WorldWideScience

Sample records for anterograde transport requires

  1. Peri-Golgi vesicles contain retrograde but not anterograde proteins consistent with the cisternal progression model of intra-Golgi transport

    OpenAIRE

    José A Martínez-Menárguez; Prekeris, Rytis; Oorschot, Viola M J; Scheller, Richard; Slot, Jan W.; Geuze, Hans J.; Klumperman, Judith

    2001-01-01

    A cisternal progression mode of intra-Golgi transport requires that Golgi resident proteins recycle by peri-Golgi vesicles, whereas the alternative model of vesicular transport predicts anterograde cargo proteins to be present in such vesicles. We have used quantitative immuno-EM on NRK cells to distinguish peri-Golgi vesicles from other vesicles in the Golgi region. We found significant levels of the Golgi resident enzyme mannosidase II and the transport machinery proteins giantin, KDEL-rece...

  2. Calsyntenin-1 shelters APP from proteolytic processing during anterograde axonal transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Steuble

    2012-06-01

    Endocytosis of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP is thought to represent the major source of substrate for the production of the amyloidogenic Aβ peptide by the β-secretase BACE1. The irreversible nature of proteolytic cleavage implies the existence of an efficient replenishment route for APP from its sites of synthesis to the cell surface. We recently found that APP exits the trans-Golgi network in intimate association with calsyntenin-1, a transmembrane cargo-docking protein for Kinesin-1-mediated vesicular transport. Here we characterized the function of calsyntenin-1 in neuronal APP transport using selective immunoisolation of intracellular trafficking organelles, immunocytochemistry, live-imaging, and RNAi. We found that APP is co-transported with calsyntenin-1 along axons to early endosomes in the central region of growth cones in carriers that exclude the α-secretase ADAM10. Intriguingly, calsyntenin-1/APP organelles contained BACE1, suggesting premature cleavage of APP along its anterograde path. However, we found that APP contained in calsyntenin-1/APP organelles was stable. We further analyzed vesicular trafficking of APP in cultured hippocampal neurons, in which calsyntenin-1 was reduced by RNAi. We found a markedly increased co-localization of APP and ADAM10 in axons and growth cones, along with increased proteolytic processing of APP and Aβ secretion in these neurons. This suggested that the reduced capacity for calsyntenin-1-dependent APP transport resulted in mis-sorting of APP into additional axonal carriers and, therefore, the premature encounter of unprotected APP with its ectodomain proteases. In combination, our results characterize calsyntenin-1/APP organelles as carriers for sheltered anterograde axonal transport of APP.

  3. Anterograde Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erdogan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Memory can be divided into two categories (i.e. short term memory and long term memory according to time span. Information at our long term memory that can be remembered with conscious effort are placed in declarative memory. Information that can not be remembered conciously are placed in nondeclarative memory. The definition of anterograde amnesia is inability to generate new memories after the event causing amnesia. Episodic and semantic memories are usually unaffected among patients’ who had such amnesia. Anterograde amnesia could mostly result from head trauma but in some cases the cause could be serebrovascular events, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, santral nervous system enfections, anoxia or various substances. Medial temporal lobe and medial diencephalon are two brain regions mainly related with this condition. Medial temporal lobe is consisted of hippocampus, amygdala, parahippocampal cortex, perirhinal cortex and entorhinal cortex. Hypothalamus, thalamus, mamillary bodies and several thalamic nucleases compose medial diencephalon. Fornix and rarely serebellum damage may also play role in the development of anterograde amnesia. After the famous H.M case, who had anterograde amnesia after an epileptic surgery operation, hippocampus has been placed in the focus of memory researches. In the literature there are several reports evaluating brain tissues of amnesic patients at postmortem stage. Postmortem histological evaluations consistently revealed hippocampal neuronal loss among these patients’ brain tissues. Benzodiazepines usually cause short term anterograde amnesia. Benzodiazepine receptors are allosteric modulatory sites on gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA-A receptors. GABA-A receptors composed of five subunits and anterograde amnesia emerges by means of alfa 1 subunit. Anterograde amnesia has been suggested to occur by the blocking of long term potentiation in hippocampus and piriform cortex. For the treatment of the anterograde

  4. Anterograde transport blockade precedes deficits in retrograde transport in the visual projection of the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Dengler-Crish

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Axonal transport deficits have been reported as an early pathology in several neurodegenerative disorders, including glaucoma. However, the progression and mechanisms of these deficits are poorly understood. Previous work suggests that anterograde transport is affected earlier and to a larger degree than retrograde transport, yet this has never been examined directly in vivo. Using combined anterograde and retrograde tract tracing methods, we examined the time-course of anterograde and retrograde transport deficits in the retinofugal projection in pre-glaucomatous (3 month-old and glaucomatous (9-13 month old DBA/2J mice. DBA/2J-Gpnmb+ mice were used as a control strain and were shown to have similar retinal ganglion cell densities as C57BL/6J control mice—a strain commonly investigated in the field of vision research. Using cholera toxin-B injections into the eye and FluoroGold injections into the superior colliculus (SC, we were able to measure anterograde and retrograde transport in the primary visual projection. In DBA/2J, anterograde transport from the retina to superior colliculus (SC was decreased by 69% in the 9-10 month-old age group, while retrograde transport was only reduced by 23% from levels seen in pre-glaucomatous mice. Despite this minor reduction, retrograde transport remained largely intact in these glaucomatous age groups until 13-months of age. These findings indicate that axonal transport deficits occur in semi-functional axons that are still connected to their brain targets. Structural persistence as determined by presence of estrogen-related receptor beta label in the superficial SC was maintained beyond time-points where reductions in retrograde transport occurred, also supporting that transport deficits may be due to physiological or functional abnormalities as opposed to overt structural loss.

  5. A Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 Mutant Virus Specifying a Carboxyl-Terminal Truncation of Glycoprotein E Is Defective in Anterograde Neuronal Transport in Rabbits and Calves▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Z. F.; M.C.S. Brum; Doster, A.; Jones, C.; Chowdhury, S I

    2008-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) is an important component of the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in cattle. The ability of BHV-1 to transport anterogradely from neuronal cell bodies in trigeminal ganglia (TG) to nerve ending in the noses and corneas of infected cattle following reactivation from latency plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of BRDC and maintenance of BHV-1 in the cattle population. We have constructed a BHV-1 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone by i...

  6. DBZ regulates cortical cell positioning and neurite development by sustaining the anterograde transport of Lis1 and DISC1 through control of Ndel1 dual-phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Masayuki; Iguchi, Tokuichi; Hattori, Tsuyoshi; Matsuzaki, Shinsuke; Koyama, Yoshihisa; Taniguchi, Manabu; Komada, Munekazu; Xie, Min-Jue; Yagi, Hideshi; Shimizu, Shoko; Konishi, Yoshiyuki; Omi, Minoru; Yoshimi, Tomohiko; Tachibana, Taro; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Katayama, Taiichi; Ito, Akira; Hirotsune, Shinji; Tohyama, Masaya; Sato, Makoto

    2015-02-18

    Cell positioning and neuronal network formation are crucial for proper brain function. Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is anterogradely transported to the neurite tips, together with Lis1, and functions in neurite extension via suppression of GSK3β activity. Then, transported Lis1 is retrogradely transported and functions in cell migration. Here, we show that DISC1-binding zinc finger protein (DBZ), together with DISC1, regulates mouse cortical cell positioning and neurite development in vivo. DBZ hindered Ndel1 phosphorylation at threonine 219 and serine 251. DBZ depletion or expression of a double-phosphorylated mimetic form of Ndel1 impaired the transport of Lis1 and DISC1 to the neurite tips and hampered microtubule elongation. Moreover, application of DISC1 or a GSK3β inhibitor rescued the impairments caused by DBZ insufficiency or double-phosphorylated Ndel1 expression. We concluded that DBZ controls cell positioning and neurite development by interfering with Ndel1 from disproportionate phosphorylation, which is critical for appropriate anterograde transport of the DISC1-complex. PMID:25698733

  7. Transportation System Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  8. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  9. Mechanism underlying the anterograde transport of the influenza A virus transmembrane proteins and genome in host cytoplasm%甲型流感病毒蛋白和遗传物质在宿主细胞质内顺向转运过程及其机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池晓娟; 王松; 黄一帆; 陈吉龙

    2012-01-01

    流感病毒的蛋白和基因组在宿主细胞内能否正确地转运到相关部位,直接影响到病毒颗粒的形态发生.流感病毒跨膜蛋白(HA、NA和M2)主要通过宿主细胞的运输膜泡实现转运,而宿主细胞的蛋白转运机器参与了这一过程.新合成的流感病毒核糖核蛋白复合物(vRNPs)出核后,通过与活化的Rab 11相结合,聚集于邻近微管组织中心(MTOC)的胞内体.然后以运输小膜泡的形式,沿着MTOC的微管网络向细胞膜方向转运.跨膜蛋白和基因组在细胞质内的转运受一些宿主因子的调控,如ARHGAP21和小G蛋白Cdc42能够调节NA蛋白向细胞膜转运,Rab11协助vRNPs从MTOC向细胞膜转运.文中主要讨论新合成的流感病毒跨膜蛋白和遗传物质在宿主细胞质内的顺向转运(Anterograde transport)过程与调控.%Influenza virus assembly requires the completion of viral protein and vRNP transport to the assembly site at the plasma membrane. Therefore, efficient regulation of intracellular transport of the viral proteins and vRNPs to the surface of the host cell is especially important for virus morphogenesis. Influenza A virus uses the machineries of host cells to transport its own components including ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) and three transmembrane proteins hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) and matrix 2 protein (M2). It has been shown that newly synthesized vRNPs are associated with active form of Rab 11 and accumulate at recycling endosomes adjacent to the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) following nuclear export. Subsequently, they are transported along the microtubule network toward the plasma membranes in cargo vesicles. The viral transmembrane proteins are translated on the rough endoplasmic reticulum and transported to the virus assembly site at the plasma membrane. It has been found that several host factors such as ARHGAP21 and GTPase Cdc42 are involved in regulation of intracellular trafficking of influenza A virus

  10. Global Land Transport Infrastructure Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Over the next four decades, global passenger and freight travel is expected to double over 2010 levels. In order to accommodate this growth, it is expected that the world will need to add nearly 25 million paved road lane-kilometres and 335 000 rail track kilometres. In addition, it is expected that between 45 000 square kilometres and 77 000 square kilometres of new parking spaces will be added to accommodate vehicle stock growth. These land transport infrastructure additions, when combined with operations, maintenance and repairs, are expected to cost as much as USD 45 trillion by 2050. This publication reports on the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) analysis of infrastructure requirements to support projected road and rail travel through 2050, using the IEA Mobility Model. It considers land transport infrastructure additions to support travel growth to 2050. It also considers potential savings if countries pursue “avoid and shift” policies: in this scenario, cumulative global land transport infrastructure spending could decrease as much as USD 20 trillion by 2050 over baseline projections.

  11. Anterograde episodic memory in Korsakoff syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fama, Rosemary; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Sullivan, Edith V

    2012-06-01

    A profound anterograde memory deficit for information, regardless of the nature of the material, is the hallmark of Korsakoff syndrome, an amnesic condition resulting from severe thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Since the late nineteenth century when the Russian physician, S. S. Korsakoff, initially described this syndrome associated with "polyneuropathy," the observed global amnesia has been a primary focus of neuroscience and neuropsychology. In this review we highlight the historical studies that examined anterograde episodic memory processes in KS, present a timeline and evidence supporting the myriad theories proffered to account for this memory dysfunction, and summarize what is known about the neuroanatomical correlates and neural systems presumed affected in KS. Rigorous study of KS amnesia and associated memory disorders of other etiologies provide evidence for distinct mnemonic component processes and neural networks imperative for normal declarative and nondeclarative memory abilities and for mnemonic processes spared in KS, from whence emerged the appreciation that memory is not a unitary function. Debate continues regarding the qualitative and quantitative differences between KS and other amnesias and what brain regions and neural pathways are necessary and sufficient to produce KS amnesia. PMID:22644546

  12. Requirements for transporting the TMI-2 core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the requirements associated with the actual transport of core debris from the damaged Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The requirements are discussed under six headings: accountability, security, quality, safety, environment, and transportation

  13. USMC tactical motor transport lift requirements model

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Scott Andrew

    1995-01-01

    This thesis concentrates on developing a spreadable model that can be used by Marine logisticians in computing sustainment requirements and the resulting tactical motor transport lift requirements necessary to keep a notional sized maneuver element supported on a daily basis in the Marine Corps projected maneuver warfare environment. Sustainment computations are limited to resupplying the maneuver element with food, water, fuel, and ammunition. Using an "add-in" simulation package the plannin...

  14. Transport package maintenance requirements and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NuPac 125-B rail cask, which transports the damaged core debris from Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), is the only new spent-fuel rail shipping cask to be licensed in the United States within the last decade. EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. (EG ampersand G), acting on behalf of the US Department of Energy, is responsible for ensuring that those new casks and rail cars are properly maintained per regulatory requirements. Both the casks and rail cars have comprehensive in-service inspection and preventive maintenance programs, which are more involved than implied by the requirements. The TMI-2 shipping campaign is the most ambitious spent-fuel transport activity being conducted in the nuclear industry. The experience gained in this campaign, as it relates to maintenance of a transport system, should be of interest and have direct applicability to similar shipping activities planned in the years ahead

  15. A Model of Anterograde Oxygenated Lung Blood Flow in Acardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinakis, Sotirios; Burki, Marco; Abdel-Sayed, Saad; von Segesser, Ludwig Karl

    2016-01-01

    In extreme situations such as hyperacute rejection of heart transplant or major heart trauma, heart explantation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) hemodynamic support might be the only means for survival. In our previous model of acardia, pulmonary artery (PA) was clamped and did not receive any anterograde blood flow. A model of anterograde PA perfusion might be necessary to avoid ischemic pulmonary damage in prolonged ECMO in acardia. The aim of this study was to describe the surgical technique and to determine the feasibility of an anterograde lung perfusion in acardia through the anastomosis of the right internal mammary artery (RIMA) to the PA. A venoarterial cardiopulmonary bypass was established in three pigs (72 ± 2.6 kg) by the transjugular insertion to the caval axis of a double-staged cannula with carotid artery return. Heart was excised and ECMO was established as previously reported. Right internal mammary artery was harvested and after measurement of its output (93.3 ± 5.8 ml/min, representing 2.17% ± 0.15% of total pump flow), it was anastomosed to PA. Right internal mammary artery anastomosis to PA is a feasible, safe, and easy to perform maneuver assuring an anterograde lung perfusion in acardia. PMID:27442854

  16. Industrial Requirements for Thermodynamics and Transport Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriks, Eric; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Dohrn, Ralf;

    2010-01-01

    This work reports the results of an investigation on industrial requirements for thermodynamic and transport properties carried out by the Working Party on Thermodynamic and Transport properties (http://www.wp-ttp.dk/) of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering, EFCE (http...... collaboration. The main results are as follows. There is (still) an acute need for accurate, reliable, and thermodynamically consistent experimental data. Quality is more important than quantity. Similarly, there is a great need for reliable predictive, rather than correlative, models covering a wide range of...... compositions, temperatures, and pressures and capable of predicting primary (phase equilibrium) and secondary (enthalpy, heat capacity, etc.) properties. It is clear that the ideal of a single model covering all requirements is not achievable, but there is a consensus that this ideal should still provide the...

  17. Connections of the lateral reticular nucleus to the lateral vestibular nucleus in the rat. An anterograde tracing study with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.H. Ruigrok (Tom); M. Cella (Massimo); J. Voogd

    1995-01-01

    textabstractEfferent projections from the lateral reticular nucleus in the rat were investigated with anterograde transport of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin. Besides the well known mossy fibre connections to the cerebellar cortex and collaterals to the cerebellar nuclei, a substantial bilateral

  18. 9 CFR 88.4 - Requirements for transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for transport. 88.4... TRANSPORTATION OF EQUINES FOR SLAUGHTER § 88.4 Requirements for transport. (a) Prior to the commercial...) Complete and sign an owner-shipper certificate for each equine being transported. The...

  19. Neural Correlate of Anterograde Amnesia in Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Louis; Pignat, Jean-Michel; Bouzerda-Wahlen, Aurélie; Gabriel, Damien; Liverani, Maria Chiara; Lazeyras, François; Ptak, Radek; Richiardi, Jonas; Haller, Sven; Thorens, Gabriel; Zullino, Daniele F; Guggisberg, Adrian G; Schnider, Armin

    2015-09-01

    The neural correlate of anterograde amnesia in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is still debated. While the capacity to learn new information has been associated with integrity of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), previous studies indicated that the WKS is associated with diencephalic lesions, mainly in the mammillary bodies and anterior or dorsomedial thalamic nuclei. The present study tested the hypothesis that amnesia in WKS is associated with a disrupted neural circuit between diencephalic and hippocampal structures. High-density evoked potentials were recorded in four severely amnesic patients with chronic WKS, in five patients with chronic alcoholism without WKS, and in ten age matched controls. Participants performed a continuous recognition task of pictures previously shown to induce a left medial temporal lobe dependent positive potential between 250 and 350 ms. In addition, the integrity of the fornix was assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). WKS, but not alcoholic patients without WKS, showed absence of the early, left MTL dependent positive potential following immediate picture repetitions. DTI indicated disruption of the fornix, which connects diencephalic and hippocampal structures. The findings support an interpretation of anterograde amnesia in WKS as a consequence of a disconnection between diencephalic and MTL structures with deficient contribution of the MTL to rapid consolidation. PMID:25148770

  20. Transportation system requirements document. Revision 1 DCN01. Supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original Transportation System Requirements Document described the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of that document was to define the system-level requirements. These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presented an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. This revision of the document contains only the pages that have been modified

  1. Connections of the lateral reticular nucleus to the lateral vestibular nucleus in the rat. An anterograde tracing study with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin

    OpenAIRE

    Ruigrok, Tom; Cella, Massimo; Voogd, J.

    1995-01-01

    textabstractEfferent projections from the lateral reticular nucleus in the rat were investigated with anterograde transport of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin. Besides the well known mossy fibre connections to the cerebellar cortex and collaterals to the cerebellar nuclei, a substantial bilateral projection to the lateral vestibular nucleus was found. Terminal arborizations found within this nucleus appeared to detach from the reticulocerebellar fibres in the cerebellar white matter and en...

  2. 10 CFR 11.13 - Special requirements for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirements for transportation. 11.13 Section 11.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR... Authorization § 11.13 Special requirements for transportation. (a) All individuals who, after 365 days...

  3. Salt Repository Project transportation system interface requirements: Transportation system/repository receiving facility interface requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a preliminary review of the interface between the transportation system and the repository receiving facility for a nuclear waste mined geologic disposal system in salt. Criteria for generic cask and facility designs are developed. These criteria are derived by examining the interfaces that occur as a result of the operations needed to receive nuclear waste at a repository. These criteria provide the basis for design of a safe, operable, practical nuclear waste receiving facility. The processing functions required to move the shipping unit from the gate into the unloading area and back to the gate for dispatch are described. Criteria for a generic receiving facility are discussed but no specific facility design is presented or evaluated. The criteria are stated in general terms to allow application to a wide variety of cask and facility designs. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  4. A sinister cause of anterograde amnesia: painless aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, Michael D; Fossum, Kurt; Hounshell, Charles; Stolper, Katherine; Spear, Leigh; Semelrath, Kevin

    2015-07-01

    Aortic dissection is a frequently devastating diagnosis classically associated with severe chest pain.We present a case of painless aortic dissection with anterograde amnesia. An 84-year-old man was brought to the emergency department by ambulance, when his wife noted that he developed acute onset complete loss of short-term memory. Medical history was notable for a 4.5-cm fusiform thoracic aortic root aneurysm. On arrival,he denied pain or syncope.On examination, he was mildly hypotensive(110/59 mm Hg); and there were no murmurs, pulse deficits, or focal neurologic deficits. During his stay, he developed left flank pain. Chest radiography demonstrated subtle mediastinal widening and obscuration of the aortic knob compared with previous films. Computed tomography revealed an extensive intimal flap consistent with an aortic dissection involving the sinus of Valsalva and left renal artery. The patient subsequently developed acute onset chest pain after which he became unresponsive. Echocardiography demonstrated tamponade physiology.The family decided to transition to comfort care measures, and the patient died soon after.We identified 7 other cases in the literature of aortic dissection cases with presentations consistent with transient global amnesia,5 of which without neurologic deficits and 3 of which without pain. This case highlights the imperative of a thorough history and high index of suspicion for this catastrophic diagnosis in patients with transient global amnesia who otherwise might be expected to have an excellent prognosis and little need for diagnostic work-up. PMID:25649752

  5. Biotinylated dextran amine anterograde tracing of the canine corticospinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Han; Guangming Lv; Huiqun Wu; Dafeng Ji; Zhou Sun; Yaofu Li; Lemin Tang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was microinjected into the left cortical motor area of the canine brain. Fluorescence microscopy results showed that a large amount of BDA-labeled pyramidal cells were visible in the left cortical motor area after injection. In the left medulla oblongata, the BDA-labeled corticospinal tract was evenly distributed, with green fluorescence that had a clear boundary with the surrounding tissue. The BDA-positive corticospinal tract entered into the right lateral funiculus of the spinal cord and descended into the posterior part of the right lateral funiculus, close to the posterior horn, from cervical to sacral segments. There was a small amount of green fluorescence in the sacral segment. The distribution of BDA labeling in the canine central nervous system was consistent with the course of the corticospinal tract. Fluorescence labeling for BDA gradually diminished with time after injection. Our findings indicate that the BDA anterograde tracing technique can be used to visualize the localization and trajectory of the corticospinal tract in the canine central nervous system.

  6. Regulatory requirements for the transport of radioactive materials in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada is a major producer and shipper of radioactive material. Each year more than a million packages are transported in Canada. The safety record with the transport of RAM in Canada has historically been excellent. There have never been any serious injuries, overexposure or fatality or environmental consequences attributable to the radioactive nature of such material being transported or being involved in a transport accident. In Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the prime agency of the federal government entrusted with regulating all activities related to the use of nuclear energy and nuclear substances including the packaging and transport of nuclear substances. The mission of the CNSC is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security of the person and the environment and to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The division of responsibility for the regulation of transport of radioactive material has been split between Transport Canada and the CNSC. The governing Transport Canada's regulations are Transport of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Regulations and the CNSC regulations are Packaging and Transport of Nuclear Substances Regulations (PTNSR). Canada has actively participated in the development of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material since 1960. As an IAEA member state, Canada generally follows the requirements of IAEA regulations with few deviations. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) strongly supports Canada's international obligations to ensure safe packaging, transport, storage and disposal of nuclear substances, prescribed equipment and prescribed information. Prescribed equipment and prescribed information are defined in the CNSC General Nuclear Safety and Control Regulations. This paper presents the current CNSC regulatory requirements and initiatives taken by the CNSC to improve its effectiveness and efficiency

  7. Chlamydomonas IFT70/CrDYF-1 Is a Core Component of IFT Particle Complex B and Is Required for Flagellar Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Behal, Robert H.; Geimer, Stefan; Wang, Zhaohui; Williamson, Shana M.; Zhang, Haili; Cole, Douglas G.; Qin, Hongmin

    2010-01-01

    DYF-1 is a highly conserved protein essential for ciliogenesis in several model organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans, DYF-1 serves as an essential activator for an anterograde motor OSM-3 of intraflagellar transport (IFT), the ciliogenesis-required motility that mediates the transport of flagellar precursors and removal of turnover products. In zebrafish and Tetrahymena DYF-1 influences the cilia tubulin posttranslational modification and may have more ubiquitous function in ciliogenesis than...

  8. Ndel1-derived peptides modulate bidirectional transport of injected beads in the squid giant axon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Segal

    2012-01-01

    Bidirectional transport is a key issue in cellular biology. It requires coordination between microtubule-associated molecular motors that work in opposing directions. The major retrograde and anterograde motors involved in bidirectional transport are cytoplasmic dynein and conventional kinesin, respectively. It is clear that failures in molecular motor activity bear severe consequences, especially in the nervous system. Neuronal migration may be impaired during brain development, and impaired molecular motor activity in the adult is one of the hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases leading to neuronal cell death. The mechanisms that regulate or coordinate kinesin and dynein activity to generate bidirectional transport of the same cargo are of utmost importance. We examined how Ndel1, a cytoplasmic dynein binding protein, may regulate non-vesicular bidirectional transport. Soluble Ndel1 protein, Ndel1-derived peptides or control proteins were mixed with fluorescent beads, injected into the squid giant axon, and the bead movements were recorded using time-lapse microscopy. Automated tracking allowed for extraction and unbiased analysis of a large data set. Beads moved in both directions with a clear bias to the anterograde direction. Velocities were distributed over a broad range and were typically slower than those associated with fast vesicle transport. Ironically, the main effect of Ndel1 and its derived peptides was an enhancement of anterograde motion. We propose that they may function primarily by inhibition of dynein-dependent resistance, which suggests that both dynein and kinesin motors may remain engaged with microtubules during bidirectional transport.

  9. Space Transportation System Availability Requirement and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  10. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  11. Anterograde and Retrograde Amnesia of Place Discrimination in Retrosplenial Cortex and Hippocampal Lesioned Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haijima, Asahi; Ichitani, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Retrograde and anterograde amnesic effects of excitotoxic lesions of the rat retrosplenial cortex (RS) and hippocampus (HPC) were investigated. To test retrograde amnesia, rats were trained with two-arm place discrimination in a radial maze 4 wk and 1 d before surgery with a different arm pair, respectively. In the retention test 1 wk after…

  12. Analysis of near-term spent fuel transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer model was developed to quantify the transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs associated with shipping spent fuel in the commercial nucler fuel cycle in the near future. Results from this study indicate that alternative spent fuel shipping systems (consolidated or disassembled fuel elements and new casks designed for older fuel) will significantly reduce the transportation hardware requirements and costs for shipping spent fuel in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle, if there is no significant change in their operating/handling characteristics. It was also found that a more modest cost reduction results from increasing the fraction of spent fuel shipped by truck from 25% to 50%. Larger transportation cost reductions could be realized with further increases in the truck shipping fraction. Using the given set of assumptions, it was found that the existing spent fuel cask fleet size is generally adequate to perform the needed transportation services until a fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) begins to receive fuel (assumed in 1987). Once the FRP opens, up to 7 additional truck systems and 16 additional rail systems are required at the reference truck shipping fraction of 25%. For the 50% truck shipping fraction, 17 additional truck systems and 9 additional rail systems are required. If consolidated fuel only is shipped (25% by truck), 5 additional rail casks are required and the current truck cask fleet is more than adequate until at least 1995. Changes in assumptions could affect the results. Transportation costs for a federal interim storage program could total about $25M if the FRP begins receiving fuel in 1987 or about $95M if the FRP is delayed until 1989. This is due to an increased utilization of federal interim storage facility from 350 MTU for the reference scenario to about 750 MTU if reprocessing is delayed by two years

  13. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Adams, TImothy C.

    2008-01-01

    It is essential that management and engineering understand the need for an availability requirement for the customer's space transportation system as it enables the meeting of his needs, goal, and objectives. There are three types of availability, e.g., operational availability, achieved availability, or inherent availability. The basic definition of availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. The major difference is the inclusiveness of the functions within the mean downtime and the mean uptime. This paper will address tIe inherent availability which only addresses the mean downtime as that mean time to repair or the time to determine the failed article, remove it, install a replacement article and verify the functionality of the repaired system. The definitions of operational availability include the replacement hardware supply or maintenance delays and other non-design factors in the mean downtime. Also with inherent availability the mean uptime will only consider the mean time between failures (other availability definitions consider this as mean time between maintenance - preventive and corrective maintenance) that requires the repair of the system to be functional. It is also essential that management and engineering understand all influencing attributes relationships to each other and to the resultant inherent availability requirement. This visibility will provide the decision makers with the understanding necessary to place constraints on the design definition for the major drivers that will determine the inherent availability, safety, reliability, maintainability, and the life cycle cost of the fielded system provided the customer. This inherent availability requirement may be driven by the need to use a multiple launch approach to placing humans on the moon or the desire to control the number of spare parts required to support long stays in either orbit or on the surface of the moon or mars. It is

  14. Differences of Technical Requirements Between Transportation and Storage Metal Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The worldwide demand of storage facilities for spent fuels discharged from nuclear power stations is increasing to maintain sustainable operation of the nuclear power stations. The spent fuels are stored at first in the fuel pools (wet storage). When the spent fuels exceed the pool storage capacity, the fuels are transferred to the other storage facility located at reactor or away from reactor, which often adopts a dry storage technology. To use metal casks is one of the options for the dry storage facilities, and some storage facilities have already utilized large metal casks, whose original design concept were developed to transport the spent fuels from nuclear power stations to a reprocessing plant by trains, trucks or by sea-going vessels. It is widely understood that the technology of transportation casks developed up to now is able to apply to the storage casks without any significant design changes. Technical requirements on the design are discussed between the storage cask and the transportation cask to confirm of the understanding based on the assumption that the large metal cask is used for transportation and storage respectively. (author)

  15. Physical and transportation requirements for a FLIP fueled TRIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several major changes to the OSTR Physical Security Plan were required by the NRC prior to the August 1976 receipt and installation of a new core consisting entirely of FLIP fuel. The general nature of these changes will be reviewed along with several decisions we faced during their implementation. At the previous TRIGA Owners' Conference in Salt Lake City, Utah, we reported on Oregon's regulatory program for research reactor emergency response planning and physical security. The latter program was of particular interest to us in light of the projected FLIP fuel shipments. The impact of the State's program for physical security of FLIP fuel during transportation will be presented. (author)

  16. Anterograde jejunojejunal intussusception resulted in acute efferent loop syndrome after subtotal gastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung; Myun; Kwak; Jin; Kim; Sung; Ock; Suh

    2010-01-01

    Postoperative intussusception is an unusual clinical entity in adults,and is rarely encountered as a complication following gastric surgery.The most common type after gastric surgery is retrograde jejunogastric intussusception,and jejunojejunal intussusception has been rarely reported.We report a case of anterograde jejunojejunal intussusception after radical subtotal gastrectomy with Billroth Ⅱ anastomosis in a 38-year-old Korean woman with early gastric cancer,and include a review of the literature on thi...

  17. ARF Is Required for Maintenance of Yeast Golgi and Endosome Structure and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Gaynor, Erin C.; Chen, Chih-Ying; Emr, Scott D.; Graham, Todd R.

    1998-01-01

    ADP ribosylation factor (ARF) is thought to play a critical role in recruiting coatomer (COPI) to Golgi membranes to drive transport vesicle budding. Yeast strains harboring mutant COPI proteins exhibit defects in retrograde Golgi to endoplasmic reticulum protein transport and striking cargo-selective defects in anterograde endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi protein transport. To determine whether arf mutants exhibit similar phenotypes, the anterograde transport kinetics of multiple cargo protein...

  18. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport...

  19. Key requirements of packet transport network based on MPLS-TP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Yi, Xiaobo; Zhang, Hanzheng; Gong, Ping

    2009-11-01

    Requirement of packet transport network based on MPLS-TP are analyzed including in transport plane, OAM, survivability, QoS, control plane and management plane. MPLS-TP standard status is also introduced.

  20. Transport of radioactive materials and equipment. Requirements. (Provisional)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard is aimed at establishing the procedures that must be followed when transporting radioactive materials and equipment in Venezuelan Territory. The ''Consejo Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Industria Nuclear'' is responsible for their fulfillment and control

  1. No facilitator required for membrane transport of hydrogen sulfide

    OpenAIRE

    Mathai, John C.; Missner, Andreas; Kügler, Philipp; Saparov, Sapar M.; Zeidel, Mark L.; Lee, John K.; Pohl, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as a new and important member in the group of gaseous signaling molecules. However, the molecular transport mechanism has not yet been identified. Because of structural similarities with H2O, it was hypothesized that aquaporins may facilitate H2S transport across cell membranes. We tested this hypothesis by reconstituting the archeal aquaporin AfAQP from sulfide reducing bacteria Archaeoglobus fulgidus into planar membranes and by monitoring the resulting fa...

  2. Anterograde removal of broken femoral nails without opening the nonunion site: a new technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Antônio Berwanger de Amorim Cabrita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We describe a new technique for removing the distal fragments of broken intramedullary femoral nails without disturbing the nonunion site. METHODS: This technique involves the application of an AO distractor prior to the removal of the nail fragments, with subsequent removal of the proximal nail fragment in an anterograde fashion and removal of the distal fragment through a medial parapatellar approach. Impaction of the fracture site is then performed with a nail that is broader than the remaining fragmented material. RESULTS: Nails were removed from five patients using the technique described above without any complications. After a mean follow-up period of 61.8 months, none of these patients showed worsened knee osteoarthritis. CONCLUSION: The original technique described in this article allows surgeons to remove the distal fragment of fractured femoral intramedullary nails without opening the nonunion focus or using special surgical instruments.

  3. Unexpected anterograde amnesia associated with Buscopan used as a predmedication for endocscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    It has been known that peripheral adverse event is caused by peripheral antimuscarinic action, from hyoscine butylbromide (Buscopan; Boehringer Ingelheim, Germany)used as a premedication for endoscopy. However,symptoms or signs associated with the central nervous system are rarely reported in the field of anesthesiology and peripartum labor. This central anticholinergic syndrome is likely caused by blockade of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the central nervous system. There is no report on Buscopan-induced central anticholinergic syndrome in endoscopy room so far. Three middle-aged females unexpectedly suffered from anterograde amnesia after intramuscular injection of hyoscine butylbromide as an antispasmodic premedication for endoscopy at our endoscopy unit in the Health Promotion Center.

  4. Anterograde effects of a single electroconvulsive shock on inhibitory avoidance and on cued fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A single electroconvulsive shock (ECS or a sham ECS was administered to male 3-4-month-old Wistar rats 1, 2, and 4 h before training in an inhibitory avoidance test and in cued classical fear conditioning (measured by means of freezing time in a new environment. ECS impaired inhibitory avoidance at all times and, at 1 or 2 h before training, reduced freezing time before and after re-presentation of the ECS. These results are interpreted as a transient conditioned stimulus (CS-induced anxiolytic or analgesic effect lasting about 2 h after a single treatment, in addition to the known amnesic effect of the stimulus. This suggests that the effect of anterograde learning impairment is demonstrated unequivocally only when the analgesic/anxiolytic effect is over (about 4 h after ECS administration and that this impairment of learning is selective, affecting inhibitory avoidance but not classical fear conditioning to a discrete stimulus.

  5. The influence of contract form choice of the transport services ensuring on performance contracting entity requirement

    OpenAIRE

    Miloš POLIAK; Anna KRIŽANOVÁ; Štefánia SEMANOVÁ; Ľubica ŠTEFÁNIKOVÁ

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of the influence of contract form choice of the transport services ensuring on performance contracting entity requirement. In the first part, it describes the current state of transport services financing in the Slovak Republic and risk analysis, which is related to conclusion of the service contract in the transport services ensuring. The rest of the paper defines the impact of services contracts of ensuring the transport services on performance contracting ent...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1106-2 - Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compressed gas cylinders; requirements. 75.1106-2 Section 75.1106-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Fire Protection § 75.1106-2 Transportation of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; requirements. (a) Liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders transported into or through...

  7. Dopamine transporter inhibition is required for cocaine-induced stereotypy

    OpenAIRE

    Tilley, Michael R.; Gu, Howard H.

    2008-01-01

    The primary mechanism by which cocaine induces stereotypy has been difficult to discern because cocaine has three high affinity targets, the reuptake transporters for dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine, and serotonin. To dissect out the role of DAT in cocaine effects, we generated a knock-in mouse line with a cocaine insensitive DAT (DAT-CI mice). DAT-CI mice provide a powerful tool that can directly test whether DAT inhibition is important for cocaine-induced stereotypy. We found that acute coca...

  8. Phosphatidylserine flipping enhances membrane curvature and negative charge required for vesicular transport

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Peng; Baldridge, Ryan D.; Chi, Richard J.; Burd, Christopher G.; Graham, Todd R.

    2013-01-01

    Vesicle-mediated protein transport between organelles of the secretory and endocytic pathways is strongly influenced by the composition and organization of membrane lipids. In budding yeast, protein transport between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and early endosome (EE) requires Drs2, a phospholipid translocase in the type IV P-type ATPase family. However, downstream effectors of Drs2 and specific phospholipid substrate requirements for protein transport in this pathway are unknown. Here, we ...

  9. Anterograde Activin signaling regulates postsynaptic membrane potential and GluRIIA/B abundance at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Jun Kim

    Full Text Available Members of the TGF-β superfamily play numerous roles in nervous system development and function. In Drosophila, retrograde BMP signaling at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ is required presynaptically for proper synapse growth and neurotransmitter release. In this study, we analyzed whether the Activin branch of the TGF-β superfamily also contributes to NMJ development and function. We find that elimination of the Activin/TGF-β type I receptor babo, or its downstream signal transducer smox, does not affect presynaptic NMJ growth or evoked excitatory junctional potentials (EJPs, but instead results in a number of postsynaptic defects including depolarized membrane potential, small size and frequency of miniature excitatory junction potentials (mEJPs, and decreased synaptic densities of the glutamate receptors GluRIIA and B. The majority of the defective smox synaptic phenotypes were rescued by muscle-specific expression of a smox transgene. Furthermore, a mutation in actβ, an Activin-like ligand that is strongly expressed in motor neurons, phenocopies babo and smox loss-of-function alleles. Our results demonstrate that anterograde Activin/TGF-β signaling at the Drosophila NMJ is crucial for achieving normal abundance and localization of several important postsynaptic signaling molecules and for regulating postsynaptic membrane physiology. Together with the well-established presynaptic role of the retrograde BMP signaling, our findings indicate that the two branches of the TGF-β superfamily are differentially deployed on each side of the Drosophila NMJ synapse to regulate distinct aspects of its development and function.

  10. Global energy transports and the influence of clouds on transport requirements - A satellite analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Byung-Ju; Smith, Eric A.

    1992-01-01

    This report investigates the impact of differential net radiative heating on 2D energy transports within the atmosphere ocean system and the role of clouds on this process. The 2D mean energy transports, in answer to zonal and meridional gradients in the net radiation field, show an east-west coupled dipole structure in which the Pacific acts as the major energy source and North Africa as the major energy sink. It is demonstrated that the dipole is embedded in the secondary energy transports arising mainly from the differential heating between land and oceans in the tropics in which the tropical east-west (zonal) transports are up to 30 percent of the tropical north-south (meridional) transports.

  11. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste transportation regulations and requirements study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to identify the regulations and requirements for transporting greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and to identify planning activities that need to be accomplished in preparation for transporting GTCC LLW. The regulations and requirements for transporting hazardous materials, of which GTCC LLW is included, are complex and include several Federal agencies, state and local governments, and Indian tribes. This report is divided into five sections and three appendices. Section 1 introduces the report. Section 2 identifies and discusses the transportation regulations and requirements. The regulations and requirements are divided into Federal, state, local government, and Indian tribes subsections. This report does not identify the regulations or requirements of specific state, local government, and Indian tribes, since the storage, treatment, and disposal facility locations and transportation routes have not been specifically identified. Section 3 identifies the planning needed to ensure that all transportation activities are in compliance with the regulations and requirements. It is divided into (a) transportation packaging; (b) transportation operations; (c) system safety and risk analysis, (d) route selection; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (f) safeguards and security. This section does not provide actual planning since the details of the Department of Energy (DOE) GTCC LLW Program have not been finalized, e.g., waste characterization and quantity, storage, treatment and disposal facility locations, and acceptance criteria. Sections 4 and 5 provide conclusions and referenced documents, respectively

  12. Functional requirements for the Automated Transportation Management System: TTP number: RL 439002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portsmouth, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    This requirements analysis, documents Department of Energy (DOE) transportation management procedures for the purpose of providing a clear and mutual understanding between users and designers of the proposed Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS). It is imperative that one understand precisely how DOE currently performs traffic management tasks; only then can an integrated system be proposed that successfully satisfies the major requirements of transportation managers and other system users. Accordingly, this report describes the current workings of DOE transportation organizations and then proposes a new system which represents a synthesis of procedures (both current and desired) which forms the basis for further systems development activities.

  13. Two electrical potential-dependent steps are required for transport by the Escherichia coli Tat machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bageshwar, Umesh K; Musser, Siegfried M

    2007-10-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway in Escherichia coli transports fully folded and assembled proteins across the energy-transducing periplasmic membrane. In chloroplasts, Tat transport requires energy input only from the proton motive force. To elucidate the mechanism and energetics of bacterial Tat protein transport, we developed an efficient in vitro transport assay using TatABC-enriched inverted membrane vesicles and the physiological precursor pre-SufI. We report transport efficiencies of 60-80% for nanomolar pre-SufI concentrations. Dissipation of the pH gradient does not reduce pre-SufI transport efficiency. Instead, pre-SufI transport requires at least two electrical potential (Deltapsi)-dependent steps that differ in both the duration and minimum magnitude of the required Deltapsi. The data are consistent with a model in which a substantial Deltapsi of short duration is required for an early transport step, and in which a small Deltapsi of long duration is necessary to drive a later transport step. PMID:17908913

  14. Help guide for the application of regulatory requirements on the transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulation of transport of radioactive material by road in Spain refers to compliance with the requirements of the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) in force. The structure presented by this legislation, which is international, and the inclusion in it of requirements that apply to other dangerous goods makes it difficult to consult the requirements that specifically apply to the transport of radioactive material. Therefore, the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) has found it necessary to publish a guide that facilitates users to comply with its provisions and, consequently, this transport security.

  15. 78 FR 17781 - Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC)-Reader Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... to work with the Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) as an access control measure... access control requirements and other measures designed to enhance maritime security. This rulemaking... Physical Access Control System PIN Personal Identification Number QTL Qualified Technology List...

  16. Capital requirements for the transportation of energy materials: 1979 arc estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-29

    Summaries of transportation investment requirements through 1990 are given for the low, medium and high scenarios. Total investment requirements for the three modes and the three energy commodities can accumulate to a $46.3 to $47.0 billion range depending on the scenario. The high price of oil, following the evidence of the last year, is projected to hold demand for oil below the recent past. Despite the overall decrease in traffic some investment in crude oil and LPG pipelines is necessary to reach new sources of supply. Although natural gas production and consumption is projected to decline through 1990, new investments in carrying capacity also are required due to locational shifts in supply. The Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System is the dominant investment for energy transportation in the next ten years. This year's report focuses attention on waterborne coal transportation to the northeast states in keeping with a return to significant coal consumption projected for this area. A resumption of such shipments will require a completely new fleet. The investment estimates given in this report identify capital required to transport projected energy supplies to market. The requirement is strategic in the sense that other reasonable alternatives do not exist or that a shared load of new growth can be expected. Not analyzed or forecasted are investments in transportation facilities made in response to local conditions. The total investment figures, therefore, represent a minimum necessary capital improvement to respond to changes in interregional supply conditions.

  17. Anterograde transneuronal viral tract tracing reveals central sensory circuits from brown fat and sensory denervation alters its thermogenic responses

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, Cheryl H.; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity and growth are controlled by its sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation, but nerve fibers containing sensory-associated neuropeptides [substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)] also suggest sensory innervation. The central nervous system (CNS) projections of BAT afferents are unknown. Therefore, we used the H129 strain of the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), an anterograde transneuronal viral tract tracer used to delineate sensor...

  18. Anterograde or Retrograde Transsynaptic Circuit Tracing in Vertebrates with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Kevin T; Mundell, Nathan A; Pan, Y Albert; Cepko, Constance L

    2016-01-01

    Viruses have been used as transsynaptic tracers, allowing one to map the inputs and outputs of neuronal populations, due to their ability to replicate in neurons and transmit in vivo only across synaptically connected cells. To date, their use has been largely restricted to mammals. In order to explore the use of such viruses in an expanded host range, we tested the transsynaptic tracing ability of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vectors in a variety of organisms. Successful infection and gene expression were achieved in a wide range of organisms, including vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms. Moreover, rVSV enabled transsynaptic tracing of neural circuitry in predictable directions dictated by the viral envelope glycoprotein (G), derived from either VSV or rabies virus (RABV). Anterograde and retrograde labeling, from initial infection and/or viral replication and transmission, was observed in Old and New World monkeys, seahorses, jellyfish, zebrafish, chickens, and mice. These vectors are widely applicable for gene delivery, afferent tract tracing, and/or directional connectivity mapping. Here, we detail the use of these vectors and provide protocols for propagating virus, changing the surface glycoprotein, and infecting multiple organisms using several injection strategies. PMID:26729030

  19. Retrosplenial Cortical Contributions to Anterograde and Retrograde Memory in the Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Mark J; Mitchell, Anna S

    2016-06-01

    Primate retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is important for memory but patient neuropathologies are diffuse so its key contributions to memory remain elusive. This study provides the first causal evidence that RSC in macaque monkeys is crucial for postoperative retention of preoperatively and postoperatively acquired memories. Preoperatively, monkeys learned 300 object-in-place scene discriminations across sessions. After RSC removal, one-trial postoperative retention tests revealed significant retrograde memory loss for these 300 discriminations relative to unoperated control monkeys. Less robust evidence was found for a deficit in anterograde memory (new postoperative learning) after RSC lesions as new learning to criterion measures failed to reveal any significant learning impairment. However, after achieving ≥90% learning criterion for the postoperatively presented novel 100 object-in-place scene discriminations, short-term retention (i.e., measured after 24 h delay) of this well-learnt set was impaired in the RSC monkeys relative to controls. A further experiment assessed rapid "within" session acquisition of novel object-in-place scene discriminations, again confirming that new learning per se was unimpaired by bilateral RSC removal. Primate RSC contributes critically to memory by supporting normal retention of information, even when this information does not involve an autobiographical component. PMID:26946129

  20. The Arabidopsis Golgi-localized GDP-L-fucose transporter is required for plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Liu, Lifeng; Stonebloom, Solomon; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M; Pauly, Markus; Orellana, Ariel; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Heazlewood, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide sugar transport across Golgi membranes is essential for the luminal biosynthesis of glycan structures. Here we identify GDP-fucose transporter 1 (GFT1), an Arabidopsis nucleotide sugar transporter that translocates GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi lumen. Using proteo-liposome-based transport assays, we show that GFT preferentially transports GDP-L-fucose over other nucleotide sugars in vitro, while GFT1-silenced plants are almost devoid of L-fucose in cell wall-derived xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan II. Furthermore, these lines display reduced L-fucose content in N-glycan structures accompanied by severe developmental growth defects. We conclude that GFT1 is the major nucleotide sugar transporter for import of GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi and is required for proper plant growth and development. PMID:27381418

  1. Programmatic and technical requirements for the FMDP fresh MOX fuel transport package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, S. B.; Michelhaugh, R. D.; Pope, R. B.; Shappert, L. B.; Singletary, B. H.; Chae, S. M.; Parks, C. V.; Broadhead, B. L.; Schmid, S. P.; Cowart, C. G.

