format and content) have been

  20. Aspirin or anticoagulants for treating recurrent miscarriage in women without antiphospholipid syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaandorp, Stef; Di Nisio, Marcello; Goddijn, Mariette; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2009-01-01

    Background Since hypercoagulability might result in recurrent miscarriage, anticoagulant agents could potentially increase the live-birth rate in subsequent pregnancies in women with either inherited thrombophilia or unexplained recurrent miscarriage. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety

  1. Anticoagulants for the treatment of recurrent pregnancy loss in women without antiphospholipid syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nisio, M.; Peters, L. W.; Middeldorp, S.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since hypercoagulability might result in recurrent pregnancy loss, anticoagulant agents could potentially increase the live-birth rate in subsequent pregnancies in women with either inherited thrombophilia or unexplained pregnancy loss. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of

  2. Congenital Malformations Associated with the Administration of Oral Anticoagulants During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettifor, J. M.; Benson, R.

    1975-01-01

    Reported are case histories of three infants with congenital malformations (including defective formation of the nose and hands) associated with ingestion of oral anticoagulants during the first trimester of pregnancy. (CL)

  3. The potential interaction between oral anticoagulants and acetaminophen in everyday practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bemt, PMLA; Geven, LM; Kuitert, NA; Risselada, A; Brouwers, JRBJ

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The drug-drug interaction between oral anticoagulants (especially warfarin) and acetaminophen has been described, but evidence is conflicting and evidence for a similar interaction between acenocoumarol or phenprocoumon and acetaminophen is limited. Therefore, a study was performed to

  4. Recurrent venous thromboembolism and abnormal uterine bleeding with anticoagulant and hormone therapy use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinelli, Ida; Lensing, Anthonie W. A.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Levi, Marcel; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; van Bellen, Bonno; Bounameaux, Henri; Brighton, Timothy A.; Cohen, Alexander T.; Trajanovic, Mila; Gebel, Martin; Lam, Phuong; Wells, Philip S.; Prins, Martin H.

    2016-01-01

    Women receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) require adequate contraception because of the potential for fetal complications. It is unknown whether the use of hormonal therapy, especially those containing estrogens, is associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) during anticoagulation.

  5. Stability of direct oral anticoagulants in whole blood and plasma from patients in steady state treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGrail, Rie; Revsholm, Jesper; Nissen, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Using functional haemostasis assays, we demonstrated important differences in stability of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in citrated whole blood and plasma from DOAC treated patients. Laboratories and clinicians should take this into consideration and adjust clinical practices accordingly....

  6. Anticoagulation dilemma in a high-risk patient with On-X valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami M Karkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thromboembolism continues to be a major concern in patients with mechanical heart valves, especially in those with unsatisfactory anticoagulation levels. The new On-X valve (On-X Life Technologies, Austin, TX, USA has been reported as having unique structural characteristics that offer lower thrombogenicity to the valve. We report a case where the patient received no or minimal systemic anticoagulation after placement of On-X mitral and aortic valves due to development of severe mucosal arterio-venous malformations yet did not show any evidence of thromboembolism. This case report reinforces the findings of recent studies that lower anticoagulation levels may be acceptable in patients with On-X valves and suggests this valve may be particularly useful in those in whom therapeutic levels of anticoagulation cannot be achieved due to increased risk of bleeding.

  7. Switching, Adverse Effects and Use of Over-the-Counter Analgesics among Users of Oral Anticoagulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Hyllested, Lea Maria Ronneberg; Meegaard, Line

    2017-01-01

    collected information concerning the patients' knowledge of their anticoagulant treatment including prior drug switching. Further, patients were asked about use of over-the-counter analgesics, adverse effects, and how the treatment affected their everyday life. Among 335 eligible patients, 301 (90%) agreed......) to a NOAC. Switching was most frequently caused by inconvenience (34%) and adverse effects (23%). Although half of all patients had recently bought over-the-counter analgesics, purchase of ibuprofen and aspirin was rare (6%). More VKA users than NOAC users felt limited in their everyday life because...... of anticoagulant treatment (18% vs. 9%). Among non-incident NOAC users, 21% had experienced adverse effects during their current treatment. Based on first-hand information from a large sample of anticoagulant users, we conclude that the main drug-related issues leading to anticoagulant switching and perceived...

  8. Improved late survival and disability after stroke with therapeutic anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation: a population study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, Niamh

    2011-09-01

    Although therapeutic anticoagulation improves early (within 1 month) outcomes after ischemic stroke in hospital-admitted patients with atrial fibrillation, no information exists on late outcomes in unselected population-based studies, including patients with all stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic).

  9. Investigation into the prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation into the prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility patterns of aeromonas and plesiomonas species isolated from children with diarrhoea in Amuwo-Odofin and Surulere Local Government areas of Lagos, Nigeria.

  10. Antibacterial and haematological activity of Moringa oleifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical, antibacterial and haematologic activity of aqueous seed extract of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) were evaluated. Phytochemicals such as tannins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones and flavonoids in low, moderate and high concentrations were present in the seeds.

  11. Antibacterial and haematological activity of Moringa oleifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Abstract. The phytochemical, antibacterial and haematologic activity of aqueous seed extract of Moringa oleifera. (Moringaceae) were evaluated. Phytochemicals such as tannins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones and flavonoids in low, moderate and high concentrations were present in the ...

  12. Phytochemical Screening, Antibacterial and Toxicological Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract fractions generally exhibited marked antibacterial activities on Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli except on Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. All the leaves extract ...

  13. Isolation and antibacterial activity of anabaena phycocyanin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taghwo

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... Key words: Anabaena, phycocyanin, liquid chromatogram, antibacterial. INTRODUCTION. Phycocyanins are photosynthetic pigments of cyanobacteria. Pure phycocyanin are widely used as fluorescent labelling reagents (Glazer, 1994; Telford et al.2001), and as natural colorants for food and cosmetics.

  14. 44 Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Screening of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    concentrations, while the aqueous extract were susceptible on five organism namely Corynebacteria,. Streptococcus pyogene, Proteus specie, Neiserra gonorrhoeae, and Treponema palladium. Key words: Asparagus flagellaris, phytochemical, ethanol extract, aqueous extract and antibacterial screening. Introduction.

  15. Antibacterial Titanium Produced Using Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Andrew; Li, Xiaopeng; McCormick, Paul; Ren, Ling; Yang, Ke; Sercombe, Timothy B.

    2017-12-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys used in current medical and dental applications do not possess antibacterial properties, and therefore, postoperative infection remains a significant risk. Recently, the addition of silver and copper to conventional biomaterials has been shown to produce a material with good antibacterial properties. In this article, we investigate selective laser melting as a method of producing antibacterial Ti-6Al-4V containing elemental additions of Cu or Ag. The addition of Ag had no effect on the microstructure or strength, but it did result in a 300% increase in the ductility of the alloy. In contrast, the addition of Cu resulted in an increase in strength but in a decrease in ductility, along with a change in the structure of the material. The Cu-containing alloy also showed moderate antibacterial properties and was superior to the Ag-containing alloy.

  16. Modelling the consequences of targeted selective treatment strategies on performance and emergence of anthelmintic resistance amongst grazing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Berk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of anthelmintic resistance by helminths can be slowed by maintaining refugia on pasture or in untreated hosts. Targeted selective treatments (TST may achieve this through the treatment only of individuals that would benefit most from anthelmintic, according to certain criteria. However TST consequences on cattle are uncertain, mainly due to difficulties of comparison between alternative strategies. We developed a mathematical model to compare: 1 the most ‘beneficial’ indicator for treatment selection and 2 the method of selection of calves exposed to Ostertagia ostertagi, i.e. treating a fixed percentage of the population with the lowest (or highest indicator values versus treating individuals who exceed (or are below a given indicator threshold. The indicators evaluated were average daily gain (ADG, faecal egg counts (FEC, plasma pepsinogen, combined FEC and plasma pepsinogen, versus random selection of individuals. Treatment success was assessed in terms of benefit per R (BPR, the ratio of average benefit in weight gain to change in frequency of resistance alleles R (relative to an untreated population. The optimal indicator in terms of BPR for fixed percentages of calves treated was plasma pepsinogen and the worst ADG; in the latter case treatment was applied to some individuals who were not in need of treatment. The reverse was found when calves were treated according to threshold criteria, with ADG being the best target indicator for treatment. This was also the most beneficial strategy overall, with a significantly higher BPR value than any other strategy, but its degree of success depended on the chosen threshold of the indicator. The study shows strong support for TST, with all strategies showing improvements on calves treated selectively, compared with whole-herd treatment at 3, 8, 13 weeks post-turnout. The developed model appeared capable of assessing the consequences of other TST strategies on calf populations.

