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Sample records for anterolateral bed nucleus

  1. Localization and function of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in the anterolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

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    Nagore Puente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST is involved in behaviors related to natural reward, drug addiction and stress. In spite of the emerging role of the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB system in these behaviors, little is known about the anatomy and function of this system in the anterolateral BNST (alBNST. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed morphological characterization of the localization of the cannabinoid 1 (CB1 receptor a necessary step toward a better understanding of the physiological roles of the eCB system in this region of the brain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have combined anatomical approaches at the confocal and electron microscopy level to ex-vivo electrophysiological techniques. Here, we report that CB1 is localized on presynaptic membranes of about 55% of immunopositive synaptic terminals for the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1, which contain abundant spherical, clear synaptic vesicles and make asymmetrical synapses with alBNST neurons. About 64% of vGluT1 immunonegative synaptic terminals show CB1 immunolabeling. Furthermore, 30% and 35% of presynaptic boutons localize CB1 in alBNST of conditional mutant mice lacking CB1 mainly from GABAergic neurons (GABA-CB1-KO mice and mainly from cortical glutamatergic neurons (Glu-CB1-KO mice, respectively. Extracellular field recordings and whole cell patch clamp in the alBNST rat brain slice preparation revealed that activation of CB1 strongly inhibits excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study supports the anterolateral BNST as a potential neuronal substrate of the effects of cannabinoids on stress-related behaviors.

  2. Neuronal Correlates of Fear Conditioning in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis

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    Haufler, Darrell; Nagy, Frank Z.; Pare, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Lesion and inactivation studies indicate that the central amygdala (CeA) participates in the expression of cued and contextual fear, whereas the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is only involved in the latter. The basis for this functional dissociation is unclear because CeA and BNST form similar connections with the amygdala and…

  3. Electrical stimulation in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis alleviates severe obsessive-compulsive disorder.

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    Luyten, L; Hendrickx, S; Raymaekers, S; Gabriëls, L; Nuttin, B

    2016-09-01

    In 1998, we proposed deep brain stimulation as a last-resort treatment option for patients suffering from severe, treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, 24 OCD patients were included in a long-term follow-up study to evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation in the anterior limbs of the internal capsule (ALIC) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST). We find that electrical stimulation in the ALIC/BST area is safe and significantly decreases obsessions, compulsions, and associated anxiety and depressive symptoms, and improves global functioning in a blinded crossover trial (n=17), after 4 years (n=18), and at last follow-up (up to 171 months, n=24). Moreover, our data indicate that BST may be a better stimulation target compared with ALIC to alleviate OCD symptoms. We conclude that electrical stimulation in BST is a promising therapeutic option for otherwise treatment-resistant OCD patients. PMID:26303665

  4. Whole-brain mapping of afferent projections to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in tree shrews.

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    Ni, Rong-Jun; Luo, Peng-Hao; Shu, Yu-Mian; Chen, Ju-Tao; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2016-10-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) plays an important role in integrating and relaying input information to other brain regions in response to stress. The cytoarchitecture of the BST in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has been comprehensively described in our previous publications. However, the inputs to the BST have not been described in previous reports. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sources of afferent projections to the BST throughout the brain of tree shrews using the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG). The present results provide the first detailed whole-brain mapping of BST-projecting neurons in the tree shrew brain. The BST was densely innervated by the prefrontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, ventral subiculum, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, and parabrachial nucleus. Moreover, moderate projections to the BST originated from the medial preoptic area, supramammillary nucleus, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, locus coeruleus, and nucleus of the solitary tract. Afferent projections to the BST are identified in the ventral pallidum, nucleus of the diagonal band, ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus, posterior complex of the thalamus, interfascicular nucleus, retrorubral field, rhabdoid nucleus, intermediate reticular nucleus, and parvicellular reticular nucleus. In addition, the different densities of BST-projecting neurons in various regions were analyzed in the tree shrew brains. In summary, whole-brain mapping of direct inputs to the BST is delineated in tree shrews. These brain circuits are implicated in the regulation of numerous physiological and behavioral processes including stress, reward, food intake, and arousal. PMID:27436534

  5. Overshadowed by the amygdala: the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis emerges as key to psychiatric disorders

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    Lebow, M A; Chen, A.(National Central University, 32054, Chung-li, Taiwan)

    2016-01-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a center of integration for limbic information and valence monitoring. The BNST, sometimes referred to as the extended amygdala, is located in the basal forebrain and is a sexually dimorphic structure made up of between 12 and 18 sub-nuclei. These sub-nuclei are rich with distinct neuronal subpopulations of receptors, neurotransmitters, transporters and proteins. The BNST is important in a range of behaviors such as: the stress response, exten...

  6. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis regulates ethanol-seeking behavior in mice.

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    Pina, Melanie M; Young, Emily A; Ryabinin, Andrey E; Cunningham, Christopher L

    2015-12-01

    Drug-associated stimuli are considered important factors in relapse to drug use. In the absence of drug, these cues can trigger drug craving and drive subsequent drug seeking. One structure that has been implicated in this process is the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a chief component of the extended amygdala. Previous studies have established a role for the BNST in cue-induced cocaine seeking. However, it is unclear if the BNST underlies cue-induced seeking of other abused drugs such as ethanol. In the present set of experiments, BNST involvement in ethanol-seeking behavior was assessed in male DBA/2J mice using the conditioned place preference procedure (CPP). The BNST was inhibited during CPP expression using electrolytic lesions (Experiment 1), co-infusion of GABAA and GABAB receptor agonists muscimol and baclofen (M+B; Experiment 2), and activation of inhibitory designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (hM4Di-DREADD) with clozapine-N-oxide (CNO; Experiment 3). The magnitude of ethanol CPP was reduced significantly by each of these techniques. Notably, infusion of M+B (Exp. 2) abolished CPP altogether. Follow-up studies to Exp. 3 showed that ethanol cue-induced c-Fos immunoreactivity in the BNST was reduced by hM4Di activation (Experiment 4) and in the absence of hM4Di, CNO did not affect ethanol CPP (Experiment 5). Combined, these findings demonstrate that the BNST is involved in the modulation of cue-induced ethanol-seeking behavior.

  7. Allopregnanolone in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulates contextual fear in rats

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    Naomi eNagaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trauma- and stress-related disorders are among the most common types of mental illness affecting the U.S. population. For many of these disorders, there is a striking sex difference in lifetime prevalence; for instance, women are twice as likely as men to be affected by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Gonadal steroids and their metabolites have been implicated in sex differences in fear and anxiety. One example, allopregnanolone (ALLO, is a neuroactive metabolite of progesterone that allosterically enhances GABAA receptor activity and has anxiolytic effects. Like other ovarian hormones, it not only occurs at different levels in males and females but also fluctuates over the female reproductive cycle. One brain structure that may be involved in neuroactive steroid regulation of fear and anxiety is the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST. To explore this question, we examined the consequences of augmenting or reducing ALLO activity in the BNST on the expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats. In Experiment 1, intra-BNST infusions of ALLO in male rats suppressed freezing behavior (a fear response to the conditioned context, but did not influence freezing to a discrete tone conditioned stimulus (CS. In Experiment 2, intra-BNST infusion of either finasteride, an inhibitor of ALLO synthesis, or 17-phenyl-(3α,5α-androst-16-en-3-ol, an ALLO antagonist, in female rats enhanced contextual freezing; neither treatment affected freezing to the tone CS. These findings support a role for ALLO in modulating contextual fear via the BNST and suggest that sex differences in fear and anxiety could arise from differential steroid regulation of BNST function. The susceptibility of women to disorders such as PTSD may be linked to cyclic declines in neuroactive steroid activity within fear circuitry.

  8. Effects of hypocretin and norepinephrine interaction in bed nucleus of the stria terminalis on arterial pressure.

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    Ciriello, J; Caverson, M M; Li, Z

    2013-01-01

    Forebrain neuronal circuits containing hypocretin-1 (hcrt-1) and norepinephrine (NE) are important components of central arousal-related processes. Recently, these two systems have been shown to have an overlapping distribution within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), a limbic structure activated by stressful challenges, and which functions to adjust arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) to the stressor. However, whether hcrt-1 and NE interact in BST to alter cardiovascular function is unknown. Experiments were done in urethane-α-chloralose anesthetized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated male Wistar rats to investigate the effect of hcrt-1 and NE on the cardiovascular responses elicited by l-glutamate (Glu) stimulation of BST neurons. Microinjections of hcrt-1, NE or tyramine into BST attenuated the decrease in AP and HR to Glu stimulation of BST. Additionally, combined injections of hcrt-1 with NE or tyramine did not elicit a greater attenuation than either compound alone. Furthermore, injections into BST of the α2-adrenergic receptor (α2-AR) antagonist yohimbine, but not the α1-AR antagonist 2-{[β-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]aminomethyl}-1-tetralone hydrochloride, blocked both the hcrt-1 and NE-induced inhibition of the BST cardiovascular depressors responses. Finally, injections into BST of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline, but not the GABAB receptor antagonist phaclofen, blocked the hcrt-1 and NE attenuation of the BST Glu-induced depressor and bradycardia responses. These data suggest that hcrt-1 effects in BST are mediated by NE neurons, and hcrt-1 likely acts to facilitate the synaptic release of NE. NE neurons, acting through α2-AR may activate Gabaergic neurons in BST, which in turn through the activation of GABAA receptors inhibit a BST sympathoinhibitory pathway. Taken together, these data suggest that hcrt-1 pathways to BST through their interaction with NE and Gabaergic neurons may function in the coordination of

  9. Anterolateral Extra-articular Soft Tissue Reconstruction in Anterolateral Rotatory Instability of the Knee.

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    Kernkamp, Willem A; van de Velde, Samuel K; Bakker, Eric W P; van Arkel, Ewoud R A

    2015-12-01

    Anterolateral rotatory instability (ALRI) occurs after injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the anterolateral structures of the knee. We present a technique for anterolateral extra-articular soft-tissue (ALES) reconstruction of the knee that can be used in revision ACL reconstruction cases, cases of persistent ALRI after adequate ACL reconstruction, and cases with severe ALRI after primary ACL rupture. The surgeon performs ALES reconstruction with a strip of iliotibial tract autograft while respecting the anatomic origin and insertion of the anterolateral ligament. The purpose of this reconstruction is to restore the normal anterolateral rotatory stability of the knee in ALES-deficient patients. PMID:27284525

  10. Stress-induced Alterations in Anxiety-like Behavior and Adaptations in Plasticity in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis

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    Conrad, Kelly L.; Louderback, Katherine M; Gessner, Caitlin P; Winder, Danny G.

    2011-01-01

    In vulnerable individuals, exposure to stressors can result in chronic disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The extended amygdala is critically implicated in mediating acute and chronic stress responsivity and anxiety-like behaviors. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a subregion of the extended amygdala, serves as a relay of corticolimbic information to the paraventricular nucleus of the...

  11. Immune Challenge Activates Neural Inputs to the Ventrolateral Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis

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    Bienkowski, Michael S.; Rinaman, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation in response to infection is an important mechanism by which the nervous system can suppress inflammation. HPA output is controlled by the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Previously, we determined that noradrenergic inputs to the PVN contribute to, but do not entirely account for, the ability of bacterial endotoxin (i.e., lipopolysacharide, LPS) to activate the HPA axis. The present study investigated LPS-induced recruitment of ne...

  12. Nicotine self-administration induces CB1-dependent LTP in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

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    Reisiger, Anne-Ruth; Kaufling, Jennifer; Manzoni, Olivier; Cador, Martine; Georges, François; Caillé, Stephanie

    2014-03-19

    Nicotine addiction is characterized by repetitive drug taking and drug seeking, both tightly controlled by cannabinoid CB1 receptors. The responsiveness of neurons of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) to infralimbic cortex (ILCx) excitatory inputs is increased in rats with active, but not passive, nicotine taking. Therefore, we hypothesize that acquisition of the learned association between nicotine infusion and a paired cue light permits the strengthening of the ILCx-BNST synapses after ILCx tetanic stimulation. We exposed rats to intravenous nicotine self-administration for 2 months. Using a combination of in vivo protocols (electrical stimulations, extracellular recordings, and pharmacological manipulations), we characterized the effects of 10 Hz stimulation of the ILCx on BNST excitatory responses, under different conditions of exposure to nicotine. In addition, we tested whether the effects of the stimulation were CB1 receptor-dependent. The results show that nicotine self-administration supports the induction of evoked spike potentiation in the BNST in response to 10 Hz stimulation of ILCx afferents. Although not altered by nicotine abstinence, this cellular adaptation was blocked by CB1 receptor antagonism. Moreover, blockade of BNST CB1 receptors prevented increases in time-out responding subsequent to ILCx stimulation and decreased cue-induced reinstatement. Thus, the synaptic potentiation within the BNST in response to ILCx stimulation seems to contribute to the cue-elicited responding associated with nicotine self-administration and is tightly controlled by CB1 receptors.

  13. Genetic cell targeting uncovers specific neuronal types and distinct subregions in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

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    Nguyen, Amanda Q; Dela Cruz, Julie A D; Sun, Yanjun; Holmes, Todd C; Xu, Xiangmin

    2016-08-15

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) plays an important role in fear, stress, and anxiety. It contains a collection of subnuclei delineated by gross cytoarchitecture features; however, there has yet to be a systematic examination of specific BNST neuronal types and their associated neurochemical makeup. The present study focuses on improved characterization of the anterior BNST based on differing molecular and chemical expression aided by mouse genetics. Specific Cre driver lines crossed with a fluorescent reporter line were used for genetic cell targeting and immunochemical staining. Using this new approach, we were able to robustly identify specific excitatory and inhibitory cell types in the BNST. The presence and distribution of excitatory neurons were firmly established; glutamatergic neurons in the anterior BNST accounted for about 14% and 31% of dorsal and ventral BNST cells, respectively. GABAergic neurons expressing different isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase were found to have differential subregional distributions. Almost no parvalbumin-expressing cells were found in the BNST, while somatostatin-expressing cells and calretinin-expressing cells account for modest proportions of BNST cells. In addition, vasoactive intestinal peptide-expressing axonal plexuses were prominent in the oval and juxtacapsular subregions. In addition, we discovered that corticotropin-releasing hormone-expressing cells contain GABAergic and glutamatergic subpopulations. Together, this study reveals new information on excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the BNST, which will facilitate genetic dissection and functional studies of BNST subregions. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2379-2399, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26718312

  14. Dopamine decreases NMDA currents in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of cocaine self-administering rats☆

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    Krawczyk, Michal; deBacker, Julian; Mason, Xenos; Jones, Andrea A.; Dumont, Éric C.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) contribute in the neural processes underlying drug-driven behaviors. DA is a potent modulator of NMDAR, but few studies have investigated the functional interaction between DA and NMDAR in the context of substance abuse. We combined the rat model of cocaine self-administration with brain slice electrophysiology to study DA modulation of NMDA currents in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (ovBNST), a dense DA terminal field involved in maintenance of cocaine self-administration amongst other drug related behaviors. Long-Evans rats self-administered intravenous cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/injection) on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement for 15 days and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were done on the 16th day. DA reduced NMDA currents in brain-slices from cocaine self-administering rats, but not in those of drug-naïve and sucrose self-administering, or when cocaine exposure was passive (yoked), revealing a mechanism unique to voluntary cocaine intake. DA reduced NMDA currents by activating G-protein-coupled D1- and D2-like receptors that converged on phospholipase C and protein phosphatases. Accordingly, our study reveals a mechanism that may contribute to dysfunctional synaptic plasticity associated with drug-driven behaviors during acute withdrawal. PMID:24472317

  15. Central stress-integrative circuits: Forebrain glutamatergic and GABAergic projections to the dorsomedial hypothalamus, medial preoptic area, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

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    Myers, Brent; Dolgas, C. Mark; Kasckow, John; Cullinan, William E.; Herman, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Central regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress responses is mediated by a relatively circumscribed group of projections to the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVN). The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), medial preoptic area (mPOA), and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) provide direct, predominantly inhibitory, innervation of the PVN. These PVN-projecting neurons are controlled by descending information from limbic forebrain structures, including the prefronta...

  16. Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 7 in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis is Essential for Intermale Aggression.

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    Masugi-Tokita, Miwako; Flor, Peter J; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 (mGluR7) is a member of group III mGluRs, which localize to the presynaptic active zones of the mammalian central nervous system. Although histological, genetic, and electrophysiological studies ensure the importance of mGluR7, its roles in behavior and physiology remain largely unknown. Using a resident-intruder paradigm, we found a severe reduction in intermale aggressive behavior in mGluR7 knockout (KO) mice. We also found alterations in other social behaviors in male mGluR7 KO mice, including sexual behavior toward male intruders. Because olfaction is critical for rodent social behavior, including aggression, we performed an olfaction test, finding that mGluR7 KO mice failed to show interest in the smell of male urine. To clarify the olfactory deficit, we then exposed mice to urine and analyzed c-Fos-immunoreactivity, discovering a remarkable reduction in neural activity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) of mGluR7 KO mice. Finally, intra-BNST administration of the mGluR7-selective antagonist 6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-3-pyridin-4-ylisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-4(5H)-one (MMPIP) also reproduced the phenotype of mGluR7 KO mice, including reduced aggression and altered social interaction. Thus mGluR7 may work as an 'enhancer of neural activity' in the BNST and is important for intermale aggression. Our findings demonstrate that mGluR7 is essential for social behavior and innate behavior. Our study on mGluR7 in the BNST will shed light on future therapies for emotional disorders in humans. PMID:26149357

  17. Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 7 in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis is Essential for Intermale Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masugi-Tokita, Miwako; Flor, Peter J; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 (mGluR7) is a member of group III mGluRs, which localize to the presynaptic active zones of the mammalian central nervous system. Although histological, genetic, and electrophysiological studies ensure the importance of mGluR7, its roles in behavior and physiology remain largely unknown. Using a resident-intruder paradigm, we found a severe reduction in intermale aggressive behavior in mGluR7 knockout (KO) mice. We also found alterations in other social behaviors in male mGluR7 KO mice, including sexual behavior toward male intruders. Because olfaction is critical for rodent social behavior, including aggression, we performed an olfaction test, finding that mGluR7 KO mice failed to show interest in the smell of male urine. To clarify the olfactory deficit, we then exposed mice to urine and analyzed c-Fos-immunoreactivity, discovering a remarkable reduction in neural activity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) of mGluR7 KO mice. Finally, intra-BNST administration of the mGluR7-selective antagonist 6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-3-pyridin-4-ylisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-4(5H)-one (MMPIP) also reproduced the phenotype of mGluR7 KO mice, including reduced aggression and altered social interaction. Thus mGluR7 may work as an 'enhancer of neural activity' in the BNST and is important for intermale aggression. Our findings demonstrate that mGluR7 is essential for social behavior and innate behavior. Our study on mGluR7 in the BNST will shed light on future therapies for emotional disorders in humans.

  18. Neural Anatomy of the Anterolateral Thigh Flap

    OpenAIRE

    Luenam, Suriya; Prugsawan, Krit; Kosiyatrakul, Arkaphat; Chotanaphuti, Thanainit; Sriya, Piyanee

    2015-01-01

    The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is one of the commonly used sensate flaps for intra-oral, hand, and foot reconstruction. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomic location of the sensory nerves supplying the ALT flap in relation to the surface landmarks and with the vascular pedicles. The dissections were carried out in 28 embalmed specimens. An axial line from the anterior superior iliac spine to the superolateral border of the patella and two circles with radii of 5 and 10...

  19. Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction Technique: An Anatomic-Based Approach.

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    Chahla, Jorge; Menge, Travis J; Mitchell, Justin J; Dean, Chase S; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    Restoration of anteroposterior laxity after an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has been predictable with traditional open and endoscopic techniques. However, anterolateral rotational stability has been difficult to achieve in a subset of patients, even with appropriate anatomic techniques. Therefore, differing techniques have attempted to address this rotational laxity by augmenting or reconstructing lateral-sided structures about the knee. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the anterolateral ligament as a potential contributor to residual anterolateral rotatory instability in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient patients. Numerous anatomic and biomechanical studies have been performed to further define the functional importance of the anterolateral ligament, highlighting the need for surgical techniques to address these injuries in the unstable knee. This article details our technique for an anatomic anterolateral ligament reconstruction using a semitendinosus tendon allograft. PMID:27656361

  20. Percutaneous anterolateral balloon kyphoplasty for metastatic lytic lesions of the cervical spine.

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    Lykomitros, Vasilis; Anagnostidis, Kleovoulos S; Alzeer, Ziad; Kapetanos, George A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of our report is to describe a new application of kyphoplasty, the percutaneous anterolateral balloon kyphoplasty that we performed in two cases of metastatic osteolytic lesions in cervical spine. The first patient, aged 48 years, with primary malignancy in lungs had two metastatic lesions in C2 and C6 vertebrae. Patient's complaints were about pain and restriction of movements (due to the pain) in the cervical spine. The second patient, aged 70 years, with primary malignancy in stomach, had multiple metastatic lesions in thoracolumbar spine and C3, C4 and C5 vertebrae without neurological symptoms. The main symptoms were from cervical spine with severe pain even in bed rest and systematic use of opiate-base analgesic. The preoperative status was evaluated with X-rays, CT scan, MRI scan and with Karnofsky score and visual analogue pain (VAS) scale. Both patients underwent percutaneous anterolateral balloon kyphoplasty via the anterolateral approach in cervical spine under general anaesthesia. No clinical complications occurred during or after the procedure. Both patients experienced pain relief immediately after balloon kyphoplasty and during the following days. The stiffness also resolved rapidly and cervical collars were removed. VAS score significantly improved from 85 and 95 preoperatively to 30 in both patients. Karnofsky score showed also improvement from 40 and 30 preoperatively to 80 and 70, respectively, at the final follow-up (7 months after the procedure). Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous anterolateral balloon kyphoplasty proved to be safe and effective minimally invasive procedure for metastatic osteolytic lesions of the cervical spine, reducing pain and avoiding vertebral collapse. Experience and attention are necessary in order to avoid complications.

  1. Desipramine and citalopram attenuate pretest swim-induced increases in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala in the forced swimming test.

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    Chung, Sung; Kim, Hee Jeong; Kim, Hyun Ju; Choi, Sun Hye; Cho, Jin Hee; Cho, Yun Ha; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Kyung Ho

    2014-10-01

    Dynorphin in the nucleus accumbens shell plays an important role in antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test (FST), but it is unclear whether desipramine and citalopram treatments alter prodynorphin levels in other brain areas. To explore this possibility, we injected mice with desipramine and citalopram 0.5, 19, and 23 h after a 15-min pretest swim and observed changes in prodynorphin expression before the test swim, which was conducted 24 h after the pretest swim. The pretest swim increased prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST) and lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeL). This increase in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in the dBNST and CeL was blocked by desipramine and citalopram treatments. Similar changes in prodynorphin mRNA levels were observed in the dBNST and CeL, but these changes did not reach significance. To understand the underlying mechanism, we assessed changes in phosphorylated CREB at Ser(133) (pCREB) immunoreactivity in the dBNST and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Treatment with citalopram but not desipramine after the pretest swim significantly increased pCREB immunoreactivity only in the dBNST. These results suggest that regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeL before the test swim may be involved in the antidepressant-like effect of desipramine and citalopram in the FST and suggest that changes in pCREB immunoreactivity in these areas may not play an important role in the regulation of prodynorphin in the dBNST and CeA.

  2. Surgical Dissection of the Anterolateral Ligament.

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    Daggett, Matthew; Busch, Kyle; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations into the structure and function of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) have resulted in renewed interest in the role of the lateral extra-articular structures in rotational control of the knee. With increased focus on the ALL, debate about the anatomic characteristics, the functional role in knee stability, and even the existence of this lateral structure has ensued. This article describes our dissection method for the ALL. Through careful dissection and precise elevation of the iliotibial band, the ALL can be clearly identified as a distinct structure with an attachment near the lateral epicondyle on the femur and an insertion in a fan-like fashion onto the tibia, between the Gerdy tubercle and the fibular head. This investigation provides the surgeon with anatomic landmarks to use during surgical reconstruction of the ALL. PMID:27274451

  3. Rescate articular con colgajo anterolateral del muslo

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    F.J. García-Bernal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La preservación del nivel de amputación tanto de la extremidad superior como de la inferior, puede mejorar la función residual y el proceso de rehabilitación protésica de la misma. Ambas van a estar condicionadas por la longitud restante de la extremidad, la presencia o no de articulaciones operativas y la calidad de la cobertura del muñón. Presentamos 2 casos de amputaciones. El primero es un caso agudo de amputación traumática de extremidad superior a la altura del tercio proximal de antebrazo, que asocia avulsión cutánea circular desde el tercio medio del brazo y con articulación de codo conservada. El segundo, es la secuela de una amputación infracondílea de extremidad inferior por osteosarcoma que presenta fístulas cutáneas con drenaje supurativo por osteomielitis en el muñón tibial. En ambos pacientes realizamos cobertura con colgajo anterolateral de muslo anastomosado a la arteria radial en el caso de la extremidad superior, y a la arteria genicular descendente en la extremidad inferior. En los dos casos el postoperatorio transcurrió sin complicaciones, logrando preservar las articulaciones del codo y de la rodilla respectivamente, así como la posterior rehabilitación protésica. Consideramos que el colgajo anterolateral del muslo permite aportar tejido de buena calidad como cobertura del muñón de amputación. Dadas las características del tejido aportado y su volumen, es idóneo tanto para cobertura de defectos agudos como de déficits de almohadillado en casos crónicos.

  4. Effects of neural androgen receptor disruption on aggressive behavior, arginine vasopressin and galanin systems in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis and lateral septum.

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    Marie-Luce, Clarisse; Raskin, Kalina; Bolborea, Matei; Monin, Marion; Picot, Marie; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of the androgen receptor (AR) in the nervous system in the regulation of aggressive behavior and arginine vasopressin and galanin systems by testosterone. For this purpose, we used a conditional mouse line selectively lacking AR gene in the nervous system, backcrossed onto the C57BL/6J strain. Adult males were gonadectomized and supplemented with similar amounts of testosterone. When tested on two consecutive days in the resident intruder paradigm, fewer males of the mutant group exhibited aggressive behavior compared to their control littermates. In addition, a high latency to the first offensive attack was observed for the few animals that exhibited fighting behavior. This alteration was associated with a normal anogenital chemoinvestigation of intruder males. In olfactory discrimination tasks, sexual experience enhanced preference towards female-soiled bedding rather than male-soiled bedding and estrus females rather than intact males, regardless of genotype. This indicated that the behavioral alteration induced by neural AR mutation occurs in brain areas located downstream from the olfactory bulb. Quantification of the sexually dimorphic cell populations expressing preprovasopressin and galanin mRNAs in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) and vasopressin-neurophysin 2 and galanin immunoreactivity in the lateral septum showed no significant differences between the two genotypes. The present findings indicate that the neural AR is required in the expression of aggressive behavior but not in the sexual differentiation of AVP and galanin cell number in the BNST and fiber immunoreactivity in the lateral septum. They also suggest that AR in the nervous system could mediate activational effects of testosterone in the regulation of aggressive behavior during adulthood.

  5. Neural Anatomy of the Anterolateral Thigh Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luenam, Suriya; Prugsawan, Krit; Kosiyatrakul, Arkaphat; Chotanaphuti, Thanainit; Sriya, Piyanee

    2015-06-01

    The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is one of the commonly used sensate flaps for intra-oral, hand, and foot reconstruction. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomic location of the sensory nerves supplying the ALT flap in relation to the surface landmarks and with the vascular pedicles. The dissections were carried out in 28 embalmed specimens. An axial line from the anterior superior iliac spine to the superolateral border of the patella and two circles with radii of 5 and 10 cm centered on the midpoint of the former line were used for the surface landmarks. At the intersection point of the axial line and the 10-cm circle, the main lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) and its anterior branch were located within 1 and 2.4 cm, respectively. At the intersection point of the axial line and the 5-cm circle, the anterior branch of the LFCN was located within 2.8 cm. The anterior branch of the LFCN can be detected within 3 cm from the central perforator pedicle in all specimens. The posterior branch of the LFCN, superior perforator nerve, and median perforator nerve were found in more variable locations. The findings from our study provide additional information for clinical use in the planning of sensate ALT flap harvest. PMID:26078503

  6. Anterolateral ankle impingement: findings and diagnostic accuracy with ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to evaluate the findings and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in antero-lateral ankle impingement (ALI) with clinical and arthroscopic correlation. Seventeen elite footballers with chronic ankle pain were referred for ultrasound with a clinical diagnosis of ALI (n = 8) or a control condition (n = 9; lateral mechanical instability, osteochondral defect, intra-articular bodies and osteoarthritis). Ultrasound examination included the antero-lateral gutter for abnormal synovial tissue (synovitic lesion), lateral ligament integrity, tibiotalar joint and osseous spurs of the distal tibia and talus. Ultrasound findings were correlated with subsequent arthroscopic appearance. Ultrasound examination detected a synovitic mass in the antero-lateral gutter in all 8 footballers with clinical ALI (100%) and in 2 patients with a control diagnosis (22%). Arthroscopic correlation of antero-lateral synovitis and fibrosis was present in all 10 cases (100%). The synovitic lesion was seen at ultrasound as a nodular soft tissue mass of mixed echogenicity within the antero-lateral gutter, which extruded anteriorly with manual compression of the distal fibula against the tibia. Increased blood supply was detected using power Doppler imaging in only 1 patient. The synovitic lesion measured >10 mm in its maximum dimension in 7 footballers with clinical ALI and <10 mm in the control group. Additional ultrasound findings in patients with abnormal antero-lateral synovial tissue included an anterior talofibular ligament injury in all patients (n = 10), a tibiotalar joint effusion (n = 6) and osseous spurs (n = 4). Antero-lateral synovitic tissue was accurately identified at ultrasound in the absence of an effusion (n = 4). No synovitic lesion was detected at ultrasound or arthroscopy in the remaining 7 patients with a control diagnosis. Ultrasound is accurate in detecting synovitic lesions within the antero-lateral gutter, demonstrating associated ligamentous injuries and in

  7. Anterolateral ankle impingement: findings and diagnostic accuracy with ultrasound imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, C.L.; Wilson, D.J. [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Radiology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Coltman, T.P. [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    The objective was to evaluate the findings and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in antero-lateral ankle impingement (ALI) with clinical and arthroscopic correlation. Seventeen elite footballers with chronic ankle pain were referred for ultrasound with a clinical diagnosis of ALI (n = 8) or a control condition (n = 9; lateral mechanical instability, osteochondral defect, intra-articular bodies and osteoarthritis). Ultrasound examination included the antero-lateral gutter for abnormal synovial tissue (synovitic lesion), lateral ligament integrity, tibiotalar joint and osseous spurs of the distal tibia and talus. Ultrasound findings were correlated with subsequent arthroscopic appearance. Ultrasound examination detected a synovitic mass in the antero-lateral gutter in all 8 footballers with clinical ALI (100%) and in 2 patients with a control diagnosis (22%). Arthroscopic correlation of antero-lateral synovitis and fibrosis was present in all 10 cases (100%). The synovitic lesion was seen at ultrasound as a nodular soft tissue mass of mixed echogenicity within the antero-lateral gutter, which extruded anteriorly with manual compression of the distal fibula against the tibia. Increased blood supply was detected using power Doppler imaging in only 1 patient. The synovitic lesion measured >10 mm in its maximum dimension in 7 footballers with clinical ALI and <10 mm in the control group. Additional ultrasound findings in patients with abnormal antero-lateral synovial tissue included an anterior talofibular ligament injury in all patients (n = 10), a tibiotalar joint effusion (n = 6) and osseous spurs (n = 4). Antero-lateral synovitic tissue was accurately identified at ultrasound in the absence of an effusion (n = 4). No synovitic lesion was detected at ultrasound or arthroscopy in the remaining 7 patients with a control diagnosis. Ultrasound is accurate in detecting synovitic lesions within the antero-lateral gutter, demonstrating associated ligamentous injuries and in

  8. Title: Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: role of brain derived neurotrophic factor in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian David Greenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety disorders are more common in women than men, and little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to this disparity. Recent data suggest that stress-induced changes in neurotrophins have opposing effects on behavior by acting in different brain networks. Social defeat has been an important approach for understanding neurotrophin action, but low female aggression levels in rats and mice have limited the application of these methods primarily to males. We examined the effects of social defeat in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus, a species in which both males and females defend territories. We demonstrate that defeat stress increases mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF protein but not mRNA in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST in females but not males. Changes in BDNF protein were limited to anterior subregions of the BNST, and there were no changes in the adjacent nucleus accumbens (NAc. The effects of defeat on social withdrawal behavior and BDNF were reversed by chronic, low doses of the antidepressant sertraline. However, higher doses of sertraline restored social withdrawal and elevated BDNF levels. Acute treatment with a low dose of sertraline failed to reverse the effects of defeat. Infusions of the selective tyrosine-related kinase B receptor (TrkB antagonist ANA-12 into the anterior BNST specifically increased social interaction in stressed females but had no effect on behavior in females naïve to defeat. These results suggest that stress-induced increases in BDNF in the anterior BNST contribute to the exaggerated social withdrawal phenotype observed in females.

  9. Emerging role for corticotropin releasing factor signaling in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis at the intersection of stress and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Yuval; Winder, Danny G

    2013-01-01

    Stress and anxiety play an important role in the development and maintenance of drug and alcohol addiction. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a brain region involved in the production of long-term stress-related behaviors, plays an important role in animal models of relapse, such as reinstatement to previously extinguished drug-seeking behaviors. While a number of neurotransmitter systems have been suggested to play a role in these behaviors, recent evidence points to the neuropeptide corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) as being critically important in BNST-mediated reinstatement behaviors. Although numerous studies indicate that the BNST is a complex brain region with multiple afferent and efferent systems and a variety of cell types, there has only been limited work to determine how CRF modulates this complex neuronal system at the circuit level. Recent work from our lab and others have begun to unravel these BNST neurocircuits and explore their roles in CRF-related reinstatement behaviors. This review will examine the role of CRF signaling in drug addiction and reinstatement with an emphasis on critical neurocircuitry within the BNST that may offer new insights into treatments for addiction.

  10. Corticotropin releasing factor type-1 receptor antagonism in the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis disrupts contextually conditioned fear, but not unconditioned fear to a predator odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asok, Arun; Schulkin, Jay; Rosen, Jeffrey B

    2016-08-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) plays a critical role in fear and anxiety. The BNST is important for contextual fear learning, but the mechanisms regulating this function remain unclear. One candidate mechanism is corticotropin-releasing-factor (CRF) acting at CRF type 1 receptors (CRFr1s). Yet, there has been little progress in elucidating if CRFr1s in the BNST are involved in different types of fear (conditioned and/or unconditioned). Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of antalarmin, a potent CRFr1 receptor antagonist, injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV) and into the dorsolateral BNST (LBNST) during single trial contextual fear conditioning or exposure to the predator odor 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT). Neither ICV nor LBNST antalarmin disrupted unconditioned freezing to TMT. In contrast, ICV and LBNST antalarmin disrupted the retention of contextual fear when tested 24h later. Neither ICV nor LBNST antalarmin affected baseline or post-shock freezing-indicating antalarmin does not interfere with the early phases of contextual fear acquisition. Antalarmin did not (1) permanently affect the ability to learn and express contextual fear, (2) change responsivity to footshocks, or (3) affect the ability to freeze. Our findings highlight an important role for CRFr1s within the LBNST during contextually conditioned fear, but not unconditioned predator odor fear. PMID:27153520

  11. Noradrenergic neurotransmission within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulates the retention of immobility in the rat forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Michelly M; Gomes, Felipe V; Crestani, Carlos C; Resstel, Leonardo B M; Joca, Sâmia R L

    2013-06-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a limbic structure that has a direct influence on the autonomic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral responses to stress. It was recently reported that reversible inactivation of synaptic transmission within this structure causes antidepressant-like effects, indicating that activation of the BNST during stressful situations would facilitate the development of behavioral changes related to the neurobiology of depression. Moreover, noradrenergic neurotransmission is abundant in the BNST and has an important role in the regulation of emotional processes related to the stress response. Thus, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that activation of adrenoceptors within the BNST facilitates the development of behavioral consequences of stress. To investigate this hypothesis, male Wistar rats were stressed (forced swimming, 15 min) and 24 h later received intra-BNST injections of vehicle, WB4101, RX821002, CGP20712, or ICI118,551, which are selective α(1), α(2), β(1), and β(2) adrenoceptor antagonists, respectively, 10 min before a 5-min forced swimming test. It was observed that administration of WB4101 (10 and 15 nmol), CGP20712 (5 and 10 nmol), or ICI118,551 (5 nmol) into the BNST reduced the immobility time of rats subjected to forced swimming test, indicating an antidepressant-like effect. These findings suggest that activation of α(1), β(1), and β(2) adrenoceptors in the BNST could be involved in the development of the behavioral consequences of stress.

  12. Vasopressin and sympathetic system mediate the cardiovascular effects of the angiotensin II in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasimi, Ali; Kafami, Marzieh

    2016-07-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is involved in cardiovascular regulation. The angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor (AT1), and angiotensinogen were found in the BST. In our previous study we found that microinjection of Ang II into the BST produced a pressor response. This study was performed to find the mechanisms mediating this response in anesthetized rats. Ang II was microinjected into the BST and the cardiovascular responses were re-tested after systemic injection of a blocker of autonomic or vasopressin V1 receptor. The ganglionic nicotinic receptor blocker, hexamethonium dichloride, attenuated the pressor response to Ang II, indicating that the cardiovascular sympathetic system is involved in the pressor effect of Ang II. A selective vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist greatly attenuated the pressor effect of Ang II, indicating that the Ang II increases the arterial pressure via stimulation of vasopressin release as well. In conclusion, in the BST, Ang II as a neurotransmitter increases blood pressure by exciting cardiovascular sympathetic system and directly or indirectly causing vasopressin to release into bloodstream by VPN. This is an interesting new finding that not only circulating Ang II but also brain Ang II makes vasopressin release.

  13. Roles for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) expression and signaling in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in mediating the behavioral consequences of chronic stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hammack, Sayamwong E.; Roman, Carolyn W.; Lezak, Kimberly R.; Kocho-Shellenberg, Margaret; Grimmig, Bethany; Falls, William A; Braas, Karen; May, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are frequently long-lasting and debilitating for more than 40 million American adults. Although stressor exposure plays an important role in the etiology of some anxiety disorders, the mechanisms by which exposure to stressful stimuli alters central circuits that mediate anxiety-like emotional behavior are still unknown. Substantial evidence has implicated regions of the central extended amygdala, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and the central nucle...

  14. A corticotropin releasing factor pathway for ethanol regulation of the ventral tegmental area in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Yuval; Matthews, Robert T; Winder, Danny G

    2013-01-16

    A growing literature suggests that catecholamines and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) interact in a serial manner to activate the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) to drive stress- or cue-induced drug- and alcohol-seeking behaviors. Data suggest that these behaviors are driven in part by BNST projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Together, these findings suggest the existence of a CRF-signaling pathway within the BNST that is engaged by catecholamines and regulates the activity of BNST neurons projecting to the VTA. Here we test three aspects of this model to determine: (1) whether catecholamines modify CRF neuron activity in the BNST; (2) whether CRF regulates excitatory drive onto VTA-projecting BNST neurons; and (3) whether this system is altered by ethanol exposure and withdrawal. A CRF neuron fluorescent reporter strategy was used to identify BNST CRF neurons for whole-cell patch-clamp analysis in acutely prepared slices. Using this approach, we found that both dopamine and isoproterenol significantly depolarized BNST CRF neurons. Furthermore, using a fluorescent microsphere-based identification strategy we found that CRF enhances the frequency of spontaneous EPSCs onto VTA-projecting BNST neurons in naive mice. This action of CRF was occluded during acute withdrawal from chronic intermittent ethanol exposure. These findings suggest that dopamine and isoproterenol may enhance CRF release from local BNST sources, leading to enhancement of excitatory neurotransmission on VTA-projecting neurons, and that this pathway is engaged by patterns of alcohol exposure and withdrawal known to drive excessive alcohol intake.

  15. Opposing roles of corticotropin-releasing factor and neuropeptide Y within the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the negative affective component of pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Soichiro; Hara, Taiki; Ohno, Atsushi; Tamano, Ryuta; Koseki, Kana; Naka, Tomonori; Maruyama, Chikashi; Kaneda, Katsuyuki; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro; Minami, Masabumi

    2013-04-01

    Pain is a complex experience composed of sensory and affective components. Although the neural systems of the sensory component of pain have been studied extensively, those of its affective component remain to be determined. In the present study, we examined the effects of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) injected into the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dlBNST) on pain-induced aversion and nociceptive behaviors in rats to examine the roles of these peptides in affective and sensory components of pain, respectively. In vivo microdialysis showed that formalin-evoked pain enhanced the release of CRF in this brain region. Using a conditioned place aversion (CPA) test, we found that intra-dlBNST injection of a CRF1 or CRF2 receptor antagonist suppressed pain-induced aversion. Intra-dlBNST CRF injection induced CPA even in the absence of pain stimulation. On the other hand, intra-dlBNST NPY injection suppressed pain-induced aversion. Coadministration of NPY inhibited CRF-induced CPA. This inhibitory effect of NPY was blocked by coadministration of a Y1 or Y5 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology in dlBNST slices revealed that CRF increased neuronal excitability specifically in type II dlBNST neurons, whereas NPY decreased it in these neurons. Excitatory effects of CRF on type II dlBNST neurons were suppressed by NPY. These results have uncovered some of the neuronal mechanisms underlying the affective component of pain by showing opposing roles of intra-dlBNST CRF and NPY in pain-induced aversion and opposing actions of these peptides on neuronal excitability converging on the same target, type II neurons, within the dlBNST.

  16. Effect of GABAA Receptors in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla on Cardiovascular Response to the Activation of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Female Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Hatam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The areas of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST with a high density of estrogen receptors are involved in cardiovascular regulation and send axonal projections to the rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM. We aimed to find the contribution of the RVLM to cardiovascular responses elicited by glutamate microinjection into the BST.Methods: Experiments were done in α-chloralose anesthetized ovariectomized (OVX or OVX estrogen treated (OVX+E female Wistar rats. Drugs were microinjected into the BST and RVLM. The average changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR were compared between the case and control groups using t test and with the pre-injection values using paired t test.Results: Unilateral microinjection of glutamate (0.25 M/50 nl into the BST decreased MAP and HR, in the OVX+E and OVX rats. These cardiovascular responses were reversibly attenuated 10 minutes after microinjection of synaptic blocker cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 5 mM/50 nl into the ipsilateral RVLM. Re-stimulation of the BST 60 min after CoCl2 injection elicited cardiovascular responses that were not different from the control values. Ipsilateral microinjection of GABAA antagonist bicuculline (1.0 mM/50 nl into the RVLM caused a 50% attenuation of glutamate induced depressor and bradycardic responses in both groups. Ipsilateral microinjection of GABAB antagonist, phaclophen (5.0 mM/50 nl, into the RVLM did not affect the depressor and bradycardic responses due to re-stimulation of the BST by glutamate.Conclusion: The RVLM sympathetic premotor neurons contain GABAA receptors that mediate in part the sympathoinhibitory responses to stimulation of the BST in the OVX animals.

  17. Acute reversible inactivation of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis induces antidepressant-like effect in the rat forced swimming test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joca Sâmia RL

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST is a limbic forebrain structure involved in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation and stress adaptation. Inappropriate adaptation to stress is thought to compromise the organism's coping mechanisms, which have been implicated in the neurobiology of depression. However, the studies aimed at investigating BNST involvement in depression pathophysiology have yielded contradictory results. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of temporary acute inactivation of synaptic transmission in the BNST by local microinjection of cobalt chloride (CoCl2 in rats subjected to the forced swimming test (FST. Methods Rats implanted with cannulae aimed at the BNST were submitted to 15 min of forced swimming (pretest. Twenty-four hours later immobility time was registered in a new 5 min forced swimming session (test. Independent groups of rats received bilateral microinjections of CoCl2 (1 mM/100 nL before or immediately after pretest or before the test session. Additional groups received the same treatment and were submitted to the open field test to control for unspecific effects on locomotor behavior. Results CoCl2 injection into the BNST before either the pretest or test sessions reduced immobility in the FST, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect. No significant effect of CoCl2 was observed when it was injected into the BNST immediately after pretest. In addition, no effect of BNST inactivation was observed in the open field test. Conclusion These results suggest that acute reversible inactivation of synaptic transmission in the BNST facilitates adaptation to stress and induces antidepressant-like effects.

  18. MRI features of the anterolateral ligament of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluate the visibility and describe the anatomical features of the anterolateral ligament of the knee using MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging examinations of the knee were independently reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists and assessed for the visibility of the anterolateral ligament under direct cross-referencing of axial and coronal images as complete, partial, or non-visible. Distal insertion site (tibial, meniscal), distance to lateral tibial plateau, measurements (length, width, thickness), and associated imaging findings were also tabulated. Clinical and surgical records were also reviewed. Seventy MRI scans from 60 consecutive subjects were included in the study. Mean age was 40 years, body mass 74.9 kg, and height 1.72 m. The subject population was 53 % male, most of the knees were from the left side (51 %), and chronic pain was the main clinical symptom (40 %). Nine knees (13 %) had undergone previous surgery. The anterolateral ligament was identified in 51 % of the knees: completely visible in 11 % and partially visible in 40 %. In all visible cases, the distal insertion site was identified on the tibia, with a mean distance of 5.7 mm to the plateau. A completely visible ligament had a mean length of 33.2 mm, thickness of 5.6 mm, and width of 1.9 mm. Inter-observer agreement for ligament presence was significant (κ = 0.7). Statistical analyses showed a trend to be more visible in men, with a longer length compared with women. Magnetic resonance imaging clearly identifies the anterolateral ligament of the knee in slightly more than half of cases, being partially visible in most of them. In all cases, a tibial insertion is characterized. (orig.)

  19. MRI features of the anterolateral ligament of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taneja, Atul K. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Musculoskeletal Radiology Division, Imaging Department, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital do Coracao (HCor), and Teleimagem, Musculoskeletal Imaging, Diagnostic Center, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miranda, Frederico C.; Braga, Cesar A.P.; Hartmann, Luiz G.C.; Santos, Durval C.B.; Rosemberg, Laercio A. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Musculoskeletal Radiology Division, Imaging Department, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gill, Corey M. [Department of Neurology and Cancer Center, Pappas Center for Neuro-Oncology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-11-27

    Evaluate the visibility and describe the anatomical features of the anterolateral ligament of the knee using MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging examinations of the knee were independently reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists and assessed for the visibility of the anterolateral ligament under direct cross-referencing of axial and coronal images as complete, partial, or non-visible. Distal insertion site (tibial, meniscal), distance to lateral tibial plateau, measurements (length, width, thickness), and associated imaging findings were also tabulated. Clinical and surgical records were also reviewed. Seventy MRI scans from 60 consecutive subjects were included in the study. Mean age was 40 years, body mass 74.9 kg, and height 1.72 m. The subject population was 53 % male, most of the knees were from the left side (51 %), and chronic pain was the main clinical symptom (40 %). Nine knees (13 %) had undergone previous surgery. The anterolateral ligament was identified in 51 % of the knees: completely visible in 11 % and partially visible in 40 %. In all visible cases, the distal insertion site was identified on the tibia, with a mean distance of 5.7 mm to the plateau. A completely visible ligament had a mean length of 33.2 mm, thickness of 5.6 mm, and width of 1.9 mm. Inter-observer agreement for ligament presence was significant (κ = 0.7). Statistical analyses showed a trend to be more visible in men, with a longer length compared with women. Magnetic resonance imaging clearly identifies the anterolateral ligament of the knee in slightly more than half of cases, being partially visible in most of them. In all cases, a tibial insertion is characterized. (orig.)

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in anterolateral impingement of the ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, L.K. III.; Cooperman, A.E. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Helms, C.A. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Speer, K.P. [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To demonstrate the MR imaging findings of anterolateral impingement (ALI) of the ankle.Design and patients. Nine patients with a history of ankle inversion injury and chronic lateral ankle pain were imaged with MR imaging, and the findings correlated with the results of arthroscopy. Three additional patients with clinically suspected ALI of the ankle were also included. Ankle MR imaging studies from 20 control patients in whom ALI was not suspected clinically were examined for similar findings to the patient group.Results. MR imaging findings in the patients with ALI included a soft tissue signal mass in the anterolateral gutter of the ankle in 12 of 12 (100%) cases, corresponding to the synovial hypertrophy and soft tissue mass found at arthroscopy in the nine patients who underwent arthroscopy. Disruption, attenuation, or marked thickening of the anterior talofibular ligament was seen in all cases. Additional findings included signs of synovial hypertrophy elsewhere in the tibiotalar joint in seven of 12 patients (58%) and bony and cartilaginous injuries to the tibiotalar joint in five of 12 (42%). None of the control patients demonstrated MR imaging evidence of a soft tissue mass in the anterolateral gutter.Conclusions. ALI of the ankle is a common cause for chronic lateral ankle pain. It has been well described in the orthopedic literature but its imaging findings have not been clearly elucidated. The MR imaging findings, along with the appropriate clinical history, can be used to direct arthroscopic examination and subsequent debridement. (orig.)