    1997-12-01

    This document is intended to guide the designers of the package to all pertinent regulatory and other design requirements to help ensure the safe and efficient transport of the weapons-grade (WG) fresh MOX fuel under the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. To accomplish the disposition mission using MOX fuel, the unirradiated MOX fuel must be transported from the MOX fabrication facility to one or more commercial reactors. Because the unirradiated fuel contains large quantities of plutonium and is not sufficient radioactive to create a self-protecting barrier to deter the material from theft, DOE intends to use its fleet of safe secure trailers (SSTs) to provide the necessary safeguards and security for the material in transit. In addition to these requirements, transport of radioactive materials must comply with regulations of the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In particular, NRC requires that the packages must meet strict performance requirements. The requirements for shipment of MOX fuel (i.e., radioactive fissile materials) specify that the package design is certified by NRC to ensure the materials contained in the packages are not released and remain subcritical after undergoing a series of hypothetical accident condition tests. Packages that pass these tests are certified by NRC as a Type B fissile (BF) package. This document specifies the programmatic and technical design requirements a package must satisfy to transport the fresh MOX fuel assemblies.

  2. Programmatic and technical requirements for the FMDP fresh MOX fuel transport package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is intended to guide the designers of the package to all pertinent regulatory and other design requirements to help ensure the safe and efficient transport of the weapons-grade (WG) fresh MOX fuel under the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. To accomplish the disposition mission using MOX fuel, the unirradiated MOX fuel must be transported from the MOX fabrication facility to one or more commercial reactors. Because the unirradiated fuel contains large quantities of plutonium and is not sufficient radioactive to create a self-protecting barrier to deter the material from theft, DOE intends to use its fleet of safe secure trailers (SSTs) to provide the necessary safeguards and security for the material in transit. In addition to these requirements, transport of radioactive materials must comply with regulations of the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In particular, NRC requires that the packages must meet strict performance requirements. The requirements for shipment of MOX fuel (i.e., radioactive fissile materials) specify that the package design is certified by NRC to ensure the materials contained in the packages are not released and remain subcritical after undergoing a series of hypothetical accident condition tests. Packages that pass these tests are certified by NRC as a Type B fissile (BF) package. This document specifies the programmatic and technical design requirements a package must satisfy to transport the fresh MOX fuel assemblies

  3. A hereditary spastic paraplegia mutation in kinesin-1A/KIF5A disrupts neurofilament transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Anthony

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary spastic paraplegias are a group of neurological disorders characterized by progressive distal degeneration of the longest ascending and descending axons in the spinal cord, leading to lower limb spasticity and weakness. One of the dominantly inherited forms of this disease (spastic gait type 10, or SPG10 is caused by point mutations in kinesin-1A (also known as KIF5A, which is thought to be an anterograde motor for neurofilaments. Results We investigated the effect of an SPG10 mutation in kinesin-1A (N256S-kinesin-1A on neurofilament transport in cultured mouse cortical neurons using live-cell fluorescent imaging. N256S-kinesin-1A decreased both anterograde and retrograde neurofilament transport flux by decreasing the frequency of anterograde and retrograde movements. Anterograde velocity was not affected, whereas retrograde velocity actually increased. Conclusions These data reveal subtle complexities to the functional interdependence of the anterograde and retrograde neurofilament motors and they also raise the possibility that anterograde and retrograde neurofilament transport may be disrupted in patients with SPG10.

  4. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 2009 ed. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of these Regulations is to establish requirements that must be satisfied to ensure safety and to protect persons, property and the environment from the effects of radiation in the transport of radioactive material. This protection is achieved by requiring: (a) Containment of the radioactive contents; (b) Control of external radiation levels; (c) Prevention of criticality; and (d) Prevention of damage caused by heat. These requirements are satisfied firstly by applying a graded approach to contents limits for packages and conveyances and to performance standards applied to package designs, depending upon the hazard of the radioactive contents. Secondly, they are satisfied by imposing requirements on the design and operation of packages and on the maintenance of packagings, including consideration of the nature of the radioactive contents. Finally, they are satisfied by requiring administrative controls, including, where appropriate, approval by competent authorities. In the transport of radioactive material, the safety of persons and the protection of property and the environment are assured when these Regulations are complied with. Confidence in this regard is achieved through quality assurance and compliance assurance programmes. These Regulations apply to the transport of radioactive material by all modes on land, water, or in the air, including transport which is incidental to the use of the radioactive material. Transport comprises all operations and conditions associated with, and involved in, the movement of radioactive material; these include the design, manufacture, maintenance and repair of packaging, and the preparation, consigning, loading, carriage including in-transit storage, unloading and receipt at the final destination of loads of radioactive material and packages. A graded approach is applied in specifying the performance standards in these Regulations which are characterized in terms of three general severity levels: (a) Routine

  5. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements transportation and handling, SSDR 1.1.1.3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Subsystem Design Requirement document is a development specification that establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Transportation ampersand Material Handling Systems (WBS 1.1.1.3.2) of the NIF Laser System (WBS 1.3 and 1.4). The NIF is a multi-pass, 192-beam, high-power, neodymium-glass laser that meets requirements set forth in the NIF SDR 002 (Laser System). 5 figs

  6. Requirement of nucleotide exchange factor for Ypt1 GTPase mediated protein transport

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Small GTPases of the rab family are involved in the regulation of vesicular transport. It is believed that cycling between the GTP- and GDP-bound forms, and accessory factors regulating this cycling are crucial for rab function. However, an essential role for rab nucleotide exchange factors has not yet been demonstrated. In this report we show the requirement of nucleotide exchange factor activity for Ypt1 GTPase mediated protein transport. The Ypt1 protein, a member of the rab family, plays ...

  7. Competence and Capacity-Building Requirements in Transport and Logistics Market

    OpenAIRE

    Bazaras Darius; Čižiūnienė Kristina; Palšaitis Ramūnas; Kabashkin Igor

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses theoretical aspects of the qualitative assessment of logistics and transport specialists’ potential, as well as provides research results on competence and capacity-building process in preparation of logistics and transport specialists. The results enabled to identify problematic areas of graduate integration in the labour market and foresee the possible requirements for professional development. In some cases, internal motivation is related to problematic points or negat...

  8. The implementation of radiation protection programme requirements in the transport of nuclear fuel cycle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA requires organisations involved in transport of radioactive material to implement a Radiation Protection Programme (RPP) to control radiation dose exposure to both workers and the public from transport operations. For nuclear fuel cycle materials, radiation protection is dealt with prior to shipment by using a package design to control exposures to workers and the public. Dose assessment and evaluation is a key issue for RPPs. The extent of control measures in the RPP should relate to the magnitude and likelihood of radiation exposure. The World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI) therefore made an assessment of the likely doses to workers in the transport chain, for the various modes of transport and for the main nuclear materials. Analysis of the data on dose up-take during the various modes of transport of nuclear fuel cycle materials indicates that it is very unlikely that any group of workers, or any member of the public, will receive annual doses in excess of 1mSv and the transport of nuclear fuel cycle materials should therefore fall into the lowest category, for which no workplace or individual dose monitoring is required. (author)

  9. Establishing Bedding Requirements during Transport and Monitoring Skin Temperature during Cold and Mild Seasons after Transport for Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGlone

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The broad aim of this study was to determine whether bedding level in the transport trailer influenced pig performance and welfare. Specifically, the objective was to define the bedding requirements of pigs during transportation in commercial settings during cold and mild weather. Animals (n = 112,078 pigs on 572 trailers used were raised in commercial finishing sites and transported in trailers to commercial processing plants. Dead on arrival (DOA, non-ambulatory (NA, and total dead and down (D&D data were collected and skin surface temperatures of the pigs were measured by infrared thermography. Data were collected during winter (Experiment 1 and fall/spring (Experiment 2. Total D&D percent showed no interaction between bedding level and outside air temperature in any experiments. Average skin surface temperature during unloading increased with outside air temperature linearly in both experiments (P < 0.01. In conclusion, over-use of bedding may be economically inefficient. Pig skin surface temperature could be a useful measure of pig welfare during or after transport.

  10. 49 CFR 173.427 - Transport requirements for low specific activity (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this section must be packaged in accordance with 10 CFR part 71. (e) Tables 5 and 6 are as follows... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport requirements for low specific activity... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.427 Transport requirements for low...

  11. Transition fibre protein FBF1 is required for the ciliary entry of assembled intraflagellar transport complexes

    OpenAIRE

    WEI, QING; Xu, Qingwen; Zhang, Yuxia; Li, Yujie; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Zeng; Harris, Peter C.; Torres, Vicente E.; Ling, Kun; Hu, Jinghua

    2013-01-01

    Sensory organelle cilia play critical roles in mammalian embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) machinery is required for the assembly and maintenance of cilia. Yet how this large complex passes through the size-dependent barrier at the ciliary base remains enigmatic. Here we report that FBF1, a highly conserved transition fibre protein, is required for the ciliary import of assembled IFT particles at the cilia base. We cloned dyf-19, the C. elegans homol...

  12. Commercial Space Transportation and Air Traffic Insertion - SESAR Requirements and the European Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Jürgen; Morlang, Frank; Hampe, Jens; Kaltenhäuser, Sven; Jakobi, Jörn; Schmitt, Dirk-Roger

    2016-01-01

    Commercial Space Transportation becomes an international business and requires landing opportunities all over the world. Hence the integration of space vehicles in other airspace than the US NAS is an important topic to be considered. The Single European Sky ATM Research Programme (SESAR) is preparing the implementation of a new ATM system in Europe. The requirements are defined by the concept of the shared Business Trajectory and System Wide Information Management (SWIM).This paper describes...

  13. Engineering Requirements for Offshore CO₂ Transportation and Storage: A Summary Based on International Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Haszeldine, R. Stuart; Zhou, Di; Zhang, Yunfang

    2014-01-01

    To date there is no full-chain CCUS project involving offshore storage in China. This report gives a general review on major engi- neering requirements and their relevance and justification for offshore CO2 transportation and storage based on international experiences. The capital costs are mentioned briefly. The geological and system integration issues are expected to be covered in other reports.

  14. THE IMPACT OF PROCUREMENT METHOD OF THE TRANSPORT SERVICES TO THE FINANCIAL REQUIREMENT OF PERFORMANCE CONTRACTING ENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Miloš POLIAK; Anna KRIŽANOVÁ; Štefánia SEMANOVÁ; Ľubica ŠTEFÁNIKOVÁ

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of the impact of procurement method of the transport services to the financial requirement of performance contracting entity. In the first part, it describes the current state of transport services financing in the Slovak Republic and risk analysis, which is related to transport services procurement and conclusion of the service contract in the transport services ensuring. The rest of the paper defines the impact of procurement method of the transport services t...

  15. 40 CFR 80.350 - What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by truck? 80.350 Section 80.350 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Sampling, Testing and Retention Requirements for Refiners and Importers § 80.350 What alternative sulfur standards and requirements apply to importers who transport gasoline by...

  16. Capital requirements for the transportation of energy materials: 1979 ARC estimates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-28

    TERA's estimates of capital requirements to transport natural gas, crude oil, petroleum products, and coal in the US by 1990 are presented. It is a continuation of a 1978 study (EAPA 5:3946) to perform a similar analysis on 1979 scenarios. Scenarios B, C, and D from the EIA's Mid-range Energy Forecasting Systems, as used in the 1979 Annual Report to Congress (ARC), were provided as a basis for the analysis and represent three alternative futures. Summaries of transportation investment requirements through 1990 are given for Scenarios B, C, and D. Total investment requirements for the three models (pipelines, railroads, waterways) and the three energy commodities (coal, petroleum, petroleum products, natural gas) are estimated to range between $35.3 and $42.7 billion by 1990 depending on the scenario.

  17. Baseline requirements of the proposed action for the Transportation Management Division routing models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.

    1995-02-01

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important to shippers, carriers, and the general public. This is particularly true for shipments of radioactive material. The shippers are primarily concerned with safety, security, efficiency, and equipment requirements. The carriers are concerned with the potential impact that radioactive shipments may have on their operations--particularly if such materials are involved in an accident. The general public has also expressed concerns regarding the safety of transporting radioactive and other hazardous materials through their communities. Because transportation routes are a central concern in hazardous material transport, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward resolution of these issues. In response to these routing needs, several models have been developed over the past fifteen years at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The HIGHWAY routing model is used to predict routes for truck transportation, the INTERLINE routing model is used to predict both rail and barge routes, and the AIRPORT locator model is used to determine airports with specified criteria near a specific location. As part of the ongoing improvement of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management Transportation Management Division`s (EM-261) computer systems and development efforts, a Baseline Requirements Assessment Session on the HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, and AIRPORT models was held at ORNL on April 27, 1994. The purpose of this meeting was to discuss the existing capabilities of the models and data bases and to review enhancements of the models and data bases to expand their usefulness. The results of the Baseline Requirements Assessment Section will be discussed in this report. The discussions pertaining to the different models are contained in separate sections.

  18. Baseline requirements of the proposed action for the Transportation Management Division routing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important to shippers, carriers, and the general public. This is particularly true for shipments of radioactive material. The shippers are primarily concerned with safety, security, efficiency, and equipment requirements. The carriers are concerned with the potential impact that radioactive shipments may have on their operations--particularly if such materials are involved in an accident. The general public has also expressed concerns regarding the safety of transporting radioactive and other hazardous materials through their communities. Because transportation routes are a central concern in hazardous material transport, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward resolution of these issues. In response to these routing needs, several models have been developed over the past fifteen years at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The HIGHWAY routing model is used to predict routes for truck transportation, the INTERLINE routing model is used to predict both rail and barge routes, and the AIRPORT locator model is used to determine airports with specified criteria near a specific location. As part of the ongoing improvement of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Management Transportation Management Division's (EM-261) computer systems and development efforts, a Baseline Requirements Assessment Session on the HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, and AIRPORT models was held at ORNL on April 27, 1994. The purpose of this meeting was to discuss the existing capabilities of the models and data bases and to review enhancements of the models and data bases to expand their usefulness. The results of the Baseline Requirements Assessment Section will be discussed in this report. The discussions pertaining to the different models are contained in separate sections

  19. Kymographic Analysis of Transport in an Individual Neuronal Sensory Cilium in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Robert; Barr, Maureen M

    2016-01-01

    Intraflagellar Transport (IFT) is driven by molecular motors that travel upon microtubule-based ciliary axonemes. In the single-celled alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, movement of a single anterograde IFT motor, heterotrimeric kinesin-II, is required to generate two identical motile flagella. The function of this canonical anterograde IFT motor is conserved among all eukaryotes, yet multicellular organisms can generate cilia of diverse structures and functions, ranging from simple threadlike non-motile primary cilia to the elaborate cilia that make up rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina. An emerging theme is that additional molecular motors modulate the canonical IFT machinery to give rise to differing ciliary morphologies. Therefore, a complete understanding of the trafficking of ciliary receptors, as well as the biogenesis, maintenance, specialization, and function of cilia, requires the characterization of motor molecules.Here, we describe in detail our method for measuring the motility of proteins in cilia or dendrites of C. elegans male-specific CEM ciliated sensory neurons using time-lapse microscopy and kymography of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged motors, receptors, and cargos. We describe, as a specific example, OSM-3::GFP puncta moving in cilia, but also include (Fig. 1) with settings that have worked well for us measuring movement of heterotrimeric kinesin-II, IFT particles, and the polycystin TRP channel PKD-2. PMID:27514919

  20. Analysis of operational requirements for medium density air transportation. Volume 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The medium density air travel market was studied to determine the aircraft design and operational requirements. The impact of operational characteristics on the air travel system and the economic viability of the study aircraft were also evaluated. Medium density is defined in terms of numbers of people transported (20 to 500 passengers per day on round trip routes), and frequency of service ( a minumium of two and maximum of eight round trips per day) for 10 regional carriers. The operational characteristics of aircraft best suited to serve the medium density air transportation market are determined and a basepoint aircraft is designed from which tradeoff studies and parametric variations could be conducted. The impact of selected aircraft on the medium density market, economics, and operations is ascertained. Research and technology objectives for future programs in medium density air transportation are identified and ranked.

  1. Application of the revised requirements of IAEA St-1 to the transport of natural uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1996 issue of IAEA ST1 (formerly SS6) will, from january 2001, call for transport cylinders containing natural uranium hexafluoride ('hex') to be considered against the requirements of the IAEA thermal tests. In parallel with the revision of SS6, the IAEA established a coordinated research program (CRP) to consider the behaviour of hex cylinders in fires. BNFL has contributed to that CRP principally in the areas of computer modelling of the thermophysical processes occurring within the cylinder and of the mechanical behaviour of the cylinder itself. Confidence in the various computer simulations has grown steadily as the CRP progressed. With the benefit of results emerging from the Tenerife test program, our calculations now predict that an unprotected, fully loaded, 48Y hex cylinder would be expected to survive the thermal test. Since the expectation is that the unprotected fully loaded 48Y cylinders should (marginally) survive the fire test, and also taking account both of the excellent safety record to date of hex transports, and the rarity of intense long-lived fires in transport situations, there is clearly very little safety benefit to be gained from the use of fire protection covers on natural hex cylinders. However, the physical handling of such covers, necessarily large and cumbersome, and their relevant fastening, particularly during packaging, loading, unloading and un-packaging in transport depots would, for every cylinder movement, impose additional risks of injury to transport system operators, which we believe could outweigh the small and more hypothetical benefit of improved fire resistance while in transit. We therefore maintain that it would be counterproductive, in both overall safety and in cost terms, to require protective coverings on these cylinders for transport. Based on the estimates made to date, we believe that the unprotected 48 inch cylinders should continue to be the normal package in commercial use, under the relevant

  2. A method for determining the spent-fuel contribution to transport cask containment requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines containment requirements for spent-fuel transport containers that are transported under normal and hypothetical accident conditions. A methodology is described that estimates the probability of rod failure and the quantity of radioactive material released from breached rods. This methodology characterizes the dynamic environment of the cask and its contents and deterministically models the peak stresses that are induced in spent-fuel cladding by the mechanical and thermal dynamic environments. The peak stresses are evaluated in relation to probabilistic failure criteria for generated or preexisting ductile tearing and material fractures at cracks partially through the wall in fuel rods. Activity concentrations in the cask cavity are predicted from estimates of the fraction of gases, volatiles, and fuel fines that are released when the rod cladding is breached. Containment requirements based on the source term are calculated in terms of maximum permissible volumetric leak rates from the cask. Calculations are included for representative cask designs

  3. A method for determining the spent-fuel contribution to transport cask containment requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, T.L.; Seager, K.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rashid, Y.R.; Barrett, P.R. [ANATECH Research Corp., La Jolla, CA (United States); Malinauskas, A.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Einziger, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Jordan, H. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant; Duffey, T.A.; Sutherland, S.H. [APTEK, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Reardon, P.C. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-11-01

    This report examines containment requirements for spent-fuel transport containers that are transported under normal and hypothetical accident conditions. A methodology is described that estimates the probability of rod failure and the quantity of radioactive material released from breached rods. This methodology characterizes the dynamic environment of the cask and its contents and deterministically models the peak stresses that are induced in spent-fuel cladding by the mechanical and thermal dynamic environments. The peak stresses are evaluated in relation to probabilistic failure criteria for generated or preexisting ductile tearing and material fractures at cracks partially through the wall in fuel rods. Activity concentrations in the cask cavity are predicted from estimates of the fraction of gases, volatiles, and fuel fines that are released when the rod cladding is breached. Containment requirements based on the source term are calculated in terms of maximum permissible volumetric leak rates from the cask. Calculations are included for representative cask designs.

  4. Review of Transporter-Related Postmarketing Requirement or Postmarketing Commitment Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ying; Sun, Bo; Agarwal, Sheetal; Zhang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this report are to summarize the content and status of transporter-related postmarketing requirement (PMR)/postmarketing commitment (PMC) studies in new drug applications (NDAs) approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and to discuss the reasons for requesting such studies and the impact of PMR/PMC study results on labeling to guide the optimal use of the drugs. Multiple data sources were searched to collect information on transporter-related PMR/PMC studies between January 1999 and May 2015. A total of 40 transporter-related PMR/PMC study requests were issued for 35 NDAs. Among these PMR/PMC studies, 27 requested studies related to P-glycoprotein. As of May 31, 2015, 34 transporter-related PMR/PMC studies (85%) are considered "fulfilled" (per the FDA's PMR/PMC website), and 22 (65%) resulted in labeling updates. The majority of the PMR/PMC studies are for drugs in the therapeutic areas of anti-infectives, oncology, and neurology. The results from PMR/PMC studies are important for dosing optimization and are often included in the updated labeling. Because a significant lag time is anticipated between drug approval and PMR/PMC fulfillment, NDA applicants are encouraged to include transporter-related assessments in clinical drug development programs for drug products. PMID:27385175

  5. Intracellular transport of secretory proteins in the pancreatic exocrine cell. IV. Metabolic requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, J D; Palade, G E

    1968-12-01

    Since in the pancreatic exocrine cell synthesis and intracellular transport of secretory proteins can be uncoupled (1), it is possible to examine separately the metabolic requirements of the latter process. To this intent, guinea pig pancreatic slices were pulse labeled with leucine-(3)H for 3 min and incubated post-pulse for 37 min in chase medium containing 5 x 10(-4)M cycloheximide and inhibitors of glycolysis, respiration, or oxidative phosphorylation. In each case, the effect on transport was assessed by measuring the amount of labeled secretory proteins found in zymogen granule fractions isolated from the corresponding slices. This assay is actually a measure of the efficiency of transport of secretory proteins from the cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) to the condensing vacuoles of the Golgi complex which are recovered in the zymogen granule fraction (16). The results indicate that transport is insensitive to glycolytic inhibitors (fluoride, iodoacetate) but is blocked by respiratory inhibitors (N(2), cyanide, Antimycin A) and by inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation (dinitrophenol, oligomycin). Except for Antimycin A, the effect is reversible. Parallel radioautographic studies and cell fractionation procedures applied to microsomal subfractions have indicated that the energy-dependent step is located between the transitional elements of the RER and the small, smooth-surfaced vesicles at the periphery of the Golgi complex. Radiorespirometric data indicate that the substrates oxidized to support transport are endogenous long-chain fatty acids. PMID:5699933

  6. Negative membrane curvature catalyzes nucleation of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, IH; Kai, H; Carlson, LA; Groves, JT; Hurley, JH

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery functions in HIV-1 budding, cytokinesis, multivesicular body biogenesis, and other pathways, in the course of which it interacts with concave membrane necks and bud rims. To test the role of membrane shape in regulating ESCRT assembly, we nanofabricated templates for invaginated supported lipid bilayers. The assembly of the core ESCRT-III subunit CHMP4B/Snf7 is preferentially nucleated in the resulting 100-nm-deep membra...

  7. Active diffusion and microtubule-based transport oppose myosin forces to position organelles in cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Congping; Schuster, Martin; Guimaraes, Sofia Cunha; Ashwin, Peter; Schrader, Michael; Metz, Jeremy; Hacker, Christian; Gurr, Sarah Jane; Steinberg, Gero

    2016-06-01

    Even distribution of peroxisomes (POs) and lipid droplets (LDs) is critical to their role in lipid and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. How even distribution is achieved remains elusive, but diffusive motion and directed motility may play a role. Here we show that in the fungus Ustilago maydis ~95% of POs and LDs undergo diffusive motions. These movements require ATP and involve bidirectional early endosome motility, indicating that microtubule-associated membrane trafficking enhances diffusion of organelles. When early endosome transport is abolished, POs and LDs drift slowly towards the growing cell end. This pole-ward drift is facilitated by anterograde delivery of secretory cargo to the cell tip by myosin-5. Modelling reveals that microtubule-based directed transport and active diffusion support distribution, mobility and mixing of POs. In mammalian COS-7 cells, microtubules and F-actin also counteract each other to distribute POs. This highlights the importance of opposing cytoskeletal forces in organelle positioning in eukaryotes.

  8. Active diffusion and microtubule-based transport oppose myosin forces to position organelles in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Congping; Schuster, Martin; Guimaraes, Sofia Cunha; Ashwin, Peter; Schrader, Michael; Metz, Jeremy; Hacker, Christian; Gurr, Sarah Jane; Steinberg, Gero

    2016-01-01

    Even distribution of peroxisomes (POs) and lipid droplets (LDs) is critical to their role in lipid and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. How even distribution is achieved remains elusive, but diffusive motion and directed motility may play a role. Here we show that in the fungus Ustilago maydis ∼95% of POs and LDs undergo diffusive motions. These movements require ATP and involve bidirectional early endosome motility, indicating that microtubule-associated membrane trafficking enhances diffusion of organelles. When early endosome transport is abolished, POs and LDs drift slowly towards the growing cell end. This pole-ward drift is facilitated by anterograde delivery of secretory cargo to the cell tip by myosin-5. Modelling reveals that microtubule-based directed transport and active diffusion support distribution, mobility and mixing of POs. In mammalian COS-7 cells, microtubules and F-actin also counteract each other to distribute POs. This highlights the importance of opposing cytoskeletal forces in organelle positioning in eukaryotes. PMID:27251117

  9. Competence and Capacity-Building Requirements in Transport and Logistics Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazaras Darius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses theoretical aspects of the qualitative assessment of logistics and transport specialists’ potential, as well as provides research results on competence and capacity-building process in preparation of logistics and transport specialists. The results enabled to identify problematic areas of graduate integration in the labour market and foresee the possible requirements for professional development. In some cases, internal motivation is related to problematic points or negative view from the environment, as well as poor understanding of knowledge benefits in the person’s practical life. Training and education is objectively at the meeting point between research, technological and organisational systems. In such conditions the objective of the education on logistics is to offer the customers the best possible service in the field of the transfer of knowledge in harmony with the trend in logistics programme development. The main problems and perspectives of logistics education and training process are discussed in this article.

  10. Capital requirements for the transportation of energy materials: 1979 ARC estimates. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-13

    This report contains TERA's estimates of capital requirements to transport natural gas, crude oil, petroleum products, and coal in the United States by 1990. The low, medium, and high world-oil-price scenarios from the EIA's Mid-range Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), as used in the 1979 Annual Report to Congress (ARC), were provided as a basis for the analysis and represent three alternative futures. TERA's approach varies by energy commodity to make best use of the information and analytical tools available. Summaries of transportation investment requirements through 1990 are given. Total investment requirements for three modes (pipelines, rails, waterways and the three energy commodities can accumulate to a $49.9 to $50.9 billion range depending on the scenario. The scenarios are distinguished primarily by the world price of oil which, given deregulation of domestic oil prices, affects US oil prices even more profoundly than in the past. The high price of oil, following the evidence of the last year, is projected to hold demand for oil below the recent past.

  11. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  12. Chlamydomonas IFT70/CrDYF-1 is a core component of IFT particle complex B and is required for flagellar assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhen-Chuan; Behal, Robert H; Geimer, Stefan; Wang, Zhaohui; Williamson, Shana M; Zhang, Haili; Cole, Douglas G; Qin, Hongmin

    2010-08-01

    DYF-1 is a highly conserved protein essential for ciliogenesis in several model organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans, DYF-1 serves as an essential activator for an anterograde motor OSM-3 of intraflagellar transport (IFT), the ciliogenesis-required motility that mediates the transport of flagellar precursors and removal of turnover products. In zebrafish and Tetrahymena DYF-1 influences the cilia tubulin posttranslational modification and may have more ubiquitous function in ciliogenesis than OSM-3. Here we address how DYF-1 biochemically interacts with the IFT machinery by using the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in which the anterograde IFT does not depend on OSM-3. Our results show that this protein is a stoichiometric component of the IFT particle complex B and interacts directly with complex B subunit IFT46. In concurrence with the established IFT protein nomenclature, DYF-1 is also named IFT70 after the apparent size of the protein. IFT70/CrDYF-1 is essential for the function of IFT in building the flagellum because the flagella of IFT70/CrDYF-1-depleted cells were greatly shortened. Together, these results demonstrate that IFT70/CrDYF-1 is a canonical subunit of IFT particle complex B and strongly support the hypothesis that the IFT machinery has species- and tissue-specific variations with functional ramifications. PMID:20534810

  13. Influence of target requirements on the production, acceleration, transport, and focusing of ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Mark, J.W.K.; Meeker, D.J.; Judd, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    We have calculated the energy gain of ion-driven fusion targets as a function of input energy, ion range, and focal spot radius. For heavy-ion drivers a given target gain, together with final-lens properties, determines a 6-D phase space volume which must exceed that occupied by the ion beam. Because of Liouville's theorem and the inevitability of some phase space dilutions, the beams's 6-D volume will increase between the ion source and the target. This imposes important requirements on accelerators and on transport and focusing systems.

  14. Influence of target requirements on the production, acceleration, transport, and focusing of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have calculated the energy gain of ion-driven fusion targets as a function of input energy, ion range, and focal spot radius. For heavy-ion drivers a given target gain, together with final-lens properties, determines a 6-D phase space volume which must exceed that occupied by the ion beam. Because of Liouville's theorem and the inevitability of some phase space dilutions, the beams's 6-D volume will increase between the ion source and the target. This imposes important requirements on accelerators and on transport and focusing systems

  15. Assessment and Requirements of Nuclear Reaction Databases for GCR Transport in the Atmosphere and Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Tripathi, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    The transport properties of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in the atmosphere, material structures, and human body (self-shielding) am of interest in risk assessment for supersonic and subsonic aircraft and for space travel in low-Earth orbit and on interplanetary missions. Nuclear reactions, such as knockout and fragmentation, present large modifications of particle type and energies of the galactic cosmic rays in penetrating materials. We make an assessment of the current nuclear reaction models and improvements in these model for developing required transport code data bases. A new fragmentation data base (QMSFRG) based on microscopic models is compared to the NUCFRG2 model and implications for shield assessment made using the HZETRN radiation transport code. For deep penetration problems, the build-up of light particles, such as nucleons, light clusters and mesons from nuclear reactions in conjunction with the absorption of the heavy ions, leads to the dominance of the charge Z = 0, 1, and 2 hadrons in the exposures at large penetration depths. Light particles are produced through nuclear or cluster knockout and in evaporation events with characteristically distinct spectra which play unique roles in the build-up of secondary radiation's in shielding. We describe models of light particle production in nucleon and heavy ion induced reactions and make an assessment of the importance of light particle multiplicity and spectral parameters in these exposures.

  16. Use of simple transport equations to estimate waste package performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of developing waste package performance requirements for specific nuclides is described. The method is based on: Federal regulations concerning permissible concentrations in solution at the point of discharge to the accessible environment; a simple and conservative transport model; baseline and potential worst-case release scenarios. Use of the transport model enables calculation of maximum permissible release rates within a repository in basalt for each of the scenarios. The maximum permissible release rates correspond to performance requirements for the engineered barrier system. The repository was assumed to be constructed in a basalt layer. For the cases considered, including a well drilled into an aquifer 1750 m from the repository center, little significant advantage is obtained from a 1000-yr as opposed to a 100-yr waste package. A 1000-yr waste package is of importance only for nuclides with half-lives much less than 100 yr which travel to the accessible environment in much less than 1000 yr. Such short travel times are extremely unlikely for a mined repository. Among the actinides, the most stringent maximum permissible release rates are for 236U and 234U. A simple solubility calculation suggests, however, that these performance requirements can be readily met by the engineered barrier system. Under the reducing conditions likely to occur in a repository located in basalt, uranium would be sufficiently insoluble that no solution could contain more than about 0.01% of the maximum permissible concentration at saturation. The performance requirements derived from the one-dimensional modeling approach are conservative by at least one to two orders of magnitude. More quantitative three-dimensional modeling at specific sites should enable relaxation of the performance criteria derived in this study. 12 references, 8 figures, 8 tables

  17. Functional coordination of intraflagellar transport motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Guangshuo; Blacque, Oliver E; Snow, Joshua J; Leroux, Michel R; Scholey, Jonathan M

    2005-07-28

    Cilia have diverse roles in motility and sensory reception, and defects in cilia function contribute to ciliary diseases such as Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS). Intraflagellar transport (IFT) motors assemble and maintain cilia by transporting ciliary precursors, bound to protein complexes called IFT particles, from the base of the cilium to their site of incorporation at the distal tip. In Caenorhabditis elegans, this is accomplished by two IFT motors, kinesin-II and osmotic avoidance defective (OSM)-3 kinesin, which cooperate to form two sequential anterograde IFT pathways that build distinct parts of cilia. By observing the movement of fluorescent IFT motors and IFT particles along the cilia of numerous ciliary mutants, we identified three genes whose protein products mediate the functional coordination of these motors. The BBS proteins BBS-7 and BBS-8 are required to stabilize complexes of IFT particles containing both of the IFT motors, because IFT particles in bbs-7 and bbs-8 mutants break down into two subcomplexes, IFT-A and IFT-B, which are moved separately by kinesin-II and OSM-3 kinesin, respectively. A conserved ciliary protein, DYF-1, is specifically required for OSM-3 kinesin to dock onto and move IFT particles, because OSM-3 kinesin is inactive and intact IFT particles are moved by kinesin-II alone in dyf-1 mutants. These findings implicate BBS ciliary disease proteins and an OSM-3 kinesin activator in the formation of two IFT pathways that build functional cilia. PMID:16049494

  18. Transition fibre protein FBF1 is required for the ciliary entry of assembled intraflagellar transport complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qing; Xu, Qingwen; Zhang, Yuxia; Li, Yujie; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Zeng; Harris, Peter C; Torres, Vicente E; Ling, Kun; Hu, Jinghua

    2013-01-01

    Sensory organelle cilia have critical roles in mammalian embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) machinery is required for the assembly and maintenance of cilia. Yet, how this large complex passes through the size-dependent barrier at the ciliary base remains enigmatic. Here we report that FBF1, a highly conserved transition fibre protein, is required for the ciliary import of assembled IFT particles at the ciliary base. We cloned dyf-19, the Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of human FBF1, in a whole-genome screen for ciliogenesis mutants. DYF-19 localizes specifically to transition fibres and interacts directly with the IFT-B component DYF-11/IFT54. Although not a structural component of transition fibres, DYF-19 is required for the transit of assembled IFT particles through the ciliary base. Furthermore, we found that human FBF1 shares conserved localization and function with its worm counterpart. We conclude that FBF1 is a key functional transition fibre component that actively facilitates the ciliary entry of assembled IFT machinery. PMID:24231678

  19. Automated container transportation using self-guided vehicles: Fernald site requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new opportunity to improve the safety and efficiency of environmental restoration operations, using robotics has emerged from advances in industry, academia, and government labs. Self-Guided Vehicles (SGV's) have recently been developed in industry and early systems have already demonstrated much, though not all, of the functionality necessary to support driverless transportation of waste within and between processing facilities. Improved materials databases are being developed by at least two DOE remediation sites, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEME) in the State of Ohio and the Hanford Complex in the State of Washington. SGV's can be developed that take advantage of the information in these databases and yield improved dispatch, waste tracking, report and shipment documentation. In addition, they will reduce the radiation hazard to workers and the risk of damaging containers through accidental collision. In this document, features of remediation sites that dictate the design of both the individual SGV's and the collective system of SGV's are presented, through the example of the site requirements at Fernald. Some concepts borrowed from the world of manufacturing are explained and then used to develop an integrated, holistic view of the remediation site as a pseudo-factory. Transportation methods at Fernald and anticipated growth in transport demand are analyzed. The new site-wide database under development at Fernald is presented so that advantageous and synergistic links between SGV's and information systems can be analyzed. Details of the SGV development proposed are submitted, and some results of a recently completed state of the art survey for SGV use in this application are also presented

  20. Automated container transportation using self-guided vehicles: Fernald site requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, F.B.

    1993-09-01

    A new opportunity to improve the safety and efficiency of environmental restoration operations, using robotics has emerged from advances in industry, academia, and government labs. Self-Guided Vehicles (SGV`s) have recently been developed in industry and early systems have already demonstrated much, though not all, of the functionality necessary to support driverless transportation of waste within and between processing facilities. Improved materials databases are being developed by at least two DOE remediation sites, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEME) in the State of Ohio and the Hanford Complex in the State of Washington. SGV`s can be developed that take advantage of the information in these databases and yield improved dispatch, waste tracking, report and shipment documentation. In addition, they will reduce the radiation hazard to workers and the risk of damaging containers through accidental collision. In this document, features of remediation sites that dictate the design of both the individual SGV`s and the collective system of SGV`s are presented, through the example of the site requirements at Fernald. Some concepts borrowed from the world of manufacturing are explained and then used to develop an integrated, holistic view of the remediation site as a pseudo-factory. Transportation methods at Fernald and anticipated growth in transport demand are analyzed. The new site-wide database under development at Fernald is presented so that advantageous and synergistic links between SGV`s and information systems can be analyzed. Details of the SGV development proposed are submitted, and some results of a recently completed state of the art survey for SGV use in this application are also presented.

  1. The boron efflux transporter ROTTEN EAR is required for maize inflorescence development and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Mithu; Tabi, Zara; Galli, Mary; Malcomber, Simon; Buck, Amy; Muszynski, Michael; Gallavotti, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Although boron has a relatively low natural abundance, it is an essential plant micronutrient. Boron deficiencies cause major crop losses in several areas of the world, affecting reproduction and yield in diverse plant species. Despite the importance of boron in crop productivity, surprisingly little is known about its effects on developing reproductive organs. We isolated a maize (Zea mays) mutant, called rotten ear (rte), that shows distinct defects in vegetative and reproductive development, eventually causing widespread sterility in its inflorescences, the tassel and the ear. Positional cloning revealed that rte encodes a membrane-localized boron efflux transporter, co-orthologous to the Arabidopsis thaliana BOR1 protein. Depending on the availability of boron in the soil, rte plants show a wide range of phenotypic defects that can be fully rescued by supplementing the soil with exogenous boric acid, indicating that rte is crucial for boron transport into aerial tissues. rte is expressed in cells surrounding the xylem in both vegetative and reproductive tissues and is required for meristem activity and organ development. We show that low boron supply to the inflorescences results in widespread defects in cell and cell wall integrity, highlighting the structural importance of boron in the formation of fully fertile reproductive organs. PMID:25035400

  2. Comparative economics for DUCRETE spent fuel storage cask handling, transportation, and capital requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes economic differences between a DUCRETE spent nuclear fuel storage cask and a conventional concrete storage cask in the areas of handling, transportation, and capital requirements. The DUCRETE cask is under evaluation as a new technology that could substantially reduce the overall costs of spent fuel and depleted U disposal. DUCRETE incorporates depleted U in a Portland cement mixture and functions as the cask's primary radiation barrier. The cask system design includes insertion of the US DOE Multi-Purpose Canister inside the DUCRETE cask. The economic comparison is from the time a cask is loaded in a spent fuel pool until it is placed in the repository and includes the utility and overall US system perspectives

  3. Schedules of requirements for the transport of specified types of radioactive material consignments (as amended 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication replaces the previous issue of Safety Series No. 80. It includes the changes to Safety Series No. 80 contained in Supplement 1988 to the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material as well as some modifications adopted by the Review Panel meeting which convened in Vienna, from 10 to 14 July 1989. The old IAEA Safety Series style is maintained for the convenience of the user, although the old style has now been superseded by a new one, affecting the structure, the format and the cover of the Safety Series. It should be noted, however, that subsequent editions of the Regulations and the Schedules of Requirements will be published in the new style. Tabs

  4. Requirements for a systems-based research and development management process in transport infrastructure engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rust, Frederik Christoffel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of research and development (R&D in the transport infrastructure field is complex due to the multidisciplinary nature of the work. The literature shows that linear R&D models that progress from idea through to consumer product are not suitable for the management of such multi-disciplinary projects. This study focuses on determining the key characteristics required for a systems-based approach to the management of R&D projects. The information and data was compiled from literature reviews, interviews, and an e-mail survey with responses from 42 significant international R&D programmes. The findings confirmed the need for a systems-based approach to R&D management. The study formulated twelve principles or tenets for a new, systems-based approach.

  5. Schedules of requirements for the transport of specified types of radioactive material consignments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Schedules have been prepared as a companion document to the 1985 Edition of the Transport Regulations (Safety Series No. 6). As presented here, the Schedules also reflect the corrections and changes implemented by the 1986 Supplement to the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Direct cross-referencing to the paragraphs, tables and figures in the Regulations is made, and the use of both the International System of Units (SI) and the formerly accepted, traditional units is continued. In many cases, due to rounding off the numbers, the two values for a given parameter for the two units may differ somewhat. To move toward international use of SI units and to avoid inconsistencies, the values for the SI units are controlling in all cases. These Schedules are provided only as an aid to users of the Regulations and the provisions of the Regulations take precedence over the Schedules. These Schedules also serve as a generic model of the Schedules which are part of modal international regulatory documents, such as the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the European Agreement Concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) and the International Convention Concerning the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (CIM/RID). For regulatory purposes, reference shall be made to the detailed provisions of the Regulations specified in Safety Series No. 6. The Schedules do not reproduce the provisions of the Regulations in detail nor do they contain any additional requirements. They merely provide a summary of the main provisions for each specified type of radioactive material, references being provided to the relevant detailed provisions of the Regulations to enable these to be consulted where necessary. A table summarizing package, shipment approval, and notification requirements of the Regulations is provided

  6. The Arabidopsis Golgi-localized GDP-L-fucose transporter is required for plant development

    OpenAIRE

    Rautengarten, Carsten; Ebert, Berit; Liu, Lifeng; Stonebloom, Solomon; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M.; Pauly, Markus; Orellana, Ariel; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Heazlewood, Joshua L.

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide sugar transport across Golgi membranes is essential for the luminal biosynthesis of glycan structures. Here we identify GDP-fucose transporter 1 (GFT1), an Arabidopsis nucleotide sugar transporter that translocates GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi lumen. Using proteo-liposome-based transport assays, we show that GFT preferentially transports GDP-L-fucose over other nucleotide sugars in vitro, while GFT1-silenced plants are almost devoid of L-fucose in cell wall-derived xyloglucan and rh...

  7. APC binds the Miro/Milton motor complex to stimulate transport of mitochondria to the plasma membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Kate M.; Brocardo, Mariana G.; Henderson, Beric R.

    2016-01-01

    The role of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor at mitochondria is unclear. We show that APC associates with the Miro/Milton/kinesin complex to stimulate anterograde transport of mitochondria. This identifies the first regulatory role of APC in organelle transport. APC cancer mutations block this activity.

  8. WD60/FAP163 is a dynein intermediate chain required for retrograde intraflagellar transport in cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel-King, Ramila S; Gilberti, Renée M; Hom, Erik F Y; King, Stephen M

    2013-09-01

    Retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) is required for assembly of cilia. We identify a Chlamydomonas flagellar protein (flagellar-associated protein 163 [FAP163]) as being closely related to the D1bIC(FAP133) intermediate chain (IC) of the dynein that powers this movement. Biochemical analysis revealed that FAP163 is present in the flagellar matrix and is actively trafficked by IFT. Furthermore, FAP163 copurified with D1bIC(FAP133) and the LC8 dynein light chain, indicating that it is an integral component of the retrograde IFT dynein. To assess the functional role of FAP163, we generated an RNA interference knockdown of the orthologous protein (WD60) in planaria. The Smed-wd60(RNAi) animals had a severe ciliary assembly defect that dramatically compromised whole-organism motility. Most cilia were present as short stubs that had accumulated large quantities of IFT particle-like material between the doublet microtubules and the membrane. The few remaining approximately full-length cilia had a chaotic beat with a frequency reduced from 24 to ∼10 Hz. Thus WD60/FAP163 is a dynein IC that is absolutely required for retrograde IFT and ciliary assembly. PMID:23864713

  9. 75 FR 63 - Hazardous Materials: Revision to Requirements for the Transportation of Batteries and Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ...-Powered Devices; and Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations, International Maritime... of Dangerous Goods Regulations, and the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous... Regulations), and the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (UN...