  17. Assessment of the anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole in school children in seven countries where soil-transmitted helminths are endemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Vercruysse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Necator americanus/Ancylostoma duodenale are among the most widespread parasites worldwide. Despite the global expansion of preventive anthelmintic treatment, standard operating procedures to monitor anthelmintic drug efficacy are lacking. The objective of this study, therefore, was to define the efficacy of a single 400 milligram dose of albendazole (ALB against these three STH using a standardized protocol.Seven trials were undertaken among school children in Brazil, Cameroon, Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Tanzania and Vietnam. Efficacy was assessed by the Cure Rate (CR and the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR using the McMaster egg counting technique to determine fecal egg counts (FEC. Overall, the highest CRs were observed for A. lumbricoides (98.2% followed by hookworms (87.8% and T. trichiura (46.6%. There was considerable variation in the CR for the three parasites across trials (country, by age or the pre-intervention FEC (pre-treatment. The latter is probably the most important as it had a considerable effect on the CR of all three STH. Therapeutic efficacies, as reflected by the FECRs, were very high for A. lumbricoides (99.5% and hookworms (94.8% but significantly lower for T. trichiura (50.8%, and were affected to different extents among the 3 species by the pre-intervention FEC counts and trial (country, but not by sex or age.Our findings suggest that a FECR (based on arithmetic means of >95% for A. lumbricoides and >90% for hookworms should be the expected minimum in all future surveys, and that therapeutic efficacy below this level following a single dose of ALB should be viewed with concern in light of potential drug resistance. A standard threshold for efficacy against T. trichiura has yet to be established, as a single-dose of ALB is unlikely to be satisfactory for this parasite.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01087099.

  18. A randomized triple blind trial to assess the effect of an anthelmintic programme for working equids in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christley Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastro-intestinal parasitism has been identified as a significant cause of disease in working equids in many countries. This randomized triple-blind trial was designed to assess the impact of an anthelmintic treatment programme (using oral ivermectin and fenbendazole comparing treated and placebo control populations of working donkeys, mules and horses in field conditions in Morocco. In particular, we assessed animal body weight and condition score, together with a questionnaire-based owner evaluation of number of subjective animal health parameters. Faecal worm egg count was also measured. Results 239 animals completed the full study, 130 in the treatment group and 109 in the control group. Although the average animal weight increased during the study, this change was not significantly different between the two groups. Animals in the treatment group had a significantly lower strongyle worm egg count and increased in body condition score compared to animals in the control group at each examination during the study period. Owners of animals in the treatment group reported improvement in health and work ability and a beneficial effect on pruritus during the early period of the study. These differences in owner perception between treatment groups had disappeared in the latter stages of the study. Conclusion This study demonstrated that a routine anthelmintic treatment programme of three treatments annually can have a significant effect on faecal worm egg count. There may be beneficial consequences for the animal health and productivity. Further research on other populations of working equids in different environments would facilitate the objective planning of effective parasite control strategies for specific situations and provide better understanding of the likely clinical benefits of such programmes.

  19. A new instrument for measuring anticoagulation-related quality of life: development and preliminary validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiklund Ingela

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anticoagulation can reduce quality of life, and different models of anticoagulation management might have different impacts on satisfaction with this component of medical care. Yet, to our knowledge, there are no scales measuring quality of life and satisfaction with anticoagulation that can be generalized across different models of anticoagulation management. We describe the development and preliminary validation of such an instrument – the Duke Anticoagulation Satisfaction Scale (DASS. Methods The DASS is a 25-item scale addressing the (a negative impacts of anticoagulation (limitations, hassles and burdens; and (b positive impacts of anticoagulation (confidence, reassurance, satisfaction. Each item has 7 possible responses. The DASS was administered to 262 patients currently receiving oral anticoagulation. Scales measuring generic quality of life, satisfaction with medical care, and tendency to provide socially desirable responses were also administered. Statistical analysis included assessment of item variability, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, scale structure (factor analysis, and correlations between the DASS and demographic variables, clinical characteristics, and scores on the above scales. A follow-up study of 105 additional patients assessed test-retest reliability. Results 220 subjects answered all items. Ceiling and floor effects were modest, and 25 of the 27 proposed items grouped into 2 factors (positive impacts, negative impacts, this latter factor being potentially subdivided into limitations versus hassles and burdens. Each factor had a high degree of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.78–0.91. The limitations and hassles factors consistently correlated with the SF-36 scales measuring generic quality of life, while the positive psychological impact scale correlated with age and time on anticoagulation. The intra-class correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.80. Conclusions

  20. Antibacterial activity of selected glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Łuczaj-Cepowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the paper was to determine the antibacterial activity of four glass ionomer cements against bacteria of the genera Streptococcus and Lactobacillus. Material and methods: Four capsulated glass ionomer cements were applied in the study: Fuji Triage (GC, Fuji IX (GC, Ketac Molar (3M Espe and Ketac Silver (3M Espe. Four standard bacterial strains were used to assess the antibacterial activity of the studied cements: Streptococcus mutans, S. sanguis, S. salivarius and Lactobacillus casei. The antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. The bacterial suspension was spread with a cotton swab on TSA plates. For each material six wells (7 mm diameter, 5 mm deep were made with a cork borer. Each well was then filled with freshly prepared cements. The results were obtained by measuring the bacterial growth inhibition zone after 1, 2, 3 and 7 days. Results: Fuji Triage cement inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains. Fuji IX cement demonstrated the most potent antibacterial activity against S. sanguis. Ketac Molar showed antibacterial activity against S. sanguis and S. salivarius, whereas Ketac Silver was efficient against S. mutans as well. Neither of the Ketac cements inhibited growth of the standard L. casei strain. Discussion: Antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements has attracted the interest of scientists in recent years. Most authors, including us, carried out experiments using the agar diffusion method and demonstrated antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements. Different antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements, observed in our study and studies of other authors, depended on the evaluated cement, bacterial strain and period of evaluation.

  1. Antibacterial activity of selected glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Łuczaj-Cepowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the paper was to determine the antibacterial activity of four glass ionomer cements against bacteria of the genera Streptococcus and Lactobacillus.Material and methods: Four capsulated glass ionomer cements were applied in the study: Fuji Triage (GC, Fuji IX (GC, Ketac Molar (3M Espe and Ketac Silver (3M Espe. Four standard bacterial strains were used to assess the antibacterial activity of the studied cements: Streptococcus mutans, S. sanguis, S. salivarius and Lactobacillus casei. The antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. The bacterial suspension was spread with a cotton swab on TSA plates. For each material six wells (7 mm diameter, 5 mm deep were made with a cork borer. Each well was then filled with freshly prepared cements. The results were obtained by measuring the bacterial growth inhibition zone after 1, 2, 3 and 7 days. Results: Fuji Triage cement inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains. Fuji IX cement demonstrated the most potent antibacterial activity against S. sanguis. Ketac Molar showed antibacterial activity against S. sanguis and S. salivarius, whereas Ketac Silver was efficient against S. mutans as well. Neither of the Ketac cements inhibited growth of the standard L. casei strain. Discussion: Antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements has attracted the interest of scientists in recent years. Most authors, including us, carried out experiments using the agar diffusion method and demonstrated antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements. Different antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements, observed in our study and studies of other authors, depended on the evaluated cement, bacterial strain and period of evaluation.