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in anterolateral impingement of the ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To demonstrate the MR imaging findings of anterolateral impingement (ALI) of the ankle.Design and patients. Nine patients with a history of ankle inversion injury and chronic lateral ankle pain were imaged with MR imaging, and the findings correlated with the results of arthroscopy. Three additional patients with clinically suspected ALI of the ankle were also included. Ankle MR imaging studies from 20 control patients in whom ALI was not suspected clinically were examined for similar findings to the patient group.Results. MR imaging findings in the patients with ALI included a soft tissue signal mass in the anterolateral gutter of the ankle in 12 of 12 (100%) cases, corresponding to the synovial hypertrophy and soft tissue mass found at arthroscopy in the nine patients who underwent arthroscopy. Disruption, attenuation, or marked thickening of the anterior talofibular ligament was seen in all cases. Additional findings included signs of synovial hypertrophy elsewhere in the tibiotalar joint in seven of 12 patients (58%) and bony and cartilaginous injuries to the tibiotalar joint in five of 12 (42%). None of the control patients demonstrated MR imaging evidence of a soft tissue mass in the anterolateral gutter.Conclusions. ALI of the ankle is a common cause for chronic lateral ankle pain. It has been well described in the orthopedic literature but its imaging findings have not been clearly elucidated. The MR imaging findings, along with the appropriate clinical history, can be used to direct arthroscopic examination and subsequent debridement. (orig.)

  2. Activation of corticotropin releasing factor-containing neurons in the rat central amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis following exposure to two different anxiogenic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ryan K; Oliver, Elisabeth M; Sharko, Amanda C; Parilla-Carrero, Jeffrey; Kaigler, Kris F; Fadel, Jim R; Wilson, Marlene A

    2016-05-01

    Rats exposed to the odor of a predator or to the elevated plus maze (EPM) express unique unconditioned fear behaviors. The extended amygdala has previously been demonstrated to mediate the response to both predator odor and the EPM. We seek to determine if divergent amygdalar microcircuits are associated with the different behavioral responses. The current experiments compared activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-containing neuronal populations in the central amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) of rats exposed to either the EPM (5 min) versus home cage controls, or predator (ferret) odor versus butyric acid, or no odor (30 min). Sections of the brains were prepared for dual-labeled immunohistochemistry and counts of c-Fos co-localized with CRF were made in the centrolateral and centromedial amygdala (CLA and CMA) as well as the dorsolateral (dl), dorsomedial (dm), and ventral (v) BNST. Ferret odor-exposed rats displayed an increase in duration and a decrease in latency of defensive burying versus control rats. Exposure to both predator stress and EPM induced neuronal activation in the BNST, but not the central amygdala, and similar levels of neuronal activation were seen in both the high and low anxiety groups in the BNST after EPM exposure. Dual-labeled immunohistochemistry showed a significant increase in the percentage of CRF/c-Fos co-localization in the vBNST of ferret odor-exposed rats compared to control and butyric acid-exposed groups as well as EPM-exposed rats compared to home cage controls. In addition, an increase in the percentage of CRF-containing neurons co-localized with c-Fos was observed in the dmBNST after EPM exposure. No changes in co-localization of CRF with c-Fos was observed with these treatments in either the CLA or CMA. These results suggest that predator odor and EPM exposure activates CRF neurons in the BNST to a much greater extent than CRF neurons of the central amygdala, and indicates unconditioned

  3. Proximal Humerus Fracture Plating Through the Extended Anterolateral Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Several approaches to the proximal humerus for fracture fixation are possible. The traditional utilitarian approach to the shoulder, the deltopectoral, has distinct disadvantages when performing fracture reduction and locked plating. The anterolateral acromial approach exploits the intermuscular plane between the anterior and middle heads of the deltoid. After identifying the position of the axillary nerve as it crosses this interval, fracture reduction and fixation is performed. Direct access to both the greater and the lesser tuberosities is facilitated. The cancellous surface of the humeral head fragment provides an excellent surface for direct manipulation without further endangering the extraosseous soft tissue attachments. PMID:27441923

  4. Free anterolateral thigh flap harvesting from paralytic limbs in post-polio syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changchien, Chih-Hsuan; Chen, Wei-Chen; Su, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of poliomyelitis in which an anterolateral thigh myocutaneous free flap was harvested from the paralytic limb for oral reconstruction. We observed a decrease in the pedicle diameter of the anterolateral thigh flap, but the blood supply to the skin paddle was adequate. PMID:27583272

  5. Minimally invasive osteosynthesis of distal tibial fractures using anterolateral locking plate: Evaluation of results and complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devendra Lakhotia; Gaurav Sharma; Kavin Khatri; G.N.Kiran Kumar; Vijay Sharma; Kamran Farooque

    2016-01-01

    Purpose:Soft tissue healing is of paramount importance in distal tibial fractures for a successful outcome.There is an increasing trend of using anterolateral plate due to an adequate soft tissue cover on anterolateral distal tibia.The aim of this study was to evaluate the results and complications of minimally invasive anterolateral locking plate in distal tibial fractures.Methods:This is a retrospective study of 42 patients with distal tibial fractures treated with minimally invasive anterolateral tibial plating.This study evaluates the bone and soft tissue healing along with emphasis on complications related to bone and soft tissue healing.Results:Full weight bearing was allowed in mean time period of 4.95 months (3-12 months).A major local complication of a wound which required revision surgery was seen in one case.Minor complications were identified in 9 cases which comprised 4 cases of marginal necrosis of the surgical wound,1 case of superficial infection,1 case of sensory disturbance over the anterolateral foot,1 case of muscle hernia and 2 cases of delayed union.Mean distance between the posterolateral and anterolateral incision was 5.7 cm (4.5-8 cm).Conclusion:The minimally invasive distal tibial fixation with anterolateral plating is a safe method of stabilization.Distance between anterolateral and posterolateral incision can be placed less than 7 cm apart depending on fracture pattern with proper surgical timing and technique.

  6. A new anterolateral approach for type C fractures of the distal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Zhang; Song, Luo; Binghua, Wu; Ping, Qiu; Min, Dai

    2014-01-01

    To provide an anatomic basis for treating type C distal femoral fractures by a new anterolateral approach. Twenty surgical procedures were performed in 10 adult cadaveric specimens using a new anterolateral approach followed by dissection of all lower limbs. The main anterolateral muscles and ligaments were observed. Vessels and nerves related to the new anterolateral approach were also evaluated. Full exposure of the distal femur was achieved. The iliotibial band was protected, and damage to the quadriceps femoris was reduced. The distance between the common peroneal nerve and the new incision line at the level of the lateral epicondyle of the femur was (χ̄ ± s) 8.19 ± 0.79 cm (range, 7.48-9.57 cm). This new anterolateral approach to the distal femur is safe. Although it induces slight soft tissue damage, its exposure is excellent. Knee rehabilitation can be performed in the early postoperative period. PMID:25437603

  7. 大鼠纹状体边缘区与杏仁核和终纹床核之间相互联系的免疫组织化学研究%THE CONNECTION AMONG THE MARGINAL DIVISION OF STRIATUM,AMYGDALOID NUCLEUS AND BED NUCLEUS OF THE STRIA TERMINALIS IN THE RAT BRAIN AS REVEALED BY IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耀宇; 舒斯云; 包新民; 吴文龙

    2000-01-01

    为了解大鼠纹状体内的神经活性物质与边缘系统重要结构杏仁核和终纹床核内相应神经活性物质之间的关系。对大鼠脑的连续冠状切片进行了P物质、降钙素基因相关肽、亮氨酸-脑啡肽、胆囊收缩素和神经元型一氧化氮合酶等的免疫细胞化学反应(ABC法)。结果证明:P物质、降钙素基因相关肽和胆囊收缩素在纹状体中主要分布在边缘区;亮氨酸-脑啡肽主要分布在苍白球,其次分布在边缘区;神经元型一氧化氮合酶则主要分布在尾壳核和边缘区。上述神经活性物质同时也集中分布在杏仁核和终纹床核,而且边缘区内的这些神经活性物质与杏仁核和终纹床核内的相同物质存在着纤维联系。本研究结果说明:边缘区与边缘系统之间存在着神经化学的相互关系,边缘区可能属于边缘系统的一部分。%To understand the relationship of neurotransmitter between the striatum and limbic system such as amygdaloid nucle-us and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. 30 male Sprague Dawley rats were used. Immunohistochemical ABC method was per-formed to detect the expression of substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), leucine-enkephalin (L-enk),cholecyctokinin (CCK) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) on seetions of the brain. Some transmitters including substanceP, calcitonin gene-related peptide and cholecyctokinin were mainly distributed at the marginal division of the striatum. Theleucine-enkephalin was mainly distributed at the globus pallidus and was secondly distributed at the marginal division of the stria-tun. The neuronal nitric oxide synthase was mainly distributed at caudate putamen and the marginal division. All these transmit-ters were not only distributed at amygdaloid nucleus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, but also had fibers connection amongthe amygdaloid nucleus, marginal division and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

  8. Combined anterolateral posterolateral rotary instability: Is posterolateral complex reconstruction necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalilahah Nazem

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The treatment of combined anterolateral posterolateral rotary instability has been done by correcting knee alignment, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction plus repair or reconstruction of the posterolateral complex. Because of the technical difficulties encountered in these operations and the need for more than two stages, and considering the controversy among the role of posterolateral complex (PLC in valgus knees, this study was designed to observe the results of treating this instability by ACL-reconstruction alone, after correction of varus, without reconstruction of the posterolateral complex or further extra-articular manipulation.
    • METHODS: This was a clinical trial performed on 29 patients (29 knees with combined anterolateral posterolateral rotary nstability. Subjective and objective instability signs were recorded. Arthroscopy was then performed and a valgus osteotomy was done to correct alignment. Then in a second stage, an ACL-reconstruction was carried out. Results, after a mean of 23 months follow-up, were compared to the conditions before surgery. Fisher exact test, X2 and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze the data. P<0.05 was considered to be meaningful.
    • RESULTS: Pain was relieved in more than half and locking was improved in all of the patients. Giving way of the knee was diminished from 79.3% to 6.9%. Special instability tests showed a significant improvement after surgery (P<0.001. Most of the patients returned to the preinjury level of work or sports.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of this study, ACL-reconstruction alone, after correction of varus, can be sufficient to address this combined knee instability without farther procedures on extra-articular structures and posterolateral complex, thus avoiding unnecessary complications and longer rehabilitation.
    • Key words

    • Free anterolateral thigh flaps for upper extremity soft tissue reconstruction

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Spindler, Nick

      2015-02-01

      Full Text Available Introduction: Limb-threatening wounds of the upper extremity pose a challenge to the micro vascular surgeon. The aim of this study is to analyze the outcome of free anterolateral thigh flaps for upper extremity soft tissue reconstruction.Methods: A retrospective review of patients undergoing this procedure from 2005 to 2012 was performed. Case note analysis was performed to determine demographic and perioperative factors, and complications and outcomes.Results: Thirty-two patients with a mean age of 53 years (9–84 yrs underwent upper extremity reconstruction with an anterolateral thigh (ALT flap. There were 24 (75% males and 8 (25% females. The etiology of the soft tissue defects was: infection (44.6%; post-tumor ablation (40%; and trauma (15.6%. The defect site was most commonly in the forearm (53.1%, followed by the elbow (12.5 %, arm (12.5% and hand (21.9%. The mean timing of free flap transfer was 6.8 days after admission to our institution (minimum 1 days, maximum 9 days. Mean operative time of surgery was 4 h 39 min (minimum 3 h 2 min, maximum 20 min. The mean hospitalization was 24.8 days (minimum 5, maximum 85. The ALT success rate was at 92.3%. Partial flap necrosis was documented in five cases (15.6%. Complete flap loss occurred in two post-traumatic cases who both lost their limbs.Discussion: This flap, in the hands of experienced surgeons, provides reliable coverage of upper extremity defects.

    • Knee and Ankle Reconstruction With Reverse Anterolateral Thigh and Free Anterolateral Thigh Flap From One Donor Site.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Choi, KyeongBeom; Cho, JaeHo; Park, MyongChul; Park, Dong Ha; Lee, Il Jae

      2016-09-01

      Traditionally, the anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap is used in distal lower extremity reconstruction. Reverse ALT flap has become one of the most popular choices for knee joint soft tissue defects. A 53-year-old man sustained a degloving injury in the right lateral side of the lower extremity from the lateral malleolar area to the knee joint area. The contamination was severe, necessitating serial debridement and negative pressure wound therapy. After 4 weeks, no more soft tissue necrosis was evident. No more microorganism growth was confirmed by swab culture. ALT free flap using proximal perforator was planned for lateral malleolar area reconstruction and reverse ALT flap using distal perforator was planned to cover knee joint after confirming the pedicle length was sufficient for simultaneous knee and lateral malleolar area reconstruction. PMID:27317019

    • Angio computed tomography preoperative evaluation for anterolateral thigh flap harvesting.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ribuffo, Diego; Atzeni, Matteo; Saba, Luca; Milia, Arianna; Guerra, Maristella; Mallarini, Giorgio

      2009-04-01

      The vascular anatomy of the anterolateral thigh flap (ALTF) has many possible variations, and none of the currently used mapping techniques (eg, Echo Color Doppler) gives a thorough knowledge of all details. Among the last generation of angiographic diagnostic techniques, multi detector computed tomography, popularly known as Angio CT, has emerged as an outstanding noninvasive operator independent option, and has been described for deep inferior epigastric perforator and pedicled transverse rectus abdominis muscle planning. This study was conducted to evaluate its usefulness prior to ALTF harvesting.Nine consecutive patients were considered for oral or lower extremity reconstruction with the ALTF. After written informed consent was obtained from all patients, a preoperative Angio-CT study was performed for surgical planning. Accurate identification of septocutaneous or musculocutaneous perforator vessels was achieved and their location, course, and anatomic variations were reported and influenced surgery. Angio CT allows a complete vascular study of the donor area of the ALTF and evaluation of the best perforator vessels before surgery allows surgeons to get an ideal planning of the flap. This imaging method is currently proposed to every patient undergoing ALT flap reconstruction. PMID:19325338

    • Adipofascial Anterolateral Thigh Flap Safety: Applications and Complications

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Tommaso Agostini

      2013-03-01

      Full Text Available Background A thinned anterolateral thigh (ALT flap is often harvested to achieve optimalskin resurfacing. Several techniques have been described to thin an ALT flap including anadipocutaneous flap, an adipofascial flap and delayed debulking.Methods By systematically reviewing all of the available literature in English and French, thepresent manuscript attempts to identify the common surgical indications, complications anddonor site morbidity of the adipofascial variant of the ALT flap. The studies were identifiedby performing a systematic search on Medline, Ovid, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database ofSystematic Reviews, Current Contents, PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar.Results The study selection process was adapted from the Preferred Reporting Items forSystematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement, and 15 articles were identified usingthe study inclusion criteria. These articles were then reviewed for author name(s, year ofpublication, flap dimensions and thickness following defatting, perforator type, type of transfer,complications, thinning technique, number of cases with a particular area of application anddonor site morbidity.Conclusions The adipofascial variant of the ALT flap provides tissue to fill large defects andimprove pliability. Its strong and safe blood supply permits adequate immediate or delayeddebulking without vascular complications. The presence of the deep fascia makes it possibleto prevent sagging by suspending and fixing the flap for functional reconstructive purposes(e.g., the intraoral cavity. Donor site morbidity is minimal, and thigh deformities can bereduced through immediate direct closure or liposuction and direct closure. A safe bloodsupply was confirmed by the rate of secondary flap debulking.

    • Comparison of complications in transtrochanteric and anterolateral approaches in primary total hip arthroplasty.

      LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

      Cashman, James P

      2008-11-01

      Three surgical approaches to primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) have been in use since Charnley popularized the transtrochanteric approach. This study was designed to examine the difference in morbidity between the transtrochanteric approach and the anterolateral approach in primary THA. Information on 891 patients who underwent primary THA performed by a single surgeon was collected prospectively between 1998 and 2003 using a modified SF-36 form, preoperatively, intraoperatively, and at 3 months postoperatively. The transtrochanteric group had higher morbidity and more patients who were dissatisfied with their THA. There was a greater range of motion in the anterolateral group.

    • The anterolateral ligament of the knee: MRI appearance, association with the Segond fracture, and historical perspective.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Porrino, Jack; Maloney, Ezekiel; Richardson, Michael; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Ha, Alice; Chew, Felix S

      2015-02-01

      OBJECTIVE. A recent publication has drawn attention to the anterolateral ligament, a structure of the knee with which most radiologists are unfamiliar. We evaluate this structure on MRI; clarify its origin, insertion, meniscal relationship, and morphologic appearance; and identify its relationship with the Segond fracture. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A total of 53 routine knee MRI studies interpreted as normal were reviewed to characterize the anterolateral ligament. A further 20 knee MRI studies with a Segond fracture were assessed to determine a relationship between the fracture and the anterolateral ligament. RESULTS. In all 53 cases, a structure was present along the lateral knee connecting the distal femur to the proximal tibia, with meniscofemoral and meniscotibial components. This structure was somewhat ill defined and sheetlike, inseparable from the adjacent fibular collateral ligament proximally and iliotibial band distally. Aside from one case limited by anatomic distortion, all cases with a Segond fracture exhibited attachment of this structure to the fracture fragment (19/20 cases). CONCLUSION. An ill-defined sheetlike structure along the lateral knee exists attaching the distal femur, body of lateral meniscus, and proximal tibia. This structure has been referenced in the literature dating back to Paul Segond's original description of the Segond fracture in 1879. The structure is identifiable on MRI and appears to be attached to the Segond fracture fragment. For the radiologist, it may be best to forgo an attempt to separate this structure into discrete divisions, such as the anterolateral ligament, because these individual components are inseparable on routine MRI. PMID:25615760

    • Supercharging and Augmenting Venous Drainage of an Anterolateral Thigh Free Flap: Options and Indications

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Frederic W.-B. Deleyiannis, MD, MPhil, MPH

      2014-04-01

      Full Text Available Summary: This study introduces the options for supercharging and augmenting venous drainage of an anterolateral thigh free flap. Clinical indications and options for additional microvascular anastomoses are reviewed in 5 consecutive patients. The indications were simultaneous mucosal and cutaneous defects, divergent mucosal defects, and extensively wide and long cutaneous defects. Three additional vascular pedicles were anastomosed: the transverse branch of the lateral circumflex (n = 3, a perforator coming directly off the superficial femoral artery (n = 1, and a posterior perforator from the profundus femoral artery (n = 1. The anastomosis of a separate pedicle from the superior, medial, and/or posterior-lateral thigh may be a useful technique when confronted with an extensive defect that may not reliably be reconstructed with a routine anterolateral thigh flap based on a single perforator.

    • Minimally Invasive Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction in the Setting of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Barbosa, Nuno Camelo; Tuteja, Sanesh; Daggett, Matt; Kajetanek, Charles; Thaunat, Mathieu

      2016-02-01

      Recent evidence on the anatomy, function, and biomechanical properties of the anterolateral ligament has led to the recognition of the importance of this structure in the rotational control of the knee. This article describes a technique that allows for minimally invasive anterolateral ligament reconstruction as a complement to most techniques of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A gracilis tendon autograft is harvested and prepared in a double-strand, inverted V-shaped graft. The graft is percutaneously placed through a femoral stab incision, and each strand is then passed deep to the iliotibial band, emerging through each tibial stab incision. After the femoral-end loop graft is fixed, the tibial fixation of each strand is performed in full extension for optimal isometry. PMID:27274456

    • Approaches to anterior and anterolateral foramen magnum lesions: A critical review

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ricardo J Komotar

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available Foramen magnum (FM lesions represent some of the most complex cases for the modern neurosurgeon because of their location near vital brainstem structures, the vertebral arteries, and lower cranial nerves. In particular, anterior or anterolaterally located FM tumors have traditionally been most difficult to resect with high morbidity and mortality resulting from approaches through the posterior midline or transorally. For many neurosurgeons, the far lateral, extreme lateral approach, and more recently, endoscopic endonasal approaches have become the preferred modern methods for the resection of anterior or anterolateral FM tumors. In this review, we examine both operative and non-operative approaches to FM tumors, including surgical anatomy, surgical technique, and indications for operative intervention in these complex cases. In addition, we compared outcomes from prior series.

    • Combined anterolateral ligament and anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction of the knee.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Smith, James O; Yasen, Sam K; Lord, Breck; Wilson, Adrian J

      2015-11-01

      Although anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is established for the surgical treatment of anterolateral knee instability, there remains a significant cohort of patients who continue to experience post-operative instability. Recent advances in our understanding of the anatomic, biomechanical and radiological characteristics of the native anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee have led to a resurgent interest in reconstruction of this structure as part of the management of knee instability. This technical note describes our readily reproducible combined minimally invasive technique to reconstruct both the ACL and ALL anatomically using autologous semitendinosus and gracilis grafts. This method of ALL reconstruction can be easily integrated with all-inside ACL reconstruction, requiring minimal additional operative time, equipment and expertise. Level of evidence V.

    • Approaches to anterior and anterolateral foramen magnum lesions: A critical review

      OpenAIRE

      Komotar, Ricardo J.; Zacharia, Brad E.; McGovern, Robert A.; Sisti, Michael B.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Anthony L D′Ambrosio

      2010-01-01

      Foramen magnum (FM) lesions represent some of the most complex cases for the modern neurosurgeon because of their location near vital brainstem structures, the vertebral arteries, and lower cranial nerves. In particular, anterior or anterolaterally located FM tumors have traditionally been most difficult to resect with high morbidity and mortality resulting from approaches through the posterior midline or transorally. For many neurosurgeons, the far lateral, extreme lateral approach, and more...

    • Proprioception and Clinical Results of Anterolateral Single-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Remnant Preservation

      OpenAIRE

      Lee, Dung Chul; Shon, Oog Jin; Kwack, Byung Hoon; Lee, Sung Jun

      2013-01-01

      Purpose To evaluate the clinical and radiological results and proprioception following anterolateral single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction with remnant preservation for PCL injury. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with an isolated PCL injury (16 males and 4 females) were included in this study. The mean follow-up period was 61 months (≥24 months) and the mean age of the patients was 36 years. Knee joint instability was evaluated using posterior drawer stress radi...

  1. Analysis of right anterolateral impacts: the effect of trunk flexion on the cervical muscle whiplash response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Yogesh

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cervical muscles are considered a potential site of whiplash injury, and there is a need to understand the cervical muscle response under non-conventional whiplash impact scenarios, including variable body position and impact direction. There is no data, however, on the effect of occupant position on the muscle response to frontal impacts. Therefore, the objective of the study was to measure cervical muscle response to graded right anterolateral impacts. Methods Twenty volunteers were subjected to right anterolateral impacts of 4.3, 7.8, 10.6, and 12.8 m/s2 acceleration with their trunk flexed forward 45 degrees and laterally flexed right or left by 45 degrees. Bilateral EMG of the sternocleidomastoids, trapezii, and splenii capitis and acceleration of the sled, torso, and head were measured. Results and discussion With either direction of trunk flexion at impact, the trapezius EMGs increased with increasing acceleration (p Conclusion When the subject sits with trunk flexed out of neutral posture at the time of anterolateral impact, the cervical muscle response is dramatically reduced compared to frontal impacts with the trunk in neutral posture. In the absence of bodily impact, the flexed trunk posture appears to produce a biomechanical response that would decrease the likelihood of cervical muscle injury in low velocity impacts.

  2. Combined Anterior and Anterolateral Stabilization of the Knee With the Iliotibial Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Christian; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Imbert, Pierre; Barbosa, Nuno Camelo; Tuteja, Sanesh; Jaeger, Jean-Henri

    2016-04-01

    Interest and knowledge on the anatomy, function, and biomechanical properties of the anterolateral ligament has led to the recognition of the importance of this structure in rotational control of the knee. This article describes a technique that allows for a combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and anterolateral reconstruction, using an Iliotibial band (ITB) autograft. The graft is detached from the vastus lateralis from proximal to distal, at the center portion from ITB, preserving its distal insertion on the Gerdy tubercle. Its width is 1 cm for the distal part, used for the anterolateral ligament reconstruction, and 3 cm for the proximal part. An outside-in femoral tunnel is drilled respecting both the preferred favorable isometric femoral insertion site and the femoral ACL footprint. An ACL reconstruction combined with a lateral tenodesis with a continuous ITB graft respects the anatomical and isometric rules providing superior internal rotational control of the knee in comparison with a stand-alone ACL reconstruction.

  3. Combined Anterior and Anterolateral Stabilization of the Knee With the Iliotibial Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Christian; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Imbert, Pierre; Barbosa, Nuno Camelo; Tuteja, Sanesh; Jaeger, Jean-Henri

    2016-04-01

    Interest and knowledge on the anatomy, function, and biomechanical properties of the anterolateral ligament has led to the recognition of the importance of this structure in rotational control of the knee. This article describes a technique that allows for a combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and anterolateral reconstruction, using an Iliotibial band (ITB) autograft. The graft is detached from the vastus lateralis from proximal to distal, at the center portion from ITB, preserving its distal insertion on the Gerdy tubercle. Its width is 1 cm for the distal part, used for the anterolateral ligament reconstruction, and 3 cm for the proximal part. An outside-in femoral tunnel is drilled respecting both the preferred favorable isometric femoral insertion site and the femoral ACL footprint. An ACL reconstruction combined with a lateral tenodesis with a continuous ITB graft respects the anatomical and isometric rules providing superior internal rotational control of the knee in comparison with a stand-alone ACL reconstruction. PMID:27354943

  4. High prevalence of anterolateral ligament abnormalities in magnetic resonance images of anterior cruciate ligament-injured knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Steven; Bartholomeeusen, Stijn; Bellemans, Johan

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the newly described anterolateral ligament of the human knee on magnetic resonance imaging and to describe its eventual radiological abnormalities in anterior cruciate ligament-injured subjects. A retrospective cohort study on a series of consecutive subjects undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstructive surgery was performed. The MR images of 206 included knees were studied and the status of the anterolateral ligament status was judged to be either "non-visualized", "normal" or "abnormal". Of all the visualized anterolateral ligaments, 44 (21.3%) were considered uninjured, while 162 (78.8%) knees demonstrated radiological ALL abnormalities. The majority of ALL abnormalities were situated in the distal part of the ligament (77.8%). In conclusion, the anterolateral ligament can be identified on classic knee magnetic resonance images. Although anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects often demonstrated associated anterolateral ligament lesions, further research is needed in order to establish the clinical relevance of these highly frequent radiological abnormalities. PMID:24873084

  5. Radiological classification of meniscocapsular tears of the anterolateral portion of the lateral meniscus of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an arthroscopic-MRI correlation study of acute injuries to the knee it was found that anterolateral meniscocapsular separations of the lateral aspect of the knee were missed on MRI reporting. Eighty sports-related injuries of the knee were seen by experienced orthopaedic surgeons at the University of Malaya Medical Centre and at the National Sports Centre, Malaysia from January 1996 to July 1997. Fifty of the patients were suspected to have meniscal tears that were either lateral or medial on clinical examination and they were sent for MRI. Many of these patients were tertiary referrals. Magnetic resonance imaging examinations in 27 of the 50 patients were reported as not showing any intrasubstance or obvious meniscocapsular tears, but arthroscopy performed on them revealed anterolateral meniscocapsular tears of the lateral meniscus of varying degrees in nine of these patients. In retrospect the tears could be seen on MRI, and a pattern to the tears was noted and classified as follows. Type 0, normal; type 1, torn inferior or superior meniscocapsular attachment; type 2, both meniscofemoral and meniscotibial ligaments torn but with minimal separation of meniscus and capsule by fluid or synovitis; and type 3, marked separation of meniscus and capsule by fluid (> 3 mm). Ten patients who did not undergo arthroscopy for various personal and financial reasons underwent MRI which showed type 1 and type 2 tears, and were treated conservatively. These patients were all asymptomatic after 4-6 weeks with regard to clinical signs, suggesting a lateral meniscal tear. Magnetic resonance imaging therefore does reveal minor degrees of meniscocapsular tears anterolaterally when one understands the normal anatomy in this region. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  6. Reconstruction of Chopart's Amputation Stump Using Artificial Dermis Combined with Free Anterolateral Thigh Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Mari; Matsumine, Hajime; Takeuchi, Masaki

    2015-11-01

    A 63-year-old man dropped a metal chunk onto his left foot during his work and suffered a crush injury of the left forefoot. He underwent Chopart's amputation followed by stump coverage with sole skin at the orthopedic department on the same day. He was referred to our department for reconstruction because of poor vascularization and subsequent necrosis of tissue at the stump. After the necrotic tissue was debrided, exposure of the talus bone was noted. An artificial dermis was then applied to the stump wound, followed by local negative pressure wound therapy. After 3 weeks, the generation of a strong dermis-like tissue was observed at the site of artificial dermis grafting. We then performed flow-through free anterolateral thigh flap grafting to reconstruct the stump wound. This procedure involved suturing of the peroneal muscle group and tibialis anterior muscle, which were cut off during Chopart's amputation, and suturing the soft tissue surrounding the calcaneus firmly to the fascia lata of the anterolateral thigh flap, followed by suturing of the flap to the skin defect of the left foot. There were neither postoperative complications, such as skin ulcer and equinus/varus deformity, nor need for secondary repair of the grafted flap, so the patient was able to smoothly enter a rehabilitation program including gait training. The current reconstruction technique for the tissue defect following Chopart's amputation, consisting of artificial dermis grafting, negative pressure wound therapy, and flow-through free anterolateral thigh flap grafting, enabled safe and smooth gait rehabilitation with a forefoot prosthesis. PMID:26893983

  7. [Coverage of anterior knee defect by reverse flow anterolateral thigh flap: About two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Faivre, D; Pineau, V; Colson, T; Brix, M; Simon, E

    2016-08-01

    The coverage of soft-tissue defects concerning the front of the knee and the proximal lower leg is a complex procedure. The reverse flow anterolateral thigh flap represents a good solution for this defects, especially when the coverage surface is large-sized and a free flap is not appropriate regarding the difficulty of the process. Flap retrograde vascularization is based on the anastomosis between the descending branch of the circumflex femoral artery and lateral superior genicular artery. It is an easy solution with low morbidity. The authors have chosen this flap to cover soft-tissue defect of anterior knee from two patients with total knee prothesis. PMID:26169962

  8. Reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament and anterolateral ligament using interlinked hamstrings - technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcio de Castro; Zidan, Flavio Ferreira; Miduati, Francini Belluci; Fortuna, Caio Cesar; Mizutani, Bruno Moreira; Abdalla, Rene Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Recent anatomical and biomechanical studies on the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee have shown that this structure has an important function in relation to joint stability, especially when associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the criteria for its reconstruction have not yet been fully established and the surgical techniques that have been described present variations regarding anatomical points and fixation materials. This study presents a reproducible technique for ALL and ACL reconstruction using hamstring tendons, in which three interference screws are used for fixation.

  9. Groin reconstruction by anterolateral thigh flap: A review of 16 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Quazi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We present our experience of pedicled Anterolateral thigh flap for reconstruction of groin defects in cancer patients. Total of 17 flaps in 16 patients were performed between January 2001 to May 2003. 15 flaps were used for groin defects after node dissection for carcinoma of Penis (bilateral groin defects in one patient, 1 case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of groin and 1 case of Soft Tissue Sarcoma of groin. All patients were male. 16 were myocutaneous variety and 1 was fasciocutaneous flap based on the septocutaneous perforator. Complications were few and all patients achieved durable long-term coverage. We found the flap to be technically easy and reliable.

  10. Scalp Free Flap Reconstruction Using Anterolateral Thigh Flap Pedicle for Interposition Artery and Vein Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Chin Whan Kim; Sung Hee Hong; Jong Hoon Lee; Suk Chan Eun; Kyung Hee Min; Jun Hyung Park

    2012-01-01

    We experienced satisfactory outcomes by synchronously transplanting an artery and vein using an anterolateral thigh flap pedicle between the vascular pedicle and recipient vessel of a flap for scalp reconstruction. A 45-year-old man developed a subdural hemorrhage due to a fall injury. In this patient, the right temporal cranium was missing and the patient had 4×3 cm and 6×5 cm scalp defects. We planned a scalp reconstruction using a latissimus dorsi free flap. Intraoperatively, there was a s...

  11. Reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament and anterolateral ligament using interlinked hamstrings - technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcio de Castro; Zidan, Flavio Ferreira; Miduati, Francini Belluci; Fortuna, Caio Cesar; Mizutani, Bruno Moreira; Abdalla, Rene Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Recent anatomical and biomechanical studies on the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee have shown that this structure has an important function in relation to joint stability, especially when associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the criteria for its reconstruction have not yet been fully established and the surgical techniques that have been described present variations regarding anatomical points and fixation materials. This study presents a reproducible technique for ALL and ACL reconstruction using hamstring tendons, in which three interference screws are used for fixation. PMID:27517028

  12. Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of the Tibial Plateau Through the Anterolateral Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hake, Mark E; Goulet, James A

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are challenging injuries to treat. The lateral tibial plateau is fractured more commonly than the medial plateau and the workhorse approach for these fractures is the anterolateral approach. This approach allows visualization of the lateral joint, metaphysis, and can be extensile if there is shaft extension. We present our technique for performing the anterolateral approach while treating a Schatzker III tibial plateau fracture. Special attention is given to performing a submeniscal arthrotomy to view the joint surface and judge the reduction. A femoral distractor is placed to assist with elevation the joint surface and visualization of the lateral plateau. A cortical window is created using a triple reamer from the sliding hip screw set. The reduction is performed and supported with cancellous bone chips. Finally, a lateral locking plate with rafting screws is placed. Knowledge of this approach and the strategies needed to address lateral and some bicondlar tibial plateau fractures are crucial to good patient outcomes. PMID:27441932

  13. Anterolateral muscle sparing approach total hip arthroplasty: an anatomic and clinical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-long; SHEN Hao; QIN Xiao-long; WANG Qi

    2008-01-01

    Background Many kinds of approaches have been used for minimally invasive surgery of total hip arthroplasty (MIS-THA). However, until now when considering the balance of efficacy and associated surgical injury there is no approach widely accepted for MIS-THA. In this study, a modified anterolateral muscle sparing approach was developed to optimize MIS-THA. Methods Twenty adult cadaver specimens (40 hips) were used for anatomic research. The distance from anterior origin of the gluteus medius on the lilac crest to the anterior superior lilac spine was measured; the course of the superior gluteal nerve and the distances from the nerve to the regional anatomic landmarks were recorded. Simulated surgeries were performed in three fresh cadaver specimens to evaluate the soft tissues injury around incisions. From October 2004 to June 2006, 57 patients (57 hips) were treated with anterolateral muscle sparing minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty, of which 17 were femoral neck fractures, 9 osteoarthritis, 16 developmental dysplasia of hip (DDH) and 15 avascular necrosis (AVN). All the operations were performed by the same senior surgeon. Operation time, blood loss and drainage volume were recorded and the correlation between the local complications and the native anatomical characteristics was especially noted. All cases were followed for at least 12 months.Results The distance from the anterior origin of the gluteus medius to anterior superior lilac spine along the lilac crest was (61±4) mm (range, 55-68 mm), and the distance from inferior branch of the superior gluteal nerve to the anterior tubercle of the greater trochanter was (74±6)mm (range, 60-88 mm). In simulated surgeries, excessive distraction of tissue was found to be the main cause of the anterior border injury of the gluteus medius muscle. Of the 57 patients treated with anterolateral muscle sparing MIS-THA, the average incision length was 9 cm (range 7.5-13 cm). Blood transfusions were performed in 11

  14. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Nucleus_Accumbens [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. Pedicle Anterolateral Thigh Flap Reconstruction after Pelvic Tumor Resection: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Whitfield

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old female with a locally advanced urologic malignancy previously managed with resection, diversion, and postoperative radiation therapy presented for management of her recurrent cancer that had eroded through the soft tissues of the left inner thigh and vulva. On all staging studies the tumor involved the left common femoral artery, and vein, both above and below the inguinal ligament. The difficulty with such tumors is the availability of tissue to reconstruct the defect. The patient had a history of deep venous thrombosis in the femoral venous system. A local flap was the most logical type of reconstruction. The patient had a right lower quadrant ureterostomy with a large parastomal hernia which further limited the local flap options. An anterolateral thigh flap from the opposite thigh was used to reconstruct the soft tissue deficit in this patient. This resurfaced the defect and provided coverage for the vascular reconstruction.

  10. Combined Use of Anterolateral Thigh and Gluteal Fold Flaps for Complex Groin Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Masahide; Miyamoto, Shimpei; Arikawa, Masaki; Sakuraba, Minoru

    2015-10-01

    We present a case of an epithelioid sarcoma of the right groin in which wide resection resulted in a complex groin defect involving the full thickness of the abdominal wall and the perineum. We reconstructed the defect using a combination of pedicled anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap and gluteal fold flap. The functional and aesthetic results were satisfactory. The ALT flap with a robust iliotibial tract is the flap of choice for abdominal wall reconstruction; however, the area covered by the skin island of the flap is restricted because the skin island is tethered to the iliotibial tract. In such cases, a gluteal fold flap is ideal for an ALT flap. Therefore, using a combination of a pedicled ALT flap and a gluteal fold flap could be a reliable option for the reconstruction of a complex groin defect. PMID:26579347

  11. Treatment of degloving injury of three fingers with an anterolateral thigh flap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guang; LEI Hong-yu; GUO Shuang; YU Hao; HUANG Jian-hua

    2011-01-01

    The degloving injuries of the digits and palm remain a persistent challenge. We used an anterolateral thigh flap to treat an 18-year-old, right-handed male worker with degloving injuries of the index, middle and ring fingers. The flap was designated to wrap the entire circumference of three fingers sustaining degloving injury and to form mitten-hand. The total lengths of the distal phalanxes of three fingers were retained almost complete. The donor defect was covered with split-thickness skin graft. Three months after the first operation, roentgenograms revealed terminal phalanxex resorption in three injured fingers, and the surgical syndactyly between the middle and ring finger was separated at the same time. One month later, the syndactyly between the index and middle fingers was also separated. Good coverage of the soft tissue defects with good function and appearance was achieved. Therefore,we considered that the length of the degloved finger could be preserved using free flap.

  12. Open antero-lateral dislocation of the elbow. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Bibas R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Open dislocations are infrequent, often associated with damage to the neuro vascular structures. We present an unusual case of an open antero-lateral dislocation of the elbow, which was not associated with any vascular or neural injury. Case presentation A 34 year female dance instructor sustained an open dislocation of her elbow. Surgical exploration was undertaken. No major neurovascular injury was present. There was almost complete disruption of all the muscular and ligamentous attachments to the distal humerus and the proximal radius and ulna, which were not formally repaired during surgery. The elbow was found to be very unstable, and was placed in a back slab. The functional recovery was complete in about six months, the patient regaining full range of elbow movement. Elbow dislocations without associate fractures are adequately treated by manipulation and reduction, in spite of the almost complete disruption of the soft tissues around the joint.

  13. Case report: necrosis of the anterolateral papillary muscle--an unusual mechanical complication of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Saleh, Walid K; Aljabbari, Odeaa; Ramlawi, Basel; Ramchandani, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 66-year-old woman with no significant past medical history who presented to the Emergency Department at Houston Methodist Hospital with 24 hours of chest pain. An electrocardiogram was done, an electrocardiogram confirmed a posterolateral ST elevation myocardial infarction. An immediate and successful percutaneous coronary intervention of a totally occluded ramus intermedius was performed. Six hours later she developed pulmonary edema, cardiogenic shock, severe acidosis, and anuria. Echocardiography showed severe mitral regurgitation due to a ruptured anterolateral papillary muscle, and emergency surgery revealed necrosis of this muscle. A bioprosthetic mitral valve was placed, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was needed for 3 days. This is a rare mechanical complication of myocardial infarction, which usually affects the posteromedial papillary muscle. The patient subsequently made a good recovery. One month later, just prior to discharge home, the patient developed pneumonia and sepsis, and she expired from multiorgan failure. PMID:25793030

  14. Combined index finger pollicization with an anterolateral thigh flap for thumb reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Guang; Xu Hongyan; Lei Hongyu; Guo Shuang; Huang Jianhua; Li Dibin

    2014-01-01

    A severe crush injury to the hand is devastating to patients. Under conditions in which the crush force is too great, the digits are not viable candidates for replantation. We present two cases in which the patients suffered from loss of the thumb ray at the first carpometacarpal joint and skin defect at the radial side. The tendons, radial nerve and metacarpal bone of the index finger were injured, and the second metacarpal head was retained. There was a comminuted fracture of the trapezium in both patients. The treatment protocols consisted of the index finger pollicization and the free anterolateral thigh flap transfer. The procedure was performed in a single operation. The new thumb is able to provide a stable post for pinch and grip after six months follow-up. Both patients were satisfied with the function and appearance of the reconstructed thumb.

  15. Free anterolateral thigh perforator flap for sacroiliac defect: First case report in pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro E. Ramirez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue defects of the sacroiliac area, usually can be covered by local flaps. However, for more complex defects, free flap transfers became necessary. We report a case of reconstruction with a free anterolateral thigh (ALT perforator flap for coverage of a sacroiliac bone exposure in a child. A six-years-old boy, suffered a car accident, resulting in pelvic and sacral fractures, as well as degloving injuries of the left thigh, buttocks, and trunk. The patient evolved with an unstable scar over the sacroiliac region with bone exposure. ALT free flap was performed. Left superior gluteal vessels were used as the recipient vessels. A stable coverage was achieved without complications. This is the first case reported of a free ALT perforator flap for sacroiliac coverage in the pediatric population. In cases of complex reconstruction in children, free perforator flap is a safe choice and should be considered in the algorithm of treatment.

  16. The role of the anterolateral ligament in ACL insufficient and reconstructed knees on rotary stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavlo, Mette; Eljaja, S; Tranum-Jensen, Jørgen;

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest that the anterolateral ligament (ALL) is important for knee stability. The purpose was to clarify ALL's effect on rotatory and anterior-posterior stability in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-insufficient and reconstructed knees and the effect of reconstruction...... of an insufficient ALL. Eighteen cadaveric knees were included. Stability was tested for intact (+ALL), detached (-ALL) and reconstructed (+ reALL) ALL, with ACL removed (-ACL) and reconstructed (+ACL) in six combinations. All were tested in 0, 30, 60, and 90 °C flexion. Anterior-posterior stability was measured...... with a rolimeter. Rotation with a torque of 8.85 Nm was measured photographically. The ALL was well defined in 78% of knees. ACL reconstruction had a significant effect on anterior-posterior stability. Detaching the ALL had a significant effect on internal rotatory stability and on anterior-posterior stability...

  17. Evaluation of the anterolateral ligament of the knee by means of magnetic resonance examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Partezani Helito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of the anterolateral ligament (ALL of the knee in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examinations.METHODS: Thirty-three MRI examinations on patients' knees that were done because of indications unrelated to ligament instability or trauma were evaluated. T1-weighted images in the sagittal plane and T2-weighted images with fat saturation in the axial, sagittal and coronal planes were obtained. The images were evaluated by two radiologists with experience of musculoskeletal pathological conditions. In assessing ligament visibility, we divided the analysis into three portions of the ligament: from its origin in the femur to its point of bifurcation; from the bifurcation to the meniscal insertion; and from the bifurcation to the tibial insertion. The capacity to view the ligament in each of its portions and overall was taken to be a dichotomous categorical variable (yes or no.RESULTS: The ALL was viewed with signal characteristics similar to those of the other ligament structures of the knee, with T2 hyposignal with fat saturation. The main plane in which the ligament was viewed was the coronal plane. Some portion of the ligament was viewed clearly in 27 knees (81.8%. The meniscal portion was evident in 25 knees (75.7%, the femoral portion in 23 (69.6% and the tibial portion in 13 (39.3%. The three portions were viewed together in 11 knees (33.3%.CONCLUSION: The anterolateral ligament of the knee is best viewed in sequences in the coronal plane. The ligament was completely characterized in 33.3% of the cases. The meniscal portion was the part most easily identified and the tibial portion was the part least encountered.

  18. Effectiveness of Fluoroscopic and US - Guided Percutaneous Catheter Drainage for Iliopsoas Abscess through the Anterolateral Transabdominal Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ho Cheol; Shin, Tae Beom; Park, Mee Jung; Kim, Ji Eun; Choi, Hye Young; Bae, Kyung Soo; Choi, Dae Seob; Na, Jae Boem; Jeong, Seong Hoon [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    We evaluated the effectiveness of performing fluoroscopic and ultrasonography guided percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) through the anterolateral transabdominal approach for treating iliopsoas abscess. From January 2008 to December 2009, fluoroscopic and US-guided PCD through the anterolateral transabdominal approach was performed on sixteen iliopsoas abscesses of fourteen patients (7 males and 7 females; mean age: 63 years; age range: 30-87 years). Six abscesses were on the right side and ten abscesses were on the left side. The location of the abscesses were the psoas muscle (n=7), the iliacus muscle (n=7) and the iliopsoas muscle (n=2). All the procedures were performed under fluoroscopy and US guidance in the angiography room. The clinical findings before and after the procedure, the duration of catheter insertion and the procedure-related complications were evaluated. 15 out of the 16 iliopsoas abscesses were effectively treated. The duration of catheter insertion was 5- 27 days (mean: 14.6) days. No patient had significant complications during or after drainage. One patient died of uncontrolled diabetes complications and shock on the 9th day after percutaneous catheter drainage. One recurrence was noted 5 months after removal of the catheter. This patient underwent aspiration and antibiotic treatment for this lesion and the patient improved. Fluoroscopic and US-guided PCD for iliopsoas abscess through the anterolateral transabdominal approach is an effective and safe procedure

  19. Idoneidad del colgajo anterolateral de muslo para reconstrucción de grandes defectos craneofaciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David González-Ballester

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La reconstrucción de grandes defectos en la región craneal y del cuero cabelludo constituyen un reto para el cirujano reconstructivo. Diversos factores pueden influir en la selección de un determinado método quirúrgico, tales como: anatomía del defecto, factores dependientes del paciente, preferencias del cirujano, etc. En condiciones desfavorables, tales como grandes defectos, presencia de infección o cirugías previas, los colgajos microvascularizados se presentan superiores al resto de técnicas reconstructivas en la recuperación de la integridad craneofacial. Presentamos un varón de 57 años de edad con defecto estético importante en región frontal e infección crónica activa de más de 20 años de evolución reconstruido con un colgajo libre microvascularizado de la región antero-lateral del muslo de una forma dual, solucionando con ello el cuadro infeccioso al aportar tejido sano vascularizado; y el defecto estético al añadir volumen, consiguiéndose un excelente resultado final.

  20. Treatment of Thoracolumbar Spinal Infections through Anterolateral Approaches Using Expandable Titanium Mesh Cage for Spine Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarantino Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (PVO is still a rare pathology. However, its incidence is on the rise. This is due to an increasing population with predisposing factors. Also, the availability of more effective diagnostic tools has brought it increasingly to the surgeon’s attention. In this study the patients were treated in the Neurosurgery Division of the Department of Neurological Sciences and Psychiatry of the Sapienza University of Rome, between 2001 and 2009. They had thoracolumbar pyogenic spondylitis. This study was undertaken in order to identify the correct diagnostic and therapeutic treatment needed in such cases. From the cases studied here, it is evident that spinal infections can be extremely insidious and that diagnosis tends to be reached late. Surgery, along with the antibiotic treatment, allows for eradication of the causes of the pathology by the reclamation of the affected region. Surgery is also fundamental in helping to recover vital functions and in restoring as much as possible the correct curvature of the rachises. The use of an anterolateral approach is dictated by the necessity of obtaining 360° stability as well as by the need to clear away extensive infections, which are not always reachable using a posterior approach.

  1. Treatment of Thoracolumbar Spinal Infections through Anterolateral Approaches Using Expandable Titanium Mesh Cage for Spine Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Tarantino; Daniele, Marruzzo; Martina, Cappelletti; Tiziano, De Giacomo; Roberto, Delfini

    2012-01-01

    Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (PVO) is still a rare pathology. However, its incidence is on the rise. This is due to an increasing population with predisposing factors. Also, the availability of more effective diagnostic tools has brought it increasingly to the surgeon's attention. In this study the patients were treated in the Neurosurgery Division of the Department of Neurological Sciences and Psychiatry of the Sapienza University of Rome, between 2001 and 2009. They had thoracolumbar pyogenic spondylitis. This study was undertaken in order to identify the correct diagnostic and therapeutic treatment needed in such cases. From the cases studied here, it is evident that spinal infections can be extremely insidious and that diagnosis tends to be reached late. Surgery, along with the antibiotic treatment, allows for eradication of the causes of the pathology by the reclamation of the affected region. Surgery is also fundamental in helping to recover vital functions and in restoring as much as possible the correct curvature of the rachises. The use of an anterolateral approach is dictated by the necessity of obtaining 360° stability as well as by the need to clear away extensive infections, which are not always reachable using a posterior approach. PMID:23193382

  2. Algorithmic approach to lower abdominal, perineal, and groin reconstruction using anterolateral thigh flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelken, Jonathan A; AlDeek, Nidal F; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Chang, Nai-Jen; Lin, Chih-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Hung

    2016-02-01

    Lower abdominal, perineal, and groin (LAPG) reconstruction may be performed in a single stage. Anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps are preferred here and taken as fasciocutaneous (ALT-FC), myocutaneous (ALT-MC), or vastus lateralis myocutaneous (VL-MC) flaps. We aim to present the results of reconstruction from a series of patients and guide flap selection with an algorithmic approach to LAPG reconstruction that optimizes outcomes and minimizes morbidity. Lower abdomen, groin, perineum, vulva, vagina, scrotum, and bladder wounds reconstructed in 22 patients using ALT flaps between 2000 and 2013 were retrospectively studied. Five ALT-FC, eight ALT-MC, and nine VL-MC flaps were performed. All flaps survived. Venous congestion occurred in three VL-MC flaps from mechanical cause. Wound infection occurred in six cases. Urinary leak occurred in three cases of bladder reconstruction. One patient died from congestive heart failure. The ALT flap is time tested and dependably addresses most LAPG defects; flap variations are suited for niche defects. We propose a novel algorithm to guide reconstructive decision-making.