  10. A Novel High Content Imaging-Based Screen Identifies the Anti-Helminthic Niclosamide as an Inhibitor of Lysosome Anterograde Trafficking and Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena L Circu

    Full Text Available Lysosome trafficking plays a significant role in tumor invasion, a key event for the development of metastasis. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that the anterograde (outward movement of lysosomes to the cell surface in response to certain tumor microenvironment stimulus, such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF or acidic extracellular pH (pHe, increases cathepsin B secretion and tumor cell invasion. Anterograde lysosome trafficking depends on sodium-proton exchanger activity and can be reversed by blocking these ion pumps with Troglitazone or EIPA. Since these drugs cannot be advanced into the clinic due to toxicity, we have designed a high-content assay to discover drugs that block peripheral lysosome trafficking with the goal of identifying novel drugs that inhibit tumor cell invasion. An automated high-content imaging system (Cellomics was used to measure the position of lysosomes relative to the nucleus. Among a total of 2210 repurposed and natural product drugs screened, 18 "hits" were identified. One of the compounds identified as an anterograde lysosome trafficking inhibitor was niclosamide, a marketed human anti-helminthic drug. Further studies revealed that niclosamide blocked acidic pHe, HGF, and epidermal growth factor (EGF-induced anterograde lysosome redistribution, protease secretion, motility, and invasion of DU145 castrate resistant prostate cancer cells at clinically relevant concentrations. In an effort to identify the mechanism by which niclosamide prevented anterograde lysosome movement, we found that this drug exhibited no significant effect on the level of ATP, microtubules or actin filaments, and had minimal effect on the PI3K and MAPK pathways. Niclosamide collapsed intralysosomal pH without disruption of the lysosome membrane, while bafilomycin, an agent that impairs lysosome acidification, was also found to induce JLA in our model. Taken together, these data suggest that niclosamide promotes

  11. Waste transport and storage: Packaging refused due to failure in fulfilling QC/QA requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    final disposal of radioactive wastes, Brazilian Competent Authority specifies minimum performance requirements for operations that give wastes a suitable form for storage, transport and disposal. Taking into account the difficulties to demonstrate that the packagings were in compliance with such requirements, the packagings were refused. (author)

  12. Negative membrane curvature catalyzes nucleation of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il-Hyung; Kai, Hiroyuki; Carlson, Lars-Anders; Groves, Jay T; Hurley, James H

    2015-12-29

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery functions in HIV-1 budding, cytokinesis, multivesicular body biogenesis, and other pathways, in the course of which it interacts with concave membrane necks and bud rims. To test the role of membrane shape in regulating ESCRT assembly, we nanofabricated templates for invaginated supported lipid bilayers. The assembly of the core ESCRT-III subunit CHMP4B/Snf7 is preferentially nucleated in the resulting 100-nm-deep membrane concavities. ESCRT-II and CHMP6 accelerate CHMP4B assembly by increasing the concentration of nucleation seeds. Superresolution imaging was used to visualize CHMP4B/Snf7 concentration in a negatively curved annulus at the rim of the invagination. Although Snf7 assemblies nucleate slowly on flat membranes, outward growth onto the flat membrane is efficiently nucleated at invaginations. The nucleation behavior provides a biophysical explanation for the timing of ESCRT-III recruitment and membrane scission in HIV-1 budding. PMID:26668364

  13. Brainstem projections of neurons located in various subdivisions of the dorsolateral hypothalamic area – an anterograde tract-tracing study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rege Sugárka Papp

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The projections from the dorsolateral hypothalamic area (DLH to the lower brainstem have been investigated by using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA, an anterograde tracer in rats. The DLH can be divided into 3 areas (dorsomedial hypothalamus, perifornical area, lateral hypothalamic area, and further subdivided into 8 subdivisions. After unilateral stereotaxic injections of BDA into individual DLH subdivisions, the correct sites of injections were controlled histologically, and the distribution patterns of BDA-positive fibers were mapped on serial sections between the hypothalamus and spinal cord in 22 rats. BDA-labeled fibers were observable over 100 different brainstem areas, nuclei or subdivisions. Injections into the 8 DLH subdivisions established distinct topographical patterns. In general, the density of labeled fibers was low in the lower brainstem. High density of fibers was seen only 4 of the 116 areas: in the lateral and ventrolateral parts of the periaqueductal gray, the Barrington’s and the pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei. All of the biogenic amine cell groups in the lower brainstem (9 noradrenaline, 3 adrenaline and 9 serotonin cell groups received labeled fibers, some of them from all, or at least 7 DLH subdivisions, mainly from perifornical and ventral lateral hypothalamic neurons. Some of the tegmental nuclei and nuclei of the reticular formation were widely innervated, although the density of the BDA-labeled fibers was generally low. No definitive descending BDA-positive pathway, but long-run solitaire BDA-labeled fibers were seen in the lower brainstem. These descending fibers joined some of the large tracts or fasciculi in the brainstem. The distribution pattern of BDA-positive fibers of DLH origin throughout the lower brainstem was comparable to patterns of previously published orexin- or melanin-concentrating hormone-immunoreactive fibers with somewhat differences.

  14. Different types of spinal afferent nerve endings in stomach and esophagus identified by anterograde tracing from dorsal root ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Nick J; Kyloh, Melinda; Beckett, Elizabeth A; Brookes, Simon; Hibberd, Tim

    2016-10-15

    In visceral organs of mammals, most noxious (painful) stimuli as well as innocuous stimuli are detected by spinal afferent neurons, whose cell bodies lie in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). One of the major unresolved questions is the location, morphology, and neurochemistry of the nerve endings of spinal afferents that actually detect these stimuli in the viscera. In the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, there have been many anterograde tracing studies of vagal afferent endings, but none on spinal afferent endings. Recently, we developed a technique that now provides selective labeling of only spinal afferents. We used this approach to identify spinal afferent nerve endings in the upper GI tract of mice. Animals were anesthetized, and injections of dextran-amine were made into thoracic DRGs (T8-T12). Seven days post surgery, mice were euthanized, and the stomach and esophagus were removed, fixed, and stained for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Spinal afferent axons were identified that ramified extensively through many rows of myenteric ganglia and formed nerve endings in discrete anatomical layers. Most commonly, intraganglionic varicose endings (IGVEs) were identified in myenteric ganglia of the stomach and varicose simple-type endings in the circular muscle and mucosa. Less commonly, nerve endings were identified in internodal strands, blood vessels, submucosal ganglia, and longitudinal muscle. In the esophagus, only IGVEs were identified in myenteric ganglia. No intraganglionic lamellar endings (IGLEs) were identified in the stomach or esophagus. We present the first identification of spinal afferent endings in the upper GI tract. Eight distinct types of spinal afferent endings were identified in the stomach, and most of them were CGRP immunoreactive. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3064-3083, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27019197

  15. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae v-SNARE Vti1p Is Required for Multiple Membrane Transport Pathways to the Vacuole

    OpenAIRE

    von Mollard, Gabriele Fischer; Stevens, Tom H.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction between v-SNAREs on transport vesicles and t-SNAREs on target membranes is required for membrane traffic in eukaryotic cells. Here we identify Vti1p as the first v-SNARE protein found to be required for biosynthetic traffic into the yeast vacuole, the equivalent of the mammalian lysosome. Certain vti1-ts yeast mutants are defective in alkaline phosphatase transport from the Golgi to the vacuole and in targeting of aminopeptidase I from the cytosol to the vacuole. VTI1 interact...

  16. A single-amino-acid substitution eliminates the stringent carbohydrate requirement for intracellular transport of a viral glycoprotein.

    OpenAIRE

    Pitta, A M; Rose, J. K.; Machamer, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this report, we have investigated the contribution of primary sequence to the carbohydrate requirement for intracellular transport of two closely related glycoproteins, the G proteins of the San Juan and Orsay strains of vesicular stomatitis virus. We used site-directed mutagenesis of the coding sequence to eliminate the two consensus sites for glycosylation in the Orsay G protein. Whereas the nonglycosylated San Juan G protein required at least one of its two asparagine-linked oligosaccha...

  17. The N terminus of monoamine transporters is a lever required for the action of amphetamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sucic, Sonja; Dallinger, Stefan; Zdrazil, Barbara;

    2010-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates neurotransmission by removing serotonin from the synaptic cleft. In addition, it is the site of action of antidepressants (which block the transporter) and of amphetamines (which induce substrate efflux). We explored the functional importance of the N t...

  18. 9 CFR 11.40 - Prohibitions and requirements concerning persons involved in transportation of certain horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning persons involved in transportation of certain horses. 11.40 Section 11.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE... certain horses. (a) Each person who ships, transports, or otherwise moves, or delivers or receives...

  19. 40 CFR 51.916 - What are the requirements for an Ozone Transport Region under the 8-hour NAAQS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for an Ozone Transport Region under the 8-hour NAAQS? 51.916 Section 51.916 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard §...

  20. Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport is one of the major causes of environmental damage in Austria. Energy consumption, pollutants emissions, noise emissions, use of surfaces, sealing of surfaces, dissection of ecosystems and impact on landscape are the most significant environmental impacts caused by it. An overview of the transport development of passengers and freight in Austria is presented. Especially the energy consumption growth, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions by type of transport, and the emissions development (HC, particle and carbon monoxide) of goods and passengers transport are analyzed covering the years 1980 - 1999. The health cost resulting from transport-related air pollution in Austria is given and measures to be taken for an effective control of the transport sector are mentioned. Figs. 8, Table 1. (nevyjel)

  1. TTC26/DYF13 is an intraflagellar transport protein required for transport of motility-related proteins into flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Ide, Takahiro; Yagi, Toshiki; Jiang, Xue; Hirono, Masafumi; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Haruaki; Wemmer, Kimberly A; Stainier, Didier YR; Qin, Hongmin; Kamiya, Ritsu; Marshall, Wallace F

    2014-01-01

    Cilia/flagella are assembled and maintained by the process of intraflagellar transport (IFT), a highly conserved mechanism involving more than 20 IFT proteins. However, the functions of individual IFT proteins are mostly unclear. To help address this issue, we focused on a putative IFT protein TTC26/DYF13. Using live imaging and biochemical approaches we show that TTC26/DYF13 is an IFT complex B protein in mammalian cells and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Knockdown of TTC26/DYF13 in zebrafish embryos or mutation of TTC26/DYF13 in C. reinhardtii, produced short cilia with abnormal motility. Surprisingly, IFT particle assembly and speed were normal in dyf13 mutant flagella, unlike in other IFT complex B mutants. Proteomic and biochemical analyses indicated a particular set of proteins involved in motility was specifically depleted in the dyf13 mutant. These results support the concept that different IFT proteins are responsible for different cargo subsets, providing a possible explanation for the complexity of the IFT machinery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01566.001 PMID:24596149

  2. CFTR is required for maximal transepithelial liquid transport in pig alveolar epithelia

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaopeng; Comellas, Alejandro P.; Karp, Philip H.; Ernst, Sarah E.; Moninger, Thomas O.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Taft, Peter J.; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Michael V Rector; Rossen, Nathan; Stoltz, David A.; McCray, Paul B.; Welsh, Michael J.; Zabner, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    A balance between alveolar liquid absorption and secretion is critical for maintaining optimal alveolar subphase liquid height and facilitating gas exchange in the alveolar space. However, the role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR) in this homeostatic process has remained elusive. Using a newly developed porcine model of cystic fibrosis, in which CFTR is absent, we investigated ion transport properties and alveolar liquid transport in isolated type II alveolar epitheli...

  3. An Arabidopsis flavonoid transporter is required for anther dehiscence and pollen development

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Elinor P.; Wilkins, Christopher; Demidchik, Vadim; Davies, Julia M; Glover, Beverley J.

    2010-01-01

    FLOWER FLAVONOID TRANSPORTER (FFT) encodes a multidrug and toxin efflux family transporter in Arabidopsis thaliana. FFT (AtDTX35) is highly transcribed in floral tissues, the transcript being localized to epidermal guard cells, including those of the anthers, stigma, siliques and nectaries. Mutant analysis demonstrates that the absence of FFT transcript affects flavonoid levels in the plant and that the altered flavonoid metabolism has wide-ranging consequences. Root growth, seed development ...

  4. Astrocyte-neuron lactate transport is required for long-term memory formation

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Akinobu; Stern, Sarah A.; Bozdagi, Ozlem; Huntley, George W.; Walker, Ruth H.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Alberini, Cristina M

    2011-01-01

    We report that in the rat hippocampus learning leads to a significant increase in extracellular lactate levels, which derive from glycogen, an energy reserve selectively localized in astrocytes. Astrocytic glycogen breakdown and lactate release are essential for long-term but not short-term memory formation, and for the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength elicited in-vivo. Disrupting the expression of the astrocytic lactate transporters monocarboxylate transporter...

  5. Golgi-localized UDP-glucose transporter is required for cell wall integrity in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xueqin; Zhang, Baocai; Zhou, Yihua

    2011-01-01

    Cell wall-related nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs) theoretically supply the cytosolic nucleotide sugars for glycosyltransferases (GTs) to carry out ploysaccharide synthesis and modification in the Golgi apparatus. However, the regulation of cell wall synthesis by NSTs remains undescribed. Recently, we have reported the functional characterization of Oryza sativa nucleotide sugar transport (Osnst1) mutant and its corresponding gene. OsNST1/BC14 is localized in the Golgi apparatus and trans...

  6. General requirement for harvesting antennae at Ca2+ and H+ channels and transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Martínez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The production and dissipation of energy in cells is intimately linked to the movement of small molecules in and out of enzymes, channels and transporters. An analytical model of diffusion was described previously, which was used to estimate local effects of these proteins acting as molecular sources. The present article describes a simple but more general model, which can be used to estimate the local impact of proteins acting as molecular sinks. The results show that the enzymes, transporters and channels, whose substrates are present at relatively high concentrations like ATP, Na+, glucose, lactate and pyruvate, do not operate fast enough to deplete their vicinity to a meaningful extent, supporting the notion that for these molecules the cytosol is a well-mixed compartment. One specific consequence of this analysis is that the well-documented cross-talk existing between the Na+/K+ ATPase and the glycolytic machinery should not be explained by putative changes in local ATP concentration. In contrast, Ca2+ and H+ transporters like the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger NCX and the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE, show experimental rates of transport that are two to three orders of magnitude faster than the rates at which the aqueous phase may possibly feed their binding sites. This paradoxical result implies that Ca2+ and H+ transporters do not extract their substrates directly from the bulk cytosol, but from an intermediate “harvesting” compartment located between the aqueous phase and the transport site.

  7. Transportation of radioactive materials: a summary of state and local legislative requirements for the period ending December 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report lists 670 adopted US state and local laws that impact the transportation of radioactive materials. The report was generated from information contained in the Legislative Database (LDB), a comprehensive, interactive database developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy and the Joint Integration Office. Laws are sorted alphabetically by state, with state and local bills listed separately and sorted by date of adoption. Each citation contains the following information: locale (geographical areas and political jurisdictions affected by the action), bill number, bill title, bill sponsor, history of bill status, comments, and abstract. Seven indexes are provided to assist the reader in locating legislation of interest: locale, bill number, title word (permuted), sponsor, transport restriction (type of transportation restriction specified, e.g., escort, notify, permit, ban), transport mode (mode of transportation specified, e.g., truck, rail, barge), and keyword. This report adds new legislation to the information contained in last year's report, ''Transportation of Radioactive and Hazardous Materials: A Summary of State and Local Legislative Requirements for the Period Ending December 31, 1981,'' ORNL/TM-9563, published in September 1985

  8. Development of an improved radiological basis and revised requirements for the transport of LSA/SCO materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material specify a range of package requirements that are dependent upon the activity and properties of the radioactive material being transported. For example, Type A packages can be used for the transport of material with an activity of up to one A1 of special form material and one A2 of other material. The A1 and A2 values are determined for over 350 radionuclides using the Q system in the advisory material. This system models the following pathways in the event of a severe accident: External photon dose; External beta dose; Inhalation dose; Skin and ingestion dose due to contamination transfer; Submersion dose. Industrial packages can be used for the transport of low specific activity (LSA) material and surface contaminated objects (SCO) and the particular requirements for these types of materials are derived from a simplistic radiological model that is often referred to as the 10 mg inhalation model. This is because it is based on the assumption that, in a dusty environment, an individual would inhale no more than 10 mg in such a situation, although there is limited reliable information to justify this assumption. Furthermore, there are deficiencies in the specification of some of the material requirements for LSA/SCO material in the IAEA Transport Regulations. Consequently, this can cause some difficulties for operators in complying with the regulations and to competent authorities in their compliance assurance role. Particular areas of difficulty include: It can be difficult to distinguish between LSA-type material and SCO-type; It is difficult to distinguish surface contamination from activity within the object, and between fixed and nonfixed contamination; In order to demonstrate compliance with SCO requirements, measurements of both accessible and nonaccessible contamination are required, although it is not clear how compliance with the inaccessible contamination limit can be measured if it cannot

  9. Cuban experience in verification of the execution of the safety requirements during the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cuban Regulatory Authority has paid special attention to the verification of the execution of the safety requirements during the transport of radioactive material in the country. With this purpose, the Authority has followed a consequent policy based on supplementary demands to those collections in the juridical mark settled down in 1987 in the sphere of transport of radioactive substances. In the work the technical approaches are exposed kept in mind when establishing the one referred politics, the current situation is characterized, the results are evaluated obtained in correspondence with the pursued objectives and the essential aspects are exposed to keep in mind for the adopted politics ulterior development. (author)

  10. Classification of the railway accident in accordance with the requirement of the safety analysis of transporting spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the analysis of the difference between the accident severity categorization used in the Ministry of Railway and that used in the safety analysis of the transporting spent fuel, a method used for the classification of the railway accident in accordance with the requirement of the safety analysis of transporting spent fuel is suggested. The method classifies the railway accidents into 10 scenarios and make it possible to scale the accident through directly using the data documented by the Ministry of Railway without any additional effort

  11. 军用运输机集装运输托盘需求分析%Analysis of General Requirement of Military Transport Airplane Container Transport Pallets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家应; 刘子明

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide some theoretical references for the development of military transport airplane container transport pallet, the requirements on every aspect of the development military transport airplane container transport pallet, including its operational functions,support environment,suitable model,tactical and technical capabilities performance indexes, specifications,were analyzed and discussed in this paper.%对军用运输机集装运输托盘研制的业务功能、保障环境、适用机型和技术规范标准等方面的需求进行初步分析,提出了军用运输机集装运输托盘研制需求的详细内容。随着托盘设计研究的不断深入,有关需求的内容与标准要求还应随之不断补充调整。

  12. Molecular and immunological analysis of an ABC transporter complex required for cytochrome c biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, B S; Beckman, D L; Bali, A; Monika, E M; Gabbert, K K; Kranz, R G

    1997-05-16

    The helABC genes are predicted to encode an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter necessary for heme export for ligation in bacterial cytochrome c biogenesis. The recent discoveries of homologs of the helB and helC genes in plant mitochondrial genomes suggest this is a highly conserved transporter in prokaryotes and some eukaryotes with the HelB and HelC proteins comprising the transmembrane components. Molecular genetic analysis in the Gram-negative bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus was used to show that the helABC and helDX genes are part of an operon linked to the secDF genes. To facilitate analysis of this transporter, strains with non-polar deletions in each gene, epitope and reporter-tagged HelABCD proteins, and antisera specific to the HelA and HelX proteins were generated. We directly demonstrate that this transporter is present in the cytoplasmic membrane as an HelABCD complex. The HelB and HelC but not HelD proteins are necessary for the binding and stability of the HelA protein, the cytoplasmic subunit containing the ATP-binding region. In addition we show that the HelA protein co-immunoprecipitates with either the HelC or HelD proteins. Thus, the HelABCD heme export complex is distinguished by the presence of four membrane-associated subunits and represents a unique subfamily of ABC transporters. PMID:9175857

  13. Critical evaluation of safety and radiological protection requirements adopted for the transport of uranium and thorium ores and concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work evaluates in a critical way the safety and radiological protection recommendations established by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA and adopted national and internationally, for the transport of uranium and thorium ores and concentrates, known according the transport regulations, as being of the Low Specific Activity Material Type-I, LSA-I, basing on more realistic scenarios than the presently existent, aiming at the determination of maximum exposure levels of radiation as well as the maximal contents of those materials in packages and conveyance. A general overview taking into account the scenarios foreseen by the regulations of the IAEA pointed out for a need of a better justification of the requirements edited by the Agency or should be used to support a request of revision of those regulations, national and internationally adopted, in the pertinent aspects to the transport of uranium and thorium ores and concentrates. (author)

  14. Spent fuel storage and transport cask decontamination and modification. An overview of management requirements and applications based on practical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large increase in the number of casks required for transport and/or storage of spent fuel is forecast into the next century. The principal requirement will be for increased number of storage and dual purpose (transport/storage) casks for interim storage of spent fuel prior to reprocessing or permanent disposal in both on-site and off-site storage facilities. Through contact with radioactive materials spent fuel casks will be contaminated on both internal and external surfaces. In broad terms, cask contamination management can be defined by three components: minimisation, prevention and decontamination. This publication is a compilation of international experience with cask contamination problems and decontamination practices. The objective is to present current knowledge and experience as well as developments, trends and potential for new applications in this field. Furthermore, the report may assist in new design or modification of existing casks, cask handling systems and decontamination equipment

  15. Requirement of kinesin-mediated membrane transport of WAVE2 along microtubules for lamellipodia formation promoted by hepatocyte growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuhide; Suzuki, Katsuo

    2008-07-01

    Lamellipodia formation necessary for epithelial cell migration and invasion is accomplished by rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton at the leading edge through membrane transport of WAVE2. However, how WAVE2 is transported to the cell periphery where lamellipodia are formed remains to be established. We report here that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) promoted lamellipodia formation and intracellular transport of WAVE2 to the cell periphery, depending on Rac1 activity, in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Immunoblot analyses indicating the coimmunoprecipitation of WAVE2 with kinesin heavy chain KIF5B, one of the motor proteins, and IQGAP1 suggest that KIF5B and IQGAP1 formed a complex with WAVE2 in serum-starved cells and increased in their amount after HGF stimulation. Both downregulation of KIF5B by the small interfering RNA and depolymerization of microtubules with nocodazole abrogated the HGF-induced lamellipodia formation and WAVE2 transport. Therefore, we propose here that the promotion of lamellipodia formation by HGF in MDA-MB-231 cells is Rac1-dependent and requires KIF5B-mediated transport of WAVE2 and IQGAP1 to the cell periphery along microtubules. PMID:18514191

  16. 77 FR 17394 - Hazardous Materials: Approval and Communication Requirements for the Safe Transportation of Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Department of Transportation (44 FR 11034). Executive Order 13563 is supplemental to and reaffirms the... tape or a waterproof soft plastic cap that must easily provide ventilation of the drum contents in the... has substantial direct effects on the States, the relationship between the national government and...

  17. Repellent Taxis in Response to Nickel Ion Requires neither Ni2+ Transport nor the Periplasmic NikA Binding Protein▿

    OpenAIRE

    Englert, Derek L.; Adase, Christopher A.; Jayaraman, Arul; Manson, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Ni2+ and Co2+ are sensed as repellents by the Escherichia coli Tar chemoreceptor. The periplasmic Ni2+ binding protein, NikA, has been suggested to sense Ni2+. We show here that neither NikA nor the membrane-bound NikB and NikC proteins of the Ni2+ transport system are required for repellent taxis in response to Ni2+.

  18. Review of data requirements for groundwater flow and solute transport modelling and the ability of site investigation methods to meet these requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the data requirements for the codes that may be used in the modelling of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport during the assessment of a Nirex site for the deep disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and also the site investigation methods that exist to supply the data for these codes. The data requirements for eight codes are reviewed, with most emphasis on three of the more significant codes, VANDAL, NAMMU and CHEMTARD. The largest part of the report describes and discusses the site investigation techniques and each technique is considered in terms of its ability to provide the data necessary to characterise the geological and hydrogeological environment around a potential repository. (author)

  19. Glutathione-Conjugate Transport by RLIP76 is required for Clathrin-Dependent Endocytosis and Chemical Carcinogenesis**

    OpenAIRE

    SINGHAL, SHARAD S.; Wickramarachchi, Dilki; Yadav, Sushma; Singhal, Jyotsana; Leake, Kathryn; Vatsyayan, Rit; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Lelsani, Poorna; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Yang, Shaohua; Awasthi, Yogesh C.; Awasthi, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Targeted depletion of the RALBP1 encoded 76 kDa splice variant, RLIP76, causes marked and sustained regression of human xenografts of lung, colon, prostate, and kidney cancer without toxicity in nude mouse models. We proposed that the remarkable efficacy and broad-spectrum of RLIP76-targeted therapy is because its glutathione-conjugate (GS-E) transport-activity is required for clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE), that regulates all ligand-receptor signaling, and that RLIP76 is required not o...

  20. BcMctA, a putative monocarboxylate transporter, is required for pathogenicity in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhifeng; Gao, Nana; Wang, Qian; Ren, Yun; Wang, Kun; Zhu, Tingheng

    2015-11-01

    Monocarboxylate transporters have a central role in mammalian metabolism, but rarely reported in phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, a putative monocarboxylate transporter gene in Botrytis cinerea [B. cinerea MctA (BcMctA)] was identified in the research of a B. cinerea transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertional mutant (74). Disruption of the gene decreased the growth rate on the medium with monocarboxylate (acetate or pyruvate) as the sole carbon sources, but not affected on lactate. The pyruvate contents in BcmctA deletion mutants decreased about 35 % compared with the wild strain. Besides, the conidial yield was increased about two times in BcmctA disruption mutant. The pathogenicity assay indicated that disruption of BcmctA significantly reduced the virulence of B. cinerea on cucumber and tomato leaves. Our results demonstrated that BcMctA is related to pyruvate uptake and pathogenicity of B. cinerea on cucumber and tomato leaves. PMID:25634672

  1. Review and assessment of package requirements (yellowcake) and emergency response to transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of an accident involving a truck shipment of yellowcake, a joint NRC--DOT study was undertaken to review and assess the regulations and practices related to package integrity and to emergency response to transportation accidents involving low specific activity radioactive materials. Recommendations are made regarding the responsibilities of state and local agencies, carriers, and shippers, and the DOT and NRC regulations

  2. Adult active transport in the Netherlands: an analysis of its contribution to physical activity requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Fishman

    Full Text Available Modern, urban lifestyles have engineered physical activity out of everyday life and this presents a major threat to human health. The Netherlands is a world leader in active travel, particularly cycling, but little research has sought to quantify the cumulative amount of physical activity through everyday walking and cycling.Using data collected as part of the Dutch National Travel Survey (2010 - 2012, this paper determines the degree to which Dutch walking and cycling contributes to meeting minimum level of physical activity of 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity throughout the week. The sample includes 74,465 individuals who recorded at least some travel on the day surveyed. As physical activity benefits are cumulative, all walking and cycling trips are analysed, including those to and from public transport. These trips are then converted into an established measure of physical activity intensity, known as metabolic equivalents of tasks. Multivariate Tobit regression models were performed on a range of socio-demographic, transport resources, urban form and meteorological characteristics.The results reveal that Dutch men and women participate in 24 and 28 minutes of daily physical activity through walking and cycling, which is 41% and 55% more than the minimum recommended level. It should be noted however that some 57% of the entire sample failed to record any walking or cycling, and an investigation of this particular group serves as an important topic of future research. Active transport was positively related with age, income, bicycle ownership, urban density and air temperature. Car ownership had a strong negative relationship with physically active travel.The results of this analysis demonstrate the significance of active transport to counter the emerging issue of sedentary lifestyle disease. The Dutch experience provides other countries with a highly relevant case study in the creation of environments and cultures that

  3. Apical Transport of Influenza A Virus Ribonucleoprotein Requires Rab11-positive Recycling Endosome

    OpenAIRE

    Momose, Fumitaka; Sekimoto, Tetsuya; Ohkura, Takashi; Jo, Shuichi; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Nagata, Kyosuke; Morikawa, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A virus RNA genome exists as eight-segmented ribonucleoprotein complexes containing viral RNA polymerase and nucleoprotein (vRNPs). Packaging of vRNPs and virus budding take place at the apical plasma membrane (APM). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of apical transport of newly synthesized vRNP. Transfection of fluorescent-labeled antibody and subsequent live cell imaging revealed that punctate vRNP signals moved along microtubules rapidly but intermittently i...

  4. Assessment of Quality Assurance Measures for Radioactive Material Transport Packages not Requiring Competent Authority Design Approval - 13282

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komann, Steffen; Groeke, Carsten; Droste, Bernhard [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 44-46, 12203 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The majority of transports of radioactive materials are carried out in packages which don't need a package design approval by a competent authority. Low-active radioactive materials are transported in such packages e.g. in the medical and pharmaceutical industry and in the nuclear industry as well. Decommissioning of NPP's leads to a strong demand for packages to transport low and middle active radioactive waste. According to IAEA regulations the 'non-competent authority approved package types' are the Excepted Packages and the Industrial Packages of Type IP-1, IP-2 and IP-3 and packages of Type A. For these types of packages an assessment by the competent authority is required for the quality assurance measures for the design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection (IAEA SSR 6, Chap. 306). In general a compliance audit of the manufacturer of the packaging is required during this assessment procedure. Their regulatory level in the IAEA regulations is not comparable with the 'regulatory density' for packages requiring competent authority package design approval. Practices in different countries lead to different approaches within the assessment of the quality assurance measures in the management system as well as in the quality assurance program of a special package design. To use the package or packaging in a safe manner and in compliance with the regulations a management system for each phase of the life of the package or packaging is necessary. The relevant IAEA-SSR6 chap. 801 requires documentary verification by the consignor concerning package compliance with the requirements. (authors)

  5. Assessment of Quality Assurance Measures for Radioactive Material Transport Packages not Requiring Competent Authority Design Approval - 13282

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of transports of radioactive materials are carried out in packages which don't need a package design approval by a competent authority. Low-active radioactive materials are transported in such packages e.g. in the medical and pharmaceutical industry and in the nuclear industry as well. Decommissioning of NPP's leads to a strong demand for packages to transport low and middle active radioactive waste. According to IAEA regulations the 'non-competent authority approved package types' are the Excepted Packages and the Industrial Packages of Type IP-1, IP-2 and IP-3 and packages of Type A. For these types of packages an assessment by the competent authority is required for the quality assurance measures for the design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection (IAEA SSR 6, Chap. 306). In general a compliance audit of the manufacturer of the packaging is required during this assessment procedure. Their regulatory level in the IAEA regulations is not comparable with the 'regulatory density' for packages requiring competent authority package design approval. Practices in different countries lead to different approaches within the assessment of the quality assurance measures in the management system as well as in the quality assurance program of a special package design. To use the package or packaging in a safe manner and in compliance with the regulations a management system for each phase of the life of the package or packaging is necessary. The relevant IAEA-SSR6 chap. 801 requires documentary verification by the consignor concerning package compliance with the requirements. (authors)

  6. Regional, national and international security requirements for the transport of nuclear cargo by sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, P.A.; Barnwell, I. [Marine Operations, BNFL International Transport and British Nuclear Group Security (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear age in the 1940's, the world has focused on the immense possibilities of nuclear power with both its destructive and productive capabilities. The civil nuclear industry in the UK, as in most nuclear weapons states, grew from the military facilities built in the post war years under the political climate of the Cold War. In the early years of the industry, civil and defence nuclear facilities were inextricably linked both in public perceptions and the regulatory infrastructure under which they operated. The nuclear arms race and the spread of communism overshadowed people's perceptions of there being two separate uses of nuclear material. This was a double edged sword which initially allowed the industry to develop largely unhindered by public concerns but latterly meant the industry could not break away from its roots and to many is still perceived as a dangerous and destructive force. Regulatory frameworks governing all aspects of the industry have developed both nationally and internationally driven by valid public concerns, political agendas and an international consensus that the unregulated use of nuclear material has catastrophic possibilities on an international scale. With the internationalisation of the civil nuclear industry and the costs associated with developing facilities to fully support each stage of the fuel cycle, from enrichment, fuel manufacturing, reprocessing and waste remediation, it became inevitable that a transport infrastructure would develop to make best use of the facilities. Regulations, both national and international are implicit in ensuring the security of nuclear material in transit. Due to the physical size of many of the irradiated fuel packages and implications of the changes to transport safety regulations, international transports of nuclear material, other than within mainland Europe, is predominantly carried out by sea.

  7. Siting of an MRS facility: identification of a geographic region that reduces transportation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study reported here was undertaken as part of the site screening and evaluation activities for the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Program of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Department of Energy (DOE). Its primary purpose was to determine: the location and shape of a preferred geographic region within which locating an MRS facility would minimize total shipment miles for spent fuel transported through the MRS facility to a repository, and the sensitivity of the location and shape of this region and the reduction in total shipment miles to possible variations in waste management system logistics. As a result of this analysis, a geographic region has been identified which is preferred for siting an MRS facility. This region will be referred to as the preferred region in this study. Siting an MRS facility in the preferred region will limit total shipment miles (i.e., the total miles traveled for all shipments of spent fuel) to and from the MRS facility to within 20% of the lowest achievable. The region is preferred for a mixed truck/rail system of transport from reactors to the MRS facility. It is assumed that rail will be used to ship spent fuel from the MRS facility to a geologic repository for disposal. Siting an MRS facility in the preferred region will reduce total shipment miles for all currently considered system logistics options which include an MRS facility in the system. These options include: any first repository location, the possible range of spent fuel consolidation at the MRS, use of multi-cask or single-cask train shipments, use of current or future spent fuel transport casks, servicing only the first or both the first and second repositories, and shipment of fuel from western reactors either through the MRS facility or to a western facility (a second, smaller MRS facility or the first repository)

  8. Regional, national and international security requirements for the transport of nuclear cargo by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of the nuclear age in the 1940's, the world has focused on the immense possibilities of nuclear power with both its destructive and productive capabilities. The civil nuclear industry in the UK, as in most nuclear weapons states, grew from the military facilities built in the post war years under the political climate of the Cold War. In the early years of the industry, civil and defence nuclear facilities were inextricably linked both in public perceptions and the regulatory infrastructure under which they operated. The nuclear arms race and the spread of communism overshadowed people's perceptions of there being two separate uses of nuclear material. This was a double edged sword which initially allowed the industry to develop largely unhindered by public concerns but latterly meant the industry could not break away from its roots and to many is still perceived as a dangerous and destructive force. Regulatory frameworks governing all aspects of the industry have developed both nationally and internationally driven by valid public concerns, political agendas and an international consensus that the unregulated use of nuclear material has catastrophic possibilities on an international scale. With the internationalisation of the civil nuclear industry and the costs associated with developing facilities to fully support each stage of the fuel cycle, from enrichment, fuel manufacturing, reprocessing and waste remediation, it became inevitable that a transport infrastructure would develop to make best use of the facilities. Regulations, both national and international are implicit in ensuring the security of nuclear material in transit. Due to the physical size of many of the irradiated fuel packages and implications of the changes to transport safety regulations, international transports of nuclear material, other than within mainland Europe, is predominantly carried out by sea

  9. Analysis of operational requirements for medium density air transportation, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The medium density air travel market is examined and defined in terms of numbers of people transported per route per day and frequency of service. The operational characteristics for aircraft to serve this market are determined and a basepoint aircraft is designed from which tradeoff studies and parametric variations can be conducted. The impact of the operational characteristics on the air travel system is evaluated along with the economic viability of the study aircraft. Research and technology programs for future study consideration are identified.

  10. Localization of Iron in Arabidopsis Seed Requires the Vacuolar Membrane Transporter VIT1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron deficiency is a major human nutritional problem wherever plant-based diets are common. Using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microtomography to directly visualize iron in Arabidopsis seeds, we show that iron is localized primarily to the provascular strands of the embryo. This localization is completely abolished when the vacuolar iron uptake transporter VIT1 is disrupted. Vacuolar iron storage is also critical for seedling development because vit1-1 seedlings grow poorly when iron is limiting. We have uncovered a fundamental aspect of seed biology that will ultimately aid the development of nutrient-rich seed, benefiting both human health and agricultural productivity

  11. SGLT1 sugar transporter/sensor is required for post-oral glucose appetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony; Koepsell, Hermann; Ackroff, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Recent findings suggest that the intestinal sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) glucose transporter and sensor mediates, in part, the appetite-stimulation actions of intragastric (IG) glucose and nonmetabolizable α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (MDG) infusions in mice. Here, we investigated the role of SGLT1 in sugar conditioning using SGLT1 knockout (KO) and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice. An initial experiment revealed that both KO and WT mice maintained on a very low-carbohydrate diet display normal preferences for saccharin, which was used in the flavored conditioned stimulus (CS) solutions. In experiment 2, mice were trained to drink one flavored solution (CS+) paired with an IG MDG infusion and a different flavored solution (CS-) paired with IG water infusion. In contrast to WT mice, KO mice decreased rather than increased the intake of the CS+ during training and failed to prefer the CS+ over the CS- in a choice test. In experiment 3, the KO mice also decreased their intake of a CS+ paired with IG glucose and avoided the CS+ in a choice test, unlike WT mice, which preferred the CS+ to CS-. In experiment 4, KO mice, like WT mice preferred a glucose + saccharin solution to a saccharin solution. These findings support the involvement of SGLT1 in post-oral glucose and MDG conditioning. The results also indicate that sugar malabsorption in KO mice has inhibitory effects on sugar intake but does not block their natural preference for sweet taste. PMID:26791832

  12. Cross sections for electron and photon processes required by electron-transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron-transport calculations rely on a large collection of electron-atom and photon-atom cross-section data to represent the response characteristics of the target medium. These basic atomic-physics quantities, and certain qualities derived from them that are now commonly in use, are critically reviewed. Publications appearing after 1978 are not given consideration. Processes involving electron or photon energies less than 1 keV are ignored, while an attempt is made to exhaustively cover the remaining independent parameters and target possibilities. Cases for which data improvements can be made from existing information are identified. Ranges of parameters for which state-of-the-art data are not available are sought out, and recommendations for explicit measurements and/or calculations with presently available tools are presented. An attempt is made to identify the maturity of the atomic-physics data and to predict the possibilities for rapid changes in the quality of the data. Finally, weaknesses in the state-of-the-art atomic-physics data and in the conceptual usage of these data in the context of electron-transport theory are discussed. Brief attempts are made to weight the various aspects of these questions and to suggest possible remedies

  13. Survey of Packaging Requirements for the Transport of Highly Hazardous Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among hazardous materials those which are most dangerous fall into three categories: chemical, biological, and radioactive. The DOT hazard classes for these three categories are Hazard Class 2.3 (poisonous gases) and 6.1 (toxic substances) for chemical hazards, Hazard Class 6.2 (infectious substances) for biological hazards and Hazard Class 7 for radioactive material (RAM) hazards. The packaging requirements for chemical and biological hazards are outlined and compared with RAM packaging requirements. RAM packages are found to be able to withstand much more severe performance tests than packages for other, more lethal hazards

  14. 40 CFR 51.309 - Requirements related to the Grand Canyon Visibility Transport Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with air-pollution related requirements. (iii) Programs to preserve and expand energy conservation... associated with the renewable energy goals, energy efficiency and pollution prevention activities. (vi) A... purposes of 40 CFR 51.309, means electricity generated by non-nuclear and non-fossil low or no air...

  15. 49 CFR 171.23 - Requirements for specific materials and packagings transported under the ICAO Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... relief devices and provide appropriate guidance for exposure to fire. (b) Conditions and requirements..., or a DOT exemption or special permit cylinder or a cylinder used as a fire extinguisher in... properly marked valve; and (iv) A UN pressure receptacle is marked with “USA” as a country of approval...

  16. 76 FR 79544 - Processing of Merchant Mariner Credentials for Those Mariners Not Requiring a Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Parts 10, 11, 12, and 15 Processing of Merchant Mariner Credentials for Those... acquire and renew a Merchant Mariner Credential (MMC) without holding a valid TWIC. DATES: This policy is... regulations require every applicant for an original or renewal of a Merchant Mariner Credential (MMC) obtain...

  17. 75 FR 43906 - Hazardous Materials: Requirements for the Storage of Explosives During Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... appropriate safety measures, because it assesses the unique characteristics of a particular site. DDESB... Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standard 498 as the Federally approved standard for the construction... rulemaking under Docket HM-232A (67 FR 46622) entitled ``Security Requirements for Motor...

  18. Transhepatic anterograde biliary drainage using a self-expandable metallic stent: a therapeutic alternative after hepaticojejunostomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Macías-García

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic drainage is the procedure of choice in cases of obstructive jaundice. However, in patients with a surgical biliary reconstruction, this technique cannot be often satisfactorily used. In these cases, the best alternative has usually been the percutaneous biliary drainage. Since the introduction of endoscopic ultrasound-guided therapy, some new techniques have been proposed to solve these technical problems related to postsurgical disturbed anatomy. In this case report, we describe our successful experience in the performance of a transhepatic anterograde biliary drainage using a self-expandable metallic stent in the context of a patient who previously had undergone a hepaticojejunostomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction because of a resected hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

  19. Help guide for the application of regulatory requirements on the transport of radioactive material; Guia de ayuda para la aplicacion de requisitos reglementarios sobr el transporte de material radiactivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Rodriguez, S.; Acena Moreno, V.; Zamora Martin, F.; Rubio de Juan, E.

    2011-07-01

    The regulation of transport of radioactive material by road in Spain refers to compliance with the requirements of the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) in force. The structure presented by this legislation, which is international, and the inclusion in it of requirements that apply to other dangerous goods makes it difficult to consult the requirements that specifically apply to the transport of radioactive material. Therefore, the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) has found it necessary to publish a guide that facilitates users to comply with its provisions and, consequently, this transport security.

  20. A Salmonella protein that is required for resistance to antimicrobial peptides and transport of potassium.

    OpenAIRE

    Parra-Lopez, C; Lin, R; Aspedon, A; Groisman, E A

    1994-01-01

    The ability of invading pathogens to proliferate within host tissues requires the capacity to resist the killing effects of a wide variety of host defense molecules. sap mutants of the facultative intracellular parasite Salmonella typhimurium exhibit hypersensitivity to antimicrobial peptides, cannot survive within macrophages in vitro and are attenuated for mouse virulence in vivo. We conducted a molecular genetic analysis of the sapG locus and showed that it encodes a product that is 99% id...

  1. A sodium requirement for growth, solute transport, and pH homeostasis in Bacillus firmus RAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krulwich, T A; Guffanti, A A; Bornstein, R F; Hoffstein, J

    1982-02-25

    Activity of a Na+/H+ antiporter has been suggested to be critically involved in pH homeostasis in obligately alkalophilic bacteria (Krulwich, K. A., Mandel, K. G., Bornstein, R. F., and Guffanti, A. A. (1979) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 91, 58-62) and in Escherichia coli (Zilberstein, D., Padan, E., and Schuldiner, S. (1980) FEBS Lett. 116, 177-180). A concern with respect to these proposals has been the failure of either Bacillus alcalophilus or E. coli to exhibit a requirement for added Na+ for growth. Thus, it became of interest to examine Na+-coupled porter functions in obligately alkalophilic Bacillus firmus RAB, a species that exhibits an absolute requirement for added Na+ for growth at pH 10.5. In a comparative study using membrane vesicles from B. alcalophilus and B. firmus RAB it was found that both the Na+/H+ antiporter and the Na+/alpha-aminoisobutyric acid symporter from the "Na+-requiring" species had much lower apparent affinities for Na+ than corresponding porters from B. alcalophilus. At high concentrations of Na+, the porters from the two species were functionally similar. These findings support the argument that the absence of a growth requirement for added Na+ may reflect an ability of at least some bacteria to effectively utilize and recycle the available levels of Na+ that contaminate all media, rather than reflect true Na+ independence. Studies with a nonalkalophilic derivative of B. firmus RAB confirmed earlier findings with B. alcalophilus of a pleiotropic loss of Na+ coupling to porters in nonalkalophilic mutants. PMID:7056750

  2. A Feasibility Study for Gamification in Transport Maintenance : Requirements to implement gamification in heterogeneous organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Shreenath, Vinutha Magal; Kornevs, Maksims; Raghothama, Jayanth; Meijer, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Gamification has been successfully applied in many domains, but mostly for simple, isolated and operational tasks. The hope for gamification as a method to radically change and improve behavior, to provide incentives for sustained engagement has proven to be more difficult to get right. Applying gamification in large networked organizations with heterogeneous tasks remains a challenge. Applying gamification in such enterprise environments posits different requirements, and a match between the...

  3. Historical background of the development of various requirements in the international regulations for the safe packaging and transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Questions are frequently asked regarding the source of some of the package test requirements in the Transport Regulations, the philosophy behind them and the basis for selecting them. This paper summarizes the results of a review of early historical documents and elaborates on the early philosophy behind the regulatory requirements. To the extent possible, the paper compares the early philosophy with the current structure of the Transport Regulations in key topic areas with a focus on the test requirements for packages that are designed to withstand accident conditions of transport

  4. myo-Inositol-1-phosphate synthase is required for polar auxin transport and organ development

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao

    2010-06-01

    myo-Inositol-1-phosphate synthase is a conserved enzyme that catalyzes the first committed and rate-limiting step in inositol biosynthesis. Despite its wide occurrence in all eukaryotes, the role of myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase and de novo inositol biosynthesis in cell signaling and organism development has been unclear. In this study, we isolated loss-of-function mutants in the Arabidopsis MIPS1 gene from different ecotypes. It was found that all mips1 mutants are defective in embryogenesis, cotyledon venation patterning, root growth, and root cap development. The mutant roots are also agravitropic and have reduced basipetal auxin transport. mips1 mutants have significantly reduced levels of major phosphatidylinositols and exhibit much slower rates of endocytosis. Treatment with brefeldin A induces slower PIN2 protein aggregation in mips1, indicating altered PIN2 trafficking. Our results demonstrate that MIPS1 is critical for maintaining phosphatidylinositol levels and affects pattern formation in plants likely through regulation of auxin distribution. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Requirements for Forming Efficient 3-D Charge Transport Pathway in Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Copolymers: Film Morphology vs Molecular Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gang-Young; Han, A-Reum; Kim, Taewan; Lee, Hae Rang; Oh, Joon Hak; Park, Taiho

    2016-05-18

    To achieve extremely high planarity and processability simultaneously, we have newly designed and synthesized copolymers composed of donor units of 2,2'-(2,5-dialkoxy-1,4-phenylene)dithieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT-P-TT) and acceptor units of diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP). These copolymers consist of a highly planar backbone due to intramolecular interactions. We have systematically investigated the effects of intermolecular interactions by controlling the side chain bulkiness on the polymer thin-film morphologies, packing structures, and charge transport. The thin-film microstructures of the copolymers are found to be critically dependent upon subtle changes in the intermolecular interactions, and charge transport dynamics of the copolymer based field-effect transistors (FETs) has been investigated by in-depth structure-property relationship study. Although the size of the fibrillar structures increases as the bulkiness of the side chains in the copolymer increases, the copolymer with the smallest side chain shows remarkably high charge carrier mobility. Our findings reveal the requirement for forming efficient 3-D charge transport pathway and highlight the importance of the molecular packing and interdomain connectivity, rather than the crystalline domain size. The results obtained herein demonstrate the importance of tailoring the side chain bulkiness and provide new insights into the molecular design for high-performance polymer semiconductors. PMID:27117671

  6. Model complexities and requirements for multimodal transport network design: Assessment of classical, state-of-the-practice, and state-of-the-research models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eck, G.; Brands, T.; Wismans, L.J.J.; Pel, A.J.; Van Nes, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the aim for a more sustainable transport system, governments try to stimulate multimodal trip making by facilitating smooth transfers between modes. The assessment of related multimodal policy measures requires transport models that are capable of handling the complex nature of multimodality. Thi

  7. Fuel cells for transport: can the promise be fulfilled? Technical requirements and demands from customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaiber, Thomas

    The paper discusses the technical requirements and the customer demands for vehicles that have an on-board methanol reformer and fuel cells. The research concentrates on the technical developmental risks which include minimizing volume, reducing weight and, at the same time, improving efficiency and system dynamics. Fuel cell powered vehicles with methanol reformers are not only suitable for a niche market but also these vehicles will compete with conventional vehicles. The greatest hindrance will be the price of the fuel cell. A possible progressive development of the number of fuel cell powered vehicles in conjunction with a reduction in costs will be discussed in the paper. When fuel cell vehicles come to the market it is necessary that an infrastructure for the fuel methanol or hydrogen is installed. Therefore, it will only be possible to introduce fuel cell vehicles into special markets, e.g. California. Such a process will need to be subsidized by additional incentives like tax concessions. Today there are many technical risks and unsolved problems relating to production technologies, infrastructure, and costs. Nevertheless, among the alternative power units, the fuel cell seems to be the only one that might be competitive to the conventional power unit, especially relating to emissions.

