WorldWideScience

Sample records for anterior triangle swellings

  1. Management of anterior triangle swellings in a tertiary vascular centre with emphasis on the roles of duplex ultrasound, computed tomography angiogram and magnetic resonance angiogram: a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Colleran, Gabrielle C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior triangle masses pose an important clinical dilemma. It is very difficult to distinguish the potential pathologies pre operatively by clinical and radiological assessment. CASE REPORT: The first case highlights the management of a bilateral chemodectoma, the second case is a presentation of castleman\\'s disease and the third is that of metastatic tonsillar adenocarcinoma. All three cases had a similar presentation and radiological appearance pre-operatively. CONCLUSION: Anterior triangle masses span the clinical spectrum of pathologies from chemodectoma to castleman\\'s disease to carcinoma. Expert vascular and radiological management is required for optimum patient care and should take place in a tertiary referral centre. Duplex US, CTA and MRA are important pre operative assessment tools to ensure that adequate information regarding the relationship of the lesion to the carotid artery is available to the operating surgeon who should have vascular expertise as deliberate practice volume has been repeatedly shown to result in improved patient outcome.

  2. An ambiguous asymptomatic swelling in the maxillary anterior region—A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surej Kumar, L.K.; Manuel, Suvy; Nair, Bindu J.; Nair S, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare and recently recognized type of developmental odontogenic cyst. Being odontogenic in origin, because of the pluripotentiality of the odontogenic epithelium it can show glandular or salivary features. Presentation of a case A 46 year old female patient was referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery department with chief complaint of painless swelling in the right anterior region of maxilla, radiographically associated with teeth 12, 13. Mucosa over the swelling was slightly bluish in colour and no associated palatal swelling was seen. No incidence of trauma was reported and involved teeth were not mobile. Discussion Although we have many differential diagnoses, our working diagnosis was a periapical cyst, so conventional treatment of root canal treatment, cyst enucleation, and apicoectomy was planned. Conclusion Here we present a case which was initially misdiagnosed and mismanaged but on subsequent histopathologic examination revealed the final diagnosis. PMID:27093689

  3. Pseudo-aneurysm of the anterior tibial artery, a rare cause of ankle swelling following a sports injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAteer Eamon

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle pain and swelling following sports injuries are common presenting complaints to the accident and emergency department. Frequently these are diagnosed as musculoskeletal injuries, even when no definitive cause is found. Vascular injuries following trauma are uncommon and are an extremely rare cause of ankle swelling and pain. These injuries may however be limb threatening and are important to diagnose early, in order that appropriate treatment can be delivered. We highlight the steps to diagnosis of these injuries, and methods of managing these injuries. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the potential for this injury in patients with seemingly innocuous trauma from sports injuries, who have significant ankle pain and swelling. Case presentation A young, professional sportsman presented with a swollen, painful ankle after an innocuous hyper-plantar flexion injury whilst playing football, which was initially diagnosed as a ligamentous injury after no bony injury was revealed on X-Ray. He returned 2 days later with a large ulcer at the lateral malleolus and further investigation by duplex ultrasound and transfemoral arteriogram revealed a Pseudo-Aneurysm of the Anterior Tibial Artery. This was initially managed with percutaneous injection of thrombin, and later open surgery to ligate the feeding vessel. The patient recovered fully and was able to return to recreational sport. Conclusion Vascular injuries remain a rare cause of ankle pain and swelling following sports injuries, however it is important to consider these injuries when no definite musculo-skeletal cause is found. Ultrasound duplex and Transfemoral arteriogram are appropriate, sensitive modalities for investigation, and may allow novel treatment to be directed percutaneously. Early diagnosis and intervention are essential for the successful outcome in these patients.

  4. 切牙区黑三角与正畸治疗的研究进展%Research progress on anterior black triangle and orthodontic therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支方静

    2011-01-01

    Black triangle is common phenomenon in our dental clinical treatment, the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of which involving periodontics, prosthodontics and orthodontics. During the dental treatment, we should strengthen the understanding, pay attention to multidisciplinary cooperation, in order to prevent the happening of black triangle effectively. As the increasing of esthetic consciousness, patients put a high demanding on orthodontic treatment. The occurrence of black triangle after orthodontic therapy would not only be unesthetic, but also adversely affect the health of periodontium, occlusal relationship and stability of teeth arrangement. In this article, the prevalence of anterior black triangle after orthodontic treatment, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and prevention were reviewed, in order to provide a reference for the orthodontic clinical.%黑三角在口腔临床中是较为常见的现象,其病因、诊断和治疗涉及牙周、修复、正畸等多个学科,临床诊疗过程中需要加强对黑三角的认识,注意多学科的密切合作,才能有效地预防黑三角的发生.随着审美意识的增强,正畸患者对治疗提出了更高的要求.正畸治疗后黑三角的发生不仅影响美观,而且严重影响了患者的牙周组织健康、咬合关系以及牙齿排列的稳定性.本文通过对切牙区黑三角在正畸治疗中的发病情况、相关危险因素、诊断、治疗和预防等作一综述,以期为临床提供参考.

  5. Pythagorean triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinski, Waclaw

    2011-01-01

    The Pythagorean Theorem is one of the fundamental theorems of elementary geometry, and Pythagorean triangles - right triangles whose sides are natural numbers - have been studied by mathematicians since antiquity. In this classic text, a brilliant Polish mathematician explores the intriguing mathematical relationships in such triangles.Starting with ""primitive"" Pythagorean triangles, the text examines triangles with sides less than 100, triangles with two sides that are successive numbers, divisibility of one of the sides by 3 or by 5, the values of the sides of triangles, triangles with th

  6. Pseudo-aneurysm of the anterior tibial artery, a rare cause of ankle swelling following a sports injury

    OpenAIRE

    McAteer Eamon; Johnston Ruth; McKay Damian; Marron Conor D; Stirling WJ Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Ankle pain and swelling following sports injuries are common presenting complaints to the accident and emergency department. Frequently these are diagnosed as musculoskeletal injuries, even when no definitive cause is found. Vascular injuries following trauma are uncommon and are an extremely rare cause of ankle swelling and pain. These injuries may however be limb threatening and are important to diagnose early, in order that appropriate treatment can be delivered. We hig...

  7. Joint swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelling of a joint ... Joint swelling may occur along with joint pain . The swelling may cause the joint to appear larger or abnormally shaped. Joint swelling can cause pain or stiffness. After an ...

  8. Bilateral Petit’s Triangle Hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Kumar Bhasin, Arshad Bashir Khan, Sanjay Sharma

    2006-01-01

    Lumbar traingle hernia that occurs through lumbar triangles is very rare type of hernia. Only about 300 cases havebeen reported till date. Bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia find further rarity and the case under reference is probably thefirst ever reported case of Primary bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia. The present case is of a 46 years old married,multigravida female who presented with 1 year duration of LBA and subsequently notice of swelling both sides oflow back. FNAC revealed lipoma a...

  9. Bilateral Petit’s Triangle Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Bhasin, Arshad Bashir Khan, Sanjay Sharma

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar traingle hernia that occurs through lumbar triangles is very rare type of hernia. Only about 300 cases havebeen reported till date. Bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia find further rarity and the case under reference is probably thefirst ever reported case of Primary bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia. The present case is of a 46 years old married,multigravida female who presented with 1 year duration of LBA and subsequently notice of swelling both sides oflow back. FNAC revealed lipoma and on exploration it turned out to be rarest extra peritoneal bilateral Petit’s trianglehernia, fat as contents.

  10. Lagrange triangle of quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approximate model is proposed for a system of three Schroedinger particles of equal masses, interacting mutually through a universal two-body potential. They are assumed to form during their motion a (generally) varying equilateral triangle corresponding to Lagrange's exact triangle solution of the classical three-body problem. The resulting wave equation is formally a two-body Schroedinger equation (in the centre-of-mass frame). This is applied to three constituent quarks in the nucleon. The present model, called ''Lagrange triangle of Schroedinger particles'', may be considered as a non-relativistic approximation to the much more complicated ''Lagrange triangle of Dirac particles'' constructed by the author a decade ago. (author)

  11. A little noticed right triangle

    CERN Document Server

    Zelator, Konstantine "Hermes"

    2008-01-01

    Given a right triangle ABC, with the ninety degree angle at A; consider the triangle O1OO2.Where the point O is the midpoint of the hypotenuseBC(and so the center of the triangle ABC's circumcircle), the point O1 being the triangle AOB's circumcenter, and the point O2 being the triangle AOC circumcenter. The triangle O1OO2 is actually a right triangle similar to ABC. In the early part of this work, some geometrical formulas are derived, including some lengths of segments from a nearby trapezoid. After that, the focus changes. We examine the case when ABC is a Pythagorean triangle, and find the precise conditions under which the triangle O1OO2 is also Pythagorean. A numerical table of values is also offered at the end of the paper.

  12. The Copenhagen Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irwin, Alan

    2014-01-01

    I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden.......I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden....

  13. Mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅骧

    2004-01-01

    The Bernmda Triangle is also called Devil's Triangle. It is an imaginary area in the Atlantic Ocean. It extends more than one-million square kilometers between the island of Bermuda, the coast of southern Florida

  14. A triangle that matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Gershon, Tim

    2007-01-01

    "Physicists at "B-factories" in the US and Japan are closing in on an abstract diagram called the unitarity triangle in the quest to explain the difference between matter and antimatter. But such measurements could also point the way to the discovery of new fundamental particles." (5 pages)

  15. Random triangle removal

    CERN Document Server

    Bohman, Tom; Lubetzky, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Starting from a complete graph on $n$ vertices, repeatedly delete the edges of a uniformly chosen triangle. This stochastic process terminates once it arrives at a triangle-free graph, and the fundamental question is to estimate the final number of edges (equivalently, the time it takes the process to finish, or how many edge-disjoint triangles are packed via the random greedy algorithm). Bollob\\'as and Erd\\H{o}s (1990) conjectured that the expected final number of edges has order $n^{3/2}$. An upper bound of $o(n^2)$ was shown by Spencer (1995) and independently by R\\"odl and Thoma (1996). Several bounds were given for variants and generalizations (e.g., Alon, Kim and Spencer (1997) and Wormald (1999)), while the best known upper bound for the original question of Bollob\\'as and Erd\\H{o}s was $n^{7/4+o(1)}$ due to Grable (1997). No nontrivial lower bound was available. Here we prove that with high probability the final number of edges in random triangle removal is equal to $n^{3/2+o(1)}$, thus confirming the...

  16. The Geometry of Homological Triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2012-01-01

    This book is addressed to students, professors and researchers of geometry, who will find herein many interesting and original results. The originality of the book The Geometry of Homological Triangles consists in using the homology of triangles as a "filter" through which remarkable notions and theorems from the geometry of the triangle are unitarily passed. Our research is structured in seven chapters, the first four are dedicated to the homology of the triangles, while the last ones to their applications.

  17. Triangle Tiling II: Nonexistence theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Beeson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    An N -tiling of triangle ABC by triangle T is a way of writing ABC as a union of N triangles congruent to T, overlapping only at their boundaries. The triangle T is the "tile". The tile may or may not be similar to ABC . We wish to understand possible tilings by completely characterizing the triples (ABC, T, N) such that ABC can be N -tiled by T. In particular, this understanding should enable us to specify for which N there exists a tile T and a triangle ABC that is N-tiled by T; or given N,...

  18. Upper tails for triangles

    OpenAIRE

    DeMarco, Bobby; Kahn, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    With $\\xi$ the number of triangles in the usual (Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'enyi) random graph $G(m,p)$, $p>1/m$ and $\\eta>0$, we show (for some $C_{\\eta}>0$) $$\\Pr(\\xi> (1+\\eta)\\E \\xi) < \\exp[-C_{\\eta}\\min{m^2p^2\\log(1/p),m^3p^3}].$$ This is tight up to the value of $C_{\\eta}$.

  19. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot ...

  20. The Triangle of Communicative "Didactique."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacotte, Jacqueline

    This paper explores the symbolic representation of the teaching situation as a triangle involving teacher, student, and content. The paper explores what is meant by didactic communication, and then studies the meaning of the semiotic triangle in the light of two lines of research: the patterns used to analyze communication situations and ongoing…

  1. An Alternative Triangle Area Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, T. L.; Zhang, P.; Brosnan, P.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the mathematics engagement of a group of mathematics coaches, working in k-12 mathematics education. The incenter of a triangle is used to derive an alternative formula for the area of a triangle inspired by Usiskin, Peressini, Marhisotto, and Stanley (2002).

  2. The Bermuda Triangle of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Yves

    The pedagogical triangle of teacher, learner, and subject matter has in its center a fourth element: the communication system. Each feature of the pedagogical triangle, and the communication system as well, relies on a very important cultural component. Problems occur when communication processes in a classroom are fragmented and related to…

  3. A Bermuda Triangle of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelsas, John

    2006-01-01

    The Bermuda Triangle is famous for the unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft, and for strange meteorological phenomena that allegedly have occurred within its boundaries. This article presents an activity wherein students are asked to create their own geographical triangles to research, but instead of focusing on the unexplainable,…

  4. Is it a triangle?

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In the theory of the Standard Model, the masses, interactions and physical states of quarks – the basic constituents of matter – are described mathematically by a matrix known as the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Three angles enter into the definition of the elements of the matrix. If their sum is not 180°, new physics might be the reason.   A typical LHCb event during the recent proton-lead ion run. The LHCb experiment at CERN has measured precisely for the first time at a hadron collider one of the three angles - the “gamma” angle – so far known with the largest uncertainty.  It’s a matter of angles: if their sum is not exactly 180°, the geometric shape is not a triangle. And if the angles are those related to the CKM matrix, we enter the realm of physics beyond the Standard Model. Experiments at B-factories have measured the three angles – α, β and γ &...

  5. Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeet Kumar; Ansari, Ms

    2014-09-01

    Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum (CAUD) may be found all along the anterior urethra and may present itself at any age, from infant to adult. Most children with this condition present with difficulty in initiating micturition, dribbling of urine, poor urinary stream, or urinary tract infection. A careful history will reveal that these children never had a good urinary stream since birth, and the telltale sign is a cystic swelling of the penile urethra. In this paper, we present two cases of CAUD that were managed by excision of the diverticulum with primary repair. PMID:26328174

  6. Update on anterior ankle impingement

    OpenAIRE

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Amendola, Annunziato

    2012-01-01

    Anterior ankle impingement results from an impingement of the ankle joint by a soft tissue or osteophyte formation at the anterior aspect of the distal tibia and talar neck. It often occurs secondary to direct trauma (impaction force) or repetitive ankle dorsiflexion (repetitive impaction and traction force). Chronic ankle pain, swelling, and limitation of ankle dorsiflexion are common complaints. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis of the bony impingement but not for the soft tissue impingemen...

  7. Cystic lymphangioma in the submandibular triangle in the adult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Sang Joon [Dankook Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-15

    Cystic lymphangioma is an uncommon benign developmental tumor of the lymphatic system, seen rarely in adults. A 23-year-old man visited DKUDH complaining of the painless swelling in the right submandibular triangle area. It was reported that swelling had increased since 5 months ago. Clinically, fluctuant and mobile mass was palpated at the right submancivular area. CT scan showed a large, well-defined, homogenous low density mass, measuring 5.0X2.5X4.0 cm. T1W MRI scan demonstrated a large, multiseptated homogenous low signal mass with septum and rim enhancement. Proton-density and T2W MRI scan showed mass of high signal intensity. MRI scan was able to delineate better the enhanced multiseptation and extent of the lesion. Histopathologically, a lobulated cystic mass lined by a layer of flattened endothelium was observed.

  8. Visualizing Elections Using Saari Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Ricardo; Han, Lixing; Schilling, Kenneth; Birgen, Mariah

    2010-01-01

    Students sometimes have difficulty calculating the result of a voting system applied to a particular set of voter preference lists. Saari triangles offer a way to visualize the result of an election and make this calculation easier in the case of several important voting systems.

  9. Atomic swelling upon compression

    CERN Document Server

    Dolmatov, V K

    2012-01-01

    The hydrogen atom under the pressure of a spherical penetrable confinement potential of a decreasing radius $r_{0}$ is explored, as a case study. A novel counter-intuitive effect of atomic swelling rather than shrinking with decreasing $r_{0}$ is unraveled, when $r_{0}$ reaches, and remains smaller than, a certain critical value. Upon swelling, the size of the atom is shown to increase by an order of magnitude, or more, compared to the size of the free atom. Examples of changes of photoabsorption properties of confined hydrogen atom upon its swelling are uncovered and demonstrated.

  10. Young Children's Conceptual Understanding of Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagli, Ümmühan Yesil; Halat, Erdogan

    2016-01-01

    This study explored 5-6 year-old children's conceptual understanding of one geometric shape, the triangle. It focused on whether children could draw a triangle from memory, and identify triangles of different types, sizes, and orientations. The data were collected from 82 children attending state preschool programs through a one-on-one interview,…

  11. Cervicoplastia anterior Anterior cervicoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Gomes Patrocínio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Muitos pacientes buscam correção estética da frouxidão da pele do pescoço, depósito de gordura na região submentoneana ou bandas de platisma. Em grande parte dos casos a ação medial, via cervicoplastia anterior é necessária. OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a casuística e avaliar os resultados e complicações com a técnica de cervicoplastia anterior no Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Relato de série. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Quarenta e dois pacientes, entre 39 e 65 anos de idade, sendo 40 (95,2% do sexo feminino e 2 (4,8% do masculino, foram submetidos a cervicoplastia anterior. Retrospectivamente foram avaliados resultados e complicações. RESULTADOS: Destes, 34 apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, 4 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo cirurgião, 3 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo paciente e 1 apresentou déficit estético necessitando cirurgia revisional. Ao estudo fotográfico, todos os pacientes apresentaram melhora do perfil cervical, redução das bandas de platisma e da frouxidão da pele, estabilização da musculatura cervical e acentuação do ângulo cervicomental, em graus variados. Houve complicação em 2 casos (discreto serohematoma e cicatriz um pouco alargada. CONCLUSÃO: A cervicoplastia, associada ou não à tração lateral pela ritidoplastia, é uma técnica que produz resultados satisfatórios na grande maioria dos casos.Many patients look for aesthetic correction of the laxity of neck skin, submandibular fat deposit or platisma bands. In a large part of the cases, medial action, through anterior cervicoplasty is necessary. AIM: To demonstrate the casuistic and to evaluate the results and complications with anterior cervicoplasty technique in the Otorhinolaryngology Service of the Federal University of Uberlândia. STUDY DESIGN: Serie report. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-two patients, between 39 and 65 years of age, being 40 (95

  12. Swelling of percolation clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The swelling of percolation clusters as models for gelling branched polymers is analyzed by using a simple mean-field approach (for all dimensions) and a Monte-Carlo simulation (for d=3, bond fluctuation method). The numerical swelling exponent μ'=0.443 ± 0.008 shows a significant deviation from the lattice animals solution μ'=0.5, which is caused by the difference between quenched and annealed average procedures.

  13. Swelling of Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An understanding of the mechanism of swelling in irradiated uranium has been handicapped by lack of data from experiments in which the parameters are accurately known. The present- concepts of swelling are based largely on data of this nature. In this study, uranium specimens with less than 0,01% impurity were irradiated below 300°C, and the swelling was induced by subsequent heat treatment outside the reactor where careful control of the temperature was possible. The results obtained by this technique were self'consistent but in considerable disagreement with rhe results of the in-pile investigations. The density and porosity of irradiated uranium specimens were determined following pulse annealing in the alpha, beta and gamma phases« Both the light microscope and the electron microscope were used to study porosity. The results may be summarized as follows: (1) Uranium specimens irradiated to 0.30%bum-up and heat-treated 75 h at temperatures less than 550°C in the α-phase swelled less than 1%. (2) Uranium specimens (0.30% bum-up) heat-treated 75 h at temperatures between 550°C and 650°C in the α- phase swelled up to 18%. This swelling was due to bubbles with diameters up to 15/μm. These results were diametrically opposed to recent data. (3) Uranium specimens (0.30% bum-up) heat-treated 75 h at temperatures in the ß-phase decreased their density by 4- 5%. This decrease in density is apparently the result of grain-boundary cracking rather than bubble formation, as there is evidence to suggest that fission gas is retained in the matrix of the γ-phase. These results suggest that a modification of the role of pressure and surface tension is required in the current theories of swelling. (4) A uranium specimen (0.30% bum- up) heat-treated for 15 h in the γ-phase at 820°C swelled 20%. In this case the swelling was primarily due to the formation of bubbles in the vicinity of and on grain boundaries. The explanation of these experimental results requires

  14. Atomic swelling upon compression

    OpenAIRE

    Dolmatov, V. K.; King, J L

    2012-01-01

    The hydrogen atom under the pressure of a spherical penetrable confinement potential of a decreasing radius $r_{0}$ is explored, as a case study. A novel counter-intuitive effect of atomic swelling rather than shrinking with decreasing $r_{0}$ is unraveled, when $r_{0}$ reaches, and remains smaller than, a certain critical value. Upon swelling, the size of the atom is shown to increase by an order of magnitude, or more, compared to the size of the free atom. Examples of changes of photoabsorp...

  15. Triangle-hinge models for unoriented membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Umeda, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    Triangle-hinge models [arXiv:1503.08812] are introduced to describe worldvolume dynamics of membranes. The Feynman diagrams consist of triangles glued together along hinges and can be restricted to tetrahedral decompositions in a large N limit. In this paper, after clarifying that all the tetrahedra resulting in the original models are orientable, we define a version of triangle-hinge models that can describe the dynamics of unoriented membranes. By regarding each triangle as representing a propagation of an open membrane of disk topology, we introduce a local worldvolume parity transformation which inverts the orientation of triangle, and define unoriented triangle-hinge models by gauging the transformation. Unlike two-dimensional cases, this local transformation generally relates a manifold to a nonmanifold, but still is a well-defined manipulation among tetrahedral decompositions. We further show that matter fields can be introduced in the same way as in the original oriented models. In particular, the mod...