  3. Anatomic Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction of the Knee Leads to Overconstraint at any Fixation Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Jason; Brady, Alex; Moatshe, Gilbert; Cruz, Raphael; Chahla, Jorge; Dornan, Grant; Turnbull, Travis L.; Engebretsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are one of the most common injuries among athletes. However, the ability to fully restore rotational stability with ACL reconstruction (ACLR) remains a challenge because up to 25% of patients may present with a residual pivot shift following surgery. Advocacy for reconstruction of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) is rapidly increasing because biomechanical studies have reported that the ALL is a significant contributor to internal rotational stability of the knee. Although several graft fixation angles for the anatomic ALL reconstruction (ALLR) have been reported in literature, none have been biomechanically validated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of ALLR graft fixation angle on knee joint kinematics in the clinically relevant setting of a concomitant ACLR. The goal was to find the optimal knee flexion angle for fixation of the ALLR graft that would most accurately restore native knee kinematics without introducing overconstraint to the knee. It was hypothesized that all fixation angles would significantly reduce rotational laxity compared to the sectioned ALL state and that fixation at 30° would best reproduce native joint kinematics. Methods: Eight non-paired fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees with no prior injury, surgical history, or gross anatomic abnormality were evaluated with a 6 degree-of-freedom robotic system. Each specimen underwent a full kinematic assessment in each of the following states: 1) intact, 2) anatomic single-bundle (SB) ACLR with intact ALL, 3) anatomic SB ACLR with sectioned ALL, 4) 7 anatomic SB ACLR and ALLR states utilizing ALL graft fixation knee flexion angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75° and 90°, and 5) sectioned ACL and ALL. Internal rotation during a 5 N-m internal rotation torque and anterior displacement during an 88 N anterior load were recorded at 15° intervals between 0° and 120° of knee flexion. Axial plane displacement and

  4. Definição do limite anterolateral do lobo occipital em peças anatômicas e exames de imagem Definition of the anterolateral occipital lobe limit in anatomical specimens and with neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastião Gusmão; Cassius Reis; Uedson Tazinaffo; Celso Mendonça; Roberto Leal Silveira

    2002-01-01

    Com o objetivo de definir o limite anterolateral do lobo occipital foram estudados sete segmentos cefálicos de cadáveres humanos, 103 exames de tomografia computadorizada e 104 exames de ressonância magnética do encéfalo considerados normais. Foram encontradas uma prega da dura-máter sobre o seio transverso (plica tentorial pré-occipital) e uma protuberância óssea relacionadas diretamente com a incisura pré-occipital. Foi calculada, também, a distância média entre o sulco parieto-occipital e ...

  5. Characterization of the anatomy of the anterolateral ligament of the knee using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anterolateral ligament (ALL) may limit tibial internal rotation and pivot-shift following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Previous studies, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify this structure, have been inconsistent. We aimed to further characterize the anatomy of this ligament with reference to previous work. Institutional Review Board approval was gained and a retrospective study of 154 consecutive 1.5-T MRI studies was performed by a consultant musculoskeletal radiologist. Cases with a lateral compartment or cruciate injury and patients under 16 years were excluded. A total of 100 MRIs (98 patients; 63 males: 35 females; mean age, 45.3 years, range, 16-85 years) were included in the study. The ALL was visualized partially in 94 (94.0 %) of the cases and fully with distinct femoral and tibial fibers in 57 (57.0 %) of the cases. Although the femoral origin was discreet in only 57 (57.0 %) of cases, the tibial insertion (7.64 ± 1.26 mm below the joint-line) and meniscal attachment were demonstrated in all cases where the ligament was seen. Where the femoral origin was not seen, a broad expansion of the ligament was noted. We identified four types of meniscal attachment (complete, central, bipolar, and inferior-only). The thickness of the ALL, at the level of the joint-line, was 1.75 ± 0.57 mm. The ALL is a consistent structure with meniscal and tibial portions identifiable in the majority of MRI studies of the uninjured knee. There is an attachment to the lateral meniscus with anatomical variation described by our subclassification. (orig.)

  6. Clinical applications of preoperative perforator planning using CT angiography in the anterolateral thigh perforator flap transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the reliability and utility of preoperative perforator planning using computed tomography angiography (CTA) in anterolateral thigh perforator flap (ALTPF) transplantation. Materials and methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients who underwent extremity reconstruction using the ALTPF were retrospectively reviewed from 2008 to 2012. These patients were divided into two groups. In group I (n = 16), suitable perforators were designed based on four criteria using CTA. These were used for the operation and compared with the intraoperative findings. In group II (n = 16), all patients underwent operation using conventional methods without preoperative perforator planning. The surgical results of all patients were evaluated for flap complications, alteration of the donor site, donor site morbidity, and the incidence of reoperation. Results: In group I, there were no statistically significant differences between the parameters, including the calibre and location of the origin (perpendicular and horizontal distance from the origin of the perforator to both the superior lateral border of the patella and the lateral region of the thigh) of all planning perforators and the operative measurement results (p-values were 0.3, 0.422, and 0.129, respectively). The types were consistent with the operative findings; the rate of the septocutaneous type was 31.25% (5/16), and the rate of the musculocutaneous type was 68.75% (11/16). The use of preoperative perforator planning in group I was associated with a significant reduction in flap complications (p = 0.009) compared with group II. There was no difference between the two groups in alteration of the donor site, donor site morbidity, or the incidence of reoperation (p-values were 0.225, 0.225, and 0.33, respectively). Conclusion: Preoperative perforator planning using CTA in ALTPF transplantation is a reliable and useful method resulting in safer operation with optimal outcome

  7. Characterization of the anatomy of the anterolateral ligament of the knee using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosy, Jonathan D.; Mandalia, Vipul I.; Anaspure, Rahul [Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Princess Elizabeth Orthopaedic Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    The anterolateral ligament (ALL) may limit tibial internal rotation and pivot-shift following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Previous studies, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify this structure, have been inconsistent. We aimed to further characterize the anatomy of this ligament with reference to previous work. Institutional Review Board approval was gained and a retrospective study of 154 consecutive 1.5-T MRI studies was performed by a consultant musculoskeletal radiologist. Cases with a lateral compartment or cruciate injury and patients under 16 years were excluded. A total of 100 MRIs (98 patients; 63 males: 35 females; mean age, 45.3 years, range, 16-85 years) were included in the study. The ALL was visualized partially in 94 (94.0 %) of the cases and fully with distinct femoral and tibial fibers in 57 (57.0 %) of the cases. Although the femoral origin was discreet in only 57 (57.0 %) of cases, the tibial insertion (7.64 ± 1.26 mm below the joint-line) and meniscal attachment were demonstrated in all cases where the ligament was seen. Where the femoral origin was not seen, a broad expansion of the ligament was noted. We identified four types of meniscal attachment (complete, central, bipolar, and inferior-only). The thickness of the ALL, at the level of the joint-line, was 1.75 ± 0.57 mm. The ALL is a consistent structure with meniscal and tibial portions identifiable in the majority of MRI studies of the uninjured knee. There is an attachment to the lateral meniscus with anatomical variation described by our subclassification. (orig.)

  8. Photon Exchange in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Bertulani, Carlos A.

    2002-01-01

    The strong electromagnetic fields in peripheral heavy ion collisions give rise to photon-photon and photon-nucleus interactions. I present a general survey of the photon-photon and photon-hadron physics accessible in these collisions. Among these processes I discuss the nuclear fragmentation through the excitation of giant resonances, the Coulomb dissociation method for application in nuclear astrophysics, and the production of particles.

  9. An ideal and versatile material for soft-tissue coverage: experiences with most modifications of the anterolateral thigh flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Omer; Coşkunfirat, O Koray; Ozgentaş, H Ege

    2004-07-01

    Free anterolateral thigh flaps are a popular flap used for the reconstruction of various soft-tissue defects. From April, 2002 to June, 2003, 32 free anterolateral thigh flaps were used to reconstruct soft-tissue defects. Twenty-three of these flaps were used for lower extremity reconstruction, and nine were used for head and neck reconstruction. There were 24 male and eight female patients, with ages between nine and 82 years. The size of the flaps ranged from 11 to 32 cm in length and 6 to 18 cm in width. Five flaps required reoperation for vascular compromise in four patients and for twisting of the pedicle in another patient. While four of these were salvaged, one flap was lost due to recipient vessel problems. Musculocutaneous perforators were found in 23 cases, and septocutaneous perforators were found in nine cases. In four cases, thinning of the flap was performed. The flap was used as a flow-through type for lower extremity reconstruction in three patients. In two patients, the flap was used as a neurosensory type for foot reconstruction. Eighteen cases underwent split-thickness skin grafting of the donor site and, in the remaining cases, the donor sites were closed primarily. In three patients, the donor areas required a partial skin regrafting procedure. No infections or hematomas were observed. Despite some variations in its vascular anatomy, the anterolateral thigh flap offers the following advantages: 1) it has a long and large-caliber vascular pedicle; 2) it has a wide, reliable skin paddle; 3) it may be harvested as a neurosensory flap; 4) it can be harvested whether its pedicle is septocutaneous or musculocutaneous; 5) it can be designed as a flow-through flap; 6) it can be elevated as a thin or musculocutaneous flap; and 7) the procedure can be performed by two teams working simultaneously, and no positional changes are required.

  10. Reconstructive Surgery for Severe Penile Inadequacy: Phalloplasty with a Free Radial Forearm Flap or a Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lumen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Severe penile inadequacy in adolescents is rare. Phallic reconstruction to treat this devastating condition is a major challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Phallic reconstruction using the free radial forearm flap (RFF or the pedicled anterolateral thigh flap (ALTF has been routinely used in female-to-male transsexuals. Recently we started to use these techniques in the treatment of severe penile inadequacy. Methods. Eleven males (age 15 to 42 years were treated with a phallic reconstruction. The RFF is our method of choice; the ALTF is an alternative when a free flap is contraindicated or less desired by the patient. The RFF was used in 7 patients, the ALTF in 4 patients. Mean followup was 25 months (range: 4–49 months. Aesthetic and functional results were evaluated. Results. There were no complications related to the flap. Aesthetic results were judged as “good” in 9 patients and “moderate” in 2 patients. Sensitivity in the RFF was superior compared to the ALTF. Four patients developed urinary complications (stricture and/or fistula. Six patients underwent erectile implant surgery. In 2 patients the erectile implant had to be removed due to infection or erosion. Conclusion. In case of severe penile inadequacy due to whatever condition, a phalloplasty is the preferred treatment nowadays. The free radial forearm flap is still the method of choice. The anterolateral thigh flap can be a good alternative, especially when free flaps are contraindicated, but sensitivity is markedly inferior in these flaps.

  11. Anterolateral subluxation of the tibia associated with combined anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligament tears: MR imaging of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong K.; Phelps, Carlton T. [Albany Medical College and Albany Medical Center Hospital, Newyork (United States)

    1995-09-15

    To evaluate the passive subluxation of the tibia on MR imaging in patient with both anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) tears and to demonstrate the usefulness of its measurement. The authors performed a retrospective study of 123 knees with tears of both ACL (complete, n = 70, partial, n = 53) and MCL (complete, n = 10, partial, n 113). ACL tears were documented at arthroscopy and MCL tears were interpreted by abnormal MR findings. One hundred normal knees were also studied for comparison. Using new internal landmarks, anterior subluxation was measured on an intercondylar sagittal image and lateral subluxation was measured on a mid-coronal image. Anterior subluxation of 3 mm or more was seen in 45/123(37%) abnormal knees, lateral subluxation of 3 mm or more in 20/123(16%), and anterolateral subluxation in 15/123(12%). Anterior subluxation of 5 mm or more was seen in 25/70(36%) complete ACL tears, and no knees with partial ACL tears showed anterior subluxation of 5 mm or more. Static anterolateral subluxation of the tibia occurs in knees with combined ACL and MCL tears, as measured on routine MR imaging. These measurements may help confirm the presence of ligament injuries and differentiate complete from partial ACL tear.

  12. Anterolateral subluxation of the tibia associated with combined anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligament tears: MR imaging of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the passive subluxation of the tibia on MR imaging in patient with both anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) tears and to demonstrate the usefulness of its measurement. The authors performed a retrospective study of 123 knees with tears of both ACL (complete, n = 70, partial, n = 53) and MCL (complete, n = 10, partial, n 113). ACL tears were documented at arthroscopy and MCL tears were interpreted by abnormal MR findings. One hundred normal knees were also studied for comparison. Using new internal landmarks, anterior subluxation was measured on an intercondylar sagittal image and lateral subluxation was measured on a mid-coronal image. Anterior subluxation of 3 mm or more was seen in 45/123(37%) abnormal knees, lateral subluxation of 3 mm or more in 20/123(16%), and anterolateral subluxation in 15/123(12%). Anterior subluxation of 5 mm or more was seen in 25/70(36%) complete ACL tears, and no knees with partial ACL tears showed anterior subluxation of 5 mm or more. Static anterolateral subluxation of the tibia occurs in knees with combined ACL and MCL tears, as measured on routine MR imaging. These measurements may help confirm the presence of ligament injuries and differentiate complete from partial ACL tear

  13. Enhancement of φ Mesons in Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The фmeson production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is investigated systematically usinga hadron-string cascade model LUCIAE. Within the framework of the model and relying on the collective

  14. Electromyographic activity of the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles during the vesical filling and evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shafik

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: The role of the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles (AAWMs during the vesical filling and evacuation has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. We have investigated the hypothesis that the AAWMs exhibit the increased electromyographic (EMG activity on the vesical distension and contraction which presumably assists vesical evacuation.

    METHODS: The effects of the vesical balloon distension on the vesical pressure (VP, vesical neck (VNP pressures and the AAWMs' EMG activity were studied in 28 healthy volunteers aged 40.7 ± 9.7 years (18 men, 10 women. These effects were tested after the individual anesthetization of the bladder and AAWMs and after saline infiltration.

    RESULTS: The VP and the VNP showed a gradual increase upon the incremental vesical balloon distension which started at a distending volume of 120–140 ml. At a mean volume of 364.6 ± 23.8 ml, the VP increased to a mean of 36.6 ± 3.2 cmH2O, the VNP decreased to 18.4 ± 2.4 cmH2O, and the AAWMs EMG registered a significant increase. This effect disappeared in the individual bladder and in the AAWMs' anesthetization. However, it did not disappear in the saline administration.

    CONCLUSIONS: The AAWMs appear to contract simultaneously with vesical contraction. This action presumably increases the IAP and it

  15. Extended anterolateral thigh pedicled flap for reconstruction of trochanteric and gluteal defects: A new & innovative approach for reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.I.Nambi; Abhijeet Ashok Salunke; Szeryn Chung; K.S.Raj Kumar; Vikram Anil Chaudhari; Anant Dattaray Dhanwate

    2016-01-01

    Descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery (LCFA) is commonly used pedicle for anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap.Oblique branch of LCFA is an alternative pedicle that can be used in microvascular surgery.According to review of literature and to the best of our knowledge we could not find the use of oblique branch of LCFA as a pedicle of the ALT flap in regional soft tissue reconstruction.Here we presented a case of a 55-year-old man sustaining soft tissue injury and wound over the left trochanteric and gluteal region following a road traffic accident,who was treated by the use of extended ALT pedicle flap with oblique branch of LCFA as the pedicle for reconstruction of soft tissue defect in trochanteric and gluteal regions with successful outcome.

  16. Neutrino nucleus cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Athar, M Sajjad; Singh, S K; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of our calculation which has been performed to study the nuclear effects in the quasielastic, inelastic and deep inelastic scattering of neutrinos(antineutrinos) from nuclear targets. These calculations are done in the local density approximation. We take into account the effect of Pauli blocking, Fermi motion, Coulomb effect, renormalization of weak transition strengths in the nuclear medium in the case of the quasielastic reaction. The inelastic reaction leading to production of pions is calculated in a $\\Delta $- dominance model taking into account the renormalization of $\\Delta$ properties in the nuclear medium and the final state interaction effects of the outgoing pions with the residual nucleus. We discuss the nuclear effects in the $F_{3}^{A}(x)$ structure function in the deep inelastic neutrino(antineutrino) reaction using a relativistic framework to describe the nucleon spectral function in the nucleus.

  17. Polarized Proton Nucleus Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Trueman, T. L.

    2000-01-01

    We show that, to a very good approximation, the ratio of the spin-flip to the non-flip parts of the elastic proton-nucleus amplitude is the same as for proton-nucleon scattering at very high energy. The result is used to do a realistic calculation of the analyzing power A_N for pC scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference (CNI) region of momentum transfer.

  18. Hadron nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elastic and inelastic scattering of intermediate energy (less than or equal to 1 GeV) protons by nuclei is considered first. The discussion focuses on the determination of the proton-nucleus optical potential in terms of the elementary nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitudes and the properties of the target and residual nucleus. The result is a series of terms for the optical potential. Then the interaction of pions with nuclei for energies in the neighborhood of the Δ-resonance is discussed. In this energy domain an incident pion will with high probability be absorbed by a nucleon to produce the Δ-resonance and thus form a Δ-particle hole state in the nucleus. Next, the subject of hypernuclei is taken up. The Λ hypernuclei and a recently observed Σ hypernuclei comprise situations in which the core nucleus can be probed by a baryon of roughly the same mass as a nucleon, with similar albeit not identical interactions with nucleons. But the Λ (or Σ) does not need to satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle with respect to the nucleons, and therefore can be in orbits forbidden to it if it were a nucleon. As the energy of the projectile increases, it becomes correspondingly more important to take relativistic effects into account. The importance of these effects is strikingly revealed by experiments involving the collision of ultrarelativistic hadrons, protons, pions, kaons (up to Fermilab energies) with nuclei. This phenomenon forms part of the final topic, which includes as well as the collision of relativistic heavy ion projectiles with nuclei. A nuclear Weiszaecker-Williams method developed for dealing with peripheral collisions is described. 32 figures, 10 tables

  19. Antinucleon-nucleus interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dover, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical results on anti p-nucleus interactions are reviewed. We focus on determinations of the anti p optical potential from elastic scattering, the use of (anti p, anti p') inelastic scattering to reveal aspects of the spin-isospin dependence of N anti N amplitudes, and some puzzling features of (anti p, anti n) charge exchange reactions on nuclei. 47 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Neutrino-nucleus interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, H.; /Tufts U.; Garvey, G.; /Los Alamos; Zeller, G.P.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The study of neutrino oscillations has necessitated a new generation of neutrino experiments that are exploring neutrino-nuclear scattering processes. We focus in particular on charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, a particularly important channel that has been extensively investigated both in the bubble-chamber era and by current experiments. Recent results have led to theoretical reexamination of this process. We review the standard picture of quasi-elastic scattering as developed in electron scattering, review and discuss experimental results, and discuss additional nuclear effects such as exchange currents and short-range correlations that may play a significant role in neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  1. Antineutron-nucleus annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Botta, E

    2001-01-01

    The n-nucleus annihilation process has been studied by the OBELIX experiment at the CERN Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) in the (50-400) MeV/c projectile momentum range on C, Al, Cu, Ag, Sn, and Pb nuclear targets. A systematic survey of the annihilation cross- section, sigma /sub alpha /(A, p/sub n/), has been performed, obtaining information on its dependence on the target mass number and on the incoming n momentum. For the first time the mass number dependence of the (inclusive) final state composition of the process has been analyzed. Production of the rho vector meson has also been examined. (13 refs).

  2. Nucleus-nucleus potential with shell-correction contribution

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, V Yu

    2015-01-01

    The full relaxed-density potential between spherical nuclei is considered as a sum of the macroscopic and shell-correction contributions. The macroscopic part of the potential is related to a nucleus-nucleus potential obtained in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi approach with the Skyrme and Coulomb forces and the relaxed-density ansatz for evaluation of proton and neutron densities of interacting nuclei. A simple prescription for the shell-correction part of the total potential is discussed. The parameters of the shell-correction and macroscopic parts of the relaxed-density potential are found by fitting the empirical barrier heights of the 89 nucleus-nucleus systems as well as macroscopic potentials evaluated for 1485 nucleus-nucleus systems at 12 distances around touching points.

  3. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  4. A case series of flow-through free anterolateral thigh flap to augment the vascularity of ischaemic limbs with soft tissue defect

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Aggarwal; Hardeep Singh; Sanjay Mahendru; Vimalendu Brajesh; Sukhdeep Singh; Srinivasan Krishnan; Rakesh Kumar Khazanchi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In a world of fast moving vehicles, heavy machinery and industries crush injury to limbs with vascular compromise and soft tissue defect is common. The traditional treatment is a 2 step one dealing with vascular repair and soft tissue cover separately, in the same operation. We report a series of single step vascular repair and soft tissue cover with flow through anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) flap for limb salvage. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with soft tissue defect and...

  5. Triple pelvic osteotomy in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease using a single anterolateral incision: a 4-year review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conroy, Eimear

    2010-07-01

    Femoral head incongruency at skeletal maturity is associated with the development of osteoarthritis in early adulthood. Containment of the femoral head provides a larger surface area for remodelling of the collapsed femoral head and the development of spherical congruency. Triple pelvic osteotomy has a role to play in Legg-Calve-Perthes\\' disease by improving femoral head containment and preventing subluxation. This is traditionally a two-incision approach with significant associated morbidity. In our unit we perform triple osteotomies through a single anterolateral incision. To retrospectively review the clinical and radiographic outcome of children who had triple osteotomies performed through a single incision over a 4-year period. In our unit from 2003 to 2006 we performed eight triple osteotomies through a single incision in children aged between 6 and 12 years with Legg-Calve-Perthes\\' disease. The procedure was performed through a single anterolateral incision made beneath the middle of the iliac crest and carried forward according to Salter\\'s osteotomy. Image intensification was used to confirm iliac, pubic and ischial cuts. After performing a standard Salter\\'s osteotomy the acetabular fragment was free to rotate anteriorly and laterally. None of the children were casted and all were allowed immediate mobilization nonweight bearing with crutches for 6 weeks. Clinical results and hip function were measured preoperatively and postoperatively using the modified Harris hip score. The average length of hospital stay was 4.7 days. None of the children had a nonunion. The centre edge angle of Wiberg was measured on all preoperative and postoperative anteroposterior pelvic radiographs. In all our patients there was an improvement in the centre edge angle of Wiberg and in the modified Harris hip score. The preoperative modified Harris hip scores ranged from 38 to 60 and postoperatively ranged from 77 to 92. The preoperative centre edge angle of Wiberg ranged

  6. Microvascular reconstruction of the tongue using a free anterolateral thigh flap: Three-dimensional evaluation of volume loss after radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarsitano, Achille; Battaglia, Salvatore; Cipriani, Riccardo; Marchetti, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    The goal of tongue microvascular reconstruction is to maximise oral function with less morbidity while preserving speech and swallowing. This kind of reconstruction often requires a bigger flap volume than is actually needed to repair the defect. This is because every reconstructive flap is subject to a shrinking process due to oedema reduction and differences among individual tissue healing processes. Moreover, patients with advanced cancers often need adjuvant radiation therapy, which can result in further flap volume loss. For these reasons, we designed this study to assess the three-dimensional flap volume loss after tongue reconstruction using an anterolateral thigh flap (ALTF). Our aim was to analyse the effects of radiotherapy on flap volume loss. The volume of ALTF was evaluated using the following protocol: an initial (T1) post operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan was acquired between 3 and 8 weeks after the reconstructive procedure; a second (T2) MRI scan was obtained 6 months later; and a third (T3) MRI scan was performed 1 year after the end of treatment. Three-dimensional flap contouring was carried out, with outlining of the graft margin and comparison of its tissue density with that of the surrounding structures. Flap volume was calculated using dedicated software. In total, 20 patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Adjuvant radiation therapy was administered in 11 of the 20 patients. In the patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy, the mean flap volume loss was 16.5 cm(3). The patients who were not irradiated postoperatively showed a mean flap volume loss of 6.9 cm(3); this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.041). Our study indicated that 12 months after the end of treatment, patients reconstructed with an anterolateral thigh free flap had an average volume loss of 44.2% if treated with radiotherapy, whereas an average flap shrinkage of 19.8% occurred in patients who did not undergo

  7. Ganglion Cyst of Knee from Hoffa’s Fat Pad Protruding Anterolaterally Through Retinacular Rent: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Partha; Bandyopadhyay, Utpal; Mukhopadhyay, Anindya S.; Kundu, Srikanta; Mandal, Subhadip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intra-articular ganglion cysts of the knee joint are rare occurrences. They are usually encountered as incidental findings in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or in arthroscopy. They may originate from both the cruciate ligaments and the menisci, from the popliteus tendon and alar folds, infrapatellar fat pad of Hoffa, and subchondral bone cysts. Those arising from the Hoffa’s fat pad, usually present as palpable mass at anterior aspect of the knee joint. We report a case of intraarticular ganglion cyst of knee arising from the infrapatellar fat pad and protruding anterolaterally through retinacular rent into the subcutaneous plane. Case Report: A 19-year-old young man, presented with a painless gradually increasing swelling at the anterior aspect of left knee of 9 months duration. MRI scan revealed a multilobulated, cyst with septations within the anterior aspect of the knee joint, just inferolateral to the patella, with deep extension into the infrapatellar fat pad, and superficial extension into the subcutaneous space across the retinaculum. After diagnostic arthroscopy, we performed an open excision of the cystic mass and confirmed the retinacular rent pre-operatively. Conclusion: Arthroscopic resection and debridement is the gold standard treatment in ganglion cyst of the knee. However, a subcutaneous extension may lead to incomplete arthroscopic resection: Leaving behind the residual tissue which may cause recurrence. Therefore, proper pre-operative evaluation of MR images of these cases is very important. PMID:27299075

  8. Incidence of Heterotopic Ossification after Surface and Conventional Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Comparative Study Using Anterolateral Approach and Indomethacin Prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Regis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and severity of heterotopic ossification (HO in two homogeneous groups of patients that received surface replacement arthroplasty (SRA and conventional total hip arthroplasty (THA were evaluated retrospectively. Thirty-nine patients undergoing 42 hip resurfacing procedures and 41 primary cementless THAs through an anterolateral approach received a 10-day course of 150 mg/die of indomethacin postoperatively. The median surgical time was 190 minutes and 156 minutes, respectively (. At a minimum 1-year followup, the development of HO was assessed on standard X-ray using Brooker grading. Ectopic bone formation was detected in five cases (11.9%, two Brooker grade I and three grade II in the SRA group and in 14 hips (34.1%, 12 grade I and two grade II treated with conventional THA, but the difference was not significant (. No clinically relevant periprosthetic ossification (Brooker III or IV occurred in both groups. Although the difference was not statistically significant, the incidence of HO after SRA was lower than conventional THA. More extensive soft tissue trauma, bone debris, and longer operative time in hip resurfacing are not likely to be absolute risk factors for HO. Further investigations including larger patient populations are needed to confirm these findings.

  9. Top Ten Bed Bug Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have bed bugs, not fleas, ticks or other insects. You can compare your insect to the pictures on our Identifying bed bugs ... bedbugs Bed Bugs Home Learn about Bed Bugs — Characteristics of Bed Bugs — Finding Bed Bugs Protecting Your ...

  10. Anatomy of anterolateral portals of elbow arthroscopy%肘关节镜前外侧入路的解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴关; 鲁谊

    2016-01-01

    目的:初步探讨肘关节镜前外侧入路向前方的变化范围。方法选用10具新鲜上肢标本,在肘关节屈曲90°下,测量近端前外侧入路、前外侧入路、外侧入路与桡神经的距离;测量改良后3个入路前方5 mm 与桡神经的距离。结果标准入路的近端前外侧入路、前外侧入路、外侧入路与桡神经的距离平均值分别为:12.8 mm、8.5 mm、3.8 mm,改良后的近端前外侧入路、前外侧入路、外侧入路与桡神经的距离平均值分别为4.1 mm、2.2 mm、-0.5 mm。结论肘关节近端前外侧入路与前外侧入路之间的连线区可向前方5 mm 进行操作,越靠远端距离桡神经越近;前外侧入路与外侧入路距离桡神经较近,不建议向前方改变入路。%[Abstract ] Background From the 1 980s, elbow arthroscopic surgery has been rapidly developing and widely applied.Indications for elbow arthroscopic surgery include:loose bodies,stiff elbow,elbow synovitis,and elbow cartilage injury etc.In recent years,more and more scholars try to apply elbow arthroscopy in more complex operations,such as ligament repair,reconstruction,and fracture fixation and so on.Currently,there are quite a few reports on reduction and fixation of radial head fracture, humerus capitellum fracture, ulna coronoid fracture under elbow arthroscopy. Recently,we started to conduct elbow arthroscopic fracture reduction and internal fixation,and found that due to the varying types of fracture morphologies and locations,the conventional lateral elbow approach sometimes cannot access satisfactory fixation angles.Due to the narrow space in the elbow joint and complex anatomical relationship of the peripheral nerves,nerve injury is common in elbow surgery and consequences are often serious.Therefore,we aim to explore better approaches to protect the radial nerve based on study of anatomical specimens. Here we used either an improved anterolateral elbow approach that entered at a more

  11. Neurons of human nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazdanović Maja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Nucleus accumbens is a part of the ventral striatum also known as a drug active brain region, especially related with drug addiction. The aim of the study was to investigate the Golgi morphology of the nucleus accumbens neurons. Methods. The study was performed on the frontal and sagittal sections of 15 human brains by the Golgi Kopsch method. We classified neurons in the human nucleus accumbens according to their morphology and size into four types: type I - fusiform neurons; type II - fusiform neurons with lateral dendrite, arising from a part of the cell body; type III - pyramidal-like neuron; type IV - multipolar neuron. The medium spiny neurons, which are mostly noted regarding to the drug addictive conditions of the brain, correspond to the type IV - multipolar neurons. Results. Two regions of human nucleus accumbens could be clearly recognized on Nissl and Golgi preparations each containing different predominant neuronal types. Central part of nucleus accumbens, core region, has a low density of impregnated neurons with predominant type III, pyramidal-like neurons, with spines on secondary branches and rare type IV, multipolar neurons. Contrary to the core, peripheral region, shell of nucleus, has a high density of impregnated neurons predominantly contained of type I and type IV - multipolar neurons, which all are rich in spines on secondary and tertiary dendritic branches. Conclusion. Our results indicate great morphological variability of human nucleus accumbens neurons. This requires further investigations and clarifying clinical significance of this important brain region.

  12. Formation of light particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal experimental results on the yield of the light charged particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the low and intermediate energies are reviewed. Inclusive spectra of light particles and their coincidences with the characteristic KX-rays, γ-rays, neutrons, projectile-like fragments, other light particles, fission fragments, and evaporation residues are analyzed. The main theoretical models used for the description of the light particle formation are briefly outlined together with their merits and shortcomings. The unsolved problems of fast light particle formation, in particular, and of nucleus-nucleus interaction dynamics, on the whole, are discussed with the outlooks of new experiments able to clear up some of these problems. (author) 144 refs., 40 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Segond fracture: involvement of the iliotibial band, anterolateral ligament, and anterior arm of the biceps femoris in knee trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeseneer, Michel de; Boulet, Cedric; Willekens, Inneke; Mey, Johan de; Shahabpour, Maryam [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Lenchik, Leon [Wake Forest University, Department of Radiology, Winston Salem, NC (United States); Cattrysse, Erik [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Experimental Anatomy, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-12-04

    To evaluate the involvement of the iliotibial band (ITB), the anterolateral ligament (ALL), and the anterior arm of the biceps femoris in MRI-diagnosed Segond fracture and to evaluate other associated findings of Segond fracture. We retrospectively reviewed the MRI of 13 cases of Segond fracture. The studies included proton density-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density-weighted with fat saturation images in the three planes. We studied 2 cadaveric specimens with emphasis on the ALL. One cadaveric specimen was dissected while the other was sectioned in the sagittal plane. The mean age of the patients was 36 years (range, 17-52). There were 7 men and 6 women. The mean size of the Segond bone fragment was 8 x 10 x 2 mm. The distance from the tibia varied from 2 to 6 mm. Associated findings included anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear (n = 13), medial collateral ligament (MCL) tear (n = 8), meniscocapsular tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (n = 5), and posterolateral corner involvement (n = 4). Bone marrow edema involved the mid-lateral femoral condyle and the posterior tibial plateau on both the medial and the lateral side. Edema at the Segond area was seen, but was limited. Fibular head edema was also seen. The ITB (11 out of 13) and ALL (10 out of 13) inserted on the Segond bone fragment. The anterior arm of the biceps tendon did not insert on the Segond fracture. Associated findings of Segond fracture include ACL tear, MCL tear, medial meniscus tear, and posterolateral corner injury. Both the ITB and the ALL may be involved in the Segond avulsion. The anterior arm of the biceps femoris tendon is not involved. (orig.)

  14. MRI evaluation of the anterolateral ligament of the knee: assessment in routine 1.5-T scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the ability of routine 1.5-T MRI scans to visualize the anterolateral ligament (ALL) and describe its path and anatomic relations with lateral knee structures. Thirty-nine 1.5-T MRI scans of the knee were evaluated. The scans included an MRI knee protocol with T1-weighted sequences, T2-weighted sequences with fat saturation, and proton density (PD)-weighted fast spin-echo sequences. Two radiologists separately reviewed all MRI scans to evaluate interobserver reliability. The ALL was divided into three portions for analyses: femoral, meniscal, and tibial. The path of the ALL was evaluated with regard to known structural parameters previously studied in this region. At least a portion of the ALL was visualized in 38 (97.8 %) cases. The meniscal portion was most visualized (94.8 %), followed by the femoral (89.7 %) and the tibial (79.4 %) portions. The three portions of the ALL were visualized in 28 (71.7 %) patients. The ALL was characterized with greater clarity on the coronal plane and was visualized as a thin, linear structure. The T1-weighted sequences showed a statistically inferior ligament visibility frequency. With regard to the T2 and PD evaluations, although the visualization frequency in PD was higher for the three portions of the ligament, only the femoral portion showed significant values. The ALL can be visualized in routine 1.5-T MRI scans. Although some of the ligament could be depicted in nearly all of the scans (97.4 %), it could only be observed in its entirety in about 71.7 % of the tests. (orig.)

  15. MRI evaluation of the anterolateral ligament of the knee: assessment in routine 1.5-T scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partezani Helito, Camilo; Pecora, Jose Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis; Kawamura Demange, Marco [University of Sao Paulo, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Knee Surgery Division, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Partezani Helito, Paulo Victor; Pereira Costa, Hugo; Bordalo-Rodrigues, Marcelo [University of Sao Paulo, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Musculoskeletal Radiology Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    This study evaluated the ability of routine 1.5-T MRI scans to visualize the anterolateral ligament (ALL) and describe its path and anatomic relations with lateral knee structures. Thirty-nine 1.5-T MRI scans of the knee were evaluated. The scans included an MRI knee protocol with T1-weighted sequences, T2-weighted sequences with fat saturation, and proton density (PD)-weighted fast spin-echo sequences. Two radiologists separately reviewed all MRI scans to evaluate interobserver reliability. The ALL was divided into three portions for analyses: femoral, meniscal, and tibial. The path of the ALL was evaluated with regard to known structural parameters previously studied in this region. At least a portion of the ALL was visualized in 38 (97.8 %) cases. The meniscal portion was most visualized (94.8 %), followed by the femoral (89.7 %) and the tibial (79.4 %) portions. The three portions of the ALL were visualized in 28 (71.7 %) patients. The ALL was characterized with greater clarity on the coronal plane and was visualized as a thin, linear structure. The T1-weighted sequences showed a statistically inferior ligament visibility frequency. With regard to the T2 and PD evaluations, although the visualization frequency in PD was higher for the three portions of the ligament, only the femoral portion showed significant values. The ALL can be visualized in routine 1.5-T MRI scans. Although some of the ligament could be depicted in nearly all of the scans (97.4 %), it could only be observed in its entirety in about 71.7 % of the tests. (orig.)

  16. Definição do limite anterolateral do lobo occipital em peças anatômicas e exames de imagem

    OpenAIRE

    Gusmão Sebastião; Reis Cassius; Tazinaffo Uedson; Mendonça Celso; Silveira Roberto Leal

    2002-01-01

    Com o objetivo de definir o limite anterolateral do lobo occipital foram estudados sete segmentos cefálicos de cadáveres humanos, 103 exames de tomografia computadorizada e 104 exames de ressonância magnética do encéfalo considerados normais. Foram encontradas uma prega da dura-máter sobre o seio transverso (plica tentorial pré-occipital) e uma protuberância óssea relacionadas diretamente com a incisura pré-occipital. Foi calculada, também, a distância média entre o sulco parieto-occipital e ...

  17. Repair of a soft tissue defect of medial malleolus with cross-leg bridge free transfer of anterolateral thigh muscle flap: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG Gong-lin; Chen, Ke-Ming; Zhang,Jun-hua; WANG Shi-yong

    2012-01-01

    【Abstract】A 38-year-old man sustained a traffic accident injury to his right medial malleolus and leg. It was an open fracture of the right tibia and fibula accompanied by a large soft tissue defect of the right medial malleolus sized 12 cm×4 cm. Doppler examination revealed that the tibialis posterior vessel was occluded due to thrombosis. The anterior tibial artery was patent. Three weeks after injury, the left anterolateral thigh muscle flap was harvested and transp...

  18. Bed In Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In winter I get up at night And dress by yellow candle-light. In summer, quite the other way, I have to go to bed by day. I have to go to bed and see The birds still hopping on the tree, Or hear the grown-up people' s feet Still going past me in the stree

  19. Fluidized bed incinerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fluidized bed incinerator is being developed for burning rad contaminated solid and liquid waste materials. In situ neutralization of acid gases by the bed material, catalytic afterburning, and gas filtration are used to produce a clean flue gas without the use of aqueous scrubbing

  20. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  1. Bathing a patient in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed bath; Sponge bath ... Some patients cannot safely leave their beds to bathe. For these people, daily bed baths can help keep their skin healthy, control odor, and increase comfort. If moving the ...

  2. Pion degrees of freedom in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voskresenskii, D.N.; Senatorov, A.V.

    1988-07-01

    Within the framework of the theory of finite Fermi systems with the pion degree of freedom singled out explicitly we have discovered a number of qualitative effects which must be taken into account in calculations of the equation of state of heated dense nuclear matter. These effects are simulated in a calculation of the main characteristics of nucleus-nucleus collisions. The regularities found are in agreement with experimental indications, which confirms the idea of softness of the pion mode in dense heated nuclear matter.

  3. Dynamical nucleus-nucleus potential at short distances

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yongying; Wang, Ning; Li, Zhuxia; Scheid, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The dynamical nucleus-nucleus potentials for fusion reactions 40Ca+40Ca, 48Ca+208Pb and 126Sn+130Te are studied with the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation for the kinetic energies of nuclei. The obtained fusion barrier for 40Ca+40Ca is in good agreement with the extracted fusion barrier from the measured fusion excitation function, and the depth of the fusion pockets are close to the results of time-dependent Hartree-Fock c...

  4. Selected Experimental Highlights from Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, H Z

    2006-01-01

    Nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC produce high temperature and high energy density matter which exhibits partonic degrees of freedom. We will discuss measurements of nuclear modification factors for light hadrons and non-photonic electrons from heavy quark decays, which reflect the flavor dependence of energy loss of high momentum partons traversing the dense QCD medium. The hadronization of bulk partonic matter exhibits collectivity in effective partonic degrees of freedom. Nuclear collisions at RHIC provide an intriguing environment, where many constituent quark ingredients are readily available for possible formation of exotic particles through quark coalescences or recombinations.

  5. Definição do limite anterolateral do lobo occipital em peças anatômicas e exames de imagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusmão Sebastião

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de definir o limite anterolateral do lobo occipital foram estudados sete segmentos cefálicos de cadáveres humanos, 103 exames de tomografia computadorizada e 104 exames de ressonância magnética do encéfalo considerados normais. Foram encontradas uma prega da dura-máter sobre o seio transverso (plica tentorial pré-occipital e uma protuberância óssea relacionadas diretamente com a incisura pré-occipital. Foi calculada, também, a distância média entre o sulco parieto-occipital e a sutura lambdóide. Nos exames de imagem, especialmente na ressonância magnética, foi possível identificar a incisura pré-occipital e/ou a protuberância na parede craniana relacionada a ela, bem como o sulco parieto-occipital e a sutura lambdóide, referências que permitem a definição do limite anterolateral do lobo occipital.

  6. Tapered bed bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  7. Particle fuel bed tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas-cooled reactors, using packed beds of small diameter coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. The particulate fuel used in the tests was 800 microns in diameter, consisting of a thoria kernel coated with 200 microns of pyrocarbon. Typically, the bed of fuel particles was contained in a ceramic cylinder with porous metallic frits at each end. A dc voltage was applied to the metallic frits and the resulting electric current heated the bed. Heat was removed by passing coolant (helium or hydrogen) through the bed. Candidate frit materials, rhenium, nickel, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide were unaffected, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost weight and strength. Zirconium-carbide particles were tested at 2000 K in H2 for 12 hours with no visible reaction or weight loss

  8. Enuresis (Bed-Wetting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get out of bed to go to the bathroom. When do most children achieve bladder control? Children ... ask questions about your child's daytime and nighttime bathroom habits. Then your doctor will do a physical ...

  9. Bed rest and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Aviles, Hernan; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.; Niesel, David; Pandya, Utpal; Allen, Christopher; Ochs, Hans D.; Blancher, Antoine; Abbal, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Space flight has been shown to result in altered immune responses. The current study was designed to investigate this possibility by using the bed rest model of some space flight conditions. A large number of women are included as subjects in the study. The hypothesis being tested is: 60 days head-down tilt bed rest of humans will affect the immune system and resistance to infection. Blood, urine and saliva samples will be obtained from bed rest subjects prior to, at intervals during, and after completion of 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest. Leukocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production and virus reactivation will be assessed. The ability of the subjects to respond appropriately to immunization with the neoantigen bacteriophage φX-174 will also be determined. Bed rest is being carried out at MEDES, Toulouse France, and the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. The studies to be carried out in France will also allow assessment of the effects of muscle/bone exercise and nutritional countermeasures on the immune system in addition to the effects of bed rest.

  10. The Foxb1-expressing neurons of the ventrolateral hypothalamic parvafox nucleus project to defensive circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilella, Alessandro; Alvarez-Bolado, Gonzalo; Celio, Marco R

    2016-10-15

    The parvafox nucleus is an elongated structure that is lodged within the ventrolateral hypothalamus and lies along the optic tract. It comprises axially located parvalbumin (Parv)-positive neurons and a peripheral cuff of Foxb1-expressing ones. In the present study, injections of Cre-dependent adenoviral constructs were targeted to the ventrolateral hypothalamus of Foxb1/Cre mice to label specifically and map the efferent connections of the Foxb1-expressing subpopulation of neurons of the parvafox nucleus. These neurons project more widely than do the Parv-positive ones and implicate a part of the axons known to emanate from the lateral hypothalamus. High labeling densities were found in the dorsolateral and the upper lateral portion of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), the Su3 and PV2 nuclei of the ventrolateral PAG, the cuneiform nucleus, the mesencephalic reticular formation, and the superior colliculus. Intermediate densities of terminals were encountered in the septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, substantia innominata, various thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei, pedunculopontine nucleus, Barrington's nucleus, retrofacial nucleus, and retroambigual nucleus. Scattered terminals were observed in the olfactory bulbs, the prefrontal cortex and the lamina X of the cervical spinal cord. Because the terminals were demonstrated to express the glutamate transporter VGlut2, the projections are presumed to be excitatory. A common denominator of the main target sites of the Foxb1-positive axons of the parvafox nucleus appears to be an involvement in the defensive reactions to life-threatening situations. The hypothalamic parvafox nucleus may contribute to the autonomic manifestations that accompany the expression of emotions. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2955-2981, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27292133

  11. Heavy-ion nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M A; Haque, S

    2003-01-01

    Heavy ion-nucleus scattering is an excellent laboratory to probe high spin phenomena, exotic nuclei and for the analysis of various exit channels. The Strong Absorption Model or the generalized diffraction models, which are semi-classical in nature, have been employed in the description of various heavy ion-nucleus scattering phenomena with reasonable success. But one needs to treat the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically in the Wave Mechanical picture for the appropriate description of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering phenomena. We have brought the mathematics for the cross-section of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering to an analytic expression taking account of the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically. sup 9 Be, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 2 sup 0 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 S heavy-ion beams elastic scattering from sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 2 sup 4 Mg and sup 4 sup 0 Ca target nuclei at various projectile energies over the range 20-151 MeV have been analysed in terms of the 2-paramet...

  12. Transverse Energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tincknell, M.

    1988-11-15

    The status of Transverse Energy (E/sub T/) in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS is reviewed. The definition of E/sub T/ and its physical significance are discussed. The basic techniques and limitations of the experimental measurements are presented. The acceptances of the major experiments to be discussed are shown, along with remarks about their idiosyncrasies. The data demonstrate that the nuclear geometry of colliding spheres primarily determines the shapes of the observed spectra. Careful account of the acceptances is crucial to comparing and interpreting results. It is concluded that nuclear stopping power is high, and that the amount of energy deposited into the interaction volume is increasing with beam energy even at SPS energies. The energy densities believed to be obtained at the SPS are close to the critical values predicted for the onset of a quark-gluon plasma. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Azimuthal correlation and collective behavior in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mali, P.; Mukhopadhyay, A., E-mail: amitabha-62@rediffmail.com; Sarkar, S. [University of North Bengal, Department of Physics (India); Singh, G. [SUNY at Fredonia, Department of Computer and Information Science (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Various flow effects of nuclear and hadronic origin are investigated in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Nuclear emulsion data collected from {sup 84}Kr + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 1.52 GeV per nucleon and from {sup 28}Si + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 14.5 GeV per nucleon are used in the investigation. The transverse momentum distribution and the flow angle analysis show that collective behavior, like a bounce-off effect of the projectile spectators and a sidesplash effect of the target spectators, are present in our event samples. From an azimuthal angle analysis of the data we also see a direct flow of the projectile fragments and of the produced charged particles. On the other hand, for both data samples the target fragments exhibit a reverse flow, while the projectile fragments exhibit an elliptic flow. Relevant flow parameters are measured.

  14. Azimuthal correlation and collective behavior in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various flow effects of nuclear and hadronic origin are investigated in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Nuclear emulsion data collected from 84Kr + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 1.52 GeV per nucleon and from 28Si + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 14.5 GeV per nucleon are used in the investigation. The transverse momentum distribution and the flow angle analysis show that collective behavior, like a bounce-off effect of the projectile spectators and a sidesplash effect of the target spectators, are present in our event samples. From an azimuthal angle analysis of the data we also see a direct flow of the projectile fragments and of the produced charged particles. On the other hand, for both data samples the target fragments exhibit a reverse flow, while the projectile fragments exhibit an elliptic flow. Relevant flow parameters are measured

  15. Kaonic nuclei and kaon-nucleus interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ikuta, K; Masutani, K

    2002-01-01

    Although kaonic atoms provide valuable information concerning the K sup - -nucleus interaction at low energies, they cannot fully determine the K sup - - nucleus optical potential. We demonstrate that K sup - nuclear bound states, if they exist, can be useful in investigating the K sup - -nucleus interaction, especially in the interior of the nucleus. In order to show this possibility, we calculate the double differential cross sections for (K sup - , P) using the Green function method. (author)

  16. Anterolateral Ankle Impingement Syndrome (review)%踝关节前外侧撞击综合征的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵红巍; 刘克敏

    2014-01-01

    临床将踝关节扭伤后无骨折脱位,反复出现踝关节前外侧肿痛称为踝关节前外侧撞击综合征,为慢性踝关节疼痛的主要病因之一,受到广泛关注。本文就其发病机制、临床表现、诊断及治疗进行综述。%Ankle sprain without fracture or dislocation, accompanied by repeated ankle swelling is called as Anterolateral Ankle Im-pingement Syndrome. It is a major reason of chronic ankle pain and received extensive attention. This paper summarized its pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Bed bug deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes Kenneth F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/121

  18. in Spouted Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislaw Buczek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases.

  19. Atom as a "Dressed" Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Kalitvianski, V

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that electrostatic potential of atomic nucleus seen by a fast charged projectile at short distances is quite smeared due to nucleus motion around the atomic center of inertia. For example, the size of positive charge cloud in the Hydrogen ground state is much larger than the proper proton size. It is even bigger for the target atom in an excited state. Therefore the elastic scattering at large angles is generally weaker than the Rutherford one. In other words, the resulting elastic interaction with an atom at short distances is softer than the Colombian one due to a natural cutoff. In addition, the large angle scattering leads to the target atom excitations due to hitting the nucleus (inelastic processes). It is also shown that the Rutherford cross section is in fact the inclusive rather than the elastic one. These results are analogous to the QED ones. The difference and the value of the presented below non relativistic atomic calculations is in non perturbatively (exact) dressing that immediatel...