  8. The Boron Efflux Transporter ROTTEN EAR Is Required for Maize Inflorescence Development and Fertility[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Mithu; Tabi, Zara; Galli, Mary; Malcomber, Simon; Buck, Amy; Muszynski, Michael; Gallavotti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Although boron has a relatively low natural abundance, it is an essential plant micronutrient. Boron deficiencies cause major crop losses in several areas of the world, affecting reproduction and yield in diverse plant species. Despite the importance of boron in crop productivity, surprisingly little is known about its effects on developing reproductive organs. We isolated a maize (Zea mays) mutant, called rotten ear (rte), that shows distinct defects in vegetative and reproductive development, eventually causing widespread sterility in its inflorescences, the tassel and the ear. Positional cloning revealed that rte encodes a membrane-localized boron efflux transporter, co-orthologous to the Arabidopsis thaliana BOR1 protein. Depending on the availability of boron in the soil, rte plants show a wide range of phenotypic defects that can be fully rescued by supplementing the soil with exogenous boric acid, indicating that rte is crucial for boron transport into aerial tissues. rte is expressed in cells surrounding the xylem in both vegetative and reproductive tissues and is required for meristem activity and organ development. We show that low boron supply to the inflorescences results in widespread defects in cell and cell wall integrity, highlighting the structural importance of boron in the formation of fully fertile reproductive organs. PMID:25035400

  9. A nucleotide sugar transporter involved in glycosylation of the Toxoplasma tissue cyst wall is required for efficient persistence of bradyzoites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina E Caffaro

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that transitions from acute infection to a chronic infective state in its intermediate host via encystation, which enables the parasite to evade immune detection and clearance. It is widely accepted that the tissue cyst perimeter is highly and specifically decorated with glycan modifications; however, the role of these modifications in the establishment and persistence of chronic infection has not been investigated. Here we identify and biochemically and biologically characterize a Toxoplasma nucleotide-sugar transporter (TgNST1 that is required for cyst wall glycosylation. Toxoplasma strains deleted for the TgNST1 gene (Δnst1 form cyst-like structures in vitro but no longer interact with lectins, suggesting that Δnst1 strains are deficient in the transport and use of sugars for the biosynthesis of cyst-wall structures. In vivo infection experiments demonstrate that the lack of TgNST1 activity does not detectably impact the acute (tachyzoite stages of an infection or tropism of the parasite for the brain but that Δnst1 parasites are severely defective in persistence during the chronic stages of the infection. These results demonstrate for the first time the critical role of parasite glycoconjugates in the persistence of Toxoplasma tissue cysts.

  10. A component of the Sec61 ER protein transporting pore is required for plant susceptibility to powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wen-Jing; Hanisch, Susanne; Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J;

    2013-01-01

    EHM, the fungus obtains nutrients from and secretes effector proteins into the plant cell. In the plant cell these effectors interfere with cellular processes such as pathogen defense and membrane trafficking. However, the mechanisms behind effector delivery are largely unknown. This paper provides a...... retrotranslocon pores, the latter being part of the ER-associated protein degradation machinery. We provide support for a model suggesting that the retrotranslocon function of HvSec61βa is required for successful powdery mildew fungal infection. HvSec61βa-GFP and a luminal ER marker were co-localized to the ER....... Effector transport across this EHM-ER interface may occur by a vesicle-mediated process, while the Sec61 retrotranslocon pore potentially provides an escape route for these proteins to reach the cytosol....

  11. Requirements for design of accelerator, beam transport, and target in a study of thermonuclear reaction cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itahashi, T.; Takahisa, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Toki, H.; Ejiri, H. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Ohsumi, H.; Komori, M.

    1997-03-01

    A compact accelerator with high current ion source, low energy beam transport elements and windowless gas target was designed to investigate the thermonuclear reaction cross section. The idea of this project focused on the cross section measurement of the fusion reaction data {sup 3}He+{sup 3}He-{sup 4}He+p+p at 25keV. The system will be installed in Otoh Cosmo Observatory (1270m.w.e.) to get rid of the huge cosmic and environmental background. It consists of NANOGUN ECR ion source, focusing elements made of permanent magnets window less {sup 3}He gas target and/or He{sup 3} plasma target and detector telescopes with low noise and low background. Requirements for these were discussed technically and various ideas were proposed. (author)

  12. Opposing microtubule motors control motility, morphology and cargo segregation during ER-to-Golgi transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Brown

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that dynein and kinesin motors drive multiple aspects of endosomal function in mammalian cells. These functions include driving motility, maintaining morphology (notably through providing longitudinal tension to support vesicle fission, and driving cargo sorting. Microtubule motors drive bidirectional motility during traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and Golgi. Here, we have examined the role of microtubule motors in transport carrier motility, morphology, and domain organization during ER-to-Golgi transport. We show that, consistent with our findings for endosomal dynamics, microtubule motor function during ER-to-Golgi transport of secretory cargo is required for motility, morphology, and cargo sorting within vesicular tubular carriers en route to the Golgi. Our data are consistent with previous findings that defined roles for dynein-1, kinesin-1 (KIF5B and kinesin-2 in this trafficking step. Our high resolution tracking data identify some intriguing aspects. Depletion of kinesin-1 reduces the number of motile structures seen, which is in line with other findings relating to the role of kinesin-1 in ER export. However, those transport carriers that were produced had a much greater run length suggesting that this motor can act as a brake on anterograde motility. Kinesin-2 depletion did not significantly reduce the number of motile transport carriers but did cause a similar increase in run length. These data suggest that kinesins act as negative regulators of ER-to-Golgi transport. Depletion of dynein not only reduced the number of motile carriers formed but also caused tubulation of carriers similar to that seen for sorting nexin-coated early endosomes. Our data indicated that the previously observed anterograde–retrograde polarity of transport carriers in transit to the Golgi from the ER is maintained by microtubule motor function.

  13. Peripheral prostaglandin E2 prolongs the sensitization of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons possibly by facilitating the synthesis and anterograde axonal trafficking of EP4 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jacques, Bruno; Ma, Weiya

    2014-11-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a well-known pain mediator enriched in inflamed tissues, plays a pivotal role in the genesis of chronic pain conditions such as inflammatory and neuropathic pain. PGE2-prolonged sensitization of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (nociceptors) may contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that facilitating synthesis and anterograde axonal trafficking of EP receptors contribute to PGE2-prolonged nociceptor sensitization. Intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of a stabilized PGE2 analog, 16,16 dimethyl PGE2 (dmPGE2), in a dose- and time-dependent manner, not only elicited primary tactile allodynia which lasted for 1d, but also prolonged tactile allodynia evoked by a subsequent i.pl. injection of dmPGE2 from 1d to 4d. Moreover, the duration of tactile allodynia was progressively prolonged following multiple sequential i.pl. injections of dmPGE2. Co-injection of the selective EP1 or EP4 receptor antagonist, the inhibitors of cAMP, PKA, PKC, PKCε or PLC as well as an interleukin-6 (IL-6) neutralizing antiserum differentially blocked primary tactile allodynia elicited by the 1st dmPGE2 and the prolonged tactile allodynia evoked by the 2nd dmPGE2, suggesting the involvement of these signaling events in dmPGE2-induced nociceptor activation and sensitization. Co-injection of a selective COX2 inhibitor or two EP4 antagonists prevented or shortened inflammagen-prolonged nociceptor sensitization. I.pl. injection of dmPGE2 or carrageenan time-dependently increased EP4 levels in L4-6 DRG neurons and peripheral nerves. EP4 was expressed in almost half of IB4-binding nociceptors of L4-6 DRG. Taken together, our data suggest that stimulating the synthesis and anterograde axonal trafficking to increase EP4 availability at the axonal terminals of nociceptors is likely a novel mechanism underlying PGE2-prolonged nociceptor

  14. Transport: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, William; Rosenberg, Sanders D.

    1992-01-01

    Space transportation requirements for the NASA baseline scenario for future space missions are discussed. Spacecraft/propulsion technologies required for surface-to-orbit, orbit-to-orbit, and surface (lunar) transportation are addressed.

  15. Modern requirements of legal regulations for transport in the cities and necessity for making sector strategy in order to harmonize with other modes of transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra VASILJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Crucial problem of transport in the cities, as a source of pollution of the environment, are uncontrolled individual motorization, permanently increasing number of motor vehicles on the roads and streets that expels human primary need for walking.Reduced social area is also loaded with vibrations and increased sound pressure which often exceeds recommended 80 dB/A.Accent is on ecological problems caused by: polluted air, which comes from gas emissions (full of aerosol, metals, dust, soot, smoke, cutting and disappearance of green areas in order to provide space for transport, making huge amount of secondary waste (e. g. tyres, metal, used oil, liquids.To improve present sequences and reduce negative effects in the future it is necessary to take different measures: fiscal, administrative, educational, which will restrict use of individual, particularly car traffic. Same measures should be used to encourage users to use public transportation.Transport in the cities, with all weaknesses and comparative advantages, should be separately analyzed mode of road transport and also be an individual part in strategic documents.The most important questions that such strategy of transport in the cities should include are: regulation, privatization or other more efficient mode of organization in public transport of passengers, as well as urban elements of sustainable development of the urban areas and transport.

  16. 24 CFR 3280.903 - General requirements for designing the structure to withstand transportation shock and vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the structure to withstand transportation shock and vibration. 3280.903 Section 3280.903 Housing and... structure to withstand transportation shock and vibration. (a) The cumulative effect of highway transportation shock and vibration upon a manufactured home structure may result in incremental degradation...

  17. A C-terminal PDZ domain-binding sequence is required for striatal distribution of the dopamine transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Hansen, Freja Herborg; Sørensen, Gunnar;

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine transporter mediates reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. The cellular mechanisms controlling dopamine transporter levels in striatal nerve terminals remain poorly understood. The dopamine transporters contain a C-terminal PDZ (PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1) domain-binding sequenc...

  18. Not used to public transport any longer. A study about transport service based on needs and requirements in Siljansnaes; Man har vant sig av med kollektivtrafik. En studie om transportservice baserad paa behov och vanor i Siljansnaes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warsen, Lisa

    2000-05-01

    The goal of the transport policy is that every citizen shall have a transport service on a reasonable level. In sparsely populated areas the public transport service is on a low level and many groups without a private car will have small possibilities to travel to different activities. Siljansnaes, with nearly 2000 citizens, is a small region in the community Leksand in Dalarna where the transport problem have been more tangible. The aim of this project has been to create a transport system more based on the needs and requirements. Also the people who lives in Siljansnaes in their leisure times are a part in the project. They are almost as many as the permanent living ones. The result also has been built on the goal of a higher care of the environment. The transport solution contains; village-bus, car-pooling, changed price system for public transport, but also a partnership between the citizens, the community and the regional transport company (Dalatrafik). The project as a process has the goal that the people in Siljansnaes should take part of the solution and the responsibility for the operation of the system.

  19. A Quantitative bgl Operon Model for E. coli Requires BglF Conformational Change for Sugar Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Paras; Bender, Andreas

    The bgl operon is responsible for the metabolism of β-glucoside sugars such as salicin or arbutin in E. coli. Its regulatory system involves both positive and negative feedback mechanisms and it can be assumed to be more complex than that of the more closely studied lac and trp operons. We have developed a quantitative model for the regulation of the bgl operon which is subject to in silico experiments investigating its behavior under different hypothetical conditions. Upon administration of 5mM salicin as an inducer our model shows 80-fold induction, which compares well with the 60-fold induction measured experimentally. Under practical conditions 5-10mM inducer are employed, which is in line with the minimum inducer concentration of 1mM required by our model. The necessity of BglF conformational change for sugar transport has been hypothesized previously, and in line with those hypotheses our model shows only minor induction if conformational change is not allowed. Overall, this first quantitative model for the bgl operon gives reasonable predictions that are close to experimental results (where measured). It will be further refined as values of the parameters are determined experimentally. The model was developed in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and it is available from the authors and from the Biomodels repository [www.ebi.ac.uk/biomodels].

  20. Identification of different types of spinal afferent nerve endings that encode noxious and innocuous stimuli in the large intestine using a novel anterograde tracing technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick J Spencer

    Full Text Available In mammals, sensory stimuli in visceral organs, including those that underlie pain perception, are detected by spinal afferent neurons, whose cell bodies lie in dorsal root ganglia (DRG. One of the major challenges in visceral organs has been how to identify the different types of nerve endings of spinal afferents that transduce sensory stimuli into action potentials. The reason why spinal afferent nerve endings have been so challenging to identify is because no techniques have been available, until now, that can selectively label only spinal afferents, in high resolution. We have utilized an anterograde tracing technique, recently developed in our laboratory, which facilitates selective labeling of only spinal afferent axons and their nerve endings in visceral organs. Mice were anesthetized, lumbosacral DRGs surgically exposed, then injected with dextran-amine. Seven days post-surgery, the large intestine was removed. The characteristics of thirteen types of spinal afferent nerve endings were identified in detail. The greatest proportion of nerve endings was in submucosa (32%, circular muscle (25% and myenteric ganglia (22%. Two morphologically distinct classes innervated myenteric ganglia. These were most commonly a novel class of intraganglionic varicose endings (IGVEs and occasionally rectal intraganglionic laminar endings (rIGLEs. Three distinct classes of varicose nerve endings were found to innervate the submucosa and circular muscle, while one class innervated internodal strands, blood vessels, crypts of lieberkuhn, the mucosa and the longitudinal muscle. Distinct populations of sensory endings were CGRP-positive. We present the first complete characterization of the different types of spinal afferent nerve endings in a mammalian visceral organ. The findings reveal an unexpectedly complex array of different types of primary afferent endings that innervate specific layers of the large intestine. Some of the novel classes of nerve endings

  1. Identification of Different Types of Spinal Afferent Nerve Endings That Encode Noxious and Innocuous Stimuli in the Large Intestine Using a Novel Anterograde Tracing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Nick J.; Kyloh, Melinda; Duffield, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, sensory stimuli in visceral organs, including those that underlie pain perception, are detected by spinal afferent neurons, whose cell bodies lie in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). One of the major challenges in visceral organs has been how to identify the different types of nerve endings of spinal afferents that transduce sensory stimuli into action potentials. The reason why spinal afferent nerve endings have been so challenging to identify is because no techniques have been available, until now, that can selectively label only spinal afferents, in high resolution. We have utilized an anterograde tracing technique, recently developed in our laboratory, which facilitates selective labeling of only spinal afferent axons and their nerve endings in visceral organs. Mice were anesthetized, lumbosacral DRGs surgically exposed, then injected with dextran-amine. Seven days post-surgery, the large intestine was removed. The characteristics of thirteen types of spinal afferent nerve endings were identified in detail. The greatest proportion of nerve endings was in submucosa (32%), circular muscle (25%) and myenteric ganglia (22%). Two morphologically distinct classes innervated myenteric ganglia. These were most commonly a novel class of intraganglionic varicose endings (IGVEs) and occasionally rectal intraganglionic laminar endings (rIGLEs). Three distinct classes of varicose nerve endings were found to innervate the submucosa and circular muscle, while one class innervated internodal strands, blood vessels, crypts of lieberkuhn, the mucosa and the longitudinal muscle. Distinct populations of sensory endings were CGRP-positive. We present the first complete characterization of the different types of spinal afferent nerve endings in a mammalian visceral organ. The findings reveal an unexpectedly complex array of different types of primary afferent endings that innervate specific layers of the large intestine. Some of the novel classes of nerve endings identified

  2. 41 CFR 102-118.25 - Does GSA still require my agency to submit its overall transportation policies for approval?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT General Introduction... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does GSA still...

  3. Analysis of transport logistics and routing requirements for radioactive waste management systems with respect to a minimum power scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the transport logistics associated with disposal of intermediate-level radioactive waste, as generated by CEGB, SSEB, UKAEA and BNFL, in accordance with a 'Minimum Power Scenario'. Transport by road and rail is analysed, as in previous reports; use of coastal shipping however has not been included but has been replaced with a combined road/rail option. (author)

  4. Dynamics of mitochondrial transport in axons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Francis Niescier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The polarized structure and long neurites of neurons pose a unique challenge for proper mitochondrial distribution. It is widely accepted that mitochondria move from the cell body to axon ends and vice versa; however, we have found that mitochondria originating from the axon ends moving in the retrograde direction never reach to the cell body, and only a limited number of mitochondria moving in the anterograde direction from the cell body arrive at the axon ends of mouse hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we have derived a mathematical formula using the Fokker-Planck equation to characterize features of mitochondrial transport, and the equation could determine altered mitochondrial transport in axons overexpressing parkin. Our analysis will provide new insights into the dynamics of mitochondrial transport in axons of normal and unhealthy neurons.

  5. Dynamics of Mitochondrial Transport in Axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niescier, Robert F; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Joo, Se Hun; Chang, Karen T; Min, Kyung-Tai

    2016-01-01

    The polarized structure and long neurites of neurons pose a unique challenge for proper mitochondrial distribution. It is widely accepted that mitochondria move from the cell body to axon ends and vice versa; however, we have found that mitochondria originating from the axon ends moving in the retrograde direction never reach to the cell body, and only a limited number of mitochondria moving in the anterograde direction from the cell body arrive at the axon ends of mouse hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we have derived a mathematical formula using the Fokker-Planck equation to characterize features of mitochondrial transport, and the equation could determine altered mitochondrial transport in axons overexpressing parkin. Our analysis will provide new insights into the dynamics of mitochondrial transport in axons of normal and unhealthy neurons. PMID:27242435

  6. Dispositivo de tração do membro superior para osteossínteses intramedulares bloqueadas anterógradas de fraturas diafisárias de úmero Upper limb traction device for anterograde intramedullary locked nail of humeral shaft fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Chaves Corrêa

    2010-06-01

    surgically, usually by means of intramedullary locked nail. Some comminuted and/or very deviated shaft fractures can represent a real technical challenge. The fracture table, which allows for the vertical, horizontal and rotational instrumental stabilization of the limb, greatly facilitates reduction and implant placement maneuvers and are widely used by orthopedic surgeons. Humeral shaft fractures are mostly treated nonsurgically. However, some whose indications are well defined in literature require surgical treatment. They can be fixed by plates, or by anterograde or retrograde intramedullary nail. In the humerus, limb fracture reduction and stabilization maneuvers for implantation of intramedullary nails are done manually, usually by 2 assistants. Because they are subject to muscle fatigue, this option may be less efficient. The aim of this paper is to present an external traction device for use in anterograde intramedullary fixation of humerus shaft fractures that allows vertical, horizontal and rotational stabilization of the upper limb similarly to that used in the lower limbs. The device is portable, of simple construction, and can be installed on any operating table equipped with side rails. It was used in the surgical treatment of 29 humeral shaft fractures with anterograde locked intramedullary nail. Our experience was extremely positive. We had no complications related to its use and we believe it to have facilitated the surgical procedures in a remarkable way.

  7. Biochemical analysis of PIFTC3, the Trypanosoma brucei orthologue of nematode DYF-13, reveals interactions with established and putative intraflagellar transport components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Joseph B; Ullu, Elisabetta

    2010-10-01

    DYF-13, originally identified in Caenorhabditis elegans within a collection of dye-filling chemosensory mutants, is one of several proteins that have been classified as putatively involved in intraflagellar transport (IFT), the bidirectional movement of protein complexes along cilia and flagella and specifically in anterograde IFT. Although genetic studies have highlighted a fundamental role of DYF-13 in nematode sensory cilium and trypanosome flagellum biogenesis, biochemical studies on DYF-13 have lagged behind. Here, we show that in Trypanosoma brucei the orthologue to DYF-13, PIFTC3, participates in a macromolecular complex of approximately 660 kDa. Mass spectroscopy of affinity-purified PIFTC3 revealed several components of IFT complex B as well as orthologues of putative IFT factors DYF-1, DYF-3, DYF-11/Elipsa and IFTA-2. DYF-11 was further analysed and shown to be concentrated near the basal bodies and in the flagellum, and to be required for flagellum elongation. In addition, by coimmunoprecipitation we detected an interaction between DYF-13 and IFT122, a component of IFT complex A, which is required for retrograde transport. Thus, our biochemical analysis supports the model, proposed by genetic analysis in C. elegans, that the trypanosome orthologue of DYF-13 plays a central role in the IFT mechanism. PMID:20923419

  8. Report of consultants to the IAEA on requirements for the safe transport of low hazard radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper changes are recommmended to certain definitions given in the 2nd draft revision of the IAEA 'regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials (safety series no. 6)'. (orig./RW)

  9. A novel multiprotein complex is required to generate the prechylomicron transport vesicle from intestinal ER[S

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqi, Shahzad; Saleem, Umair; Abumrad, Nada A.; Davidson, Nicholas O.; Storch, Judith; Siddiqi, Shadab A.; Mansbach, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary lipid absorption is dependent on chylomicron production whose rate-limiting step across the intestinal absorptive cell is the exit of chylomicrons from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in its ER-to-Golgi transport vesicle, the prechylomicron transport vesicle (PCTV). This study addresses the composition of the budding complex for PCTV. Immunoprecipitation (IP) studies from rat intestinal ER solubilized in Triton X-100 suggested that vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 (VAMP7), apolipo...

  10. Transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials: a summary of state and local legislative requirements for the period ending December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes 513 adopted US state and local laws that impact the transportation of radioactive materials. The report was generated from legislative information contained in the Legislative Data Base (LDB), a comprehensive interactive database developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy. The annotated citations alphabetically by state, with state and local bills listed separately and sorted by date of adoption. Each citation contains the following information: locale (geographical areas and political jurisdictions affected by the action), bill number, bill title, bill sponsor, history of bill status, comments, and abstract. Six indexes are provided to assist the reader in locating legislation of interest: locale index, bill number index, title word index (permuted), sponsor index, transport restriction index (type of transportation restriction specified, e.g., escort, notify, permit, ban), transport mode index (mode of transportation specified, e.g., truck, rail, barge), and keyword index. This report updates the information contained in Transportation of Radioactive and Hazardous Materials: A Summary of State and Local Legislative Requirements for the Period ending September 30, 1983, ORNL/TM-8860 (TTC-0485), published in June 1984

  11. Slovak Government Regulation No. 349/2006 Coll. of 17 May 2006 laying down the details of the requirements for radiation protection in the transport of radioactive sources and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Government Regulation provides details on requirements for radiation protection in the transport of radioactive sources and radioactive substances. This Regulation came into force on June 1, 2006.

  12. Chamber transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OLSON,CRAIG L.

    2000-05-17

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

  13. The MRP2/cMOAT transporter and arsenic-glutathione complex formation are required for biliary excretion of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, S V; Neely, M W; Kala, G; Prater, C I; Atwood, D W; Rice, J S; Lieberman, M W

    2000-10-27

    Worldwide, millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water that exceeds the World Health Organization standard of 10 microg/liter by as much as 50-300-fold, yet little is known about the molecular basis for arsenic excretion. Here we show that transport of arsenic into bile depends on the MRP2/cMOAT transporter and that glutathione is obligatory for such transport. Using reversed phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that two arsenic-glutathione complexes not previously identified in vivo, arsenic triglutathione and methylarsenic diglutathione, account for most of the arsenic in the bile. The structure of the compounds was also confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our findings may help explain the increased susceptibility of malnourished human populations to arsenic. PMID:10938093

  14. FcRn in the yolk sac endoderm of mouse is required for IgG transport to fetus1

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jonghan; Mohanty, Sudhasri; Ganesan, Latha P.; Hua, Keding; Jarjoura, David; Hayton, William L.; Robinson, John M.; Anderson, Clark L.

    2009-01-01

    In adults the nonclassical MHC-I molecule, FcRn, binds both IgG and albumin and rescues both from a degradative fate, endowing both proteins with high plasma concentrations. FcRn also transports IgG from mother to young during gestation. Anticipating that a detailed understanding of gestational IgG transport in the mouse may give us a useful model to understand FcRn function in the human placenta, we have studied FcRn in the mouse yolk sac placenta in detail. Analyzing day 19-20 fetuses of th...

  15. Experience within international transport and direct rail services in meeting the IAEA requirement for a radiation protection programme(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL International Transport and Direct Rail Services have successfully developed appropriate Radiation Protection Programmes for their business. The business supports BNFL's worldwide Nuclear Fuel Services with key customer bases in Europe, Japan and the UK, utilising marine, rail and road modal transports. Experience in this business spans over 4 decades. The preparation of RPP's for each aspect of its operations has been made relatively straight forward in that the key elements within the internationally recognised model RPP (by WNTI) were already in place in BNFL's procedures to satisfy current National UK and International Regulations and supported by Management systems which comply with International Standards for Quality Assurance. (author)

  16. The transport sectors potential contribution to the flexibility in the power sector required by large-scale wind power integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Per; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, the Danish Society of Engineers developed a visionary plan for the Danish energy system in 2030. The paper presents and qualifies selected part of the analyses, illustrating the transport sectors potential to contribute to the flexibility in the power sector, necessary for large-scale...... integration of renewable energy in the power system – in specific wind power. In the plan, 20 % of the road transport is based on electricity and 20 % on bio- fuels. This, together with other initiatives allows for up to 55-60 % wind power penetration in the power system. A fleet of 0.5 mio electrical...

  17. On the requirement for remodelling the spent nuclear fuel transportation casks for research reactors. A review of the drop impact analyses of JRC-80Y-20T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) constructed two stainless steel transportation casks, JRC-80Y-20T, for spent nuclear fuels of research reactors and had utilized them for transportation since 1981. A modification of the design was applied to the United States of America (USA) for transportation of silicide fuels. Additional analyses employing the impact analysis code LS-DYNA that was often used for safety analysis were submitted by the JAERI to the USA in 2003 to show integrity of the packages; the casks were still not approved, because inelastic deformation was occurred on the surface of the lid touching to the body. To resolve this problem on design approval of transportation casks, a review group was formed in June 2004. The group examined the impact analyses by reviewing the input data and performing the sensitivity analyses. As the drop impact analyses were found to be practically reasonable, it was concluded that the approval of the USA for the transportation casks could not be obtained just by revising the analyses; therefore, remodelling the casks is required. (author)

  18. Assessment of the transport logistic and routing requirements associated with the disposal of intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results are presented relating to the transport of intermediate level radioactive waste. The data base from which these results were derived is stated together with a description of the computer simulation language used. From these results preliminary conclusions and recommendations are given. (author)

  19. Ykt6p Is a Multifunctional Yeast R-SNARE That Is Required for Multiple Membrane Transport Pathways to the Vacuole

    OpenAIRE

    Kweon, Youngseok; Rothe, Anca; Conibear, Elizabeth; Stevens, Tom H.

    2003-01-01

    Intracellular membrane fusion requires that membrane-bound soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins on both vesicle and target membranes form a highly specific complex necessary to bring the membranes close in space. Ykt6p is a yeast R-SNARE protein that has been implicated in retrograde transport to the cis-Golgi compartment. Ykt6p has been also been found to fractionate with vacuole membranes and participate in a vacuolar SNARE complex in ...

  20. The DotA protein from Legionella pneumophila is secreted by a novel process that requires the Dot/Icm transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Nagai, Hiroki; Roy, Craig R.

    2001-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila requires the dot/icm genes to create an organelle inside eukaryotic host cells that will support bacterial replication. The dot/icm genes are predicted to encode a type IV-related secretion apparatus. However, no proteins have been identified that require the dot/icm genes for secretion. In this study we show that the DotA protein, which was previously found to be a polytopic membrane protein, is secreted by the Dot/Icm transporter into culture supernatants. Secreted Do...

  1. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  2. Biochemical analysis of PIFTC3, the Trypanosoma brucei ortholog of nematode DYF-13, reveals interactions with established and putative intraflagellar transport components

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, Joseph B.; Ullu, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    DYF-13, originally identified in C. elegans within a collection of dye-filling chemosensory mutants, is one of several proteins that have been classified as putatively involved in intraflagellar transport (IFT), the bidirectional movement of protein complexes along cilia and flagella, and specifically in anterograde IFT. Although genetic studies have highlighted a fundamental role of DYF-13 in nematode sensory cilium and trypanosome flagellum biogenesis, biochemical studies on DYF-13 have lag...

  3. Customer satisfaction techniques applied to the transport of nuclear fuels to meet ISO 9001:2000 requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the needs of potential and existing customers is seen as essential to the continuing success of the nuclear fuel transport business. A recognised process utilised for this is the recording and measurement of customer satisfaction. This paper looks at what customer satisfaction means to BNFL International Transport in terms of, understanding what the customers needs are, supplying those needs or proposing appropriate alternatives, delivering on contractual obligations, in terms of the product or service being supplied to cost and time, listening to the changing needs of customers should this occur and monitoring the perception of customers in terms of performance. Within BNFL as a whole customer satisfaction is managed through the application of a Management Framework. Within this framework are set a number of values, these are focused on acknowledging social and environmental responsibilities while satisfying the needs of customers. Customer satisfaction is a key aspect of this philosophy

  4. A glial variant of the vesicular monoamine transporter is required to store histamine in the Drosophila visual system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Romero-Calderón

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other monoamine neurotransmitters, the mechanism by which the brain's histamine content is regulated remains unclear. In mammals, vesicular monoamine transporters (VMATs are expressed exclusively in neurons and mediate the storage of histamine and other monoamines. We have studied the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster in which histamine is the primary neurotransmitter released from photoreceptor cells. We report here that a novel mRNA splice variant of Drosophila VMAT (DVMAT-B is expressed not in neurons but rather in a small subset of glia in the lamina of the fly's optic lobe. Histamine contents are reduced by mutation of dVMAT, but can be partially restored by specifically expressing DVMAT-B in glia. Our results suggest a novel role for a monoamine transporter in glia that may be relevant to histamine homeostasis in other systems.

  5. Customer satisfaction techniques applied to the transport of nuclear fuels to meet ISO 9001:2000 requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, G.K. [BNFL (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Understanding the needs of potential and existing customers is seen as essential to the continuing success of the nuclear fuel transport business. A recognised process utilised for this is the recording and measurement of customer satisfaction. This paper looks at what customer satisfaction means to BNFL International Transport in terms of, understanding what the customers needs are, supplying those needs or proposing appropriate alternatives, delivering on contractual obligations, in terms of the product or service being supplied to cost and time, listening to the changing needs of customers should this occur and monitoring the perception of customers in terms of performance. Within BNFL as a whole customer satisfaction is managed through the application of a Management Framework. Within this framework are set a number of values, these are focused on acknowledging social and environmental responsibilities while satisfying the needs of customers. Customer satisfaction is a key aspect of this philosophy.

  6. Intermodal container transport logistics to andfrom Malaysian ports : Evaluation of Customer requirements and environmental eff‡ects

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Sharin

    2014-01-01

    Malaysian ports’ container volumes are expected to increase to 36.6 million TEUs in 2020 compare to 12 million TEUs in 2005. Almost 45% of the container volumes are local containers entering the Malaysian hinterland. The hinterland container transport movements are dominated by road haulage (90%), alongside road-rail intermodal that currently handles the remaining 10%. The aim of this research is to develop possible strategies for improving the logistics of the intermodal hinterland container...

  7. Implementing the connected e-bike: challenges and requirements of an IoT application for urban transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Flüchter, Kristina; Wortmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    As local transportation systems are facing enormous challenges in consequence of extensive urban growth, technological advancements are creating unprecedented opportunities as the Internet is extending into the real world, connecting physical items to the virtual world and creating an Internet of Things (IoT). While many activities are exploring corresponding applications, e.g. connecting bicycles to the Internet, widespread economic success of a truly connected device is still outstanding. F...

  8. A C-terminal PDZ domain binding sequence is required for striatal distribution of the dopamine transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Rickhag, Mattias; Hansen, Freja Herborg; Sørensen, Gunnar; Strandfelt, Kristine Nørgaard; Andresen, Bjørn; Gotfryd, Kamil; Madsen, Kenneth L; Vestergaard-Klewe, Ib; Ammendrup-Johnsen, Ina; Eriksen, Jacob; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Gomeza, Jesus; Woldbye, David P.D.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Gether, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. The cellular mechanisms controlling DAT levels in striatal nerve terminals remain poorly understood. DAT contains a C-terminal PDZ (PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1) domain binding sequence believed to bind synaptic scaffolding proteins, but its functional significance is uncertain. Here we demonstrate that two different DAT knock-in mice with disrupted PDZ-binding motifs (DAT-AAA and DAT+Ala) are characterized by dr...

  9. 右美托咪定对不同年龄患者顺行性遗忘作用的影响%Effects of dexmedetomidine on the anterograde amnesia in patients with different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志超; 孔莉; 许鹏程; 李颖; 董晓辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of dexmedetomidine on the anterograde amnesia in patients with different ages.Methods One hundred and twenty ASAⅠ~Ⅱpatients, age from 18 years to 84 years, 73 cases of male and 47 cases of female , who were dministered spinal-epidural anesthesia combined with dexmedetomidine and performed operation on hypogastrium ( except for caesarean section ) .All patients were randomly divided into four groups:group A, group B, group C and group D.Dexmedetomidine(1μg/kg) was infused intravenously for 10 min and the maintenance dose was 0.2 μg・ kg-1・ h-1 .The anterograde amnesia degree of dexmedetomidine was as-sessed 24 h after the operation .Results There was no significant difference in the anterograde amnesia of dexmedeto -midine between group A and group B ( P>0.05 ) , while there were significant differences in group C and group D compared with both group A and group B ( P<0.05 ) .Conclusion Anterograde amnesia occurs after using dexme-detomidine in elderly patients and with aging , the anterograde amnesia becomes more severe .%目的:观察右美托咪定对不同年龄患者顺行性遗忘作用的影响。方法选择美国麻醉医师学会( ASA)Ⅰ~Ⅱ级、年龄18~84岁,在腰硬联合麻醉下复合右美托咪定行下腹部(剖宫产术除外)手术患者120例,其中男73例,女47例。根据患者年龄的不同分为四组:A组(23±4)岁, B组(36±3)岁, C组(65±3)岁,D组(75±5)岁。所有患者均给予右美托咪定负荷量1μg/kg,泵入10 min之后以0.2μg・ kg-1・ h-1剂量维持。术后24 h回访患者并评定右美托咪定的顺行性遗忘作用。结果 A组和B组右美托咪定顺行性遗忘作用无明显不同(P>0.05),而C组与D组较前两组右美托咪定顺行性遗忘作用比较明显(P<0.05),并随年龄的增大明显增加( P<0.05)。结论右美托咪定具有一定的顺行性遗忘作用,且对老年患者更为明显。

  10. Classic nuclear localization signals and a novel nuclear localization motif are required for nuclear transport of porcine parvovirus capsid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Maude; Bouchard-Lévesque, Véronique; Fernandes, Sandra; Tijssen, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Nuclear targeting of capsid proteins (VPs) is important for genome delivery and precedes assembly in the replication cycle of porcine parvovirus (PPV). Clusters of basic amino acids, corresponding to potential nuclear localization signals (NLS), were found only in the unique region of VP1 (VP1up, for VP1 unique part). Of the five identified basic regions (BR), three were important for nuclear localization of VP1up: BR1 was a classic Pat7 NLS, and the combination of BR4 and BR5 was a classic bipartite NLS. These NLS were essential for viral replication. VP2, the major capsid protein, lacked these NLS and contained no region with more than two basic amino acids in proximity. However, three regions of basic clusters were identified in the folded protein, assembled into a trimeric structure. Mutagenesis experiments showed that only one of these three regions was involved in VP2 transport to the nucleus. This structural NLS, termed the nuclear localization motif (NLM), is located inside the assembled capsid and thus can be used to transport trimers to the nucleus in late steps of infection but not for virions in initial infection steps. The two NLS of VP1up are located in the N-terminal part of the protein, externalized from the capsid during endosomal transit, exposing them for nuclear targeting during early steps of infection. Globally, the determinants of nuclear transport of structural proteins of PPV were different from those of closely related parvoviruses. Importance: Most DNA viruses use the nucleus for their replication cycle. Thus, structural proteins need to be targeted to this cellular compartment at two distinct steps of the infection: in early steps to deliver viral genomes to the nucleus and in late steps to assemble new viruses. Nuclear targeting of proteins depends on the recognition of a stretch of basic amino acids by cellular transport proteins. This study reports the identification of two classic nuclear localization signals in the minor capsid

  11. Intracellular transport proteins: classification, structure and function of kinesins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Chudy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Correct cell functioning, division and morphogenesis rely on efficient intracellular transport. Apart from dyneins and myosins, kinesins are the main proteins responsible for intracellular movement. Kinesins are a large, diverse group of motor proteins, which based on phylogenetic similarity were classified into fourteen families. Among these families, due to the location of their motor domains, three groups have been characterized: N-, C- and M-kinesin. As molecular motors, kinesins transport various molecules and vesicles mainly towards the microtubule plus end (from the cell body participating in anterograde transport, although there are also kinesins involved in retrograde transport (C-kinesins. Kinesins are also involved in spindle formation, chromosome segregation, and spermatogenesis. Because of their great importance for the correct functioning of cells, mutations in kinesin coding genes may lead to such neurodegenerative diseases as dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

  12. Overpressure protection requirements for primary heat transport systems in CANDU power reactors fitted with two shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overpressure protection requirements of Article NB 7000 of Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code) are incorporated in the National Standard of Canada N285.1. These requirements do not, however, refer to a particular nuclear system design. This is recognized in paragraphs NCA-2141 and NB-7120 of the ASME Code which make reference to the requirements of the appropriate regulatory authority for guidance. For CANDU power reactors fitted with two shutdown systems, some guidance is given in the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) Regulatory Document R-10, but this does not address overpressure protection as a specific topic and further clarification is required. This document seeks to provide such clarification

  13. Distal retinal ganglion cell axon transport loss and activation of p38 MAPK stress pathway following VEGF-A antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxton, R; Osborne, A; Martin, K R; Ng, Y-S; Shima, D T

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that VEGF-A antagonists may be detrimental to neuronal health following ocular administration. Here we investigated firstly the effects of VEGF-A neutralization on retinal neuronal survival in the Ins2(Akita) diabetic and JR5558 spontaneous choroidal neovascularization (CNV) mice, and then looked at potential mechanisms contributing to cell death. We detected elevated apoptosis in the ganglion cell layer in both these models following VEGF-A antagonism, indicating that even when vascular pathologies respond to treatment, neurons are still vulnerable to reduced VEGF-A levels. We observed that retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) seemed to be the cells most susceptible to VEGF-A antagonism, so we looked at anterograde transport in these cells, due to their long axons requiring optimal protein and organelle trafficking. Using cholera toxin B-subunit tracer studies, we found a distal reduction in transport in the superior colliculus following VEGF-A neutralization, which occurred prior to net RGC loss. This phenomenon of distal transport loss has been described as a feature of early pathological changes in glaucoma, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease models. Furthermore, we observed increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and downstream Hsp27 stress pathway signaling in the retinas from these experiments, potentially providing a mechanistic explanation for our findings. These experiments further highlight the possible risks of using VEGF-A antagonists to treat ocular neovascular disease, and suggest that VEGF-A may contribute to the maintenance and function of axonal transport in neurons of the retina. PMID:27148685

  14. Assessment of state and local notification requirements for transportation of radioactive and other hazardous materials. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State and local laws requiring notification for shipments of radioactive and other hazardous materials have become increasingly common and controversial during the last decade. Such laws are seen by their proponents as essential for planning and emergency response, while their opponents view them as unnecessary and intrusive. The debate over the value of notification requirements has often been hampered by the lack of information about the extent and nature of these laws. The report is intended to present factual information about notification laws in order to facilitate more informed discussion

  15. Regulation of Monocarboxylic Acid Transporter 1 Trafficking by the Canonical Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway in Rat Brain Endothelial Cells Requires Cross-talk with Notch Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zejian; Sneve, Mary; Haroldson, Thomas A; Smith, Jeffrey P; Drewes, Lester R

    2016-04-01

    The transport of monocarboxylate fuels such as lactate, pyruvate, and ketone bodies across brain endothelial cells is mediated by monocarboxylic acid transporter 1 (MCT1). Although the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is required for rodent blood-brain barrier development and for the expression of associated nutrient transporters, the role of this pathway in the regulation of brain endothelial MCT1 is unknown. Here we report expression of nine members of the frizzled receptor family by the RBE4 rat brain endothelial cell line. Furthermore, activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway in RBE4 cells via nuclear β-catenin signaling with LiCl does not alter brain endothelialMct1mRNA but increases the amount of MCT1 transporter protein. Plasma membrane biotinylation studies and confocal microscopic examination of mCherry-tagged MCT1 indicate that increased transporter results from reduced MCT1 trafficking from the plasma membrane via the endosomal/lysosomal pathway and is facilitated by decreased MCT1 ubiquitination following LiCl treatment. Inhibition of the Notch pathway by the γ-secretase inhibitorN-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycinet-butyl ester negated the up-regulation of MCT1 by LiCl, demonstrating a cross-talk between the canonical Wnt/β-catenin and Notch pathways. Our results are important because they show, for the first time, the regulation of MCT1 in cerebrovascular endothelial cells by the multifunctional canonical Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling pathways. PMID:26872974

  16. Impulse conduction increases mitochondrial transport in adult mammalian peripheral nerves in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Sajic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Matching energy supply and demand is critical in the bioenergetic homeostasis of all cells. This is a special problem in neurons where high levels of energy expenditure may occur at sites remote from the cell body, given the remarkable length of axons and enormous variability of impulse activity over time. Positioning mitochondria at areas with high energy requirements is an essential solution to this problem, but it is not known how this is related to impulse conduction in vivo. Therefore, to study mitochondrial trafficking along resting and electrically active adult axons in vivo, confocal imaging of saphenous nerves in anaesthetised mice was combined with electrical and pharmacological stimulation of myelinated and unmyelinated axons, respectively. We show that low frequency activity induced by electrical stimulation significantly increases anterograde and retrograde mitochondrial traffic in comparison with silent axons. Higher frequency conduction within a physiological range (50 Hz dramatically further increased anterograde, but not retrograde, mitochondrial traffic, by rapidly increasing the number of mobile mitochondria and gradually increasing their velocity. Similarly, topical application of capsaicin to skin innervated by the saphenous nerve increased mitochondrial traffic in both myelinated and unmyelinated axons. In addition, stationary mitochondria in axons conducting at higher frequency become shorter, thus supplying additional mitochondria to the trafficking population, presumably through enhanced fission. Mitochondria recruited to the mobile population do not accumulate near Nodes of Ranvier, but continue to travel anterogradely. This pattern of mitochondrial redistribution suggests that the peripheral terminals of sensory axons represent sites of particularly high metabolic demand during physiological high frequency conduction. As the majority of mitochondrial biogenesis occurs at the cell body, increased anterograde

  17. Design and characterization of the DC acceleration and transport system required for the FOM 1 MW free electron maser experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Urbanus, W.H.; Geer, C. van der [FOM-Institut voor Plasma Fysica, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A Free Electron Maser (FEM) has been constructed and is soon to be tested at the FOM Institute (Rijnhuizen) Netherlands with the goal of producing 1 MW long pulse to CW microwave output in the range 130 GHz to 250 GHz. The design uses a DC beam system in a depressed collector configuration in order to make the overall wall plug efficiency 50%. The high voltage ({approximately} 2 MeV) power supply provides only the body interception current ({approximately} 30 mA) while the 12 amp beam current is supplied by the 100-200 keV collector supplies. Some of the design features to ensure low interception current, which is critical to long pulse (CW) operation are: (1) DC beam in-line transport and acceleration system, (2) emittance conserving solenoid focusing system, (3) halo suppression techniques at cathode edge, and (4) very low beam fill factor (<20%). A relativistic version of the Herman Optical theory developed for microwave tubes is used to determine current distribution functions everywhere along the beam from the electron gun, through the DC accelerator and transport system to the wiggler. This theory takes into account thermals far out on the gaussian tail which translates into beam current far outside the ideal beam edge. This theory is applied to the FOM beam line design to predict a series of beam envelope contours containing various percentages of total beam current up to 99.9%. Predictions of body interception current due to finite emittance (effective temperature) are presented and compared with measured experimental results.

  18. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-19 - Requirements for cancellation, processing, storage, transportation, and destruction or other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Supervised Investment Bank Holding Company Rules § 240.17Ad-19 Requirements... cancellation means the process in which a securities certificate: (i) Is physically marked to clearly indicate... transfer agent. (2) The term cancelled certificate facility means any location where...