  16. Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Hugh

    1979-01-01

    A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)

  17. Mitosis is swell

    OpenAIRE

    Zatulovskiy, Evgeny; Skotheim, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    Cell volume and dry mass are typically correlated. However, in this issue, Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz et al. (2015. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201505056) and Son et al. (2015. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201505058) use new live-cell techniques to show that entry to mitosis coincides with rapid cell swelling, which is reversed before division.

  18. Representations of Subgroups of Universal Triangle Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Xia

    2007-01-01

    Let G be a universal triangle group, and H a subgroup of G such that the chamber system △H is a tight triangle geometryThen H, which is canonically isomorphic to the topological fundamental group π1(△H) of △ H, is a finitely presented group.For some H we give their representations.

  19. Fulfilling the Promise of the Learning Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The learning triangle described by Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) offers a powerful vision for improved student learning. Learning theory clearly plays a central role in the construct-centered approach presented by the learning triangle. But the assumption of such an important role requires Black et al. to devote corresponding care to the…

  20. What's Your Answer? Searching for Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Michael S.; Edwards, Michael Todd; Özgün-Koca, S. Asli

    2016-01-01

    The article opens with a Geoboard Triangle Quest in this form: "How many noncongruent triangles can be constructed on a 4 × 4 geoboard? How do you know? Justify your answer with significant supporting work." The use of advanced digital technologies as tools for problem solving receives much attention in the methods classes if the…

  1. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was cauused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunsupporessed cancer patient. (orig.)

  2. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, K.; Gronseth, G.; Aldrich, M.; Williams, A.

    1982-11-01

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was caused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunosuppressed cancer patient.

  3. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng

    2011-12-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pythagorean triangles of equal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina Baica

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The main intent in this paper is to find triples of Rational Pythagorean Triangles (abbr. RPT having equal areas. A new method of solving a2+ab+b2=c2 is to set a=y−1, b=y+1, y∈N−{0,1} and get Pell's equation c2−3y2=1. To solve a2−ab−b2=c2, we set a=12(y+1, b=y−1, y≥2, y∈N and get a corresponding Pell's equation. The infinite number of solutions in Pell's equation gives rise to an infinity of solutions to a2±ab+b2=c2. From this fact the following theorems are proved.

  5. Chiral Redox-Active Isosceles Triangles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalluri, Siva Krishna Mohan; Liu, Zhichang; Wu, Yilei; Hermann, Keith R; Samanta, Avik; Kim, Dong Jun; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Wasielewski, Michael R; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2016-05-11

    Designing small-molecule organic redox-active materials, with potential applications in energy storage, has received considerable interest of late. Herein, we report on the synthesis, characterization, and application of two rigid chiral triangles, each of which consist of non-identical pyromellitic diimide (PMDI) and naphthalene diimide (NDI)-based redox-active units. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic investigations in solution confirm the lower symmetry (C2 point group) associated with these two isosceles triangles. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal their rigid triangular prism-like geometries. Unlike previously investigated equilateral triangle containing three identical NDI subunits, both isosceles triangles do not choose to form one-dimensional supramolecular nanotubes by dint of [C-H···O] interaction-driven columnar stacking. The rigid isosceles triangle, composed of one NDI and two PMDI subunits, forms-in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide-two different types of intermolecular NDI-NDI and NDI-PMDI π-π stacked dimers with opposite helicities in the solid state. Cyclic voltammetry reveals that both isosceles triangles can accept reversibly up to six electrons. Continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double-resonance spectroscopic investigations, supported by density functional theory calculations, on the single-electron reduced radical anions of the isosceles triangles confirm the selective sharing of unpaired electrons among adjacent redox-active NDI subunit(s) within both molecules. The isosceles triangles have been employed as electrode-active materials in organic rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The evaluation of the structure-performance relationships of this series of diimide-based triangles reveals that the increase in the number of NDI subunits, replacing PMDI ones, within the molecules improves the electrochemical cell performance of the batteries. PMID:27070768

  6. The Asia-Pacific Strategic Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give insight into the debate over the strategic triangle and how it impacts conflict and security in South Asia. First the new geopolitical motives of the United States in the Asia-Pacific are outlined. Then the concept of strategic triangle is elaborated and its...... foreign policy calculations and moves in the strategic triangle; and finally, some concluding remarks are offered to explain the recent shifts in interactions between these core players in the emerging world order and whether a new geopolitical architecture is emerging...

  7. Unified theory for swelling deformation and swelling pressure of bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation of the water volume to vertical overburden pressure (p) is obtained as Vw/ Vm=KÞDs-3 for bentonite with fractal-textured surface. The maximum swelling strain is predicted according to the correlation of the water volume to vertical overburden pressure. The predictions of the maximum swelling strain and swelling pressure are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data of Tsukinuno and Wyoming bentonite. (authors)

  8. The solid angle through the isosceles triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröer, H.

    We want to determine the solid angle through the isosceles triangle. We use the cosine law for sides and the spherical law of sines. The relation to luminous flux(radiant flux or radiant power) is shown.

  9. How Do You Draw an Isosceles Triangle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jill; McCrae, Barry

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates attempts by three students to construct an isosceles triangle in Cabri and the construction of a capital A by a fourth student. Discusses Cabri's potential for encouraging students to focus on geometric properties and develop correct geometric language. (ASK)

  10. Brocard angle of the standard triangle in an isotropic plane

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar-Begović, Zdenka; Kolar - Šuper, Ružica; Volenec, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The concept of Brocard angle of the standard triangle in an isotropic plane I2 is introduced. The relationships between Brocard angles of the allowable triangle and circum-Ceva’s triangle of its centroid and circum-Ceva’s triangle of its Feuerbach point are investigated.

  11. Density conditions for triangles in multipartite graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Adrian; Shen, Jin; Thomassé, Stephan;

    2006-01-01

    subgraphs in G. We investigate in particular the case where G is a complete multipartite graph. We prove that a finite tripartite graph with all edge densities greater than the golden ratio has a triangle and that this bound is best possible. Also we show that an infinite-partite graph with finite parts has...... a triangle, provided that the edge density between any two parts is greater than 1/2....

  12. Radiation swelling of carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swelling rates of domestic carbon structural materials were studied, the results are presented. At T > 750-850 K and fluence of ∼ 1022 neutron/cm2 anisotropic secondary swelling is observed in them. 3 stages of swelling were singled out: incubation, transient and settled ones. The start of the transient stage with the temperature growth in the course of irradiation shifts to the side of lower fluences of neutrons. The swelling rate at the third stage is constant and has the maximum at 950-1300 K, the value of which is determined by structural arrangement of graphite and increases with an increase in its density

  13. The shape of a sequence of dual random triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, John

    2006-01-01

    Using the concept of the convex hull of a set of lines, a dual random triangle is defined by selecting three lines from a parent triangle of lines. The angles of the constructed triangle define the shape; calculation of the shape distribution is described. For a sequence of nested triangles constructed in this way it is shown that there is convergence to collinearity and to the collinear shape distribution derived by Mannion for a sequence of vertex-generated triangles.

  14. Large Intra-Articular Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ganglion Cyst, Presenting with Inability to Flex the Knee

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Pastides; Davinder Paul Singh Baghla; Sreeram Penna; Vivek Gulati; Jake Sloane

    2010-01-01

    A 41-year-old female presented with a 3-month history of gradually worsening anterior knee pain, swelling and inability to flex the knee. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large intra-articular cystic swelling anterior to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), extending into the Hoffa's infrapatellar fat pad. Following manipulation under anaesthesia and arthroscopic debridement of the cyst, the patient's symptoms were relieved with restoration of normal knee motion. ACL ganglion cyst...

  15. The Swelling of Olympic Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Michael; Fischer, Jakob; Werner, Marco; Sommer, Jens-Uwe

    2014-03-01

    The swelling equilibrium of Olympic gels is studied by Monte Carlo Simulations. We observe that gels consisting of flexible cyclic molecules of a higher degree of polymerization N show a smaller equilibrium swelling degree Q ~N - 0 . 28φ0- 0 . 72 for the same monomer volume fraction φ0 at network preparation. This observation is explained by a disinterpenetration process of overlapping non-concatenated polymers upon swelling. In the limit of a sufficiently large number of concatenations per cyclic molecule we expect that the equilibrium degree of swelling becomes proportional to φ0- 1 / 2 independent of N. Our results challenge current textbook models for the equilibrium degree of swelling of entangled polymer networks. Now at: Bio Systems Analysis Group, Jena Centre for Bioinformatics (JCB) and Department for Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany.

  16. Anterior tarsaltunnelsyndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miliam, Palle B; Basse, Peter N

    2009-01-01

    Anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome is a rare entrapment neuropathy of the deep peroneal nerve beneath the extensor retinaculum of the ankle. It may be rare because it is underrecognized clinically.We present a case regarding a 29-year-old man, drummer, who for one and a half year experienced clinical...

  17. Radiation swelling of carbonaceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation swelling occurs in practically all studied materials at a certain temperature range and irradiation dose. It consists of an increase of the volume and a corresponding decrease of the density and is accompanied by weakening. Swelling is usually divided into three stages (periods). Incubation involves little or no swelling. The transitional period occurs when the volume increases as a power function of the dose with an exponent n > 1. The dependence on the dose is linear in the steady period. The dependence of the swelling rate on temperature is bell-shaped. Anisotropic secondary swelling is observed in carbonaceous construction materials at T > 750-850 K and a flux ∼1022 neutrons/cm2. Three swelling stages are found. These are incubation, transitional, and steady. The transitional stage shifts to smaller neutron fluxes as the temperature increases. The swelling rate in the third stage is constant and has a maximum at 950-1300 K. The value of the maximum is determined by the structure of the graphite and increases with increasing density

  18. LR: Compact connectivity representation for triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurung, T; Luffel, M; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2011-01-28

    We propose LR (Laced Ring) - a simple data structure for representing the connectivity of manifold triangle meshes. LR provides the option to store on average either 1.08 references per triangle or 26.2 bits per triangle. Its construction, from an input mesh that supports constant-time adjacency queries, has linear space and time complexity, and involves ordering most vertices along a nearly-Hamiltonian cycle. LR is best suited for applications that process meshes with fixed connectivity, as any changes to the connectivity require the data structure to be rebuilt. We provide an implementation of the set of standard random-access, constant-time operators for traversing a mesh, and show that LR often saves both space and traversal time over competing representations.

  19. Cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durocher, Stephane; Gunderson, David S.; Li, Pak Ching; Skala, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We conjecture that the balanced complete bipartite graph K ⌊ n / 2 ⌋ , ⌈ n / 2 ⌉ contains more cycles than any other n -vertex triangle-free graph, and we make some progress toward proving this. We give equivalent conditions for cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs; show bounds on the...... numbers of cycles in graphs depending on numbers of vertices and edges, girth, and homomorphisms to small fixed graphs; and use the bounds to show that among regular graphs, the conjecture holds. We also consider graphs that are close to being regular, with the minimum and maximum degrees differing by at...

  20. Traces in Complex Hyperbolic Triangle Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Pratoussevitch, Anna

    2004-01-01

    We present several formulas for the traces of elements in complex hyperbolic triangle groups generated by complex reflections. The space of such groups of fixed signature is of real dimension one. We parameterise this space by a real invariant alpha of triangles in the complex hyperbolic plane. The main result of the paper is a formula, which expresses the trace of an element of the group as a Laurent polynomial in exp(i alpha) with coefficients independent of alpha and computable using a cer...

  1. Combinatorics Connections: Playoff Series and Pascal's Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Bonnie H.; Duncan, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Applies Pascal's Triangle to determine the number of ways in which a given team can win a playoff series of differing lengths. Presents the solutions for one-, three-, five-, seven-, and nine-game series, and extends the solution to the general case for any series. (MDH)

  2. Cactus: The Centres of a Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Hartley

    2009-01-01

    This is the first of two articles which describe how to use "JavaSketchPad" to explore the centres of a triangle. This introductory exercise is suggested in the GSP "Workshop Guide". Students can use "JavaSketchPad Interactive Geometry" (JSP) at home at no cost. They are likely to impress their parents with their enthusiasm for geometry and all…

  3. Lattice QCD and the unitarity triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas S Kronfeld

    2001-12-03

    Theoretical and computational advances in lattice calculations are reviewed, with focus on examples relevant to the unitarity triangle of the CKM matrix. Recent progress in semi-leptonic form factors for B {yields} {pi}/v and B {yields} D*lv, as well as the parameter {zeta} in B{sup 0}-{bar B}{sup 0} mixing, are highlighted.

  4. The simulation research of a novel uwb triangle monopole antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shu; Qiu, Jinghui; Gu, Xuemai; Ren, He; Zhao, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Based on that triangle monopole antenna has wide frequency band, this paper proposes a novel composite triangle monopole antenna, which is composed of three similar triangle metal plates. Through the electromagnetic simulation software CST Microwave Studioreg, we obtain its characteristics under the condition that its ground-plate is infinite perfect conductor. The simulation results show that the composite triangle monopole antenna not only has wide impedance frequency band, but also takes u...

  5. The swelling of 316 type steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The position of maximum swelling in pin cladding or wrappers gives an interesting guide to the effect of flux and temperature on swelling. There is no significant difference between the swelling of specimens and that of pin cladding or wrappers. The swelling at high temperatures is due to structural changes in the steel but these are complex. (author)

  6. Interlocking Crawford triangles in frontalis suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszyk, J H; Tucker, N; Ling, C; Codere, F

    1993-06-01

    In Crawford's pattern of frontalis suspension, two bands are passed, one nasally and the other temporally, forming two base-down triangles with their apexes attached at the brow incisions. Over time, opposing vector forces in the center of the eyelid can cause "cheese-wiring" of the bands with resultant shortening of the inferior bases of both triangles and loosening of the suspensory loops. We modified the standard pattern by interlocking the bands centrally in the lid. A mathematical model was developed that demonstrates neutralization of these opposing forces, resulting in a symmetrical and flexible redistribution of the lifting forces. In support of this mathematical model, a retrospective analysis of 42 consecutive cases using this technique revealed good aesthetic results in terms of lid height, contour, and symmetry, with no important complications from this modification. PMID:8512494

  7. On the Multiple Covering Densities of Triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Sriamorn, Kirati; Wetayawanich, Akanat

    2014-01-01

    Given a convex disk $K$ and a positive integer $k$, let $\\vartheta_T^k(K)$ and $\\vartheta_L^k(K)$ denote the $k$-fold translative covering density and the $k$-fold lattice covering density of $K$, respectively. Let $T$ be a triangle. In a very recent paper, K. Sriamorn proved that $\\vartheta_L^k(T)=\\frac{2k+1}{2}$. In this paper, we will show that $\\vartheta_T^k(T)=\\vartheta_L^k(T)$.

  8. Dirichlet eigenvalues of asymptotically flat triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Ourmières-Bonafos, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the eigenpairs of the Dirichlet Laplacian on a family of triangles where two vertices are fixed and the altitude associated with the third vertex goes to zero. We investigate the dependence of the eigenvalues on this altitude. For the first eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, we obtain an asymptotic expansion at any order at the scale cube root of this altitude due to the influence of the Airy operator. Asymptotic expansions of the eigenpairs are provided, ex...

  9. Simplified unitarity triangles for the lepton sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encouraged by the latest SNO results, we consider the lepton mixing matrix in the approximation that the ν2 mass eigenstate is trimaximally (democratically) mixed. This suggests a new parameterization of the remaining mixing degrees of freedom, which eschews mixing angles, dealing instead, directly with the complex parameter Ue3 of the mixing matrix. Unitarity triangles then take a particularly simple form, which we hope will facilitate comparison with experiment

  10. State of the Coral Triangle: Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has made a firm commitment to sustainable management and conservation of its coastal and marine resources, helping formulate and implement the Sulu–Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion Initiative and the Coral Triangle Initiative. Rapid economic growth, uncontrolled tourism development, unregulated fishing, and unsustainable use of marine resources have depleted the country’s fish stocks, lost nearly 36% of its mangrove forests, and increased the number of endangered species. Despite impressive...

  11. Simplified Unitarity Triangles for the Lepton Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Bjorken, James D; Scott, W G; Bjorken, James D.

    2005-01-01

    Encouraged by the latest SNO results, we consider the lepton mixing matrix in the approximation that the nu_2 mass eigenstate is trimaximally (democratically) mixed. This suggests a new parameterization of the remaining mixing degrees of freedom, which eschews mixing angles, dealing instead, directly with the complex parameter U_e3 of the mixing matrix. Unitarity triangles then take a particularly simple form, which we hope will faciltate comparison with experiment.

  12. The Kanizsa triangle illusion in foraging ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyama, Tomoko; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2016-01-01

    The Kanizsa triangle, wherein three Pac-Man configurations symmetrically face inwards, is a well-known illusion. By exposing foraging ants (Lasius niger) to Kanizsa-shaped honeydew solutions, we studied the origin of this illusion. More specifically, we examined whether foraging ants showed different movement reactions to local honeydew patterns formed by nestmates. This novel phenomenon could serve as an abstract model of the Kanizsa triangle illusion under the assumption that such an illusion could arise through the sum of each agent's limited global cognitions, because each agent could not perceive the entire subjective contours. Even a subjective consciousness consists of some parts which have no identical perception and could be an illusion. We succeeded in inducing foragers to move along the sides of a Kanizsa triangle when Pac-Man-shaped inducers were introduced. Furthermore, foragers appeared to form Y-shaped trajectories when dot-shaped or inverse Kanizsa inducers were used. Based on our findings, we propose an agent-based ant model that compares modelled behaviour with experimental phenomena. Our abstract model could be used to explain such cognitive phenomena for bottom-up processes, because ants cannot perceive the given subjective contours, instead simply move along the edges. PMID:26930477

  13. Optimal Design of Round Bottomed Triangle Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman T. Hameed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available     In optimal design concept, the geometric dimensions of a channel cross-section are determined in a manner to minimize the total construction costs. The Direct search optimization method by using MATALAB is used to solve the resulting channel optimization models for a specified flow rate, roughness coefficient and longitudinal slope. The developed optimization models are applied to design the round bottomed triangle channel and trapezoidal channels to convey a given design flow considering various design scenarios However, it also can be extended to other shapes of channels. This method optimizes the total construction cost by minimizing the cross-sectional area and wetted perimeter per unit length of the channel. In the present study, it is shown that for all values of side slope, the total construction cost in the round bottomed triangle cross-section are less than those of trapezoidal cross-section for the same values of discharge. This indicates that less excavation and a lining are involved and therefore implies that the round bottomed triangle cross-section is more economical than trapezoidal cross-section.

  14. Leptonic Unitarity Triangles and Effective Mass Triangles of the Majorana Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2015-01-01

    Given the best-fit results of six neutrino oscillation parameters, we plot the Dirac and Majorana unitarity triangles (UTs) of the $3\\times 3$ lepton flavor mixing matrix to show their real shapes for the first time. The connections of the Majorana UTs with neutrino-antineutrino oscillations and neutrino decays are explored, and the possibilities of right or isosceles UTs are discussed. In the neutrino mass limit of $m^{}_1 \\to 0$ or $m^{}_3 \\to 0$, which is allowed by current experimental data, we show how the six triangles formed by the effective Majorana neutrino masses $\\langle m\\rangle^{}_{\\alpha\\beta}$ (for $\\alpha, \\beta = e, \\mu, \\tau$) and their corresponding component vectors look like in the complex plane. The relations of such triangles to the Majorana phases and to the lepton-number-violating decays $H^{++} \\to \\alpha^+ \\beta^+$ in the type-II seesaw mechanism are also illustrated.

  15. Leptonic unitarity triangles and effective mass triangles of the Majorana neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhi-zhong; Zhu, Jing-yu

    2016-07-01

    Given the best-fit results of six neutrino oscillation parameters, we plot the Dirac and Majorana unitarity triangles (UTs) of the 3 × 3 lepton flavor mixing matrix to show their real shapes in the complex plane. The connections of the three Majorana UTs with neutrino-antineutrino oscillations and neutrino decays are explored, and the possibilities of right or isosceles UTs are discussed. In the neutrino mass limit of m1 → 0 or m3 → 0, which is definitely allowed by current data, we show how the six triangles formed by the effective Majorana neutrino masses αβ (for α , β = e , μ , τ) and their corresponding component vectors look like in the complex plane. The relations of such triangles to the Majorana phases and to the lepton-number-violating decays H++ →α+β+ in the type-II seesaw mechanism are also illustrated.

  16. Swelling Properties of Water-Swelling Materials Exposed to Organic Water Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Inazumi, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Wakatsuki, T; Shishido, K.

    2011-01-01

    A water-swelling material is one of the rubbery impermeable materials which mixed synthetic resin elastomers as a base material, high absorbency polymers, filler and solvents. In this study, swelling characteristics of the water-swelling material on the water polluted with COD and BOD, as an impermeable material at coastal landfill sites, are examined by laboratory swelling ratio test. Furthermore, the factor in which it influences the swelling pressure of water-swelling material is clarified...

  17. Swelling-resistant nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenlis, Athanasios; Satcher, Jr., Joe; Kucheyev, Sergei O.

    2011-12-27

    A nuclear fuel according to one embodiment includes an assembly of nuclear fuel particles; and continuous open channels defined between at least some of the nuclear fuel particles, wherein the channels are characterized as allowing fission gasses produced in an interior of the assembly to escape from the interior of the assembly to an exterior thereof without causing significant swelling of the assembly. Additional embodiments, including methods, are also presented.

  18. Dalitz plot distributions in presence of triangle singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss properties of three-particle Dalitz distributions in coupled channel systems in presence of triangle singularities. The single channel case was discussed long ago where it was found that as a consequence of unitarity, effects of a triangle singularity seen in the Dalitz plot are not seen in Dalitz plot projections. In the coupled channel case we find the same is true for the sum of intensities of all interacting channels. Unlike the single channel case, however, triangle singularit...

  19. Dalitz plot distributions in presence of triangle singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss properties of three-particle Dalitz distributions in coupled channel systems in presence of triangle singularities. The single channel case was discussed long ago [1] where it was found that as a consequence of unitarity, effects of a triangle singularity seen in the Dalitz plot are not seen in Dalitz plot projections. In the coupled channel case we find the same is true for the sum of intensities of all interacting channels. Unlike the single channel case, however, triangle singul...