  20. Maximum spoutable bed height of spout-fluid bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenqi Zhong; Mingyao Zhang; Baosheng Jin [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory on Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education

    2006-11-15

    Experimental study on the maximum spoutable bed height of a spout-fluid bed (cross-section of 0.3 m x 0.03 m and height of 2 m) packed with Geldart group D particles has been carried out. The effects of particle size, spout nozzle size and fluidizing gas flow rate on the maximum spoutable bed height were studied. Experimental data were compared to some published experiments and predictions. The results show that the maximum spoutable bed height of spout-fluid bed decreases with increasing particle size and spout nozzle size, which appears the same trend to that of spouted beds. The increasing of fluidizing gas flow rate leads to a sharply decrease in the maximum spoutable bed height. The existent correlations of the maximum spoutable bed height in the literature were observed to involve large discrepancies. Additionally, the flow characteristics when bed materials deeper than the maximum spoutable height were summarized. Under this condition, the spout-fluid bed operated without a stable and coherent spout or fountain assembles the characteristics of jetting fluidized bed. Besides, the mechanisms of spout termination were investigated. It was found that slugging in the spout and growth of instabilities would cause the spout termination in spout-fluid bed.

  1. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how you select a company. Related Information Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs - highlights ways that all levels of government, community, academia and private industry can work together to reduce bed bugs across ...

  2. Pion production at 1800 in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey experiment of pion production at 1800 in nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. Beams of 1.05 GeV/A and 2.1 GeV/A protons, alphas, and carbon were used, as well as proton beams of 0.80 GeV, 3.5 GeV, and 4.89 GeV, and argon beams of 1.05 GeV/A and 1.83 GeV/A. This is the first such experiment to use the heavier beams. Targets used ranged from carbon to lead. An in-depth review of the literature, both experimental and theoretical, is also presented. The systematics of the data are discussed, and comparisons are made both with prior experiments and with the predictions of the models reviewed. The cross sections appear consistent with a simple single nucleon-nucleon collision picture, without the need for collective or other exotic effects. Suggestions for future work are made

  3. Applying the elastic model for various nucleus-nucleus fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Elastic Model of two free parameters m,d given by Scalia has been used for wider energy regions to fit the available experimental data for potential barriers and cross sections. In order to generalize Scalia's formula in both sub- and above-barrier regions, we calculated m, d for pairs rather than those given by Scalia and compared the calculated cross sections with the experimental data. This makes a generalization of the Elastic Model in describing fusion process. On the other hand, Scalia's range of interacting systems was 24 ≤ A ≤194 where A is the compound nucleus mass number. Our extension of that model includes an example of the pairs of A larger than his final limit aiming to make it as a general formula for any type of reactants: light, intermediate or heavy systems. A significant point is the comparison of Elastic Model calculations with the well known methods studying complete fusion and compound nucleus formation, namely with the resultants of using Proximity potential with either Sharp or Smooth cut-off approximations

  4. Resonances in -light nucleus systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P Khemchandani; N G Kelkar; M Nowakowski; B K Jain

    2006-04-01

    We locate resonances in -light nucleus elastic scattering using the time delay method. We solve few-body equations within the finite rank approximation in order to calculate the -matrices and hence the time delay for the - 3He and - 4He systems. We find a resonance very close to the threshold in - 3 He elastic scattering, at about 0.5 MeV above threshold with a width of ∼ 2 MeV. The calculations also hint at the presence of sub-threshold states in both the cases.

  5. Turbulent mixing condensation nucleus counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavliev, Rashid

    The construction and operating principles of the Turbulent Mixing Condensation Nucleus Counter (TM CNC) are described. Estimations based on the semiempirical theory of turbulent jets and the classical theory of nucleation and growth show the possibility of detecting particles as small as 2.5 nm without the interference of homogeneous nucleation. This conclusion was confirmed experimentally during the International Workshop on Intercomparison of Condensation Nuclei and Aerosol Particle Counters (Vienna, Austria). Number concentration, measured by the Turbulent Mixing CNC and other participating instruments, is found to be essentially equal.

  6. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-06-08

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained.

  7. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  8. New results on nuclear multifragmentation in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some new aspects on the multifragmentation processes in nucleus-nucleus and nucleon-nucleus collisions at high energies are discussed in this work. Experimental data obtained in international collaborations (for example, MULTI Collaboration with KEK Tsukuba (Japan) and SKM 200 Collaboration with JINR Dubna (Russia)) are used to discuss new mechanisms in the target nucleus fragmentation. Correlations with stopping power, participant region size and energy density are included. Comparisons of the experimental results with the predictions of a phenomenological geometric model of intermediate mass fragment multiplicity, caloric curves and angular distributions are also presented. These results are used for global description of the multifragmentation processes in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies. The size of the participant region and the average intermediate mass fragments multiplicity are taken into consideration using the free space probability. A few correlations between the deposited energy in the participant region and stability state of the intermediate mass fragments are presented in this work. The importance of the collision geometry in the multifragmentation processes is stressed. The results suggest different time moments for the incident nucleus fragmentation and for the target nucleus fragmentation. The associated entropies are distinct. (authors)

  9. Determination of Coil Inductances Cylindrical Iron Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeddine Mazouz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the investigation and development of a structure and performance characteristics of a coil iron nucleus cylindrical (C.I.N.C. The coil iron nucleus cylindrical is a nonlinear electro radio in which the moving of the nucleus in a sense or in other causes change in inductance and can reach extreme values at the superposition of nucleus and coil centers. The variation of the inductance and the degree of freedom of movement of the nucleus can lead to a device with electromechanical conversion The aim of this paper is the determination and visualization of self inductance and mutual of the (C.I.N.C based on geometric dimensions and the displacement of the nucleus.  

  10. An organism arises from every nucleus.

    OpenAIRE

    Nurullah Keklikoglu

    2009-01-01

    The fact that, cloning using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) method has been performed, opened new horizons for cloning, and changed the way of our understanding and approach to cell and nucleus. The progress in cloning technology, brought the anticipation of the ability to clone an organism from each somatic cell nucleus. Therefore, the 'Cell Theory' is about to take the additional statement as "An organism arises from every nucleus". The development of gene targeting procedures which c...

  11. Integrated Azimuthal Correlations in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at CERN SPS

    OpenAIRE

    Grebieszkow, Katarzyna; Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    2011-01-01

    Azimuthal correlations of particles produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN SPS are discussed. The correlations quantified by the integral measure Phi are shown to be dominated by effects of collective flow.

  12. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  13. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  14. Physical meaning of the yields from hadron-nucleon, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions observed in experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A physical meaning of the outcomes from hadronic and nuclear collision processes at high energies is presented, as prompted experimentally. The fast and slow stages in hadron-nucleus collisions are distinguished. Hadrons are produced via intermediate objects observed in hadron-nucleus collisions. The intermediate objects may be treated as the groups of quarks or the quark bags. 37 refs

  15. Antibaryon-nucleus bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Hrtánková, J

    2014-01-01

    We calculated antibaryon ($\\bar{B}$ = $\\bar{p}$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $\\bar{\\Sigma}$, $\\bar{\\Xi}$) bound states in selected nuclei within the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model. The G-parity motivated $\\bar{B}$-meson coupling constants were scaled to yield corresponding potentials consistent with available experimental data. Large polarization of the nuclear core caused by $\\bar{B}$ was confirmed. The $\\bar{p}$ annihilation in the nuclear medium was incorporated by including a phenomenological imaginary part of the optical potential. The calculations using a complex $\\bar{p}$-nucleus potential were performed fully self-consistently. The $\\bar{p}$ widths significantly decrease when the phase space reduction is considered for $\\bar{p}$ annihilation products, but they still remain sizeable for potentials consistent with $\\bar{p}$-atom data.

  16. Applied anatomy of modified anterolateral approach for type C fractures of the distal femur%改良股前外侧入路治疗股骨远端C型骨折的应用解剖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆松; 戴闽; 张斌; 戴江华; 聂涛; 邱平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide anatomic basis for treating type C fractures of the distal femur by the modified anterolateral approach of the thigh.Methods Main anterolateral muscles,ligaments were observed on 12 lower limbs of adult cadavers; the modified anterolateral approach was used,and the vessels and nerves related to the posterolateral approach were measured.Results The modified anterolateral approach could fully expose the distal femur without risk of injuring the important nerves and vessels.What's more,it did not affectthe iliotibial band and could attenuate the damage to the quadriceps femoris,which could cffectivelyprotectthe extensor mechanism of the knee joint.Conclusions The treatment of the fracture of the distal femur by the modified anterolateral approach is safe,less traumatic and and greater in exposure.it is worth of further promotion.%目的 为改良股前外侧入路治疗股骨远端C型骨折提供解剖学基础.方法 福尔马林防腐成人下肢标本12例,解剖观察大腿下段前外侧的主要肌肉、韧带的分布;采用改良前外侧手术入路,测量该入路相关的神经、血管走行特点.结果 改良股前外侧入路可充分显露股骨远端,不损伤重要神经血管,不损伤髂胫束并减少了对股四头肌的损伤,有效地保护了伸膝装置.结论 改良股前外侧入路治疗股骨远端C型骨折具有安全,损伤较小,暴露充分等优点,有一定的推广价值.

  17. Repair of a soft tissue defect of medial malleolus with cross-leg bridge free transfer of anterolateral thigh muscle flap: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Gong-lin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】A 38-year-old man sustained a traffic accident injury to his right medial malleolus and leg. It was an open fracture of the right tibia and fibula accompanied by a large soft tissue defect of the right medial malleolus sized 12 cm×4 cm. Doppler examination revealed that the tibialis posterior vessel was occluded due to thrombosis. The anterior tibial artery was patent. Three weeks after injury, the left anterolateral thigh muscle flap was harvested and transplanted to the right medial malleolus defect area for repair of the soft tissue defect, and an end-to-side anasto-mosis was performed between the posterior tibial vessel of the contralateral leg and the muscle flap’s vascular pedicle. A split thickness free skin graft was used to cover the muscle flap and around the flap’s vascular pedicle. The vascular pedicle was cut off after 28 days and the muscle flap sur-vived completely. After 3-year follow-up postoperatively, the right tibia and fibula fractures were confirmed healing radiologically. The posterior tibial artery of contralateral leg was patent by clinical and Doppler examinations. This tech-nique can be used to preserve the flow and patency of re-cipient arteries. Key words: Surgical flaps; Soft tissue injuries; Leg injuries; Wound healing

  18. Repair of a soft tissue defect of medial malleolus with cross-leg bridge free transfer of anterolateral thigh muscle flap: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gong-lin; CHEN Ke-ming; ZHANG Jun-hua; WANG Shi-yong

    2012-01-01

    A 38-year-old man sustained a traffic accident injury to his right medial malleolus and leg.It was an open fracture of the right tibia and fibula accompanied by a large soft tissue defect of the right medial malleolus sized 12 cm×4 cm.Doppler examination revealed that the tibialis posterior vessel was occluded due to thrombosis.The anterior tibial artery was patent.Three weeks after injury,the left anterolateral thigh muscle flap was harvested and transplanted to the right medial malleolus defect area for repair of the soft tissue defect,and an end-to-side anastomosis was performed between the posterior tibial vessel of the contralateral leg and the muscle flap's vascular pedicle.A split thickness free skin graft was used to cover the muscle flap and around the flap's vascular pedicle.The vascular pedicle was cut off after 28 days and the muscle flap survived completely.After 3-year follow-up postoperatively,the right tibia and fibula fractures were confirmed healing radiologically.The posterior tibial artery of contralateral leg was patent by clinical and Doppler examinations.This technique can be used to preserve the flow and patency of recipient arteries.

  19. Nucleus accumbens receives gastric vagal inputs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sangeeta MEHENDALE; Jing-tian XIE; Han H AUNG; Xiong-Fei GUAN; Chun-Su YUAN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To localize and characterize the response of single accumbal neurons to electrical stimulation of the gastric vagal fibers. METHODS: Unitary responses to electrical stimulation of the ventral and dorsal gastric vagal fibers which serve the proximal stomach were recorded extracellularly in the nucleus accumbens in anesthetized cats.RESULTS: The evoked units recorded in the nucleus accumbens consisted of phasic and tonic responses, with a mean latency of (396±43) ms. Convergence of ventral and dorsal gastric vagal inputs onto single phasic and tonic accumbal units was observed. For tonic inhibitory responses, convergence was exhibited when stimulation applied to both the ventral and dorsal gastric vagal branches resulted in a significantly longer inhibitory period than did stimulation of a single gastric vagal branch. Comparing the gastric vagally evoked accumbal unitary responses to the neuronal responses recorded in the nucleus tractus solitarius, parabrachial nucleus and hypothalamus in our previous studies, our data showed a higher percentage of single spike responses and shorter response duration's in the nucleus accumbens than in the other nuclei. This suggests that the synaptic drive from the gastric vagal inputs to the nucleus accumbens is less powerful than in the other structures. CONCLUSION: The present study localized and characterized gastric vagally evoked responses in the nucleus accumbens, which suggest that the nucleus accumbens may process gastric signals concerned with the ingestive process.

  20. Angular characteristics of pion-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper pion-nucleus interactions have been studied using nuclear emulsion technique. The investigation of these interactions is expected to provide some very useful information about the multiparticle production mechanism. Nuclear emulsion is a material which memorizes the tracks of charged particles. When a primary particle collides with a nucleus, it may interact with the nucleons of the target nucleus in two ways. In the first case, independent reactions may take place between the incident particle and the nucleons present in the target nucleus. Secondly the primary particle may interact coherently with the various nucleons of the target nucleus and the secondary particles are produced. Angular distribution of charged secondaries produced in these interactions has been studied for central collision events. Different workers have used different criterion for the selection of central collisions. We analysed the events with high shower particle multiplicity i.e., Ns ≥ 28 and call them as central collision events

  1. Variability of bed drag on cohesive beds under wave action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Ilgar

    2016-01-01

    Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law), a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10  m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold) with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  2. The retrotrapezoid nucleus and breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Patrice G; Stornetta, Ruth L; Abbott, Stephen B G; Depuy, Seth D; Kanbar, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is located in the rostral medulla oblongata close to the ventral surface and consists of a bilateral cluster of glutamatergic neurons that are non-aminergic and express homeodomain transcription factor Phox2b throughout life. These neurons respond vigorously to increases in local pCO(2) via cell-autonomous and paracrine (glial) mechanisms and receive additional chemosensory information from the carotid bodies. RTN neurons exclusively innervate the regions of the brainstem that contain the respiratory pattern generator (RPG). Lesion or inhibition of RTN neurons largely attenuates the respiratory chemoreflex of adult rats whereas their activation increases respiratory rate, inspiratory amplitude and active expiration. Phox2b mutations that cause congenital central hypoventilation syndrome in humans prevent the development of RTN neurons in mice. Selective deletion of the RTN Phox2b-VGLUT2 neurons by genetic means in mice eliminates the respiratory chemoreflex in neonates.In short, RTN Phox2b-VGLUT2 neurons are a major nodal point of the CNS network that regulates pCO(2) via breathing and these cells are probable central chemoreceptors. PMID:23080151

  3. Music and the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N

    2015-03-01

    Music is a universal feature of human societies over time, mainly because it allows expression and regulation of strong emotions, thus influencing moods and evoking pleasure. The nucleus accumbens (NA), the most important pleasure center of the human brain (dominates the reward system), is the 'king of neurosciences' and dopamine (DA) can be rightfully considered as its 'crown' due to the fundamental role that this neurotransmitter plays in the brain's reward system. Purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding the relation between music and the NA. Studies have shown that reward value for music can be coded by activity levels in the NA, whose functional connectivity with auditory and frontal areas increases as a function of increasing musical reward. Listening to music strongly modulates activity in a network of mesolimbic structures involved in reward processing including the NA. The functional connectivity between brain regions mediating reward, autonomic and cognitive processing provides insight into understanding why listening to music is one of the most rewarding and pleasurable human experiences. Musical stimuli can significantly increase extracellular DA levels in the NA. NA DA and serotonin were found significantly higher in animals exposed to music. Finally, passive listening to unfamiliar although liked music showed activations in the NA. PMID:25102783

  4. LSP Composite Test Bed Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Arthur C.; Griess, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides standalone information for the Lightning Strike Protection (LSP) Composite Substrate Test Bed Design. A six-sheet drawing set is reproduced for reference, as is some additional descriptive information on suitable sensors and use of the test bed.

  5. Analysis of Subthreshold Antiproton Production in p-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions in the RBUU Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Teis, S; Maruyama, T; Mosel, U; Teis, Stefan; Cassing, Wolfgang; Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Mosel, Ulrich

    1994-01-01

    We calculate the subthreshold production of antiprotons in the Lorentz-covariant RBUU approach employing a weighted testparticle method to treat the antiproton propagation and absorption nonperturbatively. We find that the pbar differential cross sections are highly sensitive to the baryon and antiproton selfenergies in the dense baryonic environment. Adopting the baryon scalar and vector selfenergies from the empirical optical potential for proton-nucleus elastic scattering and from Dirac-Brueckner calculations at higher density rho > rho_0 we examine the differential pbar spectra as a function of the antiproton selfenergy. A detailed comparison with the available experimental data for p-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus reactions shows that the antiproton feels a moderately attractive mean-field at normal nuclear matter density rho_0 which is in line with a dispersive potential extracted from the free annihilation cross section.

  6. Nucleus accumbens stimulation in pathological obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harat, Marek; Rudaś, Marcin; Zieliński, Piotr; Birska, Julita; Sokal, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    One of the potential treatment methods of obesity is deep brain stimulation (DBS) of nucleus accumbens. We describe the case of 19 years old woman with hypothalamic obesity. She weighted 151.4 kg before DBS and the non-surgical methods proved to be inefficient. She was treated with implantation of DBS electrode to nucleus accumbens bilaterally. Results were measured with body mass index and neuropsychological tests. Follow-up was 14 months. Fourteen months after surgery weight was 138 kg, BMI was 48.3. Neuropsychological test results were intact. The presented case supports the thesis of treatment of obesity with nucleus accumbens stimulation. PMID:27154450

  7. Study of Hadron Production in Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    Selyuzhenkov, I; Kowalski, S; Kaptur, E A; Kowalik, K L; Dominik, W M; Krasnoperov, A; Feofilov, G; Vinogradov, L; Kovalenko, V; Johnson, S R; Mills, G B; Planeta, R J; Rubbia, A; Robert, A L; Marton, K; Messerly, B A; Puzovic, J; Bogomilov, M V; Bravar, A; Sgalaberna, D; Renfordt, R A E; Deveaux, M; Engel, R R; Grzeszczuk, A; Davis, N; Kuich, M; Lyubushkin, V; Igolkin, S; Kondratev, V; Kadija, K; Diakonos, F; Slodkowski, M A; Rauch, W H; Pistillo, C; Laszlo, A; Nakadaira, T; Hasegawa, T; Zambelli, L A; Sadovskiy, A; Morozov, S; Petukhov, O; Szuba, M K; Mathes, H; Herve, A E; Roehrich, D; Marino, A D; Wyszynski, O J; Grebieszkow, K; Di luise, S; Wlodarczyk, Z; Rybczynski, M A; Wojtaszek-szwarc, A; Nirkko, M C; Sakashita, K; Golubeva, M; Kurepin, A; Manic, D; Kolev, D I; Kisiel, J E; Rondio, E; Czopowicz, T R; Seyboth, P; Turko, L; Guber, F; Marin, V; Busygina, O; Taranenko, A; Cirkovic, M; Gazdzicki, M; Roth, M A; Pulawski, S M; Aduszkiewicz, A M; Bunyatov, S; Vechernin, V; Nagai, Y; Anticic, T; Larsen, D T; Dynowski, K M; Mackowiak-pawlowska, M K; Stefanek, G; Pavin, M; Fodor, Z P; Nishikawa, K; Tada, M; Kobayashi, T; Blondel, A P P; Hasler, A; Damyanova, A; Stroebele, H W; Rustamov, A; Klochkov, V; Posiadala, M Z; Kolesnikov, V; Andronov, E; Zimmerman, E D; Antoniou, N; Majka, Z; Veberic, D; Dumarchez, J; Naskret, M; Ivashkin, A; Tsenov, R V; Koziel, M G; Schmidt, K J; Melkumov, G; Popov, B; Panagiotou, A; Richter-was, E M; Ereditato, A; Paolone, V; Korzenev, A; Unger, M T; Wilczek, A G; Stepaniak, J M; Matulewicz, T N; Seryakov, A; Susa, T; Staszel, P P; Marcinek, A J; Brzychczyk, J; Maksiak, B; Tefelski, D B

    2007-01-01

    The NA61/SHINE (SHINE = SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) experiment is a large acceptance hadron spectrometer at the CERN SPS for the study of the hadronic final states produced in interactions of various beam particles (pions, protons, C, S and In) with a variety of fixed targets at the SPS energies. The main components of the current detector were constructed and used by the NA49 experiment. The physics program of NA61/SHINE consists of three main subjects. In the first stage of data taking (2007-2009) measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus interactions needed for neutrino (T2K) and cosmic-ray (Pierre Auger and KASCADE) experiments will be performed. In the second stage (2009-2011) hadron production in proton-proton and proton-nucleus interactions needed as reference data for a better understanding of nucleus-nucleus reactions will be studied. In the third stage (2009-2013) energy dependence of hadron production properties will be measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as in p+p a...

  8. Wall-to-bed heat transfer in circulating fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, W.B.; Grewal, N.S.; Moen, D.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1999-05-01

    Circulating fluidized beds (CFBs) have become increasingly important in recent years for coal combustion and gas-solid reactions. Here, heat transfer from the wall of a circulating fluidized bed to the fast bed suspension has been investigated for several materials. The range of investigation includes dense and dilute phase fast fluidization and pneumatic transport. The overall heat transfer coefficient was found to be a function mainly of cross-sectional average suspension density. Effects of superficial velocity and solids mass flux were obscured by their interrelationship to the suspension density. Two models from the literature are evaluated using present and published data.

  9. Pulling a patient up in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moving a patient in bed ... You must move or pull someone up in bed the right way to avoid injuring the patient's ... people to safely move a patient up in bed. Friction from rubbing can scrape or tear the ...

  10. Anatomical study of the anterolateral and posteromedial bundles of the posterior cruciate ligament for double-bundle reconstruction using the quadruple bone-tunnel technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Hao; AO Ying-fang; ZHANG Wei-guang; LIU Sheng-yong; ZHANG Ji-ying; YU Jia-kuo

    2012-01-01

    Background Several techniques have been described for posterior cruciate ligament(PCL)reconstruction.However,double-bundle PCL reconstruction using the quadruple bone-tunnel technique has been seldom reported.The current study investigated this technique,focusing on the anatomy of the femoral and tibial insertions of the anterolateral(AL)and posteromedial(PM)bundles of the PCL.Methods Twenty-two fresh,healthy adult cadaveric knees were dissected and measured.The PCL was divided into the AL bundle and PM bundle at the insertion footprint.The insertion footprints of the AL and PM bundles,their location,size,and the clock positions were measured and described.Results On the femur,the clock position of the footprint of the AL bundle was 11:21±0:23(left)or 0:39±0:23(right),and the PM bundle was 9:50±0:18(left)or 2:10±0:18(right),with the knee flexed at 90 degrees.The distances from the center of the femoral insertions of the AL and PM bundles to the anterior cartilage margins of the medial femoral condyle were(7.79±1.22)mm and(8.36±1.63)mm,respectively.On the tibia,the vertical distances from the center of the tibial insertions of the AL and PM bundles to the tibial articular surface were(3.25±1.20)mm and(6.91±1.57)mm,respectively.Conclusions These results have led to a better definition of the anatomy of the AL and PM bundle footprint of the PCL.The technique of double-bundle PCL reconstruction using quadruple bone-tunnel is feasible.Application of these data during PCL reconstruction using the quadruple bone-tunnel technique may help optimize knee stability.

  11. Parabrachial nucleus involvement in multiple system atrophy☆

    OpenAIRE

    Benarroch, E.E.; Schmeichel, A.M.; Low, P. A.; Parisi, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is associated with respiratory dysfunction, including sleep apnea, respiratory dysrhythmia, and laryngeal stridor. Neurons of the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) control respiratory rhythmogenesis and airway resistance.

  12. The nucleus in Finland - The second report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish Nuclear Society (FNS) started the distribution of the Nucleus bulletin at the beginning of 1988. The volume of distribution has been extended since, including today nearly 1,000 persons. Both the English and the Finnish version of the bulletin is sent to various opinion leaders of society, i.e. the members of the parliament, ministries, the media, representatives of industry and other decision-makers of the energy field. After the five-year history of the Nucleus in Finland, it is time to look back and sum up the present status of the Nucleus. This report gives a short summary concerning the present distribution and its efficiency, the experiences gained and the influence of the bulletin in Finland. The first questionnaire was sent in November 1988, and the survey was repeated among the Finnish readers of the Nucleus in autumn 1992. The results of the latter survey are given in this report

  13. The applied Anatomy research of Anterolateral approach to the cervical spine%颈前外侧入路的应用解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾红林; 张烽; 金国华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide basis of the applied anatomy basis for the anterolateral approach to cervical spine. Methods Ten cadavers were dissected, observed and measured through mimicing the right anterolateml approach to the cervical spine. Results The common carotid artery bifurcation was mostly found at the level of C4 (70%). The facial vein drained into the internal jugular vein mostly at the level of C3/4 (70%). Cervical sympathetic trunk was located posteromedial to carotid sheath and just anterior to the longus muscles. It extended longitudinally from the longus capitis to the longus colli over the muscles and under the prevertebral fascia. The average distance between the cervical sympathetic trunk and medial border of the longus colli muscle at C6 was (14.5±4.8) mm. The average diameter of the cervical sympathetic trunk at C6 was (2.6±1.2)mm. Superior ganglion of cervical sympathetic trunk in all dissections was located at the level of C2 vertebra. The length and width of the superior cervical ganglion were (ll.9±2.5)mm and (7.4±4.2)mm,respectively. Forty percent of the middle ganglion was at the C5 level, and 60% was at C6 level,; The the length and width of the middle cervical ganglion were (8.9±5.9)mm and ( 5.1 ±3.2)mm. All of the vertebral artery arteries entered the transverse foramen of C6. The height and width of C5 uncinate process was were smallest but had the greatest distance from the medial edge of the uncinate process to the anterior tubercle (P<0.05). Conclusions Choosing anterolateral approach to the cervical spine approach could reach the lesion directly,causing less damage to the anterolateral transverse processes. This technique also allows through decompression, and preservation of cervical motion and spinal stability to the full extent.%目的 为颈前外侧入路手术提供应用解剖学基础.方法 对10具标本模拟右侧颈前外侧入路进行解剖观测.结果 颈总动脉的分叉在C4水平为70%.丽静脉70%

  14. Testing string dynamics in lepton nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of nuclear attenuation of 10-100 GeV lepton nucleus (ell A) reactions to space-time aspects of hadronization is investigated within the context of the Lund string model. We consider two mechanisms for attenuation in a nucleus: final state cascading and string flip excitations. Implications for the evolution of the energy density in nuclear collisions are discussed. 16 refs., 10 figs

  15. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple test method for determining the torsion strength of a single bed joint between two bricks and presents results from testing using this test method. The setup for the torsion test is well defined, require minimal preparation of the test specimen and the test can...... be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  16. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  17. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Russell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  18. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...... mattresses have a positive effect on LBP, and especially a hard mattress is commonly believed to have a positive effect. METHODS: One hundred sixty CLBP patients were randomized to 1 of 3 groups, having a mattress/bed mounted in their sleeping room for 1 month. The beds were: (1) waterbed (Akva), (2) body......-conforming foam mattress (Tempur), and (3) a hard mattress (Innovation Futon). At baseline and after 4 weeks, a blinded observer interviewed the patients on LBP levels (0-10), daily function (activities of daily living, 0-30), and on the amount of sleeping hours/night. RESULTS: Because of dropout of 19 patients...

  19. Bed-exit alarm effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capezuti, Elizabeth; Brush, Barbara L.; Lane, Stephen; Rabinowitz, Hannah U.; Secic, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the accuracy of two types of bed-exit alarms to detect bed-exiting body movements: pressure-sensitive and a pressure sensitive combined with infrared beam detectors (dual sensor system). We also evaluated the occurrence of nuisance alarms, or alarms that are activated when a participant does not attempt to get out of bed. Fourteen nursing home residents were directly observed for a total of 256 nights or 1,636.5 hours; an average of 18.3 ± 22.3 (± S.D.) nights/participant for an average of 6.4 ± 1.2 hours/night. After adjusting for body movements via repeated measures, Poisson regression modeling, the least squares adjusted means show a marginally significant difference between the type of alarm groups on the number of true positives (mean/S.E.M. = 0.086/1.617) for pressure-sensitive vs. dual sensor alarm (0.593/1.238; p = 0.0599) indicating that the dual sensor alarm may have a higher number of true positives. While the dual sensor bed-exit alarm was more accurate than the pressure sensitive alarm in identifying bed-exiting body movements and reducing the incidence of false alarms, false alarms were not eliminated altogether. Alarms are not a substitute for staff; adequate staff availability is still necessary when residents need or wish to exit bed. PMID:18508138

  20. Northern European Satellite Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster-Bruce, Alan; Lawson, James; Quinlan, Michael; McGregor, Andrew

    Satellite Based Augmentation Systems are being developed in Europe (EGNOS), the USA (WAAS), and in Japan (MSAS). As part of their support to EGNOS, NATS and Racal have developed and deployed a prototype SBAS system called the Northern European Satellite Test Bed (NEST Bed). NEST Bed uses GPS L1/L2 reference stations at: Aberdeen, Rotterdam, Ankara, Cadiz, Keflavik, and Bronnoysund. Data is sent to the Master Control Centre at NATS Gatwick Services Management Centre for processing. The resulting 250 bits-per-second message is sent to Goonhilly for up-linking by BT to the Navigation Payload of either the Inmarsat AOR-E or F5 spare satellite. NEST Bed was deployed and commissioned during summer 1998, and flight tests were successfully demonstrated at the September 1998 Farnborough Air Show where approaches were flown to Boscombe Down on the DERA BAC1-11 aircraft. In October 1998, a NATS/FAA flight trial was held in Iceland involving NEST Bed and the FAA NSTB. NEST Bed is also being used for SARPS validation.

  1. Investigation of the (232)Th Nucleus Excitations at the FEL {gamma} - Nucleus Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Koru, H; Sultansoy, S F; Sarer, B

    2001-01-01

    The physics search potential of the FEL {gamma} - Nucleus colliders is analysed using excitations of the (232)Th nucleus. It is shown that, due to the monochromacity of FEL {gamma} beam and high statistics, proposed colliders will play an important role in the field of "traditional" nuclear physics.

  2. Observation of high energy gamma rays in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beard, K.B.; Benenson, W.; Bloch, C.; Kashy, E.; Stevenson, J.; Morrissey, D.J.; Plicht, J. van der; Sherrill, B.; Winfield, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    High energy electrons and positrons observed in medium energy nucleus-nucleus collisions are shown to be primarily due to the external conversion of high energy gamma rays. The reaction 14N+Cu was studied at E/A=40 MeV, and a magnetic spectrograph was used with a specially constructed multiwire prop

  3. Temperature measurement of quark-gluon plasma formed in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss lepton pair and real photon emission from quark-gluon plasma, which is very likely to be formed in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Measurement of pair production cross-section will provide one with accurate information of the temperature of this plasma. (author)

  4. 49 CFR 236.336 - Locking bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking bed. 236.336 Section 236.336 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Instructions § 236.336 Locking bed. The various parts of the locking bed, locking bed supports, and tappet...

  5. Protein quality control in the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ramon D; Gardner, Richard G

    2016-06-01

    The nucleus is the repository for the eukaryotic cell's genetic blueprint, which must be protected from harm to ensure survival. Multiple quality control (QC) pathways operate in the nucleus to maintain the integrity of the DNA, the fidelity of the DNA code during replication, its transcription into mRNA, and the functional structure of the proteins that are required for DNA maintenance, mRNA transcription, and other important nuclear processes. Although we understand a great deal about DNA and RNA QC mechanisms, we know far less about nuclear protein quality control (PQC) mechanisms despite that fact that many human diseases are causally linked to protein misfolding in the nucleus. In this review, we discuss what is known about nuclear PQC and we highlight new questions that have emerged from recent developments in nuclear PQC studies. PMID:27015023

  6. The nucleus: a black box being opened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, R; Humbel, B; de Jong, L

    1991-12-01

    Until recently our knowledge about the structural and functional organization of the cell nucleus was very limited. Recent technical developments in the field of ultrastructural analysis, combined with ongoing research on the properties of the nuclear matrix, give new insight into how the nucleus is structured. Two types of observations shape our ideas about nuclear organization. First, most nuclear functions (replication, transcription, RNA processing, and RNA transport) are highly localized within the nucleus, rather than diffusely distributed. Moreover, they are associated with the nuclear matrix. Second, chromatin is organized in discrete loops, bordered by nuclear matrix attachment sequences (MARs). Each loop may contain one or several genes. The arrangement of chromatin in loops has profound consequences for the regulation of gene expression.

  7. UNCOVERING THE NUCLEUS CANDIDATE FOR NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Agüero, M. P. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, and CONICET (Argentina); Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Schirmer, M. [Gemini Observatory, AURA (United States); Bosch, G., E-mail: gunth@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: camperi@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mpaguero@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: rdiaz@gemini.edu, E-mail: pgomez@gemini.edu, E-mail: mschirmer@gemini.edu, E-mail: guille@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (CONICET-UNLP) (Argentina)

    2015-11-15

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  8. Particle motion in fluidised beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas fluidised beds are important components in many process industries, e.g. coal combustors and granulators, but not much is known about the movement of the solids. Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) enables the movement of a single, radioactive tracer particle to be followed rapidly and faithfully. Experiments were carried out in columns sized between 70 and 240mm. diameter, operating in the bubbling regime at ambient process conditions using particles of group B and D (Geldart Classification). Particle motion was tracked and the data applied to models for particle movement at the gas distributor as well as close to other surfaces and to models for particle circulation in beds of cohesive particles. In the light of these data, models for particle and bubble interaction, particle circulation, segregation, attrition, erosion, heat transfer and fluidised bed scale-up rules were reassessed. Particle motion is directly caused by bubble motion, and their velocities were found to be equal for particles travelling in a bubble. PEPT enables particle circulation to be measured, giving a more accurate correlation for future predictions. Particle motion follows the scale-up rules based on similarities of the bubble motion in the bed. A new group of parameters was identified controlling the amount of attrition in fluidised beds and a new model to predict attrition is proposed. (author)

  9. Designing a CR Test bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Buthler, Jakob Lindbjerg; Tonelli, Oscar;

    2014-01-01

    Research on intelligent and reconfigurable wireless systems is in continuous evolution. Nevertheless, in order to fix some keystones, more and more researchers are entering the idea of research-oriented test beds. Unfortunately, it is very difficult for a wide number of research groups to start...... with their own set up, since the potential costs and efforts could not pay back in term of expected research results. Software Defined Radio solutions offer an easy way to communication researchers for the development of customized research test beds. While several hardware products are commercially available...... they are up and running in generating results. With this chapter we would like to provide a tutorial guide, based on direct experience, on how to enter in the world of test bed-based research, providing both insight on the issues encountered in every day development, and practical solutions. Finally...

  10. Direct projection from the suprachiasmatic nucleus to hypophysiotrophic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus demonstrated...

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrang, N.; Larsen, P.J.; Mikkelsen, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry......Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry...

  11. Inner Structure of Boiling Nucleus and Interfacial Energy Between Nucleus and Bulk Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Dong; TIAN Yong; PENG Xiao-Feng; WANG Bu-Xuan

    2004-01-01

    @@ A model of two-region structure of a nucleus is proposed to describe nucleus evolution. The interfacial tension between bulk liquid phase and nucleus is dependent on the density gradient in the transition region and varies with the structure change of the transition region. With the interfacial tension calculated using this model, the predicted nucleation rate is very close to the experimental measurement. Furthermore, this model and associated analysis provide solid theoretical evidence to clarify the definition of nucleation rate and understand the nucleation phenomenon with insight into the physical nature.

  12. Nucleus-Nucleus Potential at Near-Barrier Energies from Self Consistent Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Skalski, J

    2003-01-01

    We determine the static nucleus-nucleus potential from Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations with the Skyrme interaction. To this aim, HF equations are solved on a spatial mesh, with the initial configuration consisting of target and projectile positioned at various relative distances. For a number of reaction partners, the calculated barrier heights reasonably well compare with those extracted from the measured fusion and capture cross sections. At smaller target-projectile distances, our results show the intrinsic barriers to heavy compound nucleus formation. We speculate on their possible connection with the fusion hindrance observed for large Z sub T Z sub P.

  13. An organism arises from every nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah Keklikoglu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The fact that, cloning using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT method has been performed, opened new horizons for cloning, and changed the way of our understanding and approach to cell and nucleus. The progress in cloning technology, brought the anticipation of the ability to clone an organism from each somatic cell nucleus. Therefore, the 'Cell Theory' is about to take the additional statement as "An organism arises from every nucleus". The development of gene targeting procedures which can be applied with SCNT, showed us that it may be possible to obtain different versions of the original genetic constitution of a cell. Because of this opportunity which is provided by SCNT, in reproductive cloning, it would be possible to clone enhanced organisms which can adapt to different environmental conditions and survive. Furthermore, regaining the genetic characteristics of ancestors or reverse herediter variations would be possible. On the other hand, in therapeutic cloning, more precise and easily obtainable alternatives for cell replacement therapy could be presented. However, while producing healthier or different organisms from a nucleus, it is hard to foresee the side effects influencing natural processes in long term is rather difficult.

  14. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE RAT MESENCEPHALIC TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LIEM, RSB; COPRAY, JCVM; VANWILLIGEN, JD

    1991-01-01

    The subcellular morphology of the mesencephalic trigeminal (Me5) nucleus in the rat was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Most neurons in the thin rostral as well as in the major caudal part of Me5 appeared as large (40-50-mu-m), round-to ovoid-shaped unipolar cells. A few neurons (estima

  15. Reduction in nerve root compression by the nucleus pulposus after Feng's Spinal Manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Feng; Yan Gao; Wendong Yang; Tianyou Feng

    2013-01-01

    Ninety-four patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation were enrolled in this study. Of these, 48 were treated with Feng's Spinal Manipulation, hot fomentation, and bed rest (treatment group). The remaining 46 patients were treated with hot fomentation and bed rest only (control group). After 3 weeks of treatment, clinical parameters including the angle of straight-leg raising, visual analogue scale pain score, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association score for low back pain were improved. The treatment group had significantly better improvement in scores than the control group. Magnetic resonance myelography three-dimensional reconstruction imaging of the vertebral canal demonstrated that filling of the compressed nerve root sleeve with cerebrospinal fluid increased significantly in the treatment group. The diameter of the nerve root sleeve was significantly larger in the treatment group than in the control group. However, the sagittal diameter index of the herniated nucleus pulposus and the angle between the nerve root sleeve and the thecal sac did not change significantly in either the treatment or control groups. The effectiveness of Feng's Spinal Manipulation for the treatment of symptoms associated with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation may be attributable to the relief of nerve root compression, without affecting the herniated nucleus pulposus or changing the morphology or position of the nerve root.

  16. Hypoxia activates nucleus tractus solitarii neurons projecting to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus

    OpenAIRE

    King, T. Luise; Heesch, Cheryl M.; Clark, Catharine G.; Kline, David D.; Hasser, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral chemoreceptor afferent information is sent to the nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS), integrated, and relayed to other brain regions to alter cardiorespiratory function. The nTS projects to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), but activation and phenotype of these projections during chemoreflex stimulation is unknown. We hypothesized that activation of PVN-projecting nTS neurons occurs primarily at high intensities of hypoxia. We assessed ventilation and cardiovascular para...

  17. Forward-backward correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions: baseline contributions from geometrical fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Konchakovski, V. P.; Hauer, M.; Torrieri, G.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Bratkovskaya, E. L.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the effects of initial collision geometry and centrality bin definition on correlation and fluctuation observables in nucleus-nucleus collisions. We focus on the forward-backward correlation coefficient recently measured by the STAR Collaboration in Au+Au collisions at RHIC. Our study is carried out within two models: the Glauber Monte Carlo code with a `toy' wounded nucleon model and the hadron-string dynamics (HSD) transport approach. We show that strong correlations can arise du...

  18. Study of -nucleus interaction through the formation of -nucleus bound state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Jha; B J Roy; A Chatterjee; H Machner

    2006-05-01

    The question of possible existence of -mesic nuclei is quite intriguing. Answer to this question will deeply enrich our understanding of -nucleus interaction which is not so well-understood. We review the experimental efforts for the search of -mesic nuclei and describe the physics motivation behind it. We present the description of an experiment for the search of -nucleus bound state using the GeV proton beam, currently being performed at COSY.

  19. Centrality Dependence of Flow in High-Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红艳; 周代翠; 杨纯斌; 蔡勖

    2002-01-01

    Directed flow and elliptic flow of final state particles in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions in the EMU01 experiment have been studied. The dependences of directed flow and elliptic flow on incident energy and impact centrality of outgoing particles are presented. The results exhibit strong dependence of flow on centrality and energy. We also suggest a more reliable way to determine the event plane resolution here.

  20. Fusion cross sections for reactions involving medium & heavy nucleus-nucleus systems

    OpenAIRE

    Atta, Debasis; Basu, D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Existing data on near-barrier fusion excitation functions of medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems have been analyzed using a simple diffused barrier formula derived assuming the Gaussian shape of the barrier height distributions. Fusion cross section is obtained by folding the Gaussian barrier distribution with the classical expression for the fusion cross section for a fixed barrier. The energy dependence of the fusion cross section, thus obtained, provides good description to the existi...

  1. The free femoral anterolateral flap combined with iliotibial band to repair dorsalis pedis composite tissue defects%带髂胫束的游离股前外侧皮瓣修复足背复合组织缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙灵通; 陈瑜; 陈娟; 朱英箭; 王曦; 朱文龙

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect on free femoral anterolateral skin flap with the iliotibial band to repair the curative effect of dorsalis pedis composite tissue defects. Methods From September 2008 to June 2011, femoral anterolateral flap transplantation with the iliotibial band to repair and toe tendon concurrent instep area skin defect in 16 cases, skin flap ranged from 6.5 cm × 9.0 cm~6.5 cm × 10.5 cm, the length of the iliotibial band was cut 7.0~11.0 cm, 6.0~9.0 cm width. According to the Chinese medical association in to the upper extremity function evaluation standard to assess efficacy. Follow-up for 6 months to 2 years. Results All flaps survived after operation. Excellent in 9 cases, good in 5 cases, fair in 2 cases. Conclusion With femoral anterolateral flap transplantation iliotibial band is an effective method to repair dorsalis pedis composite tissue defect and rebuild toe tendon surgery method.%目的:探讨带髂胫束的游离股前外侧皮瓣修复足背复合组织缺损的疗效。方法对2008年9月—2011年6月收治的16例足背复合组织缺损,采用带髂胫束的股前外侧皮瓣游离移植修复,皮瓣切取范围6.5 cm×9.0 cm~12.0 cm×22.0 cm,髂胫束的切取长度7.0~25.0 cm,宽度6.0~9.0 cm。结果术后所有皮瓣均成活。优9例,良5例,可2例,优良率87.5%。结论带髂胫束的股前外侧皮瓣游离移植修复足背复合组织缺损并重建趾伸肌腱是一种有效的手术方法。

  2. 带髂胫束的股前外侧皮瓣修复前臂复杂创面%Anterolateral thigh flap transferred with iliotibial tract for coverage of complicated forearm wounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任义军; 裴国献; 任高宏; 金丹; 刘勇; 陈滨; 魏宽海; 王钢

    2008-01-01

    Objective To introduce the transfer of anterolateral thigh flap with iliotibial tract in repair of massive skin and soft tissue defects of the forearm and reconstruction of extension or flexion of the forearm. Methods Eight cases of complicated raw wounds of the forearm were repaired with transfer of anterolateral thigh flap with iliotibial tract. Flexor tendons of 3 cases and extensor tendons of 5 cases were repaired with iliotibial tract. The axial vessel of the flap was used to rebuild blood supply of the hand. Results All the flaps survived completely. A follow-up ranging from 3 months to 2.5 years re- vealed that the reconstructed forearms were good in appearance and soft in texture and restored protective sensation. Affected limbs could perform extension or flexion. Total range of motion (TRM) of the hands was excellent in 6 cases and poor in 2. Conclusion Anterolateral thigh flap with iliotibial tract can not only repair soft tissue defects of the forearm, but also reconstruct the main extension or flexion of the forearm simultaneously.%目的 介绍应用带髂胫束的股前外侧皮瓣移植修复前臂大面积皮肤软组织缺损并重建前臂的主要伸屈功能.方法 切取带髂胫束的股前外侧皮瓣修复前臂复杂创面8例,髂胫束修复前臂屈肌腱缺损3例,伸肌腱缺损5例,同时用皮瓣轴型血管修复手部血供.结果 本组患者皮瓣全部成活,随访3个月~2.5年,前臂外形满意,皮肤质地柔软,皮瓣恢复保护性感觉,患肢能完成主要的伸屈功能,手腕指关节总活动度(TAM)评价:优良6例,差2例.结论 带髂胫柬的股前外侧皮瓣在修复前臂软组织缺损同时可Ⅰ期重建前臂主要伸或屈功能,是一种简单、理想的手术方法.

  3. 手术治疗慢性踝关节外侧不稳106例%Treatment for chronic anterolateral ankle instability in 106 patients with surgical method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骁; 胡跃林

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性踝关节外侧不稳继发病损及其有效的手术方法.方法 本组行手术解剖重建外踝韧带治疗慢性踝关节外侧不稳的患者106例,观察其继发病损在关节镜下的表现.结果 对本组患者随访12~111个月,平均31.2个月,术后所有踝关节均达到功能稳定,关节活动度基本恢复正常,没有复发性踝关节不稳发生.运用美国AOFAS足踝评分系统对患者手术前后踝关节功能进行评估,术前与术后AOFAS后足评分间的差异有统计学意义.结论 解剖重建距腓前韧带、跟腓韧带,有效地矫正了踝关节外侧不稳定和距下关节不稳定,是治疗踝关节慢性前外侧严重不稳定的合理而有效的治疗方法.%Objective To discuss secondary lesion and effective surgical method for the treatment of chronic anterolateral ankle instability. Methods From 1997 to 2007. reconstruction was used in surgical treatment for chronic anterolateral ankle instability in 106 patients. and secondary lesion was observed hy arthroscopy. Results Postoperative follow-up time was from 12 to 111 months. with an average of 30. 2 months. Functional stahility was achieved and range of motion generally recovered without recurrent instahility. The therapeutic results were evaluated with grading scale developed by AOFAS et al. There were significant differences in AOFAS values before and after operation. Conclusions With reconstruction technique, anterior talofibular and calcaniofibular ligaments can all be reconstructed, so that both lateral and subtalar instahility of ankle can be restabilized effectively. It is a reasonable and effective surgical method for the treatment of chronic anterolateral ankle instability.

  4. Transverse momentum spectra in high-energy nucleus-nucleus, proton-nucleus and proton-proton collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The transverse momentum distributions of final-state particles produced in nucleus-nucleus (AA),proton-nucleus (pA),and proton-proton (pp) collisions at high energies are investigated using a multisource ideal gas model.Our calculated results show that the contribution of hard emission can be neglected in the study of transverse momentum spectra of charged pions and kaons produced in Cu-Cu collisions at (√SNN)=22.5 GeV.And if we consider the contribution of hard emission,the transverse momentum spectra of p and (P) produced in Cu-Cu collisions at (√SNN)=22.5 GeV,KsO produced in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 A GeV,J/ψ particles produced in p-Pb collisions at 400 GeV and π+,K+,p produced in proton-proton collisions at (√S)=200 GeV,can be described by the model,especially in the tail part of spectra.

  5. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: SPOUTED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Spouted Bed Reactor (SBR) technology utilizes the unique attributes of the "spouting " fluidization regime, which can provide heat transfer rates comparable to traditional fluid beds, while providing robust circulation of highly heterogeneous solids, concurrent with very agg...

  6. [Historical analysis of the hospital bed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

    2010-01-01

    Until now the bed has been the basic physical resource in hospitals. This type of furniture has served to study and treat patients, through out the centuries it has undergone changes in the materials they are made of dimensions, functionality, accessories, aesthetic, and design. The hospital bed history is not well known, there are thousands of documents about the evolution of hospitals, but not enough is known about hospital beds, a link between the past and the present. The medical, anthropological, technological, social, and economic dynamics and knowledge have produced a variety of beds in general and hospital beds in particular. From instinctive, rustic, poor and irregular "sites" that have differed in shape and size they had evolved into ergonomic equipment. The history of the hospital bed reflects the culture, techniques and human thinking. Current hospital beds include several types: for adults, for children, for labor, for intensive therapy, emergency purposes, census and non census beds etc.

  7. Chinese Bedding Technology Standard under Drafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    National Home Textile Standardization Technology Committee(NHTSTC)set up its Bedding Branch Committee. This will promote the work of Chinese bedding technology standardization and a symbol that China step up to meet the

  8. Fluidized Bed Reactor as Solid State Fermenter

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnaiah, K.; Janaun, J.; Prabhakar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Various reactors such as tray, packed bed, rotating drum can be used for solid-state fermentation. In this paper the possibility of fluidized bed reactor as solid-state fermenter is considered. The design parameters, which affect the performances are identified and discussed. This information, in general can be used in the design and the development of an efficient fluidized bed solid-state fermenter. However, the objective here is to develop fluidized bed solid-state fermenter for palm kerne...