  19. Axonal transport of ribonucleoprotein particles (vaults).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J Y; Volknandt, W; Dahlstrom, A; Herrmann, C; Blasi, J; Das, B; Zimmermann, H

    1999-01-01

    RNA was previously shown to be transported into both dendritic and axonal compartments of nerve cells, presumably involving a ribonucleoprotein particle. In order to reveal potential mechanisms of transport we investigated the axonal transport of the major vault protein of the electric ray Torpedo marmorata. This protein is the major protein component of a ribonucleoprotein particle (vault) carrying a non-translatable RNA and has a wide distribution in the animal kingdom. It is highly enriched in the cholinergic electromotor neurons and similar in size to synaptic vesicles. The axonal transport of vaults was investigated by immunofluorescence, using the anti-vault protein antibody as marker, and cytofluorimetric scanning, and was compared to that of the synaptic vesicle membrane protein SV2 and of the beta-subunit of the F1-ATPase as a marker for mitochondria. Following a crush significant axonal accumulation of SV2 proximal to the crush could first be observed after 1 h, that of mitochondria after 3 h and that of vaults after 6 h, although weekly fluorescent traces of accumulations of vault protein were observed in the confocal microscope as early as 3 h. Within the time-period investigated (up to 72 h) the accumulation of all markers increased continuously. Retrograde accumulations also occurred, and the immunofluorescence for the retrograde component, indicating recycling, was weaker than that for the anterograde component, suggesting that more than half of the vaults are degraded within the nerve terminal. High resolution immunofluorescence revealed a granular structure-in accordance with the biochemical characteristics of vaults. Of interest was the observation that the increase of vault immunoreactivity proximal to the crush accelerated with time after crushing, while that of SV2-containing particles appeared to decelerate, indicating that the crush procedure with time may have induced perikaryal alterations in the production and subsequent export to the axon

  20. Oxidative stress inhibits axonal transport: implications for neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Cheng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS released by microglia and other inflammatory cells can cause axonal degeneration. A reduction in axonal transport has also been implicated as a cause of axonal dystrophies and neurodegeneration, but there is a paucity of experimental data concerning the effects of ROS on axonal transport. We used live cell imaging to examine the effects of hydrogen peroxide on the axonal transport of mitochondria and Golgi-derived vesicles in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Results Hydrogen peroxide rapidly inhibited axonal transport, hours before any detectable changes in mitochondrial morphology or signs of axonal degeneration. Mitochondrial transport was affected earlier and was more severely inhibited than the transport of Golgi-derived vesicles. Anterograde vesicle transport was more susceptible to peroxide inhibition than retrograde transport. Axonal transport partially recovered following removal of hydrogen peroxide and local application of hydrogen peroxide inhibited transport, suggesting that the effects were not simply a result of nerve cell death. Sodium azide, an ATP synthesis blocker, had similar effects on axonal transport, suggesting that ATP depletion may contribute to the transport inhibition due to hydrogen peroxide. Conclusions These results indicate that inhibition of axonal transport is an early consequence of exposure to ROS and may contribute to subsequent axonal degeneration.

  1. Non-bilayer lipids are required for efficient protein transport across the plasma membrane of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Rietveld, A G; Koorengevel, M C; de Kruijff, B.

    1995-01-01

    The construction of a mutant Escherichia coli strain which cannot synthesize phosphatidylethanolamine provides a tool to study the involvement of non-bilayer lipids in membrane function. This strain produces phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin (CL) as major membrane constituents and requires millimolar concentrations of divalent cations for growth. In this strain, the lipid phase behaviour is tightly regulated by adjustment of the level of CL which favours a nonbilayer organization in the pr...

  2. Flight design system level C requirements. Solid rocket booster and external tank impact prediction processors. [space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The prediction of the SRB and ET impact areas requires six separate processors. The SRB impact prediction processor computes the impact areas and related trajectory data for each SRB element. Output from this processor is stored on a secure file accessible by the SRB impact plot processor which generates the required plots. Similarly the ET RTLS impact prediction processor and the ET RTLS impact plot processor generates the ET impact footprints for return-to-launch-site (RTLS) profiles. The ET nominal/AOA/ATO impact prediction processor and the ET nominal/AOA/ATO impact plot processor generate the ET impact footprints for non-RTLS profiles. The SRB and ET impact processors compute the size and shape of the impact footprints by tabular lookup in a stored footprint dispersion data base. The location of each footprint is determined by simulating a reference trajectory and computing the reference impact point location. To insure consistency among all flight design system (FDS) users, much input required by these processors will be obtained from the FDS master data base.

  3. Functional genomics indicates yeast requires Golgi/ER transport, chromatin remodeling, and DNA repair for low dose DMSO tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon David Gaytán

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO is frequently utilized as a solvent in toxicological and pharmaceutical investigations. It is therefore important to establish the cellular and molecular targets of DMSO in order to differentiate its intrinsic effects from those elicited by a compound of interest. We performed a genome-wide functional screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify deletion mutants exhibiting sensitivity to 1% DMSO, a concentration standard to yeast chemical profiling studies. We report that mutants defective in Golgi/ER transport are sensitive to DMSO, including those lacking components of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG complex. Moreover, strains deleted for members of the SWR1 histone exchange complex are hypersensitive to DMSO, with additional chromatin remodeling mutants displaying a range of growth defects. We also identify DNA repair genes important for DMSO tolerance. Finally, we demonstrate that overexpression of histone H2A.Z, which replaces chromatin-associated histone H2A in a SWR1-catalyzed reaction, confers resistance to DMSO. Many yeast genes described in this study have homologs in more complex organisms, and the data provided is applicable to future investigations into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of DMSO toxicity.

  4. The ATP-binding Cassette Transporter OsABCG15 is Required for Anther Development and Pollen Fertility in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai-Xiao Niu; Fu-Rong He; Ming He; Ding Ren; Le-Tian Chen; Yao-Guang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Plant male reproductive development is a complex biological process,but the underlying mechanism is not well understood.Here,we characterized a rice (Oryza sativa L.) male sterile mutant.Based on mapbased cloning and sequence analysis,we identified a 1,459-bp deletion in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene,OsABCG15,causing abnormal anthers and male sterility.Therefore,we named this mutant osabcg15.Expression analysis showed that OsABCG15 is expressed specifically in developmental anthers from stage 8 (meiosis Ⅱ stage) to stage 10 (late microspore stage).Two genes CYP704B2 and WDA1,involved in the biosynthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids for the establishment of the anther cuticle and pollen exine,were downregulated in osabcg15 mutant,suggesting that OsABCG15 may play a key function in the processes related to sporopollenin biosynthesis or sporopollenin transfer from tapetal cells to anther locules.Consistently,histological analysis showed that osabcg15 mutants developed obvious abnormality in postmeiotic tapetum degeneration,leading to rapid degredation of young microspores.The results suggest that OsABCG15 plays a critical role in exine formation and pollen development,similar to the homologous gene of AtABCG26 in Arabidopsis.This work is helpful to understand the regulatory network in rice anther development.

  5. Persistent directional cell migration requires ion transport proteins as direction sensors and membrane potential differences in order to maintain directedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Priyanka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ion transport proteins generate small electric fields that can induce directional cell motility; however, little is known about their mechanisms that lead to directedness. We investigated Na, K-ATPase (NaKA and Na+/H+ exchanger isoforms (NHE1 and 3 in SaOS-2 and Calvarial osteoblasts, which present anode- and cathode- directed motility, during electrotaxis. Results Significant colocalizations of NaKA with vinculin and pNHE3 with ß-actin were observed to occur at the leading edges of cells. The directedness were attenuated when NaKA or NHE3 was inhibited, confirming their implication in directional sensing. Depending on the perceived direction, a divergent regulation in PIP2 levels as a function of NHE3 and NaKA levels was observed, suggesting that PIP2 may act as a spatiotemporal regulator of the cell membrane during electrotaxis. Moreover, at the same places where pNHE3 accumulates, bubble-shaped H+ clouds were observed, suggesting a physio-mechanical role for NHE3. The cell membrane becomes hyperpolarized at the front and depolarized at the back, which confirms NaKA activity at the leading edge. Conclusion We suggest a novel role for both NaKA and NHE3 that extends beyond ion translocation and conclude that they can act as directional sensors and Vmem as a regulatory cue which maintain the persistent direction in electrotaxis.

  6. Grsf1-induced translation of the SNARE protein Use1 is required for expansion of the erythroid compartment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Nieradka

    Full Text Available Induction of cell proliferation requires a concomitant increase in the synthesis of glycosylated lipids and membrane proteins, which is dependent on ER-Golgi protein transport by CopII-coated vesicles. In this process, retrograde transport of ER resident proteins from the Golgi is crucial to maintain ER integrity, and allows for anterograde transport to continue. We previously showed that expression of the CopI specific SNARE protein Use1 (Unusual SNARE in the ER 1 is tightly regulated by eIF4E-dependent translation initiation of Use1 mRNA. Here we investigate the mechanism that controls Use1 mRNA translation. The 5'UTR of mouse Use1 contains a 156 nt alternatively spliced intron. The non-spliced form is the predominantly translated mRNA. The alternatively spliced sequence contains G-repeats that bind the RNA-binding protein G-rich sequence binding factor 1 (Grsf1 in RNA band shift assays. The presence of these G-repeats rendered translation of reporter constructs dependent on the Grsf1 concentration. Down regulation of either Grsf1 or Use1 abrogated expansion of erythroblasts. The 5'UTR of human Use1 lacks the splice donor site, but contains an additional upstream open reading frame in close proximity of the translation start site. Similar to mouse Use1, also the human 5'UTR contains G-repeats in front of the start codon. In conclusion, Grsf1 controls translation of the SNARE protein Use1, possibly by positioning the 40S ribosomal subunit and associated translation factors in front of the translation start site.

  7. DNA internalized via caveolae requires microtubule-dependent, Rab7-independent transport to the late endocytic pathway for delivery to the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Athena W; Scales, Suzie J; Reilly, Dorothea E

    2007-08-01

    Using cationic liposomes to mediate gene delivery by transfection has the advantages of improved safety and simplicity of use over viral gene therapy. Understanding the mechanism by which cationic liposome:DNA complexes are internalized and delivered to the nucleus should help identify which transport steps might be manipulated in order to improve transfection efficiencies. We therefore examined the endocytosis and trafficking of two cationic liposomes, DMRIE-C and Lipofectamine LTX, in CHO cells. We found that DMRIE-C-transfected DNA is internalized via caveolae, while LTX-transfected DNA is internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, with both pathways converging at the late endosome or lysosome. Inhibition of microtubule-dependent transport with nocodazole revealed that DMRIE-C:DNA complexes cannot enter the cytosol directly from caveosomes. Lysosomal degradation of transfected DNA has been proposed to be a major reason for poor transfection efficiency. However, in our system dominant negatives of both Rab7 and its effector RILP inhibited late endosome to lysosome transport of DNA complexes and LDL, but did not affect DNA delivery to the nucleus. This suggests that DNA is able to escape from late endosomes without traversing lysosomes and that caveosome to late endosome transport does not require Rab7 function. Lysosomal inhibition with chloroquine likewise had no effect on transfection product titers. These data suggest that DMRIE-C and LTX transfection complexes are endocytosed by separate pathways that converge at the late endosome or lysosome, but that blocking lysosomal traffic does not improve transfection product yields, identifying late endosome/lysosome to nuclear delivery as a step for future study. PMID:17562704

  8. Definition of routine conditions of transport: a perspective on pressure and temperature for excepted and industrial packages as required by ST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of ST-1 will bring a change to the requirements for packages to withstand ambient temperatures and pressures that are likely to be encountered in routine transport. This paper, making use of published data, postulates an environment and then considers the physical effect of that environment on excepted and industrial packages. The effect of atmospheric pressure changes is considered together with pressures arising from ambient temperature changes. Assuming a constant volume the pressure that could be developed within a package is estimated to be 21.4 kPa for transport in the UK at the highest road elevation. This equates to a volume change of 23% assuming constant pressure and variable volume. The constant pressure case is applicable to a wrapped or bagged package and the constant volume to a drum. Information from a major drum manufacturer indicates that a standard 200 litre drum may experience deformation of the lid beyond its elastic limit (particularly if the route is over mountain passes), although it is still likely to retain its contents (up to a pressure differential of 100 kPa). The paper poses the following questions: (1) Are the conditions considered for the UK realistic and acceptable to the Competent Authority? If not what should be used? (2) Is a drum capable of withstanding a 1.2 m drop test in its pressurised configuration, or does it have to? (3) Is there operational experience which refutes or supports the above?. (author)

  9. Old world arenaviruses enter the host cell via the multivesicular body and depend on the endosomal sorting complex required for transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqual, Giulia; Rojek, Jillian M; Masin, Mark; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Kunz, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    The highly pathogenic Old World arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) and the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) use α-dystroglycan as a cellular receptor and enter the host cell by an unusual endocytotic pathway independent of clathrin, caveolin, dynamin, and actin. Upon internalization, the viruses are delivered to acidified endosomes in a Rab5-independent manner bypassing classical routes of incoming vesicular trafficking. Here we sought to identify cellular factors involved in the unusual and largely unknown entry pathway of LASV and LCMV. Cell entry of LASV and LCMV required microtubular transport to late endosomes, consistent with the low fusion pH of the viral envelope glycoproteins. Productive infection with recombinant LCMV expressing LASV envelope glycoprotein (rLCMV-LASVGP) and LCMV depended on phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) as well as lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA), an unusual phospholipid that is involved in the formation of intraluminal vesicles (ILV) of the multivesicular body (MVB) of the late endosome. We provide evidence for a role of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) in LASV and LCMV cell entry, in particular the ESCRT components Hrs, Tsg101, Vps22, and Vps24, as well as the ESCRT-associated ATPase Vps4 involved in fission of ILV. Productive infection with rLCMV-LASVGP and LCMV also critically depended on the ESCRT-associated protein Alix, which is implicated in membrane dynamics of the MVB/late endosomes. Our study identifies crucial cellular factors implicated in Old World arenavirus cell entry and indicates that LASV and LCMV invade the host cell passing via the MVB/late endosome. Our data further suggest that the virus-receptor complexes undergo sorting into ILV of the MVB mediated by the ESCRT, possibly using a pathway that may be linked to the cellular trafficking and degradation of the cellular receptor. PMID:21931550

  10. Axonal transport of enzymes and labeled proteins in experimental axonopathy induced by p-bromophenylacetylurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axonal transport was studied by several techniques in the sciatic nerves of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with neuropathy induced by treatment with p-bromophenylacetylurea (BPAU) in dimethylsulfoxide solution. Control rats were treated with solvent alone. BPAU, 200 mg/kg, induced severe muscle weakness in the hindlimbs, beginning after a latent period of 1 week and progressing to near total paralysis by 2 weeks. Axonal transport of the endogenous transmitter enzymes, acetylcholinesterase, dopamine-β-hydroxylase and choline acetyltransferase, was normal at both 2 and 15 days after administration of BPAU, as judged by the accumulation of enzyme activity above and below a set of double ligatures on the sciatic nerve. The velocity of fast anterograde transport of [35S]methionine labeled protein was also unaffected by BPAU. However, 4 abnormalities of transport were detected in BPAU treated rats. These abnormalities are discussed. (Auth.)

  11. Retromer-Mediated Trafficking of Transmembrane Receptors and Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine C. Klinger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transport between the endoplasmatic reticulum, the Golgi-network, the endo-lysosomal system and the cell surface can be categorized as anterograde or retrograde, describing traffic that goes forward or backward, respectively. Traffic going from the plasma membrane to endosomes and lysosomes or the trans-Golgi network (TGN constitutes the major retrograde transport routes. Several transmembrane proteins undergo retrograde transport as part of a recycling mechanism that contributes to reutilization and maintenance of a steady-state protein localization. In addition, some receptors are hijacked by exotoxins and used for entry and intracellular transport. The physiological relevance of retrograde transport cannot be overstated. Retrograde trafficking of the amyloid precursor protein determines the distribution between organelles, and hence the possibility of cleavage by γ-secretase. Right balancing of the pathways is critical for protection against Alzheimer’s disease. During embryonic development, retrograde transport of Wntless to the TGN is essential for the following release of Wnt from the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpression of Wntless has been linked to oncogenesis. Here, we review relevant aspects of the retrograde trafficking of mammalian transmembrane receptors and transporters, with focus on the retromer-mediated transport between endosomes and the TGN.

  12. Retromer-Mediated Trafficking of Transmembrane Receptors and Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Stine C; Siupka, Piotr; Nielsen, Morten S

    2015-01-01

    Transport between the endoplasmatic reticulum, the Golgi-network, the endo-lysosomal system and the cell surface can be categorized as anterograde or retrograde, describing traffic that goes forward or backward, respectively. Traffic going from the plasma membrane to endosomes and lysosomes or the trans-Golgi network (TGN) constitutes the major retrograde transport routes. Several transmembrane proteins undergo retrograde transport as part of a recycling mechanism that contributes to reutilization and maintenance of a steady-state protein localization. In addition, some receptors are hijacked by exotoxins and used for entry and intracellular transport. The physiological relevance of retrograde transport cannot be overstated. Retrograde trafficking of the amyloid precursor protein determines the distribution between organelles, and hence the possibility of cleavage by γ-secretase. Right balancing of the pathways is critical for protection against Alzheimer's disease. During embryonic development, retrograde transport of Wntless to the TGN is essential for the following release of Wnt from the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpression of Wntless has been linked to oncogenesis. Here, we review relevant aspects of the retrograde trafficking of mammalian transmembrane receptors and transporters, with focus on the retromer-mediated transport between endosomes and the TGN. PMID:26154780

  13. Analysis of connection element classes and locations and of some structural requirements for the mounting of different superstructure types on transport vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Đ. Majkić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic requirements for transport vehicles. A special request regarding the adaptation of transport vehicles for the transport of various types of cargo was taken into consideration. Superstructures and the situation arising after mounting superstructures on wheeled transport vehicles were analyzed and the following was described: console coupling, stirrups, simplex elastic coupling, two-way elastic and rigid connection elements. Vehicle torsional elasticity is provided by a proper choice of the type of connection between the superstructure and the vehicle chassis. Applying the instructions of vehicle manufacturers for using appropriate connections between the truck superstructure and the vehicle chassis provides positive torsional elasticity of the vehicle. The paper gives the general recommendations of the Volvo, Mercedes and Renault transport vehicle producers for the use of particular connection types of locations as well as structural requirements for the mounting of concrete mixers, tippers and truck tanks on their vehicles. Introduction Achieving a high level of transport effectiveness depends on a number of factors. One of the most important ones is the possibility to increase the payload share in the gross vehicle weight. This share depends on the net vehicle weight, a method of coupling the truck superstructure with the chassis frame as well as on the truck superstructure construction. Realization of this requirement is of significant importance, particularly for large business systems since it results in the reduction of number of necessary vehicles, more economic fleet maintenance and the fleet capacity increase. It is also relatively easy to adapt the vehicle for the transportation of other loads, depending on user's current needs. The adaptation is correctly performed if manufacturer's recommendations are followed during the mounting of the superstructure on the chassis. This paper gives the analysis of the

  14. Phospholipid translocation and miltefosine potency require both L. donovani miltefosine transporter and the new protein LdRos3 in Leishmania parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Victoria, F Javier; Sánchez-Cañete, María P; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco

    2006-08-18

    The antitumor drug miltefosine has been recently approved as the first oral drug active against visceral leishmaniasis. We have previously identified the L. donovani miltefosine transporter (LdMT) as a P-type ATPase involved in phospholipid translocation at the plasma membrane of Leishmania parasites. Here we show that this protein is essential but not sufficient for the phospholipid translocation activity and, thus, for the potency of the drug. Based on recent findings in yeast, we have identified the putative beta subunit of LdMT, named LdRos3, as another protein factor required for the translocation activity. LdRos3 belongs to the CDC50/Lem3 family, proposed as likely beta subunits for P4-ATPases. The phenotype of LdRos3-defective parasites was identical to that of the LdMT-/-, including a defect in the uptake of 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl-amino)-phosphatidylserine, generally considered as not affected in Lem3p-deficient yeast. Both LdMT and LdRos3 normally localized to the plasma membrane but were retained inside the endoplasmic reticulum in the absence of the other protein or when inactivating point mutations were introduced in LdMT. Modulating the expression levels of either protein independently, we show that any one of them could behave as the protein limiting the level of flippase activity. Thus, LdMT and LdRos3 seem to form part of the same translocation machinery that determines flippase activity and miltefosine sensitivity in Leishmania, further supporting the consideration of CDC50/Lem3 proteins as beta subunits required for the normal functioning of P4-ATPases. PMID:16785229

  15. Detection of the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport in Entamoeba histolytica and Characterization of the EhVps4 Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel López-Reyes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic endocytosis involves multivesicular bodies formation, which is driven by endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT. Here, we showed the presence and expression of homologous ESCRT genes in Entamoeba histolytica. We cloned and expressed the Ehvps4 gene, an ESCRT member, to obtain the recombinant EhVps4 and generate specific antibodies, which immunodetected EhVps4 in cytoplasm of trophozoites. Bioinformatics and biochemical studies evidenced that rEhVps4 is an ATPase, whose activity depends on the conserved E211 residue. Next, we generated trophozoites overexpressing EhVps4 and mutant EhVps4-E211Q FLAG-tagged proteins. The EhVps4-FLAG was located in cytosol and at plasma membrane, whereas the EhVps4-E211Q-FLAG was detected as abundant cytoplasmic dots in trophozoites. Erythrophagocytosis, cytopathic activity, and hepatic damage in hamsters were not improved in trophozoites overexpressing EhVps4-FLAG. In contrast, EhVps4-E211Q-FLAG protein overexpression impaired these properties. The localization of EhVps4-FLAG around ingested erythrocytes, together with our previous results, strengthens the role for EhVps4 in E. histolytica phagocytosis and virulence.

  16. Hereditary folate malabsorption: A positively charged amino acid at position 113 of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT/SLC46A1) is required for folic acid binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT/SLC46A1) mediates intestinal folate uptake at acidic pH. Some loss of folic acid (FA) transport mutations in PCFT from hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM) patients cluster in R113, thereby suggesting a functional role for this residue. Herein, unlike non-conservative substitutions, an R113H mutant displayed 80-fold increase in the FA transport Km while retaining parental Vmax, hence indicating a major fall in folate substrate affinity. Furthermore, consistent with the preservation of 9% of parental transport activity, R113H transfectants displayed a substantial decrease in the FA growth requirement relative to mock transfectants. Homology modeling based on the crystal structures of the Escherichia coli transporter homologues EmrD and glycerol-3-phosphate transporter revealed that the R113H rotamer properly protrudes into the cytoplasmic face of the minor cleft normally occupied by R113. These findings constitute the first demonstration that a basic amino acid at position 113 is required for folate substrate binding.

  17. Hereditary folate malabsorption: A positively charged amino acid at position 113 of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT/SLC46A1) is required for folic acid binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasry, Inbal; Berman, Bluma [The Fred Wyszkowski Cancer Research Laboratory, Dept. of Biology, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Glaser, Fabian [Bioinformatics Knowledge Unit, The Lorry I. Lokey Interdisciplinary Center for Life Sciences and Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Jansen, Gerrit [Department of Rheumatology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Assaraf, Yehuda G., E-mail: assaraf@tx.technion.ac.il [The Fred Wyszkowski Cancer Research Laboratory, Dept. of Biology, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2009-08-28

    The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT/SLC46A1) mediates intestinal folate uptake at acidic pH. Some loss of folic acid (FA) transport mutations in PCFT from hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM) patients cluster in R113, thereby suggesting a functional role for this residue. Herein, unlike non-conservative substitutions, an R113H mutant displayed 80-fold increase in the FA transport Km while retaining parental Vmax, hence indicating a major fall in folate substrate affinity. Furthermore, consistent with the preservation of 9% of parental transport activity, R113H transfectants displayed a substantial decrease in the FA growth requirement relative to mock transfectants. Homology modeling based on the crystal structures of the Escherichia coli transporter homologues EmrD and glycerol-3-phosphate transporter revealed that the R113H rotamer properly protrudes into the cytoplasmic face of the minor cleft normally occupied by R113. These findings constitute the first demonstration that a basic amino acid at position 113 is required for folate substrate binding.

  18. VgrG C terminus confers the type VI effector transport specificity and is required for binding with PAAR and adaptor-effector complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondage, Devanand D; Lin, Jer-Sheng; Ma, Lay-Sun; Kuo, Chih-Horng; Lai, Erh-Min

    2016-07-01

    Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a macromolecular machine used by many Gram-negative bacteria to inject effectors/toxins into eukaryotic hosts or prokaryotic competitors for survival and fitness. To date, our knowledge of the molecular determinants and mechanisms underlying the transport of these effectors remains limited. Here, we report that two T6SS encoded valine-glycine repeat protein G (VgrG) paralogs in Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 specifically control the secretion and interbacterial competition activity of the type VI DNase toxins Tde1 and Tde2. Deletion and domain-swapping analysis identified that the C-terminal extension of VgrG1 specifically confers Tde1 secretion and Tde1-dependent interbacterial competition activity in planta, and the C-terminal variable region of VgrG2 governs this specificity for Tde2. Functional studies of VgrG1 and VgrG2 variants with stepwise deletion of the C terminus revealed that the C-terminal 31 aa (C31) of VgrG1 and 8 aa (C8) of VgrG2 are the molecular determinants specifically required for delivery of each cognate Tde toxin. Further in-depth studies on Tde toxin delivery mechanisms revealed that VgrG1 interacts with the adaptor/chaperone-effector complex (Tap-1-Tde1) in the absence of proline-alanine-alanine-arginine (PAAR) and the VgrG1-PAAR complex forms independent of Tap-1 and Tde1. Importantly, we identified the regions involved in these interactions. Although the entire C31 segment is required for binding with the Tap-1-Tde1 complex, only the first 15 aa of this region are necessary for PAAR binding. These results suggest that the VgrG1 C terminus interacts sequentially or simultaneously with the Tap-1-Tde1 complex and PAAR to govern Tde1 translocation across bacterial membranes and delivery into target cells for antibacterial activity. PMID:27313214

  19. 咪唑安定和丙泊酚联用对危重患者镇静-遗忘作用的研究%Effects of combination of midazolam and propofol on anterograde amnesia in critical patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许继元; 戴体俊; 李茂琴; 张舟; 卢飞; 李琳; 李家琼; 莫逊; 许艳军; 刘君

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察咪唑安定和丙泊酚联用对危重患者镇静-遗忘作用的影响.方法 选择重症加强治疗病房(ICU)行机械通气2~4 d的患者60例,随机分为丙泊酚组、咪唑安定组和咪唑安定加丙泊酚联用组,每组20例.分别于用药后1、2和3 d唤醒患者并出示不同颜色、图形、数字的卡片,于患者停用机械通气完全清醒后评估药物对其镇静-遗忘作用的影响.结果 ①丙泊酚、咪唑安定和联用组分别有70%、95%和90%的患者产生遗忘,停药30 min后患者均恢复记忆.②咪唑安定组静脉推注负荷量药物起效的时间((5.1±2.8)min]和停药清醒后拔除气管插管的时间[(2.7±0.3)h]均较丙泊酚组[(2.7±1.1)min、(0.7±0.2)h]、联用组[(3.1±1.3)min、(1.2±0.6)h]明显延长(P均<0.01);丙泊酚组和联用组药物起效时间和停药清醒后拔除气管插管时间相近,差异无统计学意义(P均>0.05).③镇静费用咪唑安定组[(1 200±112)元]和联用组[(1 300±132)元]接近,丙泊酚组[(2 100±125)元]高于咪唑安定组约75%(P<0.01).结论 丙泊酚与咪唑安定联合用药既可确保患者产生镇静-遗忘效应,减少各自的用量,降低药物不良反应,又有利于降低患者的住院费用,可能是ICU危重患者较好的镇静-遗忘治疗方案.%Objective To observe the effects of sedation with midazolam and propofol on anterograde amnesia in critical patients.Methods Sixty selected patients on mechanical ventilation in intensive care unit (ICU)were randomly divided into three subgroups(propofol,midazolam,and midazolam and propofol combination group),with 20 cases in each group.Patients who were awakened from sedation were showed with a card depicted with different colors,figures and numbers.When patients were totally conscious after weaning from mechanicaI ventilation,the influence of the different methods of sedation on anterograde amnesia in propofol,midazolam and the combination group

  20. Transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials: a summary of state and local legislative requirements for the period ending September 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Legislative Data Base (LDB) was developed for Sandia National Laboratories' Transportation Technology Center by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to monitor federal, state, and local legislative and regulatory actions affecting the transport of radioactive materials. The data base contains 2500 citations of introduced, adopted/enacted, and denied legislative actions. This report summarizes in tabular format pertinent enacted or adopted state and local restrictions contained in the LDB

  1. Transport of MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory framework which governs the transport of MOX fuel is set out, including packages, transport modes and security requirements. Technical requirements for the packages are reviewed and BNFL's experience in plutonium and MOX fuel transport is described. The safety of such operations and the public perception of safety are described and the question of gaining public acceptance for MOX fuel transport is addressed. The paper concludes by emphasising the need for proactive programmes to improve the public acceptance of these operations. (Author)

  2. The investigation of different doses of dexmedetomidine on the sedation and anterograde amnesia%不同剂量右美托咪定镇静程度及顺行性遗忘作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志超; 孔莉; 许鹏程; 李颖; 董晓辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate effects of different doses of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on the sedation and anterograde amnesia in patients undergoing operation on bythus.Methods Two hundred patients,ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ,aged 20-60,101 males and 99 females were dministered spinal-epidural anesthesia combined with Dex,undergoing operation on bythus without caesarean section.After Dex 1 μg/kg was infused intravenously 10 min (group De0 was infused intravenously the same volume of physiological saline),according to different maintenance doses of Dex,they were divided into four groups by random number table method:group De0 (group physiological saline),group De1 (0.2 μg·kg1·h-1),group De2 (0.4 μg·kg-1·h-1),group De3 (0.6 μg·kg-1·h-1).By observer's assessment of alertness/sedation(OAA/S) method,the sedation degree of the Dex was evaluated at 5 min(T1),10 min(T2),15 min (T3),20 min(T4),25 min(T5),30 min(T6),40 min(T7),50 min(T8).After 24 h of operation,the anterograde amnesia degree of Dex was assessed.Results When the OAMS scores of group De0 of sedation were all(5.00±0) at T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7,and T8 point,with the time of Dex infused intravenously longer and the dose of Dex increased,the OAA/S scores of group De1,group De2 and group De3[The OAMS scores of group De1 of sedation was(3.15±0.37) at T2 point,(3.26±0.44) at T3 point,(2.70±0.66) at T4 point,(2.55±0.60) at T5 point,(2.40±0.60) at T2 point,(2.05±0.76) at T7 point,(2.02±0.73) at T8 point,The OAA/S scores of group De2 of sedation was (3.10±0.64) at T2 point,(2.95±0.51) at T3 point,(2.35±0.67) at T4 point,(2.25±0.55) at T5 point,(2.10±0.45) at T6 point,(1.60±0.50) at T7 point,(1.65±0.49) at T8 point;The OAMS scores of group De3 of sedation was (3.10±0.31) at T2 point,(2.65±0.49) at T3 point,(1.95±0.39) at T4 point,(1.90±0.45) at T5 point,(1.75±0.44) at T6 point,(1.20±0.62) at T7 point,(1.25± 0.64) at T8 point] became smaller in a dose-dependent manner(P<0.05).When there were 50 cases of the no

  3. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  4. Transport of rRNA into cytoplasm required for initiation of S phase in root meristem cells in Helianthus annuus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cold treatment (10degC) of root meristems during a period longer than duration of the cell cycle in 20degC causes a blocking of most cells in G1. One of the causes of cell cycle blockade is the decrease of rRNA synthesis and inhibition of rRNA transport into cytoplasm. Transfer of seedlings to 20degC results in increase of rRNA synthesis and its transport to cytoplasm as well as transition of almost all cells from G1 to S during 3 hours. Synchronization of DNA replication, comprising cells within rows of cells, is preceded by similar transport patter of rRNA to cytoplasm. (Author)

  5. Transmembrane segment (TMS) VIII of the Na+/citrate transporter CitS requires downstream TMS IX for insertion in the Escherichia coli membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geest, M; Lolkema, JS

    1999-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of the sodium ion-dependent citrate transporter CitS of IL pneumoniae contains 12 hydrophobic stretches that could form membrane-spanning segments. A previous analysis of the membrane topology in Escherichia coli using the PhoA gene fusion technique indicated that only nine o

  6. Fleet servicing facilities for servicing, maintaining, and testing rail and truck radioactive waste transport systems: functional requirements, technical design concepts and options cost estimates and comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a resource document which examines feasibility design concepts and feasibility studies of a Fleet Servicing Facility (FSF). Such a facility is intended to be used for routine servicing, preventive maintenance, and for performing requalification license compliance tests and inspections, minor repairs, and decontamination of both the transportation casks and their associated rail cars or tractor-trailers. None of the United States' waste handling plants presently receiving radioactive wastes have an on-site FSF, nor is there an existing third party facility providing these services. This situation has caused the General Accounting Office to express concern regarding the quality of waste transport system maintenance once the system is placed into service. Thus, a need is indicated for FSF's, or their equivalent, at various radioactive materials receiving sites. In this report, three forms of FSF's solely for spent fuel transport systems were examined: independent, integrated, and colocated. The independent concept was already the subject of a detailed report and is extensively referenced in this document so that capital cost comparisons of the three concepts could be made. These facilities probably could service high-level, intermediate-level, low-level, or other waste transportation systems with minor modification, but this study did not include any system other than spent fuel. Both the Integrated and Colocated concepts were assumed to be associated with some radioactive materials handling facility such as an AFR repository

  7. The predicted ABC transporter AbcEDCBA is required for type IV secretion system expression and lysosomal evasion by Brucella ovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teane M A Silva

    Full Text Available Brucella ovis is a major cause of reproductive failure in rams and it is one of the few well-described Brucella species that is not zoonotic. Previous work showed that a B. ovis mutant lacking a species-specific ABC transporter (ΔabcBA was attenuated in mice and was unable to survive in macrophages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of this ABC transporter during intracellular survival of B. ovis. In HeLa cells, B. ovis WT was able to survive and replicate at later time point (48 hpi, whereas an ΔabcBA mutant was attenuated at 24 hpi. The reduced survival of the ΔabcBA mutant was associated with a decreased ability to exclude the lysosomal marker LAMP1 from its vacuolar membrane, suggesting a failure to establish a replicative niche. The ΔabcBA mutant showed a reduced abundance of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS proteins VirB8 and VirB11 in both rich and acid media, when compared to WT B. ovis. However, mRNA levels of virB1, virB8, hutC, and vjbR were similar in both strains. These results support the notion that the ABC transporter encoded by abcEDCBA or its transported substrate acts at a post-transcriptional level to promote the optimal expression of the B. ovis T4SS within infected host cells.

  8. Requirement for the gravity-controlled transport of auxin for a negative gravitropic response of epicotyls in the early growth stage of etiolated pea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Ueda, Junichi

    2006-11-01

    Gravity-controlled transport of auxin was studied for a negative gravitropic response in the early growth stage of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings, in which epicotyl bending was observed near the cotyledon nodes of the seedlings grown continuously from seeds germinated in a horizontal or an inclined position. Increased expression of an auxin-inducible gene, PsIAA4/5, was observed in the elongated side of epicotyls grown in a horizontal or an inclined position. Regardless of the conditions of seed germination, polar auxin transport in the proximal side of the first internodes of the seedlings was significantly higher than in the distal side. Polar auxin transport in the proximal side of epicotyls grown in an inclined position was significantly lower than in those grown in a horizontal position. In contrast, lateral auxin distribution from the proximal to distal sides in epicotyls grown in an inclined position was significantly higher than in epicotyls grown in a horizontal position. Accumulation of PsPIN1 mRNA encoding a putative auxin efflux facilitator, which was observed in vascular tissue, cortex and epidermis in the proximal and distal sides of epicotyls, was markedly influenced by gravistimulation. These results strongly suggest that gravistimulation induces changeable polar auxin transport and one-way lateral auxin distribution in epicotyls as well as asymmetric auxin accumulation in the proximal and distal sides of epicotyls, resulting in a negative gravitropic response of epicotyls in the early growth stage of pea seedlings. PMID:17008444

  9. REQUIREMENTS FOR STORAGE AND TRANSPORT OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL MEDICAL PRODUCTS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE REGULATORY FRAMEWORK OF MINISTRY OF PUBLIC HEALTH OF UKRAINE AND DETECTION OF VIOLATIONS IN THE MEDICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL INSTITUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Shukaeva O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The rapid development of the pharmaceutical industry and the expansion of the range of biotech drugs require special conditions to ensure the quality, storage and transport through out the entire chain: manufacturer - distributor - pharmacy - hospital - the patient.We analyzed the current legislative frame work of Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine and conducted a study to identify and analyze of typical violations in the medical and pharmaceutical inst...

  10. The N-terminal extension domain of the C. elegans half-molecule ABC transporter, HMT-1, is required for protein-protein interactions and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungjin Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Members of the HMT-1 (heavy metal tolerance factor 1 subfamily of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter superfamily detoxify heavy metals and have unique topology: they are half-molecule ABC transporters that, in addition to a single transmembrane domain (TMD1 and a single nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1, possess a hydrophobic NH2-terminal extension (NTE. These structural features distinguish HMTs from other ABC transporters in different species including Drosophila and humans. Functional ABC transporters, however, are comprised of at least four-domains (two TMDs and two NDBs formed from either a single polypeptide or by the association of two or four separate subunits. Whether HMTs act as oligomers and what role the NTE domain plays in their function have not been determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we examined the oligomeric status of Caenorhabditis elegans HMT-1 and the functional significance of its NTE using gel-filtration chromatography in combination with the mating-based split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid system (mbSUS and functional in vivo assays. We found that HMT-1 exists in a protein complex in C. elegans. Studies in S. cerevisiae showed that HMT-1 at a minimum homodimerizes and that oligomerization is essential for HMT-1 to confer cadmium tolerance. We also established that the NTE domain plays an important structural and functional role: it is essential for HMT-1 oligomerization and Cd-detoxification function. However, the NTE itself was not sufficient for oligomerization suggesting that multiple structural features of HMT-1 must associate to form a functional transporter. CONCLUSIONS: The prominence of heavy metals as environmental toxins and the remarkable conservation of HMT-1 structural architecture and function in different species reinforce the value of continued studies of HMT-1 in model systems for identifying functional domains in HMT1 of humans.

  11. Proposed design requirements for high-integrity containers used to store, transport, and dispose of high-specific-activity, low-level radioactive wastes from Three Mile Island Unit II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report develops proposed design requirements for high integrity containers used to store, transport and/or dispose of high-activity, low-level radioactive wastes from Three Mile Island Unit II. The wastes considered are the dewatered resins produced by the EPICOR II waste treatment system used to clean-up the auxiliary building water. The radioactivity level of some of these EPICOR II liners is 1300 curies per container. These wastes may be disposed of in an intermediate depth burial (10 to 20 meter depth) facility. The proposed container design requirements are directed to ensure isolation of the waste and protection of the public health and safety

  12. Perturbation of intestinal microvillar enzyme biosynthesis by amino acid analogs. Evidence that dimerization is required for the transport of aminopeptidase N out of the endoplasmic reticulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1990-01-01

    The amino acid analogs canavanine, 3-hydroxynorvaline, thialysine, 6-fluorotryptophan, m-fluorotyrosine, and 2-fluorophenylalanine were incorporated into proteins, synthesized in pig intestinal mucosal explants, and their effect on molecular processing and intracellular transport of microvillar...... enzymes studied. Unless they were used in combination, none of the analogs drastically reduced the expression of aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) or sucrase-isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.48, EC 3.2.1.10), but to a varying extent, they all slowed the rate of transport to the apical surface. In contrast, the cellular...... export of a secretory protein, apolipoprotein A-1, was largely unaffected. For the microvillar enzymes, all six analogs caused an accumulation of the transient, high mannose-glycosylated form, indicating an analog-sensitive stage prior to the Golgi-associated processing. For aminopeptidase N, this arrest...

  13. Fast Charging Battery Buses for the Electrification of Urban Public Transport : A Feasibility Study Focusing on Charging Infrastructure and Energy Storage Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Rogge; Sebastian Wollny; Dirk Uwe Sauer

    2015-01-01

    The electrification of public transport bus networks can be carried out utilizing different technological solutions, like trolley, battery or fuel cell buses. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how and to what extent existing bus networks can be electrified with fast charging battery buses. The so called opportunity chargers use mainly the regular dwell time at the stops to charge their batteries. This results in a strong linkage between the vehicle scheduling and the infrastructure plan...

  14. The Siderophore Iron Transporter of Candida albicans (Sit1p/Arn1p) Mediates Uptake of Ferrichrome-Type Siderophores and Is Required for Epithelial Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Heymann, Petra; Gerads, Michaela; Schaller, Martin; Dromer, Francoise; Winkelmann, Günther; Ernst, Joachim F.

    2002-01-01

    The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans contains a close homologue of yeast siderophore transporters, designated Sit1p/Arn1p. We have characterized the function of SIT1 in C. albicans by constructing sit1 deletion strains and testing their virulence and ability to utilize a range of siderophores and other iron complexes. sit1 mutant strains are defective in the uptake of ferrichrome-type siderophores including ferricrocin, ferrichrysin, ferrirubin, coprogen, and triacetylfusarinine C. A mu...

  15. The maize glossy13 gene, cloned via BSR-Seq and Seq-walking encodes a putative ABC transporter required for the normal accumulation of epicuticular waxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    Full Text Available Aerial plant surfaces are covered by epicuticular waxes that among other purposes serve to control water loss. Maize glossy mutants originally identified by their "glossy" phenotypes exhibit alterations in the accumulation of epicuticular waxes. By combining data from a BSR-Seq experiment and the newly developed Seq-Walking technology, GRMZM2G118243 was identified as a strong candidate for being the glossy13 gene. The finding that multiple EMS-induced alleles contain premature stop codons in GRMZM2G118243, and the one knockout allele of gl13, validates the hypothesis that gene GRMZM2G118243 is gl13. Consistent with this, GRMZM2G118243 is an ortholog of AtABCG32 (Arabidopsis thaliana, HvABCG31 (barley and OsABCG31 (rice, which encode ABCG subfamily transporters involved in the trans-membrane transport of various secondary metabolites. We therefore hypothesize that gl13 is involved in the transport of epicuticular waxes onto the surfaces of seedling leaves.

  16. H.R. 4895: a bill to establish a requirement that no person may offer any high-level radioactive waste for transportation in interstate commerce unless licensed for such offering by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, May 22, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Waste Transportation Act requires that anyone offering high-level radioactive waste for transportation in interstate commerce must be licensed. The bill describes the qualifications and requirements for obtaining a license either to offer the wastes or to transport it, the procedures for issuance, notification to political subdivisions and Indian tribes, and routing. It also includes time restrictions and enforcement authority. High-level radioactive materials include spent nuclear fuel and reprocessing materials

  17. Secure Transportation Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, P. W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  18. Secure Transportation Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  19. REQUIREMENTS FOR STORAGE AND TRANSPORT OF BIOTECHNOLOGICAL MEDICAL PRODUCTS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE REGULATORY FRAMEWORK OF MINISTRY OF PUBLIC HEALTH OF UKRAINE AND DETECTION OF VIOLATIONS IN THE MEDICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukaeva O.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The rapid development of the pharmaceutical industry and the expansion of the range of biotech drugs require special conditions to ensure the quality, storage and transport through out the entire chain: manufacturer - distributor - pharmacy - hospital - the patient.We analyzed the current legislative frame work of Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine and conducted a study to identify and analyze of typical violations in the medical and pharmaceutical institutions. The aim of the investigation was to investigate and analyze inspection acts under storage and transport of biological medical products and identify major violations during the performance requirements for storage and transportation of drugs, level of awareness about medical products which are requiring special storage requirement. Methods: systemic, logistical, structural, marketing, regulatory. Results & discussion. According to the data presented in the report «Assessing biosimilar uptake and competition in European markets» of «IMS Health», sales of medical products with biological nature - biological medicinal products and biosymilyars is about 27% of total sales of drugs in the EU. This segment of the pharmaceutical market is characterized by faster growth compared to the pharmaceutical marketas a whole. Thus, in 2012-2013 years sales of biological medical products in the EU countries increased by 5.5% compared to 1.5% increase in total sales of drugs. It is important that in Europe, according to the 2013 preparations, the market share in value terms, with eight to prepare biological products, the term of patent protection that are either already expired or will expireby 2020, and therefore they can be competitors with biosymilars. In creasing the number of medications on the market requires a careful approach of storing and preserving the quality of distribution during throughout the life of the medical products in the chain: manufacturer - distributor

  20. The ATP requiring step in assembly of M13 procoat protein into microsomes is related to preservation of transport competence of the precursor protein

    OpenAIRE

    Wiech, Hans; Sagstetter, Maria; Müller, Günter; Zimmermann, Richard

    1987-01-01

    M13 procoat protein is processed to transmembrane coat protein by dog pancreas microsomes after completion of synthesis and in the absence of the signal recognition particle (SRP)/docking protein system. ATP is required for fast and efficient processing of procoat protein by microsomes in a reticulocyte lysate. Requirement for ATP is also observed in the absence of ribosomes or docking protein. This indicates the existence of a unique assembly pathway for procoat protein into microsomes which...

  1. The zinc transporter SLC39A13/ZIP13 is required for connective tissue development; its involvement in BMP/TGF-beta signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Fukada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn is an essential trace element and it is abundant in connective tissues, however biological roles of Zn and its transporters in those tissues and cells remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that mice deficient in Zn transporter Slc39a13/Zip13 show changes in bone, teeth and connective tissue reminiscent of the clinical spectrum of human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS. The Slc39a13 knockout (Slc39a13-KO mice show defects in the maturation of osteoblasts, chondrocytes, odontoblasts, and fibroblasts. In the corresponding tissues and cells, impairment in bone morphogenic protein (BMP and TGF-beta signaling were observed. Homozygosity for a SLC39A13 loss of function mutation was detected in sibs affected by a unique variant of EDS that recapitulates the phenotype observed in Slc39a13-KO mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hence, our results reveal a crucial role of SLC39A13/ZIP13 in connective tissue development at least in part due to its involvement in the BMP/TGF-beta signaling pathways. The Slc39a13-KO mouse represents a novel animal model linking zinc metabolism, BMP/TGF-beta signaling and connective tissue dysfunction.