  2. Isolated gastrocnemius and soleal vein thrombosis: should these patients receive therapeutic anticoagulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautz, Timothy B; Abbas, Farah; Walsh, Sarah J Novis; Chow, Christopher; Amaranto, Daniel J; Wang, Edward; Blackburn, Donna; Pearce, William H; Kibbe, Melina R

    2010-04-01

    To determine the incidence of isolated gastrocnemius and soleal vein thrombosis (IGSVT) and the effect of anticoagulation on venous thromboembolism (VTE) events in patients with IGSVT. Although IGSVT is diagnosed with increasing frequency, the clinical significance and optimal management remains unknown. Vascular laboratory studies from April 2002 to April 2007 were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with IGSVT. Medical records were reviewed for demographic data, risk factors, treatment modalities, and VTE events. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. Of 38,426 lower extremity venous duplex studies, 406 patients with IGSVT were included in this study. Mean follow-up was 7.5 +/- 11 months. The overall incidence of VTE among the entire cohort was 18.7%, which included 3.9% pulmonary embolism and 16.3% deep venous thrombosis, with 1.5% of patients having both pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis. However, the incidence of VTE was 30% (36/119) and 27% (13/48) in patients who received no or prophylactic anticoagulation, respectively, but only 12% in patients treated with therapeutic anticoagulation (23/188; P = 0.0003). Multivariate analysis identified lack of therapeutic anticoagulation (P = 0.017) and history of VTE (P = 0.011) as independent predictors of subsequent VTE development. The rate of IGSVT resolution during follow up was 61.2% with therapeutic anticoagulation, but only 40.0% and 41.0% with prophylactic or no anticoagulation, respectively (P = 0.003). IGSVT is associated with a clinically significant rate of VTE which is dramatically reduced with therapeutic anticoagulation. These data warrant further investigation, taking into account the risks and benefits of anticoagulation.

  3. Prevalence of lupus anticoagulant in multiparous women in Benin City, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodu, O A; Ejele, O A; Shokunbi, W A; Enosolease, M E

    2003-03-01

    Lupus anticoagulant which in the past was regarded as a laboratory nuisance is now known to be associated with numerous clinical conditions including thrombosis and recurrent foetal loss, however, no work has been done to assess its prevalence in non-pregnant healthy multiparous women. Our aim therefore was to determine the prevalence of lupus anticoagulant in non-pregnant multiparous Nigerian women of childbearing age. Fifty non-pregnant multiparous women who were considered healthy following verbal interviews were studied. An eligibility criterion was used. Coagulation studies were performed on plasma samples from all the women using the Kaolin clotting time. Mixing experiments were conducted on samples with prolonged clotting time to detect the presence of the lupus anticoagulant. The Kaolin clotting time ratio of greater than or equal to 1.2 was considered positive for the lupus anticoagulant. Forty-four (88%) of the 50 women had a normal cloning time, 2(4%) had subnormal clotting time while 4(8%) of them had a prolonged Kaolin clotting time. Mixing experiments on these 4 samples revealed Kaolin clotting time ratios of over 1.2, signifying the presence of the lupus anticoagulant (i.e. 8 per cent prevalence) among the population of women studied Multiparous women with the lupus anticoagulant may not be symptomatic therefore the anticoagulant should be screened for in women with unexplained prolongation of cloning time. We recommend that these women should be followed up especially in pregnancy to forestall any of the obstetric complications that have been associated with the lupus anticoagulant.

  4. Anticoagulation therapy a risk factor for the development of chronic subdural hematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aspegren, Oskar P.; Åstrand, Ramona; Lundgren, Maria I.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common disease among the elderly and with increasing incidence we have chosen to focus on associations between development and recurrence of CSDH and anticoagulation and/or antiplatelet agent therapy.......Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common disease among the elderly and with increasing incidence we have chosen to focus on associations between development and recurrence of CSDH and anticoagulation and/or antiplatelet agent therapy....

  5. Current Perioperative Anticoagulation Practices in Children with Prosthetic Mechanical Heart Valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyenvu; Sharathkumar, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the clinician practices on perioperative anticoagulation in children with prosthetic mechanical heart valves who undergo elective surgeries. An online survey was administered to members of PediHeartNet. The survey consisted of multiple choice questions and clinical scenarios. The study described clinical practice patterns and variables that influence the clinicians' bridging anticoagulation decisions. Ninety-one respondents completed the survey; 68% were affiliated with university settings; 91% were pediatric cardiologists, and 49% had ≥10 years of experience in pediatric cardiology. Approximately one-half of the respondents (54%) independently provided perioperative anticoagulation management to their patients, while 46% utilized cardiac or hematology anticoagulation services. Resources that influenced bridging decisions included hematology experts (20%), American College of Chest Physicians guidelines (34%), and the clinicians' personal experience (56%). In planning for major surgeries, 47% of the respondents hospitalized patients for unfractionated heparin (UFH) and 46% prescribed outpatient low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). For minor surgeries, 58% hospitalized patients for UFH, 22% prescribed outpatient LMWH, and 17% opted out of bridging anticoagulation. Immediately after mitral valve replacement, 23% used bridging anticoagulation with UFH. When LMWH was used, there were no reports of thromboembolic complications. Major bleeding complications were rare and reported by 2% of the respondents. This was the first documentation that clinical practice of bridging perioperative anticoagulation in children with mechanical heart valves varies widely among pediatric cardiac specialists. There is poor adoption of published guidelines and a tendency toward more conservative strategies. Further studies comparing the safety and efficacy of LMWH vs. UFH as perioperative anticoagulation agents in children with mechanical heart valves are needed

  6. Oral anticoagulant discontinuation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachroo, Sumesh; Hamilton, Melissa; Liu, Xianchen; Pan, Xianying; Brixner, Diana; Marrouche, Nassir; Biskupiak, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    To identify factors associated with all-cause discontinuation (patient discontinued on their own or physician discontinuation) of oral anticoagulants (OACs) among nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients. Retrospective cohort study. We analyzed the MarketScan claims database from October 2009 to July 2012. Adult patients were eligible if they newly initiated an OAC in the study period, had an atrial fibrillation diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 427.31 or 472.32), and had at least 6 months of continuous enrollment after OAC initiation. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess factors associated with discontinuation. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were reported. Among 12,129 eligible patients, 8143 (67.1%) initiated warfarin and 3986 (32.9%) initiated direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Overall, 47.3% of patients independently discontinued during follow-up (mean number of days of follow-up = 416.6 [SD ± 141.7]) with mean time to discontinuation of 120 days (SD ± 114.7). Patients significantly less likely to discontinue included those taking DOACs versus warfarin (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.86-0.97), older patients (≥65 years vs 18 to 34 years) (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.24-0.43), those with diabetes (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77-0.90), those with prior stroke/transient ischemic attack (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.56-0.75), those with prior pulmonary embolism (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.58-0.88), and those with congestive heart failure (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74-0.87). Patients with prior bleeding events were significantly more likely to independently discontinue (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.08-1.34). The risk of independent discontinuation of OAC treatment among NVAF patients was high. Patients on DOACs compared with warfarin and those with several comorbid conditions had significantly lower risk of discontinuation, while those with prior bleeding were more likely to discontinue.