  9. Hadron production in the nucleus fragmentation region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betemps, Marcos Andre [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Conjunto Agrotecnico Visconde da Graca]. E-mail: marcos.betemps@ufpel.edu.br; Ducati, Maria Beatriz Gay [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: beatriz.gay@ufrgs.br

    2008-09-15

    The RHIC hadron production data in hadronic collisions at the forward rapidities may hint the evidence of the Color Glass Condensate (CGC). However, in the opposite region, backward rapidities, new effects should be important in order to describe the observables. In this work, the charged hadron and {pi}{sup 0} productions are investigated in the fragmentation region of the nucleus (backward rapidities) considering dAu and pp collisions in the context of the Color Glass Condensate. In the backward rapidity region, only the proton can be treated as a CGC, and the large x nuclear effects need to be considered in order to describe the cross section. The results are shown by means of the nuclear modification ratio comparing the proton-nucleus and proton-proton cross sections and such ratio presents some dependences on the large x nuclear effects. (author)

  10. Single pion production in neutrino nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, E; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2013-01-01

    We study one pion production in both charged and neutral current neutrino nucleus scattering for neutrino energies below 2 GeV. We use a theoretical model for one pion production at the nucleon level that we correct for medium effects. The results are incorporated into a cascade program that apart from production also includes the pion final state interaction inside the nucleus. Besides, in some specific channels coherent pion production is also possible and we evaluate its contribution as well. Our results for total and differential cross sections are compared with recent data from the MiniBooNE Collaboration. The model provides an overall acceptable description of data, better for NC than for CC channels, although theory is systematically below data. Differential cross sections, folded with the full neutrino flux, show that most of the missing pions lie on the forward direction and at high energies.

  11. Protein quality control in the nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie V.; Poulsen, Esben Guldahl; Rebula, Caio A.;

    2014-01-01

    to aggregate, cells have evolved several elaborate quality control systems to deal with these potentially toxic proteins. First, various molecular chaperones will seize the misfolded protein and either attempt to refold the protein or target it for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system...... to be particularly active in protein quality control. Thus, specific ubiquitin-protein ligases located in the nucleus, target not only misfolded nuclear proteins, but also various misfolded cytosolic proteins which are transported to the nucleus prior to their degradation. In comparison, much less is known about...... these mechanisms in mammalian cells. Here we highlight recent advances in our understanding of nuclear protein quality control, in particular regarding substrate recognition and proteasomal degradation....

  12. Coherency in Neutrino-Nucleus Elastic Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kerman, S; Deniz, M; Wong, H T; Chen, J -W; Li, H B; Lin, S T; Liu, C -P; Yue, Q

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering provides a unique laboratory to study the quantum mechanical coherency effects in electroweak interactions, towards which several experimental programs are being actively pursued. We report results of our quantitative studies on the transitions towards decoherency. A parameter ($\\alpha$) is identified to describe the degree of coherency, and its variations with incoming neutrino energy, detector threshold and target nucleus are studied. The ranges of $\\alpha$ which can be probed with realistic neutrino experiments are derived, indicating complementarity between projects with different sources and targets. Uncertainties in nuclear physics and in $\\alpha$ would constrain sensitivities in probing physics beyond the standard model. The maximum neutrino energies corresponding to $\\alpha$>0.95 are derived.

  13. Coherency in neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerman, S.; Sharma, V.; Deniz, M.; Wong, H. T.; Chen, J.-W.; Li, H. B.; Lin, S. T.; Liu, C.-P.; Yue, Q.; Texono Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering provides a unique laboratory to study the quantum mechanical coherency effects in electroweak interactions, towards which several experimental programs are being actively pursued. We report results of our quantitative studies on the transitions towards decoherency. A parameter (α ) is identified to describe the degree of coherency, and its variations with incoming neutrino energy, detector threshold, and target nucleus are studied. The ranges of α that can be probed with realistic neutrino experiments are derived, indicating complementarity between projects with different sources and targets. Uncertainties in nuclear physics and in α would constrain sensitivities in probing physics beyond the standard model. The maximum neutrino energies corresponding to α >0.95 are derived.

  14. Correlations in neutrino-nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Van Cuyck, Tom; Jachowicz, Natalie; González-Jiménez, Raul; Martini, Marco; Ryckebusch, Jan; Van Dessel, Nils

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of charged-current quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering and of the influence of correlations on one- and two-nucleon knockout processes. The quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering cross sections, including the influence of long-range correlations, are evaluated within a continuum random phase approximation approach. The short-range correlation formalism is implemented in the impulse approximation by shifting the complexity induced by the correlations from the wave functions to the operators. The model is validated by confronting $(e,e^\\prime)$ cross-section predictions with electron scattering data in the kinematic region where the quasielastic channel is expected to dominate. Further, the $^{12}$C$(\

  15. Nickel-48, a very magic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni48, which is doubly magic and very exotic, has been observed in an experiment performed at the GANIL accelerator. This nucleus, which is composed of 20 neutrons and 28 protons, is the most neutron-deficient nucleus that can be obtained, its decay mode has not yet been determined but theory predicts a 2-proton emission. Ni48 nuclei were obtained when accelerated (75 MeV/A) Ni58 ions had undergone fragmentation on natural nickel target. During this experiment 4 nuclei of Ni48 were produced as well as other very exotic nuclei: 90 nuclei of Ni49, 50 of Fe45 and 290 of Cr42. This experiment lasted 10 days and 1017 Ni58 ions were projected on the target. (A.C.)

  16. Hadron production in the nucleus fragmentation region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RHIC hadron production data in hadronic collisions at the forward rapidities may hint the evidence of the Color Glass Condensate (CGC). However, in the opposite region, backward rapidities, new effects should be important in order to describe the observables. In this work, the charged hadron and π0 productions are investigated in the fragmentation region of the nucleus (backward rapidities) considering dAu and pp collisions in the context of the Color Glass Condensate. In the backward rapidity region, only the proton can be treated as a CGC, and the large x nuclear effects need to be considered in order to describe the cross section. The results are shown by means of the nuclear modification ratio comparing the proton-nucleus and proton-proton cross sections and such ratio presents some dependences on the large x nuclear effects. (author)

  17. Nucleus spectroscopy: extreme masses and deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposes a synthesis of research activities performed since 1995 in the field of experimental nuclear physics, and more particularly in the investigation of two nucleus extreme states: deformation on the one hand, heavy and very heavy nuclei on the other hand. After a presentation of the context of investigations on deformation, rotation, and heavy nuclei, he gives an overview of developments regarding instruments (gamma spectrometers, detection of fission fragments, and detection at the focal plane of spectrometers or separators) and analysis techniques. Experiments and results are then reported and discussed, concerning super-deformed states with a high angular moment, spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei, very heavy nuclei close to nucleus map borders. He finally draws perspectives for middle and long term studies on the heaviest nuclei

  18. Bed Bug Education for School Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Missy

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are a growing problem, not only in homes and hotels, but also in schools and colleges. Facility administrators and staff need to understand the bed bug resurgence and develop best practices to deal with an infestation. In this article, the author offers tips for preventing and treating bed bugs in school and university settings.

  19. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a...

  20. The fast Ice Nucleus chamber FINCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundke, U.; Nillius, B.; Jaenicke, R.; Wetter, T.; Klein, H.; Bingemer, H.

    2008-11-01

    We present first results of our new developed Ice Nucleus (IN) counter FINCH from the sixth Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment (CLACE 6) campaign at Jungfraujoch station, 3571 m asl. Measurements were made at the total and the ICE CVI inlet. Laboratory measurements of ice onset temperatures by FINCH are compared to those of the static diffusion chamber FRIDGE (FRankfurt Ice Deposition Freezing Experiment). Within the errors of both new instruments the results compare well to published data.

  1. Control of nucleus accumbens activity with neurofeedback

    OpenAIRE

    Greer, Stephanie M.; Trujillo, Andrew J.; Glover, Gary H.; Knutson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays critical roles in healthy motivation and learning, as well as in psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Thus, techniques that confer control of NAcc activity might inspire new therapeutic interventions. By providing second-to-second temporal resolution of activity in small subcortical regions, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can resolve online changes in NAcc activity, which can then be pres...

  2. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gregory; Kulkarni, Gourihar

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70 deg C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45 deg C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  3. Revisiting the supratrigeminal nucleus in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujio, T; Sato, F; Tachibana, Y; Kato, T; Tomita, A; Higashiyama, K; Ono, T; Maeda, Y; Yoshida, A

    2016-06-01

    The supratrigeminal nucleus (Vsup), originally proposed as a premotoneuron pool in the trigeminal reflex arc, is a key structure of jaw movement control. Surprisingly, however, the location of the rat Vsup has not precisely been defined. In light of our previous cat studies, we made two hypotheses regarding the rat Vsup: (1) the Vsup is cytoarchitectonically distinguishable from its surrounding structures; (2) the Vsup receives central axon terminals of the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) neurons which are primary afferents innervating muscle spindles of jaw-closing muscles and periodontal ligaments around the teeth. To test the first hypothesis, we examined the cytoarchitecture of the rat Vsup. The Vsup was identified as an area medially adjacent to the dorsomedial part of trigeminal principal sensory nucleus (Vp), and extended from the level just rostral to the caudal two-thirds of the trigeminal motor nucleus (Vmo) to the level approximately 150μm caudal to the Vmo. Our rat Vsup was much smaller and its location was considerably different in comparison to the Vsup reported previously. To evaluate the second hypothesis, we tested the distribution patterns of Vmes primary afferent terminals in the cytoarchitectonically identified Vsup. After transganglionic tracer applications to the masseter, deep temporal, and medial pterygoid nerves, a large number of axon terminals were observed in all parts of Vsup (especially in its medial part). After applications to the inferior alveolar, infraorbital, and lingual nerves, a small number of axon terminals were labeled in the caudolateral Vsup. The Vsup could also be identified electrophysiologically. After electrical stimulation of the masseter nerve, evoked potentials with slow negative component were isolated only in the Vsup. The present findings suggest that the rat Vsup can be cytoarchitectonically and electrophysiologically identified, receives somatotopic termination of the trigeminal primary afferents, and

  4. Neutrino-nucleus CCQE-like scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Nieves, J; Simo, I Ruiz; Sanchez, F; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2014-01-01

    RPA correlations, spectral function and 2p2h (multi-nucleon) effects on charged-current neutrino-nucleus reactions without emitted pions are discussed. We pay attention to the influence of RPA and multi-nucleon mechanisms on the MiniBooNE and MINERvA flux folded differential cross sections, the MiniBooNE flux unfolded total cross section and the neutrino energy reconstruction.

  5. Radiative corrections to pion-nucleus bremsstrahlung

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, N.(Physik Department T39, Technische Universität München, Garching, D-85747, Germany); Friedrich, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the one-photon loop radiative corrections to virtual pion Compton scattering $\\pi^- \\gamma^* \\to \\pi^- \\gamma$, that subprocess which determines in the one-photon exchange approximation the pion-nucleus bremsstrahlung reaction $\\pi^- Z\\to \\pi^- Z \\gamma$. Ultraviolet and infrared divergencies of the loop integrals are both treated by dimensional regularization. Analytical expressions for the ${\\cal O}(\\alpha)$ corrections to the virtual Compton scattering amplitudes, $A(s,u,Q)$ a...

  6. Theoretical highlights of neutrino-nucleus interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, Luis

    2009-01-01

    The recent theoretical developments in the field of neutrino-nucleus interactions in the few-GeV region are reviewed based on the presentations made at the NuInt09 Workshop. The topics of electron scattering and its connections with neutrino interactions, neutrino induced quasielastic scattering and pion production (coherent and incoherent) are covered, with special emphasis on the challenges that arise in the comparison with new experimental data.

  7. Efficient nucleus detector in histopathology images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, J P; Van Leeuwen, M B; Van Deurzen, C H M; De Haan, G

    2013-02-01

    In traditional cancer diagnosis, (histo)pathological images of biopsy samples are visually analysed by pathologists. However, this judgment is subjective and leads to variability among pathologists. Digital scanners may enable automated objective assessment, improved quality and reduced throughput time. Nucleus detection is seen as the corner stone for a range of applications in automated assessment of (histo)pathological images. In this paper, we propose an efficient nucleus detector designed with machine learning. We applied colour deconvolution to reconstruct each applied stain. Next, we constructed a large feature set and modified AdaBoost to create two detectors, focused on different characteristics in appearance of nuclei. The proposed modification of AdaBoost enables inclusion of the computational cost of each feature during selection, thus improving the computational efficiency of the resulting detectors. The outputs of the two detectors are merged by a globally optimal active contour algorithm to refine the border of the detected nuclei. With a detection rate of 95% (on average 58 incorrectly found objects per field-of-view) based on 51 field-of-view images of Her2 immunohistochemistry stained breast tissue and a complete analysis in 1 s per field-of-view, our nucleus detector shows good performance and could enable a range of applications in automated assessment of (histo)pathological images. PMID:23252774

  8. The nucleus basalis in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A W; Parhad, I M; Folstein, S E; Whitehouse, P J; Hedreen, J C; Price, D L; Chase, G A

    1983-10-01

    The nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) provides most of the cholinergic input to the cerebral cortex. The loss of cortical choline acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT) appears to be related to a severe depopulation of the nbM in this dementia. In Huntington's disease (HD), by contrast, there is no loss of cortical CAT activity. The present quantitative study indicates that (1) there is no significant loss of neurons from the nbM in HD, and (2) that the previously described cytologic changes in the neurons of this nucleus in HD patients do not differ significantly from controls. These findings are consistent with the working hypothesis that the types of dementia associated with reductions of neocortical CAT activity are characterized by dysfunction or death of neurons in the nbM, but dementing disorders with normal neocortical CAT activity manifest no major abnormalities in this cholinergic nucleus of the basal forebrain. PMID:6225032

  9. Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Abhishek; Sumit, Madhuresh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Shivashankar, G V

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus of the eukaryotic cell functions amidst active cytoskeletal filaments, but its response to the stresses carried by these filaments is largely unexplored. We report here the results of studies of the translational and rotational dynamics of the nuclei of single fibroblast cells, with the effects of cell migration suppressed by plating onto fibronectin-coated micro-fabricated patterns. Patterns of the same area but different shapes and/or aspect ratio were used to study the effect of cell geometry on the dynamics. On circles, squares and equilateral triangles, the nucleus undergoes persistent rotational motion, while on high-aspect-ratio rectangles of the same area it moves only back and forth. The circle and the triangle showed respectively the largest and the smallest angular speed. We show that our observations can be understood through a hydrodynamic approach in which the nucleus is treated as a highly viscous inclusion residing in a less viscous fluid of orientable filaments endowed with active...

  10. Review of acute cancer beds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2012-01-01

    A review of admissions to cancer services at University Hospital Galway (UHG) was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of hospital usage. All cancer specialty patients admitted from 26-28 May 2009 were reviewed (n = 82). Chi square tests, Exact tests, and One-way ANOVA were utilised to analyse key issues emerging from the data. Fifty (61%) were classified as emergencies. Twenty three (67%) occupied a designated cancer bed with 24 (30%) in outlying non-oncology wards. The mean length of stay was 29.3 days. Possible alternatives to admission were identified for 15 (19%) patients. There was no evidence of discharge planning for 50 (60%) admissions. There is considerable potential to make more appropriate utilisation of UHG for cancer patients, particularly in terms of reducing bed days and length of stay and the proportion of emergency cancer admissions, and further developing integrated systems of discharge planning.

  11. Bed bathing patients in hospital

    OpenAIRE

    L Downey; Lloyd, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of circumstances that may affect an individual's ability to maintain personal hygiene. Hospitalised patients, and in particular those who are bedridden, may become dependent on nursing staff to carry out their hygiene needs. Assisting patients to maintain personal hygiene is a fundamental aspect of nursing care. However, it is a task often delegated to junior or newly qualified staff. This article focuses on the principles of bed bathing patients in hospital, correct proced...

  12. THE BAUXITES AND JELAR - BEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Sakač

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor bauxite deposits and occurrences were formed in technically disturbed environments in the middle part of the Adriatic geotectonic unit in Dinarides, contemporary with the clastic Jelar-beds in the Late Lutetian time. Uneven chemical composition of these Eocene bauxites, their sporadic occurrences in developed paleorelief as well as characteristic petrographic composition of the immediate overlying rocks point out at different genetical conditions (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. Solids mixing in spouted beds

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, H. H.; Bridgwater, J.; Professor J. Bridgwater

    1981-01-01

    Many industrial processes require contact between particles and a fluid or spray in order to effect drying, coating or granulation. One device capable of contacting fluid and particles efficiently is a spouted bed in which a jet of fluid is injected into solid particles. This forms an open channel or spout and induces material circulation in a downward moving annulus. For the continuous throughput of solids, knowledge is required of the mixing and particle motions within th...

  14. Low P sub T hadron-nucleus interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holynski, R.; Wozniak, K.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of describing hadron-nucleus (hA) interactions is discussed in terms of a number of independent collisions of the projectile inside the target nucleus. This multiple rescattering may occur on a particle or quark parton level. To investigate the characteristics of hA interactions as a function of antineutrinos advantage is taken of the correlation between the average number antineutrinos of collisions of the projectile inside the nucleus and the number Ng of fast protons ejected from the struck nucleus. The relation antineutrinos vs Ng obtained in antineutrinos was used. For a given target nucleus this allows the selection of interactions occurring at different impact parameters.

  15. The statistical character of packed-bed heat transport properties

    OpenAIRE

    Wijngaarden, R.J.; Westerterp, K. R.

    1992-01-01

    Packed beds are essentially heterogeneous on a pellet scale. For random packed beds this heterogeneity causes a statistical character both on a pellet and bed scale. We discuss experimental results which deal with bed-scale statistics.

  16. Method and apparatus for a combination moving bed thermal treatment reactor and moving bed filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, Phillip C.; Dunn, Jr., Kenneth J.

    2015-09-01

    A moving bed gasification/thermal treatment reactor includes a geometry in which moving bed reactor particles serve as both a moving bed filter and a heat carrier to provide thermal energy for thermal treatment reactions, such that the moving bed filter and the heat carrier are one and the same to remove solid particulates or droplets generated by thermal treatment processes or injected into the moving bed filter from other sources.

  17. Equilibrium bed-concentration of nonuniform sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the equilibrium bed-concentration is vital to mathematical modeling of the river-bed deformation associated with suspended load but previous investigations only dealt with the reference concentration of uniform sediment because of difficulties in observation of the bed-concentration. This work is a first attempt to develop a theoretical formula for the equilibrium bed-concentration of any fraction of nonuniform sediment defined at the bed-surface. The formula is based on a stochastic-mechanistic model for the exchange of nonuniform sediment near the bed, and described as a function of incipient motion probability, non-ceasing probability, pick-up probability, and the ratio of the average single-step continuous motion time to static time. Comparison of bed-concentration calculated from the proposed formula with the measured data showed satisfactory agreement, indicating the present formula can be used for solving the differential equation governing the motion of suspended load.

  18. Bed bug aggregation pheromone finally identified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Regine; Britton, Robert; Holmes, Michael; Zhai, Huimin; Draper, Jason; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-01-19

    Bed bugs have become a global epidemic and current detection tools are poorly suited for routine surveillance. Despite intense research on bed bug aggregation behavior and the aggregation pheromone, which could be used as a chemical lure, the complete composition of this pheromone has thus far proven elusive. Here, we report that the bed bug aggregation pheromone comprises five volatile components (dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, 2-hexanone), which attract bed bugs to safe shelters, and one less-volatile component (histamine), which causes their arrestment upon contact. In infested premises, a blend of all six components is highly effective at luring bed bugs into traps. The trapping of juvenile and adult bed bugs, with or without recent blood meals, provides strong evidence that this unique pheromone bait could become an effective and inexpensive tool for bed bug detection and potentially their control. PMID:25529634

  19. Formation of proton-fragments in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The investigation of production of protons in hadron- and nucleus-nucleus interactions is a key problem allowing one to establish the singularities of dynamics of nuclear interactions. The formation of proton-fragments at high energies of colliding particles proceeds within both the interaction of hadrons with nuclei and in the process of decay of the nucleus or its de-excitation at peripheral interactions. At different stages of interaction of impinging particle with target nucleus, the different mechanisms of formation of proton-fragments: the direct knock-out of intranuclear nucleons in the process of high energy cascade of an initial hadron, intranuclear cascade of produced particles, decay of the excited multi-nucleon fragments and of the thermalized remnant nucleus, and the coalescence of nuclear fragments to the new clusters are realized with the certain probability, connected to the interaction parameters (the interaction energy, the parameter of collision, the intranuclear density, the configuration of Fermi momentum of nucleons and clusters of target nucleus et al.). In its turn, the mechanisms of formation of the final nuclear fragments are closely related to the type of excitation of an initial nucleus. The peripheral interactions proceed at small transfers of the momentum of an impinging particle and represent the wide class of reactions covering the processes from diffractive or coulomb collective excitations of the whole nucleus to the direct quasi-elastic knock-out of the separate nucleons. Non-peripheral interactions are caused by comparatively high local transfers of momentum to the intranuclear clusters allowing the development of intranuclear cascade and the asymmetric redistribution of energy of an impinging particle. The central collisions causing the full decay of nucleus on nucleons or few-nucleon fragments, are the limiting case of the maximal development of the intranuclear cascade. The interaction of the initial particles with

  20. J/ψ production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions at the CERN SPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NA38 and NA50 experiments at the CERN SPS have measured charmonium production in different colliding systems with the aim of observing a phase transition from ordinary hadronic matter towards a state in which quarks and gluons are deconfined (Quark Gluon Plasma, QGP). This experimental research is based on the prediction that the J/ψ yield should be suppressed in deconfined matter. The analysis of the data collected by the NA50 experiment with Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon shows that the J/ψ is anomalously suppressed with respect to the pattern observed in proton-nucleus and light ion reactions. (orig.)

  1. Oscillations of moments in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红艳; 周代翠; 钱琬燕; 王晓荣

    2001-01-01

    The definitions of density function and moment of multiplicity distribution are introduced,and the method of moment analysis in e+ e- and proton-proton (pp) interactions is extended into nu-cleus-nucleus (AA) interactions. We analyze the data for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions and cal-culate the values of Hq for charged particle multiplicity distributions, by which we study systematically the dependences of Hq on incident energy, mass of colliding system, pseudorapidity interval, centrality and truncation of multiplicity. We compare the oscillation structures induced by e + e-, pp and AA inter-actions, and the comparison and analysis are carried out between experimental data and QCD predic-tion. The latest results are given in this paper.

  2. Vasopressin is a major vasoconstrictor involved in hindlimb vascular responses to stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors in the nucleus of the solitary tract

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, Joseph M.; Rossi, Noreen F.; Chen, Haiping; O'Leary, Donal S.; Scislo, Tadeusz J.

    2009-01-01

    Our previous study showed that stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors located in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) exerts counteracting effects on the iliac vascular bed: activation of the adrenal medulla and β-adrenergic vasodilation versus vasoconstriction mediated by neural and unknown humoral factors. In the present study we investigated the relative contribution of three major potential humoral vasoconstrictors: vasopressin, angiotensin II, and norepinephrine in this response. In ur...

  3. Study on chemical equilibrium in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies

    CERN Document Server

    Manninen, J; Keränen, A; Gazdzicki, M; Stock, R; Manninen, Jaakko; Becattini, Francesco; Keranen, Antti; Gazdzicki, Marek; Stock, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed study of chemical freeze-out in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies of 11.6, 30, 40, 80 and 158A GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the statistical hadronization approach, we have studied the chemical equilibration of the system as a function of center of mass energy and of the parameters of the source. Additionally, we have tested and compared different versions of the statistical model, with special emphasis on possible explanations of the observed strangeness hadronic phase space under-saturation.

  4. The effect of the relative nuclear size on the nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeeva, I. N.; Murzin, V. S.; Sivoklokov, S. Y.; Smirnova, L. N.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental data on the interactions of light nuclei (d, He(4), C(12)) at the momentum 4.2 GeV/cA with the carbon nuclei were taken in the 2-m propane bubble chamber. The distributions in the number of interacting nucleons, the spectra of protons, the mean energies of secondary pions and protons, the mean fractions of energy transferred to the pion and nucleon components are presented. The results of the investigation of the mechanism of nucleus-nucleus interactions can be used to calculate the nuclear cascades in the atmosphere.

  5. Nucleus-nucleus potential, energy dissipation and mass dispersion in fusion and transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Washiyama, Kouhei; Ayik, Sakir

    2009-01-01

    The nucleus-nucleus potential and energy dissipation in fusion reactions are obtained from microscopic mean-field dynamics. The deduced potentials nicely reproduce the one extracted from experimental data. Energy dissipation shows a universal behaviour between different reactions. Also, the dispersion of mass distribution in transfer reaction is investigated in a stochastic mean-field dynamics. By including initial fluctuations in collective space, the description of the dispersion is much improved compared to that of mean field only. The result is consistent with the macroscopic phenomenological analysis of the experimental data.

  6. Aspects of Coulomb dissociation and interference in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystrand, Joakim; Baltz, Anthony; Klein, Spencer R.

    2001-10-21

    Coherent vector meson production in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed. These interactions may occur for impact parameters much larger than the sum of the nuclear radii. Since the vector meson production is always localized to one of the nuclei, the system acts as a two-source interferometer in the transverse plane. By tagging the outgoing nuclei for Coulomb dissociation it is possible to obtain a measure of the impact parameter and thus the source separation in the interferometer. This is of particular interest since the life-time of the vector mesons are generally much shorter than the impact parameters of the collisions.

  7. Azimuthal correlations of hadrons and fragments in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Two-particle (two-fragment) azimuthal correlation functions are studied by using a simple formula which describes uniformly azimuthal distributions of final-state charged particles and nuclear fragments.This formula is obtained in the framework of a multi-source thermal model (or multi-source ideal gas model).The calculated results are compared and found to be in agreement with the experimental data of charged hadrons and nuclear fragments in nucleus-nucleus collisions at intermediate and high energies.

  8. Dynamical aspects of intermediate-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of pions in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions by incoherent nucleon-nucleon collisions is studied within a microscopic quantal phase-space approach. Employing free production rates for the elementary process N+N → π+X experimental data for inclusive pion yields are approximately reproduced from 20-150 MeV/u within the first collision approximation. These results indicate that cooperative phenomena - apart from the time-dependent mean field - seem to play a minor role for energetic particle production even at very low bombarding energy. (orig.)

  9. High energy nucleus--nucleus studies at the Berkeley Bevalac. [Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1976-09-01

    A survey of high-energy nucleus--nucleus experiments performed at the Berkeley Bevalac Facility is presented. Experimental results are divided into the general areas of peripheral and central collisions. Results on projectile and target fragmentation, total cross-section measurements, pion and photon production, and charged-particle multiplicities are stressed. Recently, there have been theoretical predictions concerning the possibility of observing new phenomena such as shock waves, pion condensates, or collapsed nuclear matter. Existing data relevant to some of these speculations are discussed. A brief discussion of future developments with high-energy nuclear beams is also presented. 27 figures, 1 table.

  10. Contemporary models of the atomic nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Nemirovskii, P E

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary Models of the Atomic Nucleus discusses nuclear structure and properties, expounding contemporary theoretical concepts of the low-energy nuclear processes underlying in nuclear models. This book focuses on subjects such as the optical nuclear model, unified or collective model, and deuteron stripping reaction. Other topics discussed include the basic nuclear properties; shell model; theoretical analysis of the shell model; and radiative transitions and alpha-decay. The deuteron theory and the liquid drop nuclear model with its application to fission theory are also mentioned, but o

  11. Dust activity of Comet Halley's nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H. U.; Delamere, W. A.; Huebner, W. F.; Reitsema, H.; Schmidt, H. U.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Whipple, Fred L.; Wilhelm, K.

    1986-01-01

    Images obtained by the Halley multicolor camera using the clear filter with a pass band from 300 to 1000 nm were used to study dust activity in the comet nucleus. Comparisons with ground based observations confirm that dust production towards the Sun increases in activity relative to the southern background source while the Giotto spacecraft was approaching. This is in agreement with the assumption that the sunward activity becomes stronger when the source rotates towards the Sun. Estimated dust column density is 90 billion/sqm, with optical thickness less than or = 0.3. Surface reflectivity is less than 1%, indicating a very rough surface with large fractions of shadowed areas.

  12. Unveiling the nucleus of NGC 7172

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajić, S.; Fischer, S.; Zuther, J.; Eckart, A.

    2012-08-01

    Aims: We present the results of near-infrared (NIR) H + K European Southern Observatory SINFONI integral field spectroscopy (IFS) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 7172. We investigate the central 800 pc, concentrating on excitation conditions, morphology, and stellar content. NGC 7172 was selected from a sample of the ten nearest Seyfert 2 galaxies from the Veron-Cetty & Veron catalogue. All objects were chosen as test cases for adaptive optics (AO) assisted observations that allow a detailed study (at high spatial and spectral resolution) of the nuclear and host environments. NGC 7172 has a prominent dustlane crossing the central galaxy region from east to west, which makes it an ideal candidate to investigate the effect of obscuration by strong galactic extinction on (active) galaxies and their classification. Methods: The NIR is less influenced by dust extinction than optical light and is sensitive to the mass-dominating stellar populations. SINFONI integral field spectroscopy combines NIR imaging and spectroscopy and provides us with the opportunity to analyze several emission and absorption lines to investigate the stellar populations and ionization mechanisms over the 4″ × 4″ field of view (FOV). Results: We present emission and absorption line measurements in the central 800 pc of NGC 7172. The detection of [Si vi] and broad Paα and Brγ components are clear signs of an accreting super-massive black hole hiding behind the prominent dustlane at visible wavelengths. Hot temperatures of about 1300 K are indicative of a dusty torus in the nuclear region. Narrow components of Paα and Brγ enable us to make an extinction measurement. Our measures of the molecular hydrogen lines, hydrogen recombination lines, and [Fe ii] indicate that the excitation of these lines is caused by an active galactic nucleus. The central region of the galactic disk is predominantly inhabited by gas, dust, and an old K-M type giant stellar population. The gaseous, molecular, and

  13. The Berlin emissivity database (BED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Moroz, L.

    2008-03-01

    Remote-sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to the solar system bodies include in their payload, instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. Apart from measuring the reflected radiance, more and more spacecrafts are equipped with instruments measuring directly the emitted radiation from the planetary surface. The emitted radiation is not only a function of the composition of the material but also of its texture and especially the grain size distribution. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analogue materials in grain size fractions appropriate for planetary surfaces is needed. The Berlin emissivity database (BED) presented here is focused on relatively fine-grained size separates, providing thereby a realistic basis for the interpretation of thermal emission spectra of planetary regoliths. The BED is therefore complimentary to existing thermal emission libraries, like the ASU library for example. BED currently contains emissivity spectra of plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulfur, Martian analogue minerals and volcanic soils, and a lunar highland soil sample measured in the wavelength range from 7 to 22 μm as a function of particle size. For each sample we measured the spectra of four particle size separates ranging from <25 to 250 μm. The device we used is built at DLR (Berlin) and is coupled to a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer Bruker IFS 88 purged with dry air and equipped with a nitrogen-cooled MCT detector. All spectra were acquired with a spectral resolution of 4 cm -1. We are currently working on upgrading our emissivity facility. A new spectrometer (Bruker VERTEX 80 V) and new detectors will allow us to measure the emissivity of samples in the wavelength range from 1 to 50 μm in a vacuum environment. This will be

  14. A thalamic input to the nucleus accumbens mediates opiate dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingjie; Wienecke, Carl F R; Nachtrab, Gregory; Chen, Xiaoke

    2016-02-11

    Chronic opiate use induces opiate dependence, which is characterized by extremely unpleasant physical and emotional feelings after drug use is terminated. Both the rewarding effects of a drug and the desire to avoid withdrawal symptoms motivate continued drug use, and the nucleus accumbens is important for orchestrating both processes. While multiple inputs to the nucleus accumbens regulate reward, little is known about the nucleus accumbens circuitry underlying withdrawal. Here we identify the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus as a prominent input to the nucleus accumbens mediating the expression of opiate-withdrawal-induced physical signs and aversive memory. Activity in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus to nucleus accumbens pathway is necessary and sufficient to mediate behavioural aversion. Selectively silencing this pathway abolishes aversive symptoms in two different mouse models of opiate withdrawal. Chronic morphine exposure selectively potentiates excitatory transmission between the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus and D2-receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons via synaptic insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors. Notably, in vivo optogenetic depotentiation restores normal transmission at these synapses and robustly suppresses morphine withdrawal symptoms. This links morphine-evoked pathway- and cell-type-specific plasticity in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus to nucleus accumbens circuit to opiate dependence, and suggests that reprogramming this circuit holds promise for treating opiate addiction.

  15. MICROTURBULENCE IN GRAVEL BED STREAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou, T.; Tsakiris, A. G.; Kramer, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    The overarching objective of this investigation was to evaluate the role of relative submergence on the formation and evolution of cluster microforms in gravel bed streams and its implications to bedload transport. Secondary objectives of this research included (1) a detailed analysis of mean flow measurements around a clast; and (2) a selected number of experimental runs where the mean flow characteristics are linked together with the bed micro-topography observations around a clast. It is hypothesized that the relative submergence is an important parameter in defining the feedback processes between the flow and clasts, which governs the flow patterns around the clasts, thus directly affecting the depositional patterns of the incoming sediments. To examine the validity of the hypothesis and meet the objectives of this research, 19 detailed experimental runs were conducted in a tilting, water recirculating laboratory flume under well-controlled conditions. A fixed array of clast-obstacles were placed atop a well-packed bed with uniform size glass beads. During the runs, multifractional spherical particles were fed upstream of the clast section at a predetermined rate. State-of-the-art techniques/instruments, such as imaging analysis software, Large Scale Particle Velocimeter (LSPIV) and an Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) were employed to provide unique quantitative measurements for bedload fluxes, clast/clusters geomorphic patterns, and mean flow characteristics in the vicinity of the clusters. Different flow patterns were recorded for the high relative submergence (HRS) and low relative submergence (LRS) experimental runs. The ADV measurements provided improved insight about the governing flow mechanisms for the HRS runs. These mechanisms were described with flow upwelling at the center of the flume and downwelling occurring along the flume walls. Flow downwelling corresponded to an increase in the free surface velocity. Additionally, the visual observations

  16. [Special beds. Pulmonary therapy system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Rodríguez, Joaquín; Rodríguez Martínez, Xavier; Marín i Vivó, Gemma; Paunellas Albert, Josep

    2008-10-01

    To be bedridden reduces one's capacity to move and produces muscular debility that affects the respiratory system leading to a decreased effectiveness in expectoration, the ability to spit up sputum. The pulmonary therapy system integrated in a bed is the result of applying motorized elements to the articulation points of the bad in order to achieve safe positions at therapeutic angles, which improve the breathing-perfusion (blood flow) relationship. This system also makes it possible to apply vibration waves to the patient which favor the elimination of bronchial-pulmonary secretions, the rehabilitation of the bedridden patient and decrease the work load for nursing personnel.

  17. Experimental study of collective flow phenomena in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Chkhaidze, L V; Kharkhelauri, L L

    2002-01-01

    The results of the experimental study of collective flow phenomena, such as the sideward and elliptic flow of nuclear matter, discovered during the last 10-15 years in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions are presented in this review. Sideward (often termed directed) and elliptic flows have been observed for protons, antiprotons, light nuclei, pions, kaons, and lambdas emitted in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 0.1-1.8 GeV/nucleon of LBL Bevalac and GSI/SIS by Plastic-Ball, Streamer Chamber, EOS-NPC, FOPI, LAND, TAPS, and KAOS collaborations; at 2-4 GeV/nucleon of Dubna JINR by SKM-200-GIBS, Propane Buble Chamber, and Emulsion Chamber collaborations; at 2-14 GeV/nucleon of BNL AGS, by the E877, E895, and E917 collaborations; and at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon of CERN SPS, by the WA98 and NA49 collaborations and more recently by the STAR at RHIC BNL. In the review, the results of the SKM-200-GIBS collaboration of JINR are presented and compared with the results of different experiments by Bevalac, GSI/SIS, BNL, and...

  18. Thermal Bremsstrahlung probing nuclear multifragmentation in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermodynamical properties of nuclear matter at moderate temperatures and densities, in the vicinity of the predicted nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, are studied using as experimental probe the hard-photons (Eγ > 30 MeV) emitted in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Photon and charged-particle production in four different heavy-ion reactions (Ar36 + Au197, Ag107, Ni58, C12 at 60 A*MeV) is measured exclusively and inclusively coupling the TAPS photon spectrometer with two charged-particle and intermediate-mass-fragment detectors covering nearly 4π. We confirm that Bremsstrahlung emission in first-chance (off-equilibrium) proton-neutron collisions (pnγ) is the dominant origin of hard photons. We also firmly establish the existence of a thermal radiation component emitted in second-chance proton-neutron collisions. This thermal Bremsstrahlung emission takes place in semi-central and central nucleus-nucleus reactions involving heavy targets. We exploit this observation i) to demonstrate that thermal equilibrium is reached during the reaction, ii) to establish a new thermometer of nuclear matter based on Bremsstrahlung photons, iii) to derive the thermodynamical properties of the excited nuclear sources and, in particular, to establish a 'caloric curve' (temperature versus excitation energy), and iv) to assess the time-scales of the nuclear break-up process. (author)

  19. Radiative corrections to pion-nucleus bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, N

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the one-photon loop radiative corrections to virtual pion Compton scattering $\\pi^- \\gamma^* \\to \\pi^- \\gamma$, that subprocess which determines in the one-photon exchange approximation the pion-nucleus bremsstrahlung reaction $\\pi^- Z\\to \\pi^- Z \\gamma$. Ultraviolet and infrared divergencies of the loop integrals are both treated by dimensional regularization. Analytical expressions for the ${\\cal O}(\\alpha)$ corrections to the virtual Compton scattering amplitudes, $A(s,u,Q)$ and $B(s,u,Q)$, are derived with their full dependence on the (small) photon virtuality $Q$ from 9 classes of contributing one-loop diagrams. Infrared finiteness of these virtual radiative corrections is achieved (in the standard way) by including soft photon radiation below an energy cut-off $\\lambda$. In the region of low $\\pi^- \\gamma$ center-of-mass energies, where the pion-nucleus bremsstrahlung process is used to extract the pion electric and magnetic polarizabilities, we find radiative corrections up to about -3% fo...

  20. Classifying bed inclination using pressure images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran Pouyan, M; Ostadabbas, S; Nourani, M; Pompeo, M

    2014-01-01

    Pressure ulcer is one of the most prevalent problems for bed-bound patients in hospitals and nursing homes. Pressure ulcers are painful for patients and costly for healthcare systems. Accurate in-bed posture analysis can significantly help in preventing pressure ulcers. Specifically, bed inclination (back angle) is a factor contributing to pressure ulcer development. In this paper, an efficient methodology is proposed to classify bed inclination. Our approach uses pressure values collected from a commercial pressure mat system. Then, by applying a number of image processing and machine learning techniques, the approximate degree of bed is estimated and classified. The proposed algorithm was tested on 15 subjects with various sizes and weights. The experimental results indicate that our method predicts bed inclination in three classes with 80.3% average accuracy.

  1. Gruppebaseret behandling af BED - et faseopdelt behandlingstilbud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laust, Jakob; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Titel: Afrapportering vedr. SATS-puljemidler til behandling og erfaringsopsamling vedr. BED for perioden 1. marts 2013 – 1. maj 2015. Baggrund: Binge Eating Disorder (BED), på dansk tvangsoverspisning, er en udbredt, men overset spiseforstyrrelse med alvorlige psykiske, fysiske og sociale...... konsekvenser. BED blev i 2013 optaget i DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) som en selvstændig diagnose og BED forventes medtaget i den forestående revision af det internationale diagnose system, ICD-11. Sundhedsstyrelsen gav på denne baggrund satspuljemidler til erfaringsopsamling...... vedr. BED. I den forbindelse ansøgte Ambulatorium for Spiseforstyrrelser på Psykoterapeutisk Center Stolpegård ovenstående midler til at udvikle en ambulant, primært psykoterapeutisk gruppebehandling til patienter med moderat til svær BED med fokus på såvel spiseforstyrrelse såvel som overvægt. Metode...

  2. Fluid-bed process for SYNROC production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SYNROC is a titanate-based ceramic waste developed for the immobilization of high-level nuclear reactor waste. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has investigated a fluid-bed technique for the large-scale production of SYNROC precursor powders. Making SYNROC in a fluid bed permits slurry drying, calcination and reduction-oxidation reactions to be carried out in a single unit. We present the results of SYNROC fluid-bed studies from two fluid-bed units 10 cm in diameter: an internally heated fluid-bed unit developed by Exxon Idaho and an externally heated unit constructed at LLNL. Bed operation over a range of temperatures, feed rates, fluidizing rates, and redox conditions indicate that SYNROC powders of a high density and a uniform particle size can be produced. These powders facilitate the densification step and yield dense ceramics (greater than 95% theoretical density) with well-developed phases and low leaching rates

  3. The WCSAR telerobotics test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffie, N.; Zik, J.; Teeter, R.; Crabb, T.

    1988-01-01

    Component technologies for use in telerobotic systems for space are being developed. As part of this effort, a test bed was established in which these technologies can be verified and integrated into telerobotic systems. The facility consists of two slave industrial robots, an articulated master arm controller, a cartesian coordinate master arm controller, and a variety of sensors, displays and stimulators for feedback to human operators. The controller of one of the slave robots remains in its commercial state, while the controller of the other robot has been replaced with a new controller that achieves high-performance in telerobotic operating modes. A dexterous slave hand which consists of two fingers and a thumb is being developed, along with a number of force-reflecting and non-force reflecting master hands, wrists and arms. A tactile sensing finger tip based on piezo-film technology has been developed, along with tactile stimulators and CAD-based displays for sensory feedback and sensory substitution. The telerobotics test bed and its component technologies are described, as well as the integration of these component technologies into telerobotic systems, and their performance in conjunction with human operators.

  4. Caudal topographic nucleus isthmi and the rostral nontopographic nucleus isthmi in the turtle, Pseudemys scripta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, M I; Ulinski, P S

    1987-07-15

    Isthmotectal projections in turtles were examined by making serial section reconstructions of axonal and dendritic arborizations that were anterogradely or retrogradely filled with HRP. Two prominent tectal-recipient isthmic nuclei--the caudal magnocellular nucleus isthmi (Imc) and the rostral magnocellular nucleus isthmi (Imr)--exhibited strikingly different patterns of organization. Imc cells have flattened, bipolar dendritic fields that cover a few percent of the area of the cell plate constituting the nucleus and they project topographically to the ipsilateral tectum without local axon branches. The topography was examined explicitly at the single-cell level by using cases with two injections at widely separated tectal loci. Each Imc axon terminates as a compact swarm of several thousand boutons placed mainly in the upper central gray and superficial gray layers. One Imc terminal spans less that 1% of the tectal surface. Imr cells, by contrast, have large, sparsely branched dendritic fields overlapped by local axon collaterals while distally, their axons nontopographically innervate not only the deeper layers of the ipsilateral tectum but also ipsilateral Imc. Imr receives a nontopographic tectal input that contrasts with the topographic tectal input to Imc. Previous work on nucleus isthmi emphasized the role of the contralateral isthmotectal projection (which originates from a third isthmic nucleus in turtles) in mediating binocular interactions in the tectum. The present results on the two different but overlapping ipsilateral tecto-isthmo-tectal circuits set up by Imc and Imr are discussed in the light of physiological evidence for selective attention effects and local-global interactions in the tectum.

  5. Spring packed particle bed fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a gas cooled particle bed nuclear fuel element. It comprises: a porous inner frit; a porous outer frit attached to the inner frit by an end cap t a first end and radially guided by a shoulder at a second end, forming an annulus between the frits; a fuel particle bed in the annulus; a first compressive device at each end of the annulus; and a second compressive device positioned in the annulus within the fuel particle bed

  6. Physical role for the nucleus in cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruleux, Antoine; Hawkins, Rhoda J

    2016-09-14

    Cell migration is important for the function of many eukaryotic cells. Recently the nucleus has been shown to play an important role in cell motility. After giving an overview of cell motility mechanisms we review what is currently known about the mechanical properties of the nucleus and the connections between it and the cytoskeleton. We also discuss connections to the extracellular matrix and mechanotransduction. We identify key physical roles of the nucleus in cell migration. PMID:27406341

  7. Physical role for the nucleus in cell migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruleux, Antoine; Hawkins, Rhoda J.

    2016-09-01

    Cell migration is important for the function of many eukaryotic cells. Recently the nucleus has been shown to play an important role in cell motility. After giving an overview of cell motility mechanisms we review what is currently known about the mechanical properties of the nucleus and the connections between it and the cytoskeleton. We also discuss connections to the extracellular matrix and mechanotransduction. We identify key physical roles of the nucleus in cell migration.

  8. Fluidized Bed Reactor as Solid State Fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaiah, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Various reactors such as tray, packed bed, rotating drum can be used for solid-state fermentation. In this paper the possibility of fluidized bed reactor as solid-state fermenter is considered. The design parameters, which affect the performances are identified and discussed. This information, in general can be used in the design and the development of an efficient fluidized bed solid-state fermenter. However, the objective here is to develop fluidized bed solid-state fermenter for palm kernel cake conversion into enriched animal and poultry feed.

  9. Application of anterolateral thigh perforator flap for repair of soft tissue defect of the hand%股前外侧穿支皮瓣修复手部软组织缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴奎; 李虎; 夏勇; 王彬; 张桂红; 唐阳平; 苗峰; 丁桂友; 张亮; 董中洋; 郭彬; 马晓辉

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨应用游离修薄股前外侧穿支皮瓣修复手部软组织缺损的临床效果.方法 对28例手部软组织缺损创面,采用股前外侧皮瓣游离移植修复.术中切取游离皮瓣至仅剩血管蒂相连时,修薄皮瓣,从外周至血管皮支穿出点附近按次序阶梯样修剪,保留穿出点周围1.5~2.0cm组织不予修剪,同时观察皮瓣血供,防止穿支损伤,皮瓣修薄后游离移植修复手部创面.结果 28例皮瓣全部存活.25例获得3~ 12个月的随访,3例失访.术后皮瓣质地柔软,弹性好,无臃肿,肤色接近正常皮肤,恢复部分感觉功能,手功能及外形恢复良好.结论 修薄股前外侧穿支皮瓣是股前外侧皮瓣的改进,皮瓣存活后疗效满意,是修复手部创面的理想方法之一.%Objective To explore the application of free anterohteral thigh perforator flap in repairing soft tissue defects of the hand and evaluate the clinical results.Methods Free anterolateral thigh perforator flap was transferred to repair soft tissue defects of the hand in 28 cases.During flap harvesting trimming of the flap was carried out when the flap was freed and only connected with its vascular pedicle.A step-wise defatting was done from the periphery of the flap towards the vascular pedicle with 1.5 to 2.0 cm tissue around the perforator preserved.Flap circulation was carefully observed to prevent damage to the perforators.The vascular pedicle was then disconnected and the flap transferred to the hand to cover the defect.Results All the 28 flaps survived.Twenty-five cases were follow-up for 3 to 12 months,while 3 cases were lost to follow-up.The flaps were supple and elastic with near normal color.There was no bulkiness.Partial sensation was restored.The function and appearance of the hand were good.Conclusion The thin anterolateral thigh perforator flap is an improvement of the traditional anterolateral thigh flap.The survived flaps are ideal in terms of covering hand defects and

  10. New anterolateral LCP for internal fixation of pilon fractures%新型胫骨远端前外侧锁定加压钢板用于Pilon骨折内固定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史德海; 卢华定; 李东会; 蔡道章

    2010-01-01

    Objective To introduce experience of using the new AO anterolateral distal tibia locking com-pression plate (LCP) for treatment of Pilon fractures. Methods Between February and August of 2009,8 closed Pi-lon fractures were treated by open reduction and internal fixation. The distal fibula was fixed with a one-third tubular plate or an recontruction plate via a straight incision posterior to the fibular crest. The distal tibia was approched by a straight incision over the ankle joint, and the fracture was stabilized using an anterolateral distal tibia LCP. Regular follow up was made to observe and evaluate the preliminary clinical outcomes. Results Seven of the 8 patients were availabe for follow up for 3 ~ 6 months (average 4.5 months). All incisions obtained primary healing, though one ex-perienced mild superficial inflammation,and none developed deep infections. Based on the Burwell and Charnley radi-ographic criteria,anatomical reduction was obtained in 5 cases,good in 1 ,and fair in 1. Among the 5 cases exceeding 5 months postsurgery,4 were evaluated as excellent and 1 us good according to Tometta' s clinically based criteria for Pilon fractures. Conclusion With good surgical timing,internal fixation with anterolateral LCP for Pilon fractures is reliable and warrants less complications.%目的 介绍新型AO胫骨远端前外侧锁定加压钢板(IEP)治疗胫骨远端骨折(Pilon骨折)的初步经验.方法 手术治疗8例闭合性Pilon骨折,腓骨作外踝后方纵切口,复位后用1/3管形或重建钢板固定;胫骨远端骨折采用踝关节前方中点纵向直切口,复位后采用胫骨远端前外侧LCP内固定,术后进行定期临床随访.观察初步疗效.结果 术后7例患者获得随访3~6个月(平均4.5个月).虽有1例切口出现短暂的表浅轻微炎症,最终所有切口均一期愈合,无深部感染发生.按照Burwell-Charnley骨折复位放射学评价标准,解剖复位5例,1例复位好,1例可;采用Tometta治

  11. Analysis of Intermediate-Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Spallation, Fission, and Fragmentation Reactions with the LAQGSM code

    OpenAIRE

    Mashnik, S. G.; Gudima, K. K.; Prael, R. E.; Sierk, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    The LAQGSM code has been recently developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to simulate nuclear reactions for proton radiography applications. We have benchmarked our code against most available measured data both for proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions at incident energies from 10 MeV to 800 GeV and have compared our results with predictions of other current models used by the nuclear community. Here, we present a brief description of our code and show illustrative results obta...