  2. Justified requirements in private transportation and a recommendation for improving the efficiency of household energy utilisation through the use of small ecologically-friendly or 'ultralight' vehicles for mass private transportation in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needs and ownership are sociobiologically manifested in the alter-ego of a Homo sapiens where the natural progression of events (a household being the fundamental microlevel) and the social order, i.e. globalisation, are based on ownership and needs as sacred rights, and for this reason universal values like energy conservation end up as the waste of the mindless worship of consumption. Justified needs are phenomena of a consumerist (egocentric, pragmatic, voluntary) social conscience and instinctive behaviour - an unpredictable cause resulting from freedom being the foundation of the quality of life, socio-economic and political changes but are mutually exclusive to understanding (expressing and gaining deeper and richer knowledge). Inbuilt limits and/or control of consumption, which are already used in household appliances with aforeset processes (goals) for unknown consumers, to achieve large energy savings in 'routine' functions are more effective than attempts to prevent mistakes (lack of user knowledge through repression). A private vehicle, as a symbol of the freedom and quality of life, is a mechanism for achieving 'justified' needs and presents another means of household energy utilisation. The consumer's desires regarding private transportation are not sufficiently reconciled with intelligent microprocessors (expert systems), which achieve (the most) optimal behaviour in the process of transportation. This detailed consideration (as part of investigating the technical system) cannot be examined on a strictly logical or scientific basis, as it only proposes a method of co-agreement (not co-reponsability) of manufacturers and consumers and an alternative logical way of thinking, or organisation of the interaction between vehicles and traffic in order to form a judgement of really justifiable needs, and to achieve a robotic private vehicle, transportation and traffic. The goal of this consideration is to establish the DIVISION of energy with the help of

  3. The novel protein Ccz1p required for vacuolar assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions in the same transport pathway as Ypt7p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharczyk, R; Dupre, S; Avaro, S; Haguenauer-Tsapis, R; Słonimski, P P; Rytka, J

    2000-12-01

    CCZ1 was previously identified by the sensitivity of ccz1(delta) mutants to high concentrations of Caffeine and the divalent ions Ca(2+ )and Zn(2+). In this paper we show that deletion of CCZ1 leads to aberrant vacuole morphology, similar to the one reported for the family of vacuolar protein sorting (vps) mutants of class B. The ccz1(&Dgr;) cells display severe vacuolar protein sorting defects for both the soluble carboxipeptidase Y and the membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase, which are delivered to the vacuole by distinct routes. Ccz1p is a membranous protein and the vast majority of Ccz1p resides in late endosomes. These results, along with a functional linkage found between the CCZ1 and YPT7 genes, indicate that the site of Ccz1p function is at the last step of fusion of multiple transport intermediates with the vacuole. PMID:11069774

  4. Conception of transport cask with advanced safety, aimed at transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel of power reactors, which meets the requirements of IAEA in terms of safety and increased stability during beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il' kaev, R.I.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Shapovalov, V.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation); Semenov, A.G.; Sergeyev, V.M.; Orlov, V.K. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shatalov, V.V.; Gotovchikov, V.T.; Seredenko, V.A. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Applied Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Haire, Jonathan M.; Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The report is devoted to the problem of creation of a new generation of multi-purpose universal transport cask with advanced safety, aimed at transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of power reactors, which meets all requirements of IAEA in terms of safety and increased stability during beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism. Meeting all IAEA requirements in terms of safety both in normal operation conditions and accidents, as well as increased stability of transport cask (TC) with SNF under the conditions of beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism has been achieved in the design of multi-purpose universal TC due to the use of DU (depleted uranium) in it. At that, it is suggested to use DU in TC, which acts as effective gamma shield and constructional material in the form of both metallic depleted uranium and metal-ceramic mixture (cermet), based on stainless or carbon steel and DU dioxide. The metal in the cermet is chosen to optimize cask performance. The use of DU in the design of multi-purpose universal TC enables getting maximum load of the container for spent nuclear fuel when meeting IAEA requirements in terms of safety and providing increased stability of the container with SNF under conditions of beyond-design-basis accident and acts of terrorism.

  5. Conception of transport cask with advanced safety, aimed at transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel of power reactors, which meets the requirements of IAEA in terms of safety and increased stability during beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is devoted to the problem of creation of a new generation of multi-purpose universal transport cask with advanced safety, aimed at transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of power reactors, which meets all requirements of IAEA in terms of safety and increased stability during beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism. Meeting all IAEA requirements in terms of safety both in normal operation conditions and accidents, as well as increased stability of transport cask (TC) with SNF under the conditions of beyond-design-basis accidents and acts of terrorism has been achieved in the design of multi-purpose universal TC due to the use of DU (depleted uranium) in it. At that, it is suggested to use DU in TC, which acts as effective gamma shield and constructional material in the form of both metallic depleted uranium and metal-ceramic mixture (cermet), based on stainless or carbon steel and DU dioxide. The metal in the cermet is chosen to optimize cask performance. The use of DU in the design of multi-purpose universal TC enables getting maximum load of the container for spent nuclear fuel when meeting IAEA requirements in terms of safety and providing increased stability of the container with SNF under conditions of beyond-design-basis accident and acts of terrorism

  6. Packet transport network in metro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Yi, Xiaobo; Zhang, Hanzheng; Gong, Ping

    2008-11-01

    IP packet based services such as high speed internet, IP voice and IP video will be widely deployed in telecom network, which make transport network evolution to packet transport network. Characteristics of transport network and requirements of packet transport network are analyzed, T-MPLS/MPLS-TP based PTN technology is given and it will be used in metro (access, aggregation and core) network.

  7. N-glycan containing a core α1,3-fucose residue is required for basipetal auxin transport and gravitropic response in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmoko, Rikno; Yoo, Jae Yong; Ko, Ki Seong; Ramasamy, Nirmal Kumar; Hwang, Bo Young; Lee, Eun Ji; Kim, Ho Soo; Lee, Kyung Jin; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Kim, Dool-Yi; Lee, Sanghun; Li, Yang; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Kyun Oh

    2016-10-01

    In plants, α1,3-fucosyltransferase (FucT) catalyzes the transfer of fucose from GDP-fucose to asparagine-linked GlcNAc of the N-glycan core in the medial Golgi. To explore the physiological significance of this processing, we isolated two Oryza sativa (rice) mutants (fuct-1 and fuct-2) with loss of FucT function. Biochemical analyses of the N-glycan structure confirmed that α1,3-fucose is missing from the N-glycans of allelic fuct-1 and fuct-2. Compared with the wild-type cv Kitaake, fuct-1 displayed a larger tiller angle, shorter internode and panicle lengths, and decreased grain filling as well as an increase in chalky grains with abnormal shape. The mutant allele fuct-2 gave rise to similar developmental abnormalities, although they were milder than those of fuct-1. Restoration of a normal tiller angle in fuct-1 by complementation demonstrated that the phenotype is caused by the loss of FucT function. Both fuct-1 and fuct-2 plants exhibited reduced gravitropic responses. Expression of the genes involved in tiller and leaf angle control was also affected in the mutants. We demonstrate that reduced basipetal auxin transport and low auxin accumulation at the base of the shoot in fuct-1 account for both the reduced gravitropic response and the increased tiller angle. PMID:27241276

  8. The Mitochondrial Metallochaperone SCO1 Is Required to Sustain Expression of the High-Affinity Copper Transporter CTR1 and Preserve Copper Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Hlynialuk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human SCO1 fulfills essential roles in cytochrome c oxidase (COX assembly and the regulation of copper (Cu homeostasis, yet it remains unclear why pathogenic mutations in this gene cause such clinically heterogeneous forms of disease. Here, we establish a Sco1 mouse model of human disease and show that ablation of Sco1 expression in the liver is lethal owing to severe COX and Cu deficiencies. We further demonstrate that the Cu deficiency is explained by a functional connection between SCO1 and CTR1, the high-affinity transporter that imports Cu into the cell. CTR1 is rapidly degraded in the absence of SCO1 protein, and we show that its levels are restored in Sco1−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts upon inhibition of the proteasome. These data suggest that mitochondrial signaling through SCO1 provides a post-translational mechanism to regulate CTR1-dependent Cu import into the cell, and they further underpin the importance of mitochondria in cellular Cu homeostasis.

  9. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation's (DOT's) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  10. Transportation Business Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transportation Business Plan is a step in the process of procuring the transportation system. It sets the context for business strategy decisions by providing pertinent background information, describing the legislation and policies governing transportation under the NWPA, and describing requirements of the transportation system. Included in the document are strategies for procuring shipping casks and transportation support services. In the spirit of the NWPA directive to utilize the private sector to the maximum extent possible, opportunities for business ventures are obvious throughout the system development cycle

  11. Difference in the wind speeds required for initiation versus continuation of sand transport on mars: implications for dunes and dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jasper F

    2010-02-19

    Much of the surface of Mars is covered by dunes, ripples, and other features formed by the blowing of sand by wind, known as saltation. In addition, saltation loads the atmosphere with dust aerosols, which dominate the Martian climate. We show here that saltation can be maintained on Mars by wind speeds an order of magnitude less than required to initiate it. We further show that this hysteresis effect causes saltation to occur for much lower wind speeds than previously thought. These findings have important implications for the formation of dust storms, sand dunes, and ripples on Mars. PMID:20366891

  12. Difference in the wind speeds required for initiation versus continuation of sand transport on Mars: Implications for dunes and dust storms

    CERN Document Server

    Kok, Jasper F

    2010-01-01

    Much of the surface of Mars is covered by dunes, ripples, and other features formed by the blowing of sand by wind, known as saltation. In addition, saltation loads the atmosphere with dust aerosols, which dominate the Martian climate. We show here that saltation can be maintained on Mars by wind speeds an order of magnitude less than required to initiate it. We further show that the resulting hysteresis effect causes saltation to occur for much lower wind speeds than previously thought. These findings have important implications for the formation of dust storms, sand dunes, and ripples on Mars.

  13. The Bradyrhizobium japonicum Ferrous Iron Transporter FeoAB Is Required for Ferric Iron Utilization in Free Living Aerobic Cells and for Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankari, Siva; O'Brian, Mark R

    2016-07-22

    The bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 does not synthesize siderophores for iron utilization in aerobic environments, and the mechanism of iron uptake within symbiotic soybean root nodules is unknown. An mbfA bfr double mutant defective in iron export and storage activities cannot grow aerobically in very high iron medium. Here, we found that this phenotype was suppressed by loss of function mutations in the feoAB operon encoding ferrous (Fe(2+)) iron uptake proteins. Expression of the feoAB operon genes was elevated under iron limitation, but mutants defective in either gene were unable to grow aerobically over a wide external ferric (Fe(3+)) iron (FeCl3) concentration range. Thus, FeoAB accommodates iron acquisition under iron limited and iron replete conditions. Incorporation of radiolabel from either (55)Fe(2+) or (59)Fe(3+) into cells was severely defective in the feoA and feoB strains, suggesting Fe(3+) reduction to Fe(2+) prior to traversal across the cytoplasmic membrane by FeoAB. The feoA or feoB deletion strains elicited small, ineffective nodules on soybean roots, containing few bacteria and lacking nitrogen fixation activity. A feoA(E40K) mutant contained partial iron uptake activity in culture that supported normal growth and established an effective symbiosis. The feoA(E40K) strain had partial iron uptake activity in situ within nodules and in isolated cells, indicating that FeoAB is the iron transporter in symbiosis. We conclude that FeoAB supports iron acquisition under limited conditions of soil and in the iron-rich environment of a symbiotic nodule. PMID:27288412

  14. DOE TMD transportation training module 14 transportation of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, R.L. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy Transportation Management Division has developed training module 14, entitled {open_quotes}Transportation of Explosives{close_quotes} to compliment the basic {open_quotes}core ten{close_quotes} training modules of the Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program. The purpose of this training module is to increase awareness of the Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements concerning the packaging and transportation of explosives. Topics covered in module 14 include the classification of explosives, approval and registration of explosives, packaging requirements, hazard communication requirements, separation and segregation compatibility requirements, loading and unloading operations, as well as safety measures required in the event of a vehicle accident involving explosives.

  15. DOE TMD transportation training module 14 transportation of explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy Transportation Management Division has developed training module 14, entitled open-quotes Transportation of Explosivesclose quotes to compliment the basic open-quotes core tenclose quotes training modules of the Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program. The purpose of this training module is to increase awareness of the Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements concerning the packaging and transportation of explosives. Topics covered in module 14 include the classification of explosives, approval and registration of explosives, packaging requirements, hazard communication requirements, separation and segregation compatibility requirements, loading and unloading operations, as well as safety measures required in the event of a vehicle accident involving explosives

  16. Chlamydomonas fla mutants reveal a link between deflagellation and intraflagellar transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quarmby Lynne

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cilia and flagella are often lost in anticipation of mitosis or in response to stress. There are two ways that a cell can lose its flagella: resorption or deflagellation. Deflagellation involves active severing of the axoneme at the base of the flagellum; this process is defective in Chlamydomonas fa mutants. In contrast, resorption has been thought to occur as a consequence of constitutive disassembly at the tip in the absence of continued assembly, which requires intraflagellar transport (IFT. Chlamydomonas fla mutants are unable to build and maintain flagella due to defects in IFT. Results fla10 cells, which are defective in kinesin-II, the anterograde IFT motor, resorb their flagella at the restrictive temperature (33°C, as previously reported. We find that in standard media containing ~300 microM calcium, fla10 cells lose flagella by deflagellation at 33°C. This temperature-induced deflagellation of a fla mutant is not predicted by the IFT-based model for flagellar length control. Other fla mutants behave similarly, losing their flagella by deflagellation instead of resorption, if adequate calcium is available. These data suggest a new model whereby flagellar resorption involves active disassembly at the base of the flagellum via a mechanism with components in common with the severing machinery of deflagellation. As predicted by this model, we discovered that deflagellation stimuli induce resorption if deflagellation is blocked either by mutation in a FA gene or by lack of calcium. Further support for this model comes from our discovery that fla10-fa double mutants resorb their flagella more slowly than fla10 mutants. Conclusions Deflagellation of the fla10 mutant at the restrictive temperature is indicative of an active disassembly signal, which can manifest as either resorption or deflagellation. We propose that when IFT is halted by either an inactivating mutation or a cellular signal, active flagellar disassembly

  17. Why Lead Methylammonium tri-IODIDE perovskite-based solar cells requires a mesoporous electron transporting scaffold (but not necessarily a hole conductor)

    CERN Document Server

    Edri, Eran; Henning, Alex; Mukhopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Gartsman, Konstantin; Rosenwaks, Yossi; Hodes, Gary; Cahen, David

    2014-01-01

    CH3NH3PbI3-based solar cells were characterized with electron beam-induced current (EBIC), and compared to CH3NH3PbI3-xClx ones. A spatial map of charge separation efficiency in working cells shows p-i-n structures for both thin film cells. Effective diffusion lengths, LD, (from EBIC profile) show that holes are extracted significantly more efficiently than electrons in CH3NH3PbI3, explaining why CH3NH3PbI3-based cells require mesoporous electron conductors, while CH3NH3PbI3-xClx ones, where LD values are comparable for both charge types, do not.

  18. A model of the accident process as a tool to develop indicators for transportation system safety and traffic risks. Paper prepared for the U.S. Department of Transportation international symposium on surface transportation system performance, workshop session `safety : performance indicators and data requirements'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of indicators used in controlling the safety performance of a transportation system. Because of the very large and complex nature of transportation systems, effecting any changes proceeds very slowly. In addition, changes in the control variables by countermeasu

  19. Transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predicting the possible consequences of transportation accidents provides a severe challenge to an analyst who must make a judgment of the likely consequences of a release event at an unpredictable time and place. Since it is impractical to try to obtain detailed knowledge of the meteorology and terrain for every potential accident location on a route or to obtain accurate descriptions of population distributions or sensitive property to be protected (data which are more likely to be more readily available when one deals with fixed-site problems), he is constrained to make conservative assumptions in response to a demanding public audience. These conservative assumptions are frequently offset by very small source terms (relative to a fixed site) created when a transport vehicle is involved in an accident. For radioactive materials, which are the principal interest of the authors, only the most elementary models have been used for assessing the consequences of release of these materials in the transportation setting. Risk analysis and environmental impact statements frequently have used the Pasquill-Gifford/gaussian techniques for releases of short duration, which are both simple and easy to apply and require a minimum amount of detailed information. However, after deciding to use such a model, the problem of selecting what specific parameters to use in specific transportation situations still presents itself. Additional complications arise because source terms are not well characterized, release rates can be variable over short and long time periods, and mechanisms by which source aerosols become entrained in air are not always obvious. Some approaches that have been used to address these problems will be reviewed with emphasis on guidelines to avoid the Worst-Case Scenario Syndrome

  20. 49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packaging requirements. 130.21 Section 130.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Packaging requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must...

  1. Handling and Transport Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I. The handling and transport of radioactive waste involves the risk of irradiation and contamination. It is necessary to draw up special regulations governing the removal and transport of waste within the centres or from one centre to another, and to entrust transport to a group in charge of specialized teams. The organization, equipment and efficiency of such teams is then considered. II. Certain types of transport operation are particularly dangerous and require special transport units and fixed installations. This applies, in particular, to the disposal of highly radioactive liquids. A description is given of a composite transport unit, consisting of a towing vehicle, semi-trailer and tank holding 500 l of liquid with an activity of up to 1,000 c/l. The drawing-off of the liquid waste, routing of the transport unit and precautions to be taken are discussed. (author)

  2. Transport policy

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Transport is a fundamental component of all modern economies. Transport Policy presents a wide ranging collection of previously published articles which aim to provide the reader with an understanding of the main elements of transport policy.

  3. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  4. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg;

    2014-01-01

    that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the...... transportation sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  5. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  6. The Kiss-and-Run Model of Intra-Golgi Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Mironov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Golgi apparatus (GA is the main station along the secretory pathway. Mechanisms of intra-Golgi transport remain unresolved. Three models compete with each other for the right to be defined as the paradigm. The vesicular model cannot explain the following: (1 lipid droplets and aggregates of procollagen that are larger than coatomer I (COPI-dependent vesicles are transported across the GA; and (2 most anterograde cargoes are depleted in COPI vesicles. The compartment progression/maturation model has the following problems: (1 most Golgi-resident proteins are depleted in COPI vesicles; (2 there are no COPI vesicles for the recycling of the resident proteins in the trans-most-Golgi cisterna; and (3 different proteins have different rates of intra-Golgi transport. The diffusion model based on permanent inter-cisternal connections cannot explain the existence of lipid, ionic and protein gradients across the Golgi stacks. In contrast, the kiss-and-run model has the potential to explain most of the experimental observations. The kiss-and-run model can be symmetric when fusion and then fission occurs in the same place, and asymmetric when fusion takes place in one location, whereas fission takes place in another. The asymmetric kiss-and-run model resembles the carrier maturation mechanism, and it can be used to explain the transport of large cargo aggregates.

  7. Disruption of mitochondrial DNA replication in Drosophila increases mitochondrial fast axonal transport in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan M Baqri

    Full Text Available Mutations in mitochondrial DNA polymerase (pol gamma cause several progressive human diseases including Parkinson's disease, Alper's syndrome, and progressive external ophthalmoplegia. At the cellular level, disruption of pol gamma leads to depletion of mtDNA, disrupts the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and increases susceptibility to oxidative stress. Although recent studies have intensified focus on the role of mtDNA in neuronal diseases, the changes that take place in mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial axonal transport when mtDNA replication is disrupted are unknown. Using high-speed confocal microscopy, electron microscopy and biochemical approaches, we report that mutations in pol gamma deplete mtDNA levels and lead to an increase in mitochondrial density in Drosophila proximal nerves and muscles, without a noticeable increase in mitochondrial fragmentation. Furthermore, there is a rise in flux of bidirectional mitochondrial axonal transport, albeit with slower kinesin-based anterograde transport. In contrast, flux of synaptic vesicle precursors was modestly decreased in pol gamma-alpha mutants. Our data indicate that disruption of mtDNA replication does not hinder mitochondrial biogenesis, increases mitochondrial axonal transport, and raises the question of whether high levels of circulating mtDNA-deficient mitochondria are beneficial or deleterious in mtDNA diseases.

  8. Energy and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, James; Banister, David; Edwards, Phil; Prentice, Andrew M; Roberts, Ian

    2007-09-22

    We examine the links between fossil-fuel-based transportation, greenhouse-gas emissions, and health. Transport-related carbon emissions are rising and there is increasing consensus that the growth in motorised land vehicles and aviation is incompatible with averting serious climate change. The energy intensity of land transport correlates with its adverse health effects. Adverse health effects occur through climate change, road-traffic injuries, physical inactivity, urban air pollution, energy-related conflict, and environmental degradation. For the world's poor people, walking is the main mode of transport, but such populations often experience the most from the harms of energy-intensive transport. New energy sources and improvements in vehicle design and in information technology are necessary but not sufficient to reduce transport-related carbon emissions without accompanying behavioural change. By contrast, active transport has the potential to improve health and equity, and reduce emissions. Cities require safe and pleasant environments for active transport with destinations in easy reach and, for longer journeys, public transport that is powered by renewable energy, thus providing high levels of accessibility without car use. Much investment in major road projects does not meet the transport needs of poor people, especially women whose trips are primarily local and off road. Sustainable development is better promoted through improving walking and cycling infrastructures, increasing access to cycles, and investment in transport services for essential needs. Our model of London shows how increased active transport could help achieve substantial reductions in emissions by 2030 while improving population health. There exists the potential for a global contraction and convergence in use of fossil-fuel energy for transport to benefit health and achieve sustainability. PMID:17868817

  9. Transcriptional profiling of C. elegans DAF-19 uncovers a ciliary base-associated protein and a CDK/CCRK/LF2p-related kinase required for intraflagellar transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phirke, Prasad; Efimenko, Evgeni; Mohan, Swetha; Burghoorn, Jan; Crona, Filip; Bakhoum, Mathieu W; Trieb, Maria; Schuske, Kim; Jorgensen, Erik M; Piasecki, Brian P; Leroux, Michel R; Swoboda, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Cilia are ubiquitous cell surface projections that mediate various sensory- and motility-based processes and are implicated in a growing number of multi-organ genetic disorders termed ciliopathies. To identify new components required for cilium biogenesis and function, we sought to further define and validate the transcriptional targets of DAF-19, the ciliogenic C. elegans RFX transcription factor. Transcriptional profiling of daf-19 mutants (which do not form cilia) and wild-type animals was performed using embryos staged to when the cell types developing cilia in the worm, the ciliated sensory neurons (CSNs), still differentiate. Comparisons between the two populations revealed 881 differentially regulated genes with greater than a 1.5-fold increase or decrease in expression. A subset of these was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Transgenic worms expressing transcriptional GFP fusions revealed CSN-specific expression patterns for 11 of 14 candidate genes. We show that two uncharacterized candidate genes, termed dyf-17 and dyf-18 because their corresponding mutants display dye-filling (Dyf) defects, are important for ciliogenesis. DYF-17 localizes at the base of cilia and is specifically required for building the distal segment of sensory cilia. DYF-18 is an evolutionarily conserved CDK7/CCRK/LF2p-related serine/threonine kinase that is necessary for the proper function of intraflagellar transport, a process critical for cilium biogenesis. Together, our microarray study identifies targets of the evolutionarily conserved RFX transcription factor, DAF-19, providing a rich dataset from which to uncover-in addition to DYF-17 and DYF-18-cellular components important for cilium formation and function. PMID:21740898

  10. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M;

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters to be...

  11. Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinnie, John M. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document, with its sister documents, International Space Station (ISS) Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT STD-1150), and ISS to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase.

  12. An Overview of Airworthiness Requirements for Transport Category Airplanes to Prevent Widespread Fatigue Damage%运输类飞机防止广布疲劳损伤的适航要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚智; 李强; 沈培良

    2011-01-01

    Significant changes have arisen recently in FAA standards for the continued airworthiness and operations of transport category airplanes, which brings new challenge to the developing large Chinese airliner applying for type certification. The background of widespread fatigue damage (WFD) requirements in airworthiness regulation for transport category airplanes metallic structures are introduced and the procedure of the WFD assessment for the new type designs and the determination of their operational limits, inspection thresholds and maintenance tasks are described. The author is also sharing his understanding to the WFD concept and the relationship between WFD evaluation and fatigue/damage tolerance evaluation. Suggestions are put forward to enhance the research of the testing and analytical means as well as the engineering development for the WFD evaluation, in order to provide evidence and basis for the large civil aircraft design demonstrating compliance to applicable regulations.%近年来,运输类飞机适航条例围绕飞机的持续适航和使用要求发生了许多重要改变,给我国发展中的大型客机的适航审定带来新的课题。为此,本文首先介绍了适航条例关于运输类飞机金属结构广布疲劳损伤(WFD)要求的演变背景;然后,根据适航条例的最新修正案和咨询通报最新要求,阐述了新设计飞机的WFD评定、使用限制、检查门槛值和维修措施的制定步骤,并且提出了对WFD的概念及WFD评定与疲劳/损伤容限评定的关系的理解和思考,建议国内加强WFD评定的学术和工程发展研究,为大型客机设计和适航符合性验证提供依据。

  13. Transport quality management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, the progression of IAEA Regulation revisions has always resulted in changes mainly for the better, in the way spent fuel is transported. The more recent regulatory changes have had a more pronounced effect on the way Nuclear Transport Limited (NTL) transports spent fuel. A Transport Management System has been established which not only ensures the Regulations and Package Approval requirements are met but also demonstrates that they are complied with. The system provides documented procedures for all levels of management. They cover a wide range of disciplines from the simplest of transport administration tasks to the more complex business of transport scheduling, reactor site operations and maintenance of packagings and associated equipment. NTL's Transport Management System is self regulatory. The clearly defined boundaries of responsibilities of the personnel carrying out documented procedures ensures non-conformities are minimised. When non-conformities do arise corrective actions are put into the system to prevent recurrence. The benefits of a formal Quality Management System are easily quantified. NTL have recognised the increased efficiency in spent fuel transport activities and the snowball effect it has had on other bodies. For example, approved suppliers have responded favourably to demands for better quality and Competent Authorities have expressed satisfaction after completing their compliance checks. (author)

  14. Overview of radionuclides transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been recognition of radioactivity levels and the fate of radionuclides that could have modified the biogeochemical cycles in the ecological environment. These modifications can disturb a variety of the ecosystems on which human life depends. It is essential to understand the pathways of radionuclides that are transported and deposited in the atmosphere and in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems related to their impacts on human life. This paper is mainly focused on the transport in the atmospheric part. Various physical processes that control the transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere are reviewed. The transport processes used in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, as well as underground are briefly described. For the purpose of demonstration, dose calculations due to the exposures of radionuclides, and the numerical model simulations of transport of 210Pb particles and dust aerosols in the atmosphere are presented. Each transport process is complex. More sampling data are needed to refine the transport models for assessing and predicting the fate of radionuclides and their impacts on ecosystems. Long-lived radionuclides are remained in the atmosphere and can be transported in a long distance over wider areas. Although a numerical model can handle complex transport processes, a Gaussian model offers an attraction for ease and quickness of interpretation of exposures to radionuclides during emergency. Radionuclides entering the atmosphere go through the transfer process from air to soil, soil to plants, and plants to animals. The transfer is a long-term process. Therefore, a longer-term study of environmental sampling of radionuclides is required to accurately assess the transport processes and long-term impacts on health and ecosystems. Also, it should get involving in a study of modeling transport of radionuclides over urban area having various heights and sizes of buildings, i.e., skyscrapers with high population, in the case of an event occurring

  15. Robotic transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lob, W S

    1990-09-01

    Mobile robots perform fetch-and-carry tasks autonomously. An intelligent, sensor-equipped mobile robot does not require dedicated pathways or extensive facility modification. In the hospital, mobile robots can be used to carry specimens, pharmaceuticals, meals, etc. between supply centers, patient areas, and laboratories. The HelpMate (Transitions Research Corp.) mobile robot was developed specifically for hospital environments. To reach a desired destination, Help-Mate navigates with an on-board computer that continuously polls a suite of sensors, matches the sensor data against a pre-programmed map of the environment, and issues drive commands and path corrections. A sender operates the robot with a user-friendly menu that prompts for payload insertion and desired destination(s). Upon arrival at its selected destination, the robot prompts the recipient for a security code or physical key and awaits acknowledgement of payload removal. In the future, the integration of HelpMate with robot manipulators, test equipment, and central institutional information systems will open new applications in more localized areas and should help overcome difficulties in filling transport staff positions. PMID:2208684

  16. Eligibility Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Donating Blood > Eligibility Requirements Printable Version Eligibility Requirements This page uses Javascript. Your browser either doesn' ... donors » Weigh at least 110 lbs. Additional weight requirements apply for donors 18-years-old and younger ...

  17. E-learning for Transport Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this course we will look at how to ensure nuclear and radioactive material is transported safely and securely through the following topics: Objectives of transport security; International and national requirements, recommendations and guidance; Background of safety regulations; Basic principles and fundamentals; Application of security functions; Transport security technologies; Transport security plans, readiness reviews and corrective actions

  18. 45 CFR 1310.23 - Coordinated transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coordinated transportation. 1310.23 Section 1310... START PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Special Requirements § 1310.23 Coordinated transportation. (a) Each agency providing transportation services must make reasonable efforts to coordinate...

  19. 49 CFR 176.89 - Control of transport vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of transport vehicles. 176.89 Section 176... Special Requirements for Transport Vehicles Loaded With Hazardous Materials and Transported on Board Ferry Vessels § 176.89 Control of transport vehicles. (a) A transport vehicle containing hazardous materials...

  20. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2...

  1. Quality Assurance Plan for Transportation Management Division Transportation Training Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) implemented new rules requiring minimum levels of training for certain key individuals who handle, package, transport, or otherwise prepare hazardous materials for transportation. In response to these rules, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Transportation Management Division (TMD), has developed a transportation safety training program. This program supplies designed instructional methodology and course materials to provide basic levels of DOT training to personnel for whom training has become mandatory. In addition, this program provides advanced hazardous waste and radioactive material packaging and transportation training to help personnel achieve proficiency and/or certification as hazardous waste and radioactive material shippers. This training program does not include site-specific or task-specific training beyond DOT requirements

  2. Maritime Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Veenstra, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    This important volume brings together an authoritative selection of the leading papers on the subject of maritime transport. With a new introductory essay by the editors, the collection provides a thorough examination of the topics associated with this area, including maritime economics, transport law and policy.

  3. School Transportation: Administrator's Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Pupil transportation is an essential part of the overall school program, which requires constant supervision and direction. Perhaps no other phase of the school program is more closely observed by the public or has a greater tendency to mold public opinion about the schools than the school bus system. The success of any school district pupil…

  4. Neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliographical note presents a reference book which addresses the study of neutron transport in matter, the study of conditions for a chain reaction and the study of modifications of matter composition due to nuclear reactions. This book presents the main nuclear data, their measurement, assessment and processing, and the spallation. It proposes an overview of methods applied for the study of neutron transport: basic equations and their derived forms, deterministic methods and Monte Carlo method of resolution of the Boltzmann equation, methods of resolution of generalized Bateman equations, methods of time resolution of space kinetics coupled equations. It presents the main calculation codes, discusses the qualification and experimental aspects, and gives an overview of neutron transport applications: neutron transport calculation of reactors, neutron transport coupled with other disciplines, physics of fuel cycle, criticality

  5. Spent fuel integrity during transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, C.W.; Jacobson, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    The conditions of recent shipments of light water reactor spent fuel were surveyed. The radioactivity level of cask coolant was examined in an attempt to find the effects of transportation on LWR fuel assemblies. Discussion included potential cladding integrity loss mechanisms, canning requirements, changes of radioactivity levels, and comparison of transportation in wet or dry media. Although integrity loss or degradation has not been identified, radioactivity levels usually increase during transportation, especially for leaking assemblies.

  6. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Scott, John

    2004-01-01

    A discomforting reality has materialized on the transportation scene: our existing air and ground infrastructures will not scale to meet our nation's 21st century demands and expectations for mobility, commerce, safety, and security. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity in the 21st century. Clearly, new thinking is required for transportation that can scale to meet to the realities of a networked, knowledge-based economy in which the value of time is a new coin of the realm. This paper proposes a framework, or topology, for thinking about the problem of scalability of the system of networks that comprise the aviation system. This framework highlights the role of integrated communication-navigation-surveillance systems in enabling scalability of future air transportation networks. Scalability, in this vein, is a goal of the recently formed Joint Planning and Development Office for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. New foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation are underpinned by several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems. Complexity science and modern network theory give rise to one of the technological developments of importance. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of scalability, efficiency, robustness, resilience, and other metrics. The paper offers an air transportation system topology as framework for transportation system innovation. Successful outcomes of innovation in air transportation could lay the foundations for new paradigms for aircraft and their operating capabilities, air transportation system architectures, and airspace architectures and procedural concepts. The topology proposed considers air transportation as a system of networks, within which

  7. Changing the Cultural Paradigm to Meet Emerging Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, William W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews changes that are required in Space Transportation. This new transportation paradigm from the reliance on the Space Shuttle to a mixture of space transportation vehicles, i.e., the Russian Progress, vehicle, the Japanese HTV, the European ATV and other commercial orbital transportation systems, requires a new cultural paradigm. This new paradigm is outlined, and reviewed.

  8. Defense TRU waste transportation and receiving simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has recently conducted a simulation analysis to predict the transportation and waste handling equipment requirements for transporting government-owned transuranic waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Two interrelated models were developed. One estimates the time required to receive and unload shipping containers at the WIPP. The other model uses this estimate to predict the number of shipping containers and transporters that will be required

  9. Conceptual design for HIC transport package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd.(KHNP) is developing a HIC(High Integrity Container) transport package to transport a high integrity container from the radioactive waste treatment facility of the nuclear power plant to the interim storage building of radioactive waste. The transport package is designed according to the requirements of the Korean and the IAEA transport regulations for Type B package. The transport package provides containment, radiation shielding, structural integrity and passive heat removal for normal transport and hypothetical accident conditions. This paper describes the conceptual design for the HIC transport package

  10. Transporting Forensic Psychiatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dike, Charles C; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Young, John L

    2015-12-01

    Patients in a forensic psychiatric facility often require escorted transport to medical facilities for investigations or treatments of physical health ailments. Transporting these patients presents significant safety and custody challenges because of the nature of patients housed in forensic psychiatric facilities. A significant proportion of these patients may be transfers from the Department of Corrections (DOC) under legal mandates for psychiatric evaluation and treatment better provided in a hospital setting, and most of them will return to the DOC. Although departments of correction have protocols for escorting these potentially dangerous individuals, it is unclear whether receiving psychiatric hospitals have established procedures for maintaining the safety of others and custody of these individuals during transportation outside the hospital facility. The literature is sparse on precautions to be observed when transporting dangerous forensic psychiatric patients, including those with high escape risk. In this article, we describe one forensic inpatient facility's procedure for determining the appropriate level needed to transport these individuals outside of the forensic facility. We also describe the risk assessment procedure for determining level of transport. These are quality improvement measures resulting from a critical review of an incident of escape from the forensic facility several years ago. PMID:26668224

  11. Transport service

    CERN Document Server

    C. Cerruti / FI

    2006-01-01

    A large number of pallet-crates (panières grillagées), which are used for transporting equipment and for removals, have been dispatched to various locations around the CERN site. We kindly request all users who may have such crates in their possession and no longer need them to make the necessary arrangements (EDH request to the Transport Group) to return them to Building 133, as we currently have no more in stock. Claude CERRUTI / FI-PI

  12. Public transport

    OpenAIRE

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Public transport plays an essential role in enabling people from low income and other disadvantaged groups to access employment and services. It also contributes to the development of social networks and social capital, by helping people to visit friends and relatives and take part in community and other social activities. Public policy makers have begun to recognise that adequate public transport provision can play an important role in reducing social exclusion. [Taken from introductory p...

  13. RF transport

    OpenAIRE

    Choroba, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the techniques of transport of high-power radiofrequency (RF) power from a RF power source to the cavities of an accelerator. Since the theory of electromagnetic waves in waveguides and of waveguide components is very well explained in a number of excellent text books it will limit itself on special waveguide distributions and on a number of, although not complete list of, special problems which sometimes occur in RF power transportation systems.

  14. Onsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the onsite transportation of hazardous material at the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A and provides the technical basis for the emergency classification and response procedures. A distinction is made between onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness and onsite for the purpose of applying US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness is considered to be within the physical boundary of the entire Hanford Site. Onsite for the purpose of applying DOT regulations is north of the Wye Barricade

  15. Transport Safety Performance Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    WEGMAN, F.; Brouwer, M.; CAUZARD, J.P; Elvik, R.; MACHATA, K.; Makinen, T.; STENBORG, L.; Yannis, G.

    2001-01-01

    Transport safety is a key priority in the Common Transport Policy and a high level of protection for EU citizens in all harmonisation activity is required by the Treaty. Policymakers and managers aiming for a higher level of safety need to take an interest in as many of the factors influencing safety as possible and, at least, those factors they are able to affect or control. Safety performance indicators provide a means by which policymakers can ensure that their actions are as effective as ...

  16. Single-particle tracking uncovers dynamics of glutamate-induced retrograde transport of NF-κB p65 in living neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widera, Darius; Klenke, Christin; Nair, Deepak; Heidbreder, Meike; Malkusch, Sebastian; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Choquet, Daniel; Kaltschmidt, Barbara; Heilemann, Mike; Kaltschmidt, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Retrograde transport of NF-κB from the synapse to the nucleus in neurons is mediated by the dynein/dynactin motor complex and can be triggered by synaptic activation. The caliber of axons is highly variable ranging down to 100 nm, aggravating the investigation of transport processes in neurites of living neurons using conventional light microscopy. We quantified for the first time the transport of the NF-κB subunit p65 using high-density single-particle tracking in combination with photoactivatable fluorescent proteins in living mouse hippocampal neurons. We detected an increase of the mean diffusion coefficient ([Formula: see text]) in neurites from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] after stimulation with glutamate. We further observed that the relative amount of retrogradely transported p65 molecules is increased after stimulation. Glutamate treatment resulted in an increase of the mean retrograde velocity from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text], whereas a velocity increase from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] was observed for anterogradely transported p65. This study demonstrates for the first time that glutamate stimulation leads to an increased mobility of single NF-κB p65 molecules in neurites of living hippocampal neurons. PMID:27226975

  17. 49 CFR 569.7 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 569.7 Section 569.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... examination of the tire either mounted on the rim, or dismounted, whichever is applicable: (A) Cracking...

  18. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2013-01-09

    The interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to analyze stochastic processes within complex environments. Broadly speaking, there are two basic mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, and can be direction specific, allowing biomolecules to be transported long distances; this is particularly important in neurons due to their complex geometry. In this review a wide range of analytical methods and models of intracellular transport is presented. In the case of diffusive transport, narrow escape problems, diffusion to a small target, confined and single-file diffusion, homogenization theory, and fractional diffusion are considered. In the case of active transport, Brownian ratchets, random walk models, exclusion processes, random intermittent search processes, quasi-steady-state reduction methods, and mean-field approximations are considered. Applications include receptor trafficking, axonal transport, membrane diffusion, nuclear transport, protein-DNA interactions, virus trafficking, and the self-organization of subcellular structures. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  19. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Robert E. [Downstream Alternatives, Inc., South Bend, IN (United States)

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  20. Initiatives in transport cask licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variations in research reactor fuel form, configuration, irradiation characteristics, and transport cask have required a substantial number of transport cask licensing actions associated with foreign research reactor spent fuel transportation. When compounded by limited time for shipment preparations, due to contract timing or delayed receipt of technical data, the number and timing of certifications has adversely impacted the ability of regulatory agencies to support intended shipping schedules. This issue was brought into focus at a april, 1998 meeting among DOE, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and DOE's spent fuel transportation contractors. (author)

  1. Initiatives in transport cask license

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, John [NAC International, Aiken, SC (United States). Foreign Research Reactor Liaison]. E-mail: nacaiken@aol.com

    1998-07-01

    The variations in research reactor fuel form, configuration, irradiation characteristics, and transport cask have required a substantial number of transport cask licensing actions associated with foreign research reactor spent fuel transportation. When compounded by limited time for shipment preparations, due to contract timing or delayed receipt of technical data, the number and timing of certifications has adversely impacted the ability of regulatory agencies to support intended shipping schedules. This issue was brought into focus at a april, 1998 meeting among DOE, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and DOE's spent fuel transportation contractors. (author)

  2. Software requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegers, Karl E

    2003-01-01

    Without formal, verifiable software requirements-and an effective system for managing them-the programs that developers think they've agreed to build often will not be the same products their customers are expecting. In SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS, Second Edition, requirements engineering authority Karl Wiegers amplifies the best practices presented in his original award-winning text?now a mainstay for anyone participating in the software development process. In this book, you'll discover effective techniques for managing the requirements engineering process all the way through the development cy

  3. AcuaIntrusion Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Boluda Botella, Nuria; Pedraza Berenguer, Ricardo; Gomis Yagües, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    El programa ACUAINTRUSION TRANSPORT permite modelizar procesos de transporte unidimensional en medios porosos. ACUAINTRUSION TRANSPORT permits to model one-dimensional transport processes in porous media.

  4. Power requirements for PHERB powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbakyah, J. S.; Atiq, W. H.; Salisa, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Boats are considered as favourite maritime transportation designed for recreation activities, fishing and surveillance purposes. However, in tropical developed countries, boats are employed for different applications such as passenger and goods transportation. In this paper, the power requirements for a proposed plug-in hybrid electric recreational boat (PHERB) powertrain is determined using a steady state velocity and the Kuala Terengganu river driving cycle according to the boat parameters, specifications and performance requirements. The boat power requirements can be used to size the main components for PHERB powertrain. The results obtained from this analysis are within reasonable range and satisfactory.

  5. Worldwide spent fuel transportation logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the worldwide transportation requirements for spent fuel. Included are estimates of numbers and types of shipments by mode and cask type for 1985 and the year 2000. In addition, projected capital and transportation costs are presented. For the year 1977 and prior years inclusive, there is a cumulative worldwide requirement for approximately 300 MTU of spent fuel storage at away-from-reactor (AFR) facilities. The cumulative requirements for years through 1985 are projected to be nearly 10,000 MTU, and for the years through 2000 the requirements are conservatively expected to exceed 60,000 MTU. These AFR requirements may be related directly to spent fuel transportation requirements. In total nearly 77,000 total cask shipments of spent fuel will be required between 1977 and 2000. These shipments will include truck, rail, and intermodal moves with many ocean and coastal water shipments. A limited number of shipments by air may also occur. The US fraction of these is expected to include 39,000 truck shipments and 14,000 rail shipments. European shipments to regional facilities are expected to be primarily by rail or water mode and are projected to account for 16,000 moves. Pacific basin shipments will account for 4500 moves. The remaining are from other regions. Over 400 casks will be needed to meet the transportation demands. Capital investment is expected to reach $800,000,000 in 1977 dollars. Cumulative transport costs will be a staggering $4.4 billion dollars

  6. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  7. Sustainable Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    I assume we’ll want to sustain any mode of transport only if we judge it to be effective and desirable, and of course, only if we think we can afford to sustain it. Over time, we’ve abandoned any number of modes that failed those tests — horsecars, trolleycars, and pullmancars, among others; and we’ve kept those that passed the tests — most notably motorcars, airplanes, and ships. In retrospect, it seems we’ve been pretty draconian in rejecting transport modes that have failed in the market p...

  8. Transport Technologies and Policy Scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    As part of the major WEC study on Scenarios to 2050, a specific investigation was undertaken on measures required in the transport sector to secure sustainable energy and sustainable mobility in the future. This report outlines the results conducted by a study group of international WEC transport experts and gives concrete policy recommendations to develop sustainable transport systems.

  9. Managing Transportation Infrastructure for Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akinyemi, Edward O.; Zuidgeest, Mark H.P.

    2002-01-01

    Major requirements for operationalization of the concept of sustainable development in urban transportation infrastructure operations management are presented. In addition, it is shown that the current approach to management is incompatible with the requirements for sustainable urban development. Co

  10. Comparative analyses of spent nuclear fuel transport modal options: Transport options under existing site constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The movement of nuclear waste can be accomplished by various transport modal options involving different types of vehicles, transport casks, transport routes, and intermediate intermodal transfer facilities. A series of systems studies are required to evaluate modal/intermodal spent fuel transportation options in a consistent fashion. This report provides total life-cycle cost and life-cycle dose estimates for a series of transport modal options under existing site constraints. 14 refs., 7 figs., 28 tabs

  11. Bioreactor Mass Transport Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleis, Stanley J.; Begley, Cynthia M.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the proposed research efforts were to develop both a simulation tool and a series of experiments to provide a quantitative assessment of mass transport in the NASA rotating wall perfused vessel (RWPV) bioreactor to be flown on EDU#2. This effort consisted of a literature review of bioreactor mass transport studies, the extension of an existing scalar transport computer simulation to include production and utilization of the scalar, and the evaluation of experimental techniques for determining mass transport in these vessels. Since mass transport at the cell surface is determined primarily by the relative motion of the cell assemblage and the surrounding fluid, a detailed assessment of the relative motion was conducted. Results of the simulations of the motion of spheres in the RWPV under microgravity conditions are compared with flight data from EDU#1 flown on STS-70. The mass transport across the cell membrane depends upon the environment, the cell type, and the biological state of the cell. Results from a literature review of cell requirements of several scalars are presented. As a first approximation, a model with a uniform spatial distribution of utilization or production was developed and results from these simulations are presented. There were two candidate processes considered for the experimental mass transport evaluations. The first was to measure the dissolution rate of solid or gel beads. The second was to measure the induced fluorescence of beads as a stimulant (for example hydrogen peroxide) is infused into the vessel. Either technique would use video taped images of the process for recording the quantitative results. Results of preliminary tests of these techniques are discussed.

  12. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else

    2007-01-01

    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  13. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar;

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  14. Transport modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.E. Waltz

    2007-01-01

    @@ There has been remarkable progress during the past decade in understanding and modeling turbulent transport in tokamaks. With some exceptions the progress is derived from the huge increases in computational power and the ability to simulate tokamak turbulence with ever more fundamental and physically realistic dynamical equations, e.g.