  7. New perspectives and recommendations for anticoagulant therapy post orthopedic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Kropf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anticoagulant therapy is essential for the prevention of risks associated with the formation of thrombus in patients after surgery, especially in orthopedics. Recently, new oral anticoagulants were introduced in the therapeutic arsenal. This fact is important, because the current drug of choice in clinical practice is enoxaparin, a low molecular weight heparin. As all injecting drugs, enoxaparin may reduce patients' adherence to treatment by dissatisfaction with and resistance to the administration. This article reviews the available literature on the overall utility of these innovative medicines, approaching the pharmacology, the compared efficacy in relation to current agents, and the potential targets for new agents, as well as points to new trends in research and development. The article also contributes with a practical guide for use and recommendations to health professionals, especially focusing on the reversibility of hemorrhagic events, and discusses the importance of convenience/satisfaction of use, the cost of treatment, and the risk-benefit profile for patients.A terapia anticoagulante é fundamental para a prevenção de riscos associados à formação de trombos em pacientes pós-cirúrgicos, principalmente em ortopedia. Recentemente, novos anticoagulantes orais foram introduzidos no arsenal terapêutico. Tal fato é importantíssimo, visto que o atual medicamento de primeira escolha na prática clínica é a enoxaparina, uma heparina de baixo peso molecular. Por ser de uso injetável, a enoxaparina pode diminuir a adesão do paciente ao tratamento, devido à insatisfação e à resistência quanto à via de administração. Este artigo revisa a literatura disponível sobre a utilidade total desses medicamentos inovadores ao abordar a farmacologia, a eficácia em comparação com os agentes atuais e os alvos potenciais para novos agentes, bem como aponta as novas tendências em pesquisa e desenvolvimento. O artigo também contribui

  8. Nanostructured Antibacterial Silver Deposited on Polypropylene Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Bo, Wang; Jin-Yan, Wang; Qu-Fu, Wei; Jian-Han, Hong; Xiao-Yan, Zhao

    Nanostructured silver films were deposited on polypropylene (PP) nonwovens by RF magnetron sputter coating to obtain the antibacterial properties. Shake flask test was used to evaluate the antibacterial properties of the materials. Atomic force microscope (AFM) was utilized to observe the surface morphology. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) was also employed to analyze the surface elemental compositions. The antibacterial results indicated that the prolonged deposition time led to a significant improvement in antibacterial effect, and sputtering power and argon pressure did not show obvious effect on antibacterial performance. It is believed that the total amount of silver ions released from the silver coating was increased as the deposition time increased. AFM images and quantitative analysis of EDX, respectively revealed that increase in deposition time led to the increased coverage of silver film and the increased silver weight percentage per unit surface, which provided evidences for the increased release rate of silver ions from the coating. Moreover, it was found that the optimum silver coating thickness was about 3 nm, taking antibacterial effect and cost of production into account.

  9. Mind the gap: results of a multispecialty survey on coordination of care for peri-procedural anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlander, Jacob E; Barnes, Geoffrey D; Anderson, Michelle A; Haymart, Brian; Kline-Rogers, Eva; Kaatz, Scott; Saini, Sameer D; Krein, Sarah L; Richardson, Caroline R; Froehlich, James B

    2018-04-01

    To understand how physicians from various specialties perceive coordination of care when managing peri-procedural anticoagulation. Cross-sectional survey of cardiologists, gastroenterologists, and primary care physicians (PCPs) in an integrated health system (N = 251). The survey began with a vignette of a patient with atrial fibrillation co-managed by his PCP, cardiologist, and an anticoagulation clinic who must hold warfarin for a colonoscopy. Respondents' experiences and opinions around responsibilities and institutional support for managing peri-procedural anticoagulation were elicited using multiple choice questions. We examined differences in responses across specialties using Chi square analysis. The response rate was 51% (n = 127). 52% were PCPs, 28% cardiologists, and 21% gastroenterologists. Nearly half (47.2%) of respondents believed that the cardiologist should be primarily responsible for managing peri-procedural anticoagulation, while fewer identified the PCP (25.2%), anticoagulation clinic (21.3%), or gastroenterologist (6.3%; p = 0.09). Respondents across specialties had significantly different approaches to deciding how to manage the clinical case presented (p procedural anticoagulation, and there was broad support (88.1%) for anticoagulation clinics' managing all aspects of peri-procedural anticoagulation. Providers across specialties agree that their institution could do more to help manage peri-procedural anticoagulation, and overwhelmingly support anticoagulation clinics' taking responsibility.

  10. Nonoclusive thrombosis of mechanical mitral valve prosthesis caused by inadequate treatment of anticoagulant therapy resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Branislava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oral anticoagulants have been used in the prevention of thromboembolic complications for over six decades. A rare, but possible problem in the application of these medications could be resistance to them. Case report. We presented a patient with nonocclusive thrombosis of the mechanical mitral prosthesis due to inadequately treated resistance to peroral anticoagulant therapy. Resistance to oral anticoagulant medications was proven by an increased dosage of warfarin up to 20 mg and, after that, acenokumarol to 15 mg over ten days which did not lead to an increase in the international normalized ratio (INR value over 1.2. On the basis of information that she did not take food rich in vitamin K or medications which could reduce effects of oral anticoagulants, and that she did not have additional illnesses and conditions that could cause an inadequate response to anticoagulant therapy, it was circumstantially concluded that this was a hereditary form of resistance. Because of the existing mechanical prosthetics on the mitral position, low molecular heparin has been introduced into the therapy. The patient reduced it on her own initiative, leading to nonocclusive valvular thrombosis. Conclusion. When associated complications like absolute arrhithmia does not exist, the finding of resistance to oral anticoagulant agents is an indication for the replacement of a mechanical prosthetic with a biological one which has been done in this patients.

  11. Thromboembolic and bleeding risks in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation: oral anticoagulation perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, David F; Madan, Nidhi; Romero, Jorge; Londoño, Alejandra; Villablanca, Pedro A; Natale, Andrea; Di Biase, Luigi

    2017-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Catheter ablation for AF (CAAF) has emerged as an effective treatment option of rhythm control for patients with symptomatic AF. However, the risk of thromboembolism and bleeding in the periprocedural period represent a worrisome complication of this therapy. The reported incidence of thromboembolic and bleeding events associated with CAAF varies from 0.9% to 5% depending on the CAAF strategy and the anticoagulation regimen used in the periprocedural period. Areas covered: The different anticoagulation regimens used prior to, during, and after CAAF to minimize the risk of thromboembolic and bleeding events are reviewed. The use of uninterrupted oral anticoagulation and appropriate heparin dosing to achieve safe activated clotting time levels are also detailed. A comprehensive approach with assessment of individual risk for thromboembolic and bleeding complications, and understanding the pharmacokinetics of the anticoagulant agents available is also reviewed. Expert opinion: The key advances done in the periprocedural anticoagulation field include the use of uninterrupted anticoagulation strategies in patients undergoing AF ablation and efforts to simplify the selection of patients who need LAA thrombus screening prior to ablation.

  12. Healthcare resources and needs in anticoagulant therapy for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. SAMOA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, V; Egocheaga-Cabello, M I; Gállego-Culleré, J; Ignacio-García, E; Manzano-Espinosa, L; Martín-Martínez, A; Mateo-Arranz, J; Polo-García, J; Vargas-Ortega, D

    2017-05-01

    To determine, in the various medical specialties, the healthcare process for anticoagulated patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, to determine the available and necessary resources and to identify potential areas of improvement in the care of these patients. We performed a cross-sectional survey of primary care and specialised physicians involved in the care of anticoagulated patients. The questionnaires referred to the healthcare process, the indication and prescription of anticoagulant therapy and the barriers and deficiencies present for these patients. A total of 893 physicians participated in the study, 437 of whom worked in primary care and 456 of whom were specialists (mostly cardiologists). Forty-two percent of the family doctors indicated that they assessed and prescribed anticoagulant therapy, and 66% performed the regular follow-up of these patients. In both healthcare settings, the physicians noted the lack of standardised protocols. There was also a lack of quality control in the treatment. The role of primary care in managing anticoagulated patients has grown compared with previous reports. The responses of the participating physicians suggest marked gaps in the standardisation of the healthcare process and several areas for improvement in these patients' follow-up. The promotion of training in direct-acting anticoagulant drugs remains pivotal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  13. A rapid pro-hemostatic approach to overcome direct oral anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalji, Nabil K; Ivanciu, Lacramioara; Davidson, Robert; Gimotty, Phyllis A; Krishnaswamy, Sriram; Camire, Rodney M