  12. Laser-Nucleus Interactions: The Quasiadiabatic Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Pálffy, Adriana; Hoefer, Axel; Weidenmüller, Hans A

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between nuclei and a strong zeptosecond laser pulse with coherent MeV photons is investigated theoretically. We provide a first semi-quantitative study of the quasiadiabatic regime where the photon absorption rate is comparable to the nuclear equilibration rate. In that regime, multiple photon absorption leads to the formation of a compound nucleus in the so-far unexplored regime of excitation energies several hundred MeV above the yrast line. The temporal dynamics of the process is investigated by means of a set of master equations that account for dipole absorption, stimulated dipole emission, neutron decay and induced fission in a chain of nuclei. That set is solved numerically by means of state-of-the-art matrix exponential methods also used in nuclear fuel burnup and radioactivity transport calculations. Our quantitative estimates predict the excitation path and range of nuclei reached by neutron decay and provide relevant information for the layout of future experiments.

  13. Nature of multiple-nucleus cluster galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, D.

    1984-05-01

    In models for the evolution of galaxy clusters which include dynamical friction with the dark binding matter, the distribution of galaxies becomes more concentrated to the cluster center with time. In a cluster like Coma, this evolution could increase by a factor of approximately 3 the probability of finding a galaxy very close to the cluster center, without decreasing the typical velocity of such a galaxy significantly below the cluster mean. Such an enhancement is roughly what is needed to explain the large number of first-ranked cluster galaxies which are observed to have extra ''nuclei''; it is also consistent with the high velocities typically measured for these ''nuclei.'' Unlike the cannibalism model, this model predicts that the majority of multiple-nucleus systems are transient phenomena, and not galaxies in the process of merging.

  14. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: Cell Autonomy and Network Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, David K.; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Kay, Steve A.

    2013-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the primary circadian pacemaker in mammals. Individual SCN neurons in dispersed culture can generate independent circadian oscillations of clock gene expression and neuronal firing. However, SCN rhythmicity depends on sufficient membrane depolarization and levels of intracellular calcium and cAMP. In the intact SCN, cellular oscillations are synchronized and reinforced by rhythmic synaptic input from other cells, resulting in a reproducible topographic pattern of distinct phases and amplitudes specified by SCN circuit organization. The SCN network synchronizes its component cellular oscillators, reinforces their oscillations, responds to light input by altering their phase distribution, increases their robustness to genetic perturbations, and enhances their precision. Thus, even though individual SCN neurons can be cell-autonomous circadian oscillators, neuronal network properties are integral to normal function of the SCN. PMID:20148688

  15. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P. (eds.)

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta ..delta..(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe ..delta..-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  16. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta Δ(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe Δ-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented

  17. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  18. Fluidized bed heat treating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripley, Edward B; Pfennigwerth, Glenn L

    2014-05-06

    Systems for heat treating materials are presented. The systems typically involve a fluidized bed that contains granulated heat treating material. In some embodiments a fluid, such as an inert gas, is flowed through the granulated heat treating medium, which homogenizes the temperature of the heat treating medium. In some embodiments the fluid may be heated in a heating vessel and flowed into the process chamber where the fluid is then flowed through the granulated heat treating medium. In some embodiments the heat treating material may be liquid or granulated heat treating material and the heat treating material may be circulated through a heating vessel into a process chamber where the heat treating material contacts the material to be heat treated. Microwave energy may be used to provide the source of heat for heat treating systems.

  19. NPY mediates reward activity of morphine, via NPY Y1 receptors, in the nucleus accumbens shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sagar J; Upadhya, Manoj A; Subhedar, Nishikant K; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2013-06-15

    Although the interaction between endogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY) and opioidergic systems in processing of reward has been speculated, experimental evidence is lacking. We investigated the role of NPY, and its Y1 receptors, in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) in morphine induced reward and reinforcement behavior. Rats were implanted with cannulae targeted at AcbSh for drug administration, and with stimulating electrode in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). The rats were then conditioned in an operant conditioning chamber for electrical self-stimulation of the MFB. Increased rate of lever pressings was evaluated against the frequency of the stimulating current. Increase in rate of lever presses was considered as a measure of reward and reinforcement. About 30-70% increase in self-stimulation was observed following bilateral intra-AcbSh treatment with morphine, NPY or [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY (NPY Y1/Y5 receptors agonist), however, BIBP3226 (selective NPY Y1 receptors antagonist) produced opposite effect. The reward effect of morphine was significantly potentiated by NPY or [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY, but antagonized by BIBP3226. NPY-immunoreactivity in the AcbSh, arcuate nucleus (ARC) and lateral part of bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNSTl) was significantly more in the operant conditioned rats than in naïve control. However, morphine administration to the conditioned rats resulted in significant decrease in the NPY-immunoreactivity in all these anatomical regions. Since the role of morphine in modulation of mesolimbic-dopaminergic pathway is well established, we suggest that NPY system in AcbSh, ARC and BNSTl, perhaps acting via Y1-receptor system, may be an important component of the mesolimbic-AcbSh reward circuitry triggered by endogenous opioids.

  20. Heavy flavors in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardi Marzia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A multi-step setup for heavy-flavor studies in high-energy nucleus-nucleus (AA collisions — addressing within a comprehensive framework the initial QQ¯$Q\\overline Q $ production, the propagation in the hot medium until decoupling and the final hadronization and decays — is presented. The propagation of the heavy quarks in the medium is described in a framework provided by the relativistic Langevin equation and the corresponding numerical results are compared to experimental data from RHIC and the LHC. In particular, outcomes for the nuclear modification factor RAA and for the elliptic flow υ2 of D/B mesons, heavy-flavor electrons and non-prompt J/ψ’s are displayed.

  1. Experimental and phenomenological investigations of QCD matter in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronic, Anton

    2014-07-15

    This thesis is heterogeneous, comprising experimental papers at low energies (SIS-18 at GSI) and at the LHC, papers on phenomenology of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, and papers on detectors. The overview covers the experimental papers and those on phenomenology. I have chosen to write it in a general manner, intended to be accessible to non-experts. It emphasizes recent measurements and their understanding at the LHC. The detector papers, which address many principle aspects of gaseous detectors, are summarized and placed in context in the review I co-wrote and which closes the stack. The detector papers included here are the outcome of an R and D program for the Transition Radiation Detector of ALICE.

  2. Forward-backward correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions: baseline contributions from geometrical fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Konchakovski, V P; Torrieri, G; Gorenstein, M I; Bratkovskaya, E L

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the effects of initial collision geometry and centrality bin definition on correlation and fluctuation observables in nucleus-nucleus collisions. We focus on the forward-backward correlation coefficient recently measured by the STAR Collaboration in Au+Au collisions at RHIC. Our study is carried out within two models: the Glauber Monte Carlo code with a `toy' wounded nucleon model and the hadron-string dynamics (HSD) transport approach. We show that strong correlations can arise due to averaging over events in one centrality bin. We, furthermore, argue that a study of the dependence of correlations on the centrality bin definition as well as the bin size may distinguish between these `trivial' correlations and correlations arising from `new physics'.

  3. Dissipation and fluctuation of the relative momentum in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissipation of the relative momentum in nucleus-nucleus collisions is treated in terms of a Langevin equation with a fluctuating force. Equations of motion for first and second moments of the macroscopic variables are derived directly from the Langevin equation. The properties of the fluctuating force which results from random particle exchange are investigated in detail. Drift and diffusion coefficients are calculated microscopically and analytical expressions are given which can be used in any trajectory calculation. An important feature of the model is that the Einstein relation between dissipation and fluctuation turns out to be only a limiting case of a more general expression which included nonthermal fluctuations. By treating the two nuclei as intrinsically equilibrated but not in thermal equilibrium with respect to each other several important aspects of the dissipative behaviour, seen in heavy ion collisions with final energies above the Coloumb barrier, can be understood. (orig.)

  4. Jet energy loss and bulk parton collectivity in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Huan-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC produce high temperature and high energy density matter which exhibits paxtonic degrees of freedom. We will discuss measurements of nuclear modification factors for light hadrons and non-photonic electrons from heavy quark decays, which reflect the flavor dependence of energy loss of high momentum partons traversing the dense QCD medium. The dense QCD medium responds to energy loss of high momentum patrons in a pattern consistent with that expected from a hydrodynamic fluid. The hadronization of bulk partonic matter exhibits collectivity with effective partonic degrees of freedom. Nuclear collisions at RHIC provide an intriguing environment, where many constituent quark ingredients are readily available for possible formation of exotic particles through quark coalescence or recombinations.

  5. Nonmonotonic Target Excitation Dependence of Pion Clans in Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Dutta, Srimonti

    Target excitation dependence of fluctuation of produced pions (i.e. classifying data of the fluctuation pattern on pions on the basis of the number of gray tracks) is studied for nucleus-nucleus collisions at different projectile energies. In each set the experimental multiplicity distribution is compared with the negative binomial distribution (NBD), which is found to describe the experimental distribution quite well. Target excitation dependence is studied in respect of the clan model parameters bar {n}c and bar {N}, which are extracted from the NBD fit parameters bar {n} and k. A detailed comparison between different interactions at the same energy and the same interactions at different energies is also drawn. A nonmonotonic dependence of D2/bar {n} on is revealed, which is also a characteristic of multiplicity fluctuations at RHIC data.

  6. Production of cold fragments in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the Fermi-energy domain

    CERN Document Server

    Veselsky, M

    2007-01-01

    The reaction mechanism of nucleus-nucleus collisions at projectile energies around the Fermi energy is investigated with emphasis on the production of fragmentation-like residues. The results of simulations are compared to experimental mass distributions of elements with Z = 21 - 29 observed in the reactions 86Kr+124,112Sn at 25 AMeV. The model of incomplete fusion is modified and a component of excitation energy of the cold fragment dependent on isospin asymmetry is introduced. The modifications in the model of incomplete fusion appear consistent with both overall model framework and available experimental data. A prediction is provided for the production of very neutron-rich nuclei using a secondary beam of 132Sn where e.g. the reaction 132Sn+238U at 28 AMeV appears as a possible alternative to the use of fragmentation reactions at higher energies.

  7. Nuclear Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions and the MINERvA Neutrino Nucleus Scattering Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfín, Jorge G.

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear effects of charged current deep inelastic neutrino-iron scattering have been studied in the frame-work of a χ2 analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs)1. A set of iron PDFs have been extracted which are then used to compute xBj-dependent and Q2-dependent nuclear correction factors for iron structure functions which are required in global analyses of free nucleon PDFs. Upon comparing our results with nuclear correction factors from neutrino-nucleus scattering models and correction factors for l±-iron scattering we find that, except for very high xBj, our correction factors differ in both shape and magnitude from the correction factors of the models and charged-lepton scattering. The MINERvA neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment at Fermilab, will systematically study neutrino nuclear effects off of He, C, Fe and Pb for a more thorough A-dependent study of nuclear PDFs and these correction factors.

  8. Particle pressures in fluidized beds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction), they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, the authors inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds; the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined) and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  9. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Adsorbent Packed Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideo; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Suguru

    The effective thermal conductivity of adsorbent packed beds of granular zeolite 13X and granular silica gel A in the presence of stagnant steam or air was measured under different conditions of the adsorbent bed temperature, particle size and filler-gas pressure. The measured effective thermal conductivity showed to become smaller with decreasing particle size or decreasing pressure, but it was nearly independent of the bed temperature. When steam was the filler-gas, the rise in the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent particles due to steam adsorption led to the increase in the effective thermal conductivity of the bed, and this effect was not negligible at high steam pressure for the bed of large particle size. It was found that both the predictions of the effective thermal conductivity by the Hayashi et al.'s model and the Bauer-Schlünder model generally agreed well with the measurements, by considering the particle thermal conductivity rise due to steam adsorption. The thermal conductivity of a consolidated bed of granular zeolite 13X was also measured, and it was found to be much larger than that of the packed bed especially at lower pressure. The above prediction models underestimated the effective thermal conductivity of the consolidated bed.

  10. Bed-levelling experiments with suspended load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; De Graaff, J.

    1991-01-01

    Bed-levelling experiments are conducted in a straight laboratory channel. The experiments involve a significant fraction of suspended sediment transport. The purpose of the experiments is to provide data for modelling of the direction of sediment transport on a transverse sloping alluvial river bed,

  11. Nonlinear dynamical characteristics of bed load motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yuchuan; XU Haijue; XU Dong; Chiu-On Ng

    2006-01-01

    Bed forms of various kinds that evolve naturally on the bottom of sandy coasts and rivers are a result of the kinematics of bed load transport. Based on the group motion of particles in the bed load within the bottom layer, a study on the nonlinear dynamics of bed load transport is presented in this paper. It is found that some development stages, such as the initiation, the equilibrium sediment transport, and the transition from a smooth bed to sand dunes, can be accounted for by different states in the nonlinear system of the bed load transport. It is verified by comparison with experimental data reported by Laboratoire Nationae D'Hydraulique, Chatou, France, that the evolution from a smooth bed to sand dunes is determined by mutation in the bed load transport. This paper presents results that may offer theoretical explanations to the experimental observations. It is also an attempt to apply the state-of-the-art nonlinear science to the classical sediment transport mechanics.

  12. Particle Pressures in Fluidized Beds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction): they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, we inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined)and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  13. Container and Raised-Bed Gardening

    OpenAIRE

    Niemiera, Alexander Xavier, 1951-

    2009-01-01

    Raised beds, while requiring a high initial labor input, offer improved growing conditions and advantages compared to the existing soil. Improved plant growth, increased yields, and better accessibility are reasons to construct raised beds. This publication reviews the proper containers and plants, planting instructions, watering and potting soils, overwintering plants and more.

  14. Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Mary Beth; Wenning, Paul; Eddy, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the resurgence of bed bugs in the U.S. has occurred at an alarming rate. Assumptions have been made that socioeconomic status is not associated with the prevalence of bed bug infestations. Little information is available at the local level, however, about the prevalence of bed bugs in private homes. The authors' pilot study aimed to identify prevalence, knowledge, and concern about bed bugs in one higher income village in Ohio utilizing survey methodology. Responses from 96 individuals who completed the Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs survey were utilized for analysis. The majority of the sample respondents were white and 95% reported that they owned their residence. Only 6% knew someone with bed bugs. Additionally, 52% reported they were somewhat concerned about bed bugs. About 46% reported that they had changed their behavior. For a higher income area, the prevalence was dissimilar to the rate reported in the general public (about 20%). This suggests that bed bugs may be an environmental issue effecting low-income populations disproportionately. Further research is needed in areas of differing socioeconomic levels. PMID:26427264

  15. Determination of true bed thickness using folded bed model and borehole data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.S.; Velasquillo-Martinez, L.G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J.M.; Murillo-Muneton, G. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Garcia-Hernandez, J. [Petroleos Mexicanos Exploracion y Produccion, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Nieto-Samaniego, A.F. [Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Univ., Veracruz (Mexico). Centro de Geociencias

    2007-11-15

    The actual thickness of a given formation perpendicular to the bedding plane is known as the true bed thickness. Petroleum engineers rely on information regarding true bed thickness, particularly in dipping beds and in deviated holes because reservoir volume and isochore maps depend on these properties and not on the measured thickness. True bed thickness can be estimated from information gathered from well logs such as the dipmeter and borehole images. However, when deviations and dips exceed 10 degrees, corrections are needed. In this paper, a folded bed model was proposed to calculate the true bed thickness in the subsurface utilizing well log data. The value of true bed thickness (t) was shown to depend on the angle and the direction of the dip of the measured formation, as well as the drift angle and azimuth of the borehole. A case study from the Cantarell oil field in the southern Gulf of Mexico, offshore Campeche, was used to test the folded bed method. The model was shown to yield more uniform spatial change of the values of t, compared to the monoclinal bed model that often overestimates the average value of t. The maximum relative deviation of t from the monoclinal bed model reached 22.3 per cent and the maximum absolute deviation of t reached 34.5 m. The key factors that influence the values of t were found to be the bed dip, the dip difference between the top and base of the bed and the deviated angle of the well. The folded bed model yielded fewer changed values of the true bed thickness. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  16. Nucleus -nucleus interactions at a few GeV/C per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Since the period of the ancient Egyptians people are looking for unusual phenomena, which may enable to give interpretation for nature. Physicists believe that the study of A-A interactions will shed light on the mechanism of high-energy nuclear interactions. It is important to systematize the results of nucleus-nucleus interactions and to have an overall picture of cross-section, multiplicity-distributions, angular distributions, etc It is important to systematize the results of nucleus-nucleus interactions and to have an overall picture of: cross-section, multiplicity-distributions, angular distributions, etc Beams: Beams are mainly from Dubna Synchrophasotron including 1H, 2H, 3He, 4He, 12C, 160,22Ne, 24Mg, 28Si and 32S at 4.1∼ 4.5 GeV/c. Experimental Technique: Stacks of Br-2 emulsion were exposed to 4.1- 4.5 A GeV/c nuclei at Dubna Synchrophasotron. The pellicles of emulsion have the dimensions of 20 cm x 10 cm x 600 μm (undeveloped emulsion). The intensity of the beam was ≡104 particles/cm2 and the beam diameter was approximately 1 cm. The emitted particles are classified to:Shower tracks producing s-particleshaving a relative ionization I*≤ 1.4. Its multiplicity is denoted by ns after the exclusion of tracks having an emission angle θ≤3ο.Grey tracks producing g-particleshaving I* > 1.4 and L>3 mm. Its multiplicity is denoted by ng and does not include those tracks with an emission angle θ≤ 3ο. Black tracks producing b-particleshaving L b and does not include those tracks having an angle of emission θ≤3ο.The band gtracks are both called heavily ionizing tracks producing h-particlesand nh denotes its multiplicity

  17. Peering inside the granular bed: illuminating feedbacks between bed-load transport and bed-structure evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssais, M.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Martin, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    The threshold of motion is perhaps the most important quantity to determine for understanding rates of bed load transport, however it is a moving target. Decades of research show that it changes in space and in time within a river, and is highly variable among different systems; however, these differences are not mechanistically understood. Recent researchers have proposed that the critical Shields stress is strongly dependent on the local configuration of the sediment bed [Frey and Church, 2011]. Critical Shields stress has been observed to change following sediment-transporting flood events in natural rivers [e.g., Turowski et al., 2011], while small-scale laboratory experiments have produced declining bed load transport rates associated with slow bed compaction [Charru et al., 2004]. However, no direct measurements have been made of the evolving bed structure under bed load transport, so the connection between granular controls and the threshold of motion remains uncertain. A perspective we adopt is that granular effects determine the critical Shields stress, while the fluid supplies a distribution of driving stresses. In order to isolate the granular effect, we undertake laminar bed load transport experiments using plastic beads sheared by a viscous oil in a small, annular flume. The fluid and beads are refractive index matched, and the fluid impregnated with a fluorescing powder. When illuminated with a planar laser sheet, we are able to image slices of the granular bed while also tracking the overlying sediment transport. We present the first results showing how bed load transport influences granular packing, and how changes in packing influence the threshold of motion to feed back on bed load transport rates. This effect may account for much of the variability observed in the threshold of motion in natural streams, and by extension offers a plausible explanation for hysteresis in bed load transport rates observed during floods. Charru, F., H. Mouilleron, and

  18. Sand attrition in conical spouted beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aranzazu R. Fernández-Akarregui; Jon Makibar; Isabel Alava; Luis Diaz; Fernando Cueva; Roberto Aguado; Gartzen Lopez; Martin Olazar

    2012-01-01

    A study was carried out on the attrition in conical spouted beds using two sands with different properties for several bed heights and gas flow rates.Furthermore,the influence of a draft tube was studied at ambient and high temperatures.The main objective was to acquire knowledge on the attrition of sand beds for biomass pyrolysis in a pilot plant provided with a conical spouted bed reactor.A first-order kinetic equation is proposed for sand attrition in a conical spouted bed at room temperature.The predicted attrition rate constant depends exponentially on excess air velocity over that for minimum spouting.Both the draft tube and temperature increase contribute to reduction of attrition.

  19. Incipient motion of gravel and coal beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhasish Dey; Uddaraju V Raju

    2002-10-01

    An experimental study on incipient motion of gravel and coal beds under unidirectional steady-uniform flow is presented. Experiments were carried out in a flume with various sizes of gravel and coal samples. The critical bed shear stresses for the experimental runs determined using side-wall correction show considerable disagreement with the standard curves. The characteristic parameters affecting the incipient motion of particles in rough-turbulent regime, identified based on physical reasoning and dimensional analysis, are the Shields parameter, particle Froude number, non-dimensional particle diameter and non-dimensional flow depth. Equations of critical bed shear stress for the initial movement of gravel and coal beds were obtained using experimental data. The method of application of critical bed shear stress equations is also mentioned.

  20. The Confined Hydrogen Atom with a Moving Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the hydrogen atom confined to a spherical box with impenetrable walls but, unlike earlier pedagogical articles on the subject, we assume that the nucleus also moves. We obtain the ground-state energy approximately by means of first-order perturbation theory and show that it is greater than that for the case in which the nucleus is clamped…

  1. A Frame Nucleus on a Two-side Prequantale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUShao-xian; WANGShun-qin; MAFei-fei

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a Frame nucleus and prime elements in a Prequantale are defined. The concrete structure of a Frame prequantic quotient is considered, and the relation between the half-prime element and the Frame nucleus in a two-side Prequantale are obtained.

  2. Anatomic basis and application experience of the puncture technique through anterolateral cervical approach%颈椎前外侧入路穿刺技术的解剖学基础及应用体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单建林; 姜恒; 王崇伟; 张阳; 王飞; 李放

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the anatomical basis,safty and manipuility of the puncture technique through anterolateral cervical approach.Methods Twenty two embalmed cadavers and 50 patients who underwent operation through anterolateral cervical approach were used to observe the cervical anatomical characteristics.During the cadaver dissection and operation,the following information was observed:the movement of the carotid sheath while the visceral sheath was pushed left,the features of interspace between the two sheaths at each cervical level,the movement of the esophagus and the interfascial space in which the esophagus moved while the trachea was pushed medially,and the movement of the carotid sheath while it was pushed medially and laterally.From January 2007 to December 2011,206 patients diagnosed as cervical discogenic pain or cervical vertigo were treated by radiofrequency using puncture technique through anterolateral cervical approach,including 93 males and 113 females,aged from 22 to 71 years (average,48years).A total of 434 discs were involved.Results Both in cadaver dissection and in operation,the following results were observed:there was no natural interspace between the carotid sheath and visceral sheath below the C4 level,as a result,manual separation was needed to create a interspace between the two sheaths for the puncture; the two layers of the prevertebral fascia could be separated easily; keeping the visceral sheath intact,the esophagus moved following the trachea when the latter was pushed medially,and the movement of the visceral sheath relative to the cervical vertebra occurred between the two layers of prevertebral fascia; the carotid sheath was primarily constituted by continuation of the prevertebral fascia,as a result,the movement of the carotid sheath was limited by its own tension and the prevertebral fascia.A total of 434 cases of puncture to cervical disc were performed smoothly with no complications related to the carotid artery

  3. Innovative Bed Load Measurement System for Large Alpine Gravel-Bed Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, H.; Habersack, H. M.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the work is to figure out the bed load transport processes using direct and surrogate measurement methods for the free flowing reach of the Drau River and its most important tributary Isel River, both large Alpine gravel-bed rivers, situated in the south western part of Austria. There are some techniques for bed load measurements in natural streams; we used collecting moving particles and indirectly determining transport intensity at the study sites. Former measurements in the study reach were performed also using mobile bed load samplers and fixed bed load samplers. Individually they all are adequate bed load measurement instruments - used in combination they are complementing one another, whereas each applied separately leads to specific deficits. The investigation payed special attention on results out of the geophone installations, whereas steel plate vibrations (the plates are mounted on top of concrete structures even with the river bed surface) caused by bed load particles with a diameter larger than about 20 mm are inducing a signal into the geophones. The signal above a defined threshold voltage than is recorded in a computer system as the sum of impacts during one minute intervals. The spatio-temporal distribution of the transported bed load material, its amount and the transport processes itself could be figured out for the first time out of continuous data collection since 2006 for large alpine gravel-bed rivers. Before building up the gauging stations there were no continuous recordings of bed load transport processes in large alpine rivers over their entire cross section, hence the investigation promises a better process understanding and the possibility to determine bed load transport rates and a rough approximation of the grain size distributions of the transported bed load material under different flow conditions. A relation between detected geophone records, the flow discharge and direct bed load sampling methods (Large Helley Smith

  4. Condensation in Nanoporous Packed Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Javed; Molla, Shahnawaz; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2016-05-10

    In materials with tiny, nanometer-scale pores, liquid condensation is shifted from the bulk saturation pressure observed at larger scales. This effect is called capillary condensation and can block pores, which has major consequences in hydrocarbon production, as well as in fuel cells, catalysis, and powder adhesion. In this study, high pressure nanofluidic condensation studies are performed using propane and carbon dioxide in a colloidal crystal packed bed. Direct visualization allows the extent of condensation to be observed, as well as inference of the pore geometry from Bragg diffraction. We show experimentally that capillary condensation depends on pore geometry and wettability because these factors determine the shape of the menisci that coalesce when pore filling occurs, contrary to the typical assumption that all pore structures can be modeled as cylindrical and perfectly wetting. We also observe capillary condensation at higher pressures than has been done previously, which is important because many applications involving this phenomenon occur well above atmospheric pressure, and there is little, if any, experimental validation of capillary condensation at such pressures, particularly with direct visualization. PMID:27115446

  5. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasseter, R. H.; Eto, J. H.; Schenkman, B.; Stevens, J.; Volkmmer, H.; Klapp, D.; Linton, E.; Hurtado, H.; Roy, J.

    2010-06-08

    CERTS Microgrid concept captures the emerging potential of distributed generation using a system approach. CERTS views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a 'microgrid'. The sources can operate in parallel to the grid or can operate in island, providing UPS services. The system can disconnect from the utility during large events (i.e. faults, voltage collapses), but may also intentionally disconnect when the quality of power from the grid falls below certain standards. CERTS Microgrid concepts were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations, and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resynchronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults.

  6. Heat and Mass Transfer Enforcement of Vibrating Fluidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChuZhide; YangJunhong; 等

    1994-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the development of vibrating fluidized bed at home and abroad,elaborates the vibration properties of vibrating fluidized bed.the fluidizing velocity and pressure drop of the bed layer,it also deduces the non-steady state drying dynamic equations of vibrating fluidized bed,analyzes main factors which influence the drying rate and inquires into drying rules of fixed bed and vibrating fluidized bed.

  7. Spontaneous fission of superheavy nucleus $^{286}$Fl

    CERN Document Server

    Poenaru, Dorin N

    2016-01-01

    The decimal logarithm of spontaneous fission half-life of the superheavy nucleus $^{286}$Fl experimentally determined is $\\log_{10} T_f^{exp} (s) = -0.632$. We present a method to calculate the half-life based on the cranking inertia and the deformation energy, functions of two independent surface coordinates, using the best asymmetric two center shell model. In the first stage we study the statics. At a given mass asymmetry up to about $\\eta=0.5$ the potential barrier has a two hump shape, but for larger $\\eta$ it has only one hump. The touching point deformation energy versus mass asymmetry shows the three minima, produced by shell effects, corresponding to three decay modes: spontaneous fission, cluster decay and $\\alpha$~decay. The least action trajectory is determined in the plane $(R,\\eta)$ where $R$ is the separation distance of the fission fragments and $\\eta$ is the mass asymmetry. We may find a sequence of several trajectories one of which gives the least action. The parametrization with two deforma...

  8. Functional network inference of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, John H; Meeker, Kirsten; Granados-Fuentes, Daniel; St John, Peter C; Wang, Thomas J; Bales, Benjamin B; Doyle, Francis J; Herzog, Erik D; Petzold, Linda R

    2016-04-19

    In the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), noisy cellular oscillators communicate within a neuronal network to generate precise system-wide circadian rhythms. Although the intracellular genetic oscillator and intercellular biochemical coupling mechanisms have been examined previously, the network topology driving synchronization of the SCN has not been elucidated. This network has been particularly challenging to probe, due to its oscillatory components and slow coupling timescale. In this work, we investigated the SCN network at a single-cell resolution through a chemically induced desynchronization. We then inferred functional connections in the SCN by applying the maximal information coefficient statistic to bioluminescence reporter data from individual neurons while they resynchronized their circadian cycling. Our results demonstrate that the functional network of circadian cells associated with resynchronization has small-world characteristics, with a node degree distribution that is exponential. We show that hubs of this small-world network are preferentially located in the central SCN, with sparsely connected shells surrounding these cores. Finally, we used two computational models of circadian neurons to validate our predictions of network structure.

  9. Functional network inference of the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, John H.; Meeker, Kirsten; Granados-Fuentes, Daniel; St. John, Peter C.; Wang, Thomas J.; Bales, Benjamin B.; Doyle, Francis J.; Herzog, Erik D.; Petzold, Linda R.

    2016-04-04

    In the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), noisy cellular oscillators communicate within a neuronal network to generate precise system-wide circadian rhythms. Although the intracellular genetic oscillator and intercellular biochemical coupling mechanisms have been examined previously, the network topology driving synchronization of the SCN has not been elucidated. This network has been particularly challenging to probe, due to its oscillatory components and slow coupling timescale. In this work, we investigated the SCN network at a single-cell resolution through a chemically induced desynchronization. We then inferred functional connections in the SCN by applying the maximal information coefficient statistic to bioluminescence reporter data from individual neurons while they resynchronized their circadian cycling. Our results demonstrate that the functional network of circadian cells associated with resynchronization has small-world characteristics, with a node degree distribution that is exponential. We show that hubs of this small-world network are preferentially located in the central SCN, with sparsely connected shells surrounding these cores. Finally, we used two computational models of circadian neurons to validate our predictions of network structure.

  10. Functional network inference of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, John H; Meeker, Kirsten; Granados-Fuentes, Daniel; St John, Peter C; Wang, Thomas J; Bales, Benjamin B; Doyle, Francis J; Herzog, Erik D; Petzold, Linda R

    2016-04-19

    In the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), noisy cellular oscillators communicate within a neuronal network to generate precise system-wide circadian rhythms. Although the intracellular genetic oscillator and intercellular biochemical coupling mechanisms have been examined previously, the network topology driving synchronization of the SCN has not been elucidated. This network has been particularly challenging to probe, due to its oscillatory components and slow coupling timescale. In this work, we investigated the SCN network at a single-cell resolution through a chemically induced desynchronization. We then inferred functional connections in the SCN by applying the maximal information coefficient statistic to bioluminescence reporter data from individual neurons while they resynchronized their circadian cycling. Our results demonstrate that the functional network of circadian cells associated with resynchronization has small-world characteristics, with a node degree distribution that is exponential. We show that hubs of this small-world network are preferentially located in the central SCN, with sparsely connected shells surrounding these cores. Finally, we used two computational models of circadian neurons to validate our predictions of network structure. PMID:27044085

  11. The new magic nucleus 96Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 96Zr nucleus is expected to be magic due to the subshell closures at Z = 40 and N = 56. Recent gamma-spectroscopic studies involving in-beam techniques and beta decay certainly revealed a remarkably simple level pattern consisting of the 1,750 keV 2+ - 2,439 keV 3+ doublet, a few levels decaying to the 3- octupole state by strong E1 or E2 transitions, and a band built on the shape isomeric first excited 0+ state. While quadrupole vibrational collectivity is restricted to this latter intruder band the octupole mode is expected to be strong, according to systematics and an earlier lifetime result for the 3- state. since low-lying particle-hole excitations, and a strong octupole mode in particular, are typical for magic nuclei like 208Pb it is important to test to what extent 96Zr resembles the well known magic nuclei. In this paper, inelastic deuteron scattering and RPA studies show that the lowest states of doubly closed subshell 96Zr are particle-hole excitations, the first 2+ state being a neutron excitation of 3s1/2 2d5/2-1 type. The octupole collectively is enhanced by a factor of about two with respect to 90Zr due mainly to the contribution of 1h1 1/2 2d5/2-1 neutron excitations, suggesting an unusually high B(E3) value

  12. Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus (4He), also known as the anti-α (α), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = -4). It has not been observed previously, although the α-particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level. Antimatter nuclei with B Collider (RHIC; ref. 6) in 10(9) recorded gold-on-gold (Au+Au) collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 200 GeV and 62 GeV per nucleon-nucleon pair. The yield is consistent with expectations from thermodynamic and coalescent nucleosynthesis models, providing an indication of the production rate of even heavier antimatter nuclei and a benchmark for possible future observations of 4He in cosmic radiation.

  13. A PROTOTYPE FOUR INCH SHORT HYDRIDE (FISH) BED AS A REPLACEMENT TRITIUM STORAGE BED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.; Shanahan, K.; Heung, L.

    2011-02-23

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1st generation (Gen1) metal hydride storage bed assemblies with process vessels (PVs) fabricated from 3 inch nominal pipe size (NPS) pipe to hold up to 12.6 kg of LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} metal hydride for tritium gas absorption, storage, and desorption for over 15 years. The 2nd generation (Gen2) of the bed design used the same NPS for the PV, but the added internal components produced a bed nominally 1.2 m long, and presented a significant challenge for heater cartridge replacement in a footprint limited glove-box. A prototype 3rd generation (Gen3) metal hydride storage bed has been designed and fabricated as a replacement candidate for the Gen2 storage bed. The prototype Gen3 bed uses a PV pipe diameter of 4 inch NPS so the bed length can be reduced below 0.7 m to facilitate heater cartridge replacement. For the Gen3 prototype bed, modeling results show increased absorption rates when using hydrides with lower absorption pressures. To improve absorption performance compared to the Gen2 beds, a LaNi{sub 4.15}Al{sub 0.85} material was procured and processed to obtain the desired pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) properties. Other bed design improvements are also presented.

  14. Modelling the bed characteristics in fluidised-beds for top-spray coating processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mike Vanderroost; Frederik Ronsse; Koen Dewettinck; Jan G.Pieters

    2012-01-01

    A particle sub-model describing the bed characteristics of a bubbling fluidised bed is presented.Atomisation air,applied at high pressures via a nozzle positioned above the bed for s pray formation,is incorporated in the model since its presence has a profound influence on the bed characteristics,though the spray itself is not yet considered.A particle sub-model is developed using well-known empirical relations for particle drag force,bubble growth and velocity and particle distribution above the fluidised-bed surface.Simple but effective assumptions and abstractions were made concerning bubble distribution,particle ejection at the bed surface and the behaviour of atomisation air flow upon impacting the surface of a bubbling fluidised bed.The model was shown to be capable of predicting the fluidised bed characteristics in terms of bed heights,voidage distributions and solids volume fractions with good accuracy in less than 5 min of calculation time on a regular desktop PC.It is therefore suitable for incorporation into general process control models aimed at dynamic control for process efficiency and product quality in top-spray fluidised bed coating processes.

  15. Modelling of Devolatilization in Fluidized Bed Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenseng, Mette; Lin, Weigang; Johnsson, Jan Erik;

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the devolatilization process in a circulating fluidized bed combustor. The model is a combination of two submodels: single particle devolatilization and fluid dynamics. The single particle model includes the influence of both chemical kinetics and heat...... of CSTR's and the size and number of CSTR's has been estimated from tracer experiments in an 80 MWth CFB boiler. It was not possible to evaluate the model against experimental data, but the dependence of particle size on the degree of devolatilization in the dense bed agrees qualitative with the expected...... behavior. The model shows that the devolatilization mainly occurs in the dense bed....

  16. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  17. Bed bug outbreak in a neonatal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, T; Kumar, A; Saili, A

    2015-10-01

    There has been a worldwide increase in bed bug infestations over the last 10-15 years. A major stigma is placed upon the institutions found to be infested. We report our experience with an outbreak of the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, in a neonatal unit. The outbreak not only affected the admitted newborns and mothers by causing a wide variety of rashes and inducing sleeplessness, but also impinged upon the health professionals and their families by producing similar symptomology. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of, and for each healthcare facility to have, bed bug prevention and control policies. PMID:25591490

  18. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  19. Nonthermal Fluctuations and Mechanics of the Active Cell Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, K; Byrd, H; MacKintosh, F C; Kilfoil, M L

    2013-01-01

    We present direct measurements of fluctuations in the nucleus of yeast cells. While prior work has shown these fluctuations to be active and non-thermal in character, their origin and time dependence are not understood. We show that nuclear fluctuations can be quantitatively understood by uncorrelated, active force fluctuations driving a nuclear medium that is dominated by an uncondensed DNA solution, for which we perform rheological measurements on an in vitro model system under similar conditions to what is expected in the nucleus. We conclude that the eukaryotic nucleus of living cells is a nonequilibrium soft material whose fluctuations are actively driven, and are far from thermal in their time dependence.

  20. Variability of the Radio Nucleus of the Galaxy M81

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, M F; Rupen, M P

    1997-01-01

    M81 is the nearest galaxy with an active galactic nucleus, with the possibly exception of Cen A. The nucleus is exceptionally compact. Here we present results from new VLA and VLBI observations of the nucleus of M81. The VLA shows that its flux density is variable by 50% on a timescale of weeks. The spectral index is also somewhat variable on the same timescale. The VLBI imaging results show that there is structure on scales <0.5 mas, and that this structure is variable, also on a timescale of weeks.

  1. Quarkonium-nucleus bound states from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, S.  R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chang, E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cohen, S.  D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Detmold, W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lin, H. -W. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Orginos, K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Parreño, A. [Univ., de Barcelona, Marti Franques (Spain); Savage, M.  J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-06-11

    Quarkonium-nucleus systems are composed of two interacting hadronic states without common valence quarks, which interact primarily through multi-gluon exchanges, realizing a color van der Waals force. We present lattice QCD calculations of the interactions of strange and charm quarkonia with light nuclei. Both the strangeonium-nucleus and charmonium-nucleus systems are found to be relatively deeply bound when the masses of the three light quarks are set equal to that of the physical strange quark. Extrapolation of these results to the physical light-quark masses suggests that the binding energy of charmonium to nuclear matter is B < 40 MeV.

  2. PRESSURE FLUCTUATIONS IN GAS-SOLIDS FLUIDIZED BEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsiaotao Bi; Aihua Chen

    2003-01-01

    Pressure fluctuation data measured in a series of fluidized beds with diameters of 0.05, 0.1, 0.29, 0.60 and 1.56 m showed that the maximum amplitude or standard deviation increased with increasing the superficial gas velocity and static bed height for relatively shallow beds and became insensitive to the increase in static bed height in relatively deep beds. The amplitude appeared to be less dependent on the measurement location in the dense bed. Predictions based on bubble passage, bubble eruption at the upper bed surface and bed oscillation all failed to explain all observed trends and underestimated the amplitude of pressure fluctuations, suggesting that the global pressure fluctuations in gas-solids bubbling fluidized beds are the superposition of local pressure variations, bed oscillations and pressure waves generated from the bubble formation in the distributor region, bubble coalescence during their rise and bubble eruption at the upper bed surface.

  3. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered...

  4. Ultra high temperature particle bed reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareth, Otto; Ludewig, Hans; Perkins, K.; Powell, J.

    1990-01-01

    A direct nuclear propulsion engine which could be used for a mission to Mars is designed. The main features of this reactor design are high values for I(sub sp) and very efficient cooling. This particle bed reactor consists of 37 cylindrical fuel elements embedded in a cylinder of beryllium which acts as a moderator and reflector. The fuel consists of a packed bed of spherical fissionable fuel particles. Gaseous H2 passes over the fuel bed, removes the heat, and is exhausted out of the rocket. The design was found to be neutronically critical and to have tolerable heating rates. Therefore, this particle bed reactor design is suitable as a propulsion unit for this mission.

  5. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid electric aircraft simulation system and test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of...

  6. IceBridge BedMachine Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains bed topography beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet based on mass conservation derived from airborne radar tracks and satellite radar. The data...

  7. The effect of vibration on bed voidage behaviors in fluidized beds with large particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of vibration parameters, operating conditions and material properties on bed voidage were investigated using an optical fiber probe approach in a vibrating fluidized bed with a diameter of 148 mm. Variables studied included frequency (0-282 s-1, amplitude (0 mm-1 mm, bed height (0.1 m-0.4 m as well as four kinds of particles (belonging to Geldart's B and D groups. The axial and radial voidage distribution with vibration is compared with that without vibration, which shows vibration can aid in the fluidization behaviors of particles. For a larger vibration amplitude, the vibration seriously affects bed voidage. The vibration energy can damp out for particle layers with increasing the bed height. According to analysis of experimental data, an empirical correlation for predicting bed voidage, giving good agreement with the experimental data and a deviation within ±15%, was proposed.

  8. The effect of vibration on bed voidage behaviors in fluidized beds with large particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, B.

    2007-07-01

    The effects of vibration parameters, operating conditions and material properties on bed voidage were investigated using an optical fiber probe approach in a vibrating fluidized bed with a diameter of 148 mm. Variables studied included frequency (0-282 s{sup -1}), amplitude (0 mm-1 mm), bed height (0.1 m-0.4 m) as well as four kinds of particles (belonging to Geldart's B and D groups). The axial and radial voidage distribution with vibration is compared with that without vibration, which shows vibration can aid in the fluidization behaviors of particles. For a larger vibration amplitude, the vibration seriously affects bed voidage. The vibration energy can damp out for particle layers with increasing the bed height. According to analysis of experimental data, an empirical correlation for predicting bed voidage, giving good agreement with the experimental data and a deviation within {+-}15%, was proposed. 20 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Bed dynamics of gas-solid fluidized bed with rod promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of a gas-solid fluidized bed with different rod promoters have been investigated in terms of bed expansion and fluctuation, minimum fluidization velocity and distributor-to-bed pressure drop ratio at minimum fluidization velocity. Experimentation based on statistical design has been carried out and model equations using factorial design of experiments have been developed for the above mentioned quantities for a promoted gas-solid fluidized bed. The model equations have been tested with additional experimental data. The system variables include four types of rod promoters of varying blockage volume, bed particles of four sizes and four initial static bed heights. A comparison between the predicted values of the output variables using the proposed model equation with their corresponding experimental ones shows fairly good agreement.

  10. Structural Description of Polyaromatic Nucleus in Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Huicheng; Yan Yongjie; Sun Wanfu; Wang Jifeng

    2007-01-01

    The proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy(1H-NMR),the synchronous fluorescence spectrometry(SFS)and the rutheniam ions catalyzed oxidation(RICO)method wen used to determine the chemical structure of polyaromatic nucleus in Oman residue fractions.The results of1H-NMR analyses showed that the average numbers of aromatic rings in the aromatics,resins and asphaltenes units were 3.2,5.6 and 8.2.respectively.SFS was used to investigate the distribution of aromatic tings in residue fractions,the main distribution range of aromatic rings in aromatics,resins and asphaltenes were 3-4 rings,3-5 rings and more than 5 tings,respectively.The aromatic network in residue fractions was oxidized to produce numerous carboxylic acids.The types and content of benzenepolycarboxylic acids,such as phthalic acid,benzenetricarboxylic acids,benzenetetracarbOxylic acids,benzenepentacarboxylic acid and benzenehexacarboxylic acid disclosed the condensed types of aromatic nuclei in the core.The biphenyl fraction(BIPH),the cata-condensed fraction(CATA),the peri-condensed fraction(PERI)and the condensed index(BCI)were calculated based on the benzenepolycarboxylic acids formed.The results implied that there was less biphenyl type structures in all residue fractions.The aromatics fraction was almost composed of the cata-condensed type system,and the asphaltenes fraction was wholly composed of the peri-condensed type system,while in the resins fraction co-existed the two types,herein the peri-condensed type Was predominant over the cata-condensed type.Based on the analytical results obtained in the study,the components-aromatics,resins and asphaltenes-were given the likely structural models.

  11. Cognitive and emotional functioning in BED

    OpenAIRE

    Kittel, Rebekka; Brauhardt, Anne; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating and is associated with eating disorder and general psychopathology and overweight/obesity. Deficits in cognitive and emotional functioning for eating disorders or obesity have been reported. However, a systematic review on cognitive and emotional functioning for individuals with BED is lacking. Method: A systematic literature search was conducted across three databases (Medline, PubMed, and PsycI...

  12. Suicide following an infestation of bed bugs

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 62 Final Diagnosis: Bipolar disorder Symptoms: Bordeline personality disorder Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Bed bug infestation Specialty: Psychiatry Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. Case Report: We present a case, based on a coroner’s investigation report, of a woman...

  13. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    OpenAIRE

    Changlu Wang; Xiujun Wen

    2011-01-01

    The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We conducted telephone interviews of staff from 77 Health and Epidemic Prevention Stations in six Chinese cities in November 2...

  14. Investigation of volumetrically heated debris bed quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalikhin, M.J.; Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Institute of Technology, Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    A series of experiments were conducted at RIT (Royal Institute of Technology) in which hot homogeneous and stratified particle beds were quenched by establishing a column of water onto the top of the bed and by injection of water from the bottom delivered through downcomers from the water overlayer. For this experimental program the following approach was adopted. Since corium debris have a particle size distribution and are more like sand, the debris beds were built with sand of different particle size distributions, heated with a network of thin heaters, distributed uniformly in the sand bed to produce uniform volumetric heat generation. Low porosity beds were constructed, since they are the most difficult to quench with top flooding. The primary objective was to obtain data, which will provide a phenomenological basis for assessing margins for coolability of a degraded core debris bed in the lower head of an LWR vessel as well as steam generation rate from the interactions between core debris and water. This paper summarizes the experimental results along with related analysis. (authors)

  15. CFD-DEM study of effect of bed thickness for bubbling fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingwen, Li; Gopalakrishnan, Pradeep; Garg, Rahul; Shahnam, Mehrdad

    2011-10-01

    The effect of bed thickness in rectangular fluidized beds is investigated through the CFD–DEM simulations of small-scale systems. Numerical results are compared for bubbling fluidized beds of various bed thicknesses with respect to particle packing, bed expansion, bubble behavior, solids velocities, and particle kinetic energy. Good two-dimensional (2D) flow behavior is observed in the bed having a thickness of up to 20 particle diameters. However, a strong three-dimensional (3D) flow behavior is observed in beds with a thickness of 40 particle diameters, indicating the transition from 2D flow to 3D flow within the range of 20–40 particle diameters. Comparison of velocity profiles near the walls and at the center of the bed shows significant impact of the front and back walls on the flow hydrodynamics of pseudo-2D fluidized beds. Hence, for quantitative comparison with experiments in pseudo-2D columns, the effect of walls has to be accounted for in numerical simulations.

  16. WTP Pretreatment Facility Potential Design Deficiencies--Sliding Bed and Sliding Bed Erosion Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-06

    This assessment is based on readily available literature and discusses both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries with respect to sliding beds and erosion due to sliding beds. This report does not quantify the size of the sliding beds or erosion rates due to sliding beds, but only assesses if they could be present. This assessment addresses process pipelines in the Pretreatment (PT) facility and the high level waste (HLW) transfer lines leaving the PT facility to the HLW vitrification facility concentrate receipt vessel.

  17. CFD-DEM study of effect of bed thickness for bubbling fluidized beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingwen Li; Pradeep Gopalakrishnana; Rahul Garg; Mehrdad Shahnam

    2012-01-01

    The effect of bed thickness in rectangular fluidized beds is investigated through the CFD-DEM simulations of small-scale systems.Numerical results are compared for bubbling fluidized beds of various bed thicknesses with respect to particle packing,bed expansion,bubble behavior,solids velocities,and particle kinetic energy.Good two-dimensional (2D) flow behavior is observed in the bed having a thickness of up to 20 particle diameters.However,a strong three-dimensional (3D) flow behavior is observed in beds with a thickness of 40 particle diameters,indicating the transition from 2D flow to 3D flow within the range of 20-40 particle diameters.Comparison of velocity profiles near the walls and at the center of the bed shows significant impact of the front and back walls on the flow hydrodynamics of pseudo-2D fluidized beds.Hence,for quantitative comparison with experiments in pseudo-2D columns,the effect of wails has to be accounted for in numerical simulations.

  18. Study of chemical equilibrium in nucleus-nucleus collisions at AGS and SPS energies

    CERN Document Server

    Becattini, F; Keränen, A; Manninen, J; Stock, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of chemical freeze-out in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies of 11.6, 30, 40, 80 and 158A GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the statistical hadronization approach, we have studied the strangeness production as a function of centre of mass energy and of the parameters of the source. We have tested and compared different versions of the statistical model, with special emphasis on possible explanations of the observed strangeness hadronic phase space under-saturation. We show that, in this energy range, the use of hadron yields at midrapidity instead of in full phase space artificially enhances strangeness production and could lead to incorrect conclusions as far as the occurrence of full chemical equilibrium is concerned. In addition to the basic model with an extra strange quark non-equilibrium parameter, we have tested three more schemes: a two-component model superimposing hadrons coming out of single nucleon-nucleon interactions to those emerging from larg...