  20. Dalitz plot distributions in presence of triangle singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss properties of three-particle Dalitz distributions in coupled channel systems in presence of triangle singularities. The single channel case was discussed long ago [1] where it was found that as a consequence of unitarity, effects of a triangle singularity seen in the Dalitz plot are not seen in Dalitz plot projections. In the coupled channel case we find the same is true for the sum of intensities of all interacting channels. Unlike the single channel case, however, triangle singul...

  1. Invasion triangle: an organizational framework for species invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Lora B; Leger, Elizabeth A; Nowak, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Species invasion is a complex, multifactor process. To encapsulate this complexity into an intuitively appealing, simple, and straightforward manner, we present an organizational framework in the form of an invasion triangle. The invasion triangle is an adaptation of the disease triangle used by plant pathologists to help envision and evaluate interactions among a host, a pathogen, and an environment. Our modification of this framework for invasive species incorporates the major processes tha...

  2. The number of the maximal triangle-free graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Balogh, József; Petříčková, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    Paul Erd\\H{o}s suggested the following problem: Determine or estimate the number of maximal triangle-free graphs on $n$ vertices. Here we show that the number of maximal triangle-free graphs is at most $2^{n^2/8+o(n^2)}$, which matches the previously known lower bound. Our proof uses among others the Ruzsa-Szemer\\'{e}di triangle removal lemma, and recent results on characterizing of the structure of independent sets in hypergraphs.

  3. On the Multiple Packing Densities of Triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Sriamorn, Kirati

    2014-01-01

    Given a convex disk $K$ and a positive integer $k$, let $\\delta_T^k(K)$ and $\\delta_L^k(K)$ denote the $k$-fold translative packing density and the $k$-fold lattice packing density of $K$, respectively. Let $T$ be a triangle. In a very recent paper, K. Sriamorn proved that $\\delta_L^k(T)=\\frac{2k^2}{2k+1}$. In this paper, I will show that $\\delta_T^k(T)=\\delta_L^k(T)$.

  4. On the Tweety Penguin Triangle Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Dezert, Jean; Smarandache, Florentin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, one studies the famous well-known and challenging Tweety Penguin Triangle Problem (TPTP or TP2) pointed out by Judea Pearl in one of his books. We first present the solution of the TP2 based on the fallacious Bayesian reasoning and prove that reasoning cannot be used to conclude on the ability of the penguin-bird Tweety to fly or not to fly. Then we present in details the counter-intuitive solution obtained from the Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST). Finally, we show how the solutio...

  5. A Note on Tropical Triangles in the Plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.ANSOLA; M.J.de la PUENTE

    2009-01-01

    We define transversal tropical triangles (affine and projective) and characterize them via six inequalities to be satisfied by the coordinates of the vertices. We prove that the vertices of a transversal tropical triangle are tropically independent and they tropically span a classical hexagon whose sides have slopes ∞, 0, 1. Using this classical hexagon, we determine a parameter space for transversal tropical triangles. The coordinates of the vertices of a transversal tropical triangle determine a tropically regular matrix. Triangulations of the tropical plane are obtained.

  6. Extremal problems on triangle areas in two and three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitrescu, Adrian; Sharir, Micha; Toth, Csaba D.

    2007-01-01

    The study of extremal problems on triangle areas was initiated in a series of papers by Erd\\H{o}s and Purdy in the early 1970s. In this paper we present new results on such problems, concerning the number of triangles of the same area that are spanned by finite point sets in the plane and in 3-space, and the number of distinct areas determined by the triangles. In the plane, our main result is an $O(n^{44/19}) =O(n^{2.3158})$ upper bound on the number of unit-area triangles spanned by $n$ poi...

  7. Phacoemulsification in anterior megalophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Graham A; Hann, Joshua V; Braga-Mele, Rosa

    2006-07-01

    This case outlines the phacoemulsification technique used to overcome the challenge of the hyperdeep anterior chamber, weak zonules, abnormal anterior capsule, and large capsular bag. Key steps included trypan blue staining of the anterior capsule, a large capsulorhexis, prolapse of the nucleus into the anterior chamber with phacoemulsification anterior to the capsulorhexis, and a posterior chamber-placed iris-clip intraocular lens. Successful visual rehabilitation is achievable in these anatomically challenging eyes. PMID:16857490

  8. Segmentation of knee injury swelling on infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, John; Langet, Hélène; Herry, Christophe; Frize, Monique

    2011-03-01

    Interpretation of medical infrared images is complex due to thermal noise, absence of texture, and small temperature differences in pathological zones. Acute inflammatory response is a characteristic symptom of some knee injuries like anterior cruciate ligament sprains, muscle or tendons strains, and meniscus tear. Whereas artificial coloring of the original grey level images may allow to visually assess the extent inflammation in the area, their automated segmentation remains a challenging problem. This paper presents a hybrid segmentation algorithm to evaluate the extent of inflammation after knee injury, in terms of temperature variations and surface shape. It is based on the intersection of rapid color segmentation and homogeneous region segmentation, to which a Laplacian of a Gaussian filter is applied. While rapid color segmentation enables to properly detect the observed core of swollen area, homogeneous region segmentation identifies possible inflammation zones, combining homogeneous grey level and hue area segmentation. The hybrid segmentation algorithm compares the potential inflammation regions partially detected by each method to identify overlapping areas. Noise filtering and edge segmentation are then applied to common zones in order to segment the swelling surfaces of the injury. Experimental results on images of a patient with anterior cruciate ligament sprain show the improved performance of the hybrid algorithm with respect to its separated components. The main contribution of this work is a meaningful automatic segmentation of abnormal skin temperature variations on infrared thermography images of knee injury swelling.

  9. The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during...

  10. Catheter Ablation of Tachyarrhythmias in Koch’s Triangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G-J.P. Kimman (Geert-Jan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractKoch’s triangle is an intruiging area. On the atrial aspect, the triangular area itself is delineated by the tendon of Todaro, which inserts in the atrial aspect of the central fibrous body to mark the apex of Koch´s triangle. The ventricular border is formed by the septal leaflet of th

  11. Coloring triangle-free graphs with fixed size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten; Gimbel, John

    Combining recent results on colorings and Ramsey theory, we show that if G is a triangle-free graph with e edges then the chromatic number of G is at most cel(1/3)(log e)(-2/3) for some constant c. In a previous paper, we found an upper bound on the chromatic number of a triangle-free graph of...

  12. Teaching Pascal's Triangle from a Computer Science Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurnick, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Pascal's Triangle is named for the seventeenth-century French philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal (the same person for whom the computer programming language is named). Students are generally introduced to Pascal's Triangle in an algebra or precalculus class in which the Binomial Theorem is presented. This article, presents a new method…

  13. Some Unusual Expressions for the Inradius of a Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R.

    2005-01-01

    Several formulae for the inradius of various types of triangles are derived. Properties of the inradius and trigonometric functions of the angles of Pythagorean and Heronian triangles are also presented. The entire presentation is elementary and suitable for classes in geometry, precalculus mathematics and number theory.

  14. From Concept to Reality in Implementing the Knowledge Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoer, Ellen; Nørgaard, Bente; Goossens, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Knowledge Triangle (KT) links together research, education and innovation and replaces the traditional "one way" flow of knowledge, essentially from research to education, by a "both ways" circular motion between all the corners of a triangle that, besides research and education, also includes innovation, the…

  15. Coloring triangle-free graphs with fixed size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten; Gimbel, John

    2000-01-01

    Combining recent results on colorings and Ramsey theory, we show that if G is a triangle-free graph with e edges then the chromatic number of G is at most cel(1/3)(log e)(-2/3) for some constant c. In a previous paper, we found an upper bound on the chromatic number of a triangle-free graph of...

  16. The CKM Matrix and the unitarity triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results of the Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle that was held at CERN on 13-16 February 2002. There had been several Workshops on B physics that concentrated on studies at e+e- machines, at the Tevatron, or at LHC separately. Here we brought together experts of different fields, both theorists and experimentalists, to study the determination of the CKM matrix from all the available data of K, D, and B physics. The analysis of LEP data for B physics is reaching its end, and one of the goals of the Workshop was to underline the results that have been achieved at LEP, SLC, and CESR. Another goal was to prepare for the transfer of responsibility for averaging B physics properties, that has developed within the LEP community, to the present main actors of these studies, from the B factory and the Tevatron experiments. The optimal way to combine the various experimental and theoretical inputs and to fit for the apex of the Unitarity Triangle has been a contentious issue. A further goal of the Workshop was to bring together the proponents of different fitting strategies, and to compare their approaches when applied to the same inputs. Since lattice QCD plays a very important role in the determination of the non-perturbative parameters needed to constrain the CKM unitarity triangle, the first Workshop was seen as an excellent opportunity to bring together lattice theorists with the aim of establishing a working group to compile averages for phenomenologically relevant quantities. Representatives from lattice collaborations around the world were invited to attend a meeting during the Workshop. A consensus was reached to set up three test working groups, collectively known as the ''CKM Lattice Working Group'', to review a number of well-studied quantities: quark masses, the kaon B-parameter, and the matrix elements relevant for neutral B-meson mixing. These proceedings are organized as a coherent document with chapters covering the domains of

  17. How to get the magic triangle and the MAD triangle into your protein crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The handling of the phasing tools I3C and B3C is described, emphasizing practical aspects such as the preparation of solutions and incorporation of the compounds into protein crystals. The magic triangle 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid (I3C) and the MAD triangle 5-amino-2,4,6-tribromoisophthalic acid (B3C) are two representatives of a novel class of compounds that combine heavy atoms for experimental phasing with functional groups for protein interactions. These compounds are readily available and provide easy access to experimental phasing. The preparation of stock solutions and the incorporation of the compounds into protein crystals are discussed. As an example of incorporation via cocrystallization, the incorporation of B3C into bovine trypsin, resulting in a single site with high occupancy, is described

  18. Unconstrained swelling of UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Tango experiments UO2 1 mm diameter microspheres were irradiated in the Siloe pool reactor in Grenoble. The main parameters are: 1. The initial density 10.11, 10.43, 10.78. 2. The temperatures from 9000C to 15000C. 3. The Burn up from 20,000 to 60,000 MWd tsub(U)-1. 15 out of 27 batches of 300 particles were examined in hot cell. The aim was to determine the diameter increase during irradiation by a microradiography technique associated with an optical density analysis. A tentative correlation is done between swelling and total porosity. An evolution of three populations of pores has been measured and their different aspects have been shown by scanning electron microscope. Finally the stable fission gases residual concentration was determined for each batch irradiated up to 20,000 MWd tsub(U)-1 by γ counting the gases collected by an evaporation technique. (author)

  19. Malignant cerebral swelling following cranioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeybul, S; Damodaran, O; Lind, C R P; Lee, G

    2016-07-01

    Over the past few years there have been a number of case reports and small cohort studies that have described so called "malignant" cerebral swelling following an uneventful cranioplasty procedure. The pathophysiology remains to be established however it has been suggested that it may be related to a combination of failure of autoregulation and the use of closed vacuum suction drainage. The current study presents three further patients who had had a decompressive hemicraniectomy for ischaemic stroke. If decompressive craniectomy is utilised in the management of neurological emergencies, close attention and wider reporting of this type of complication is required not only to focus attention on possible management strategies, but also to determine which patients are at most risk of this devastating complication. PMID:27189792

  20. Soil shrinkage characteristics in swelling soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this presentation are to understand soil swelling and shrinkage mechanisms, and the development of desiccation cracks, to distinguish between soils having different magnitude of swelling, as well as the consequences on soil structural behaviour, to know methods to characterize soil swell/shrink potential and to construct soil shrinkage curves, and derive shrinkage indices, as well to apply them to assess soil management effects

  1. A CLINICAL STUDY ON SCROTAL SWELLINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Sobha Rani; Ramesh; Lokesh; Shyam Kumar; Mahesh Babu

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The scrotum is a cutaneous bag containing the right and left testis, the epididymis and the lower parts of the spermatic cords. 1 Scrotal swellings are the commonest swellings affecting both children and adults. Though these swellings are frequently encountered, many times correct dia gnosis is not made and testis has been sacrificed . It also affects the physical wellbeing of the patient, is rath...

  2. Swelling properties of the mudrocks at Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swelling and swelling pressure have an impact in areas of repository engineering in the context of radioactive waste disposal in clay. This report presents and assesses the results of a preliminary study on the swelling of mudrock cores from Harwell boreholes HW3 and HW4. Apparatus has been developed for a one-dimensional pressure test. Supplementary tests included free-swell tests, and the determination of dry density, natural moisture content, linear shrinkage and Atterberg consistency limits. Minerological details of test materials are also given. (U.K.)

  3. Large swelling and percolation in irradiated zircon

    CERN Document Server

    Trachenko, K; Salje, E K H

    2003-01-01

    We study the effect of large swelling in irradiated zircon. We perform molecular dynamics simulation of the overlap of two radiation events and find that the damage produced in the second event scatters away from the densified boundary of the damaged region implanted previously. This serves as the microscopic mechanism of the increase of volume occupied by the damage. The additive nature of this effect results in large swelling observed experimentally. We translate the damage accumulation into the percolation problem, and show that volume swelling is a percolation phenomenon, with the swelling curve increasing rapidly at the percolation threshold. (letter to the editor)

  4. Implementing the Law of Sines to solve SAS triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Zelator, Konstantine

    2010-01-01

    By "solving a triangle", one refers to determining the three sidelengths and the three angles, based on given information.Depending on the specific information, one or more triangles may satisfy the requirements of the given information.In the SAS case, two of sidelengths are given, as well as the angle contained by the two sides.According to Euclidean Geometry, such a triangle must be unique. In reference [1], and pretty much in standard trigonometry and precalculus texts,the Law of Cosines ...

  5. Dalitz plot distributions in presence of triangle singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2016-06-01

    We discuss properties of three-particle Dalitz distributions in coupled channel systems in presence of triangle singularities. The single channel case was discussed long ago [1] where it was found that as a consequence of unitarity, effects of a triangle singularity seen in the Dalitz plot are not seen in Dalitz plot projections. In the coupled channel case we find the same is true for the sum of intensities of all interacting channels. Unlike the single channel case, however, triangle singularities do remain visible in Dalitz plot projections of individual channels.

  6. Lucas组合数模P%Lucas Triangles Modulo p

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡宏

    2000-01-01

    We define the Lucas triangle [nk] L,and determine the Lucas triangle [nk] L(mod p)for any odd prime p. The result extends some known results in derived by D. Wells in The Fibonacci and Lucas triangles modulo 2.%本文给出Lucas组合数[nk]L的定义,获得了Lucas组合数[nk]L模奇素数p 的同余式,推广了 Wells 1994年在The Fibonacci and Lucas triangks modulo 2一文中的 相关工作.

  7. Submandibular swelling: Tooth or salivary stone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Capaccio

    2013-01-01

    Sialolithiasis should always be considered in the diagnostic iter of painful submandibular swelling. A careful evaluation of recurrence and characteristics of signs and symptoms associated to the swelling can help in making the correct diagnosis and planning a proper therapeutic strategy.

  8. A novel reversible thermo-swelling hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel reversible thermo-swelling gel was prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol-trimellitate (PVA-T by crosslinking with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDGE. Only in the presence of sulfate anion, this polymer gel showed a significant and reversible swelling behavior with increasing the temperature from 5 to 40°C, and vice versa, probably due to the scission and formation of the inter- and/or intramolecular hydrogen-bondings (HBs between the carboxyls on the side groups. The involvement of inter- and/or intramolecular HBs for the thermo-swelling behavior was also suggested by a significant dependence on HCl concentration of the swelling degree. In addition, the swelling reversibility and reproducibility were confirmed via the temperature jump between 5 and 40°C, well satisfying for a candidate as a thermosensitive material.

  9. A Heuristic Algorithm for Solving Triangle Packing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on the triangle packing problem has important theoretic significance, which has broad application prospects in material processing, network resource optimization, and so forth. Generally speaking, the orientation of the triangle should be limited in advance, since the triangle packing problem is NP-hard and has continuous properties. For example, the polygon is not allowed to rotate; then, the approximate solution can be obtained by optimization method. This paper studies the triangle packing problem by a new kind of method. Such concepts as angle region, corner-occupying action, corner-occupying strategy, and edge-conjoining strategy are presented in this paper. In addition, an edge-conjoining and corner-occupying algorithm is designed, which is to obtain an approximate solution. It is demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is highly efficient, and by the time complexity analysis and the analogue experiment result is found.

  10. Relativistic reactions visualized through right triangles in space

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolatos, Theocharis A.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we exploit the fact that the special relativistic formula which relates the energy and the 3-momentum of an elementary particle with its rest mass, resembles the pythagorean theorem for right triangles. Using such triangles, suitably arranged, we can prove all kind of equalities or inequalities concerning the kinematical properties of elementary particles in a wide variety of cases regarding particles' collision, decay or production. Moreover, relations that are somehow hard t...

  11. Revisiting the didactic triangle: from the particular to the general

    OpenAIRE

    Goodchild, Simon; Sriraman, Bharath

    2012-01-01

    The basic notion of a didactic triangle is explained with historical annotations on its origins and subsequent theorization in the literature. Instances of its application to classroom environments to demonstrate its representational capabilities are presented. Generalizations of the triangle are proposed that integrate the role of technology, the researcher in mathematics teaching developmental research, and mediating complexes in the student–teacher–content interfaces. Further, the use of t...

  12. Kidney herniation through lumbar triangle following open pyeloplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Qais Al Hooti; Abdulsalam Taher Ahmed Saleh; Ali Bin Mahfooz; Mohammed Aslam; Maher Moazin

    2014-01-01

    Kidney herniation through the lumbar triangle is an uncommon type of hernia which is classically managed surgically. Contrast enhanced computerised tomography revealed lower pole of the right kidney herniating through the lumbar triangle in a 60-year-old woman, 10 years after an open right pyeloplasty. Surgical intervention was advised, however, patient opted for non-surgical management. Patient was successfully treated conservatively in clinic requiring regular analgesics for relief of mild ...

  13. Kidney herniation through lumbar triangle following open pyeloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais Al Hooti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney herniation through the lumbar triangle is an uncommon type of hernia which is classically managed surgically. Contrast enhanced computerised tomography revealed lower pole of the right kidney herniating through the lumbar triangle in a 60-year-old woman, 10 years after an open right pyeloplasty. Surgical intervention was advised, however, patient opted for non-surgical management. Patient was successfully treated conservatively in clinic requiring regular analgesics for relief of mild pain.

  14. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Meena, Sanjay; Saini, Pramod; Singh, Vivek; Kumar, Ramakant; Trikha, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder dislocations are the most common major joint dislocations encountered in the emergency departments. Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and of these, bilateral posterior shoulder dislocations are more prevalent than bilateral anterior shoulder dislocations. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. We present a case of 24-year-old male who sustained bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following minor trauma, with associated greater tuberosity fracture on one side...

  15. A CLINICAL STUDY ON SCROTAL SWELLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobha Rani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The scrotum is a cutaneous bag containing the right and left testis, the epididymis and the lower parts of the spermatic cords. 1 Scrotal swellings are the commonest swellings affecting both children and adults. Though these swellings are frequently encountered, many times correct dia gnosis is not made and testis has been sacrificed . It also affects the physical wellbeing of the patient, is rather a mental agony for him. Most of the times, patients hesitate to come early and may come with late complications. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: 1. To determine and confirm various etiological aspects of different swellings of scrotum. 2. To study various modes of presentations, relative incidence and diagnostic procedures for swellings of scrotum. 3. To study the various techniques and proc edures done . MATERIALS AND METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Prospective Clinical Study . STUDY AREA: Sri Venkateswara Medical College , Tirupathi . SOURCE OF DATA: The material for the present study is collected from the patients who present to the Out Patient Department of Surgery, Sri Venkateswara Medical College with swelling in the scrotal region fulfilling the inclusion criteria. SAMPLE SIZE: 100 patients fulfil ling the inclusion criteria . METHOD OF COLLECTION OF DATA: Detailed history taking , Complete clinical examination , Appropriate Investigations Blood & Urine Examination, USG , Performing surgery for the indicated cases & Operative findings were recorded. INC LUSION CRITERIA: Patients aged between 13 to 60yrs. Cystic swellings from the testes & its coverings, epididymis, spermatic cord & from scrotal skin. EXCLUSION CRITERIA : Cystic inguino - scrotal swellings. Patients aged above 60. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: Major ity of the patients with swelling of the scrotum belonged to the 31 - 40 years of age group (50% followed by 41 - 50 years (18% and 21 - 30 years (12%. Scrotal swelling was the common mode of presentation (60%. Right side was

  16. Voltage Swell mitigation in Wind Farm System

    OpenAIRE

    Kadam D.P

    2014-01-01

    As the wind power penetration into the grid is increasing quickly, the influence of wind turbine on the power quality is becoming an important issue. Wind power penetration is the impact on power system stability. Power quality problems such as voltage sag and swell are some major concern. In this paper voltage swell issues is analyzed. Wind turbine connected to squirrel cage induction generator is modelled using PSCAD simulation software to analyse the said issues where STATC...

  17. Swell prediction for the East Korean coast

    OpenAIRE

    J. H. Yuk; Kim, K. O.; Choi, B. H.; K. T. Jung

    2013-01-01

    Long-period abnormally high swell waves have been generated in the East Sea near Hokkaido, Japan, in winter during the atmospheric depression. These waves, named Yorimawari in Japanese, occasionally attack the coasts of both Korea and Japan. Waves significantly higher than normal years were recorded along the east Korean coast in 2006. In 2008, the swell caused considerable damages in Toyama and the Niigata coastal area of Japan and in Anmok east coast of Korea. This paper attempts to hindcas...

  18. Sternoclavicular joint swellings: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, A E; Gluckman, P; Sanders, R; Breach, N M

    1991-01-01

    Five patients with sternoclavicular swellings are described. The group presents a variety of diagnoses which highlight the need for thorough investigation and appropriate management of swellings around the sternoclavicular joint. Although frequently assumed to be benign, this series demonstrates the potential occurrence of malignant disease, and the dangers of pursuing a simple conservative course. Conversely, a substantiated benign diagnosis may avoid the use of unnecessary surgical treatment. PMID:1933108

  19. Occlusion of the anterior cerebral artery after head trauma

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial arterial occlusion is rarely encountered in association with head injury. Only six cases of traumatic occlusion of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) have previously been reported. In this paper, the authors describe a case of a posttraumatic occlusion of ACA. A 35-year-old male presented to the emergency room with severe head injury. Computed tomography (CT) scan displayed diffuse brain swelling with multiple skull fractures. Follow up CT scan showed extensive cerebral infarctio...