    2016-08-01

    Direct inhibitors of coagulation factor Xa (FXa) or thrombin are promising oral anticoagulants that are becoming widely adopted. The ability to reverse their anticoagulant effects is important when serious bleeding occurs or urgent medical procedures are needed. Here, using experimental mouse models of hemostasis, we show that a variant coagulation factor, FXa(I16L), rapidly restores hemostasis in the presence of the anticoagulant effects of these inhibitors. The ability of FXa(I16L) to reverse the anticoagulant effects of FXa inhibitor depends, at least in part, on the ability of the active site inhibitor to hinder antithrombin-dependent FXa inactivation, paradoxically allowing uninhibited FXa to persist in plasma. Because of its inherent catalytic activity, FXa(I16L) is more potent (by >50-fold) in the hemostasis models tested than a noncatalytic antidote that is currently in clinical development. FXa(I16L) also reduces the anticoagulant-associated bleeding in vivo that is induced by the thrombin inhibitor dabigatran. FXa(I16L) may be able to fill an important unmet clinical need for a rapid, pro-hemostatic agent to reverse the effects of several new anticoagulants.

  14. Could Some Geriatric Characteristics Hinder the Prescription of Anticoagulants in Atrial Fibrillation in the Elderly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paule Denoël

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported underprescription of anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation (AF. We conducted an observational study on 142 out of a total of 995 consecutive ≥75 years old patients presenting AF (14% when admitted in an emergency unit of a general hospital, in search of geriatric characteristics that might be associated with the underprescription of anticoagulation therapy (mostly antivitamin K at the time of the study. The following data was collected from patients presenting AF: medical history including treatment and comorbidities, CHADS2 score, ISAR scale (frailty, Lawton’s scale (ADL, GDS scale (mood status, MUST (nutrition, and blood analysis (INR, kidney function, and albumin. Among those patients for who anticoagulation treatment was recommended (73%, only 61% were treated with it. In the group with anticoagulation therapy, the following characteristics were observed more often than in the group without such therapy: a recent (≤6 months hospitalization and medical treatment including digoxin or based on >3 different drugs. Neither the value of the CHADS2 score, nor the geriatric characteristics could be correlated with the presence or the absence of an anticoagulation therapy. More research is thus required to identify and clarify the relative importance of patient-, physician-, and health care system-related hurdles for the prescription of oral anticoagulation therapy in older patients with AF.

  15. Anticoagulation in pregnant females with mechanical heart valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafique, H.; Chaudhry, A.; Ayyub, M.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the complications and outcome of anticoagulation therapy in pregnant females with valvular heart diseases. All pregnant females with prosthetic heart valves admitted in Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology from Jan 2004 to Dec 2004 were included in this study Basic demographic data including age, duration of pregnancy and complications observed were recorded. Warfarin was replaced with un-fractionated heparin (UFH) in first trimester and after that warfarin was continued with a targeted INR between 2.0-3.0. At 36 weeks warfarin was stopped and UFH was added; however, if patient went into spontaneous labour before this then immediate caesarian section was performed and UFH was restarted 4-6 hours after delivery along with oral warfarin. Out of 21 patients, sixteen (76.1%) had mitral valve diseases and five (23.9%) had both mitral and atrial. Majority (42.3%)of patients were in age group 26-30 years. Eleven (52.2%) reported in 9th month of gestation. Complications observed were hypertension (1), transient ischaemic attacks (1), pulmonary embolism (1), haemoptysis (1) and abortion (1). All patients, except one had successful completion of pregnancy. No case of foetal abnormality was seen. In 76% patients, daily dose of warfarin was <5 mg. Thrombo-prophylaxis in pregnancy with warfarin and UFH with an INR of 2.0-3.0 is effective in preventing thrombotic complications in females with mechanical valves without resulting in increase hemorrhagic complications. (author)

  16. Management of novel oral anticoagulants in emergency and trauma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Gomes, Ana-Catarina; Hague, Adam; Ghosh, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    The compelling safety, efficacy and predictable effect of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) is driving a rapid expansion in their therapeutic indications. Management of the increasing number of patients on those new agents in the setting of emergency or trauma surgery can be challenging and the absence of specific reversal agents has been a matter of concern. This review summarises the key principles that underpin the management of those patients with a particular emphasis on the recent development of specific antidotes. As of 2015, a new line of antidotes, specific for these drugs, are at different stages of their development with their release imminent. However, as NOACs are innately reversible due to their short half-life, the use of reversal agents will probably be restricted to a few exceptional cases. Post-marketing surveillance will be paramount to better clarify the role of these promising drugs. Management of patients on NOACs in the context of emergency or trauma surgery relies on best supportive care in combination with the blood products and/or specific antidotes as required. Familiarity with the new reversal agents is essential but further evidence on their indications, safety and efficacy as well as consensus guidelines are warranted prior to widespread adoption. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thrombin-Inhibiting Anticoagulant Liposomes: Development and Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endreas, Wegderes; Brüßler, Jana; Vornicescu, Doru; Keusgen, Michael; Bakowsky, Udo; Steinmetzer, Torsten

    2016-02-04

    Many peptides and peptidomimetic drugs suffer from rapid clearance in vivo; this can be reduced by increasing their size through oligomerization or covalent conjugation with polymers. As proof of principle, an alternative strategy for drug oligomerization is described, in which peptidomimetic thrombin inhibitors are incorporated into the liposome surface. For this purpose, the inhibitor moieties were covalently coupled to a palmitic acid residue through a short bifunctionalized ethylene glycol spacer. These molecules were directly added to the lipid mixture used for liposome preparation. The obtained liposomes possess strong thrombin inhibitory potency in enzyme kinetic measurements and anticoagulant activity in plasma. Their strong potency and positive ζ potential indicate that large amounts of the benzamidine-derived inhibitors are located on the surface of the liposomes. This concept should be applicable to other drug molecules that suffer from rapid elimination and allow covalent modification with a suitable fatty acid residue. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Multiaction antibacterial nanofibrous membranes fabricated by electrospinning: an excellent system for antibacterial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yiguang; Jia Weijie; An Qi; Li Guangtao; Liu Yuanfeng; Chen Jinchun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, novel multiaction antibacterial nanofibrous membranes containing apatite, Ag, AgBr and TiO 2 as four active components were fabricated by an electrospinning technique. In this antibacterial membrane, each component serves a different function: the hydroxyapatite acts as the adsorption material for capturing bacteria, the Ag nanoparticles act as the release-active antibacterial agent, the AgBr nanoparticles act as the visible sensitive and release-active antibacterial agent, and the TiO 2 acts as the UV sensitive antibacterial material and substrate for other functional components. Using E. coli as the typical testing organism, such multicomponent membranes exhibit excellent antimicrobial activity under UV light, visible light or in a dark environment. The significant antibacterial properties may be due to the synergetic action of the four major functional components, and the unique porous structure and high surface area of the nanofibrous membrane. It takes only 20 min for the bacteria to be completely (99.9%) destroyed under visible light. Even in a dark environment, about 50 min is enough to kill all of the bacteria. Compared to the four component system in powder form reported previously, the addition of the electrospun membrane could significantly improve the antibacterial inactivation of E. coli under the same evaluation conditions. Besides the superior antimicrobial capability, the permanence of the antibacterial activity of the prepared free-standing membranes was also demonstrated in repeated applications.