  19. Nucleus--nucleus interactions in the inner crust of neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kobyakov, D

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between nuclei in the inner crust of neutron stars consists of two contributions, the so-called "direct" interaction and an "induced" one due to density changes in the neutron fluid. For large nuclear separations $r$ the contributions from nuclear forces to each of these terms are shown to be nonzero. In the static limit they are equal in magnitude but have opposite signs and they cancel exactly. We analyze earlier results on effective interactions in the light of this finding. We consider the properties of long-wavelength collective modes and, in particular, calculate the degree of mixing between the lattice phonons and the phonons in the neutron superfluid. Using microscopic theory, we calculate the net non-Coulombic contribution to the nucleus--nucleus interaction and show that, for large $r$, the leading term is due to exchange of two phonons and varies as $1/r^7$: it is an analog of the Casimir--Polder interaction between neutral atoms.

  20. Nuclear mean field and double-folding model of the nucleus-nucleus optical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Khoa, Dao T; Loan, Doan Thi; Loc, Bui Minh

    2016-01-01

    Realistic density dependent CDM3Yn versions of the M3Y interaction have been used in an extended Hartree-Fock (HF) calculation of nuclear matter (NM), with the nucleon single-particle potential determined from the total NM energy based on the Hugenholtz-van Hove theorem that gives rise naturally to a rearrangement term (RT). Using the RT of the single-nucleon potential obtained exactly at different NM densities, the density- and energy dependence of the CDM3Yn interactions was modified to account properly for both the RT and observed energy dependence of the nucleon optical potential. Based on a local density approximation, the double-folding model of the nucleus-nucleus optical potential has been extended to take into account consistently the rearrangement effect and energy dependence of the nuclear mean-field potential, using the modified CDM3Yn interactions. The extended double-folding model was applied to study the elastic $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C and $^{16}$O+$^{12}$C scattering at the refractive energies, wher...

  1. Electromagnetic probes of a pure-glue initial state in nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Vovchenko, V; Gorenstein, M I; Satarov, L M; Mishustin, I N; Kämpfer, B; Stoecker, H

    2016-01-01

    Partonic matter produced in the early stage of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is assumed to be composed mainly of gluons, and quarks and antiquarks are produced at later times. To study the implications of such a scenario, the dynamical evolution of the chemically nonequilibrated system is described by the ideal (2+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics with a time dependent (anti)quark fugacity. The equation of state interpolates linearly between the lattice data for the pure gluonic matter and the lattice data for the chemically equilibrated quark-gluon plasma. The spectra and elliptic flows of thermal dileptons and photons are calculated for central Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC energy of $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}} = 2.76$ TeV. We test the sensitivity of the results to the choice of equilibration times, including also the case where the complete chemical equilibrium of partons is reached already at the initial stage. It is shown that a suppression of quarks at early times leads to a significant reduction of t...

  2. Statistical Model of the Early Stage of nucleus-nucleus collisions with exact strangeness conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Poberezhnyuk, R V; Gorenstein, M I

    2015-01-01

    The Statistical Model of the Early Stage, SMES, describes a transition between confined and deconfined phases of strongly interacting matter created in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The model was formulated in the late 1990s for central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS energies. It predicted several signals of the transition (onset of deconfinement) which were later observed by the NA49 experiment. The grand canonical ensemble was used to calculate entropy and strangeness production. This approximation is valid for reactions with mean multiplicities of particles carrying conserved charges being significantly larger than one. Recent results of NA61/SHINE on hadron production in inelastic p+p interactions suggest that the deconfinement may also take place in these reactions. However, in this case mean multiplicity of particles with non-zero strange charge is smaller than one. Thus for the modeling of p+p interactions the exact strangeness conservation has to be implemented in the SMES. This extension of the SMES ...

  3. Relativistic transport approach for nucleus-nucleus collisions based on a NJL lagrangian

    CERN Document Server

    Ehehalt, W; Ehehalt, Wolfgang; Cassing, Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    We formulate a covariant transport approach for high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions where the real part of the hadron selfenergies is evaluated on the basis of a NJL-type Lagrangian for the quark degrees of freedom. The parameters of the model Lagrangian are fixed by the Gell-Mann, Oakes and Renner relation, the pion-nucleon \\Sigma-term, the nucleon energy as well as the nuclear binding energy at saturation density \\rho_0. We find the resulting scalar and vector selfenergies for nucleons to be well in line with either Dirac-Brueckner results or those from the phenomenological optical potential when accounting for a swelling of the nucleon at finite nuclear matter density. The imaginary part of the hadron selfenergies is determined by a string fragmentation model which accounts for the in-medium mass of hadrons in line with the chiral dynamics employed. The applicability of the 'chiral' transport approach is demonstrated in comparison with experimental data from SIS to SPS energies. The enhancement of the K...

  4. EOS: A time projection chamber for the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Bevalac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, H.G.; Odyniec, G.; Rai, G.; Seidl, P.

    1986-12-01

    The conceptual design is presented for a detector to identify and measure (..delta..p/p approx. = 1%) most of the 200 or so mid-rapidity charged particles (p, d, t, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He, ..pi../sup + -/, K/sup + -/) produced in each central nucleus-nucleus collision (Au + Au) at Bevalac energies, as well as K/sub 3//sup 0/ and ..lambda../sup 0/. The beam particles and heavy spectator fragments are excluded from the detection volume by means of a central vacuum pipe. Particle identification is achieved by a combination of dE/dx measurements in the TPC, and of time-of-flight measurements in a scintillator array. The TPC is single-ended and its end cap is entirely covered with cathode pads (about 25,000 pads and about 1000 anode wires). A non-uniform pad distribution is proposed to accommodate the high multiplicity of particles emitted at forward angles. The performance of the detector is assessed with regard to multihit capability, tracking, momentum resolution, particle identification, ..lambda../sup 0/ reconstruction, space charge effects, field non-uniformity, dynamic range, data acquisition rate, and data analysis rate. 72 refs., 48 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Energy-Dependence of Nucleus-Nucleus Potential and Friction Parameter in Fusion Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Kai; Li, Zhu-Xia; Wu, Xi-Zhen; Zhang, Ying-Xun; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2014-01-01

    Applying a macroscopic reduction procedure on the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD), the energy dependences of the nucleus-nucleus potential, the friction parameter, and the random force characterizing a one-dimensional Langevin-type description of the heavy-ion fusion process are investigated. Systematic calculations with the ImQMD show that the fluctuation-dissipation relation found in the symmetric head-on fusion reactions at energies just above the Coulomb barrier fades out when the incident energy increases. It turns out that this dynamical change with increasing incident energy is caused by a specific behavior of the friction parameter which directly depends on the microscopic dynamical process, i.e., on how the collective energy of the relative motion is transferred into the intrinsic excitation energy. It is shown microscopically that the energy dissipation in the fusion process is governed by two mechanisms: One is caused by the nucleon exchanges between two fusing nuclei, and the other is ...

  6. Semiclassical model for single-particle transitions in nucleus-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previously elaborated semiclassical one-body model for the dynamics of a single particle, moving in two potentials, in heavy-ion reactions or in fissioning systems has been extended with respect to the inclusion of angular momenta and more realistic separable potentials. The collective relative motion is assumed to proceed along a trajectory which is calculated from classical equations of motion including conservative and phenomenological friction forces. The formalism has been derived involving three-dimensional trajectories for symmetric as well as for asymmetric nucleus-nucleus systems. The model allows for the calculation of correct quantum mechanical transition amplitudes to final bound and continuum states. It has been applied for the investigation of the excitation of a neutron during a fission process, covering also non-statistical differential emission probabilities. From the numerical calculations, using parameters adapted to 252Cf(sf), one can conclude that in the underlying model without 'sudden' processes the energy spectrum consists of two parts. The low lying component is created in the neck region while a high lying part seems to be governed mainly by the dynamics of the underlying collective motion rather than by the specific initial conditions. (orig.)

  7. Isotope Dependence of Superheavy Nucleus Formation Cross Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zu-Hua; BAG Jing-Dong

    2006-01-01

    The dynamical process in the superheavy nucleus synthesis is studied on the basis of the two-dimensional Smolu-chowski equation. Special attention is paid to the isotope dependence of the cross section for the superheavy nucleus formation by means of making a comparison among the reaction systems of 54Fe + 204Pb, 56Fe + 206Pb, and 58Fe + 208Pb. It is found by this comparison that the formation cross section is very sensitive to the conditional saddle-point height and the neutron separation energy of the compound nucleus. Reaction systems with lower height of conditional saddle-point and smaller neutron separation energy are more favourable for the synthesis of the superheavy nucleus.

  8. Red nucleus connectivity as revealed by constrained spherical deconvolution tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milardi, Demetrio; Cacciola, Alberto; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Marino, Silvia; Irrera, Mariangela; Cacciola, Giorgio; Santoro, Giuseppe; Ciolli, Pietro; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Quartarone, Angelo

    2016-07-28

    Previous Diffusion Tensor Imaging studies have demonstrated that the human red nucleus is widely interconnected with sensory-motor and prefrontal cortices. In this study, we assessed red nucleus connectivity by using a multi-tensor model called non- negative Constrained Spherical Deconvolution (CSD), which is able to resolve more than one fiber orientation per voxel. Connections of the red nuclei of fifteen volunteers were studied at 3T using CSD axonal tracking. We found significant connectivity between RN and the following cortical and subcortical areas: cerebellar cortex, thalamus, paracentral lobule, postcentral gyrus, precentral gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and dentate nucleus. We confirmed that red nucleus is tightly linked with the cerebral cortex and has dense subcortical connections with thalamus and cerebellar cortex. These findings may be useful in a clinical context considering that RN is involved in motor control and it is known to have potential to compensate for injury of the corticospinal tract. PMID:27181514

  9. Nucleus management in manual small incision cataract surgery by phacosection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleus management is critical in manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS, as the integrity of the tunnel, endothelium and posterior capsule needs to be respected. Several techniques of nucleus management are in vogue, depending upon the specific technique of MSICS. Nucleus can be removed in toto or bisected or trisected into smaller segments. The pressure in the eye can be maintained at the desired level with the use of an anterior chamber maintainer or kept at atmospheric levels. In MSICS, unlike phacoemulsification, there is no need to limit the size of the tunnel or restrain the size of capsulorrhexis. Large well-structured tunnels and larger capsulorrhexis provide better control on the surgical maneuvers. Safety and simplicity of MSICS has made it extremely popular. The purpose of this article is to describe nucleus management by phacosection in MSICS.

  10. Ⅰ期移植复合股前外侧穿支皮瓣治疗ⅢC型开放性损伤%Primary composite anterolateral thigh perforator flap transfer for treatment of Gustilo type Ⅲ C open fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣; 潘佳栋; 黄耀鹏; 周丹亚; 胡瑞斌; 杨科跃; 陈宏; 章伟文

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the procedure techniques and clinical effects for treatment of cases on the brink of amputation with composite anterolateral thigh perforator flap (ALTP) in primary surgery.Methods From July 2008 to December 2012,9 cases on the verge of amputation received primary composite ALTP transfer to perform limb salvage surgery.All cases were Gustilo type Ⅲ C open injuries resulted from traffic accidents which involved upper extremities in 3 cases and lower extremities in 6 cases.Emergent fracture fixation was done for 5 cases; primary external fixation followed by definitive bone grafting was done for 4 cases combined with bone defects.Types of flaps consisted of flow-through ALTPs in 4 cases,chimeric ALTPs in 2 cases,flow-through + chimeric ALTPs in 2 cases,flow-through + chimeric + polyfoliate ALTP in 1 case.Size of flaps ranged from 10 cm × 6 cm-22 cm × 9 cm.Donor sites were closed primarily.Results Limb salvage succeeded for all the 9 cases.Six flaps survived uneventfully,but another 3 flaps developed tension blisters and survived eventually after stitches removing and blood-letting.Postoperative follow-up was 5-36 months.All cases achieved bone union in 4.5-8 months (mean,6.3 months).Conclusion Emergent composite ALTP transfer can not only save the limb,but also reduce the recovery time and complications and contribute to the early recovery of limb function.%目的 探讨急诊Ⅰ期移植复合股前外侧穿支皮瓣(anterolateral thigh perforator flap,ALTP)挽救濒临截肢患者肢体的手术方法与临床疗效. 方法 2008年7月-2012年12月对9例濒临截肢的患者采用Ⅰ期移植复合ALTP进行保肢手术.所有患者均为交通伤所致的GustiloⅢC型开放性损伤.上肢3例,下肢6例,其中急诊行骨折内固定5例,伴骨缺损Ⅰ期予外固定、Ⅱ期行植骨内固定4例.移植单纯桥接动脉型ALTP 4例,单纯嵌合型AL-TP 2例,桥接动脉+嵌合型ALTP 2例,桥接动脉+嵌合+分叶型ALTP 1

  11. Asymptotic properties of high-pT particle production in hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Tokarev, M V

    2001-01-01

    The concept of z-scaling reflecting the general features of particle substructure, constituent interaction and mechanism of particle formation is reviewed. Experimental data on the cross sections obtained at ISR, SpS and Tevatron are used in the analysis. The properties of data z-presentation, the energy and angular independencies, the power law, A- and F-dependencies, are discussed. The use of z-scaling to search for new physics phenomena in hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is suggested. The violation of z-scaling characterized by the change of the fractal dimension is considered as a new and complimentary signature of nuclear phase transition.

  12. Neutral current neutrino-nucleus interactions at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ducati, M B Gay; Machado, M V T

    2008-01-01

    We present a QCD analysis of the neutral current neutrino-nucleus interaction at the small-x region using the color dipole formalism. This phenomenological approach is quite successful in describing experimental results in deep inelastic ep scattering and charged current neutrino-nucleus interactions at high energies. We present theoretical predictions for the relevant structure functions and the corresponding implications for the total NC neutrino cross section.

  13. The integrative role of the pedunculopontine nucleus in human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Brian; Welter, Marie-Laure; Belaid, Hayat; Fernandez Vidal, Sara; Bardinet, Eric; Grabli, David; Karachi, Carine

    2015-05-01

    The brainstem pedunculopontine nucleus has a likely, although unclear, role in gait control, and is a potential deep brain stimulation target for treating resistant gait disorders. These disorders are a major therapeutic challenge for the ageing population, especially in Parkinson's disease where gait and balance disorders can become resistant to both dopaminergic medication and subthalamic nucleus stimulation. Here, we present electrophysiological evidence that the pedunculopontine and subthalamic nuclei are involved in distinct aspects of gait using a locomotor imagery task in 14 patients with Parkinson's disease undergoing surgery for the implantation of pedunculopontine or subthalamic nuclei deep brain stimulation electrodes. We performed electrophysiological recordings in two phases, once during surgery, and again several days after surgery in a subset of patients. The majority of pedunculopontine nucleus neurons (57%) recorded intrasurgically exhibited changes in activity related to different task components, with 29% modulated during visual stimulation, 41% modulated during voluntary hand movement, and 49% modulated during imaginary gait. Pedunculopontine nucleus local field potentials recorded post-surgically were modulated in the beta and gamma bands during visual and motor events, and we observed alpha and beta band synchronization that was sustained for the duration of imaginary gait and spatially localized within the pedunculopontine nucleus. In contrast, significantly fewer subthalamic nucleus neurons (27%) recorded intrasurgically were modulated during the locomotor imagery, with most increasing or decreasing activity phasically during the hand movement that initiated or terminated imaginary gait. Our data support the hypothesis that the pedunculopontine nucleus influences gait control in manners extending beyond simply driving pattern generation. In contrast, the subthalamic nucleus seems to control movement execution that is not likely to be gait

  14. Leading nucleon and the proton-nucleus inelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Bellandi, J; Dias de Deus, J

    1999-01-01

    We present in this paper a calculation of the average proton-nucleus inelasticity. Using an Iterative Leading Particle Model and the Glauber model, we relate the leading particle distribution in nucleon-nucleus interactions with the respective one in nucleon- proton collisions. To describe the leading particle distribution in nucleon-proton collisions, we use the Regge Mueller formalism. Contribution to 26th ICRC - Salt Lake City, Utah. August, 1999. HE 1.1.14

  15. New computational methods for determining antikaon-nucleus bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical potential for antikaon-nucleus strong interactions are constructed using elementary antikaon-nucleus potentials determined previously. The optical potentials are used to determine the existence of a kaon hypernucleus. Modern three dimensional visualization techniques are used to study model dependences, new methods for speeding the calculation of the optical potential are developed, and previous approximation to avoid full Fermi averaging are eliminated. 19 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Inelaticity in hadron-nucleus collisions from emulsion chamber studies

    CERN Document Server

    Wilk, G

    1999-01-01

    The inelasticity of hadron-carbon nucleus collisions in the energy region exceeding 100 TeV is estimated from the carbon-emulsion chamber data at Pamirs to be $ = 0.65\\pm 0.08$. When combined with the recently presented data on hadron-lead nucleus collisions taken at the same energy range it results in the $K\\sim A^{0.086}$ mass number dependence of inelasticity. The evaluated partial inelasticity for secondary ($\

  17. Nucleus Pearl Coating Process of Freshwater Mussel Anodonta woodiana (Unionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    WASMEN MANALU; DEDY DURYADI SOLIHIN; SATA YOSHIDA SRIE RAHAYU; RIDWAN AFFANDI

    2013-01-01

    The limiting factor which is a weakness of sea water pearl production are high costs, the risk of major business failures and a long coating time. From the issue of freshwater pearls appear to have prospects of alternative substitution for sea water pearl. This present study aimed to evaluate effect of loads (the number and diameter nucleus) on freshwater pearl coating process and the number and size of the appropriate nucleus diameter, to produce the optimum coating thickness of half-round p...

  18. Specific structure of the 6He nucleus and fragmentation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the microscopic α+2n model, transverse momentum distributions of α-particles and neutrons as well as α-particle - neutron momentum correlation function have been calculated for the radioactive 6He nucleus fragmentation. The results show that these momentum distributions reflect a specific structure of the 6He nucleus, i.e. the experiments on fragmentation provide with the information on 6He structure. (orig.)

  19. Shell Correction at the Saddle Point for Superheavy Nucleus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜; 张时声; 张双全; 孟杰

    2003-01-01

    The potential energy surface for superheavy nucleus has been studied within the framework of the constrained relativistic mean field theory, and the shell correction energy as a function of deformation has been extracted by the Strutinsky shell correction procedure. Contrary to the usual expectation, the shell correction energy at the saddle point is too important to be neglected, and it has essential contribution to the fission barrier in superheavy nucleus.

  20. Using PHILOS plate through anterolateral acromial approach for treating proximal humerus fractures in elderly patients%经肩峰前外侧入路PHILOS钢板治疗老年人肱骨近端骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈孝均; 贺智榆; 邹永根; 罗成; 吴健

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of using proximal humeral internal locking system ( PHILOS) plate through anterolateral acromial approach for treatment of proximal humerus fractures in eld -erly patients with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) technique.Methods From Apr.2012 to Apr. 2014,26 cases of proximal humerus fractures were treated with PHILOS plate through anterolateral acromial ap -proach with MIPO technique.There were 11 males and 15 females with an average age of 67.8 years (range,60-82 years) and with an average time of 4.1 days after injury(range,2-14 days) between injury and operation,including 6 cases of Neer Ⅱ,11 cases of Neer Ⅲ,and 9 cases of Neer Ⅳ.The operation time ,operative blood loss ,length of follow-up,healing time and Neer score were recorded .Results All cases experienced a primary wound healing ,a mean operation time of 85 min (range,50-115 min),and a mean intraoperative blood loss of 90mL (range,60-140mL).All the 26 cases were followed up for 6 to 18 months with an average of 9.5 months.The bone healing time was 15.8 weeks(range,11-29 weeks).According to Neer scores,the functional results of the shoulder were e-valuated within 1 year after operation ,were classified as excellent in 10 cases,good in 13 cases,fair in 2 cases,and poor in 1 case.The excellent and good rate was 88.5%.Conclusion Using PHILOS plate through anterolateral acromial approach for treatment of proximal humerus fractures in elderly patients with MIPO technique has advanta -ges of less trauma , less blood loss , shorter operative time , rapid recovery of shoulder joint function and fracture . When the procedure is performed with the lateral double incision , preservation of the axillary nerve is necessary . This approach can be the first choice for closed proximal humerus fracture but more extensive studies are needed ,es-pecially to elderly patients with osteoporosis .%目的:评价应用肱骨近端内锁定系统( proximal

  1. Perforator-based chimeric anterolateral thigh flap for head and neck reconstruction after en bloc resection%股前外侧穿支嵌合皮瓣修复头颈肿瘤根治术后缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中飞; 代炜; 张恩礁; 段维轶; 刘法昱; 谭学新; 黄绍辉; 秦兴军; 孙长伏

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE; To discuss and report the operative techniques for harvesting perforator-based chimeric flap in anterolateral thigh region and the advantages for head and neck reconstruction after en bloc resection. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of perforator -based chimeric anterolateral thigh (ALT)flap for head and neck reconstruction since December of 2007 to March of 2011. 66 perforator-based chimeric flaps were harvested including a skin paddle and a muscular flap supplied by one mother pedicle-descending branch of lateral circumflex femoral artery(d- LCFA). 32 flaps were used for the mobile tongue and floor of mouth reconstruction, 30 flaps for base of the tongue and parapharyngeal walls, two for the buccal skin, one for hemimandible and one for parotid. The muscular flap were used to eliminate the dead space of submandibular area. Flaps size ranged from 7cmx4cm to 16cmx7cm and muscular flap was 3cm x4cm approximately. The complications and functions of both donor and recipient sites were recorded and the operative techniques of perforator-based chimeric flap elevation were generalized. RESULTS: All 65 flaps survived completely and the total survival percentage was 98.5%. Only one flap failed and was removed 5 days postoperatively. No complications (fistula, infection, hematoma, seroma et al) were observed in recipient and donor sites. Two anteromedial thigh flaps (AMT) were used for reconstruction due to no sizable perforators in the ALT region. All cases were followed up for 0.5-3 years. The flaps didn't atrophy after six months and the contour was satisfactory. The functions of speech and swallow were recovered well. All the donor sites were closed primarily and the scar was not obvious. The leg's function recovered well. CONCLUSIONS: Using a combination of retrograde and antegrade dissection is a safe and versatile method for harvesting a perforator-based chimeric flap. A chimeric flap including multiple components can meet therequirements of

  2. 21 CFR 880.5140 - Pediatric hospital bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pediatric hospital bed. 880.5140 Section 880.5140... Devices § 880.5140 Pediatric hospital bed. (a) Identification. A pediatric hospital bed is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a bed or crib designed for the use of a pediatric...

  3. 21 CFR 880.5110 - Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. 880.5110... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5110 Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. A hydraulic adjustable hospital bed is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a bed with a hydraulic...

  4. 21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear scanning bed. 892.1350 Section 892.1350...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning bed is an adjustable bed intended to support a patient during a nuclear...

  5. 21 CFR 880.5120 - Manual adjustable hospital bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual adjustable hospital bed. 880.5120 Section... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5120 Manual adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. A manual adjustable hospital bed is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a bed with a manual...

  6. A Universal Description of Pseudorapidity Distributions in Both Nucleus-Nucleus and p-p Collisions at Currently Available Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations have shown that the collective motion appears not only in nucleus-nucleus but also in p-p collisions. The best tool for depicting such collective motion is relativistic hydrodynamics. In this paper, the collective motion is assumed to obey the hydrodynamic model which integrates the features of Landau and Hwa-Bjorken theory and is one of a very few analytically solvable models. The fluid is then supposed to freeze out into charged particles from a space-like hypersurface with a fixed time of tFO. The investigations of present paper show that this part of charged particles together with leading particles, which, by conventional definition, carry on the quantum numbers of colliding nucleons and take away the most part of incident energy, can give a proper universal description to the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles measured in both nucleus-nucleus and p-p collisions at currently available energies.

  7. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MORPHOLOGICALLY-IDENTIFIED MEDIAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS NEURONS PROJECTING TO THE ABDUCENS NUCLEUS IN THE CHICK EMBRYO

    OpenAIRE

    Gottesman-Davis, Adria; Shao, Mei; Hirsch, June C.; Peusner, Kenna D.

    2010-01-01

    Neurons in the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) show a wide range of axonal projection pathways, intrinsic firing properties, and responses to head movements. To determine whether MVN neurons participating in the vestibulocular reflexes (VOR) have distinctive electrophysiological properties related to their output pathways, a new preparation was devised using transverse brain slices containing the chicken MVN and abducens nucleus. Biocytin Alexa Fluor was injected extracellularly into the abdu...

  8. The deafferented reticular thalamic nucleus generates spindle rhythmicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steriade, M; Domich, L; Oakson, G; Deschênes, M

    1987-01-01

    The hypothesis that nucleus reticularis thalami (RE) is the generator of spindle rhythmicity during electroencephalogram (EEG) synchronization was tested in acutely prepared cats. Unit discharges and focal waves were extracellularly recorded in the rostral pole of RE nucleus, which was completely disconnected by transections from all other thalamic nuclei. In some experiments, additional transections through corona radiata created a triangular island in which the rostral RE pole survived with the caudate nucleus, putamen, basal forebrain nuclei, prepyriform area, and the adjacent cortex. Similar results were obtained in two types of experiments: brain stem-transected preparations that exhibited spontaneous spindle sequences, and animals under ketamine anesthesia in which transient spindling was repeatedly precipitated during recording by very low doses of a short-acting barbiturate. Both spindle-related rhythms (7- to 16-Hz waves grouped in sequences that recur with a rhythm of 0.1-0.3 Hz) are seen in focal recordings of the deafferented RE nucleus. The presence of spindling rhythmicity in the disconnected RE nucleus contrasts with total absence of spindles in cortical EEG leads and in thalamic recordings behind the transection. Oscillations within the same frequency range as that of spontaneous spindles can be evoked in the deafferented RE nucleus by subcortical white matter stimulation. In deafferented RE cells, the burst structure consists of an initially biphasic acceleration-deceleration pattern, eventually leading to a long-lasting tonic tail. Quantitative group data show that the burst parameters of disconnected RE cells are very similar to those of RE neurons with intact connections. In the deafferented RE nucleus, spike bursts of RE neurons recur periodically (0.1-0.3 Hz) in close time-relation with simultaneously recorded focal spindle sequences. The burst occurrence of deafferented RE cells is greatly reduced after systemic administration of bicuculline

  9. On the Role of the Transition State Nucleus in Fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although it is well-known that times. In order for fission to compete favourably with gamma-ray and neutron emission, a fixed amount of energy, equivalent to an activation energy in a chemical reaction, must be supplied to the heavy nucleus. This energy (often referred to as the fission threshold) is approximately 5 to 6 MeV for U238, and is the minimum energy required to produce the deformed transition state nucleus (zero internal excitation energy). In the process of stretching the original nucleus into the transition state nucleus (whose distortion is sometimes described as the saddle-point deformation), the increase in energy due to the short-range nuclear forces (surface tension) is greater than the decrease in energy due to the long-range Coulomb forces. However, as the particular distortion defining the transition state nucleus is approached, the decrease in Coulomb energy becomes equal to the increase in surface energy. The degree of distortion needed to produce the transition state nucleus is a function of several nuclear parameters and, hence, the saddle shape and threshold energy for fission change markedly for different nuclei. Since a large fraction of the excitation energy of the initial compound nucleus is consumed in deformation energy in passing to the fission saddle point, the transition state nucleus is thermodynamically ''cold''. Hence, for low excitation energies where the non-fission degrees of freedom favour the passage of the barrier with only a small kinetic energy, it seems reasonable to postulate that the traversal time of the saddle or the lifetime of the transition state nucleus is many orders of magnitude longer than the characteristic nuclear time. This leads to the prediction that the highly deformed transition state nucleus will have properties, including a spectrum of excited states, analogous to those of normal nuclei. Information on highly deformed transition state nuclei obtained by fission-fragment angular distribution studies

  10. Bed and breakfasts in Virginia :identification and success factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Tammie J

    1994-01-01

    Virginia bed and breakfast operations were researched in order to determine the attitudes/beliefs which were necessary for success in the bed and breakfast industry. The objectives of the study were to: (1) identify demographics of Virginia bed and breakfast operations; (2) identify successful bed and breakfast operations based upon their self definition of success; (3) identify the attitudes and beliefs operators believe are necessary for success in running a bed and breakf...

  11. Experiments on the dryout behavior of stratified debris beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, Simon; Kulenovic, Rudi; Laurien, Eckart [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems (IKE)

    2015-10-15

    In case of a severe accident with loss of coolant and core meltdown a particle bed (debris) can be formed. The removal of decay heat from the debris bed is of prime importance for the bed's long-term coolability to guarantee the integrity of the RPV. In contrast to previous experiments, the focus is on stratified beds. The experiments have pointed out that the bed's coolability is significantly affected.

  12. NONUNIFORM OPEN CHANNEL FLOW WITH UPWARD SEEPAGE THROUGH LOOSE BEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhasish DEY

    2003-01-01

    The Reynolds stress and bed shear stress are important parameters in fluvial hydraulics. Steadynonuniform flow in open channels with streamwise sloping beds having upward seepage through loose beds is theoretically analyzed to estimate the Reynolds stress and bed shear stress. Equations of the Reynolds stress and bed shear stress are developed, assuming a modified logarithmic velocity distribution law due to upward seepage, and using the Reynolds and continuity equations of twodimensional flow in open channels.

  13. Theoretical comparison of packed bed and fluidized bed membrane reactors for methane reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, Fausto; Sint Annaland, van Martin; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this theoretical work the performance of different membrane reactor concepts, both fluidized bed and packed bed membrane reactors, has been compared for ultra-pure hydrogen production via methane reforming. Using detailed theoretical models, the required membrane area to reach a given conversion

  14. Fluidized-bed and packed-bed characteristics of gel beads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zessen, van E.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    A liquid-fluidized bed or packed bed with gel beads is attractive as an immobilized-cell bioreactor. The performance of such bioreactors is influenced by the physical behavior of these beads. Three different but related aspects involving the drag force between particles and liquid were studied for f

  15. 改良前外侧入路胫骨近端锁定加压钢板固定治疗胫骨平台后外侧骨折%CLINICAL EFFECT OF IMPROVED ANTEROLATERAL PROXIMAL TIBIA AFTER LOCKING COM- PRESSION PLATE FIXATION IN THE TREATMENT OF LATERAL TIBIA PLATEAU FRACTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical effect of modified anterolateral proximal tibia locking compres‐sion plate fixation in patients with lateral tibia plateau fracture .Methods Totally 80 cases of tibia plateau lateral fracture patients were treated in author's hospital from March 2011 to March 2013 were randomly di‐vided into observation group and control group .The control group received conventional treatment methods anterolateral approach ,while the observation group received an improved anterolateral approach proximal tibia compression plate fixation ,and then the clinical effect were compared between the two groups .Results There were significant difference (P The modified anterolateral proximal tibia locking compression plate fixation is worthy of clinical use for patients of the poster lateral tibia plateau fractures with a significant effect ,simple and safe operation .%目的:分析改良前外侧入路胫骨近端锁定加压钢板固定治疗胫骨平台后外侧骨折的临床效果。方法将收治的80例胫骨平台后外侧骨折患者随机分为观察组和对照组,对照组给予传统前外侧入路的治疗方法,观察组给予改良前外侧入路胫骨近端加压钢板固定治疗,分析和比较二组患者的治疗效果。结果二组患者平均手术时间、手术出血量、并发症发生率等各手术参数、随访结果及膝关节功能评分的比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论改良前外侧入路胫骨近端锁定加压钢板固定治疗胫骨平台后外侧骨折疗效显著、操作简便、安全性高,值得临床推广使用。

  16. Fluctuations and correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions within transport approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konchakovski, Volodymyr P.

    2009-10-01

    The current thesis is devoted to a systematic study of fluctuations and correlations in heavy-ion collisions, which might be considered as probes for the phase transition and the critical point in the phase diagram, within the Hadron-String- Dynamics (HSD) microscopic transport approach. This is a powerful tool to study nucleus-nucleus collisions and allows to completely simulate experimental collisions on an event-by-event basis. Thus, the transport model has been used to study fluctuations and correlations including the influence of experimental acceptance as well as centrality, system size and collision energy. The comparison to experimental data can separate the effects induced by a phase transition since there is no phase transition in the HSD version used here. Firstly the centrality dependence of multiplicity fluctuations has been studied. Different centrality selections have been performed in the analysis in correspondence to the experimental situation. For the fixed target experiment NA49 events with fixed numbers of the projectile participants have been studied while in the collider experiment PHENIX centrality classes of events have been defined by the multiplicity in certain phase space region. A decrease of participant number fluctuations (and thus volume fluctuations) in more central collisions for both experiments has been obtained. Another area of this work addresses to transport model calculations of multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions as a function of colliding energy and system size. This study is in full correspondence to the experimental program of the NA61 Collaboration at the SPS. Central C+C, S+S, In+In, and Pb+Pb nuclear collisions at Elab = 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 158 AGeV have been investigated. The expected enhanced fluctuations - attributed to the critical point and phase transition - can be observed experimentally on top of a monotonic and smooth 'hadronic background'. These findings should be helpful for the

  17. Fluctuations and correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions within transport approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current thesis is devoted to a systematic study of fluctuations and correlations in heavy-ion collisions, which might be considered as probes for the phase transition and the critical point in the phase diagram, within the Hadron-String- Dynamics (HSD) microscopic transport approach. This is a powerful tool to study nucleus-nucleus collisions and allows to completely simulate experimental collisions on an event-by-event basis. Thus, the transport model has been used to study fluctuations and correlations including the influence of experimental acceptance as well as centrality, system size and collision energy. The comparison to experimental data can separate the effects induced by a phase transition since there is no phase transition in the HSD version used here. Firstly the centrality dependence of multiplicity fluctuations has been studied. Different centrality selections have been performed in the analysis in correspondence to the experimental situation. For the fixed target experiment NA49 events with fixed numbers of the projectile participants have been studied while in the collider experiment PHENIX centrality classes of events have been defined by the multiplicity in certain phase space region. A decrease of participant number fluctuations (and thus volume fluctuations) in more central collisions for both experiments has been obtained. Another area of this work addresses to transport model calculations of multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions as a function of colliding energy and system size. This study is in full correspondence to the experimental program of the NA61 Collaboration at the SPS. Central C+C, S+S, In+In, and Pb+Pb nuclear collisions at Elab = 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 158 AGeV have been investigated. The expected enhanced fluctuations - attributed to the critical point and phase transition - can be observed experimentally on top of a monotonic and smooth 'hadronic background'. These findings should be helpful for the optimal

  18. The thermal conductivity of beds of spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Shapiro, M.; Longest, A.W.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The thermal conductivities (k) of beds of solid and hollow microspheres were measured using two radial heat flow techniques. One technique provided k-data at 300 K for beds with the void spaces between particles filled with argon, nitrogen, or helium from 5 kPa to 30 MPa. The other technique provided k-data with air at atmospheric pressure from 300 to 1000 K. The 300 K technique was used to study bed systems with high k-values that can be varied by changing the gas type and gas pressure. Such systems can be used to control the operating temperature of an irradiation capsule. The systems studied included beds of 500 ..mu..m dia solid Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, the same Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ spheres mixed with spheres of silica--alumina or with SiC shards, carbon spheres, and nickel spheres. Both techniques were used to determine the k-value of beds of hollow spheres with solid shells of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3//center dot/7 w/o Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and partially stabilized ZrO/sub 2/. The hollow microspheres had diameters from 2100 to 3500 ..mu..m and wall thicknesses from 80 to 160 ..mu..m. 12 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Nonlinear Mechanism of Bed Load Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Haijue; BAI Yuchuan; NG Chiu-On

    2009-01-01

    From the group movement of the bed load within the bottom layer, details of the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of bed load movement are discussed in this paper. Whether the sediment is initiated into motion cor-responds to whether the constant term in the equation is equal to zero. If constant term is zero and no dispersive force is considered, the equation represents the traditional Shields initiation curve, and if constant term is zero with-out the dispersive force being considered, then a new Shields curve which is much lower than the traditional one is got, The fixed point of the equation corresponds to the equilibrium sediment transport of bed load. In the mutation analysis, we have found that the inflection point is the demarcation point of breaking. In theory, the breaking point corresponds to the dividing boundary line, across which the bed form changes from flat bed to sand ripple or sand dune. Compared with the experimental data of Chatou Hydraulic Lab in France, the conclusions are verified.

  20. Spouted bed electrowinning of zinc: Part II. Investigations of the dynamics of particles in large thin spouted beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, A.; Evans, J. W.; Salas-Morales, Juan Carlos

    1997-02-01

    The behavior of particles in thin spouted beds, mostly equipped with draft tubes, has been investigated. Three apparatuses have been used: a laboratory-scale cylindrical bed, a 2-m-tall “flat” (rectangular cross section) bed and a 2-m-wide flat bed, the last equipped with multiple draft tubes. Most of the results were obtained on the tall bed. Minimum spouting flow rate, pressure distribution, particle velocities, and solid circulation rates were determined as a function of bed geometry (including draft tube dimensions and position). Observations were made of the direction of liquid flow in the bed outside the draft tube and of the occurrence of zones in the bed where the particles appeared stationary. The wide bed was used to determine that there is a maximum separation between draft tubes beyond which particles cannot be kept in motion across the whole width of the bed.

  1. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-An; Natowitz, Joseph B.

    2013-03-01

    The 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012) was held from 27 May to 1 June 2012, in San Antonio, Texas, USA. It was jointly organized and hosted by The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University, College Station and The Department of Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University-Commerce. Among the approximately 300 participants were a large number of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. The Keynote Talk of the conference, 'The State of Affairs of Present and Future Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Science', was given by Dr Robert Tribble, University Distinguished Professor and Director of the TAMU Cyclotron Institute. During the conference a very well-received public lecture on neutrino astronomy, 'The ICEcube project', was given by Dr Francis Halzen, Hilldale and Gregory Breit Distinguished Professor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The Scientific program continued in the general spirit and intention of this conference series. As is typical of this conference a broad range of topics including fundamental areas of nuclear dynamics, structure, and applications were addressed in 42 plenary session talks, 150 parallel session talks, and 21 posters. The high quality of the work presented emphasized the vitality and relevance of the subject matter of this conference. Following the tradition, the NN2012 International Advisory Committee selected the host and site of the next conference in this series. The 12th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2015) will be held 21-26 June 2015 in Catania, Italy. It will be hosted by The INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania and the Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia of the University of Catania. The NN2012 Proceedings contains the conference program and 165 articles organized into the following 10 sections 1. Heavy and Superheavy Elements 2. QCD and Hadron Physics 3. Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions 4. Nuclear Structure 5. Nuclear Energy and Applications of

  2. Hypertrophic degeneration of the inferior olivary nucleus impacts perception of gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A Tarnutzer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Interruption of the Guillain-Mollaret triangle interconnecting the red nucleus, the inferior olivary nucleus and the contralateral dentate nucleus is predicted to interfere with the dentate nucleus’ role in estimating direction of gravity. In a patient with pendular nystagmus due to hypertrophic inferior olivary nucleus degeneration secondary to ponto-mesencephalic hemorrhage, perceived vertical shifted from clockwise to counter-clockwise deviations within 4 months. We hypothesize that synchronized oscillations of inferior olivary nucleus neurons induce a loss of inhibitory control, leading to hyperactivity of the contralateral dentate nucleus and, as a result, to perceived vertical roll-tilt to the side of the overactive dentate nucleus.

  3. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, M.

    1977-12-01

    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  4. Tube erosion in bubbling fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.K. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center; Stallings, J.W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper reports on experimental and theoretical studies that were preformed of the interaction between bubbles and tubes and tube erosion in fluidized beds. The results are applicable to the erosion of horizontal tubes in the bottom row of a tube bundle in a bubbling bed. Cold model experimental data show that erosion is caused by the impact of bubble wakes on the tubes, with the rate of erosion increasing with the velocity of wake impact with the particle size. Wake impacts resulting from the vertical coalescence of pairs of bubbles directly beneath the tube result in particularly high rates of erosion damage. Theoretical results from a computer simulation of bubbling and erosion show very strong effects of the bed geometry and bubbling conditions on computed rates of erosion. These results show, for example, that the rate of erosion can be very sensitive to the vertical location of the bottom row of tubes with respect to the distributor.

  5. Novel Simulated moving bed technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdue University

    2003-12-30

    Cellulose and hemicellulose from plants and other biomass can be hydrolyzed to produce sugars (i.e. glucose and xylose). Once these sugars are separated from other impurities, they can serve as feedstock in fermentation to produce ethanol (as fuels), lactic acid, or other valuable chemicals. The need for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has become abundantly clear over the last decade. However, the cost of producing fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate using existing technology is relatively high and has been a major obstacle. The objective of this project is to develop an efficient and economical simulated moving bed (SMB) process to recover fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Sulfuric acid can hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose in biomass to sugars, but this process can generate byproducts such as acetic acid, and can lead to further degradation of the xylose to furfural and glucose to hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Also, lignin and other compounds in the biomass will degrade to various phenolic compounds. If the concentrations of these compounds exceed certain threshold levels, they will be toxic to the downstream fermentation, and will severely limit the usefulness of the derived sugars. Standard post-hydrolysis processing involves neutralization of sulfuric acid, usually with lime (calcium hydroxide). A study by Wooley et al.showed that the limed hydrolyzate gave a low ethanol yield in fermentation test (20% of theoretical yield compared to 77% of theoretical yield from fermentation of pure sugars). They showed that instead of adding lime, an ion exclusion chromatography process could be used to remove acids, as well as to isolate the sugars from the biomass hydrolyzate. In this project, we investigated the feasibility of developing an economical SMB process based on (1) a polymeric adsorbent, Dowex99, which was used by Wooley et al., (2) a second polymeric adsorbent, poly-4-vinyl pyridine (or PVP in short, Reilly

  6. Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

  7. A sex difference in the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus: relationship to gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F

    2008-12-01

    Transsexuality is an individual's unshakable conviction of belonging to the opposite sex, resulting in a request for sex-reassignment surgery. We have shown previously that the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTc) is female in size and neuron number in male-to-female transsexual people. In the present study we investigated the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus, which is composed of two subnuclei, namely interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH) 3 and 4. Post-mortem brain material was used from 42 subjects: 14 control males, 11 control females, 11 male-to-female transsexual people, 1 female-to-male transsexual subject and 5 non-transsexual subjects who were castrated because of prostate cancer. To identify and delineate the nuclei and determine their volume and shape we used three different stainings throughout the nuclei in every 15th section, i.e. thionin, neuropeptide Y and synaptophysin, using an image analysis system. The most pronounced differences were found in the INAH3 subnucleus. Its volume in thionin sections was 1.9 times larger in control males than in females (P INAH3 volume and number of neurons of male-to-female transsexual people is similar to that of control females. The female-to-male transsexual subject had an INAH3 volume and number of neurons within the male control range, even though the treatment with testosterone had been stopped three years before death. The castrated men had an INAH3 volume and neuron number that was intermediate between males (volume and number of neurons P > 0.117) and females (volume P > 0.245 and number of neurons P > 0.341). There was no difference in INAH3 between pre-and post-menopausal women, either in the volume (P > 0.84) or in the number of neurons (P INAH3 of male-to-female transsexuals was not due to estrogen treatment. We propose that the sex reversal of the INAH3 in transsexual people is at least partly a marker of an early atypical sexual differentiation of the brain and that the changes in

  8. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  9. Lake bed classification using acoustic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Karen K.; Li, Xing; Bonde, John; Richards, Carl; Cholwek, Gary

    1998-01-01

    As part of our effort to identify the lake bed surficial substrates using remote sensing data, this work designs pattern classifiers by multivariate statistical methods. Probability distribution of the preprocessed acoustic signal is analyzed first. A confidence region approach is then adopted to improve the design of the existing classifier. A technique for further isolation is proposed which minimizes the expected loss from misclassification. The devices constructed are applicable for real-time lake bed categorization. A mimimax approach is suggested to treat more general cases where the a priori probability distribution of the substrate types is unknown. Comparison of the suggested methods with the traditional likelihood ratio tests is discussed.

  10. Numerical simulation of nuclear pebble bed configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shams, A., E-mail: shams@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Roelofs, F., E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Komen, E.M.J., E-mail: komen@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Baglietto, E., E-mail: emiliob@MIT.EDU [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Numerical simulations of a single face cubic centred pebble bed are performed. • Wide range of turbulence modelling techniques are used to perform these calculations. • The methods include 1-DNS, 1-LES, 3-Hybrid (RANS/LES) and 3-RANS models, respectively. • The obtained results are extensively compared to provide guidelines for such flow regimes. • These guidelines are used to perform reference LES for a limited sized random pebble bed. - Abstract: High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) are being considered all over the world. An HTR uses helium gas as a coolant, while the moderator function is taken up by graphite. The fuel is embedded in the graphite moderator. A particular inherent safety advantage of HTR designs is that the graphite can withstand very high temperatures, that the fuel inside will stay inside the graphite pebble and cannot escape to the surroundings even in the event of loss of cooling. Generally, the core can be designed using a graphite pebble bed. Some experimental and demonstration reactors have been operated using a pebble bed design. The test reactors have shown safe and efficient operation, however questions have been raised about possible occurrence of local hot spots in the pebble bed which may affect the pebble integrity. Analysis of the fuel integrity requires detailed evaluation of local heat transport phenomena in a pebble bed, and since such phenomena cannot easily be modelled experimentally, numerical simulations are a useful tool. As a part of a European project, named Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems (THINS), a benchmarking quasi-direct numerical simulation (q-DNS) of a well-defined pebble bed configuration has been performed. This q-DNS will serve as a reference database in order to evaluate the prediction capabilities of different turbulence modelling approaches. A wide range of numerical simulations based on different available turbulence modelling approaches are performed and compared with

  11. Nucleus Pearl Coating Process of Freshwater Mussel Anodonta woodiana (Unionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WASMEN MANALU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The limiting factor which is a weakness of sea water pearl production are high costs, the risk of major business failures and a long coating time. From the issue of freshwater pearls appear to have prospects of alternative substitution for sea water pearl. This present study aimed to evaluate effect of loads (the number and diameter nucleus on freshwater pearl coating process and the number and size of the appropriate nucleus diameter, to produce the optimum coating thickness of half-round pearls. The research consists of experimental implantation of 2, 4, and 6 nucleus number per individual mussel was maintained by the method stocked in hapa in bottom waters. Observation method and factorial randomized block design used in the study of the influence of the load to the successfulness of pearl coating and the pearl layer thickness. The results showed that A. woodiana can be utilized as a producer of freshwater pearls. In addition, the number of optimum nucleus that can be attached to the mussel A. woodiana was 2 grains/individuals with a diameter of 10 mm. Shells implanted with the optimum nucleus diameter and number of pearls produced the highest layer thickness of 17 m after 9 months cultivation. This result was good enough compared with the layer thickness of sea water pearl production after the same cultivation time.

  12. Perspectives for Fluidized Bed Nuclear Reactor Technology using Rotating Fluidized Beds in a Static Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broqueville, Axel De; Wilde, Juray De

    The new concept of a rotating fluidized bed in a static geometry opens perspectives for fluidized bed nuclear reactor technology and is experimentally and numerically investigated. With conventional fluidized bed technology, the maximum attainable power is rather limited and maximum at a certain fluidization gas flow rate. Using a rotating fluidized bed in a static geometry, the fluidization gas drives both the centrifugal force and the counteracting radial gas-solid drag force in a similar way. This allows operating the reactor at any chosen sufficiently high solids loading over a much wider fluidization gas flow rate range and in particular at much higher fluidization gas flow rates than with conventional fluidized bed reactor technology, offering increased flexibility with respect to cooling via the fluidization gas. Furthermore, the centrifugal force can be a multiple of earth gravity, allowing radial gas-solid slip velocities much higher than in conventional fluidized beds. The latter result in gas-solid heat transfer coefficients one or multiple orders of magnitude higher than in conventional fluidized beds. The combination of dense operation and high fluidization gas flow rates allows process intensification and a more compact reactor design.

  13. Loading and Unloading Weaned Pigs: Effects of Bedding Types, Ramp Angle, and Bedding Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-slip surfaces during loading and unloading of weaned pigs plays an important role in animal welfare and economics of the pork industry. Currently, the guidelines available only suggest the use of ramps below 20° to load and unload pigs. Three ramp angles (0°, 10° or 20°, five bedding materials (nothing, sand, feed, wood shavings or wheat straw hay, two moistures (dry or wet bedding; >50% moisture over two seasons (>23.9 °C summer, <23.9 °C winter were assessed for slips/falls/vocalizations (n = 6,000 pig observations. “Score” was calculated by the sum of slips, falls, and vocalizations. With the exception of using feed as a bedding, all beddings provided some protection against elevated slips, falls, and vocalizations (P < 0.01. Providing bedding reduced (P < 0.05 scores regardless of whether the bedding was dry or wet. Scores increased as the slope increased (P < 0.01. Provision of bedding, other than feed, at slopes greater than zero, decreased slips, falls and vocalizations. The total time it took to load and unload pigs was

  14. Effect of bed particles to combustion of gases in fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, R.; Wallen, V.; Etelaeaho, R.; Correia, S. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this project was to obtain experimental data on effects of sand particles to the combustion of gases. The effect of the surface area of the particles was tested using different sized particles. The fluidized bed reactor used in these experiments was a stainless-steel tube with an internal diameter of 42 mm surrounded by an electric heater. The test rig was built in the Laboratory of Energy and Process Engineering at Tampere University of Technology. In order to elucidate the possible changes of particle surface, microscopic and porosimetric studies were conducted with both fresh bed particles and used bed particles. These measurements indicate that carbon monoxide significantly reacts with oxygen in the particulate or emulsion phase of a fluidized bed, if the residence time is long enough. The reaction rate depends mainly on temperature, air coefficient, residence time and particle size of the solids. It seems that the combustion enhances if the average particle size increases. Whether this is caused by increased free path length or reduced specific surface area of the bed is yet unknown. The first might be more probable cause because the majority of reactions often took place in the freeboard right above the bed. It was clear that the bed hindered proper combustion in several cases. (orig.)