  20. Implementing the Law of Sines to solve SAS triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Zelator, Konstantine

    2010-01-01

    By "solving a triangle", one refers to determining the three sidelengths and the three angles, based on given information.Depending on the specific information, one or more triangles may satisfy the requirements of the given information.In the SAS case, two of sidelengths are given, as well as the angle contained by the two sides.According to Euclidean Geometry, such a triangle must be unique. In reference [1], and pretty much in standard trigonometry and precalculus texts,the Law of Cosines is employed in solving a SAS triangle. In this work we use an alternative approach by using the Law of Cosines.In Section 2, we list some basic trigonometric identities and in Section 3 we prove a lemma which is used in Section4. In Section4, we demonstrate the use of the Law of Sines in solving an SAS triangle. In Section 5 we offer three examples in detail; the last one being more general in nature.

  1. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) ... and Recovery Coping With an ACL Injury About ACL Injuries A torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is ...

  2. Robust Generation of Signed Distance Fields from Triangle Meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2005-01-01

    A new method for robust generation of distance fields from triangle meshes is presented. Graphics hardware is used to accelerate a technique for generating layered depth images. From multiple layered depth images, a binary volume and a point representation are extracted. The point information is...... then used to convert the binary volume into a distance field. The method is robust and handles holes, spurious triangles and ambiguities. Moreover, the method lends itself to Boolean operations between solids. Since a point cloud as well as a signed distance is generated, it is possible to extract an...... iso-surface of the distance field and fit it to the point set. Using this method, one may recover sharp edge information. Examples are given where the method for generating distance fields coupled with mesh fitting is used to perform Boolean and morphological operations on triangle meshes....

  3. Hyperbolic triangle in the special theory of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, Y

    2002-01-01

    The vector form of a Lorentz transformation which is separated with time and space parts is studied. It is necessary to introduce a new definition of the relative velocity in this transformation, which plays an important role for the calculations of various invariant physical quantities. The Lorentz transformation expressed with this vector form is geometrically well interpreted in a hyperbolic space. It is shown that the Lorentz transformation can be interpreted as the law of cosines and sines for a hyperbolic triangle in hyperbolic trigonometry. So the triangle made by the two origins of inertial frames and a moving particle has the angles whose sum is less than $180 ^o$.

  4. Triangle-free graphs whose independence number equals the degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    In a triangle-free graph, the neighbourhood of every vertex is an independent set. We investigate the class S of triangle-free graphs where the neighbourhoods of vertices are maximum independent sets. Such a graph G must be regular of degree d = α (G) and the fractional chromatic number must...... satisfy χ (G) = | G | / α (G). We indicate that S is a rich family of graphs by determining the rational numbers c for which there is a graph G ∈ S with χ (G) = c except for a small gap, where we cannot prove the full statement. The statements for c ≥ 3 are obtained by using, modifying, and re...

  5. Robust Generation of Signed Distance Fields from Triangle Meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    A new method for robust generation of distance fields from triangle meshes is presented. Graphics hardware is used to accelerate a technique for generating layered depth images. From multiple layered depth images, a binary volume and a point representation are extracted. The point information is...... iso-surface of the distance field and fit it to the point set. Using this method, one may recover sharp edge information. Examples are given where the method for generating distance fields coupled with mesh fitting is used to perform Boolean and morphological operations on triangle meshes....

  6. From concept to reality in implementing the Knowledge Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoer, Ellen; Nørgaard, Bente; Goossens, Marc

    2016-05-01

    The concept of Knowledge Triangle (KT) links together research, education and innovation and replaces the traditional 'one way' flow of knowledge, essentially from research to education, by a 'both ways' circular motion between all the corners of a triangle that, besides research and education, also includes innovation, the 'poor relation' of many universities. What are the main issues - barriers and drivers - and what could be done in order to make the concept of KT a strong reality in engineering education? In this paper, the authors intend to bring some answers by analysing three cases coming from actors operating at the three corners of the KT: students, academic staff and engineers in industry.

  7. Triangle based TVD schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlofsky, Louis J.; Osher, Stanley; Engquist, Bjorn

    1990-01-01

    A triangle based total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme for the numerical approximation of hyperbolic conservation laws in two space dimensions is constructed. The novelty of the scheme lies in the nature of the preprocessing of the cell averaged data, which is accomplished via a nearest neighbor linear interpolation followed by a slope limiting procedures. Two such limiting procedures are suggested. The resulting method is considerably more simple than other triangle based non-oscillatory approximations which, like this scheme, approximate the flux up to second order accuracy. Numerical results for linear advection and Burgers' equation are presented.

  8. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  9. Anterior knee pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patellofemoral syndrome; Chondromalacia patella; Runner's knee; Patellar tendinitis; Jumper's knee ... or playing soccer). You have flat feet. Anterior knee pain is more ... skiers, bicyclists, and soccer players who exercise often ...

  10. Anterior knee pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or playing soccer). You have flat feet. Anterior knee pain is more common in: People who are overweight People who have had a dislocation, fracture, or other injury to the kneecap Runners, jumpers, ...

  11. Swelling, mechanical and friction properties of PVA/PVP hydrogels after swelling in osmotic pressure solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Xiong, Dangsheng; Liu, Yuntong; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Xiaoduo

    2016-08-01

    The potential of polyvinyl alcohol/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVA/PVP) hydrogels as articular cartilage replacements was in vitro evaluated by using a macromolecule-based solution to mimic the osmotic environment of cartilage tissue. The effects of osmotic pressure solution on the morphology, crystallinity, swelling, mechanical and friction properties of PVA/PVP hydrogels were investigated by swelling them in non-osmotic and osmotic pressure solutions. The results demonstrated that swelling ratio and equilibrium water content were greatly reduced by swelling in osmotic solution, and the swelling process was found to present pseudo-Fickian diffusion character. The crystallization degree of hydrogels after swelling in osmotic solution increased more significantly when it compared with that in non-osmotic solution. After swelling in osmotic solution for 28days, the compressive tangent modulus and storage modulus of hydrogels were significantly increased, and the low friction coefficient was reduced. However, after swelling in the non-osmotic solution, the compressive tangent modulus and friction coefficient of hydrogels were comparable with those of as-prepared hydrogels. The better material properties of hydrogels in vivo than in vitro evaluation demonstrated their potential application in cartilage replacement. PMID:27157740

  12. Swelling of p H -sensitive hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, A. D.; deClaville Christiansen, J.

    2015-02-01

    A model is derived for the elastic response of polyelectrolyte gels subjected to unconstrained and constrained swelling. A gel is treated as a three-phase medium consisting of a solid phase (polymer network), solvent (water), and solutes (mobile ions). Transport of solvent and solutes is modeled as their diffusion through the network accelerated by an electric field formed by ions and accompanied by chemical reactions (dissociation of functional groups attached to the chains). Constitutive equations (including the van't Hoff law for ionic pressure and the Henderson-Hasselbach equation for ionization of chains) are derived by means of the free energy imbalance inequality. Good agreement is demonstrated between equilibrium swelling diagrams on several pH-sensitive gels and results of simulation. It is revealed that swelling of polyelectrolyte gels is driven by electrostatic repulsion of bound charges, whereas the effect of ionic pressure is of secondary importance.

  13. Voltage Swell Mitigation by Using UPFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandra Sutradhar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with modeling and simulation of UPFC in IEEE 14 bus System with Induction Motor load for avoiding voltage swell. UPFC is an effective device, combining the features of the STATCOM and SSSC. UPFC can control active and reactive power flows and to optimize the system stability in a transmission line. When no UPFC is installed, real and reactive power through the transmission line cannot be controlled. The effect of reactive power compensation to prevent Swell has been analyzed with UPFC. A Power System Computer Aided Design/ Electromagnetic Transients including DC (PSCAD/EMTDC is used to carry out simulations of the system under study and detailed results are shown to access the performance of UPFC on the voltage swell of the system

  14. Postoperative pectoral swelling after shoulder arthroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERCIN, ERSIN; BILGILI, MUSTAFA GOKHAN; ONES, HALIL NADIR; KURAL, CEMAL

    2015-01-01

    Fluid extravasation is possibly the most common complication of shoulder arthroscopy. Shoulder arthroscopy can lead to major increases in the compartment pressure of adjacent muscles and this phenomenon is significant when an infusion pump is used. This article describes a case of pectoral swelling due to fluid extravasation after shoulder arthroscopy. A 24-year-old male underwent an arthroscopic Bankart repair for recurrent shoulder dislocation. The surgery was performed in the beach chair position and lasted two hours. At the end of the procedure, the patient was found to have left pectoral swelling. A chest radiography showed no abnormality. Pectoral swelling due to fluid extravasation after shoulder arthroscopy has not previously been documented. PMID:26889473

  15. Swelling of particle-encapsulating random manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleva, Emir; Diamant, Haim

    2008-08-01

    We study the statistical mechanics of a closed random manifold of fixed area and fluctuating volume, encapsulating a fixed number of noninteracting particles. Scaling analysis yields a unified description of such swollen manifolds, according to which the mean volume gradually increases with particle number, following a single scaling law. This is markedly different from the swelling under fixed pressure difference, where certain models exhibit criticality. We thereby indicate when the swelling due to encapsulated particles is thermodynamically inequivalent to that caused by fixed pressure. The general predictions are supported by Monte Carlo simulations of two particle-encapsulating model systems: a two-dimensional self-avoiding ring and a three-dimensional self-avoiding fluid vesicle. In the former the particle-induced swelling is thermodynamically equivalent to the pressure-induced one, whereas in the latter it is not. PMID:18850811

  16. Determination of the CKM unitarity triangle parameters by end 1999

    CERN Document Server

    Caravaglios, F; Roudeau, Patrick; Stocchi, A

    2000-01-01

    Within the Standard Model, a review of the current determination of the CKMunitarity triangle parameters is presented, using experimental constraints fromthe measurements of |epsilon_K|, V_ub/V_cb, Delta m_d and from the limit onDelta m_s, available by end 1999.

  17. Some Geometric Inequalities Relating to an Interior Point in Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Liang, Chun-Lei

    2010-01-01

    In this short note, by using one of Li and Liu's theorems [K.-H. Li, "The solution of CIQ. 39," "Commun. Stud. Inequal." 11(1) (2004), p. 162 (in Chinese)], "s-R-r" method, Cauchy's inequality and the theory of convex function, we solve some geometric inequalities conjectures relating to an interior point in triangle. (Contains 1 figure.)

  18. The comfort triangles: a new tool for bioclimatic design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents a new graphic tool to identify and select bioclimatic strategies according to climate conditions and comfort requirements. The Comfort Triangle relates outdoor daily temperature variations with the modification of thermal performance achieved indoors, using two key variables, av

  19. Symmetries of faces models and the double triangle algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Trinchero, R

    2005-01-01

    Symmetries of trigonometric integrable two dimensional statistical face models are considered. The corresponding symmetry operators on the Hilbert space of states of the quantum version of these models define a weak *-Hopf algebra isomorphic to the Ocneanu double triangle algebra(DTA).

  20. The triangle anomaly in the tripple-regge limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U(l) triangle anomaly is present, as an infra-red divergence, in the six-reggeon triple-regge interaction vertex obtained from a maximally non-planar Feynman diagram in the full triple-regge limit of three-to-three quark scattering

  1. Characteristic mixing triangles in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Temperature-salinity structures in the inner part of Bay of Bengal showed complete mixing processes in the upper bay, less than about 600 m can be characterisEd. by a mixing triangle constitutEd. by three characteristic water properties. In outer...

  2. Cohabitation promotes high diversity of clownfishes in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Emma F; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; De Brauwer, Maarten; Dumbrell, Alex J; Smith, David J

    2016-03-30

    Global marine biodiversity peaks within the Coral Triangle, and understanding how such high diversity is maintained is a central question in marine ecology. We investigated broad-scale patterns in the diversity of clownfishes and their host sea anemones by conducting 981 belt-transects at 20 locations throughout the Indo-Pacific. Of the 1508 clownfishes encountered, 377 fish occurred in interspecific cohabiting groups and cohabitation was almost entirely restricted to the Coral Triangle. Neither the diversity nor density of host anemone or clownfish species alone influenced rates of interspecific cohabitation. Rather cohabitation occurred in areas where the number of clownfish species exceeds the number of host anemone species. In the Coral Triangle, cohabiting individuals were observed to finely partition their host anemone, with the subordinate species inhabiting the periphery. Furthermore, aggression did not increase in interspecific cohabiting groups, instead dominant species were accepting of subordinate species. Various combinations of clownfish species were observed cohabiting (independent of body size, phylogenetic relatedness, evolutionary age, dentition, level of specialization) in a range of anemone species, thereby ensuring that each clownfish species had dominant reproductive individuals in some cohabiting groups. Clownfishes are obligate commensals, thus cohabitation is an important process in maintaining biodiversity in high diversity systems because it supports the persistence of many species when host availability is limiting. Cohabitation is a likely explanation for high species richness in other obligate commensals within the Coral Triangle, and highlights the importance of protecting these habitats in order to conserve unique marine biodiversity. PMID:27030417

  3. The triangle anomaly in the tripple-regge limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A. R.

    1999-11-22

    The U(l) triangle anomaly is present, as an infra-red divergence, in the six-reggeon triple-regge interaction vertex obtained from a maximally non-planar Feynman diagram in the full triple-regge limit of three-to-three quark scattering.

  4. The Religion of the Yao in the Golden Triangle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李坚

    2004-01-01

    IN the depth of the rugged mountains in the Golden Triangle dwells a group of unique people. More than 80,000 strong, living in over 300 villages scattered in Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand, 1 they constitute less than 4 percent of the total population of their Yao ethnic origin from in China. They have no modern technology, no formal social

  5. NMR imaging and cryoporometry of swelling clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvinskikh, Sergey V.; Szutkowski, Kosma; Petrov, Oleg V.; Furó, István.

    2010-05-01

    Compacted bentonite clay is currently attracting attention as a promising "self-sealing" buffer material to build in-ground barriers for the encapsulation of radioactive waste. It is expected to fill up the space between waste canister and surrounding ground by swelling and thus delay flow and migration from the host rock to the canister. In environmental sciences, evaluation and understanding of the swelling properties of pre-compacted clay are of uttermost importance for designing such buffers. Major goal of present study was to provide, in a non-invasive manner, a quantitative measure of bentonite distribution in extended samples during different physical processes in an aqueous environment such as swelling, dissolution, and sedimentation on the time scale from minutes to years. The propagation of the swelling front during clay expansion depending on the geometry of the confining space was also studied. Magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were adapted and used as main experimental techniques. With this approach, spatially resolved movement of the clay/water interface as well as clay particle distributions in gel phase can be monitored [1]. Bulk samples with swelling in a vertical tube and in a horizontal channel were investigated and clay content distribution profiles in the concentration range over five orders of magnitude and with sub-millimetre spatial resolution were obtained. Expansion rates for bulk swelling and swelling in narrow slits were compared. For sodium-exchanged montmorillonite in contact with de-ionised water, we observed a remarkable acceleration of expansion as compared to that obtained in the bulk. To characterize the porosity of the clay a cryoporometric study [2] has been performed. Our results have important implications to waste repository designs and for the assessment of its long-term performance. Further research exploring clay-water interaction over a wide variety of clay composition and water ionic

  6. A Classroom Note on Generating Examples for the Laws of Sines and Cosines from Pythagorean Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Lawrence; Sher, David

    2007-01-01

    By selecting certain special triangles, students can learn about the laws of sines and cosines without wrestling with long decimal representations or irrational numbers. Since the law of cosines requires only one of the three angles of a triangle, there are many examples of triangles with integral sides and a cosine that can be represented exactly…

  7. Swell transformation across the continental shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Tinder, Cynthia Viernes

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of swell decay across the continental shelf was conducted using data from the SHOaling Waves EXperiment (SHOWEX). Six Datawell Directional Waverider buoys were deployed along a cross-shelf transect, offshore of Duck, North Carolina during an active hurricane season in the fall of 1999.

  8. Pool swell in a nuclear containment wetwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description is presented of scale model tests conducted to study LOCA induced wetwell pool swelling in the BWR Mk 1 containment pressure suppression system. The Mk 1 containment configuration is described together with the scale model design, the conduct of the tests, and the experimental results

  9. Swelling of spent fuel storage tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unexpected swelling phenomena have been reported in the storage racks of the spent fuel pool at several nuclear power plants. Experimental and analytical studies have been carried out in order to identify the governing mechanism and to analyze the interaction of the storage tube and the spent fuel element housed in the tube. (author). 2 refs., 7 figs

  10. Dominant factors in carbide fuel swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of the dominant factors involved in carbide fuel fission gas swelling and release behaviour has been attempted by comparison between experimental data and the results predicted by means of a physical model. The model assumes that fission gas release occurs entirely through gas atom migration in the matrix solid and that fission gas bubbles, intra and intergranular, grow as the net result of gas atom precipitation into the bubbles and gas atom re-solution from the bubbles. Further, it is assumed that local gas atom redistribution process in the immediate neighbourhood of a bubble is so rapid that the bubble size always corresponds to the equilibrium size that maintains exact balance between the rate of resolution and that of precipitation. Computation runs performed with the model using carefully chosen combination of physical parameters have successfully reproduced the spread of experimental gas release and swelling data. Comparisons between the predicted results and the experimental data readily identify the grain size, and not the temperature, as the dominant factor affecting fission gas behaviour. The effect of other fuel design parameters such as fission rate density, hydrostatic pressure, etc. is generally shown to be minor. Further study, however, indicates that the external fuel dimensional changes resulting from fuel cracking very often overshadow that from fission gas swelling alone. It is concluded that efforts to control carbide fuel swelling should be directed towards the control of fuel microstructure rather than the control of fuel porosity as has been generally practiced so far. (author)

  11. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms will go away. This improvement will often last for years. Alternative Names A/P repair; Vaginal wall repair; Anterior and/ ... writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ... Institutes of Health Page last updated: 23 August 2016

  12. [Toxic anterior segment syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornut, P-L; Chiquet, C

    2011-01-01

    Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) is a general term used to describe acute, sterile postoperative inflammation due to a non-infectious substance that accidentally enters the anterior segment at the time of surgery and mimics infectious endophthalmitis. TASS most commonly occurs acutely following anterior segment surgery, typically 12-72h after cataract extraction. Anterior segment inflammation is usually quite severe with hypopyon. Endothelial cell damage is common, resulting in diffuse corneal edema. No bacterium is isolated from ocular samples. The causes of TASS are numerous and difficult to isolate. Any device or substance used during the surgery or in the immediate postoperative period may be implicated. The major known causes include: preservatives in ophthalmic solutions, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices, bacterial endotoxin, and intraocular lens-induced inflammation. Clinical features of infectious and non-infectious inflammation are initially indistinguishable and TASS is usually diagnosed and treated as acute endophthalmitis. It usually improves with local steroid treatment but may result in chronic elevation of intraocular pressure or irreversible corneal edema due to permanent damage of trabecular meshwork or endothelial cells. PMID:21176994

  13. Triangle-based key management scheme for wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hangyang DAI; Hongbing XU

    2009-01-01

    For security services in wireless sensor net-works, key management is a fundamental building block.In this article, we propose a triangle-based key predis-tribution approach and show that it can improve the effectiveness of key management in wireless sensor networks. This is achieved by using the bivariate polynomial in a triangle deployment system based on deployment information about expected locations of the sensor nodes. The analysis indicates that this scheme can achieve higher probability of both direct key establishment and indirect key establishment. On the other hand, the security analysis shows that its security against node capture would increase with a decrease of the sensor node deployment density and size of the deployment model and an increase of the polynomial degree.

  14. Triangle Interception Scenario: A Finite-Time Guidance Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering an aircraft threatened by an interceptor, one of the effective penetration strategies is to release a Defender from the aircraft to confront the interceptor. In this case, the aircraft, the Defender, and the interceptor constitute the three-body guidance relationship, and the cooperation of the aircraft and its Defender to achieve the best tactical effects turns into a concerned problem. This paper studies the triangle interception guidance problem via the finite-time theory. The paper presents linear system Input-Output Finite-Time Stabilization (IO-FTS method. The sufficient conditions of the linear system, being IO-FTS, under Finite-Time Boundedness (FTB constraint are proposed, by which the state feedback controllers design method is obtained, via Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs. The triangle interception guidance problems are studied in three different cases, where the proposed methods are applied to the guidance design. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  15. Remarks on the $P_c$ structures and triangle singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Feng-Kun; Nieves, Juan; Yang, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    It was proposed that the narrow $P_c(4450)$ structure observed by the LHCb Collaboration in the reaction $\\Lambda_b\\to J/\\psi p K$ might be due to a triangle singularity around the $\\chi_{c1}$--proton threshold at 4.45~GeV. We discuss the occurrence of a similar triangle singularity in the $J/\\psi p$ invariant mass distribution for the decay $\\Lambda_b\\to J/\\psi p \\pi$, which could explain the bump around 4.45~GeV in the data. More precise measurements of this process would provide valuable information towards an understanding of the $P_c$ structures.

  16. On degree sums of a triangle-free graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Harant, J.; Naumann, S.

    2014-01-01

    For a simple triangle-free k-chromatic graph G with k >= 2 the upper bound m(n-f (k-2)) on the sum Sigma(2)(G) = Sigma(x is an element of V(G))d(2)(x) of the squares of the degrees of G is proved, where n, m, and f(1) are the order of G, the size of G, and the minimum order of a triangle-free l......-chromatic graph, respectively. Consequences of this bound are discussed. Moreover, we generalize the upper bound on Ep (G) = Sigma(p)(G) = Sigma(x is an element of V(G))d(x)) for p = 2 to P >= 3. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  17. The fine triangle intersections for maximum kite packings

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guizhi; Chang, Yanxun; Feng, Tao

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the fine triangle intersection problem for a pair of maximum kite packings is investigated. Let $Fin(v)={(s,t):$ $\\exists$ a pair of maximum kite packings of order $v$ intersecting in $s$ blocks and $s+t$ triangles$}$. Let $Adm(v)={(s,t): s+t\\leq b_v, s,t$ are non-negative integers$}$, where $b_v=\\lfloor v(v-1)/8\\rfloor$. It is established that $Fin(v)= Adm(v)\\setminus {(b_v-1,0),(b_v-1,1)}$ for any integer $v\\equiv 0,1 ({\\rm mod} 8)$ and $v\\geq 8$; $Fin(v)=Adm(v)$ for any integ...