  15. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  16. 49 CFR 383.111 - Required knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations. Driver-related elements of the regulations contained in 49 CFR parts 382, 391, 392, 393, 395, 396... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required knowledge. 383.111 Section 383.111... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.111 Required knowledge....

  17. 49 CFR 383.113 - Required skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required skills. 383.113 Section 383.113... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Required Knowledge and Skills § 383.113 Required skills. (a) Basic vehicle control skills. All applicants for a CDL must possess and demonstrate basic motor vehicle...

  18. Predicting water transport in multilayer coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baukh, V.; Huinink, H.P.; Adan, O.C.G.; Erich, S.J.F.; Ven, L.G.J. van der

    2012-01-01

    Water transport in polymer coatings is a key process in their failure. Mostly, such systems are composed of multiple layers to meet the required specifications. Understanding water transport requires a model that relates the kinetics with the properties of the layers. In this article a theoretical m

  19. Arl5b is a Golgi-localised small G protein involved in the regulation of retrograde transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Fiona J; Bellingham, Shayne A; Hill, Andrew F; Bourges, Dorothée; Ang, Desmond K Y; Gemetzis, Timothy; Gasnereau, Isabelle; Gleeson, Paul A

    2012-03-10

    Regulation of membrane transport is controlled by small G proteins, which include members of the Rab and Arf families. Whereas the role of the classic Arf family members are well characterized, many of the Arf-like proteins (Arls) remain poorly defined. Here we show that Arl5a and Arl5b are localised to the trans-Golgi in mammalian cells, and furthermore have identified a role for Arl5b in the regulation of retrograde membrane transport from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). The constitutively active Arl5b (Q70L)-GFP mutant was localised efficiently to the Golgi in HeLa cells whereas the dominant-negative Arl5b (T30N)-GFP mutant was dispersed throughout the cytoplasm and resulted in perturbation of the Golgi apparatus. Stable HeLa cells expressing GFP-tagged Arl5b (Q70L) showed an increased rate of endosome-to-Golgi transport of the membrane cargo TGN38 compared with control HeLa cells. Depletion of Arl5b by RNAi resulted in an alteration in the intracellular distribution of mannose-6-phosphate receptor, and significantly reduced the endosome-to-TGN transport of the membrane cargo TGN38 and of Shiga toxin, but had no affect on the anterograde transport of the cargo E-cadherin. Collectively these results suggest that Arl5b is a TGN-localised small G protein that plays a key role in regulating transport along the endosome-TGN pathway. PMID:22245584

  20. Radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of radionuclides to biota is discussed especially with reference to specific elements in local soils. Two annual plant species have received concentrated study. These are cheatgrass and tumbleweed, both important inhabitants of waste burial sites. Little is known concerning the radionuclide dynamics of perennial grasses, forbs, or shrub species. The potential for radionuclide transport by jackrabbits, waterfowl, small mammals, and biota inhabiting pond systems is discussed. Concentration ratios are tabulated

  1. Copper transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats. PMID:9587137

  2. The genetics of axonal transport and axonal transport disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E Duncan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurons are specialized cells with a complex architecture that includes elaborate dendritic branches and a long, narrow axon that extends from the cell body to the synaptic terminal. The organized transport of essential biological materials throughout the neuron is required to support its growth, function, and viability. In this review, we focus on insights that have emerged from the genetic analysis of long-distance axonal transport between the cell body and the synaptic terminal. We also discuss recent genetic evidence that supports the hypothesis that disruptions in axonal transport may cause or dramatically contribute to neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Transportation 2000. Spent fuel transportation trends in the new millenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper will provide a comparison of foreign research reactor spent fuel transportation today verses the assumptions used by the Department of Energy in the Environmental Impact Statement. In addition, it will suggest changes that are likely to occur in transportation logistics through the remainder of the U.S. spent fuel returns program. Cask availability, certification status, shipment strategy, cost issues, and public acceptance are among the topical areas that will be examined. Transportation requirements will be assessed in light of current participation in the returns program and the tendency for shipment plans to shift toward spent fuel return toward the end of the 13 year period of eligibility. (author)

  4. APC binds the Miro/Milton motor complex to stimulate transport of mitochondria to the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kate M; Brocardo, Mariana G; Henderson, Beric R

    2016-02-01

    Mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) disrupt regulation of Wnt signaling, mitosis, and the cytoskeleton. We describe a new role for APC in the transport of mitochondria. Silencing of wild-type APC by small interfering RNA caused mitochondria to redistribute from the cell periphery to the perinuclear region. We identified novel APC interactions with the mitochondrial kinesin-motor complex Miro/Milton that were mediated by the APC C-terminus. Truncating mutations in APC abolished its ability to bind Miro/Milton and reduced formation of the Miro/Milton complex, correlating with disrupted mitochondrial distribution in colorectal cancer cells that could be recovered by reconstitution of wild-type APC. Using proximity ligation assays, we identified endogenous APC-Miro/Milton complexes at mitochondria, and live-cell imaging showed that loss of APC slowed the frequency of anterograde mitochondrial transport to the membrane. We propose that APC helps drive mitochondria to the membrane to supply energy for cellular processes such as directed cell migration, a process disrupted by cancer mutations. PMID:26658612

  5. Transport security of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive material transport safety is highly regulated and the transport safety regulations have been in effect for decades. Transport security recommendations for many types of radioactive material have just been developed and are now being applied, and the potential impact on transport operations is significant. While the security measures and definition of high consequence radioactive material added to the United Nations Model Regulations for Transport of Dangerous Goods were recognized as a very positive step, the IAEA initiated a review of these provisions to ensure they were technically sound and consistent with other approaches used in nuclear and radioactive material security. Several significant steps have been taken in further defining appropriate security measures to apply during transport and these are reflected in the IAEA guide 'Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material'. These measures can be adopted by countries and international transport modal organizations to provide a consistent approach in security requirements for these materials. However, there is still much to be accomplished before transport security is on par with transport safety. This poster briefly describes the implementation of the IAEA security recommendations. The poster will also present information on the training course 'Security in Transport of Radioactive Material' that has been given at a number of occasions in different parts of the world. This training course, developed cooperatively by the IAEA, the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration and The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), is based on the guidance and is intended to educate Member States in how to apply the Recommendations. The poster also will present information on transport security upgrade assistance programs that are now getting started. (author)

  6. TRANSPORT OUT OF THE GREENHOUSE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    prevent a similar development lock-in that precludes unsustainable mobility patterns. What are possible policy pathways and appropriate institutional frameworks for achieving transitions towards low carbon transport in industrialized countries, and to avoid repeating the failures in developing ones?...... transport have been analysed, but few have been implemented. Within industrialized countries there is a history of infrastructure development focused on individual motorized transport. Changing this requires long term investments, and changes to mobility patterns. For developing countries it is important to......Transport emissions are growing, while climate targets are getting stricter: the gap is closing. We are rapidly approaching a future where transport could occupy or even exceed all of the ‘allowed’ CO2 emissions, if measures are not taken. Many potential climate policies and strategies for...

  7. Functional Analysis of Arabidopsis Sucrose Transporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Ward

    2009-03-31

    Sucrose is the main photosynthetic product that is transported in the vasculature of plants. The long-distance transport of carbohydrates is required to support the growth and development of net-importing (sink) tissues such as fruit, seeds and roots. This project is focused on understanding the transport mechanism sucrose transporters (SUTs). These are proton-coupled sucrose uptake transporters (membrane proteins) that are required for transport of sucrose in the vasculature and uptake into sink tissues. The accomplishments of this project included: 1) the first analysis of substrate specificity for any SUT. This was accomplished using electrophysiology to analyze AtSUC2, a sucrose transporter from companion cells in Arabidopsis. 2) the first analysis of the transport activity for a monocot SUT. The transport kinetics and substrate specificity of HvSUT1 from barley were studied. 3) the first analysis of a sucrose transporter from sugarcane. and 4) the first analysis of transport activity of a sugar alcohol transporter homolog from plants, AtPLT5. During this period four primary research papers, funded directly by the project, were published in refereed journals. The characterization of several sucrose transporters was essential for the current effort in the analysis of structure/function for this gene family. In particular, the demonstration of strong differences in substrate specificity between type I and II SUTs was important to identify targets for site-directed mutagenesis.

  8. Transportation System Concept of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Slater-Thompson

    2006-08-16

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, authorized the DOE to develop and manage a Federal system for the disposal of SNF and HLW. OCRWM was created to manage acceptance and disposal of SNF and HLW in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. This responsibility includes managing the transportation of SNF and HLW from origin sites to the Repository for disposal. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is the core high-level OCRWM document written to describe the Transportation System integrated design and present the vision, mission, and goals for Transportation System operations. By defining the functions, processes, and critical interfaces of this system early in the system development phase, programmatic risks are minimized, system costs are contained, and system operations are better managed, safer, and more secure. This document also facilitates discussions and understanding among parties responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Transportation System. Such understanding is important for the timely development of system requirements and identification of system interfaces. Information provided in the Transportation System Concept of Operations includes: the functions and key components of the Transportation System; system component interactions; flows of information within the system; the general operating sequences; and the internal and external factors affecting transportation operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations reflects OCRWM's overall waste management system policies and mission objectives, and as such provides a description of the preferred state of system operation. The description of general Transportation System operating functions in the Transportation System Concept of Operations is the first step in the OCRWM systems engineering process, establishing the starting point for the lower

  9. Nevada Transportation Options Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  10. Symmetric solid target transport system

    OpenAIRE

    Tomov, D.; Lawrence, L; Gaehle, G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The expansion of our PET isotope production with a new TR-19 cyclotron necessitated a suitable solid target transport system. None of the known existing and proposed solid target transport systems (STTS) was able to meet the technical and budget requirements of the MIR cyclotron facility [5]. A unique carrier design allowed us to develop a fully automated 50.8 mm inner diameter pneumatic tube STTS with an in-hot-cell compact form factor receiving station. The cyclotron or v...

  11. 不同剂量右美托咪定对妇科手术患者异丙酚顺行性遗忘作用的影响%Effects of different doses of dexmedetomidine on anterograde amnesia of propofol in patients undergoing gynecological surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 茅晓玉; 张卫

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价不同剂量右美托咪定对妇科手术患者异丙酚顺行性遗忘作用的影响.方法 择期行腹腔镜下全子宫切除术患者60例,年龄20~50岁,体重指数18 ~ 25 kg/m2,ASA分级Ⅰ或Ⅱ级,采用随机数字表法,将其分为3组(n=20):异丙酚组(C组)、低剂量右美托咪定复合异丙酚组(D1组)和高剂量右美托咪定复合异丙酚组(D2组).D1组和D2组分别经15 min静脉输注右美托咪定0.2、0.4 μg/kg.随后3组靶控输注异丙酚,初始血浆靶浓度(Cp)为0.5 μg/ml,依次递增至0.9、1.3、1.7、2.1 μg/ml,每一浓度维持3 min.分别于入室后(基础水平)、右美托咪定输注完毕、异丙酚Cp达0.5、0.9、1.3、1.7、2.1 μg/ml维持3 min时进行遗忘测试和警觉/镇静评分(OAA/S评分),计算遗忘率达95%时异丙酚Cp和BIS值,并记录该期间低血压、心动过缓、呼吸抑制和上呼吸道梗阻的发生情况.结果 与C组比较,D1组和D2组遗忘率升高,遗忘率达95%时异丙酚Cp和呼吸抑制发生率降低,BIS值升高(P<0.05),其他不良事件发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);与D1组比较,D2组遗忘率升高,遗忘率达95%时异丙酚Cp降低,BIS值升高(P<0.05),D1组和D2组不良事件发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 右美托咪定增强妇科手术患者异丙酚顺行性遗忘作用的适宜剂量为0.4 μg/kg.%Objective To evaluate the effects of different doses of dexmedetomidine on the anterograde amnesia of propofol in the patients undergoing gynecological surgery.Methods Sixty patients,aged 20-50 yr,with body mass index of 18-25 kg/m2,of ASA physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ,scheduled for elective laparoscopic total hysterectomy,were randomly divided into 3 groups (n =20 each) using a random number table:propofol group (group C),low-dose dexmedetomidine combined with propofol group (group D1) and high-dose dexmedetomidine combined with propofol group (group D2).Dexmedetomidine 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg were

  12. 咪达唑仑和丙泊酚靶控输注用于清醒镇静患者遗忘作用的比较分析%Comparative analysis of target-controlled infusion of midazolam and propofol on anterograde amnesia in sober calm patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冠同; 黄梅英; 陈新妹; 温清娴; 李金波; 吴开华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the difference of target-controlled infusion of midazolam and propofol on anterograde amnesia in sober calm patient.Methods One hundred and twenty patients underwent the epidural anesthesia for the abdomen or legs operation were randomly divided into observation group and control group,every group for 60 cases.Patient in control group were given target-controlled infusion of propofol,patient in observation group were given target-controlled infusion of midazolam.Calmness depth were assessed by OAA/S mark criterion.The changes of SBP,DBP,HR,RR,SpO2 in the different time were recorded.Results The SBP,DBP,HR,RR,SpO2 in the observation group were not changed,HR in the control group was increased after intravenous injection for 1-5 min(P < 0.05),return to onrmal after ten to twenty minutes; and the SBP,DBP,RR were not changed in the other time.The SpO2 was 95%-100%.The OAA/S mark was reduced from 4 to 2,calmness depth was gradually deepen,and the forgetting rate was gradually rising.Patients in 2-3 mark was 93.3% and 65.0%,the complete forgetting rate was 91.7% and 25.0%,the observation group was better than the control group (P <0.05).Conclusions Both of midazolam and propofol have anterograde amnesia effect,and the propofol presented the effects in deeper sedation,midazolam has rerograde amnesia effect in shallow calm.%目的 比较咪达唑仑和丙泊酚靶控输注用于清醒镇静患者遗忘作用的差异.方法 选择120例硬膜外麻醉下择期行腹部及下肢手术的患者,并随机分为观察组和对照组,每组60例,观察组靶控输注咪达唑仑,对照组靶控输注丙泊酚.用OAA/S评分标准评定镇静深度,并记录.记录用药后不同时间点的收缩压(SBP)、舒张压(DBP)、呼吸(HR)、心率(RR)、脉搏氧饱和度(SpO2)的变化.结果 观察组SBP、DBP、HR 、RR 、Sp02平稳,对照组静脉注射后l~5 min HR明显加快(P<0.05),10~20 min恢复;其余观察时

  13. Atomic transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As presented in the first chapter of this book, atomic transport properties govern a large panel of nuclear fuel properties, from its microstructure after fabrication to its behaviour under irradiation: grain growth, oxidation, fission product release, gas bubble nucleation. The modelling of the atomic transport properties is therefore the key to understanding and predicting the material behaviour under irradiation or in storage conditions. In particular, it is noteworthy that many modelling techniques within the so-called multi-scale modelling scheme of materials make use of atomic transport data as input parameters: activation energies of diffusion, diffusion coefficients, diffusion mechanisms, all of which are then required to be known accurately. Modelling approaches that are readily used or which could be used to determine atomic transport properties of nuclear materials are reviewed here. They comprise, on the one hand, static atomistic calculations, in which the migration mechanism is fixed and the corresponding migration energy barrier is calculated, and, on the other hand, molecular dynamics calculations and kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations, for which the time evolution of the system is explicitly calculated. (author)

  14. Radiation transport in numerical astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we discuss some of the numerical techniques developed by Jim Wilson and co-workers for the calculation of time-dependent radiation flow. Difference equations for multifrequency transport are given for both a discrete-angle representation of radiation transport and a Fick's law-like representation. These methods have the important property that they correctly describe both the streaming and diffusion limits of transport theory in problems where the mean free path divided by characteristic distances varies from much less than one to much greater than one. They are also stable for timesteps comparable to the changes in physical variables, rather than being limited by stability requirements

  15. 49 CFR 192.513 - Test requirements for plastic pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test requirements for plastic pipelines. 192.513 Section 192.513 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Test requirements for plastic pipelines. (a) Each segment of a plastic pipeline must be tested...

  16. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  17. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, BACKROUND FOR SHORT/ MEDIUM COURIER TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei POPA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Air Force requirements, the comparative analysis of short/medium transport aircraft comes to sustain procurement decision of short/medium transport aircraft. This paper presents, in short, the principles and the results of the comparative analysis for short/medium military transport aircraft.

  18. Radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing public concern over the potential hazards of transporting radioactive materials has led to a considerable body of state and local restrictions, including bans in certain jurisdictions. In spite of a good safety record and the acknowledged necessity of many of these shipments, restrictive enactments continue to proliferate. Users of radioactive materials contend that these restrictions impede shipments and contribute to rising costs while, on the other hand, state and local officials are concerned with the health and safety of their citizenry. A showdown between state and local safety interests and federal promoters of unencumbered interstate commerce will occur when the proposed US Department of Transportation (DOT) highway routing rules for the shipment of radioactive materials are implemented February 1, 1982. As proposed, these rules would preempt several restrictive state and local requirements

  19. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    , tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...

  20. 41 CFR 109-40.103-3 - International transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.1-General Provision § 109-40.103-3 International transportation. See 4 CFR 52.2 for a certificate required in nonuse of U.S. flag vessels or U.S... transportation. 109-40.103-3 Section 109-40.103-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  1. 41 CFR 50-204.75 - Transportation safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Transportation Safety § 50-204.75 Transportation safety. Any requirements of the U.S. Department of Transportation under 49 CFR Parts 171-179 and Parts 390-397 and 14 CFR Part 103 shall be applied to... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Transportation safety....

  2. 29 CFR 780.909 - “Transportation.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âTransportation.â 780.909 Section 780.909 Labor Regulations... Vegetable Harvest Transportation; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(16) Exempt Operations on Fruits Or Vegetables § 780.909 “Transportation.” “Transportation,” as used in section...

  3. 46 CFR 148.03-7 - During transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false During transport. 148.03-7 Section 148.03-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF SOLID HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN BULK Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.03-7 During transport. During the transport of...

  4. Tourism and the Problems of Developing Transport Infrastructure in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Natalija Tkachenko

    2011-01-01

    The main problems, associated with the development of a transport network in Ukraine and the need for complex evaluation of the interests of the states, seeking international cooperation in creating transport corridors for transporting tourists and determining the position of Ukraine in this cooperation, are considered. The main requirements to design of highways and transport infrastructure are defined. Article in Russian

  5. Transcriptional profiling of C. elegans DAF-19 uncovers a ciliary base-associated protein and a CDK/CCRK/LF2p-related kinase required for intraflagellar transport

    OpenAIRE

    Phirke, Prasad; Efimenko, Evgeni; Mohan, Swetha; Burghoorn, Jan; Crona, Filip; Bakhoum, Mathieu W.; Trieb, Maria; Schuske, Kim; Erik M. Jorgensen; Piasecki, Brian P.; Leroux, Michel R.; Swoboda, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Cilia are ubiquitous cell surface projections that mediate various sensory- and motility-based processes and are implicated in a growing number of multi-organ genetic disorders termed ciliopathies. To identify new components required for cilium biogenesis and function, we sought to further define and validate the transcriptional targets of DAF-19, the ciliogenic C. elegans RFX transcription factor. Transcriptional profiling of daf-19 mutants (which do not form cilia) and wild-type animals was...

  6. State and local government regulation of nuclear waste transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), authorizes the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to promulgate rules governing the safe transportation in commerce of hazardous materials, including nuclear waste. The HMTA further provides that any state or local government requirement is preempted and thus invalid if it is inconsistent with a DOT requirement issued pursuant to the HMTA

  7. 14 CFR 61.153 - Eligibility requirements: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.153 Eligibility requirements: General. To be eligible for an airline transport pilot certificate... International Civil Aviation; and (ii) Contains no geographical limitations. (e) Meet the...

  8. 48 CFR 1206.501 - Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement. 1206.501 Section 1206.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocates 1206.501 Requirement. The DOT Senior Competition Advocate...

  9. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  10. Engaging Undergraduate Students in Transportation Studies through Simulating Transportation for Realistic Engineering Education and Training (STREET)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Fu Liao; David Levinson; Henry Liu

    2008-01-01

    The practice of transportation engineering and planning has evolved substantially over the past several decades. A new paradigm for transportation engineering education is required to better engage students and deliver knowledge. Simulation tools have been used by transportation professionals to evaluate and analyze the potential impact of design or control strategy changes. Conveying complex transportation concepts can be effectively achieved by exploring them through simulation. Simulation ...

  11. Liquid facets-related (lqfR is required for egg chamber morphogenesis during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Leventis

    Full Text Available Clathrin interactor 1 [CLINT1] (also called enthoprotin/EpsinR is an Epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH domain-containing adaptor protein that functions in anterograde and retrograde clathrin-mediated trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the endosome. Removal of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologs, Ent3p and Ent5p, result in yeast that are viable, but that display a cold-sensitive growth phenotype and mistrafficking of various vacuolar proteins. Similarly, either knock-down or overexpression of vertebrate CLINT1 in cell culture causes mistrafficking of proteins. Here, we have characterized Drosophila CLINT1, liquid-facets Related (lqfR. LqfR is ubiquitously expressed throughout development and is localized to the Golgi and endosome. Strong hypomorphic mutants generated by imprecise P-element excision exhibit extra macrochaetae, rough eyes and are female sterile. Although essentially no eggs are laid, the ovaries do contain late-stage egg chambers that exhibit abnormal morphology. Germline clones reveal that LqfR expression in the somatic follicle cells is sufficient to rescue the oogenesis defects. Clones of mutant lqfR follicle cells have a decreased cell size consistent with a downregulation of Akt1. We find that while total Akt1 levels are increased there is also a significant decrease in activated phosphorylated Akt1. Taken together, these results show that LqfR function is required to regulate follicle cell size and signaling during Drosophila oogenesis.

  12. AIR TRANSPORTS – COMPONENT OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Loredana LĂPĂDUŞI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Air transports activity has known an important development caused by the economic increase, by Romania’s involvement in the international products trade, in international tourism. They are completed by the specific characteristics of air transports, which, together with the characteristics of the other ways of transport, has certain transport objectives with a higher and higher significance. Air traffic has a national commercial value and thus practices have been established in approaching national policies regarding: internal traffic protection through national air transporters, granting access to foreign transporters to national traffic in international transports.

  13. The BBSome controls IFT assembly and turnaround in cilia

    OpenAIRE

    WEI, QING; Zhang, Yuxia; Li, Yujie; Zhang, Qing; Ling, Kun; Hu, Jinghua

    2012-01-01

    The bidirectional movement of intraflagellar transport (IFT) particles, which are composed of motors, IFT-A and IFT-B subcomplexes, and cargos, is required for cilia biogenesis and signaling 1, 2 . A successful IFT cycle depends on the massive IFT particle to be properly assembled at the ciliary base and turned around from anterograde to retrograde transport at the ciliary tip. However, how IFT assembly and turnaround are regulated in vivo remains elusive. From a whole-genome mutagenesis scre...

  14. Transporters in plant sulfur metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Gigolashvili, Tamara; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur is an essential nutrient, necessary for synthesis of many metabolites. The uptake of sulfate, primary and secondary assimilation, the biosynthesis, storage, and final utilization of sulfur (S) containing compounds requires a lot of movement between organs, cells, and organelles. Efficient transport systems of S-containing compounds across the internal barriers or the plasma membrane and organellar membranes are therefore required. Here, we review a current state of knowledge of the tra...

  15. 49 CFR 1310.2 - Requirement to maintain tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement to maintain tariffs. 1310.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.2 Requirement to maintain tariffs. (a) Except when providing...

  16. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  17. 49 CFR 639.11 - Lease qualification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lease qualification requirements. 639.11 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Requirements § 639.11 Lease qualification requirements. (a) A lease may qualify for capital assistance if it meets the following criteria: (1)...

  18. The serotonin transporter: Examination of the changes in transporter affinity induced by ligand binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasmalemmal serotonin transporter uses transmembrane gradients of Na+, Cl- and K+ to accumulate serotonin within blood platelets. Transport is competitively inhibited by the antidepressant imipramine. Like serotonin transport, imipramine binding requires Na+. Unlike serotonin, however, imipramine does not appear to be transported. To gain insight into the mechanism of serotonin transport the author have analyzed the influences of Na+ and Cl-, the two ions cotransported with serotonin, on both serotonin transport and the interaction of imipramine and other antidepressant drugs with the plasmalemmal serotonin transporter of human platelets. Additionally, the author have synthesized, purified and characterized the binding of 2-iodoimipramine to the serotonin transporter. Finally, the author have conducted a preliminary study of the inhibition of serotonin transport and imipramine binding produced by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. My results reveal many instances of positive heterotropic cooperativity in ligand binding to the serotonin transporter. Na+ binding enhances the transporters affinity for imipramine and several other antidepressant drugs, and also increases the affinity for Cl-. Cl- enhances the transporters affinity for imipramine, as well as for Na+. At concentrations in the range of its KM for transport serotonin is a competitive inhibitor of imipramine binding. At much higher concentrations, however, serotonin also inhibits imipramines dissociation rate constant. This latter effect which is Na+-independent and species specific, is apparently produced by serotonin binding at a second, low affinity site on, or near, the transporter complex. Iodoimipramine competitively inhibit both [3H]imipramine binding and [3H]serotonin transport

  19. Multicolor bleach-rate imaging enlightens in vivo sterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Sage, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Elucidation of in vivo cholesterol transport and its aberrations in cardiovascular diseases requires suitable model organisms and the development of appropriate monitoring technology. We recently presented a new approach to visualize transport of the intrinsically fluorescent sterol, dehydroergos...

  20. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  1. MRS, transportation, integrated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In passing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the United States Congress initiated a systematic process for addressing the national problem of what to do with the growing inventory of high-level nuclear waste and spent fuel. In addition to requiring development of geologic repositories, the NWPA directed the Secretary of Energy to perform a detailed study of the need for, and the feasibility of, monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and to submit to Congress a proposal for construction of one or more MRS facilities. As a third element of the disposal system, the NWPA also directed the development of the transportation capability to ship the nuclear wastes from the points of origin (chiefly reactors at commercial power plants) to the facilities developed under the NWPA. The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the Department of Energy (DOE) was created to manage the overall disposal program. Within OCRWM, the Office of Storage and Transportation Systems (OSTS) is responsible for developing the mandated proposal for an MRS facility, establishing the transportation capability to support the disposal operation, and directing the integrated development of system components so that the entire waste system functions in an optimized way. This paper deals only peripherally with the DOE proposal for an MRS facility since an in-depth paper on that program will be delivered at a later session of this meeting. The primary focus of this discussion is the program that OCRWM is developing to ensure the availability of a safe, efficient transportation system for shipping under provisions of the NWPA

  2. Transport Efficiency Through Logistics Development Policy Study

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2012-01-01

    Logistics includes material flow, information flow, and financial flow between the point of supply and the point of consumption, with transport serving as its core. With the rapidly evolving economy of the People’s Republic of China, there is a need for a modern transport and logistics system that is efficient, safe, sustainable, and meets customers’ requirements. This policy brief describes the current state of transport and logistics development in the PRC. It provides policy recommendation...

  3. Interface area transport of monodispersed spherical particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chong H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-05

    We present an interface area transport model required in tracking of mass, momentum, and energy exchange between dispersed and background materials. The basic transport equation has been rigorously derived from the volume fraction evolution equation. Interface area changes due to mass transport and local compression/expansion are included. The model is then simplified for the case in which the dispersed phase is composed of spheres of locally uniform size. A procedure for calculating advective flux with interface reconstruction has been suggested.

  4. Effective Transport Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Roberto

    In this chapter we study a particular case of multiphase systems, namely two-phase materials in which one of the phases is randomly dispersed in the other, so that the composite can be viewed on a macroscale as an effective continuum, with well defined properties. In general, the theoretical determination of the parameter for an effective medium requires, as a rule, the solution of a corresponding transport problem at the microscale, which takes into account the morphology of the system and its evolution. As the mathematical problem is well-posed on a microscale, this can be accomplished using, for example, the multiple scale approach shown in Chap. 11 ; however, the task requires massive computations and is therefore difficult to implement from the practical standpoint. Here, instead, we focus on a deterministic approach to the problem, where the geometry and spatial configuration of the particles comprising the included phase are given and the solution to the microscale problem is therefore sought analytically. As examples, we study the effective thermal conductivity of solid reinforced materials (Sect. 10.1), the effective viscosity of non-colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.2), the effective permeability of porous materials (10.3) and the effective self- and gradient diffusivities of colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.4). Then, in Sect. 10.5, an alternative dynamic definition of the transport coefficients is considered, which can also serve as a basis to determine the effective properties of complex systems.

  5. ELECTROCHEMICAL POWER FOR TRANSPORTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, Elton J.; Hietbrink, Earl H.

    1981-01-01

    This section includes some historical background of the rise and fall and subsequent rebirth of the electric vehicle; and a brief discussion of current transportation needs, and environmental and energy utilization issues that resulted in the renewed interest in applying electrochemical energy conversion technology to electric vehicle applications. Although energy utilization has evolved to be the most significant and important issue, the environmental issue will be discussed first in this section only because of its chronological occurrence. The next part of the chapter is a review of passenger and commercial electric vehicle technology with emphasis on vehicle design and demonstrated performance of vehicles with candidate power sources being developed. This is followed by a discussion of electrochemical power source requirements associated with future electric vehicles that can play a role in meeting modern transportation needs. The last part of the chapter includes first a discussion of how to identify candidate electrochemical systems that might be of interest in meeting electric vehicle power source requirements. This is then followed by a review of the current technological status of these systems and a discussion of the most significant problems that must be resolved before each candidate system can be a viable power source.

  6. Functional genomics of intraflagellar transport-associated proteins in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Peter N; Blacque, Oliver E; Leroux, Michel R

    2009-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans presents numerous advantages for the identification and molecular analysis of intraflagellar transport (IFT)-associated proteins, which play a critical role in the formation of cilia. Many proteins were first described as participating in IFT in this organism, including IFTA-1 (IFT121), DYF-1 (fleer/IFT70), DYF-2 (IFT144), DYF-3 (Qilin), DYF-11 (MIP-T3/IFT54), DYF-13, XBX-1 (dynein light intermediate chain), XBX-2 (dynein light chain), CHE-13 (IFT57/HIPPI), orthologs of Bardet-Biedl syndrome proteins, and potential regulatory protein, IFTA-2 (RABL5/IFT22). Transgenic animals bearing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged proteins can be generated with ease, and in vivo imaging of IFT in both wild-type and cilia mutant strains can be performed quickly. The analyses permit detailed information on the localization and dynamic properties (velocities along the ciliary axoneme) of the relevant proteins, providing insights into their potential functions in processes such as anterograde and retrograde transport and cilium formation, as well as association with distinct modules of the IFT machinery (e.g., IFT subcomplexes A or B). Behavioral studies of the corresponding IFT-associated gene mutants further enable an understanding of the ciliary role of the proteins-e.g., in chemosensation, lipid homeostasis, lifespan control, and signaling-in a multicellular animal. In this chapter, we discuss how C. elegans can be used for the identification and characterization of IFT-associated proteins, focusing on methods for the generation of GFP-tagged IFT reporter strains, time-lapse microscopy, and IFT rate measurements. PMID:20409822

  7. Radioactive material accidents in the transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport is an important part of the worldwide nuclear industry and the safety record for nuclear transport across the world is excellent. The increase in the use of radioactive materials in our country requires that these materials be moved from production sites to the end user. Despite the number of packages transported, the number of incidents and accidents in which they are involved is low. In Brazil, do not be records of victims of the radiation as a result of the transport of radioactive materials and either due to the accidents happened during the transports. The absence of victims of the radiation as result of accidents during the transports is a highly significant fact, mainly to consider that annually approximately two hundred a thousand packages containing radioactive material are consigned for transport throughout the country, of which eighty a thousand are for a medical use. This is due to well-founded regulations developed by governmental and intergovernmental organizations and to the professionalism of those in the industry. In this paper, an overview is presented of the activities related to the transport of radioactive material in the state of Sao Paulo. The applicable legislation, the responsibilities and tasks of the competent authorities are discussed. The categories of radioactive materials transported and the packaging requirements for the safe transport of these radioactive materials are also described. It also presents the packages amounts of carried and the accidents occurred during the transport of radioactive materials, in the last five years. The main occurred events are argued, demonstrating that the demanded requirements of security for any transport of radioactive material are enough to guarantee the necessary control of ionizing radiation expositions to transport workers, members of general public and the environment. (author)

  8. Assessment of LANL transportation policies and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine whether activities related to the transportation of waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were being conducted in accordance with DOE policy, requirements stated in applicable DOE Orders were reviewed and compared with LANL policies and procedures described in the Administrative Requirements and the On-Site Transportation Manual. The following DOE Orders were determined to pertain to waste transportation and thus reviewed to identify requirements for which LANL is responsible for satisfying: Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management; Order 1540.1 Materials Transportation and Traffic Management; and Order 5480.3 Safety Requirements for the Packaging and Transportation of Hazardous Materials, Hazardous Substances, and Hazardous Wastes. The LANL On-Site Transportation Manual and the Administrative Requirements contained in the LANL Environment, Safety, and Health Manual were reviewed to verify that each of the requirements identified through the review of the Orders and 10 CFR Part 71 were being satisfied. The following Administrative Requirements were considered in this task: Shipment of Radioactive Materials; Radioactive Liquid Waste; Low-Level Radioactive Solid Waste; Chemical, Hazardous, and Mixed Waste; Polychlorinated Biphenyls; and Transuranic (TRU) Solid Waste

  9. Burning water: the water footprint of biofuel-based transport

    OpenAIRE

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The trend towards substitution of conventional transport fuels by biofuels requires additional water. The EU aims to replace 10 percent of total transport fuels by biofuels by 2020. This study calculates the water footprint (WF) of different transport modes using bio-ethanol, biodiesel or bio-electricity and of European transport if 10 percent of transport fuels is replaced by bio-ethanol. We compare results for Europe with similar goals for other regions (Africa, Asia, Latin America, the for...

  10. Transport regulations for radioactive materials in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials are taken as a basis for our national regulations to secure the safe transport of radioactive materials in Japan. The requirements for packaging and packages that are used to transport radioactive materials are based on the IAEA Regulations. Furthermore, in addition to the IAEA Regulations, the relative international regulations such as the IMDG code of IMO etc. are reviewed by our national authorities and applied to the conveyance such as the transport vehicle/vessel etc. that is used for the shipment. The transport system such as a transport caravan in Japan is intended to provide even greater safety during transport. The future activities to be discussed in the IAEA are how to adopt the IAEA Regulations to Member States as soon as possible and to evaluate the safety margin of the IAEA Regulations to the assumed accidents. (author)

  11. Towards low carbon transport in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    The ambitious target of 60% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 requires transformation of the transport system in Europe. Decarbonising transport calls for the use of less and cleaner energy, and more efficient use of modern transport infrastructure and services. These strategic targets in EU policy are supported by substantial investment in research to develop innovative and sustainable solutions in efficient use of transport infrastructure and services, more energy-efficient transport, and use of alternative fuels and propulsion systems. This Policy Brochure, which is produced by the Transport Research and Innovation Portal (TRIP), highlights the contribution of research and innovation in meeting the EU targets on CO2 emission reduction in the transport system.

  12. Safe transport of radioactive material. 3. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has developed a standardized approach to transport safety training as a means of helping Member States to implement the Transport Regulations. The training manual is an anchor of this standardized approach to training: it contains all the topics presented in the sequential order recommended by the IAEA for the student to gain a thorough understanding of the body of knowledge that is needed to ensure that radioactive material ranked as Class 7 in the United Nations' nomenclature for dangerous goods - is transported safely. The explanations in the text refer, where needed, to the appropriate requirements in the IAEA's Transport Regulations; additional useful information is also provided. Thus, the training manual in addition to the Transport Regulations and their supporting documents is used by the IAEA as the basis for delivering all of its training courses on the safe transport of radioactive material. Enclosed with the training manual is a CD-ROM that contains the text of the manual as well as the visual aids that are used at the IAEA's training courses. The following topics are covered: review of radioactivity and radiation; review of radiation protection principles; regulatory terminology; basic safety concepts: materials and packages; activity limits and material restrictions; selection of optimal package type; test procedures: material and packages; requirements for transport; control of material in transport; fissile material: regulatory requirements and operational aspects; quality assurance; national competent authority; additional regulatory constraints for transport; international liability and insurance; emergency planning and preparedness; training; services provided by the IAEA

  13. Safe transport of radioactive material [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delivering radioactive material to where it is needed is a vital service to industry and medicine. Millions of packages are shipped all over the world by all modes of transport. The shipments pass through public places and must meet stringent safety requirements. This video explains how radioactive material is safely transported and describes the rules that carriers and handlers must follow. (author)

  14. Technology evaluation for time sensitive data transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessing, Henrik; Breach, Tony; Colmenero, Alberto;

    . The NREN communities must provide underlying network infrastructures and transport technologies to facilitate ser-vices with such requirements to the network. In this paper we investigate and evaluate circuit and packet based transport technologies from classic best effort IP over MPLS flavours, Provider...

  15. The air transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory requirements and philosophy pertaining to the transport of radioactive materials are outlined. A study to determine the exposures arising from this transport is described and estimates of individual and collective doses for aircrews and passengers are given and reviewed. (author)

  16. Deforestation Trends in the Congo Basin : Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Megevand, Carole; Dulal, Hari; Braune, Loic; Wekhamp, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    The Congo Basin is among the most poorly served areas in terms of transport infrastructure in the world, and it faces a challenging environment with dense tropical forests crisscrossed by numerous rivers that require construction of numerous bridges. Given such complexities, constructing transport infrastructure as well as properly maintaining it is certainly a key challenge for the Congo ...

  17. Transportation and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banister, D.; Anderton, K.; Bonilla, D.; Givoni, M.; Schwanen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of CO2-intensive transport, mobility and the impact of transport on the environment are reviewed. The recent global exponential growth in transport is unsustainable and must end unless the transport sector can decarbonize. The paper examines solutions for low-carbon transport systems; the

  18. Next generation estrategic airlift military transport

    OpenAIRE

    CARSÍ DE LA CONCEPCIÓN, PAULA

    2016-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to design a next generation strategic airlift military transport for entry in 2030. The design must follow specific rules and specifications required by the AIAA Foundation Undergraduate Team Aircraft Design Competition.

  19. HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN SLOVAK TRANSPORT COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Farkašová, V.; Klieštik, T.

    2005-01-01

    The article deals with human resource management in a transport company. It shortly examines the following: quality management, the functions of human resources management and requirements to the human resources personnel.

  20. Transport processes of the legume symbiosome membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C Clarke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The symbiosome membrane (SM is a physical barrier between the host plant and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis, and represents a regulated interface for the movement of solutes between the symbionts that is under plant control. The primary nutrient exchange across the SM is the transport of a carbon energy source from plant to bacteroid in exchange for fixed nitrogen. At a biochemical level two channels have been implicated in movement of fixed nitrogen across the SM and a uniporter that transports monovalent dicarboxylate ions has been characterized that would transport fixed carbon. The aquaporin NOD26 may provide a channel for ammonia, but the genes encoding the other transporters have not been identified. Transport of several other solutes, including calcium and potassium, have been demonstrated in isolated symbiosomes, and genes encoding transport systems for the movement of iron, nitrate, sulfate and zinc in nodules have been identified. However, definitively matching transport activities with these genes has proved difficult and many further transport processes are expected on the SM to facilitate the movement of nutrients between the symbionts. Recently, work detailing the SM proteome in soybean has been completed, contributing significantly to the database of known SM proteins. This represents a valuable resource for the identification of transporter protein candidates, some of which may correspond to transport processes previously described, or to novel transport systems in the symbiosis. Putative transporters identified from the proteome include homologues of transporters of sulfate, calcium, peptides and various metal ions. Here we review current knowledge of transport processes of the SM and discuss the requirements for additional transport routes of other nutrients exchanged in the symbiosis, with a focus on transport systems identified through the soybean SM proteome.

  1. Financing the Air Transportation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    The basic characteristics of the air transportation industry are outlined and it is shown how they affect financing requirements and patterns of production. The choice of financial timing is imperative in order to get the best interest rates available and to insure a fair return to investors. The fact that the industry cannot store its products has a fairly major effect on the amount of equipment to purchase, the amount of capital investment required, and the amount of return required to offset industry depriciation.

  2. The National Neonatal Transport Programme (NNTP) 2004-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noone, D

    2011-09-01

    A retrospective analysis of all National Neonatal Transport Programme (NNTP) transport data from 2004-2009 was performed. 1621 transports were conducted during this period with a yearly average of 271. The majority (96%) were ground transports. 1118 (69%) were forward transfers. Of the 446 (27.5%) retrotransfers, 411 (91%.) were to tertiary centres. When transported, 592 infants (36.5%) were <48 hours old and 770 (47.5%) were <1 week old. 902 transports (55%) involved infants <32 wks birth-gestation and 720 (44%) involved infants weighing <1500gms. Transport for management of patent ductus arteriosus accounted for 357 (22%). The average mobilisation time was 34 minutes. 54% of transports were completed after scheduled service hours. The NNTP currently transports similar numbers of critically ill infants during its 8hr service compared with neonatal transport services that operate 24hr services. Performing PDA ligations in a tertiary neonatal unit would significantly reduce the number of neonatal transports required annually.

  3. Optimal transport on supply-demand networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yu-Han; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhao, Li-Chao; Zhou, Changsong; Zhou, Tao

    2009-01-01

    Previously, transport networks are usually treated as homogeneous networks, that is, every node has the same function, simultaneously providing and requiring resources. However, some real networks, such as power grid and supply chain networks, show a far different scenario in which the nodes are classified into two categories: the supply nodes provide some kinds of services, while the demand nodes require them. In this paper, we propose a general transport model for those supply-demand networ...

  4. HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation Live 27928, Test 27929

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation (Live 27928, suggested one time and associated Test 27929, required initially and every 36 months) addresses the Department of Transportation (DOT) function-specific training requirements of the hazardous materials packagings and transportation (HMPT) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) lab-wide training. This course addresses the requirements of the DOT that are unique to hazardous waste shipments. Appendix B provides the Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) reference material needed for this course.

  5. HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation Live 27928, Test 27929

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-17

    HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation (Live 27928, suggested one time and associated Test 27929, required initially and every 36 months) addresses the Department of Transportation (DOT) function-specific training requirements of the hazardous materials packagings and transportation (HMPT) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) lab-wide training. This course addresses the requirements of the DOT that are unique to hazardous waste shipments. Appendix B provides the Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) reference material needed for this course.

  6. Overview of nuclear materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation is an overview of transportation as it relates to one specific type of material, low specific activity (LSA) material. It is the predominant type of material that fits into the low-level waste category. An attempt is made to discuss how LSA is regulated, setting forth the requirements. First the general scheme of regulations are reviewed. In addition future changes in the regulations which will affect transportation of LSA materials and, which quite likely, will have an impact on R and D needs in this area are presented

  7. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam diagnostic components for both the transfer and the high-energy beamlines perform well except for some of the scanners whose noise pick-up has become a problem, especially at low beam intensities. This noise pick-up is primarily due to deterioration of the bearings in the scanner. At some locations in the high-energy beamlines, scanners were replaced by harps as the scanners proved to be practically useless for the low-intensity beams required in the experimental areas. The slits in the low-energy beamline, which are not water-cooled, have to be repaired at regular intervals because of vacuum leaks. Overheating causes the ceramic feedthroughs to deteriorate resulting in the vacuum leaks. Water-cooled slits have been ordered to replace the existing slits which will later be used in the beamlines associated with the second injector cyclotron SPC2. The current-measurement system will be slightly modified and should then be much more reliable. 3 figs

  8. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  9. Charge transport in organic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortmann, Frank

    2009-07-01

    The understanding of charge transport is one of the central goals in the research on semiconducting crystals. For organic crystals this is particularly complicated due to the strength of the electron-phonon interaction which requires the description of a seamless transition between the limiting cases of a coherent band-transport mechanism and incoherent hopping. In this thesis, charge transport phenomena in organic crystals are studied by theoretical means. A theory for charge transport in organic crystals is developed which covers the whole temperature range from low T, where it reproduces an expression from the Boltzmann equation for band transport, via elevated T, where it generalizes Holstein's small-polaron theory to finite bandwidths, up to high T, for which a temperature dependence equal to Marcus' electron-transfer theory is obtained. Thereby, coherent band transport and thermally induced hopping are treated on equal footing while simultaneously treating the electron-phonon interaction non-perturbatively. By avoiding the approximation of narrow polaron bands the theory allows for the description of large and small polarons and serves as a starting point for computational studies. The theoretical description is completed by using ab initio material parameters for the selected crystals under study. These material parameters are taken from density functional theory calculations for durene, naphthalene, and guanine crystals. Besides the analysis of the transport mechanism, special focus is put on the study of the relationship between mobility anisotropy and structure of the crystals. This study is supported by a 3D-visualization method for the transport channels in such crystals which has been derived in this thesis. (orig.)