  19. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS OF FRESH AND PRESERVED ROYAL JELLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinka Maksimović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial effects of the fresh royal jelly, royal jelly stored at 4 °C and -40 °C for a period of 12 months against reference and isolated bacterial strains from the different clinical samples, were tested and compared by the diffusion test. Royal jelly shows antibacterial effects against both tested gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Fresh royal jelly has the most effective antibacterial activity. Storage temperature at -40 oC slightly affects antibacterial activity of royal jelly, while storage temperature at 4 oC decreases its antibacterial activity.Key words: royal jelly, antibacterial effects, storage temperature, storage duration

  20. Outpatient management of oral anticoagulation treatment (OAT in general practice: the “Medicina di Gruppo di Masate” experience

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    Fiorenzo Massimo Corti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Outpatient management of oral anticoagulation treatment (OAT in general practice: the “Medicina di Gruppo di Masate” experienceOral anticoagulants are used for prophylaxis in thromboembolic conditions. Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs such as warfarin, are commonly employed. The anticoagulation activity induced by VKAs is monitored by the prothrombin time test to determine the International Normalized Ratio (INR. Point-of-care testing (POCT devices can be used to monitor anticoagulant therapy improving the quality of oral anticoagulation. This paper aims at describing the relevant experience of the “Medicina di Gruppo di Masate” in general practice. We also put this experience into the general context of the international evidence on the impact of POCT. Both our experience and the international evidence may support anticoagulant therapy management by GPs (General Practitioners.

  1. Does sex affect anticoagulant use for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation? The prospective global anticoagulant registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lip, G.Y.; Rushton-Smith, S.K.; Goldhaber, S.Z.; Fitzmaurice, D.A.; Mantovani, L.G.; Goto, S.; Haas, S.; Bassand, J.P.; Camm, A.J.; Ambrosio, G.; Jansky, P.; Mahmeed, W. Al; Oh, S.; Eickels, M. van; Raatikainen, P.; Steffel, J.; Oto, A.; Kayani, G.; Accetta, G.; Kakkar, A.K.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), women are at higher risk of stroke than men. Using prospective cohort data from a large global population of patients with nonvalvular AF, we sought to identify any differences in the use of anticoagulants for stroke prevention in women and

  2. Oral anticoagulants in coronary heart disease (Section IV). Position paper of the ESC Working Group on Thrombosis - Task Force on Anticoagulants in Heart Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caterina, R. De; Husted, S.; Wallentin, L.; Andreotti, F.; Arnesen, H.; Bachmann, F.; Baigent, C.; Collet, J.P.; Halvorsen, S.; Huber, K.; Jespersen, J.; Kristensen, S.D.; Lip, G.Y.; Morais, J.; Rasmussen, L.H.; Ricci, F.; Sibbing, D.; Siegbahn, A.; Storey, R.F.; Berg, J ten; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Weitz, J.I.

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) were the only available oral anticoagulants evaluated for long-term treatment of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), particularly after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Despite efficacy in this setting, VKAs are rarely used because they are

  3. Anticoagulation for the Pregnant Patient with a Mechanical Heart Valve, No Perfect Therapy: Review of Guidelines for Anticoagulation in the Pregnant Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Richardson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart valve replacement with a mechanical valve requires lifelong anticoagulation. Guidelines currently recommend using a vitamin K antagonist (VKA such as warfarin. Given the teratogenic effects of VKAs, it is often favorable to switch to heparin-derived therapies in pregnant patients since they do not cross the placenta. However, these therapies are known to be less effective anticoagulants subjecting the pregnant patient to a higher chance of a thrombotic event. Guidelines currently recommend pregnant women requiring more than 5 mg a day of warfarin be switched to alternative therapy during the first trimester. This case report highlights a patient who was switched to alternative therapy during her first pregnancy and suffered a devastating cerebrovascular accident (CVA. Further complicating her situation was during a subsequent pregnancy; this patient continued warfarin use during the first trimester and experienced multiple transient ischemic attacks (TIAs. This case highlights the increased risk of thrombotic events in pregnant patients with mechanical valves. It also highlights the difficulty of providing appropriate anticoagulation for the pregnant patient who has experienced thrombotic events on multiple anticoagulants.

  4. Control of the posoperative bleeding in patíents using anticoagulants mouthwash with tranexamic acid. Implicans of the periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez Visag, Christian; Docente Ad Honorem en el curso de Medicina Estomatologica II. Facultad de Odontología. UNMSM.; Cisneros Zárate, Luis; Profesor Principal Asociado del curso Medicina Estomatologica. Facultad de Odontología. UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    This study analysed the hemostatic clinical effect of the tranexamic acid mouthwash against the conventional treatment in patients treated with oral anticoagulants. After suspending the anticoagulant medication for three days, ten surgical procedures were carried out in ten patients(control group), and without modifying or altering the . anticoagulant treatment, 20 procedures were carried out using tranexamic acid in 15 palients(case group). In this last group, before suturing the surgical fl...

  5. Value of trans-oesophageal echocardiography as a method of encouraging patients with chronic atrial fibrillation to use anticoagulation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bakalli, Aurora; Kamberi, Lulzim; Dragusha, Gani; Zeqiri, Nexhmi; Gashi, Fitim; Prekpalaj, Lazer

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the indisputable role of anticoagulation therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF) patients at risk for stroke, anticoagulants remain under-used in everyday clinical practice. We assumed that by performing trans-oesophageal echocardiography (TEE) on patients with AF who were not on anticoagulation treatment prior to the procedure, and by explaining to them the TEE images obtained, as well as the possible consequences of these findings, we could convince patients to start anticoa...

  6. Evaluation of anthelmintic potential of the Ethiopian medicinal plant Embelia schimperi Vatke in vivo and in vitro against some intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debebe, Yared; Tefera, Mesfin; Mekonnen, Walelign; Abebe, Dawit; Woldekidan, Samuel; Abebe, Abiy; Belete, Yehualashet; Menberu, Temesgen; Belayneh, Bethelhem; Tesfaye, Berhanu; Nasir, Ibrahim; Yirsaw, Kidist; Basha, Hirut; Dawit, Asrat; Debella, Asfaw

    2015-06-18

    Embelia schimperi has been used for the treatment of intestinal parasites especially tapeworm infestations for centuries in Ethiopia. However, there is lack of scientific based evidences regarding the efficacy, safety and phytochemical analysis of this plant despite its frequent use as an anthelmintic. This study has therefore evaluated the efficacy and acute toxicity of E. schimperi thereby generating relevant preclinical information. The anthelmintic activities of the crude hydroalcoholic extract of E. schimperi and the isolated compound, embelin, were conducted using in vivo and in vitro models against the dwarf tapeworm, Hymenolepis nana, and the hookworm, Necator americanus, respectively. LD50 of the crude hydroalcoholic extract was determined using Swiss albino mice following the OECD guidelines. Chemical characterization of the isolated embelin was conducted using UV-spectroscopy, HPLC and NMR. In the acute toxicity study no prominent signs of toxicity and mortality were recorded among the experimental animals at the highest administered dose. Hence the LD50 of the plant was found to be higher than 5000 mg/kg. In vivo cestocidal activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extract of E. schimperi showed 100% parasite clearance at 1000 mg/kg, while the diammonium salt of embelin showed 85.3% parasite clearance at 750 mg/kg. The in vitro anthelminthic activity study revealed that the LC50 value of the crude extract and albendazole were 228.7 and 51.33 μg/mL, respectively. The results clearly indicated that the hydroalcoholic extract of E. schimperi and the diammonium salt of the isolated compound embelin had anthelmintic activity against hookworm larva in vitro and H. nana in vivo. Hence the findings of this study showed Embelia schimperi appears to possess some anthelmintic activity that may support the usage of these plants by local traditional healers to treat helminthic infestations.