  18. Emerging lattice approach to the K-Unitarity Triangle

    CERN Document Server

    Lehner, Christoph; Soni, Amarjit

    2015-01-01

    It has been clear for past many years that in low energy observables new physics can only appear as a perturbation. Therefore precise theoretical predictions and precise experimental measurements have become mandatory. Here we draw attention to the significant advances that have been made on the lattice in recent years in $K\\to \\pi \\pi$, $\\Delta M_K$, the long-distance part of $\\varepsilon$ and rare K-decays. Thus, in conjunction with experiments, the construction of a unitarity triangle purely from Kaon physics should soon become feasible. Along with the B-unitarity triangle, this should allow for more stringent tests of the Standard Model and tighter constraints on new physics.

  19. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruy, H.J.

    1998-03-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  20. Self-assembly of self-assembled molecular triangles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mili C Naranthatta; V Ramkumar; Dillip Kumar Chand

    2014-09-01

    A rare variety of self-assembledmolecular triangle [Pd3(bpy)3(imidazolate)3](NO3)3, 1 is prepared by the combination of Pd(bpy)(NO3)2 with imidazole, at 1:1 ratio, in acetonitrile-water. Deprotonation of imidazole happened during the course of the complexation reaction where upon the metallomacrocycle is formed. The bowl-shaped trinuclear architecture of 1 is crafted with three peripheral bpy units capable of - stacking interactions. While the solution state structure of 1 can be best described as a trinuclear complex, in the solidstate well-fashioned intermolecular - and CH- interactions are observed. Thus, in the solid-state further self-assembly of already self-assembled molecular triangle is witnessed. The triangular panels are arranged in a linear manner utilizing intermolecular - interactions where upon two out of three bpy units of each molecule participated in the chain formation.

  1. Acyclic Edge Coloring of Planar Graphs without Adjacent Triangles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dezheng XIE; Yanqing WU

    2012-01-01

    An acyclic edge coloring of a graph G is a proper edge coloring such that there are no bichromatic cycles.The acyclic edge chromatic number of a graph G is the minimum number k such that there exists an acyclic edge coloring using k colors and is denoted by x'a(G).In this paper we prove that x'a(G)≤ Δ(G)+ 5 for planar graphs G without adjacent triangles.

  2. Economics of Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Coral Triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    Marine resources in the Coral Triangle provide food, income, and jobs to its more than 350 million residents. However, the countries bordering this species-rich area—Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Timor-Leste—share closer links in their ecology than in their economy. Case studies explore the potential benefits of integrating these countries’ small-scale fisheries into global markets by developing opportunities for market differentiation, ensuring ...

  3. Numerical problems with the Pascal triangle in moment computation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kautsky, J.; Flusser, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 306, č. 1 (2016), s. 53-68. ISSN 0377-0427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : moment computation * Pascal triangle * appropriate polynomial basis * numerical problems Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 1.266, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/flusser-0459096.pdf

  4. Sistem Prevensi School Violence di Madura Berbasis Galtung Conflict Triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Auliya Ridwan

    2014-01-01

    School violence may be understood as the threat or use of physical force with the intention to cause physical injury, damage of property or intimidation of another person at school. School violence is also violence that happens outside school as a result of a social interaction among the students. With regards to their prevention, many theories and propositions have been introduced including that of Conflict Triangle theory by Johan Galtung. This paper is aimed at analyzing school violence in...

  5. What is the difference between a square and a triangle?

    OpenAIRE

    Limic, V.; Tarres, P.

    2007-01-01

    We offer a reader-friendly introduction to the attracting edge problem (also known as the "triangle conjecture") and its most general current solution of Limic and Tarr\\`es (2007). Little original research is reported; rather this article ``zooms in'' to describe the essential characteristics of two different techniques/approaches verifying the almost sure existence of the attracting edge for the strongly edge reinforced random walk (SERRW) on a square. Both arguments extend straightforwardly...

  6. Quantum Algorithms for Finding Claws, Collisions and Triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, H; Hoyer, P; Magniez, F; Santha, M; De Wolf, R; Buhrman, Harry; Durr, Christoph; Hoyer, Peter; Magniez, Frederic; Santha, Miklos; Wolf, Ronald de

    2000-01-01

    We present several applications of quantum amplitude amplification to finding claws and collisions in ordered or unordered functions. Our algorithms generalize those of Brassard, Hoyer, and Tapp, and imply an N^{3/4} log(N) quantum upper bound for the element distinctness problem (contrasting with N\\log(N) classical complexity). We also give an algorithm to finding a triangle in a graph more efficiently than classically.

  7. An Internationalization Model to Enter the Northern Triangle Market

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Cadavid, Carolina; García, John J.

    2013-01-01

    An internationalization model is proposed for a Colombian company specialized in design and consulting engineering services related to the energy sector. The study of these services is relatively new in internationalization and competitiveness, therefore of great interest for research purposes. The model is created with the purpose of conquering the Northern Triangle market (Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador). Different internationalization theories,such as the Eclectic Paradigm, the Upp...

  8. The feedback triangle and the enhancement of dialogic feedback processes

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, M; Carless, DR

    2013-01-01

    This article explores some of the main barriers to the enhancement of feedback processes and proposes a framework for using dialogic feedback to foster productive student learning in the discipline. The framework suggests a feedback triangle focused on the content of feedback (cognitive dimension), the interpersonal negotiation of feedback (social-affective dimension) and the organisation of feedback provision (structural dimension). The interplay between these three elements is central to pr...

  9. On the Tits alternative for some generalized triangle groups

    OpenAIRE

    Barkovich, Oksana; Benyash-Krivets, Valery

    2004-01-01

    One says that the Tits alternative holds for a finitely generated group G if G contains either a non abelian free subgroup or a solvable subgroup of finite index. Rosenberger states the conjecture that the Tits alternative holds for generalized triangle groups $T(k,l,m,R)=$. In the paper Rosenberger's conjecture is proved for groups T(2,l,2,R) with l=6,12,30,60 and some special groups T(3,4,2,R).

  10. On the swelling resistance of ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to study the microstructural features associated with void swelling resistance in FV448 martensitic stainless steel after fast reactor irradiation to damage levels of 30 dpa at temperatures in the range 380-4600C. A characteristic feature of the microstructures is the presence of domains in which the high pre-irradiation network dislocation density is eliminated, and replaced by a homogeneous population of interstitial dislocation loops with a Burgers vectors. These domains grow but remain interspersed within a martensitic-type matrix that still retains high network dislocation densities. It is suggested that the observed evolution of the damage structure and the associated swelling resistance in such b.c.c. materials is due to the relative rates of nucleation and growth of the two interstitial dislocation loop types, with 1/2a and a Burgers vectors. (author)

  11. A simplified analytical model for pool swell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapour suppression pool is being used in the containment of PHWR's to limit the pressure and temperature build-up in the containment following a LOCA. The discharge of high pressure water due to LOCA flashes into steam in the drywell, causes a rapid pressure build-up and forces an air-steam mixture into the suppression pool via the vent system. The containment and the pool internal structures need to withstand the hydrodynamic loading due to jet impingement and general motion of the pool water during the water clearing phase from the vents, the loads associated with pool swell in the subsequent air-clearing phase and those due to chugging - the oscillatory condensation of steam - apart from the general thermodynamic loading due to the mass and energy releases from the LOCA. This paper presents a simplified analytical model for pool swell assuming that the bubble is spherical in shape and it migrates vertically. (orig./HP)

  12. Morphological effect on swelling behaviour of hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Norzita; Hashim, Kamaruddin

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer networks that are capable of imbibing large amounts of water. In this work, hydrogels prepared from natural and synthetic polymers were irradiated by using electron beam irradiation. The morphology of hydrogel inter-polymeric network (IPN) was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal correlations between pore sizes of IPN with degree of cross-linking. This relation also has an effect on swelling properties of the hydrogel. The results indicated that hydrogel with smaller pore size, as a result of much dense IPN, would decrease water uptake capacity. Combination of natural and synthetic polymers to form hydrogel affects the pore size and swelling property of the hydrogel as compared to each component of polymer.

  13. Glial K(+) Clearance and Cell Swelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macaulay, Nanna; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    space into the glial cell are debated. Although spatial buffer currents may occur, their quantitative contribution to K(+) clearance is uncertain. The concept of spatial buffering of K(+) precludes intracellular K(+) accumulation and is therefore (i) difficult to reconcile with the K(+) accumulation...... repeatedly observed in glial cells during K(+) clearance and (ii) incompatible with K(+)-dependent glial cell swelling. K(+) uptake into non-voltage clamped cultured glial cells is carried out by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and the Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter in combination. In brain slices and intact optic...... nerve, however, only the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has been demonstrated to be involved in stimulus-evoked K(+) clearance. The glial cell swelling associated with K(+) clearance is prevented under conditions that block the activity of the Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter. The Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter is...

  14. Morphological effect on swelling behaviour of hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacob, Norzita; Hashim, Kamaruddin [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUKLEAR MALAYSIA) Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer networks that are capable of imbibing large amounts of water. In this work, hydrogels prepared from natural and synthetic polymers were irradiated by using electron beam irradiation. The morphology of hydrogel inter-polymeric network (IPN) was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal correlations between pore sizes of IPN with degree of cross-linking. This relation also has an effect on swelling properties of the hydrogel. The results indicated that hydrogel with smaller pore size, as a result of much dense IPN, would decrease water uptake capacity. Combination of natural and synthetic polymers to form hydrogel affects the pore size and swelling property of the hydrogel as compared to each component of polymer.

  15. Swelling of acetylated wood in organic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Obataya, E; Obataya, Eiichi; Gril, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo spruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling in various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The acetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids such as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only slightly and/or very slowly. On the other hand, the swelling of wood in water, ethylene glycol and alcohols remained unchanged or decreased by the acetylation. Consequently the maximum volume of wood swollen in organic liquids was always larger than that in water. The effect of acetylation on the maximum swollen volume of wood was greater in liquids having smaller solubility parameters. The easier penetration of aprotic organic liquids into the acetylated wood was considered to be due to the scission of hydrogen bonds among the amorphous wood constituents by the substitution of hydroxyl groups with hydrophobic acetyl groups.

  16. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  17. Pythagorean Triangles with Repeated Digits-Repeated Bases

    CERN Document Server

    Muzaffar, Habib

    2009-01-01

    In 1998, in the winter issue of the journal Mathematics and Computer education (see [1]), Monte Zerger posed the following problem. He had noticed the Pythagorean triple (216,630,666);(216)^2+(630)^2=(666)^2. Note that 216=6^3 and 666 is the hypotenuse length. The question was then, whether there existed a digit d and a positive integer k(other than the above); such that d^k is the leglength of a Pythagorean triangle whose hypotenuse length has exactly k digits, each being equal to d. In 1999, F.Luca and P.Bruckman, answered the above question in the negative. In 2001, K.Zelator(see [2]), took this question further and showed that no Pythagorean triangle exists such that one leg has length d^k, while the other leglegth has exactly k digits in its decimal expansion, with each digit bein equal to d. In this work, we explore the above phenomenon from the point of view of number bases other than 10. We prove five Theorems. As an example, in Theorem 1, we prove that there exists no Pythagorean triangle with one of...

  18. Emerging lattice approach to the K-unitarity triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Christoph; Lunghi, Enrico; Soni, Amarjit

    2016-08-01

    It has been clear for the past several years that new physics in the quark sector can only appear, in low energy observables, as a perturbation. Therefore precise theoretical predictions and precise experimental measurements have become mandatory. Here we draw attention to the significant advances that have been made in lattice QCD simulations in recent years in K → ππ, in the long-distance contribution to indirect CP violation in the Kaon system (ε) and in rare K-decays. Thus, in conjunction with experiments, the construction of a unitarity triangle purely from Kaon physics should soon become feasible. We want to emphasize that in our approach to the K-unitarity triangle, the ability of lattice QCD methods to systematically improve the calculation of the direct CP-violation parameter (ε‧) plays a pivotal role. Along with the B-unitarity triangle, this could allow, depending on the pattern of new physics, for more stringent tests of the Standard Model and tighter constraints on new physics.

  19. Bilateral Parotid Swelling in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubov, Yakov; Mandel, Louis

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is recognized by the presence of polycystic ovaries, irregular menstruation, and increased androgen levels. Many patients have insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance and an associated development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A patient with PCOS is presented whose cosmetic concerns centered on the prolonged existence of substantial bilateral parotid swelling. The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy of sialosis are discussed. PMID:26657398

  20. Swelling kinetics of the onion phase

    OpenAIRE

    Diamant, H.; Cates, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    A theory is presented for the behavior of an array of multi-lamellar vesicles (the onion phase) upon addition of solvent. A unique feature of this system is the possibility to sustain pressure gradients by tension in the lamellae. Tension enables the onions to remain stable beyond the unbinding point of a flat lamellar stack. The model accounts for various concentration profiles and interfaces developing in the onion as it swells. In particular, densely packed `onion cores' are shown to appea...

  1. Note on pool swell dynamics during depressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relationship between (1) formalism and kinematic wave analysis for the swelling of a saturated liquid pool during continuous pressure release, and (2) the extensive kinematic wave analysis of transient volumetric pool boiling is described. When the primary contribution to vapor generation, the liquid enthalpy, is the only contribution considered, and when the pressure release rate is essentially uniform, approximate results for depressurization are found to be obtained directly from existing volumetric boiling presentations. (Auth.)

  2. Modeling of pool swell dynamics. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, W.G.; Huber, P.W.; Sonin, A.A.

    1977-03-01

    The purpose of this research program is to develop and verify the scaling laws which apply to LOCA-induced pool swell in BWR pressure-suppression containment systems. The work has now progressed to a stage where several critical series of experiments have been completed. The experimental test program for checking the scaling laws is outlined. Some of the experimental results obtained to date and the conclusions one can draw from them are summarized.

  3. Swelling of phospholipids by monovalent salt

    OpenAIRE

    Petrache, Horia I.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Harries, Daniel; Kučerka, Norbert; Nagle, John F.; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Critical to biological processes such as membrane fusion and secretion, ion-lipid interactions at the membrane-water interface still raise many unanswered questions. Using reconstituted phosphatidylcholine membranes, we confirm here that multilamellar vesicles swell in salt solutions, a direct indication that salt modifies the interactions between neighboring membranes. By varying sample histories, and by comparing with data from ion carrier-containing bilayers, we eliminate the possibility t...

  4. Hydrochemical behaviour of compacted swelling soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of compacted soils in engineering practice is very wide spread, especially in geotechnical and environmental engineering. These soils can be submitted to moisture variations, i.e. suction changes, that induce volumetric deformations. The main objective of this thesis is to study the suction influence on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of a compacted swelling soil in the range of suction comprised between 0 and 300 MPa. For this purpose, two kinds of suction controlled odometers, using the osmotic method or the salt solutions technique. were employed. The salt solutions odometer were especially developed for this study. The samples were made with a compacted swelling material. The experimental study has shown that the apparent pre-consolidation stress reaches a constant value above a suction of 38.9 MPa. The slope of the plastic compression curve had a maximum value under a suction of 4 MPa. These results seem to be related to the initial internal structure of the samples. Then the influence of complex hydro-mechanical stress paths was also investigated. It appeared that the results of the tests conducted on a swelling soil depended on the followed stress path even if a wetting is performed during a test. In the last part of this work, the test results were interpreted with the Barcelona Basic Model and Barcelona Expansive Model (BExM). The possibilities of both models were compared. To interpret the test results with the BExM, it is necessary to conduct some additional tests that include a suction cycle and also a constant volume test with a suction controlled wetting. As a conclusion, two suction controlled experimental devices were developed and validated in this study. With these devices, the influence of structure and suction on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of a compacted swelling soils was characterised. (author)

  5. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... confirm the diagnosis. It may also show other knee injuries. First aid for an ACL injury may include: ...

  6. [Extensive swelling reaction after a pentavalent vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gébus, M; Barbier, C; Bost-Bru, C; Michard-Lenoir, A P; Plantaz, D

    2015-09-01

    Injection site reactions (ISRs) are quite common side effects defined by a local adverse drug reaction directly caused by a vaccine. Twenty-four hours after an intramuscular injection (in the deltoid muscle) of the diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenza type b (DTPCa-Hib) combined vaccine, a 3-year-old boy developed fever. A few hours later, local redness and swelling appeared at the injection site, with rapid extension to the entire limb, it was pain-free, and no other clinical anomalies were present. The patient received intravenous antibiotics for suspected cellulitis. The progression was favorable in 12h (apyrexia and decreased limb swelling), allowing the intravenous antibiotic treatment to be discontinued. Since the child was in excellent general health and recovery was fast, an ISR was diagnosed. Extensive limb swelling is frequent, mostly after the fourth dose of DTPCa-Hib. Deltoid muscle injection of DTP vaccine increases the risk of ISR compared to injection in the thigh, before the age of 3 years. The introduction of acellular pertussis vaccine decreased the risk of general side effects but may increase the risk of ISR. These reactions disappear with symptomatic treatment and do not contraindicate the product. PMID:26239287

  7. Infections after reconstructions of anterior cruciate ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infections after anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions are rare, but, on the other hand, they are difficult to be treated. The aim of this study was to analyze causes of infections, risk factors, diagnostics, and possibilities of their prevention. Material and Methods. Seventeen deep infections (1.2% were found in 1425 patients who had undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Fifteen patients were males and two were females. Out of 475 professional athletes nine (1.9% had this postoperative complication. Eleven patients with septic arthritis were allergic to penicillin. Three of them had immunosuppressive diseases. Results. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in eleven cases (65%, other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus groups were found in four and three patients, respectively; while one patient had infection although the punctate was negative. Out of 965 patients with the patellar tendon grafts, ten (1.03% had this complication, while the incidence was 1.52% (7/460 in those with the hamstring grafts. Fifteen infections were acute with obvious symptoms within 14 days after surgery. Severe pain, limited range of motion, swelling of the knee joint and fever were the most common symptoms, while rubor and pus developed rarely. The infection was three times more frequent in the patients who had undergone surgery lasting more than 1.5 hour. Discussion and Conclusion. The following population groups are at risk of developing septic arthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions: professional athletes, those who are allergic to penicillin, and those with immunosuppressive diseases. Staphyllococus aureus is the most common cause of infection. The patients with the hamstring autografts have a higher risk than those with the patellar tendon grafts. Preventive measures that should be performed include aseptic conditions in operative rooms, irrigation of the graft before its placement into the bone tunnels

  8. Swelling clay pellets. Elaboration and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealing structure, used in deep radioactive waste disposal, must prevent the radionuclides to diffuse to the biosphere. The main asset of pellets is their easy put in place. Yet porosity of such structures is higher and the swelling pressure lower in the structure performed with compacted blocks. As at such depth, hydraulic pressure could reach several MPa, the first goal of the study was to demonstrate that such a pressure does not alter the swelling pressure. A bibliographic study on the structural organisation of clayey media and stresses occurring in such media, associated to injection tests with high water pressure, has allowed- to validate the effective stress concept in saturated swelling clays and so to show that hydraulic pressure are not restrictive for using pellets. Different processes have also been studied to produce pellets: all of them give pellets with sizes around 20 mm and dry density higher than 1,90 g/cm3. Nevertheless, soaking test emphasised that porosity between pellets is to high to get a swelling pressure. Two approaches was then adopted to decrease this porosity: (i) mixing pellets with different sizes and (ii) mixing pellets with powder. In the first case, numerical calculation points out that, according to the processes, it would be better to use at least three different sizes to get the right porosity. in the second case, the introduction of pellets in the samples brings a new scale in the structural organisation (layer - particle - aggregate- pellet) in such a way that phenomena are more emphasized in the mixtures. Nevertheless, whatever the medium is like, the decrease of the axial and radial stresses during hydration is due to the decrease simultaneously to the increase of the swelling pressure. Finally, at same homogenized dry density heterogeneous and homogeneous samples have quite the same hydrodynamic and hydro-mechanical properties. That's why, it is suggested to describe heterogeneous media behaviour with modelling based on

  9. Water holding capacity and swelling of casein hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruif, C; Anema, Skelte G.; Zhu, Changjun; Havea, Palatasa; Coker, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The water holding capacity of casein gels was investigated by measuring the swelling and de-swelling under a variety of conditions of temperature and salt concentration. Transglutaminase cross-linked sodium caseinate (15% w/w) gels will swell in good solvents or shrink in poor solvents until an equi

  10. Synthesis and Swelling Properties of Thermosensitive Hydrogels based on Terpolymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Hua NI; Xian Yu ZENG; He HUANG

    2005-01-01

    Novel thermosensitive hydrogels based on polymerization of N-isopropyl acrylamide,Sodium acrylate, and diacetone acrylamide were synthesized. The swelling ratio and dynamic swelling were investigated. The results indicated that the hydrogels exhibited high water uptake and themosensitivity. The swelling properties and volume phase transition temperature could be adjusted by contents of the comonomers in the gels.