  15. From Modern Push-Button Hospital-beds to 20th Century Mechatronic Beds: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi, I.; Mariño, M.; Miralles, M. T.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to present the different aspects of modern high complexity electric beds of the period 1940 until 2000 exclusively. The chronology of the product has been strictly divided into three big stages: electric and semi-electric beds (until the 90’s), mechatronic beds (90’s until 2000) and, mechatronic intelligent beds of the last 15 years. The latter are not considered in this work due to the extension for its analysis. The justification for classifying the product is presented under the concepts of medical, assistive and mobility devices. Relevant aspects of common immobility problems of the different types of patients for which the beds are mainly addressed are shown in detail. The basic functioning of the patient’s movement generator and the implementation of actuators, together with IT programs, specific accessories and connectivity means and network-communication shown in this work, were those that gave origin to current mechatronic beds. We present the historical evolution of high complexity electric beds by illustrating cases extracted from a meticulous time line, based on patents, inventions and publications in newspapers and magazines of the world. The criteria adopted to evaluate the innovation were: characteristics of controls; accessories (mattresses, lighting, siderails, etc.), aesthetic and morphologic properties and outstanding functionalities.

  16. Effects of bed-load movement on flow resistance over bed forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Hossein Omid; Masoud Karbasi; Javad Farhoudi

    2010-12-01

    The effect of bed-load transport on flow resistance of alluvial channels with undulated bed was experimentally investigated. The experiments were carried out in a tilting flume 250 mm wide and 12·5 m long with glass-sides of rectangular cross-section and artificial dune shaped floor that was made from Plexi-glass. Steady flow of clear as against sediment-laden water with different flow depths and velocities were studied in the experiments with a fine sand ($d_{50} =$ 0·5 mm). The results indicate that the transport of fine particles ($d_{50} =$ 0·5 mm) can decrease the friction factor by 22% and 24% respectively for smooth and rough beds. Increasing the bed-load size ($d_{50} =$ 2·84 mm) can decrease the friction factor by 32% and 39% respectively for smooth and rough beds. The decrease in flow resistance is due to filling up of the troughs of dunes. This separation zone is responsible for increasing the flow resistance. On the upstream side of dunes condition is similar to plane bed. Presence of bed-load causes to increase the shear velocity and hence increasing flow resistance. But decreasing in flow resistance is more and it causes to decrease the total flow resistance. Grains saturated the troughs in the bed topography, effectively helping in smoothening of bed irregularities.

  17. 腹腔镜辅助下联合侧前方小切口腹膜后入路治疗腰椎结核%RETROPERITONEAL LAPAROSCOPIC APPROACH COMBINED WITH ANTEROLATERAL MINI-INCISION FOR LUMBAR SPINE TUBERCULOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣春; 陈云生; 曾云峰; 郭朝阳; 陈勤; 李明恒

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach combined with anterolateral mini-incision for lumbar spine tuberculosis.Methods A retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data of 22 patients with lumbar spine tuberculosis undergoing focus clearance,fusion,and internal fixation by retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach combined with anterolateral mini-incision between June 2006 and June 2012.There were 14 males and 8 females,with an average age of 42.6 years (range,26-57 years) and with a mean disease duration of 7.3 months (range,3-10 months).There were 17 patients with single-level spinal tuberculosis (L1,2 in 3,L2,3 in 6,L3,4 in 4,L4,5 in 2,and L5 in 2) and 5 patients with double-level spinal tuberculosis (L1-3 in 2 and L2-4 in 3).The preoperative Cobb's angle of lumbar spine was 5-28° (mean,20°).In 6 patients having compression symptom,4 cases were rated as grade D and 2 as grade C according to Frankel classification.The operative time,intraoperative blood loss,and postoperative complications were recorded.At last follow-up,the neurologic function was assessed according to Frankel grade,the Cobb's angle after operation was measured on lumbar lateral X-ray film; the efficacy was evaluated according to Nakai criteria,and the fusion was evaluated according to Suk criteria.Results All operations were successfully completed.The operation time was 110-250 minutes (mean,140 minutes),and intraoperative blood loss was 120-280 mL (mean,180 mL).The symptoms of femoral nerve injury and sympathetic nerve injury occurred in 1 case respectively and was relieved at 1-3 weeks after operation.All incisions healed by first intention.The patients were followed up 16-50 months (mean,21 months).During the follow-up period,no loosening or breakage of implants and no tuberculosis recurrence were found.At last follow-up,the nerve function was recovered to grade E in the others except 1 case at grade D.The Cobb's angle was 2-16° (mean,7.8

  18. Optimal reactions for the synthesis of superheavy nucleus 270Hs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zuhua; BAO Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    The superheavy nucleus 270 Hs iS expected to be a "double-magic" deformed nucleus.We have calculated its cross sections of evaporation residue for the reactions 248Cm(26Mg,4n)270Hs,244pu(30Si,4n)270Hs,238U(36S,4n)270Hs and 226Ra(48Ca,4n)270Hs using a two-parameter Smoluchowski equation.It is found from our results that 226Ra(48Ca,4n)270Hs and 238U(36S,4n)270Hs are two optimal reactions for the synthesis of the superheavy nucleus 270Hs due to their large negative Q-values.

  19. Microinjection of limonene into caudate nucleus inhibits IMC of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Guo; Xin Yi Zhu; Yi Quan Wei; De Zhi Yang

    2000-01-01

    AIM We have discovered that Limonene modulates interdigestive myoelectrical complexes (IMCs) ofgastrointestinal tract in rats. In this research we will elucidate weather limonene affects acetylcholine M-receptor in caudate nucleus.METHODS Changes of IMCs were studied after limonene and/or atropine were microinjected into caudatenucleus. IMCs were recorded by a RM-6200 four-channel recorder and then delivered to Maclab and PowerMacintosh.RESULTS The active phases of IMCs occupied about 40% of total cycle in average. After microinjection oflimonene into caudate nucleus, the active phases were significantly shortened, while the cycle time of IMCswere not changed significantly. The inhibitory effects of limonene were abolished by pretreatment withatropine, whilst the atropine has no effect on IMCs.CONCLUSION It is suggested that limonene inhabits the gastrointestinal IMCs by affecting M-receptor incaudate nucleus.

  20. Extreme alpha-clustering in the 18O nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, E D; Goldberg, V Z; Brown, S; Robson, D; Crisp, A M; Cottle, P D; Fu, C; Giles, J; Green, B W; Kemper, K W; Lee, K; Roeder, B T; Tribble, R E

    2009-01-01

    The structure of the 18O nucleus at excitation energies above the alpha decay threshold was studied using 14C+alpha resonance elastic scattering. A number of states with large alpha reduced widths have been observed, indicating that the alpha-cluster degree of freedom plays an important role in this N not equal Z nucleus. However, the alpha-cluster structure of this nucleus is very different from the relatively simple pattern of strong alpha-cluster quasi-rotational bands in the neighboring 16O and 20Ne nuclei. A 0+ state with an alpha reduced width exceeding the single particle limit was identified at an excitation energy of 9.9+/-0.3 MeV. We discuss evidence that states of this kind are common in light nuclei and give possible explanations of this feature.

  1. Dynamics in the Gravitational Field of a Cometary Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The study of dynamics near the comet is a very important topic in orbital mechanics. In this paper we are interested in analyzing the dynamical behaviors in the vicinity of a cometary nucleus. Equilibrium points and periodic orbits are discussed. There are four equilibrium points in the potential of the comet 1P/Halley nucleus, positions and eigenvalues of these equilibrium points are presented. About the periodic orbits, it is found that there are five topological classes of stably periodic orbits and six topological classes of unstably periodic orbits in the potential field of a cometary nucleus. It is found that the resonant periodic orbit can be stable, and there exist stably non-resonant periodic orbits, stably resonant periodic orbits and unstably resonant periodic orbits in the potential field of cometary nuclei. The periodic orbits with the 1:1, 1:2, and 1:8 resonances are presented.

  2. New integral formula and its applications to light nucleus reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    A new integral formula, which has not been compiled in any integral tables or mathematical softwares, is proposed to obtain the analytical energy-angular spectra of the particles that are sequentially emitted from the discrete energy levels of the residual nuclei in the statistical theory of light nucleus reaction (STLN). In the cases of the neutron induced light nucleus reactions, the demonstration of the kinetic energy conservation in the sequential emission processes becomes straightforward thanks to this new integral formula and it is also helpful to largely reduce the volume of file-6 in nuclear reaction databases. Furthermore, taking p+$^9$Be reaction at 18 MeV as an example, this integral formula is extended to calculate the energy-angular spectra of the sequentially emitted neutrons for proton induced light nucleus reactions in the frame of STLN.

  3. Mineral resources of the Devil's Garden Lava Bed, Squaw Ridge Lava Bed, and Four Craters Lava Bed Wilderness Study Areas, Lake County, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, W.J.; King, H.D.; Gettings, M.E. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Johnson, F.L. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

    1988-01-01

    The Devel's Garden lava Bed, Squaw Ridge Lava Bed, and Four Craters Lava Bed Wilderness Study Areas include approximately 70,940 acres and are underlain entirely by Pleistocene or Holocene lava flows and associated sediments. There is no evidence of hydrothermal alteration in the study areas. No resources were identified in the study areas, but there is low potential for perlite resources in the southern part of the Devil's Garden Lava Bed and the northern half of the Squaw Ridge Lava Bed areas. All three study areas have low potential for geothermal resources and for oil and gas resources.

  4. Experimental Investigation on a Novel Four-bed Adsorption Chiller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kim Choon; Chua, Hui Tong; Wang, Jin Bao; Wang, Xiao Lin; Kashiwagi, Takao; Akisawa, Atsushi; Saha, Bidyut Baran

    A prototype multi-bed regenerative adsorption chiller with a novel four-bed operation mode has been designed, fabricated and tested. The rating tests are conducted under assorted ARI coolant, using a purpose-built rating. The 4.bed design exhibits superior heat extraction capability from the heat source as its "slave-first-then-master" arrangement permits individual bed to maximize energy utilization in a batch cycle. Overall system performance of chiller is evaluated for various adsorption-desorption cycle and switching time at assorted coolant inlet temperatures. For fair comparison, the 4-bed chiller is also compared with that of a two-bed mode at the same working conditions.

  5. 3-D capacitance density imaging of fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved.

  6. Internal dust recirculation system for a fluidized bed heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Robert L.; Garcia-Mallol, Juan A.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided in a heat exchange relation to the bed and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the bed and a tube bank extending between the steam drum and a water drum. The tube bank is located in the path of the effluent gases exiting from the bed and a baffle system is provided to separate the solid particulate matter from the effluent gases. The particulate matter is collected and injected back into the fluidized bed.

  7. Fluidized bed heat exchanger utilizing angularly extending heat exchange tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmud, Fred M.; Garcia-Mallol, Juan-Antonio

    1980-01-01

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel disposed in a housing. A steam/water natural circulation system is provided and includes a steam drum disposed adjacent the fluidized bed and a series of tubes connected at one end to the steam drum. A portion of the tubes are connected to a water drum and in the path of the air and the gaseous products of combustion exiting from the bed. Another portion of the tubes pass through the bed and extend at an angle to the upper surface of the bed.

  8. Cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio através de minitoracotomia ântero-lateral esquerda Myocardial revascularization surgery through left anterolateral minithoracotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Glauco Lobo Filho

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available No período de outubro de 1995 a fevereiro de 1996, 16 pacientes selecionados foram submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio através de minitoracotomia ântero-lateral esquerda. Em todos os casos a artéria torácica interna esquerda foi dissecada, para posterior anastomose com o ramo interventricular anterior (RIA sem a utilização de circulação extracorpórea. A idade variou de 43 a 77, com média de 60 anos. Sessenta e dois por cento dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino. Não houve complicações tais como: hemorragias, acidente vascular cerebral, insuficiência renal aguda, mediastinite ou infarto agudo do miocárdio. Não houve mortalidade no grupo em questão. Em 4 (25% pacientes foi realizado estudo hemodinâmico, que demostrou uma normalidade da anastomose da artéria torácica interna para o ramo interventricular anterior. Devido aos excelentes resultados iniciais, acreditamos que este procedimento possa ser empregado com maior freqüência e com a familiarização dos grupos cirúrgicos, e que as artérias diagonais e marginais da circunflexa possam ser beneficiadas com este tipo de procedimento.Between October 1995 and February 1996, sixteen patients were selected to undergo to surgical myocardial revascularization through left anterolateral minithoracotomy. The left internal thoracic artery was dissected in all patients, for consecutive anastomosis with interventricular anterior artery, without using extracorporeal circulation. Patients age ranged from 43 to 77, average 60 years. Sixty-two percent of them were men. There were no complications such as: acute myocardial infarction, mediastinitis, acute renal failure, hemorrhagy or stroke. There were no deaths. Four (25% patients were submitted to cardiac catheterization that showed patency of grafts and grafted native arteries. Due to excellent initial results, the authors believe that this technique can be employed with greater frequency and that its use can be

  9. Clinical application of anchoring nail in treating chronic anterolateral ankle instability%骨锚在慢性踝关节前外侧不稳手术中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骁; 刘成; 卡索; 李丹; 田勇; 刘守应

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨和总结微型带线骨锚钉在治疗慢性踝关节前外侧不稳手术中的临床疗效和使用经验.方法 选择2008年4月~2010年4月我院收治的慢性踝关节前外侧不稳患者38例.所有病例均采用强生Fastin RC带线锚钉手术解剖重建外踝韧带.本组男性25例,女性13例;年龄19~32岁,平均(24.1±6.4)岁.结果 38例均获得随访13~25个月,平均(16.8±6.7)个月,术后所有踝关节活动度基本恢复正常,均未出现复发性踝关节不稳.关节功能根据美国足踝骨科协会(AOFAS)足踝评分进行评估.术前与术后AOFAS后足评分有极显著性差异(P<0.01).结论 运用微型带线骨锚钉解剖重建外踝韧带,有效恢复了踝关节外侧的稳定性,是治疗慢性踝关节前外侧不稳合理想有效的方法.%Objective To discuss and summarize the clinical effect and experience of anchoring nail in trealing chronic anlerolaleral ankle instability. Methods From Apr. 2008 to Apr. 2010, reconslruclion was used for surgical trealmenl of chronic anlerolaleral ankle instability with anchoring nail in 38 palienls. There were 25 males and 13 females,whose age ranged from 19 to 32 years old ( average 24. 1 ±6. 4 years old). Results Tolally 38 palienls were followed up for 13-25 months,averaging 16. 8 ±6. 7 monlhs. Functional slabilily was achieved and range of molion was generally recovered wilhoul recurrenl inslabilily. The therapeulic resulls were evaluated with grading scale developed by American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ( AOFAS). There were obvious differences between two groups in AOFAS values before and after operation. Conclusion With reconstruction technique and anchoring nail, lateral instability of ankle can be stabilized effectively. It is a reasonable and effective surgical method for the treatment of chronic anterolateral ankle instability.

  10. Immobility, inheritance and plasticity of shape of the yeast nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrulis Erik D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since S. cerevisiae undergoes closed mitosis, the nuclear envelope of the daughter nucleus is continuous with that of the maternal nucleus at anaphase. Nevertheless, several constitutents of the maternal nucleus are not present in the daughter nucleus. The present study aims to identify proteins which impact the shape of the yeast nucleus and to learn whether modifications of shape are passed on to the next mitotic generation. The Esc1p protein of S. cerevisiae localizes to the periphery of the nucleoplasm, can anchor chromatin, and has been implicated in targeted silencing both at telomeres and at HMR. Results Upon increased Esc1p expression, cell division continues and dramatic elaborations of the nuclear envelope extend into the cytoplasm. These "escapades" include nuclear pores and associate with the nucleolus, but exclude chromatin. Escapades are not inherited by daughter nuclei. This exclusion reflects their relative immobility, which we document in studies of prezygotes. Moreover, excess Esc1p affects the levels of multiple transcripts, not all of which originate at telomere-proximal loci. Unlike Esc1p and the colocalizing protein, Mlp1p, overexpression of selected proteins of the inner nuclear membrane is toxic. Conclusion Esc1p is the first non-membrane protein of the nuclear periphery which – like proteins of the nuclear lamina of higher eukaryotes – can modify the shape of the yeast nucleus. The elaborations of the nuclear envelope ("escapades" which appear upon induction of excess Esc1p are not inherited during mitotic growth. The lack of inheritance of such components could help sustain cell growth when parental nuclei have acquired potentially deleterious characteristics.

  11. Brain networks modulated by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accolla, Ettore A; Herrojo Ruiz, Maria; Horn, Andreas; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja; Draganski, Bogdan; Kühn, Andrea A

    2016-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an established treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Given the frequent occurrence of stimulation-induced affective and cognitive adverse effects, a better understanding about the role of the subthalamic nucleus in non-motor functions is needed. The main goal of this study is to characterize anatomical circuits modulated by subthalamic deep brain stimulation, and infer about the inner organization of the nucleus in terms of motor and non-motor areas. Given its small size and anatomical intersubject variability, functional organization of the subthalamic nucleus is difficult to investigate in vivo with current methods. Here, we used local field potential recordings obtained from 10 patients with Parkinson's disease to identify a subthalamic area with an analogous electrophysiological signature, namely a predominant beta oscillatory activity. The spatial accuracy was improved by identifying a single contact per macroelectrode for its vicinity to the electrophysiological source of the beta oscillation. We then conducted whole brain probabilistic tractography seeding from the previously identified contacts, and further described connectivity modifications along the macroelectrode's main axis. The designated subthalamic 'beta' area projected predominantly to motor and premotor cortical regions additional to connections to limbic and associative areas. More ventral subthalamic areas showed predominant connectivity to medial temporal regions including amygdala and hippocampus. We interpret our findings as evidence for the convergence of different functional circuits within subthalamic nucleus' portions deemed to be appropriate as deep brain stimulation target to treat motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Potential clinical implications of our study are illustrated by an index case where deep brain stimulation of estimated predominant non-motor subthalamic nucleus induced hypomanic behaviour.

  12. Silk fibroin porous scaffolds for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Chao; Yang, Qiang [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhu, Meifeng [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Du, Lilong [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhang, Jiamin [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ma, Xinlong [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Xu, Baoshan, E-mail: xubaoshan99@126.com [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Wang, Lianyong, E-mail: wly@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are structurally complex tissue that hold the vertebrae together and provide mobility to spine. The nucleus pulposus (NP) degeneration often results in degenerative IVD disease that is one of the most common causes of back and neck pain. Tissue engineered nucleus pulposus offers an alternative approach to regain the function of the degenerative IVD. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of porous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds fabricated by paraffin-sphere-leaching methods with freeze-drying in the application of nucleus pulposus regeneration. The prepared scaffold possessed high porosity of 92.38 ± 5.12% and pore size of 165.00 ± 8.25 μm as well as high pore interconnectivity and appropriate mechanical properties. Rabbit NP cells were seeded and cultured on the SF scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy, histology, biochemical assays and mechanical tests revealed that the porous scaffolds could provide an appropriate microstructure and environment to support adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of NP cells in vitro as well as the generation of extracellular matrix. The NP cell–scaffold construction could be preliminarily formed after subcutaneously implanted in a nude mice model. In conclusion, The SF porous scaffold offers a potential candidate for tissue engineered NP tissue. - Highlights: • Paraffin microsphere-leaching method is used to fabricate silk fibroin scaffold. • The scaffold has appropriate mechanical property, porosity and pore size • The scaffold supports growth and infiltration of nucleus pulposus cells. • Nucleus pulposus cells can secrete extracellular matrix in the scaffolds. • The scaffold is a potential candidate for tissue engineered nucleus pulposus.

  13. Control of fluidized bed tea drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Tea is a product made from the leaf of the tea bush by several processes, including drying. The drying stage is the most energy intensive, and has tight performance criteria. This project investigated the options for the control of a fluidized bed tea dryer. The work included establishing some of th

  14. Agglomeration in fluidized beds: detection and counteraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels. M.

    2008-01-01

    Fluidized beds comprise a quantity of solid particles that is suspended by an upward flowing gas. They are used for a variety of processes in the chemical industry, such as catalytic reactions, drying, coating and energy conversion. A major problem in industrial practice is the occurrence of unwante

  15. Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A 30-day 6 deg. head-down bed rest study was conducted to evaluate high-intensity, short-duration, alternating isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regiments designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (acclimation) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (a) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (b) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40%, but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regiments, and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  16. River Bed Sediment Classification Using ADCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Description of physical aquatic habitat in rivers often includes data describing distributions of water depth, velocity and bed material type. Water depth and velocity in streams deeper than about 1 m may be continuously mapped using an acoustic Doppler current profiler from a moving boat. Herein ...

  17. A curved flume bed-load experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; Marsman, E.R.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this report the results of a bed-load experiment in a curved flume are presented. The experiments have been carried out in the Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics (L.F.M.) at the Delft University of Technology. The main object of the experiments is to develop and to test data-acquisition procedures for

  18. Effects Of Exercise During Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, S.; Berry, P; Cohen, M.; Danelis, J.; Deroshia, C.; Greenleaf, J.; Harris, B.; Keil, L.; Bernauer, E.; Bond, M.; Ellis, S.; Lee, P.; Selzer, R.; Wade, C.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiment to investigate effects of isotonic and isokinetic leg exercises in counteracting effects of bed rest upon physical and mental conditions of subjects. Data taken on capacity for work, endurance and strength, tolerance to sitting up, equilibrium, posture, gait, atrophy, mineralization and density of bones, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid and electrolyte balances, intermediary metabolism of muscles, mood, and performance.

  19. Spectra Statistics for the Odd-Odd Nucleus 86Nb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ren-Rong; ZHU Shun-Quan; CHENG Nan-Pu

    2001-01-01

    The energy levels of the odd-odd nucleus 86 Nb at low spins are calculated by using quasi-particles plus a rotor model. The distribution of the nearest-neighbour spacing and the spectral rigidity are studied. We find that the chaotic degree of the energy spectra increases with the increasing spin and reaches a maximum at I = 10; then it decreases gradually for spins above I = 10. The recoil term in the model Haniltonian makes the energy spectra slightly regular. The Coriolis force, however, makes the spectra chaotic and plays a major role in the spectral statistics of the odd-odd nucleus 86Nb.

  20. Final State Interactions Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan, Tomasz [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Juszczak, Cezary [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Sobczyk, Jan T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Final State Interactions effects are discussed in the context of Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-nucleus interactions. A role of Formation Time is explained and several models describing this effect are compared. Various observables which are sensitive to FSI effects are reviewed including pion-nucleus interaction and hadron yields in backward hemisphere. NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generator is described and its ability to understand neutral current $\\pi^0$ production data in $\\sim 1$ GeV neutrino flux experiments is demonstrated.

  1. Recent Developments in Neutrino/Antineutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfín, Jorge G.; Nieves, Juan; Sobczyk, Jan T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental results and developments in the theoretical treatment of neutrino-nucleus interactions in the energy range of 1–10 GeV are discussed. Difficulties in extracting neutrino-nucleon cross sections from neutrino-nucleus scattering data are explained and significance of understanding nuclear effects for neutrino oscillation experiments is stressed. Detailed discussions of the status of two-body current contribution in the kinematic region dominated by quasielastic scattering and specific features of partonic nuclear effects in weak DIS scattering are presented.

  2. An occultation of the inner Seyfert nucleus of NGC 4151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brightness of the unresolved nucleus of NGC 4151 was monitored over five months in 1983. Variations of ≅ 0.1 mag/day were observed in the U-band and no significant variation was found of the -OIII] 5007 A emission line. However, an event that was observed on the nights of the 10/11 and 11/12 February 1983 in the continuum around 5672 A has all the characteristics of an occultation. It is proposed that an inner synchrotron nucleus of ≅ 3 a.u. diameter was occulted by an opaque cloud ≅ 6 a.u. across on those two nights

  3. Sensitivity of reaction cross sections to halo nucleus density distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhazov, G. D.; Sarantsev, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    In order to clear up the sensitivity of the nucleus--nucleus reaction cross sections $\\sigma_R$ to the nuclear matter distributions in exotic halo nuclei, we have calculated the values of $\\sigma_R$ for scattering of $^6$He, $^{11}$Li, and $^{19}$C nuclei on several nuclear targets at the energy of 0.8 GeV/nucleon. The calculations were performed in the "rigid target" approximation to the Glauber theory, different shapes of the nuclear density distributions in $^6$He, $^{11}$Li, and $^{19}$C ...

  4. Hyper deformation and clustering configuration in 168Yb nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently an exhaustive experimental search for hyper deformation in 168Yb with β ∼ 1.0 and axis ratio 3:1 at spins 70-80ℎ has yielded negative result which is attributed either to the fact that the fission of the compound nucleus prevented population of hyper deformed states or that the amount of angular momentum brought into the compound system was not sufficient to allow population of hyper deformed states. A systematic theoretical search for detection of such hyper deformation in this nucleus using the cranked Nilsson Strutinsky method with tuning to fixed spins was undertaken

  5. Examination of the fission time of the Z =120 nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, A. K.; Ray, A.; Chatterjee, A.

    2016-04-01

    We show that the large difference in the measured lifetime for asymmetric fission of the highly excited (T ≈1.5 -MeV ) Z =120 nucleus as measured by the atomic techniques (crystal blocking and x-ray methods) with those measured by the nuclear techniques (mass-angle distribution and prefission neutron multiplicity) cannot be due to the different sensitivities of the atomic and nuclear techniques in different time domains. The claim of formation of a superheavy Z =120 nucleus with a high fission barrier on the basis of an observed long fission time by the atomic techniques is in direct conflict with all other available measurements and calculations.

  6. Electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus in Halo EFT

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer H.-W.; Phillips D.R.

    2010-01-01

    We compute electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus using an effective field theory that exploits the separation of scales in this halo system. We fix the parameters of the EFT from measured data on levels and scattering lengths in the 10Be plus neutron system. We then obtain predictions for the B(E1) strength of the 1/2+ to 1/2− transition in the 11Be nucleus. We also compute the charge radius of the ground state of 11Be. Agreement with experiment within the expected accurac...

  7. Low-energy rotational bands in the nucleus155Eu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katajanheimo, R.; Liljavirta, H.; Siivola, A.; Hammarén, E.; Liukkonen, E.

    1984-02-01

    Excited states in the nucleus155Eu have been produced during in-beam bombardments of a154Sm target with3He beams at 22 and 27 MeV. Decay gamma rays were detected using coincidence equipment optimized for low-energy photons. The level scheme is based on the observed γγ-coincidence relationships combined with the information on relative intensities. Tentatively suggested spin assignments follow from the apparent rotational character of the nucleus. Experimental observations are compared with predictions calculated from a particle-rotor model with a nonspheroidal Woods-Saxon potential.

  8. Formation and decay of a hot compound nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, B.V.; Dalmolin, F.T.; Dutra, M.; Santos, T.J., E-mail: brett@ita.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos SP (Brazil); Souza, S.R. [Universidade Federal de Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre RS, (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Donangelo, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de la Republica de Uruguay, Montevideo (Uruguay); Universidade Federal de Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre RS, (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The compound nucleus plays an important role in nuclear reactions over a wide range of projectile-target combinations and energies. The limits that angular momentum places on its formation and existence are, for the most part, well understood. The limits on its excitation energy are not as clear. Here we first analyze general geometrical and thermodynamical features of a hot compound nucleus. We then discuss the manners by which it can decay and close by speculating on the high energy limit to its formation and existence. (author)

  9. Recent Developments in Neutrino/Antineutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G. Morfín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental results and developments in the theoretical treatment of neutrino-nucleus interactions in the energy range of 1–10 GeV are discussed. Difficulties in extracting neutrino-nucleon cross sections from neutrino-nucleus scattering data are explained and significance of understanding nuclear effects for neutrino oscillation experiments is stressed. Detailed discussions of the status of two-body current contribution in the kinematic region dominated by quasielastic scattering and specific features of partonic nuclear effects in weak DIS scattering are presented.

  10. Updated Performance Evaluation of the ISS Water Processor Multifiltration Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth M.; Carter, Layne; Carpenter, Joyce; Orozco, Nicole; Weir, Natalee; Wilson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) produces potable water from a waste stream containing humidity condensate and urine distillate. The primary treatment process is achieved in the Multifiltration Beds, which include adsorbent media and ion exchange resin for the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic contaminants. Two Multifiltration Beds (MF Beds) were replaced on ISS in July 2010 after initial indication of inorganic breakthrough of the first bed and an increasing Total Organic Carbon (TOC) trend in the product water. The first bed was sampled and analyzed Sept 2011 through March 2012. The second MF Bed was sampled and analyzed June 2012 through August 2012. The water resident in the both beds was analyzed for various parameters to evaluate adsorbent loading, performance of the ion exchange resin, microbial activity, and generation of leachates from the ion exchange resin. Portions of the adsorbent media and ion exchange resin were sampled and subsequently desorbed to identify the primary contaminants removed at various points in the bed in addition to microbial analysis. Analysis of the second bed will be compared to results from the first bed to provide a comprehensive overview of how the Multifiltration Beds function on orbit. New data from the second bed supplements the analysis of the first bed (previously reported) and gives a more complete picture of breakthrough compounds, resin breakdown products, microbial activity, and difficult to remove compounds. The results of these investigations and implications to the operation of the WPA on ISS are documented in this paper.

  11. Pulse Detonation Engine Test Bed Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breisacher, Kevin J.

    2002-01-01

    A detonation is a supersonic combustion wave. A Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) repetitively creates a series of detonation waves to take advantage of rapid burning and high peak pressures to efficiently produce thrust. NASA Glenn Research Center's Combustion Branch has developed a PDE test bed that can reproduce the operating conditions that might be encountered in an actual engine. It allows the rapid and cost-efficient evaluation of the technical issues and technologies associated with these engines. The test bed is modular in design. It consists of various length sections of both 2- and 2.6- in. internal-diameter combustor tubes. These tubes can be bolted together to create a variety of combustor configurations. A series of bosses allow instrumentation to be inserted on the tubes. Dynamic pressure sensors and heat flux gauges have been used to characterize the performance of the test bed. The PDE test bed is designed to utilize an existing calorimeter (for heat load measurement) and windowed (for optical access) combustor sections. It uses hydrogen as the fuel, and oxygen and nitrogen are mixed to simulate air. An electronic controller is used to open the hydrogen and air valves (or a continuous flow of air is used) and to fire the spark at the appropriate times. Scheduled tests on the test bed include an evaluation of the pumping ability of the train of detonation waves for use in an ejector and an evaluation of the pollutants formed in a PDE combustor. Glenn's Combustion Branch uses the National Combustor Code (NCC) to perform numerical analyses of PDE's as well as to evaluate alternative detonative combustion devices. Pulse Detonation Engine testbed.

  12. Analysis of Intermediate-Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Spallation, Fission, and Fragmentation Reactions with the LAQGSM code

    CERN Document Server

    Mashnik, S G; Prael, R E; Sierk, A J

    2003-01-01

    The LAQGSM code has been recently developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to simulate nuclear reactions for proton radiography applications. We have benchmarked our code against most available measured data both for proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions at incident energies from 10 MeV to 800 GeV and have compared our results with predictions of other current models used by the nuclear community. Here, we present a brief description of our code and show illustrative results obtained with LAQGSM for neutron spectra measured recently by Nakamura's groups for reactions induced by light and medium nuclei on targets from C to Pb at several incident energies from 95 to 600 MeV/nucleon and with the recent GSI measurements of spallation, fission, and fragmentation yields from A+p and A+A reactions at incident energies near and below 1 GeV/nucleon. Further necessary work is outlined.

  13. Centerline Bed Elevation Profile of Sand Bed Channel due to Bar Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholibon, D. A.; Ariffin, J.; Abdullah, J.; Muhamad, N. S.

    2016-07-01

    Numerous data on bar formation have been accumulated yet the methods to predict bar geometry especially bar height are still insufficient. Objectives of this study to determine the trend in term of a significant difference of centreline bed elevation profile along the longitudinal distance. This can be investigate by carried out an experimental work in an erodible sand bed channel using a large-scale physical river model. The study included the various hydraulic characteristics with steady flow rates and sediment supply. An experimental work consists of four matrices of flow rate and channel width with other variables namely grains size and bed slope were kept constant. Analysis have included the discussion on a significant difference of centreline bed elevation profile along the longitudinal distance. As a conclusion the higher velocity in the smaller channel width have induced erosion of the banks that resulted in elevation increase while the larger flow rates have contributed to higher elevation.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF CYLINDER-TO-BED HEAT TRANSFER IN AGITATED FLUIDIZED BEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cylinder-to-bed heat transfer in agitated fluidized beds was studied experimentally.In the experiments, the aluminum particles were used as bed material, the diameter of which ranges from 0.5mm to 2mm.The effects of gas velocity, particles size, and agitator rotary speed on heat transfer were studied.From the experimental results, we have come to the following conclusions: (1) There are optimal ranges for airflow velocity and rotary speed to get optimal heat transfer coefficient; (2) The cylinder-to-bed heat transfer is greatly affected by gas velocity, rotary speed and particles sizes and the effect of rotary speed on heat transfer is similar to that of gas velocity; (3) Higher heat transfer coefficient is obtained with smaller particles.

  15. Fluctuations and time scales for bed-load sediment motion over a smooth bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Ballio n; Alessio Radice

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented for experiments of bed-load sediment transport over a plane, smooth bed. The smooth-bed configuration, though not adequate for mimicking natural streams, enables the effects of bed roughness to be filtered out, thus, highlighting the role of flow turbulence for particle dynamics. Sediments were individually tracked along their paths, measuring position and velocity of the individual grains. A number of analyses were then applied to the data: probability density function, auto-correla-tion, and spectra of the grain velocity. Several Lagrangian time scales of particle motion were obtained and compared to available data for the turbulent flow field to determine a phenomenological inter-pretation of the process.

  16. Measuring bed shear stress along vegetated river beds using FST-hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann-Evans, B N; Davies, R; Falconer, R A

    2008-09-01

    The measurement of the bed shear stress along vegetated river beds is essential for accurately predicting the water level, velocity and solute and sediment transport fluxes in computational hydroenvironmental models. Details are given herein of an experimental and theoretical study to determine the bed boundary shear stress along vegetated river beds introducing a novel field measuring method, namely the FliessWasserStammtisch (FST)-hemispheres. Although investigations have been conducted previously for sedimentary channels using the FST-hemispheres, this preliminary study is thought to be the first time that such hemispheres have been used to investigate the bed shear stresses in vegetated channels. FST-hemispheres were first developed by Statzner and Müller [1989. Standard hemispheres as indicators of flow characteristics in lotic benthos research. Freshwater Biology 21, 445-459] to act as an integrated indicator of the gross hydrodynamic stresses present near the bed. Test and validation data were found to be at least of the same order of magnitude for the stresses predicted from literature for sedimentary channels, with this study establishing the commencement of a database of calibrated FST-hemisphere laboratory data for vegetated channel beds. In a series of experiments, depths ranging from 0.1 to 0.28 m were considered, equating directly to comparable conditions in small rivers or streams. The results of this study provide a basis for enabling the FST-hemispheres to be used to evaluate the boundary shear stress for a wider range of applications in the future, including vegetated river beds.

  17. Comparison of packed bed and fluidized bed membrane reactors for methane reforming

    OpenAIRE

    Gallucci, Fausto; Sint Annaland, van, Martin; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the performance of different membrane reactor concepts, both fluidized bed and packed bed membrane reactors, have been compared for the reforming of methane for the production of ultra-pure hydrogen. Using detailed theoretical models, the required membrane area to reach a given conversion and the prevailing temperature profiles have been compared. The extent of mass and heat transfer limitations in the different reactors have been evaluated, and strategies to decrease (or avoid) ...

  18. A comparative analysis of mechanisms of fast light particles production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low and intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Denikin, A S

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics and the mechanisms of formation of pre-equilibrium light particles in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low and intermediate energies are discussed in terms of a classical four-body model. The energy and angular distributions of light particles have been calculated. It has been found that at energies lower than 50A MeV the formation of the most high-energy part of the nuclear spectrum occurs at the expense of the acceleration of light target particles with the mean field of the projectile. The obtained data are in good agreement with available experimental data

  19. Prevention and Control of Bed Bugs in Residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a backpack Bed bugs along a mattress seam Bed bugs on the underside of a box ... Controlling an infestation requires very detailed work, much moving and disassembly of furniture, and specialty equipment. Careful ...

  20. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Renzo; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Tustin, Aaron W; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z

    2015-02-01

    Populations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, have recently undergone explosive growth. Bed bugs share many important traits with triatomine insects, but it remains unclear whether these similarities include the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Here, we show efficient and bidirectional transmission of T. cruzi between hosts and bed bugs in a laboratory environment. Most bed bugs that fed on experimentally infected mice acquired the parasite. A majority of previously uninfected mice became infected after a period of cohabitation with exposed bed bugs. T. cruzi was also transmitted to mice after the feces of infected bed bugs were applied directly to broken host skin. Quantitative bed bug defecation measures were similar to those of important triatomine vectors. Our findings suggest that the common bed bug may be a competent vector of T. cruzi and could pose a risk for vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease. PMID:25404068

  1. Biomass ash - bed material interactions leading to agglomeration in fluidised bed combustion and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, H.J.M.; Hofmans, H.; Huijnen, R.; Kastelein, R.; Kiel, J.H.A. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    The present study has been aimed at improving the fundamental understanding of mechanisms underlying agglomeration and defluidisation in fluidised bed combustion and gasification of biomass and waste. To this purpose dedicated lab-scale static heating and fluidisation experiments have been conducted with carefully selected and prepared ashes and bed materials, viz. straw ash/sand and willow ash/sand mixtures, mullite subjected to straw gasification and artificially coated mullite. The main conclusion is that ash/bed material interaction processes are very important and often determine the bed agglomeration and defluidisation tendency. In the static heating experiments with both ash/sand mixtures, partial melting-segregation of ash components and dissolution/reaction with the bed material are processes that determine the melt composition. This melt composition and behaviour can deviate considerably form expectations based on ash-only data. Artificially coated bed materials prove to be very useful for systematic studies on the influence of coating composition and thickness on agglomeration tendency. For the coated mullite samples, different stages in the defluidisation process are identified and the influence of coating properties (thickness, composition, morphology) and operating parameters is elucidated. The behaviour of the mullite appears to be dominated by a remnant glass phase. On the one hand, this glass phase accounts for an alkali-getter capability, while on the other hand it is mainly responsible for agglomeration at temperatures {>=} 800C. 3 refs.

  2. Deleterious Thermal Effects Due To Randomized Flow Paths in Pebble Bed, and Particle Bed Style Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    A review of literature associated with Pebble Bed and Particle Bed reactor core research has revealed a systemic problem inherent to reactor core concepts which utilize randomized rather than structured coolant channel flow paths. For both the Pebble Bed and Particle Bed Reactor designs; case studies reveal that for indeterminate reasons, regions within the core would suffer from excessive heating leading to thermal runaway and localized fuel melting. A thermal Computational Fluid Dynamics model was utilized to verify that In both the Pebble Bed and Particle Bed Reactor concepts randomized coolant channel pathways combined with localized high temperature regions would work together to resist the flow of coolant diverting it away from where it is needed the most to cooler less resistive pathways where it is needed the least. In other words given the choice via randomized coolant pathways the reactor coolant will take the path of least resistance, and hot zones offer the highest resistance. Having identified the relationship between randomized coolant channel pathways and localized fuel melting it is now safe to assume that other reactor concepts that utilize randomized coolant pathways such as the foam core reactor are also susceptible to this phenomenon.

  3. Flow Pattern Identification of Fluidized Beds Using ECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Liu; W.Q. Yang; H. Wang; G. Yan; Z. Pan

    2001-01-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) was applied in measuring solids distribution in square circulating fluidized beds. The fluidization conditions varied from bubbling fluidized bed to circulating fluidized bed. In the whole range of fluidization conditions, ECT was able to instantaneously provide the solids concentration and voids distributions in the fluidized beds. According to the acquired data from ECT and reconstructed image,different fluidization regimes can also be identified.

  4. Model for the Evolving Bed Surface around an Offshore Monopile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Peres Akrawi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the bed surface around an offshore monopile. The model has been designed from measured laboratory bed surfaces and is shown to reproduce these satisfactorily for both scouring and backfilling. The local rate of the bed elevation is assumed to satisfy a certain...... general parametrized surface. The model also accounts for sliding of sediment particles when the angle of the local bed slope exceeds the angle of repose....

  5. Collecting aerosol in airflow with a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSB) is a highly efficient filter that takes the advantage of both fluidized beds and fixed beds. This paper presents the research to collect aerosol in airflow with a MSB. The filtering model of MSB is established with its parameters including magnetic field intensity,gas superficial velocity, average grain-size, and bed height on thecollection efficiency of MSB. The model is verified by experiments.

  6. Empirical Example of Nucleus with Transitional Dynamical Symmetry X(5)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大立; 赵惠英

    2002-01-01

    By analysing the energy spectrum, E2 transition rates and branching ratios, it is shown explicitly that the nucleus 150Nd provides an empirical example with X(5) symmetry at the critical point of the transition from U(5) to SU(3) symmetry.

  7. Nucleus accumbens dopamine receptors in the consolidation of spatial memory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mele, A.; Avena, M.; Roullet, P.; Leonibus, E. de; Mandillo, S.; Sargolini, F.; Coccurello, R.; Oliverio, A.

    2004-01-01

    Nucleus accumbens dopamine is known to play an important role in motor activity and in behaviours governed by drugs and natural reinforcers, as well as in non-associative forms of learning. At the same time, activation of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors has been suggested to promote intracellular event

  8. Three-dimensional organization of the human interphase nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); C. Münkel (Christian); W. Waldeck (Waldemar); J. Langowski (Jörg)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractDespite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its three-dimensional structure is widely unknown, although it is important for gene regulation and replication. For a long time the interphase nucleus has been viewed as a 'spaghetti soup' of DNA without much internal structur

  9. Three-dimensional organization of the human interphase nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); M. Wachsmuth (Malte); W. Waldeck (Waldemar); J. Langowski (Jörg)

    2002-01-01

    markdownabstractTo approach the three-dimensional organization of the human cell nucleus, the structural-, scaling- and dynamic properties of interphase chromosomes and cell nuclei were simulated with Monte Carlo and Brownian Dynamics methods. The 30 nm chromatin fibre was folded according to the Mu

  10. Three-dimensional organization of the human interphase nucleus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); M. Wachsmuth (Malte); W. Waldeck (Waldemar); J. Langowski (Jörg)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTo approach the three-dimensional organization of the human cell nucleus, the structural-, scaling- and dynamic properties of interphase chromosomes and cell nuclei were simulated with Monte Carlo and Brownian Dynamics methods. The 30 nm chromatin fibre was folded according to the Multi-

  11. Three-dimensional organization of the human interphase nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); M. Wachsmuth (Malte); W. Waldeck (Waldemar); J. Langowski (Jörg)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTo approach the three-dimensional organization of the human cell nucleus, the structural-, scaling- and dynamic properties of interphase chromosomes and cell nuclei were simulated with Monte Carlo and Brownian Dynamics methods. The 30 nm chromatin fibre was folded according to the Mul

  12. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Ke-Mian [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Chang, Chia-Chun [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shen, Qing-Ji [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); Sung, Li-Ying, E-mail: liyingsung@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: jilong.liu@dpag.ox.ac.uk [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  13. Theory status of quarkonium production in proton-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Lansberg, J P

    2015-01-01

    I give a brief overview of the recent theoretical progress in the study of quarkonium production in proton-nucleus collisions in view of the recent LHC and RHIC results. A special emphasis is put on the excited states such as the psi', Upsilon(2S) and Upsilon(3S).

  14. Parity non-conserving effects in neutron-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present lecture reviews the motivations which led to study the contribution of the neutron-nucleus component to parity-non-conserving effects observed in medium-heavy nuclei and considers its present status. It is shown that it cannot account for those experimental data. The order interpretation of these effects, which cannot lead to precise statements, is schematically described

  15. Saturating Cronin effect in ultrarelativistic proton-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Papp, G; Fái, G; Papp, Gabor; Levai, Peter; Fai, George

    2000-01-01

    Pion and photon production cross sections are analyzed in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions at energies 20 GeV < s^1/2 < 60 GeV. We separate the proton-proton and nuclear contributions to transverse-momentum broadening and suggest a new mechanism for the nuclear enhancement in the high transverse-momentum region.

  16. RELATIVISTIC CALCULATIONS OF THE SUPERHEAVY NUCLEUS 114-298

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOERSMA, HF

    1993-01-01

    We investigate ground-state properties of the superheavy nucleus with N = 184 and Z = 114, (298)114, using conventional relativistic mean-field theory and density-dependent mean-field theory, which reproduces Dirac-Brueckner calculations in nuclear matter. Our calculations provide support for N = 18

  17. Deexcitation of superdeformed bands in the nucleus Tb-151

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finck, C; Appelbe, D; Beck, FA; Byrski, T; Cullen, D; Curien, D; deFrance, G; Duchene, G; Erturk, S; Haas, B; Khadiri, N; Kharraja, B; Prevost, D; Rigollet, C; Stezowski, O; Twin, P; Vivien, JP; Zuber, K

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work is to get more informations about the decay-out of superdeformed bands. One of the best candidates in the mass A similar or equal to 150 region for that kind of research is the nucleus Tb-151. From previous works, it has been established that the first excited band goes lower in

  18. Rapid feedback processing in human nucleus accumbens and motor thalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schüller, T.; Gründler, T.O.J.; Jocham, G.; Klein, T.A.; Timmermann, L.; Visser-Vandewalle, V.E.R.M.; Kuhn, J.

    2015-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and thalamus are integral parts in models of feedback processing. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been successfully employed to alleviate symptoms of psychiatric conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome (TS). Common target structu

  19. Fluidized Bed Asbestos Sampler Design and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen E. Wright; Barry H. O' Brien

    2007-12-01

    A large number of samples are required to characterize a site contaminated with asbestos from previous mine or other industrial operations. Current methods, such as EPA Region 10’s glovebox method, or the Berman Elutriator method are time consuming and costly primarily because the equipment is difficult to decontaminate between samples. EPA desires a shorter and less costly method for characterizing soil samples for asbestos. The objective of this was to design and test a qualitative asbestos sampler that operates as a fluidized bed. The proposed sampler employs a conical spouted bed to vigorously mix the soil and separate fine particulate including asbestos fibers on filters. The filters are then analyzed using transmission electron microscopy for presence of asbestos. During initial testing of a glass prototype using ASTM 20/30 sand and clay fines as asbestos surrogates, fine particulate adhered to the sides of the glass vessel and the tubing to the collection filter – presumably due to static charge on the fine particulate. This limited the fines recovery to ~5% of the amount added to the sand surrogate. A second prototype was constructed of stainless steel, which improved fines recovery to about 10%. Fines recovery was increased to 15% by either humidifying the inlet air or introducing a voltage probe in the air space above the sample. Since this was not a substantial improvement, testing using the steel prototype proceeded without using these techniques. Final testing of the second prototype using asbestos suggests that the fluidized bed is considerably more sensitive than the Berman elutriator method. Using a sand/tremolite mixture with 0.005% tremolite, the Berman elutriator did not segregate any asbestos structures while the fluidized bed segregated an average of 11.7. The fluidized bed was also able to segregate structures in samples containing asbestos at a 0.0001% concentration, while the Berman elutriator method did not detect any fibers at this

  20. Experimental modelling of outburst flood - bed interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrivick, J. L.; Xie, Z.; Sleigh, A.; Hubbard, M.

    2009-04-01

    Outburst floods are a sudden release and advancing wave of water and sediment, with a peak discharge that is often several orders of magnitude greater than perennial flows. Common outburst floods from natural sources include those from glacial and moraine-impounded lakes, freshwater dyke and levee bursts, volcanic debris dams, landslides, avalanches, coastal bay-bars, and those from tree or vegetation dams. Outburst flood hazards are regularly incorporated into risk assessments for urban, coastal and mountainous areas, for example. Outburst flood hazards are primarily due to direct impacts, caused by a frontal surge wave, from debris within a flow body, and from the mass and consistency of the flows. A number of secondary impacts also pose hazards, including widespread deposition of sediment and blocked tributary streams. It is rapid landscape change, which is achieved the mobilization and redistribution of sediment that causes one of the greatest hazards due to outburst floods. The aim of this project is therefore to parameterise hydrodynamic - sedimentary interactions in experimental outburst floods. Specifically, this project applies laboratory flume modelling, which offers a hitherto untapped opportunity for examining complex interactions between water and sediment within outburst floods. The experimental set-up is of a tradition lock-gate design with a straight 4 m long tank. Hydraulics are scaled at 1:20 froude scale and the following controls on frontal wave flow-bed interactions and hence on rapid landscape change are being investigated: 1. Pre-existing mobile sediment effects, fixed bed roughness effects, sediment concentration effects, mobile bed effects. An emphasis is being maintained on examining the downstream temporal and spatial change in physical character of the water / sediment frontal wave. Facilities are state-of-the-art with a fully-automated laser bed-profiler to measure bed elevation after a run, Seatek arrays to measure transient flow