  10. Clinical Observation of Midazolam's Sedative Effect and Anterograde Amnesia Effect on Gynecologic Surgery Patients Undergoing Spinal-Epidural Anesthesia%咪唑安定联合腰硬联合麻醉对妇科手术患者镇静和术后遗忘效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢锐捷; 刘少芬; 张松林; 房瑞林; 陈铭君; 莫坚

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the sedative effects and anterograde amnesia effect of midazolam intravenous injection used before combined spinal-epidural anesthesia on calming down the patients and their forgetting degree of procedure.Method:200 ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱpatients scheduled for gynecologic surgery under spinal-epidural anesthesia were included in the study.Patients were randomly assigned into two groups with 100 cases each.Group A used midazolam while Group B used 0.9% sodium as control.Group A used midazolam (0.lmg/kg) as intravenous injection 30 minutes before anesthesia while group B used 2ml 0.9% sodium as control.Record and compare the patients' sedative effect before operation began and the forgetting degree 24 hours after operation finished.Result:According to the Ramsay standard,the patients in group A have significant better sedative effect than group B since operation started (P<0.05).In group A the transient global amnesia rate of was 97% while the transient partial amnesia rate was 3%.Meanwhile,the transient global amnesia rate,the transient partial amnesia rate and the unforgotten rate were 68,25% and 7% in Group B separately.There was a significant difference between two groups (P<0.05).Conclusions:Midazolam (0.1mg/kg) as intravenous injection 30 minutes before anesthesia can reduce the patients' worries and horrors.It not only helps to keep patients sedative but also cooperate with anesthesia and controlling body position.It has good calm and amnesia effects on anesthesia and procedure.%目的:本文旨在观察咪唑安定联合腰硬联合麻醉对妇科手术患者术后镇痛遗忘效果.方法:将200例ASA Ⅰ~Ⅱ级腰硬联合麻醉下行妇科手术患者随机分为两组:咪唑安定组(A组)和对照组(B组).两组患者分别于麻醉前30分钟静脉注射咪唑安定0.1 mg/kg和0.9%生理盐水2mL.观察用药前后病人镇静情况,镇静分级,对麻醉和手术操作的遗忘程度和病人的心理状态.结果:根

  11. 49 CFR 377.103 - Tariff requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariff requirements. 377.103 Section 377.103... CHARGES Handling of C.O.D. Shipments § 377.103 Tariff requirements. No common carrier of property subject....d. service unless such carrier has published, posted and filed tariffs which contain the...

  12. 40 CFR 205.157 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 205.157 Section 205.157 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.157 Requirements....

  13. 14 CFR 21.613 - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recordkeeping requirements. 21.613 Section 21.613 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... requirements. (a) Keeping the records. Each manufacturer holding a TSO authorization under this part shall,...

  14. 49 CFR 630.4 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... from the National Transit Database Web site located at http://www.ntdprogram.gov. These reference... Transit Database Web site and a notice of any significant changes to the reporting requirements specified... TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.4 Requirements. (a) National Transit Database Reporting...

  15. 14 CFR 65.59 - Skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skill requirements. 65.59 Section 65.59 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.59 Skill requirements....

  16. 14 CFR 63.57 - Skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skill requirements. 63.57 Section 63.57 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Navigators § 63.57 Skill requirements. (a)...

  17. 14 CFR 63.39 - Skill requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Skill requirements. 63.39 Section 63.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.39 Skill requirements. (a)...

  18. 14 CFR 258.5 - Notice requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice requirement. 258.5 Section 258.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... are shown as requiring a change of aircraft. (b) Oral notice to prospective consumers. In any...

  19. 40 CFR 205.55 - Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 205.55 Section 205.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55 Requirements....

  20. 49 CFR 451.25 - Required information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required information. 451.25 Section 451.25....25 Required information. (a) The safety approval number appearing on line 1 of the safety approval... safety approval plate on the freight container provided that all the information contained on...

  1. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted

  2. Lunar Human Research Requirements (LHRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkins, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical research will be conducted during transit and on the surface of the Moon to prepare for extended stays on the Moon and to prepare for the exploration of Mars. The objective of the Human Research Program (HRP) is to preserve the health and enhance performance of astronaut explorers. Specific objectives of the HRP include developing the knowledge, capabilities, and necessary countermeasures and technologies in support of human space exploration; focusing on mitigating the highest risks to crew health and performance; and defining and improving human spaceflight medical, environmental, behavioral, and human factors standards. This document contains a detailed description of the resource accommodations, interfaces, and environments to be provided by the Constellation Program (CxP) to support the HRP research in transit and on the lunar surface. Covered, specifically, are the requirements for mass and volume transport; crew availability; ground operations, baseline data collection, and payload processing; power, and data. Volumes and mass are given for transport of conditioned samples only. They do not account for the engineering solution that the Constellation Program will implement (refrigerator/freezer volume/mass). This document does not account for requirements on the Orion vehicle for transportation to and from the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS Program has supplied requirements for this mission.

  3. 湖北交通运输“十二五”教育与培训发展形势与需求分析%Analysis on Education & Training Developing Trends and Requirements for Hubei Transportation "12th Five"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗星海

    2011-01-01

    "Give priority to education,vigorously develop vocational education,and accelerate the development of continuing education" proposed new requirements on education and training.Vocational education reform and development shows a new trend and the development of modern transport leads to a new challenge on the education and training,what's more,Hubei highway and waterway transport development has brought new opportunities for education and training.To adjust the transport structure,change the mode of development,adapt to rapid development and enhance job skills,build a harmonious transportation industry,set the industry image,enhance service capabilities,and also to achieve scientific development,it is essential to strengthen the training of qualified personnel,enhance industrial innovative ability,speed up professionals and high-quality skilled personnel training,and enhance the quality of industry labor force.%"优先发展教育、大力发展职业教育、加快发展继续教育"为教育与培训提出了新要求,职业教育改革与发展呈现出新趋势,发展现代交通运输业对教育与培训提出了新挑战,湖北公路水路交通运输发展为教育与培训带来了新机遇。调整运输结构,转变发展方式,适应快速发展,提高岗位技能,构建和谐交通,树立行业形象,提升服务能力,实现科学发展,需要强化干部人才队伍培养、加强行业创新能力培养、加快专业技术人才和高素质技能型专门人才培养、提升行业劳动者队伍素质。

  4. Optimal transport on supply-demand networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu-Han; Zhao, Li-Chao; Zhou, Changsong; Zhou, Tao

    2009-01-01

    Previously, transport networks are usually treated as homogeneous networks, that is, every node has the same function, simultaneously providing and requiring resources. However, some real networks, such as power grid and supply chain networks, show a far different scenario in which the nodes are classified into two categories: the supply nodes provide some kinds of services, while the demand nodes require them. In this paper, we propose a general transport model for those supply-demand networks, associated with a criterion to quantify their transport capacities. In a supply-demand network with heterogenous degree distribution, its transport capacity strongly depends on the locations of supply nodes. We therefore design a simulated annealing algorithm to find the optimal configuration of supply nodes, which remarkably enhances the transport capacity, and outperforms the degree target algorithm, the betweenness target algorithm, and the greedy method. This work provides a start point for systematically analyzin...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix II to Part 805 - Employees Required To Submit Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employees Required To Submit Statements II Appendix II to Part 805 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL...—Employees Required To Submit Statements Statements of employment and financial interests are required of...

  6. Automated transportable mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need has been identified for a Mass Spectrometer (MS) which can be conveniently transported among several facilities for rapid verification of the isotopic composition of Special Nuclear Material. This requirement for a light weight, transportable MS for U and Pu mass analysis was met by deleting the gas chromatograph (GC) portions of a Hewlett-Packard (H-P) Model 5992 Quadrupole GCMS and substituting a vacuum lock sample entry system. A programmable power supply and vacuum gauge were added and circuitry modifications were made to enable use of the supplied software. The single rhenium filament plug-in source is loaded with either a nominal microliter of sample solution and evaporated, or with a prepared resin bead. Using a resin bead in a specially dimpled filament, copious sensitivity is obtained with 30 nanogram uranium samples. After sample insertion the analysis is completely controlled by an H-P Model 9825 calculator. Source vacuum of 2 x 10-7 torr or better is regained within 2 minutes after sample insertion, and total time for a complete analysis is about 7 minutes. Accuracy is better than 1% for isotope ratios less than 20 and better than 2% for ratios of 100. Ions are accelerated at about 1.8 volts into the mass filter which has pole pieces of hyperbolic cross section. Collection is by a Galileo Channeltron multiplier into a log preamp. During a normal run, 1.4 x 106 data point are observed and averaged. Weight of the instrument excluding the calculator is 88 Kg which allows relatively easy transportation over short distances by two persons. The instrument can be carried into a facility and be ready to analyze samples in less than 3 hours

  7. The Edge supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian

    1992-01-01

    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  8. Sub-Transport Layer Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani;

    2014-01-01

    Packet losses in wireless networks dramatically curbs the performance of TCP. This paper introduces a simple coding shim that aids IP-layer traffic in lossy environments while being transparent to transport layer protocols. The proposed coding approach enables erasure correction while being...... oblivious to the congestion control algorithms of the utilised transport layer protocol. Although our coding shim is indifferent towards the transport layer protocol, we focus on the performance of TCP when ran on top of our proposed coding mechanism due to its widespread use. The coding shim provides gains...... in throughput that exceed 10x for TCP traffic while requiring a limited sacrifice in terms of fairness towards other flows on the channel....

  9. Truck transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical models in RADTRAN II are used to calculate risks to population subgroups such as people along transport routes, people at stops, and crewman. The stops model, which calculates the dose to persons adjacent to the transport vehicle while it is stopped, frequently provides the largest contribution to incident-free radiological impacts. Components such as distances from the vehicle containing radioactive material to nearby people at stops, stop duration, and number of crew members are required for the stops model as well as other incident-free models. To provide supporting data for RADTRAN II based on operational experience, selected truck shipments of radioactive material were observed from origin to destination. Other important aspects of this program were to correlate package size to effective shipment transport index (TI) using radiological surveys and to characterize population distributions and proximities of people to the shipment at a generic truck stop

  10. Framework for Sustainability Assessment by Transportation Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramani, Tara Lakshmi; Zietsman, Josias; Gudmundsson, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    instead promotes the consideration of transportation from a holistic sustainable development perspective. The framework defines broadly applicable transportation goals that can be broken down into a menu of objectives and performance measures to cover various transportation contexts. The framework is also...... transportation agencies with the tools required to understand what sustainability means and incorporate sustainability into the organizational culture. This approach and method can also help agencies lay the groundwork for the use of performance measures so the agencies can progress toward sustainability goals...... and outcomes. The framework development process was an extension of findings from literature review, case studies, and interviews conducted as part of ongoing research under the NCHRP project Sustainability Performance Measures for State Departments of Transportation and Other Transportation Agencies...

  11. Predicting transportation routes for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in transportation logistics of radioactive wastes as part of the overall waste transportation program. A Spent Fuel Logistics Model (SFLM), was developed to predict overall material balances representing the flow of spent fuel assemblies from reactors to away-from-reactor storage facilities and/or to federal repositories. The transportation requirements to make these shipments are also itemized. The next logical step in the overall transportation project was the development of a set of computer codes which would predict likely transportation routes for waste shipments. Two separate routing models are now operational at ORNL. Routes for truck transport can be estimated with the HIGHWAY program, and rail and barge routes can be predicted with the INTERLINE model. This paper discusses examples of the route estimates and applications of the routing models

  12. Transportation and General Traffic Management, Change 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This Handbook sets forth those transportation and general traffic management responsibilities, guidelines, and procedures governing the use of commercial and Government transportation for NASA. Transportation is an integral function of the logistic process, involving all activities incident to the movement of persons and things. The fundamental and continuous objectives of transportation are to control and diminish the time-distance of lines of communication by the most suitable means. The function of transportation is accomplished through, and encompasses all, the planning, direction, supervision, and execution of the technical, operational, and administrative tasks required to procure or furnish efficient and economical conveyance of cargo and personnel by all modes of commercial and Government transportation. This Handbook is applicable to NASA Headquarters and Field Installations.

  13. Cytoskeletal network morphology regulates intracellular transport dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, David; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular transport is essential for maintaining proper cellular function in most eukaryotic cells, with perturbations in active transport resulting in several types of disease. Efficient delivery of critical cargos to specific locations is accomplished through a combination of passive diffusion and active transport by molecular motors that ballistically move along a network of cytoskeletal filaments. Although motor-based transport is known to be necessary to overcome cytoplasmic crowding and the limited range of diffusion within reasonable time scales, the topological features of the cytoskeletal network that regulate transport efficiency and robustness have not been established. Using a continuum diffusion model, we observed that the time required for cellular transport was minimized when the network was localized near the nucleus. In simulations that explicitly incorporated network spatial architectures, total filament mass was the primary driver of network transit times. However, filament traps that r...

  14. The role of ABCG-type ABC transporters in phytohormone transport

    OpenAIRE

    Borghi, Lorenzo; Kang, Joohyun; Ko, Donghwi; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormones (phytohormones) integrate endogenous and exogenous signals thus synchronizing plant growth with environmental and developmental changes. Similar to animals, phytohormones have distinct source and target tissues, hence controlled transport and focused targeting are required for their functions. Many evidences accumulated in the last years about the regulation of long-distance and directional transport of phytohormones. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters turned out to play m...

  15. Urban development and transport disadvantage: Methodology to evaluate social transport needs in Latin American cities

    OpenAIRE

    Lizarraga, Carmen; Jaramillo, Ciro; Alejandro L. Grindlay

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the theoretical framework for accessibility, social exclusion and provision of public transport. The socio-economic and urban characteristics of Latin American cities require the creation of specific indices to determine social needs for public transport. In the article an index of social transport needs is drawn up. It can be used to highlight a problem which is severely affecting wide groups in Latin America who suffer social exclusion aggravated by a deficient provisi...

  16. 49 CFR 376.12 - Written lease requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written lease requirements. 376.12 Section 376.12... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS LEASE AND INTERCHANGE OF VEHICLES Leasing Regulations § 376.12 Written lease requirements. Except as provided in the exemptions...

  17. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  18. Onsite transportation of radioactive materials at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, R.

    2015-03-03

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Transportation Safety Document (TSD) defines the onsite packaging and transportation safety program at SRS and demonstrates its compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) transportation safety requirements, to include DOE Order 460.1C, DOE Order 461.2, Onsite Packaging and Transfer of Materials of National Security Interest, and 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management (Subpart B).

  19. Burning water: the water footprint of biofuel-based transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The trend towards substitution of conventional transport fuels by biofuels requires additional water. The EU aims to replace 10 percent of total transport fuels by biofuels by 2020. This study calculates the water footprint (WF) of different transport modes using bio-ethanol, biodiesel or bio-electr

  20. Engineering Study of 500 ML Sample Bottle Transportation Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This engineering study reviews and evaluates all available methods for transportation of 500-mL grab sample bottles, reviews and evaluates transportation requirements and schedules and analyzes and recommends the most cost-effective method for transporting 500-mL grab sample bottles

  1. 29 CFR 780.911 - Preparation for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparation for transportation. 780.911 Section 780.911... Employment in Fruit and Vegetable Harvest Transportation; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(16) Exempt Operations on Fruits Or Vegetables § 780.911 Preparation for transportation....

  2. 42 CFR 431.53 - Assurance of transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurance of transportation. 431.53 Section 431.53... Requirements § 431.53 Assurance of transportation. A State plan must— (a) Specify that the Medicaid agency will ensure necessary transportation for recipients to and from providers; and (b) Describe the methods...

  3. Glucose transporter 1 localisation throughout pregnancy in the carnivore placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wooding, F.B.P.; Dantzer, Vibeke; Klisch, K.;

    2007-01-01

    Glucose is one of the major fetal nutrients. Maternofetal transfer requires transport across the several placental membranes. This transfer is mediated by one or more of the fourteen known isoforms of glucose transporter. So far only Glucose Transporters 1 and 3 (GT1, GT3) have been shown to be l...

  4. Engineering Study of 500 ML Sample Bottle Transportation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-08-25

    This engineering study reviews and evaluates all available methods for transportation of 500-mL grab sample bottles, reviews and evaluates transportation requirements and schedules and analyzes and recommends the most cost-effective method for transporting 500-mL grab sample bottles.

  5. Intestinal Phosphate Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbagh, Yves; Giral, Hector; Caldas, Yupanqui; Levi, Moshe; Schiavi, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate is absorbed in the small intestine by at least two distinct mechanisms: paracellular phosphate transport which is dependent on passive diffusion and active transport which occurs through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporters. Despite evidence emerging for other ions, regulation of the phosphate specific paracellular pathways remains largely unexplored. In contrast, there is a growing body of evidence that active transport through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporte...

  6. PEM fuel cell bipolar plate material requirements for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R.L.; Stroh, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Cost effective bipolar plates are currently under development to help make proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells commercially viable. Bipolar plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must supply strength, be electrically conductive, provide for thermal control of the fuel stack, be a non-porous materials separating hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, provide gas distribution for the feed streams and meet fuel stack cost targets. Candidate materials include conductive polymers and metal plates with corrosion resistant coatings. Possible metals include aluminium, titanium, iron/stainless steel and nickel.

  7. Transportation technology program: Strategic plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the technology program required to meet the transportation technology needs for current and future civil space missions. It is a part of an integrated plan, prepared by NASA in part in response to the Augustine Committee recommendations, to describe and advocate expanded and more aggressive efforts in the development of advanced space technologies. This expanded program will provide a technology basis for future space missions to which the U.S. aspires, and will help to regain technology leadership for the U.S. on a broader front. The six aspects of this integrated program/plan deal with focused technologies to support space sciences, exploration, transportation, platforms, and operations as well as provide a Research and Technology Base Program. This volume describes the technologies needed to support transportation systems, e.g., technologies needed for upgrades to current transportation systems and to provide reliable and efficient transportation for future space missions. The Office of Aeronautics, Exploration, and Technology (OAET) solicited technology needs from the major agency technology users and the aerospace industry community and formed a transportation technology team (appendix A) to develop a technology program to respond to those needs related to transportation technologies. This report addresses the results of that team activity. It is a strategic plan intended for use as a planning document rather than as a project management tool. It is anticipated that this document will be primarily utilized by research & technology (R&T) management at the various NASA Centers as well as by officials at NASA Headquarters and by industry in planning their corporate Independent Research and Development (IR&D) investments.

  8. Space Transportation and Destination Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; McClure, Wallace

    1999-01-01

    The Space Transportation and Destination Facilities section focused on space transportation vehicles-from use of existing vehicles to development of specialized transports-and on space stations, space business parks, space hotels, and other facilities in space of the kind that eventually would provide services for general public space travel (PST) and tourism. For both transportation and destination facilities, the emphasis was on the identification of various strategies to enable a realistic incremental progression in the development and acquisition of such facilities, and the identification of issues that need resolution to enable formation of viable businesses. The approach was to determine the best: (1) Strategies for general PST and tourism development through the description and analysis of a wide range of possible future scenarios. With these scenarios in mind the section then identified. (2) Key issues to be explored. (3) opportunities to eliminate barriers. (4) Recommendations for future actions. (5) Top-level requirements and characteristics for general PST and tourism systems and services that would guide the development of transportation and destination facilities.

  9. Magnetic type transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable automatic transportation of nuclear substances with optional setting for the transportation distance, even for a long distance, facilitating the automation of the transportation and decreasing the space for the installation of a direction converging section of the transporting path. Constitution: A transporting vehicle having a pair of permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies mounted with a predetermined gap to each other along the transporting direction is provided in the transporting path including a bent direction change section for transporting specimens such as nuclear materials, and a plurality of driving vehicles having permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies for magnetically attracting the transporting vehicle from outside of the transporting path are arranged to the outside of the transporting path. At least one of the driving vehicles is made to run along the transporting direction of the transporting path by a driving mechanism incorporating running section such as an endless chain to drive the transportation vehicle, and the transporting vehicle is successively driven by each of the driving mechanisms. (Kawakami, Y.)

  10. The safety of transport operations and transport casks for LWR and VVER spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The title topics are discussed, covering the following items: safety as a basic requirement for customers and operators, regulations (which should be stringent following IAEA recommendations), Quality Assurance (which is compulsory following IAEA documents), wide transport experiences, the TN 12 spent fuel shipping cask, and the TN 120 transport/storage cask for WWER-440 spent fuel assemblies. (P.A.)

  11. 48 CFR 728.313 - Contract clauses for insurance of transportation or transportation-related services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... all U.S. marine insurance companies have a fair opportunity to bid for marine insurance when such... required for use in any USAID-direct contract where marine insurance is necessary or appropriate. ... insurance of transportation or transportation-related services. 728.313 Section 728.313 Federal...

  12. PNNL Coal Gasifier Transportation Logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Guzman, Anthony D.

    2011-04-13

    This report provides Pacific Northwest National laboratory (PNNL) craftspeople with the necessary information and suggested configurations to transport PNNL’s coal gasifier from its current location at the InEnTec facility in Richland, Washington, to PNNL’s Laboratory Support Warehouse (LSW) for short-term storage. A method of securing the gasifier equipment is provided that complies with the tie-down requirements of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration’s Cargo Securement Rules.

  13. Types of solutions improving passenger transport interconnectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika BĄK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to present different types of solutions which could improve interconnectivity of passenger transport especially within interconnections between long and short transport distance. The topic has particular relevance at the European level because the European transport networks’ role as integrated international networks is compromised by poor interconnectivity and because the next generation of European transport policies will have to be sensitive to the differences between short, medium and long-term transport markets and the market advantages of each transport mode. In this context, a realistic assessment of intermodal opportunities is a key ingredient to future policy development.Effective interconnection requires the provision of integrated networks and services which are attractive to potential users and this is likely to require co-operation between a range of authorities and providers in the public and private sectors and may necessitate a wider vision than might otherwise prevail.The paper is based on the results of the project realised by the team of the University of Gdansk in the EU funded 7 Framework Programme - INTERCONNECT (Interconnection between short- and long-distance transport networks with partners in the UK, Germany, Denmark, Poland, Spain and Italy. Different types of solutions will be summarized in the paper including e.g. local link infrastructure solutions, improved local public transport services, improvements at the interchange, solutions involving improved procedures for check-in or luggage transfer & documentation, pricing and ticketing solutions, solutions involving marketing, information and sales.

  14. Salt Repository Project transportation program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salt Repository Project (SRP) has the responsibility to develop a comprehensive transportation program plan (TrPP) that treats the transportation of workers, supplies, and high-level radioactive waste to the site and the transportation of salt, low-level, and transuranic wastes from the site. The TrPP has developed a systematic approach to transportation which is directed towards satisfying statutes, regulations, and directives and is guided by a hierarchy of specific functional requirements, strategies, plans, and reports. The TrPP identifies and develops the planning process for transportation-related studies and provides guidance to staff in performing and documenting these activities. The TrPP also includes an explanation of the responsibilities of the organizational elements involved in these transportation studies. Several of the report chapters relate to identifying routes for transporting nuclear waste to the site. These include a chapter on identifying an access corridor for a new rail route leading to the site, identifying and evaluating emergency-response preparedness capabilities along candidate routes in the state, and identifying alternative routes from the state border, ports, or in-state reactors to the site. The TrPP also includes plans for identifying salt disposal routes and a discussion of repository/transportation interface requirements. 89 refs., 6 figs

  15. Requirement Elicitation for Requirement in Software Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Swathine.K*; Dr. J.KomalaLakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Requirement Elicitation is also called as Requirement Gathering, in which requirements are collected from User, Stakeholders, and Customer to build the system. Requirements elicitation practices include interviews, questionnaires, task analysis, domain analysis, user observation, workshops, brainstorming, use cases, role playing and prototyping by using this practices quality of the requirements are satisfied. A wide variety of tools exist that have been developed and used to supp...

  16. Linac transport and acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acceleration of intense bunches maintaining high brightness is limited both by single-particle effects, e.g., misalignments, injection errors, and rf-steering, and collective phenomena, where the effects of the longitudinal and transverse wakefield on particles within a single bunch are the most severe. The working group has considered both problems and potentials of linac acceleration from ∼50 MeV to 1 GeV for free electron laser (FEL) applications, as well as from a few Gev to 1 TeV for linear colliders. The outlook for free electron lasers is bright: no fundamental problems seem to arise in the acceleration of peak currents in excess of 100 A with small emittance and low momentum spread. The situation of linear colliders is more complex and more difficult. Two examples, one operating at 11.4 GHz, the other at 30 GHz, are used to illustrate some of the difficulties and the exceedingly tight tolerances required. Both examples are based on round beams, and thus neither benefit from the advantages of flat beams nor address the increased care required in transporting beams of very small emittance in one plane. The working group acknowledges, but did not explore, promising concepts for colliders based on RF superconductivity

  17. Water-transporting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Transport through lipids and aquaporins is osmotic and entirely driven by the difference in osmotic pressure. Water transport in cotransporters and uniporters is different: Water can be cotransported, energized by coupling to the substrate flux by a mechanism closely associated with protein. In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water is not clear. It is associated with the substrate movements in aqueous pathways within the protein; a conventional unstirred layer mechanism can be ruled out, due to high rates of diffusion in the cytoplasm. The physiological roles of the various modes of water transport are reviewed in relation to epithelial transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity of the transportate to approach isotonicity. PMID:20091162

  18. A New Component in Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity: Upregulation of Kinesin in the Pre- and Postsynaptic Neurons of the Gill-Withdrawal Reflex

    OpenAIRE

    Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V.; Monje, Francisco J.; Miniaci, Maria Concetta; Choi, Yun-Beom; Karl, Kevin A.; Khandros, Eugene; Gawinowicz, Mary Ann; Sheetz, Michael P; Kandel, Eric R.

    2008-01-01

    To explore how gene products, required for the initiation of synaptic growth, move from the cell body of the sensory neurons to its presynaptic terminals, and from the cell body of the motor neuron to its postsynaptic dendritic spines, we have searched for anterograde transport machinery in both the sensory and motor neurons of the gill-withdrawal reflex of Aplysia. We found that the induction of long-term facilitation (LTF) by repeated applications of serotonin, a modulatory transmitter rele...

  19. Leadership strategies in transport team recruitment and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the pediatric registered nurse-registered respiratory therapist (RN-RRT) transport team is to safely transport the pediatric patients requiring transport to a tertiary facility. Attrition of RN-RRT team members threatened the future existence of this invaluable service. This research project examined recruitment and retention practices through use of an interview with a manager of a successful transport organization and a world café with key stakeholders involved in pediatric transport. Main findings included the impact of education, leadership and teamwork in addressing strategies to improve recruitment and retention practices of the RN-RRT transport team. PMID:21841399

  20. Transportation Technology: Rail Transport and Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Aaron B.

    2011-01-01

    Transportation can simply be defined as the movement of goods, services, and people from one location to another. Without an efficient means to transport goods from place to place, the economy would be nothing like it is today. Throughout the history of the United States, American railroads have paved the way toward creating a nation of great…

  1. Konrad transport study: Safety analysis of the transportation of radioactive waste to the Konrad waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of the study the anticipated waste transport volume and the waste properties were analysed in detail. This included information on the transport containers, waste product properties, activity inventories and local dose rates of the waste packages being transported. The envisaged practical implementation, i.e. the transport arrangements including shunting operations at the Braunschweig marshalling yard and the Beddingen interchange station, were also included. The two shipping scenarios 100% transportation by rail and 80% transportation by rail, 20% by road, which could be considered to bound the real conditions, were analysed. The relevant transport regulations contain the requirements to be met by the transport of shipping units carrying radioactive waste. In addition, the ''Konrad preliminary waste acceptance criteria'' contain activity limits for waste packages being disposed of in conjunction with further requirements relating to the properties of waste products and waste containers. (orig./DG)

  2. The Analysis of Sustainable Transport System Development in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgita Barysienė; Eglė Speičytė

    2011-01-01

    Recently, sustainable development, as well as sustainable transport, have become the guiding principles of human activities. Transport is of special importance for economic development of Lithuania, therefore a sustainable transport system is required for achieving major goals of sustainable development. The paper discusses general aims of the European Union and Lithuania’s sustainable development strategies and the role of sustainable transport in this common development. Moreover, environme...

  3. Transportation Optimization with Fuzzy Trapezoidal Numbers Based on Possibility Theory

    OpenAIRE

    He, Dayi; Li, Ran; Huang, Qi; LEI Ping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a parametric method is introduced to solve fuzzy transportation problem. Considering that parameters of transportation problem have uncertainties, this paper develops a generalized fuzzy transportation problem with fuzzy supply, demand and cost. For simplicity, these parameters are assumed to be fuzzy trapezoidal numbers. Based on possibility theory and consistent with decision-makers' subjectiveness and practical requirements, the fuzzy transportation problem is transformed to...

  4. Tourism and the Problems of Developing Transport Infrastructure in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Tkachenko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main problems, associated with the development of a transport network in Ukraine and the need for complex evaluation of the interests of the states, seeking international cooperation in creating transport corridors for transporting tourists and determining the position of Ukraine in this cooperation, are considered. The main requirements to design of highways and transport infrastructure are defined. Article in Russian

  5. Modeling activity transport in the CANDU heat transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release and transport of corrosion products from the surfaces of primary coolant system components is a serious concern for all water-cooled nuclear power plants. The consequences of high levels of corrosion product transport are twofold: a) increased corrosion product (crud) deposition on fuel cladding surfaces, leading to reduced heat transfer and the possibility of fuel failures, and b) increased production of radioactive species by neutron activation, resulting in increased out-of-core radiation fields and worker dose. In recent years, a semi-empirical activity transport model has been successfully developed to predict the deposition of radionuclides, including 60Co, 95Zr, 124Sb and fission products, around the CANDU® primary Heat Transport System (HTS), and to predict radiation fields at the steam generators and reactor face. The model links corrosion of the carbon steel outlet feeders to magnetite and radionuclide deposition on steam generator and inlet piping surfaces. This paper will describe the model development, key assumptions, required inputs, and model validation. The importance of reactor artefact characterization in the model development will be highlighted, and some key results will be presented, including oxide morphology and loadings, and radionuclide distributions within the oxide. The predictive capabilities of the model will also be described, including predictions of oxide thickness and the effects of changes in chemistry parameters such as alkalinity. While the model was developed primarily for the CANDU® HTS, the information gained during model development regarding corrosion product and radionuclide transport and deposition can also provide insights into activity transport in other water-cooled reactor systems. (author)

  6. Transport phenomena in nanoscale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepaniants, Armen Boris

    statistical parameters of the surface inhomogeneities. Calculation of the effective transport relaxation time requires the knowledge of the irreducible vertex function for the impurity scattering. In the case of a short-range impurity potential transport coefficients and transport relaxation time depend only on observable parameters: the bulk collision time, the bulk transport relaxation time, and parameters of the surface roughness.

  7. Solute transport by a volatile solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Glenn O.; McWhorter, David B.

    1990-05-01

    In relatively dry porous media, water is transported as both liquid and vapor. Exact knowledge of this two-phase transport, and the phase transfer of water associated with it, is required for the prediction of solute transport. Combined liquid and vapor transport is examined starting from basic principles. An analytic solution is presented for the case of isothermal, transient, one-dimensional sorption of water with constant liquid content boundaries. A relation is also obtained for the evaporation and condensation within the flow field. A numerical solution for the solute transport is obtained which takes maximum advantage of the analytical flow solution. Using the properties of Lurgi retorted oil shale, several special cases are examined which show the relative importance of the separate phases in the total transport of water, the effects on the phase transfer, and the solute transport. It is expected that these methods and results can be applied to other problems in multiple phase transport, such as hazardous waste disposal and pesticide transport.

  8. GLONASS satellite monitoring of nuclear transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2011 Rosatom has made the decision to create the industry-wide automated system for monitoring of transports of radioactive substances (RS) and wastes (RAW), as well as hazardous loads by rail and automobile, based upon the same hardware as used by the GLONASS satellite navigation system - the so-called ASBT-GLONASS system. The new system will use the same technical infrastructure as the existing operational Automated System for Safe Transport of Nuclear Materials of Categories I and II (ASBT). The ASBT structure includes a network of control centres fitted with automation and communication hardware. In addition, ASBT includes technical complexes installed upon transport vehicles intended for nuclear material transport. In order to identify transport vehicle location, the GLONASS/GPS (GALS-P-ASBT) satellite navigational receiver device is used, it is developed especially for ASBT systems taking in account information security requirements. By now the basic software and hardware complex ASBT-GLONASS has been created (equipment to be carried on-board the transport vehicle loaded with RS and RAW, as well as the transport control stations) that supports transport monitoring and transmission of an emergency signal to control stations of companies which deal with RS and RAW transportation

  9. Education and training in transport of radioactive material; Educacao e treinamento em transporte de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Bruno Natanael; Pastura, Valeria da Fonseca e Silva; Mattar, Patricia; Dias, Carlos R. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the approach adopted by the Department of Transportation of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN, in the creation of the course of education and training distance for transport companies, as well as for national institutions directly involved with the theme transportation of radioactive materials. The course will consist of 20 modules containing exercises and further assessment of learning, and enable participants to understand the regulatory terminology, assimilating the philosophy of nuclear and radiation safety, prepare the shipment and identify and fill the complete documents required in an operation transport.

  10. Transportable telemetry workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Aaron S.

    1989-09-01

    The goal was to complete the design of a prototype for a Transportable Telemetry Workstation (TTW). The Macintosh 2 is used to provide a low-cost system which can house real-time cards mounted on the NuBus inside the Macintosh 2 plus provide a standardized user interface on the Macintosh 2 console. Prior to a telemetry run, the user will be able to configure his real-time telemetry processing functions from the Macintosh 2 console. During a telemetry run, the real-time cards will store the telemetry data directly on a hard disk while permitting viewing of the data cards on the Macintosh 2 console on various selectable formats. The user will view the cards in terms of the functions they perform and the selectable paths through the cards, it is not required to become involved directly in hardware issue except in terms of the functional configuration of the system components. The TTW will accept telemetry data from an RS422 serial input data bus, pass it through a frame synchronizer card and on to a real time controller card via a telemetry backplane bus. The controller card will then route the data to a hard disk through a SCSI interface, and/or to a user interface on the Macintosh 2 console by way of the Macintosh 2 NuBus. The three major components to be designed, therefore, are the TTW Controller Card, the TTW Synchronizer Card, and the NuBus/Macintosh 2 User Interface. Design and prototyping of this state-of-the-art, transportable, low-cost, easy-to-use multiprocessor telemetry system is continuing. Other functions are planned for the future.

  11. Molecular transport junctions: vibrational effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport of electrons in a single molecule junction is the simplest problem in the general subject area of molecular electronics. In the past few years, this area has been extended to probe beyond the simple tunnelling associated with large energy gaps between electrode Fermi level and molecular levels, to deal with smaller gaps, with near-resonance tunnelling and, particularly, with effects due to interaction of electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. This overview is devoted to the theoretical and computational approaches that have been taken to understanding transport in molecular junctions when these vibronic interactions are involved. After a short experimental overview, and discussion of different test beds and measurements, we define a particular microscopic model Hamiltonian. That overall Hamiltonian can be used to discuss all of the phenomena dealt with subsequently. These include transition from coherent to incoherent transport as electron/vibration interaction increases in strength, inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy and its interpretation and measurement, affects of interelectronic repulsion treated at the Hubbard level, noise in molecular transport junctions, non-linear conductance phenomena, heating and heat conduction in molecular transport junctions and current-induced chemical reactions. In each of these areas, we use the same simple model Hamiltonian to analyse energetics and dynamics. While this overview does not attempt survey the literature exhaustively, it does provide appropriate references to the current literature (both experimental and theoretical). We also attempt to point out directions in which further research is required to answer cardinal questions concerning the behaviour and understanding of vibrational effects in molecular transport junctions. (topical review)

  12. Transport Properties and Transport Phenomena in Casting Nickel Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicelli, S. D.; Sung, P. K.; Poirier, D. R.; Heinrich, J. C.

    1998-11-01

    Nickel superalloys that are used in the high-temperature regions of gas-turbine engines are cast by directional solidification (DS). In the DS processes, the castings are cooled from below, and three zones exist during solidification: (1) an all-solid zone at the bottom, (2) a "mushy zone" that is comprised of solid and liquid material, and (3) an overlying all-liquid zone. Computer simulations can be useful in predicting the complex transport phenomena that occur during solidification, but realistic simulations require accurate values of the transport properties. In addition to transport properties, the thermodynamic equilibria between the solid and liquid during solidification must also be known with reasonable accuracy. The importance of using reasonably accurate estimations of the transport properties is illustrated by two-dimensional simulations of the convection during solidification and the coincidental macrosegregation in the DS castings of multicomponent Ni-base alloys. In these simulations, we examine the sensitivity of the calculated results to measured partition ratios, thermal expansion coefficients, and viscosities that are estimated by regression analyses and correlations of existing property data.

  13. The WIPP transportation system: Dedicated to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When developing a transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites, the Department of Energy (DOE) recognized and addressed many challenges. Shipments of waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were to cover a twenty-five year period and utilize routes covering over twelve thousand miles in twenty-three states. Enhancing public safety by maximizing the payload, thus reducing the number of shipments, was the primary objective. To preclude the requirement for overweight permits, the DOE started with a total shipment weight limit of 80,000 pounds and developed an integrated transportation system consisting of a Type ''B'' package to transport the material, a lightweight tractor and trailer, stringent driver requirements, and a shipment tracking system referred to as ''TRANSCOM''

  14. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  15. Speeding up Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 2007 was an excellent year for the transportation industry, marked by high speed railway transportation, development of the national expressway network and launch of the Chang'e lunar probe satellite.

  16. Thermodynamics of nuclear transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Hao; Mehta, Pankaj; Elbaum, Michael

    Molecular transport across the nuclear envelope is important for eukaryotes for gene expression and signaling. Experimental studies have revealed that nuclear transport is inherently a nonequilibrium process and actively consumes energy. In this work we present a thermodynamics theory of nuclear transport for a major class of nuclear transporters that are mediated by the small GTPase Ran. We identify the molecular elements responsible for powering nuclear transport, which we term the ``Ran battery'' and find that the efficiency of transport, measured by the cargo nuclear localization ratio, is limited by competition between cargo molecules and RanGTP to bind transport receptors, as well as the amount of NTF2 (i.e. RanGDP carrier) available to circulate the energy flow. This picture complements our current understanding of nuclear transport by providing a comprehensive thermodynamics framework to decipher the underlying biochemical machinery. Pm and CHW were supported by a Simons Investigator in the Mathematical Modeling in Living Systems grant (to PM).

  17. Small Satellite Transporter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective is to determine whether this small satellite transporter is capable of transporting at least four 6U CubeSats is possible for a given set of...

  18. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification

  19. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

  20. US cask requirements and industry capability survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this paper are to provide an estimate of spent fuel shipping cask requirements for reactor to away-from-reactor (AFR) storage facility shipments from the present time until late in this century and to determine and document the willingness and capability of private industry to provide required future transportation services. In order to meet this objective, the Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories sponsored Teledyne Energy Systems to conduct a survey of US industry. Results of tasks completed to carry out the objectives are reviewed

  1. Groupware requirements evolution patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pumareja, Dulce Trinidad

    2013-01-01

    Requirements evolution is a generally known problem in software development. Requirements are known to change all throughout a system's lifecycle. Nevertheless, requirements evolution is a poorly understood phenomenon. Most studies on requirements evolution focus on changes to written specifications

  2. Image and public transport

    OpenAIRE

    Jaco Berveling, Peter Bakker, Lucas Harms, Ellen van der Werff

    2009-01-01

    People act according to their perceptions. This also applies to public transport. And while people's views of public transport may indeed be based on recent personal experience, it is nevertheless also often the case that travellers' ideas of public transport are based on ‘hearsay' or experiences they had using public transport in the distant past, in which case it is possible that there is little or no correlation between perception and reality. Research has revealed that, for example, some ...

  3. Reverse cholesterol transport revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Astrid; E; van; der; Velde

    2010-01-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport was originally described as the high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol flux from the periphery via the hepatobiliary tract to the intestinal lumen, leading to fecal excretion. Since the introduction of reverse cholesterol transport in the 1970s, this pathway has been intensively investigated. In this topic highlight, the classical reverse cholesterol transport concepts are discussed and the subject reverse cholesterol transport is revisited.

  4. TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Karin; DiJohn, Joseph; Misek, Shamus

    2005-01-01

    The Transportation Information Clearinghouse (TIC) Project was the result of collaboration among the Regional Transportation Authority, the Workforce Boards of Metropolitan Chicago and the Urban Transportation Center (UTC) at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). The primary objective of the project was to identify privatelyprovided, employer-based, non-traditional transportation services in operation as well as specific information about these services in order for employers, Workforc...

  5. Relativistic diffusive transport

    OpenAIRE

    Haba, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss transport equations resulting from relativistic diffusions in the proper time. We show that a solution of the transport equation can be obtained from the solution of the diffusion equation by means of an integration over the proper time. We study the stochastic processes solving the relativistic diffusion equation and the relativistic transport equation. We show that the relativistic transport equation for massive particles in the light cone coordinates and for massless particles i...

  6. Security in the Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and active IAEA Donor States are working together to strengthen the security of nuclear and radioactive materials during transport to mitigate the risks of theft, diversion, or sabotage. International activities have included preparing and publishing the new IAEA guidance document Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material while ensuring that security recommendations do not conflict with requirements for safety during transport, and developing and providing training programs to assist other countries in implementing radioactive material transport security programs. This paper provides a brief update on the status of these transportation security efforts.

  7. Design evaluaion: pneumatic transport and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the evaluation of selected design features of the cold engineering scale pneumatic transport and classification subsystems used in the development of the head-end equipment for HTGR fuel reprocessing. The report identifies areas that require further design effort and evaluation of alternatives prior to the design of the HTGR reference recycle facility (HRRF). Seven areas in the transport subsystem and three in the classification subsystem were selected for evaluation. Seventeen specific recommendations are presented for further design effort

  8. Simulated Ethanol Transportation Patterns and Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Wyatt; Seth D. Meyer

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol production booms in the Midwest in 2007. Regulations require ethanol be included as a fuel additive in many areas as of 2006, though consumer willingness to adopt ethanol blends voluntarily is uncertain and benchmark ethanol and oil prices fluctuate. In this context, we jointly simulate consumer demand for ethanol and ethanol transportation costs. Results demonstrate a non-linear relationship between benchmark prices and transportation costs that depends critically on (1) the prevalen...

  9. Hydrogen transport and storage in engineered microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambach, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hendricks, C. [W.J. Schafer Associates, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This project is a collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and W.J. Schafer Associates (WJSA). The authors plan to experimentally verify the performance characteristics of engineered glass microspheres that are relevant to the storage and transport of hydrogen for energy applications. They will identify the specific advantages of hydrogen transport by microspheres, analyze the infrastructure implications and requirements, and experimentally measure their performance characteristics in realistic, bulk storage situations.

  10. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  11. Assessing Sensitiveness to Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieb, Christoph; Suter, Stefan; Sánchez, Alfredo;

    Summary The EU-project ASSET (ASessing SEnsitiveness to Transport) aims at developing and implementing a concise concept to assess transport sensitive areas (TSA) in a European context, i.e. areas in which transport leads to more serious impacts than in other areas. The aim of work package 2 (WP2...

  12. Transport, boundary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the contributions presented at the 18th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in the field of transport and boundary physics will be summarised with reference to the following distinct issues: H-mode physics, Internal Transport Barrier formation, transport studies, Radiative Improved modes and impurity seeding, divertor and He exhaust, new configurations. (author)

  13. Means of Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    2004-01-01

    . According to film theorist Julian Smith, the automobile has been just as much “embraced … as a form of emotional transport, the state or condition of being transported by ecstasy” as “perceived as a mode of transportation in the primary and ordinary sense of the word.” This paper analyses the ways in which...

  14. Feed tank transfer requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B

  15. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.

    2005-06-01

    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being

  16. Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP) will develop and enhance integrated emergency preparedness capabilities in two major areas. First, the program is responsible for planning and ensuring proper DOE response to transportation incidents involving DOE shipments. Second, the program is responsible for ensuring DOE can carry out its responsibilities under regulations, the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) to provide technical advice and assistance as needed for any transportation incident involving radioactive or mixed hazard materials. This plan proposes a strategy for developing a comprehensive Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program, including a well organized central management and coordination structure, that serves as a process to identify, verify, and establish a consolidated effort across the Department in this very important area. This plan assumes Emergency Management to be the full range of emergency activities necessary for mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery while Emergency Preparedness activities are primarily those necessary in preparation for Incident Response Emergency Preparedness, which is the focus of this strategy plan, requires a well organized central coordination structure to be effective. 7 refs

  17. Maritime transport operation in conditions of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary world economy is subject to dynamic integration processes that cause the most open countries in the free import and export goods. Intensive trade relations requires intercontinental free access to well-functioning transport systems. In the case of trade with distant partners, especially on other continents, an important criterion for the organization of cargo handling is a long range. Technological development of means of transport has meant that transport services have become a cheap and highly accessible to passengers and cargo.

  18. Transport Sector Energy 2010; Transportsektorns energianvaendning 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-15

    Today, transport accounts for a quarter of Sweden's energy consumption which consists almost exclusively of fossil fuels. But with the increasing demands for reduced emissions of greenhouse gases, the sector's conversion to other fuels or energy sources will have a major impact the next years. This situation is expected to expand the requirements for statistics of energy consumption of the transport sector. The publication is divided into two parts. Chapter 2 describes the official energy statistics for the transport sector and Chapter 3 presents a breakdown of energy use in passenger and freight services for the respective modes.

  19. Transport regulations for radioactive material in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive material in Germany is regulated by the dangerous goods transport regulations and the regulations of the Atomic Energy Act and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. For radioactive material shipments by road, rail, sea and air the modal regulations on the transport of dangerous goods for class 7 of the ADR, RID, ADNR, IMO and ICAO are implemented in Germany and have to be complied with. In parallel with this the Atomic Energy Act requirements and the provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance concerning the transport of radioactive material have to be met. They contain provisions regarding the reliability of transport organisations and persons, training of persons involved in transport nuclear liability insurance, physical protection and public interest in addition to the need to fulfil the dangerous goods transport regulations. According to these requirements shipment approvals which are presented in the paper, are necessary for nuclear material, large sources and other radioactive materials. Based on this some practical implications for radioactive material shipments will be discussed as well as some aspects of the future developments. The paper also gives an overview of the responsibilities for approval and inspection of radioactive material shipments in Germany. (author)

  20. Nursing staff requirements for neonatal intensive care.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, S.; Whelan, A; Weindling, A M; Cooke, R W

    1993-01-01

    A study to estimate the number of nursing staff required for neonatal nursing was undertaken. Certain nursing tasks, such as transporting any infant, caring for the dying infant, and looking after the very unstable infant required continuous attention by one nurse (5.5 whole time equivalent (wte) nurses for each cot). The stable ventilated infant required 10.5 nursing hours each day-that is, 2.4 wte/cot. Infants with intravenous infusions, but not ventilated, required only slightly less nursi...