  11. A novel chiral phase of achiral hard triangles and an entropy-driven demixing of enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantapara, Anjan P; Qi, Weikai; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2015-11-28

    We investigate the phase behavior of a system of hard equilateral and right-angled triangles in two dimensions using Monte Carlo simulations. Hard equilateral triangles undergo a continuous isotropic-triatic liquid crystal phase transition at packing fraction ϕ = 0.7. Similarly, hard right-angled isosceles triangles exhibit a first-order phase transition from an isotropic fluid phase to a rhombic liquid crystal phase with a coexistence region ϕ ∈ [0.733, 0.782]. Both these liquid crystals undergo a continuous phase transition to their respective close-packed crystal structures at high pressures. Although the particles and their close-packed crystals are both achiral, the solid phases of equilateral and right-angled triangles exhibit spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking at sufficiently high packing fractions. The colloidal triangles rotate either in the clockwise or anti-clockwise direction with respect to one of the lattice vectors for packing fractions higher than ϕχ. As a consequence, these triangles spontaneously form a regular lattice of left- or right-handed chiral holes which are surrounded by six triangles in the case of equilateral triangles and four or eight triangles for right-angled triangles. Moreover, our simulations show a spontaneous entropy-driven demixing transition of the right- and left-handed "enantiomers". PMID:26376756

  12. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaseca, Tomas; Chahla, Jorge; Rodriguez, Gustavo Gomez; Arroquy, Damián; Herrera, Gonzalo Perez; Orlowski, Belen; Carboni, Martín

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze whether it is more frequent the presence of a decreased range of motion in the hips of recreational athletes with primary injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) than in a control group of volunteers without knee pathology. Methods: We included prospectively recreational athletes between 18 and 40 years with an acute ACL injury between January 2011 and January 2013. They were compared with a control group of volunteers recreational...

  13. Detection of radiographically occult-ankle fractures. Positive predictive value of post-traumatic soft-tissue swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of soft-tissue swelling on plain radiographs as a predictor of radiographically occult fracture, after acute ankle injury (trauma). Patients with acute ankle trauma and plain radiographic evidence of soft-tissue swelling were included in this study. Patients were excluded if ankle trauma was sustained more than 48 hours previously or if fracture was visible on plain radiographs. All subjects (n=25) underwent computed tomography (CT) of the ankle in sagittal and coronal planes. Size of soft-tissue swelling was measured from initial Antero-posterior (AP) radiographs. The subjects in the study were placed into two groups according to whether a fracture was identified on CT or not. The results identified that those subjects without a fracture demonstrated by CT, had a soft-tissue swelling of less than 12.6 mm, while those with over 17.1mm swelling, showed a fracture on CT. Twelve patients (48 per cent) had radiographically occult fractures identified with CT. Fracture sites included: Talus/Talar Dome (n=9), posterior or lateral malleolos (n=2), distal tibia/fibula (n=1). CT detected significant soft-tissue injuries in six patients (24 per cent), composed of damaged anterior talo-fibular ligament (n=4), torn flexor tendons (n=1), and damaged fibular calcaneal ligament (n=1). One patient also showed gas in the talar dome. This study concludes that presence of a large soft-tissue swelling on plain radiographs after acute ankle trauma suggests an underlying fracture. A soft-tissue swelling of >15 mm is a reasonable threshold to prompt further imaging. Helical computed tomography provides good visualisation of subtle bone injuries and may detect clinically important soft-tissue injuries. While the study has a small sample, there is clear evidence that there is a trend worth investigating. Future research will seek to investigate a larger sample. Copyright (1999) Australian Institute of Radiography

  14. Relationship between swelling and the shear modulus of irradiated metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In three alloy systems, AISI 316, the Ni-Al binary system, and the Fe-Cr-Ni ternary system, a relationship exists between the shear modulus of the unirradiated alloys and the resultant swelling observed. An alloying addition which reduces the shear modulus will subsequently reduce the irradiation-induced swelling in a solid solution hardened alloy system. The reduction in swelling is thought to be associated with the void nucleation phase of the swelling phenomenon. Thus, relative high temperature swelling behavior of the solid solution hardened alloys can be described with reasonable certainty from room temperature shear modulus measurement

  15. Swelling transition of a clay induced by heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, E L; Hemmen, H; Fonseca, D M; Coutant, C; Knudsen, K D; Plivelic, T S; Bonn, D; Fossum, J O

    2012-01-01

    Clays are of paramount importance for soil stability, but also in applications ranging from oil recovery to composites and hydrogels. Generically, clays are divided into two subclasses: macroscopically swelling, 'active' clays that have the capacity for taking up large amounts of water to form stable gels, and 'passive' or non-swelling clays; the former stabilize soils whereas the latter are known to lead to landslides. However, it has been unclear so far what mechanisms underlie clay swelling. Here, we report the first observation of a temperature-induced transition from a passive to an active, swelling clay. We propose a simple description of the swelling transition; while net attractive interactions are dominant at low temperatures so that the clay particles remain attached to each other in stacks, at higher temperatures it is energetically favourable for the clay to swell due to the entropy that is gained by counterions which are liberated during swelling. PMID:22943004

  16. Occipital Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Rare Scalp Swelling

    OpenAIRE

    Nagpal, Nitin; Bhargava, Gopal Swaroop; Singh, Bhupinder

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic pseudoaneurysm occurring in face and temple is commonly reported to occur in superficial temporal artery, and so far only four cases have reported involvement of the occipital artery. We report a case of 25-year-old male patient presented to us with a pulsatile swelling in the occipital region following a trauma at the same site 5 years ago. A CT angiogram revealed the pseudoaneurysm of the left occipital artery and was surgically excised after ligation of proximal and distal parts ...

  17. Trigonometric and Ssub(N)-symmetric solutions of triangle equations with variables on the faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General properties of triangle equations with variables on faces are discussed. The solution of triangle equations is a main point for study of different problems in quantum mathematical physics. A simple method to search for the solutions of these equations is offered. The statistical vertex model is formulated. The unitarity and crossing symmetry conditions are derived. Solutions of triangle equations for Ssub(N)-symmetric model are obtained

  18. Variability in reef connectivity in the Coral Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. M.; Kleypas, J. A.; Castruccio, F. S.; Watson, J. R.; Curchitser, E. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Coral Triangle (CT) is not only the global center of marine biodiversity, it also supports the livelihoods of millions of people. Unfortunately, it is also considered the most threatened of all reef regions, with rising temperature and coral bleaching already taking a toll. Reproductive connectivity between reefs plays a critical role in the reef's capacity to recover after such disturbances. Thus, oceanographic modeling efforts to understand patterns of reef connectivity are essential to the effective design of a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to conserve marine ecosystems in the Coral Triangle. Here, we combine a Regional Ocean Modeling System developed for the Coral Triangle (CT-ROMS) with a Lagrangian particle tracking tool (TRACMASS) to investigate the probability of coral larval transport between reefs. A 47-year hindcast simulation (1960-2006) was used to investigate the variability in larval transport of a broadcasting coral following mass spawning events in April and September. Potential connectivity between reefs was highly variable and stochastic from year to year, emphasizing the importance of decadal or longer simulations in identifying connectivity patterns, key source and sink regions, and thus marine management targets for MPAs. The influence of temperature on realized connectivity (future work) may add further uncertainty to year-to-year patterns of connectivity between reefs. Nonetheless, the potential connectivity results we present here suggest that although reefs in this region are primarily self-seeded, rare long-distance dispersal may promote recovery and genetic exchange between reefs in the region. The spatial pattern of "subpopulations" based solely on the physical drivers of connectivity between reefs closely match regional patterns of biodiversity, suggesting that physical barriers to larval dispersal may be a key driver of reef biodiversity. Finally, 21st Century simulations driven by the Community Earth System Model (CESM

  19. Optimal Triangle Stripifications as Minimum Energy States in Hopfield Nets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Jiří

    Berlin : Springer, 2005 - (Duch, W.; Kacprzyk, J.; Oja, E.; Zadrozny, S.), s. 199-204 ISBN 3-540-28752-3. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 3696). [ICANN 2005. International Conference on Artificial Neural Network s /15./. Warsaw (PL), 11.09.2005-15.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : sequential triangle strip * combinatorial optimization * Hopfield network * minimum energy * simulated annealing Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  20. Drug trafficking in and out of the Golden Triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Chouvy, Pierre-Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    The Golden Triangle is the name given to the area of mainland Southeast Asia where most of the world's illicit opium has originated since the early 1950s and until 1990, before Afghanistan's opium production surpassed that of Burma. It is located in the highlands of the fan-shaped relief of the Indochinese peninsula, where the international borders of Burma, Laos, and Thailand, run. However, if opium poppy cultivation has taken place in the border region shared by the three countries ever sin...

  1. Electromagnetic triangle anomaly and neutral pion condensation in QCD vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Gaoqing

    2015-01-01

    We study the QCD vacuum structure under the influence of an electromagnetic field with a nonzero second Lorentz invariant $I_2=\\vec{E}\\cdot{\\vec B}$. We show that the presence of $I_2$ can induce neutral pion ($\\pi^0$) condensation in the QCD vacuum through the electromagnetic triangle anomaly. Within the frameworks of chiral perturbation theory at leading small-momenta expansion as well as the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model at leading $1/N_c$ expansion, we quantify the dependence of the $\\pi^0$ condensate on $I_2$. The stability of the $\\pi^0$-condensed vacuum against the Schwinger charged pair production due to electric field is also discussed.

  2. Deformation theory and finite simple quotients of triangle groups I

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Michael; Lubotzky, Alexander; Marion, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Let $2 \\leq a \\leq b \\leq c \\in \\mathbb{N}$ with $\\mu=1/a+1/b+1/c$ be the corresponding hyperbolic triangle group. Many papers have been dedicated to the following question: what are the finite (simple) groups which appear as quotients of $T$? (Classically, for $(a,b,c)=(2,3,7)$ and more recently also for general $(a,b,c)$.) These papers have used either explicit constructive methods or probabilistic ones. The goal of this paper is to present a new approach based on the theory of representati...

  3. Anterior knee pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries

  4. Triangle Tiling IV: A non-isosceles tile with a 120 degree angle

    OpenAIRE

    Beeson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    An N-tiling of triangle ABC by triangle T is a way of writing ABC as a union of N trianglescongruent to T, overlapping only at their boundaries. The triangle T is the "tile". The tile may or may not be similar to ABC. We wish to understand possible tilings by completely characterizing the triples (ABC, T, N) such that ABC can be N-tiled by T. In particular, this understanding should enable us to specify for which N there exists a tile T and a triangle ABC that is N-tiled by T; or given N, det...

  5. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory annual report - TUNL XXIV, 1 July 1984-31 August 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research programs of the Triangle Nuclear Laboratory are discussed. These studies are based on reactions induced by polarized beam, protons, deuterons and neutrons. Individual programs are cataloged separately

  6. The anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  7. Swelling of biological and semiflexible polyelectrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a theoretical model of swelling of semiflexible (biological) polyelectrolytes in salt solutions. Our approach is based on separation of length scales which allowed us to split a chain's electrostatic energy into two parts that describe local and remote electrostatic interactions along the polymer backbone. The local part takes into account interactions between charged monomers that are separated by distances along the polymer backbone shorter than the chain's persistence length. These electrostatic interactions renormalize chain persistence length. The second part includes electrostatic interactions between remote charged pairs along the polymer backbone located at distances larger than the chain persistence length. These interactions are responsible for chain swelling. In the framework of this approach we calculated effective chain persistence length and chain size as a function of the Debye screening length, chain degree of ionization, bare persistence length and chain degree of polymerization. Our crossover expression for the effective chain's persistence length is in good quantitative agreement with the experimental data on DNA. We have been able to fit experimental datasets by using two adjustable parameters: DNA ionization degree (α = 0.15-0.17) and a bare persistence length (lp = 40-44 nm).

  8. An analysis of pressure suppression pool swell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the pressure suppression pool swell phenomenon has been carried out for a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) of Indian design. In the event of a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), the upper chamber of the containment, i.e., Drywell, would experience higher pressure because of mass and energy release from the reactor coolant system into the drywell. To alleviate the problem of drywell overpressurization, there is a large volume of water or suppression pool at the bottom of the containment where steam from the drywell could flow and condense. The present analysis models the transient air-steam mixture flow from drywell through the vent shafts, distribution headers and downcomers into the pool. After the initial vent-clearing stage, bubble growth at the exit of individual downcomers is modeled. Finally, the coalesced bubble growth and rise are modeled for groups of downcomers. For all these stages, the pool-swell and wetwell air-space pressure are also calculated. A four-equation model consisting of conservation of mixture mass, momentum, energy and noncondensible (air) mass has been used

  9. Refraction of swell by surface currents

    CERN Document Server

    Gallet, Basile

    2014-01-01

    Using recordings of swell from pitch-and-roll buoys, we have reproduced the classic observations of long-range surface wave propagation originally made by Munk et al. (1963) using a triangular array of bottom pressure measurements. In the modern data, the direction of the incoming swell fluctuates by about $\\pm 10^\\circ$ on a time scale of one hour. But if the incoming direction is averaged over the duration of an event then, in contrast with the observations by Munk et al. (1963), the sources inferred by great-circle backtracking are most often in good agreement with the location of large storms on weather maps of the Southern Ocean. However there are a few puzzling failures of great-circle backtracking e.g., in one case, the direct great-circle route is blocked by the Tuamoto Islands and the inferred source falls on New Zealand. Mirages like this occur more frequently in the bottom-pressure observations of Munk et al. (1963), where several inferred sources fell on the Antarctic continent. Using spherical ra...

  10. Swelling behavior of a simple ferritic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The swelling behavior which results from simulated fusion environment irradiation of Fe-10% Cr has been characterized with transmission electron microscopy. Specimens were bombarded at 850 K with: a triple-beam of He+, D+2, and 4 MeV Fe++ ions to 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 dpa, a dual-beam of He+ and 4 MeV Fe++ ions to 30 and 100 dpa; and a single-beam of 4 MeV Fe++ ions to 30 dpa. The helium and hydrogen injection rates were approx. 10 appm He/dpa and approx. 40 appm D/dpa. Cavities were observed for damage levels of 3 dpa and greater. The swelling was 111approx. =0.8 γ100 for these cavities. At 30 dpa, the cavities in the specimen irradiated with the single-beam technique were larger and had a lower concentration than the specimens irradiated with specimens irradiated with the dual- and triple-ion beams suggests that deuterium has an effect on the damage microstructures in Fe-10% Cr

  11. A case of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy associated with uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugahara M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Michitaka Sugahara, Takayuki Fujimoto, Kyoko Shidara, Kenji Inoue, Masato Wakakura Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: Here, we describe a patient who presented with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION and subsequently developed uveitis. Case: A 69-year-old man was referred to our hospital and initially presented with best-corrected visual acuities (BCVA of 20/40 (right eye and 20/1000 (left eye and relative afferent pupillary defect. Slit-lamp examination revealed no signs of ocular inflammation in either eye. Fundus examination revealed left-eye swelling and a pale superior optic disc, and Goldmann perimetry revealed left-eye inferior hemianopia. The patient was diagnosed with nonarteritic AION in the left eye. One week later, the patient returned to the hospital because of vision loss. The BCVA of the left eye was so poor that the patient could only count fingers. Slit-lamp examination revealed 1+ cells in the anterior chamber and the anterior vitreous in both eyes. Funduscopic examination revealed vasculitis and exudates in both eyes. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral panuveitis, and treatment with topical betamethasone was started. No other physical findings resulting from other autoimmune or infectious diseases were found. No additional treatments were administered, and optic disc edema in the left eye improved, and the retinal exudates disappeared in 3 months. The patient's BCVA improved after cataract surgery was performed. Conclusion: Panuveitis most likely manifests after the development of AION. Keywords: anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, uveitis

  12. Irradiation creep relaxation of void swelling-driven stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Swelling-driven-creep test specimens are used to measure the compressive stresses that develop due to constraint of irradiation void swelling. These specimens use a previously non-irradiated 20% CW Type 316 stainless steel holder to axially restrain two Type 304 stainless steel tubular specimens that were previously irradiated in the US Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) at 490 °C. One specimen was previously irradiated to fluence levels in the void nucleation regime (9 dpa) and the other in the quasi-steady void growth regime (28 dpa). A lift-off compliance measurement technique was used post-irradiation to determine compressive stresses developed during reirradiation of the two specimen assemblies in Row 7 of EBR-II at temperatures of 547 °C and 504 °C, respectively, to additional damage levels each of about 5 dpa. Results obtained on the higher fluence swelling-driven-creep specimen show that compressive stress due to constraint of swelling retards void swelling to a degree that is consistent with active load uniaxial compression specimens that were irradiated as part of a previously reported multiaxial in-reactor creep experiment. Swelling results obtained on the lower fluence swelling-driven creep specimen show a much larger effect of compressive stress in reducing swelling, demonstrating that the larger effect of stress on swelling is on void nucleation as compared to void growth. Test results are analyzed using a recently proposed multiaxial creep-swelling model.

  13. Conservation Narratives and Their Implications in the Coral Triangle Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Berdej

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conserving coral reefs, sustaining fisheries, and ensuring food security are multi-faceted challenges. Six nations in the Southeast Asia Coral Triangle have agreed to a region-wide framework to address these challenges through the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI. Based on a review of documentation, selected discussions and ongoing work in the region, we offer an initial assessment of narratives influencing conservation practice in the CTI. Current efforts in the CTI are framed by a crisis narrative that emphasises the importance of maintaining critical ecosystems and baseline conditions. This narrative has a strong empirical basis but it can also exacerbate a dualistic view of people and nature. However, CTI documentation and programming also reflect a recognition of linked social-ecological change and the historical co-evolution of communities and coastal-marine systems. This emerging narrative places an emphasis on building resilience to change, rather than resisting change. We do not advocate here for a single narrative with which to frame policy responses in the CTI, but rather draw attention to the ways that mainstreaming of certain narratives will have material effects on initiatives and programmes promoted in this region of globally significant marine biodiversity.

  14. The Propagation Matrix and Flavor Triangle for Cosmic Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Lingjun; Weiler, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    The Tribimaximal (TBM) ansatz for neutrino mixing has recently been invalidated. Since the TBM ansatz yielded a vanishing determinant for the neutrino propagation matrix, $\\mathscr{P}$, the door is now open for a non-vanishing determinant, i.e., for an invertible $\\mathscr{P}$, which would allow an inference of flavor ratios at cosmic sources directly from measurements at Earthly observatories. However, we show that the determinant of $\\mathscr{P}$ can still vanish if the CP-violating phase $\\delta$ is equal to a unique value determined by the three leptonic mixing angles. Validation of this result would beg for a new symmetry in the three-neutrino sector. Neutrino flavor ratios evolve according to this $\\mathscr{P}$ matrix. The evolved flavor ratios are best exhibited in a triangular flavor diagram. We prove a theorem, that the area of this Earthly flavor triangle is proportional to the determinant of the $\\mathscr{P}$ matrix. This theorem therefore relates the triangle's area to the invertiblity of $\\mathsc...

  15. A metallic carbon consisting of helical carbon triangle chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon is the basis of life on Earth and many technological applications. We computationally report an sp3-hybridization-assembled carbon allotrope constructed by helical triangle chains through the evolutionary structure prediction method. Different from the previous metallic carbon K4, this carbon, called Tri-carbon, is mechanically and dynamically stable at ambient pressure. High ring strain in the carbon triangle blocks forces the C–C bond in Tri-carbon to be a ‘bent bond’, rather than the common single bond in diamond or the π bond in graphite. Unlike the unstrained sp3-hybridization in semiconductive diamond, valence electrons in the ‘bent bond’ are recombined to form extremely anisotropic sp3-hybridized bonds, thus conferring metallicity to Tri-carbon. Under nonhydrostatic conditions, Tri-carbon shows significantly anisotropic ideal tensile and compressive strength. Tri-carbon is expected to be achieved through chemical methods, such as the synthesis of cyclopropane derivatives (e.g. triangulane and tetrahedrane). These methods eliminate the restriction of ultra-high pressure to obtain metallic carbons. (paper)

  16. Linking Leptonic CP violation to Quark Unitarity Triangle

    CERN Document Server

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-01-01

    We study the linking between the CP violating phase of the lepton sectors and the unitarity triangle of the B0 meson system. Antusch, King, Malinsky and Spinrath have shown that the quark mass matrices with the negligible 1-3 mixing give an interesting relation between the phase of the quark mixing matrices and CP violating measure phi_2(alpha). This approach is extended by considering the SO(10) GUT including the Pati-Salam symmetry, which links the Yukawa matrices of the quark sector to the one of the lepton sector. We discuss the relation of the CP violating phases between both quark and lepton sectors as well as the mixing angles. Then, the leptonic CP violating phase is predicted in terms of the angle of the unitarity triangle of the B0 meson system. The leptonic CP violating phase deltaPMNS is predicted in the region -74 to -89, which is the consistent with the recent T2K results. Our predicted phase is sensitive to phi_2(alpha) and phi_3(gamma). These predictions will be clearly tested in the future ne...

  17. Is chronic groin pain a Bermuda triangle of sports medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šebečić, Božidar; Japjec, Mladen; Janković, Saša; Vencel Čuljak; Dojčinović, Bojan; Starešinić, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Chronic groin pain is one the most complex conditions encountered in the field of sports medicine. Conservative treatment is long lasting and the result of treatment is often uncer- tain and symptom recurrences are common, which can be very frustrating for both the patient and the physician. The complex etiology and uncertainties during treatment of chronic groin pain is the reason why some authors call it the Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. In our prospective, 7-year study, 114 athletes with chronic groin pain resistant to conservative therapy were treated surgically. In 109 athletes with sports hernia, we performed nerve neurolysis along with resection of the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve and we also reinforced the posterior wall of inguinal canal using a modified Shouldice technique. In 26 athletes that had concomitant adductor tendinosis and in 5 athletes with isolated tendinosis we performed tenotomy. Eighty-one of 83 patients with isolated sports hernia returned to sports within a mean of 4.4 (range, 3-16) weeks. Thirty-one athletes with adductor tenotomy returned to sports activity within a mean of 11.8 (range, 10-15) weeks. If carefully diagnosed using detailed history taking, physical examination and correct imaging techniques, chronic groin pain can be treated very successfully and quickly, so it need not be a Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. PMID:25868316

  18. Multidisciplinary management of anterior diastemata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Herkrath, Fernando José; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino;

    2007-01-01

    Anterior diastemata may compromise the harmony of a patient's smile. Consideration of etiologic factors, previous gingival conditioning, and individual treatment planning are essential in the proper management of anterior diastemata. An integrated orthodontic-restorative approach may enhance the...... aesthetic results when orthodontic therapy itself is not feasible. This article presents integrated orthodonticrestorative solutions of anterior diastemata, associated with the conditioning of the gingival tissue with composite resin, and discusses the most relevant aspects related to their etiology and...