  7. [Use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in Primary Care: ACTUA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, V; Escobar, C; Lobos, J M; Polo, J; Vargas, D

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 40% of patients with non-valvular auricular fibrillation (NVAF) who receive vitamin K antagonists (VKA) in Primary Care in Spain have poor anticoagulation control. The objective of the study Actuación en antiCoagulación, Tratamiento y Uso de anticoagulantes orales de acción directa (ACOD) en Atención primaria (ACTUA) (Action in Coagulation, Treatment and Use of direct oral anticoagulants [DOACs]) in Primary Care) was to analyse the current situation regarding the use of VKA and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in patients with NVAF in Primary Care in Spain and the possible issues arising from it. An online survey was created covering various aspects of the use of oral anticoagulants in NAFV. A two-round modified Delphi approach was used. Results were compiled as a set of practical guidelines. Forty-four experts responded to the survey. Consensus was reached in 62% (37/60) of the items. Experts concluded that a considerable number of patients with NVAF who receive VKA do not have a well-controlled INR and that a substantial group of patients who could benefit from being treated with NOACs do not receive them. The use of NOACs increases the probability of having good anticoagulation control and decreases the risk of severe and intracranial haemorrhage. Current limitations to the use of NOACs include administrative barriers, insufficient knowledge about the benefits and risks of NOACs, limited experience of doctors in using them, and their price. Renal insufficiency influences the choice of a particular anticoagulant. The ACTUA study highlights the existing controversies about the use of oral anticoagulants for the treatment of NVAF in Primary Care in Spain, and provides consensus recommendations that may help to improve the use of these medications. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement in long-term ECMO by detailed monitoring of anticoagulation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Alicia; Uber, Walter; Laws, Stacey; Cochran, Joel

    2011-01-01

    The use of unfractionated heparin (UFH) as an anticoagulant during long-term extracorporeal support presents a unique challenge for the clinician in balancing the amount of anticoagulant to maintain adequate anticoagulation without causing excessive bleeding. Activated clotting times (ACT) and activated partial thromboplastin times (aPTT) are the most common modality to monitor UFH on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Limitations to these tests include consumptive coagulopathies, clotting factor deficiencies, platelet dysfunction, and fibrinolysis. The following case report describes the use of alternative monitoring strategies to assess more accurately anticoagulation during ECMO. A 20-month-old female presented to the emergency department with a 5-6 day history of cough, fever, tachypnea, and respiratory distress. She was diagnosed with influenza A and B with pneumonia. The patient was placed on veno-venous ECMO (V-V ECMO) after mechanical ventilation failed. On ECMO day eight, the patient developed a thrombus in her inferior vena cava and pleural effusions, obstructing cannula flow. Laboratory tests revealed the ACT was within range, yet the aPTT was dropping, despite increased heparin. Heparin levels were low and antithrombin-III (AT) concentrations were 40%. Recombinant AT was given and subsequent aPTTs were within the therapeutic range. Later, the aPTT decreased to 475 mg/ dL, and Factor VIII >150 IU/dL, suggesting an acute phase reaction or ongoing systemic inflammation, increasing the risk for thrombosis. We maintained heparin assays between 0.5-0.7 IU/mL and AT >60% to assure heparin's effect. The patient showed no signs of excess bleeding, blood product administration, or clots in the circuit, suggesting proper anticoagulation. The patient was successfully weaned on day 33 and is currently alive and at home. Monitoring of anti-Xa UFH and AT proved effective for measuring anticoagulation and detecting inconsistencies in other anticoagulation

  9. Outcomes during anticoagulation in patients with symptomatic vs. incidental splanchnic vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufano, Antonella; Ageno, Walter; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Niglio, Alferio; Rosa, Vladimir; Ballaz, Aitor; Braester, Andrei; Rubio, Carmen Mª; Isern, Virginia; Imbalzano, Egidio; Monreal, Manuel

    2018-02-27

    Current guidelines recommend the use of anticoagulant therapy in patients with symptomatic splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) and suggest no routine anticoagulation in those with incidental SVT. We used the RIETE (Registro Informatizado Enfermedad Trombo Embólica) registry to assess the rate and severity of symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) recurrences and major bleeding events appearing during the course of anticoagulation in patients with symptomatic or incidental SVT. In March 2017, 521 patients with SVT were recruited. Of them, 212 (41%) presented with symptomatic SVT and 309 had incidental SVT. Most (93%) patients received anticoagulant therapy (median, 147 days). During the course of anticoagulation, 20 patients developed symptomatic VTE recurrences (none died) and 26 had major bleeding (fatal bleeding, 5). On multivariable analysis, patients with incidental SVT had a non-significantly higher risk for symptomatic VTE recurrences (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.04; 95%CI: 0.71-5.88) and a similar risk for major bleeding (HR: 1.12; 95%CI: 0.47-2.63) than those with symptomatic SVT. Active cancer was associated with at increased risk for VTE recurrences (HR: 3.06; 95%CI: 1.14-8.17) and anaemia (HR: 4.11; 95%CI: 1.45-11.6) or abnormal prothrombin time (HR: 4.10; 95%CI: 1.68-10.1) were associated with at increased risk for major bleeding. The rates of recurrent SVT and major bleeding were similar between patients with incidental or symptomatic SVT. Because the severity of bleeding complications during anticoagulation may outweigh the severity of VTE recurrences in both groups, further studies should identify those SVT patients who benefit from anticoagulant therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Specific antidotes against direct oral anticoagulants: A comprehensive review of clinical trials data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Ramyashree; Kavtaradze, Ana; Gupta, Anjan; Ghosh, Raktim Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The Vitamin K antagonist warfarin was the only oral anticoagulant available for decades for the treatment of thrombosis and prevention of thromboembolism until Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs); a group of new oral anticoagulants got approved in the last few years. Direct thrombin inhibitor: dabigatran and factor Xa inhibitors: apixaban, rivaroxaban, and edoxaban directly inhibit the coagulation cascade. DOACs have many advantages over warfarin. However, the biggest drawback of DOACs has been the lack of specific antidotes to reverse the anticoagulant effect in emergency situations. Activated charcoal, hemodialysis, and activated Prothrombin Complex Concentrate (PCC) were amongst the nonspecific agents used in a DOAC associated bleeding but with limited success. Idarucizumab, the first novel antidote against direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran was approved by US FDA in October 2015. It comprehensively reversed dabigatran-induced anticoagulation in a phase I study. A phase III trial on Idarucizumab also complete reversal of anticoagulant effect of dabigatran. Andexanet alfa (PRT064445), a specific reversal agent against factor Xa inhibitors, showed a complete reversal of anticoagulant activity of apixaban and rivaroxaban within minutes after administration without adverse effects in two recently completed parallel phase III trials ANNEXA-A and ANNEXA-R respectively. It is currently being studied in ANNEXA-4, a phase IV study. Aripazine (PER-977), the third reversal agent, has shown promising activity against dabigatran, apixaban, rivaroxaban, as well as subcutaneous fondaparinux and LMWH. This review article summarizes pharmacological characteristics of these novel antidotes, coagulation's tests affected, available clinical and preclinical data, and the need for phase III and IV studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of pharmacist managed anticoagulation with usual medical care in a family medicine clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon Carla

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The beneficial outcomes of oral anticoagulation therapy are dependent upon achieving and maintaining an optimal INR therapeutic range. There is growing evidence that better outcomes are achieved when anticoagulation is managed by a pharmacist with expertise in anticoagulation management rather than usual care by family physicians. This study compared a pharmacist managed anticoagulation program (PC to usual physician care (UC in a family medicine clinic. Methods A retrospective cohort study was carried out in a family medicine clinic which included a clinical pharmacist. In 2006, the pharmacist assumed anticoagulation management. For a 17-month period, the PC group (n = 112 of patients on warfarin were compared to the UC patients (n = 81 for a similar period prior to 2006. The primary outcome was the percentage of time patients' INR was in the therapeutic range (TTR. Secondary outcomes were the percentage of time in therapeutic range within ± 0.3 units of the recommended range (expanded TTR and percentage of time the INR was >5.0 or Results The baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. Fifty-five percent of the PC group was male with a mean age of 67 years; 51% of the UC group was male with a mean age of 71 years. The most common indications for warfarin in both groups were atrial fibrillation, mechanical heart valves and deep vein thrombosis. The TTR was 73% for PC and 65% for UC (p 5 were 0.3% for PC patients and 0.1% for UC (p Conclusion The pharmacist-managed anticoagulation program within a family practice clinic compared to usual care by the physicians achieved significantly better INR control as measured by the percentage of time patients' INR values were kept in both the therapeutic and expanded range. Based on the results of this study, a collaborative family practice clinic using pharmacists and physicians may be an effective model for anticoagulation management with these results verified in future