  19. Swelling Behaviors of Polyaniline-Poly(Acrylic Acid) Hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG You-wei; ZHAO Jiong-xin; LI Xiao-feng; TAO Yong; WU Cheng-xun

    2005-01-01

    Using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) aqueous solution, NaOH aqueous solution, aniline(An) and ammonim persulfate(APS), PAn-PAA hydrogels with a semi-interpenetrating structure connected by physical interlocks, chemical ion bonds and hydrogen bonds wcre prepared. The swelling properties of the hydrogels in solutions of different pH values(adjusted by adding NaOH or HCl) were studied. All the hydrogels prepared have similar swelling curves (the curves of equilibrium swelling ratio vs. pH value) and reach their maximum swelling at pH of 8 - 10. The maximum swelling ratio of the hydrogels is dependent on composition, including molecular weight of PAA, polymer content of the hydrogel,and molar ratios of AA to An, APS to An, and NaOH to AA.And the compositional dependence of the swelling capacity of PAn-PAA hydrogels was also studied.

  20. Suppression pool swell analysis. Special report. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambre, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamic response of a Mark I pressure suppression system during the early air discharge phase of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is studied mathematically. The mathematical analysis of the surface swell caused by the initial discharge, located a finite depth below the free surface, is described in detail with the surface elevation shape as a function of time being one of the results. The initial approach considers the case of an infinite pool with the approach progressing to vertical boundary walls and finally to the semicircular pool cross section of the Mark I pressure suppression system. This analysis is valid for the time interval before the free surface impacts any structure.

  1. Suppression pool swell analysis. Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic response of a Mark I pressure suppression system during the early air discharge phase of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is studied mathematically. The mathematical analysis of the surface swell caused by the initial discharge, located a finite depth below the free surface, is described in detail with the surface elevation shape as a function of time being one of the results. The initial approach considers the case of an infinite pool with the approach progressing to vertical boundary walls and finally to the semicircular pool cross section of the Mark I pressure suppression system. This analysis is valid for the time interval before the free surface impacts any structure

  2. Dual swelling mechanism model for saturated and unsaturated compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the current concept of repository for radioactive waste disposal, compacted bentonite as well as bentonite-based material will be used as an engineered barrier mainly for inhibiting migration of radioactive nuclides. Since compacted bentonite swells when it is saturated, dry density of compacted bentonite will be redistributed and container of radioactive wastes will move during infiltration of underground water. Accurate evaluation of these events is effective in decreasing uncertainty in long term safety evaluation of radioactive waste facilities. However, sufficient evaluation is not conducted because behaviour of bentonite material during saturation process is not clarified sufficiently. Thus, stress-strain model of bentonite material during saturation process is proposed and applicability of the model is investigated. It is well known that compacted bentonite swells with large deformation by infiltration of water. Swelling behaviour of bentonite is mainly attributable to osmotic pressure caused by the difference between concentration of ions inside of montmorillonite flakes and that outside of montmorillonite flakes. Thus, swelling which is attributable to osmotic pressure is named 'swelling by osmotic pressure' here. By contrast, unsaturated ordinary clay swells or shrinks during infiltration of water without effect of osmotic pressure. Since this phenomenon is mainly attributable to reduction of suction during infiltration of water, it is reasonable to assume that unsaturated bentonite swells or shrinks during infiltration of water by reduction of suction. Thus, swelling which is attributable to reduction of suction is named 'swelling by reduction of suction' here. It is assumed in this paper that swelling by osmotic pressure occurs when bentonite is fully saturated, while swelling by reduction of suction occurs when bentonite is unsaturated. Swelling deformation under a constant vertical load is measured

  3. Radiation swelling of emitters in nuclear thermoemission converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, V.S.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model is proposed for the radiation swelling of emitters in nuclear thermoemission converters. This model takes into account the temperature gradients and concentrations of uranium decay products along the emitter cross-section, and also the external pressure and the simultaneous action of various mechanisms of swelling. In the particular case of swelling caused by an increase in gaseous pores, a solution is obtained for this model that is in qualitative agreement with the experiment data.

  4. Approach for Measuring Swelling Stress of Buffer Backfilling Material

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Zhang; Huyuan Zhang; Suli Cui; Lingyan Jia

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of swelling stress of buffer backfilling material have been studied by forcebalance method and constant volume test method in this paper. The constant volume test apparatus was designed by the authors. Results show that swelling stress changing with time is a little different between the two methods. The value of swelling stress measured by constant volume test is more accurate; besides, uptaking water with time could also be monitored by constant volume test. The constant...

  5. Mechanically Robust, Negative-Swelling, Mussel-Inspired Tissue Adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Devin G.; Grace G. Bushnell; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2012-01-01

    Most synthetic polymer hydrogel tissue adhesives and sealants swell considerably in physiologic conditions, which can result in mechanical weakening and adverse medical complications. Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of mechanically tough zero- or negative-swelling mussel-inspired surgical adhesives based on catechol-modified amphiphilic poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers. The formation, swelling, bulk mechanical, and tissue adhesive properties o...

  6. Midface swelling reveals nasofrontal dermal sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasofrontal dermal sinuses are very rare and generally occur in children. This congenital malformation can be revealed by midface swelling, which can be complicated by local infection or neuromeningitis. Such complications make the dermal sinus a life-threatening disease. Two cases of nasofrontal dermal sinuses are reported in this work. The first case is an 11-month-old girl who presented with left orbitonasal soft tissue swelling accompanied by inflammation. Physical examination found fever, left orbitonasal thickening, and a puncture hole letting out pus. Computed tomography revealed microabscesses located at the left orbitonasal soft tissues, a frontal bone defect, and an intracranial cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the transosseous tract between the glabella and the brain and affirmed the epidermoid nature of the intracranial cyst. The second case is a 7-year-old girl who presented with a nasofrontal non-progressive mass that intermittently secreted a yellow liquid through an external orifice located at the glabella. MRI revealed a cystic mass located in the deep layer of the glabellar skin related to an epidermoid cyst with a nasofrontal dermal sinus tract. In both cases, surgical excision was performed, and pathological confirmation was made for the diagnoses of dermal sinuses. The postoperative course was favorable. Through these cases, the authors stress the role of imaging methods in confirming the diagnosis and looking for associated cysts (dermoid and epidermoid) to improve recognition of this rare disease. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentations, imaging manifestations, and most common sites of occurrence of this malformation are needed to formulate a differential diagnosis.

  7. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper determines the efficacy of MR imaging in evaluation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) following reconstructive surgery. Forty-three MR examinations were performed in 33 patients who had undergone previous arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with patellar bone-tendon- bone autografts (postoperative period, 1-24 months; mean, 5.2 months). Of the 40 studies performed in clinically stable knees (30 patients), MR demonstrated a well-defined, signal void ACL graft in 36. Of the three studies performed in three patients with clinical ACL laxity or suspected tear, the neoligament was of intermediate definition in one and nondiscernible in the other two. As in the native knee, buckling of the PCL was suggestive of ACL insufficiency. Bone tunnel placement, patellar tendon changes, and joint effusions were also evaluated

  8. Anterior hip pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, J W

    1999-10-15

    Anterior hip pain is a common complaint with many possible causes. Apophyseal avulsion and slipped capital femoral epiphysis should not be overlooked in adolescents. Muscle and tendon strains are common in adults. Subsequent to accurate diagnosis, strains should improve with rest and directed conservative treatment. Osteoarthritis, which is diagnosed radiographically, generally occurs in middle-aged and older adults. Arthritis in younger adults should prompt consideration of an inflammatory cause. A possible femoral neck stress fracture should be evaluated urgently to prevent the potentially significant complications associated with displacement. Patients with osteitis pubis should be educated about the natural history of the condition and should undergo physical therapy to correct abnormal pelvic mechanics. "Sports hernias," nerve entrapments and labral pathologic conditions should be considered in athletic adults with characteristic presentations and chronic symptoms. Surgical intervention may allow resumption of pain-free athletic activity. PMID:10537384

  9. Counterion adsorption effects on the swelling pressure in clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greathouse, J.A.; McQuarrie, D.A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The effects arising due to counterion adsorption in interacting planar electrical double layers is studied using modified Gouy-Chapman theory. The conditions used here model clay swelling experiments that have shown a strong dependence on the choice of counterion. The results show that the swelling pressure between charged plates depends on counterion adsorption, but they do not explain the experimental data. If the adsorption is strong enough, the swelling pressure becomes so small that it is unaffected by the plate separation. The swelling pressure is also affected by the bulk electrolyte concentration, although for a given adsorption parameter the adsorbed charge density is independent of ion concentration.

  10. Spherical f-Tilings by Scalene Triangles and Isosceles Trapezoids, Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catarina P. AVELINO; Altino F. SANTOS

    2012-01-01

    The study of the dihedral f-tilings of the sphere S2 whose prototiles are a scalene triangle and an isosceles trapezoid was initiated in a previous work.In this paper we continue this classification presenting the study of all dihedral spherical f-tilings by scalene triangles and isosceles trapezoids in some cases of adjacency.

  11. 76 FR 17327 - 100th Anniversary of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-7497 Filed 3-28-11... the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On March 25, 1911, a fire spread through the cramped floors of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory...

  12. Revisiting the Pink Triangle Exercise: An Exploration of Experiential Learning in Graduate Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Greg L.

    2014-01-01

    The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…

  13. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and E-poly antioxidant-infused technology during a hip replacement through the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR- ... Dr. Keith Berend perform an anterior approach total hip replacement with the patient on a regular OR ...

  14. Shape recognition of profiled fibers using triangle-area representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triangle-area representation (TAR) is a multiscale method for shape depiction. In this paper, we proposed an ameliorative TAR method for high shape discrimination power, and implemented it for convexity and concavity detection and characterization for cross-section shape analysis of profiled fibers. Positive and negative TAR outputs were processed by an average filter and then accumulated to obtain two separate histograms. From the histograms, the number and positions of the convex or concave corners on a fiber contour can be determined, and the range and extent of each convexity or concavity can be calculated for more quantitative shape analysis. These parameters provide basic shape information for fiber classification and inspection, and are also helpful for detecting and separating adherent boundaries in the image. (paper)

  15. Relative log-concavity and a pair of triangle inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yaming

    2010-01-01

    The relative log-concavity ordering $\\leq_{\\mathrm{lc}}$ between probability mass functions (pmf's) on non-negative integers is studied. Given three pmf's $f,g,h$ that satisfy $f\\leq_{\\mathrm{lc}}g\\leq_{\\mathrm{lc}}h$, we present a pair of (reverse) triangle inequalities: if $\\sum_iif_i=\\sum_iig_i<\\infty,$ then \\[D(f|h)\\geq D(f|g)+D(g|h)\\] and if $\\sum_iig_i=\\sum_iih_i<\\infty,$ then \\[D(h|f)\\geq D(h|g)+D(g|f),\\] where $D(\\cdot|\\cdot)$ denotes the Kullback--Leibler divergence. These inequalities, interesting in themselves, are also applied to several problems, including maximum entropy characterizations of Poisson and binomial distributions and the best binomial approximation in relative entropy. We also present parallel results for continuous distributions and discuss the behavior of $\\leq_{\\mathrm{lc}}$ under convolution.

  16. Value Triangles in the Management of Building Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate value triangles and their implementation in the management of building projects. The paper is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for Danish....... The conclusion is that DR’s buildings have a strong focus on value and fulfilment of intentions. This is not surprising as DR is a public service broadcasting corporation. This means that the buildings on one side have to be high-tech production facilities and on the other side shall represent a cultural...... and maintaining project integrity with the right balance between value management and resource management throughout the project....

  17. Simulating arbitrary-geometry ultrasound transducers using triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1996-01-01

    -echo field. The spatial impulse response has only been determined analytically for a few geometries and using apodization over the transducer surface generally makes it impossible to find the response analytically. A popular approach to find the general field is thus to split the aperture into small...... number of transducers can be defined and their properties manipulated. The program can calculate all types of ultrasound fields, and can also be used for simulating B-mode and color flow images. Both the focusing and apodization can be set to be dynamic with respect to time, and it is thus possible to......-field response of a rectangle, as the triangle equations are far more complicated. This approach is therefore best suited for accurate modeling of fields, whereas the rectangle program is better suited to make fast simulated images, since contributions from many scatterers are summed here and the error is...

  18. Elementary hyper-trigonometry of the particle triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the hyperspherical treatment of three-body rotational states we introduced earlier two special subsets of body-fixed hyperspherical harmonics. With their help elementary trigonometry-like identities are derived, interconnecting the familiar geometric angles of the triangle, the hyperspherical angles which intermix the geometric angles and the particle masses, and the so-called angles of the kinematic rotation which are purely mass-dependent. One set represents stringent constraints to be observed in any calculation using at the same time hyperspherical coordinates belonging to different fragmentations of the particles. The other one supports the conjecture of the nonexistence of simple coordinate transformation laws between hyperspherical angles belonging to different fragmentations. (author)

  19. Counting all equilateral triangles in {0, 1, ..., n}3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Ionascu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a procedure of counting allequilateral triangles in the three dimensional space whosecoordinates are allowed only in the set {0, 1, ..., n}3. Thissequence is denoted here by  ET(n and it has the entry A102698in "The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences". The procedure is implemented in Maple and its main idea is based on the results in [3]. Using this we calculated the values ET(n for n = 1 ... 55 extending previous calculations known for n £ 34. Some facts and conjectures about this sequence are stated. The main conjecture raised here is that limn ® ¥((ln ET(n / (ln n + 1 exists.

  20. Anterior Cervical Osteophytes Causing Dysphagia and Paradoxical Vocal Cord Motion Leading to Dyspnea and Dysphonia

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Joon Won; Park, Ji Woong; Jang, Jae Chil; Kim, Jae Wook; Lee, Yang Gyun; Kim, Yun Tae; Lee, Seok Min

    2013-01-01

    Anterior cervical osteophytes are common and usually asymptomatic in elderly people. Due to mechanical compressions, inflammations, and tissues swelling of osteophytes, patients may be presented with multiple complications, such as dysphagia, dysphonia, dyspnea, and pulmonary aspiration. Paradoxical vocal cord motion is an uncommon disease characterized by vocal cord adductions during inspiration and/or expiration. This condition can create shortness of breath, wheezing, respiratory stridor o...

  1. Food supply depends on seagrass meadows in the coral triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tropical seascape provides food and livelihoods to hundreds of millions of people, but the support of key habitats to this supply remains ill appreciated. For fisheries and conservation management actions to help promote resilient ecosystems, sustainable livelihoods, and food supply, knowledge is required about the habitats that help support fisheries productivity and the consequences of this for food security. This paper provides an interdisciplinary case study from the coral triangle of how seagrass meadows provide support for fisheries and local food security. We apply a triangulated approach that utilizes ecological, fisheries and market data combined with over 250 household interviews. Our research demonstrates that seagrass associated fauna in a coral triangle marine protected area support local food supply contributing at least 50% of the fish based food. This formed between 54% and 99% of daily protein intake in the area. Fishery catch was found to significantly vary with respect to village (p < 0.01) with habitat configuration a probable driver. Juvenile fish comprised 26% of the fishery catch and gear type significantly influenced this proportion (<0.05). Limited sustainability of fishery practices (high juvenile catch and a 51% decline in CPUE for the biggest fishery) and poor habitat management mean the security of this food supply has the potential to be undermined in the long-term. Findings of this study have implications for the management and assessment of fisheries throughout the tropical seascape. Our study provides an exemplar for why natural resource management should move beyond biodiversity and consider how conservation and local food security are interlinked processes that are not mutually exclusive. Seagrass meadows are under sustained threat worldwide, this study provides evidence of the need to conserve these not just to protect biodiversity but to protect food security. (letter)

  2. Chimpanzee tool technology in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B

    2007-04-01

    With the exception of humans, chimpanzees show the most diverse and complex tool-using repertoires of all extant species. Specific tool repertoires differ between wild chimpanzee populations, but no apparent genetic or environmental factors have emerged as definitive forces shaping variation between populations. However, identification of such patterns has likely been hindered by a lack of information from chimpanzee taxa residing in central Africa. We report our observations of the technological system of chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle, located in the Republic of Congo, which is the first study to compile a complete tool repertoire from the Lower Guinean subspecies of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes). Between 1999 and 2006, we documented the tool use of chimpanzees by direct observations, remote video monitoring, and collections of tool assemblages. We observed 22 different types of tool behavior, almost half of which were habitual (shown repeatedly by several individuals) or customary (shown by most members of at least one age-sex class). Several behaviors considered universals among chimpanzees were confirmed in this population, but we also report the first observations of known individuals using tools to perforate termite nests, puncture termite nests, pound for honey, and use leafy twigs for rain cover. Tool behavior in this chimpanzee population ranged from simple tasks to hierarchical sequences. We report three different tool sets and a high degree of tool-material selectivity for particular tasks, which are otherwise rare in wild chimpanzees. Chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle are shown to have one of the largest and most complex tool repertoires reported in wild chimpanzee populations. We highlight new insights from this chimpanzee population to our understanding of ape technological systems and evolutionary models of tool-using behavior. PMID:17194468

  3. REGIONAL TOURISM COOPERATION IN TRIANGLE ZONE OF LIAONING PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Jiang-zhi

    2005-01-01

    Strengthening the regional tourism cooperation is the requirement of both tourism development and tourist competition drive. On the one hand, resources, products, market and infrastructure in tourism are characteristics of half-public goods, which are the externalities. On the other hand, tourism competition has evolved from individual scenic spot, or firm competition to regional competition, which also requires urgent regional tourism cooperation. In recent years, the regional economic cooperation has been becoming popular in the world. The triangle tourism zone of Liaoning Province, constituted by Shenyang, Dalian and Dandong, is the core region of Liaoning tourism system. This regional tourism cooperation has been raised for a long time, but has not made substantial progress as yet. In recent years, the strategic cooperation among them has been becoming urgent, along with the change of tourism competition models, as well as the desire for building a Northeast Asia tourist economy circle. Based on literature, this paper establishes a conceptual frame of regional tourism cooperation and applies it in the analysis of the strategic tourism cooperation of Liaoning Province's golden triangle zone. This paper firstly examines both qualifications and motives concerning with cooperation among the three cities, and believes that the biggest difficulties involve traditional ideas, administrative institutions, communications, economic performances, time constraints, and more overlap among their tourist markets. Then this paper continues to construct a cooperating mechanism, including participant arrangements, construction of operating mechanism and construction of assisting mechanism. At last, this paper proposes approaches to the strategic cooperation such as introducing Xiuyan County, strategic integration and developing differentiated and complemented tourism products.

  4. Neutron noise simulation by GFEM and unstructured triangle elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We develop a 2-D, 2-group neutron noise simulator based on GFEM. ► The spatial discretization is performed using unstructured triangle elements. ► The effects of fluctuations in diffusion coefficient on results are investigated. ► The developed code can be applied for both rectangular and hexagonal reactor cores. ► We find that the developed code is reliable tool for neutron noise calculation. - Abstract: In the present study, the neutron noise, i.e. the stationary fluctuation of the neutron flux around its mean value, is calculated in 2-group forward and adjoint diffusion theory for both hexagonal and rectangular reactor cores. To this end, the static neutron calculation is performed at the first stage. The spatial discretization of equations is based on linear approximation of Galerkin Finite Element Method (GFEM) using unstructured triangle elements. Using power iteration method, forward and adjoint fluxes with the corresponding eigenvalues are obtained. The results are then benchmarked against the valid results for BIBLIS-2D and IAEA-2D benchmark problems and DONJON computer code. The dynamic calculations are performed in the frequency domain which leads to reducing the dimension of the variable space of the noise equations. The forward/adjoint noise in two energy group is obtained by assuming the neutron noise source as an absorber of variable strength type. The neutron noise induced by a vibrating absorber type of noise source is also obtained from the calculated adjoint Green's function. Comparison of the calculated neutron noise at zero frequency with the results of static calculation, and utilizing the results of adjoint noise calculations are two different procedures to validate the neutron noise calculations.

  5. Effects of Heterogeneous Sink Distribution on Void Swelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Volobuyev, A. V.; Gann, V. V.;

    1986-01-01

    different shells by a finite-difference method. From these concentrations the local and the average swelling rate and the dependence of this effect of the heterogeneities in sink distribution on swelling rate and the dependence of this effect on various structural parameters are investigated....