  12. A comparative study on anticoagulant activities of three Chinese herbal medicines from the genus Panax and anticoagulant activities of ginsenosides Rg1 and Rg2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C T; Wang, H B; Xu, B J

    2013-08-01

    Chemical compositions of three herbal plants from the family Araliaceae genus Panax [Panax ginseng C. A. Mey, P. quinquefolius L. and P. notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen] are quite similar; however, their medicinal natures vary greatly. The reason for differences has been explained in traditional Chinese medicine theory and partially verified by modern pharmacological investigations, such as antiplatelet aggregation. Aside from platelet aggregation, a variety of plasma coagulation factors are also involved in blood coagulation. The anticoagulation profiles of three herbs have not been investigated. The current research compared the inhibitory effects of three herbal extracts from Panax spp. and the purified ginsenosides from P. ginseng on blood coagulation. Human plasma was mixed with the water extracts (0.05 and 0.1 mg/mL) from roots of P. ginseng, P. quinquefolius and P. notoginseng and ginsenosides Rg1 and Rg2 (0.05 and 0.1 mg/mL), the blood clotting time of activated partial thromboplastin, prothrombin and thrombin were measured by a biochemical analyzer. The water extracts (0.05 mg/mL) of P. ginseng, P. quinquefolius and P. notoginseng could significantly extend blood clotting time as compared to the control group. Among three herbal medicines, 0.05 mg/mL of water extract from P. ginseng exhibited the strongest anticoagulation effects, followed by P. notoginseng, while P. quinquefolius presented the weakest effects. Both ginsenosides Rg1 and Rg2 could significantly extend blood clotting time in all three tests; ginsenoside Rg2 exhibited relative stronger anticoagulation effects as compared to ginsenoside Rg1. Among three herbs tested, P. ginseng as well as its active component ginsenoside Rg2 shows the strongest anticoagulation activity; current results indicate that P. ginseng and ginsenoside Rg2 have great potential to be an anticoagulation drug.

  13. A single amino acid substitution in isozyme GST mu in Triclabendazole resistant Fasciola hepatica (Sligo strain) can substantially influence the manifestation of anthelmintic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, V; Estein, S; Ortiz, P; Luchessi, P; Solana, V; Solana, H

    2015-12-01

    The helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica causes fascioliasis in human and domestic ruminants. Economic losses due to this infection are estimated in U$S 2000-3000 million yearly. The most common method of control is the use of anthelmintic drugs. However, there is an increased concern about the growing appearance of F. hepatica resistance to Triclabendazole (TCBZ), an anthelmintic with activity over adult and young flukes. F. hepatica has eight Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) isozymes, which are enzymes involved in the detoxification of a wide range of substrates through chemical conjugation with glutathione. In the present work we identified and characterized the GST mu gene isolated from the TCBZ-susceptible and TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica strains. Total RNA was transcribed into cDNA by reverse transcription and a 657 bp amplicon corresponding to the GST mu gene was obtained. The comparative genetic analysis of the GST mu gene of the TCBZ susceptible strain (Cullompton) and TCBZ resistant strain (Sligo) showed three nucleotide changes and one amino acid change at position 143 in the GST mu isozyme of the TCBZ-resistant strain. These results have potential relevance as they contribute better understand the mechanisms that generate resistance to anthelmintics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Risks and Benefits of Ceasing or Continuing Anticoagulant Medication for Image-Guided Procedures for Spine Pain: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clark C; Schneider, Byron; McCormick, Zachary L; Gill, Jatinder; Loomba, Vivek; Engel, Andrew J; Duszynski, Belinda; King, Wade

    2018-03-01

    To determine the risks of continuing or ceasing anticoagulant or antiplatelet medications prior to image-guided procedures for spine pain. Systematic review of the literature with comprehensive analysis of the published data. Following a search of the literature for studies pertaining to spine pain interventions in patients on anticoagulant medication, seven reviewers appraised the studies identified and assessed the quality of evidence presented. Evidence was sought regarding risks associated with either continuing or ceasing anticoagulant and antiplatelet medication in patients having image-guided interventional spine procedures. The evidence was evaluated in accordance with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system. From a source of 120 potentially relevant articles, 14 provided applicable evidence. Procedures involving interlaminar access carry a nonzero risk of hemorrhagic complications, regardless of whether anticoagulants are ceased or continued. For other procedures, hemorrhagic complications have not been reported, and case series indicate that they are safe when performed in patients who continue anticoagulants. Three articles reported the adverse effects of ceasing anticoagulants, with serious consequences, including death. Other than for interlaminar procedures, the evidence does not support the view that anticoagulant and antiplatelet medication must be ceased before image-guided spine pain procedures. Meanwhile, the evidence shows that ceasing anticoagulants carries a risk of serious consequences, including death. Guidelines on the use of anticoagulants should reflect these opposing bodies of evidence.

  15. antibacterial properties of calyx, stem bark and root of hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HS) were tested for their antibacterial activities. The root of the plant exhibited marked antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative organisms of Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aureginosa, ...

  16. Synthesis, antibacterial and antifungal activity of some derivatives of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    -4-one; antibacterial ..... Kanamycin was used as standard antibiotic for antibacterial activities. Nutrient agar (NA) was used as ... (mould) and Penicillium sp. (blue mould). Antifun- gal activity was assessed by the poisoned food tech- nique,17.

  17. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of monocyclic 3-carboxamide tetramic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Chul Jeong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A chemical library of carboxamide-substituted tetramates designed by analogy with antibacterial natural products, a method for their rapid construction, and the evaluation of their antibacterial activity is reported.

  18. Evaluation of antibacterial activities of Holarrhena floribunda on four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MERIME

    Berhaut, 1971). However, there is no attempt to study the potential of H. floribunda's antibacterial activities against microorganisms that cause food poisoning and food alteration. The present study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial ...

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of benzazepine oxazolidinone antibacterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul D; Aristoff, Paul A; Zurenko, Gary E; Schaadt, Ronda D; Yagi, Betty H; Ford, Charles W; Hamel, Judith C; Stapert, Douglas; Moerman, Judy K

    2003-12-01

    Novel benzazepine oxazolidinone antibacterials were synthesized and evaluated against clinically relevant susceptible and resistant organisms. The effect of ring nitrogen position and N-substitution on antibacterial activity is examined.

  20. Tunable, antibacterial activity of silicone polyether surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Madiha F; Zepeda-Velazquez, Laura; Brook, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Silicone surfactants are used in a variety of applications, however, limited data is available on the relationship between surfactant structure and biological activity. A series of seven nonionic, silicone polyether surfactants with known structures was tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli BL21. The compounds varied in their hydrophobic head, comprised of branched silicone structures with 3-10 siloxane linkages and, in two cases, phenyl substitution, and hydrophilic tail of 8-44 poly(ethylene glycol) units. The surfactants were tested at three concentrations: below, at, and above their Critical Micelle Concentrations (CMC) against 5 concentrations of E. coli BL21 in a three-step assay comprised of a 14-24h turbidometric screen, a live-dead stain and viable colony counts. The bacterial concentration had little effect on antibacterial activity. For most of the surfactants, antibacterial activity was higher at concentrations above the CMC. Surfactants with smaller silicone head groups had as much as 4 times the bioactivity of surfactants with larger groups, with the smallest hydrophobe exhibiting potency equivalent to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Smaller PEG chains were similarly associated with higher potency. These data link lower micelle stability and enhanced permeability of smaller silicone head groups to antibacterial activity. The results demonstrate that simple manipulation of nonionic silicone polyether structure leads to significant changes in antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.