  6. Contribution to swelling analysis in ceramic nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a swelling phenomenological model containing several experimental observation is presented. Observations such as dissolution and redi solution of gas atoms, bubble nucleations in defects, dislocations and grain boundary, bubbles migration and coalescence are included. The model gives a bubbles distribution according to their size and position the swelling rate is calculated through the bubble distribution changes. (Author) 17 refs

  7. Ageing effects on swelling behaviour of compacted GMZ01 bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ageing effects on compacted GMZ01 bentonite are investigated. • Swelling property decreases with ageing and influenced by initial conditions. • Ageing effects are mainly attributed to the bonding effects and the hydration of smectites. - Abstract: Ageing effects on the swelling properties of compacted GMZ01 bentonite are investigated in this paper. Samples were compacted to prescribed dry densities and water contents and kept for ageing under constant volume and K0 confined conditions for target days of 0, 1, 7, 15, 30 and 90. Then, swelling deformation and swelling pressure tests were performed on the aged samples. Results indicate that both the swelling deformation and swelling pressure decrease with ageing time, with a more significant decrease at the first few days of ageing. Ageing effects are more pronounced for samples with large dry density and high water content. At the same initial dry density and water content, samples aged under constant volume conditions show much smaller decrease of swelling pressure compared to that of samples aged under K0 confined conditions. The decrease of swelling potential of samples with ageing days is mainly attributed to the bonding effects and the internal redistribution of water within the bentonite, which was confirmed by the changes of microstructure of samples with ageing

  8. Directional control of diffusion and swelling in megamolecular polysaccharide hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, G; Okeyoshi, K; Okajima, M K; Kaneko, T

    2016-07-01

    Directional control of diffusion and swelling in megamolecular polysaccharide hydrogels is demonstrated by focusing on the anisotropic structures for water absorption. Due to the presence of a layered structure in the hydrogel, the directional control for diffusion parallel to the planar direction and swelling in the lateral direction are possible. PMID:27223843

  9. Voltage Sag and Swell Generator with Thyristor Controlled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, T. B.; Kwon, G. H.; Chung, Y. H.; Lee, J.; Lim, G. Y. [LG Industrial Systems Co.Ltd, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes a new economical voltage sag and swell generator suitable to the evaluations of high power custom power devices such as DVR (Dynamic Voltage Restorer) and DSTATCOM (Dynamic Static Compensator). This system was designed to generate the several power quality disturbances in MVA Power ratings - voltage sag and swell, under voltage, over voltage and harmonic distortions. The basic idea for voltage sag and swell is to use the voltage drop across a reactor, while the voltage swell is to use the step-up transformer and the TCR(Thyristor Controlled Reactor). In this paper, two identical 3 phase TCRs and a step-up transformer with tap changer are used. Additional harmonic filters are added to reduce the voltage distortion when TCRs are operated. Simulation results are given for several cases of voltage sag and swell generations. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Ocean swell within the kinetic equation for water waves

    CERN Document Server

    Badulin, Sergei I

    2016-01-01

    Effects of wave-wave interactions on ocean swell are studied. Results of extensive simulations of swell evolution within the duration-limited setup for the kinetic Hasselmann equation at long times up to $10^6$ seconds are presented. Basic solutions of the theory of weak turbulence, the so-called Kolmogorov-Zakharov solutions, are shown to be relevant to the results of the simulations. Features of self-similarity of wave spectra are detailed and their impact on methods of ocean swell monitoring are discussed. Essential drop of wave energy (wave height) due to wave-wave interactions is found to be pronounced at initial stages of swell evolution (of order of 1000 km for typical parameters of the ocean swell). At longer times wave-wave interactions are responsible for a universal angular distribution of wave spectra in a wide range of initial conditions.

  11. Dynamics of swelling and drying in a spherical gel

    CERN Document Server

    Bertrand, Thibault; Mukhopadhyay, Shomeek; MacMinn, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    Swelling is a volumetric-growth process in which a porous material expands by spontaneous imbibition of additional pore fluid. Swelling is distinct from other growth processes in that it is inherently poromechanical: Local expansion of the pore structure requires that additional fluid be drawn from elsewhere in the material, or into the material from across the boundaries. Here, we study the swelling and subsequent drying of a sphere of hydrogel. We develop a dynamic model based on large-deformation poromechanics and compare the predictions of the model with a series of experiments performed with polyacrylamide spheres. We use the model and the experiments to study the complex internal dynamics of swelling and drying, and to highlight the fundamental differences between these two processes. Although we assume spherical symmetry, the model also provides insight into the transient patterns that form and then vanish during swelling as well as the risk of fracture during drying.

  12. Swelling behavior of PEMFC during conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Parrondo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric cation exchange membranes (PEMFC are used in fuel cell technology. These membranes act as a physical barrier between anode and cathode, but diffusion through the membrane should allow protons to be carried from anode to cathode at a rate sufficient to supply energy requirements. They avoid any direct reaction of oxygen and hydrogen that would diminish fuel cell efficiency. Membranes have to be conditioned before use. This conditioning step changes membrane counterions and modifies their water content, which has an effect on their diffusion coefficients. In order to analyse and quantify the effect of conditioning techniques on membrane performance various experiments with Nafion 117 cation exchange membranes were carried out. Membranes were conditioned using various methods to change the charged cation in the membrane. The reactives used were ultrapure water, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide, sodium chloride, potassium chloride and ethylene glycol, all at room temperature. Some conditioning methods were carried out using solvents heated to 100 ºC. Water content was indirectly monitored by measuring membrane swelling. Results show that membrane conditioning with strong acids followed by treatment with water increases membrane water content by about 5%. Using high-temperature treatment the water content also increases. Water uptake or release from membranes is analysed in terms of water activity.

  13. Imaging of traumatic injury and impingement of anterior knee fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapègue, F; Sans, N; Brun, C; Bakouche, S; Brucher, N; Cambon, Z; Chiavassa, H; Larbi, A; Faruch, M

    2016-01-01

    Fat is not just used by the body as bulk tissue. In addition to its role in storing energy and regulating hormone action, fat is used in some parts of the body for its mechanical properties. The anatomy of anterior knee fat is more complex than it appears at first sight and is capable of withstanding considerable compressive and shear stress. Specific lesions occur when such mechanical stress exceeds the physiological limits and are yet little known. Superficial fat can be the site of either acute injury by closed degloving called the Morel-Lavallée lesion or chronic injury, when subject to repeat excessive shear forces, due to more complex and less well-defined disruptions that result in pseudo-bursitis. There are three main anterior, intracapsular and extrasynovial fat pads in the knee joint, which are the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) or Hoffa's fat pad, the quadriceps fat pad and the prefemoral fat pad. The IFP plays an important role as a mechanical shock absorber and guides the patella tendon and even the patella itself during flexion-extension movements. In response to repeated excessive stress, an inflammatory reaction and swelling of the IFP is first observed, followed by a fibrotic reaction with metaplastic transformation into fibrous, cartilaginous or bone tissue. More rarely, the two other deep fat pads (quadriceps and prefemoral) can, if subject to repeated stress, undergo similar restructuring inflammatory reactions with metaplasia resulting in tissue hardening, anterior pain and partial loss of function. PMID:27118690

  14. An Infinity of Different Triangle Types: On the Chemistry of Plato's Timaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Visintainer

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Francis Cornford's assertion that there must be a smallest elemental triangle in the Platonic chemistry of the Timaeus is overturned in this paper. I show that, according to Plato, there need not be such a triangle and there might be a potentially infinite amount of elemental triangles. In doing so, I follow the interpretation of the Platonic chemistry first proposed by Bruins. Finally, I draw some conclusions with regard to Plato's relationship to atomism and modern chemistry.

  15. On the maximum number of isosceles right triangles in a finite point set

    CERN Document Server

    Ábrego, Bernardo M; Roberts, David B

    2011-01-01

    Let $Q$ be a finite set of points in the plane. For any set $P$ of points in the plane, $S_{Q}(P)$ denotes the number of similar copies of $Q$ contained in $P$. For a fixed $n$, Erd\\H{o}s and Purdy asked to determine the maximum possible value of $S_{Q}(P)$, denoted by $S_{Q}(n)$, over all sets $P$ of $n$ points in the plane. We consider this problem when $Q=\\triangle$ is the set of vertices of an isosceles right triangle. We give exact solutions when $n\\leq9$, and provide new upper and lower bounds for $S_{\\triangle}(n)$.

  16. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Taperloc Microplasty stem and E-poly antioxidant-infused technology during a hip replacement through the anterior supine ... renewed interest at this time due to several advantages that it brings. The approach that is performed ...

  17. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an anterior approach total hip replacement with the patient on a regular OR table supine. My name ... less invasive without being small incision surgery. Obese patients can be easier due to less distribution of ...

  18. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it to have any real negative or deleterious effect by removing the anterior capsule. Now I would ... is what happens with one of the competitive designs. Like I told you, I just take a ...

  19. Anterior approach for knee arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To develop a new method of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) of the knee using an anterior approach analogous to the portals used for knee arthroscopy.Design. An anterior approach to the knee joint was devised mimicking anterior portals used for knee arthroscopy. Seven patients scheduled for routine knee MRA were placed in a decubitus position and under fluoroscopic guidance a needle was advanced from a position adjacent to the patellar tendon into the knee joint. After confirmation of the needle tip location, a dilute gadolinium solution was injected.Results and conclusion. All the arthrograms were technically successful. The anterior approach to knee MRA has greater technical ease than the traditional approach with little patient discomfort. (orig.)

  20. Travoprost Induced Granulomatous Anterior Uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Chiam

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of granulomatous anterior uveitis caused by travoprost. Methods. Single observational case report. Results. A 71-year-old who was fit and healthy presented with bilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis 2 months after he was started on travoprost in both eyes. There was no past history of uveitis. Blood test and radiological investigation were unremarkable. Travoprost was stopped. The uveitis resolved on topical steroid treatment. A rechallenge with travoprost was att...

  1. Dynamics of swelling and drying in a spherical gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Thibault; MacMinn, Christopher W.; Mukhopadhyay, Shomeek; Peixinho, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Swelling is a fundamental process in biology, engineering, and the earth sciences. Macroscopically, swelling is a volumetric-growth process in which a porous material expands due to the spontaneous imbibition of additional pore fluid. However, swelling is distinct from other growth processes because it is inherently poromechanical: Local expansion of the pore structure requires that additional fluid be drawn from elsewhere in the material, or into the material from across the boundaries. Here, we study the swelling and subsequent drying of a sphere of hydrogel. Despite the apparent simplicity of this problem, no model has yet shown satisfying quantitative agreement with experiments in terms of the dynamics of swelling and drying. We develop a dynamic model based on large-deformation poromechanics and we compare the predictions of the model with a series of experiments performed with polyacrylamide spheres. We use the model and the experiments to study the dynamics of swelling and drying, and to highlight the fundamental differences between these two processes. Although we assume spherical symmetry, the model also provides insight into the transient patterns that form and then vanish during swelling, as well as the tendency of large spheres to fracture during drying.

  2. Anterior chamber depth during hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracitelli CPB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa Gracitelli,1 Francisco Rosa Stefanini,1 Fernando Penha,1 Miguel Ângelo Góes,2 Sérgio Antonio Draibe,2 Maria Eugênia Canziani,2 Augusto Paranhos Junior1 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Division of Nephrology, Federal University of São Paulo – UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Exacerbation of chronic glaucoma or acute glaucoma is occasionally observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD because of anterior chamber depth changes during this therapy. Purpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth and axial length in patients during HD sessions. Methods: A total of 67 eyes of 35 patients were prospectively enrolled. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured using ultrasonic biometry, and these measures were evaluated at three different times during HD sessions. Body weight and blood pressure pre- and post-HD were also measured. Results: There was no difference in the axial length between the three measurements (P = 0.241. We observed a significantly decreased anterior chamber depth (P = 0.002 during HD sessions. Conclusion: Our results support the idea that there is a change in anterior chamber depth in HD sessions. Keywords: anterior chamber, hemodialysis, axial length, acute angle-closure glaucoma

  3. Models of Hydrogel Swelling with Applications to Hydration Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Morton

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels, polymers and various other composite materials may be used insensing applications in which the swelling or de-swelling of the material in response tosome analyte is converted via a transducer to a measurable signal. In this paper, we analyzemodels used to predict the swelling behavior of hydrogels that may be used in applicationsrelated to hydration monitoring in humans. Preliminary experimental data related toosmolality changes in fluids is presented to compare to the theoretical models. Overall,good experimental agreement with the models is achieved.

  4. Influence of network topology on the swelling of polyelectrolyte nanogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, L. G.; Levin, Y.

    2016-03-01

    It is well-known that the swelling behavior of ionic nanogels depends on their cross-link density; however, it is unclear how different topologies should affect the response of the polyelectrolyte network. Here we perform Monte Carlo simulations to obtain the equilibrium properties of ionic nanogels as a function of salt concentration Cs and the fraction f of ionizable groups in a polyelectrolyte network formed by cross-links of functionality z. Our results indicate that the network with cross-links of low connectivity result in nanogel particles with higher swelling ratios. We also confirm a de-swelling effect of salt on nanogel particles.

  5. Energy, economy and development (EED) triangle: Concerns for India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A. [Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India); Samdarshi, S.K., E-mail: drsksamdarshi@rediffmail.com [Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India)

    2011-08-15

    In this paper we discuss issues involving energy security with economic growth and development that brings out (i) the dimension of physical security alternative, (ii) framework for a pan South East Asian platform to support energy security and (iii) requirement of promoting regional energy cooperation and specific energy peace initiatives. Sustaining projected economic growth rate coupled with energy security in future is a concern for all developing countries like India. The energy security of these nations is threatened by the disruption of energy supplies by ongoing energy terrorism and geopolitical conflicts in the region. India's geo-strategic position and increasing energy dependence raises concerns for its energy security. We discuss energy security, examine factors and approaches to attempt the energy security in the light of economic growth and development. - Highlights: > India's perspective on evolving energy security concepts and risks analysed. > Model in the form of EED triangle proposed. > New potential energy security alternatives proposed in the light of the model.

  6. Energy, economy and development (EED) triangle: Concerns for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss issues involving energy security with economic growth and development that brings out (i) the dimension of physical security alternative, (ii) framework for a pan South East Asian platform to support energy security and (iii) requirement of promoting regional energy cooperation and specific energy peace initiatives. Sustaining projected economic growth rate coupled with energy security in future is a concern for all developing countries like India. The energy security of these nations is threatened by the disruption of energy supplies by ongoing energy terrorism and geopolitical conflicts in the region. India's geo-strategic position and increasing energy dependence raises concerns for its energy security. We discuss energy security, examine factors and approaches to attempt the energy security in the light of economic growth and development. - Highlights: → India's perspective on evolving energy security concepts and risks analysed. → Model in the form of EED triangle proposed. → New potential energy security alternatives proposed in the light of the model.

  7. Sistem Prevensi School Violence di Madura Berbasis Galtung Conflict Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auliya Ridwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available School violence may be understood as the threat or use of physical force with the intention to cause physical injury, damage of property or intimidation of another person at school. School violence is also violence that happens outside school as a result of a social interaction among the students. With regards to their prevention, many theories and propositions have been introduced including that of Conflict Triangle theory by Johan Galtung. This paper is aimed at analyzing school violence in Madura by using this theory as a general framework of analysis. The paper will begin by providing a general overview of both the theory and the so-called carok tradition of Madura; a tradition of self-defense using traditional blade which often involves killing. Upon highlighting school violence in this island, the paper will then move on by suggesting that in order to delegitimize this violence, one must speak of preventive programs at practical level, and of deconstructing the cultural strength of carok tradition at the discursive one. We assume that once the carok tradition is being deconstructed, one would loose the cultural legitimacy of committing violence. In Madura violence is often legitimated by the culture and tradition of carok. To eradicate violence is therefore to get rid of carok tradition in the first place.

  8. Transmission probability method based on triangle meshes for solving unstructured geometry neutron transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the advanced reactor, the fuel assembly or core with unstructured geometry is frequently used and for calculating its fuel assembly, the transmission probability method (TPM) has been used widely. However, the rectangle or hexagon meshes are mainly used in the TPM codes for the normal core structure. The triangle meshes are most useful for expressing the complicated unstructured geometry. Even though finite element method and Monte Carlo method is very good at solving unstructured geometry problem, they are very time consuming. So we developed the TPM code based on the triangle meshes. The TPM code based on the triangle meshes was applied to the hybrid fuel geometry, and compared with the results of the MCNP code and other codes. The results of comparison were consistent with each other. The TPM with triangle meshes would thus be expected to be able to apply to the two-dimensional arbitrary fuel assembly

  9. Approximate Bregman near neighbors in sublinear time: Beyond the triangle inequality

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Amirali; Venkatasubramanian, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Bregman divergences are important distance measures that are used extensively in data-driven applications such as computer vision, text mining, and speech processing, and are a key focus of interest in machine learning. Answering nearest neighbor (NN) queries under these measures very important in these applications and has been the subject of extensive study, but is problematic because these distance measures lack metric properties like symmetry and the triangle inequality. In this paper, we present the first approximate nearest-neighbor (ANN) algorithms, which run in polylog(n) time for Bregman divergences of fixed dimension. To do so, we explore two properties of Bregman divergences that are vital to the analysis: a reverse triangle inequality (RTI) and a relaxed triangle inequality called mu-defectiveness. We show that even though Bregman divergences do not satisfy the triangle inequality, the above properties can be utilized to design an efficient search data structure that follows the general two-stage ...

  10. Design of Mao Tensegrity Triangles -- Successful Prediction of Stable DNA Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, William B.; Kopatsch, Jens; Constantinou, Pamela E.; Seeman, Nadrian C.

    2006-03-01

    One of the most promising motifs for crystal formation is the tensegrity triangle first developed by Mao and co-workers. This structure consists of three duplex domains ``woven'' across each other. Because the three edges of the triangle are not coplanar, it can serve as a fundamentally three-dimensional motif. This nonplanarity, however, makes the design of tensegrity triangles more complicated than most of the other DNA motifs built to date. We present a geometry-based method for estimating the strain associated with various tensegrity triangle edge lengths. Experiments confirm that the predicted low-strain structures form stably, while structures with strain larger than about 5% tend to form multimers easily.

  11. Heron三角形与Diuphantine方程%Heron Triangle and Diophantine Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仕椿; 马昌威

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study the quantic Diophantine equation (1) with elementary geometry method, therefore all positive integer solutions of the equation (1) are obtained, and existence of Heron triangle whose median lengths are all positive integer are discussed here.

  12. The relationship of irradiation creep, the local stress state and void swelling in PWR austenitic internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' Swelling-induced distortion of PWR austenitic internals has been raised as a potential issue for plant life extension. Although void swelling generates volumetric strains, it is irradiation creep that responds to the local stress state to distribute the linear strains. The situation is complicated in that swelling gradients or constraints against swelling generate stresses that drive irradiation creep which attempts to lower the stresses, but swelling rates are accelerated by the stress. Finally, the creep rate accelerates in proportion to the swelling rate, leading to a complex relationship between irradiation creep, swelling, swelling gradients arising from gradients in temperature and dpa rate, and the distribution of internal stresses. An analysis of swelling and creep data for annealed 304 and cold-worked 316 is presented to show that irradiation creep is accelerated by swelling, and that swelling is accelerated by stress. The relationship between swelling and creep is independent of the steel identity and thermo-mechanical condition. (author)

  13. Cinnamon polyphenols attenuate cell swelling and mitochondrial dysfunction following oxygen-glucose deprivation in glial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrocyte swelling is an integral component of cytotoxic brain edema in ischemic injury. While mechanisms underlying astrocyte swelling are likely multifactorial, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are hypothesized to contribute to such swelling. We investigated the protective effects of...

  14. Dihedral f-tilings of the sphere by rhombi and triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Breda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We classify, up to an isomorphism, the class of all dihedral f-tilings of S 2, whose prototiles are a spherical triangle and a spherical rhombus. The equiangular case was considered and classified in Ana M. Breda and Altino F. Santos, Dihedral f-tilings of the sphere by spherical triangles and equiangular well-centered quadrangles. Here we complete the classification considering the case of non-equiangular rhombi.

  15. An Interactive Control Algorithm Used for Equilateral Triangle Formation with Robotic Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    LI, XIANG; Chen, Hongcai

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive control algorithm, called Triangle Formation Algorithm (TFA), used for three neighboring robotic sensors which are distributed randomly to self-organize into and equilateral triangle (E) formation. The algorithm is proposed based on the triangular geometry and considering the actual sensors used in robotics. In particular, the stability of the TFA, which can be executed by robotic sensors independently and asynchronously for E formation, is analyzed in deta...

  16. Dose-response relationship of sertindole and haloperidol using the pharmacopsychometric triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Tanghøj, P; Andreasson, K; Overø, K F

    2011-01-01

    Renewed insight into dose-related effects of sertindole and haloperidol was sought by re-analysing published data for antipsychotic effect, extrapyramidal effect, and patient wellbeing - i.e., the important pharmacopsychometric triangle domains.......Renewed insight into dose-related effects of sertindole and haloperidol was sought by re-analysing published data for antipsychotic effect, extrapyramidal effect, and patient wellbeing - i.e., the important pharmacopsychometric triangle domains....

  17. Golden Root Geometry Structuring the Polyhedra and Other Forms Via Plato’s Triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiotis Chr. Stefanides

    2014-01-01

    Under Golden Root Geometry Structuring the Polyhedra and other Forms Via Plato’s Triangles, we refer to the basic geometric configurations which, as this theory contemplates, are necessary for the progressive mode of formation of the five polyhedral and the geometries involved in their sections and related circles and further to logarithms, via lines, areas and volumes. Basis of all these structures is a very special Scalene Orthogonal Triangle “Plato’s Most Beautiful”...

  18. Barriers to e-marketing adoption among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Vaal Triangle

    OpenAIRE

    N. Dlodlo; M. Dhurup

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to complement existing literature by examining the relevant barriers contributing to the non-adoption of electronic marketing practices by SMEs in the Vaal Triangle. Methodology: Primary data was collected using a quantitative research technique with the use of a structured questionnaire as the survey instrument. A total of 168 businesses were selected randomly and visited within the various municipal areas in the Vaal Triangle. These businesses wer...

  19. Analytical simulation of boiling water reactor pressure suppression pool swell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a loss-of-coolant accident, the pressure suppression pool of a boiling water reactor swells as a steam/air mixture is expelled from the drywell into the pool and large gas bubbles are formed beneath the surface. Many tests have been performed to quantify pool swell loads, but analytical methods have been limited in their ability to provide accurate loading estimates. With advancement of numerical methods, it is now feasible to numerically simulate the pool swell process. A finite difference solution algorithm is used to solve the transient imcompressible equations for the liquid flow field. Boundary conditions at the fluid-gas interface are determined using a simplified gas flow model. The program is used to simulate several pool swell tests: comparison of the simulation with test data shows good agreement

  20. Analytical simulation of boiling water reactor pressure suppression pool swell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    In a loss-of-coolant accident, the pressure suppression pool of a boiling water reactor swells as a steam/air mixture is expelled from the drywell into the pool and large gas bubbles are formed beneath the surface. Many tests have been performed to quantify pool swell loads, but analytical methods have been limited in their ability to provide accurate loading estimates. With advancement of numerical methods, it is now feasible to numerically simulate the pool swell process. A finite difference solution algorithm is used to solve the transient imcompressible equations for the liquid flow field. Boundary conditions at the fluid-gas interface are determined using a simplified gas flow model. The program is used to simulate several pool swell tests: comparison of the simulation with test data shows good agreement.

  1. Hydration swelling characteristics of needle-punched geosynthetic clay liners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A series of confined swell tests were conducted on a needle-punched geosynthetic clay liner (GCL)with tap water as the hydration medium. The effects of the static confining stress on the swelling characteristics of GCLs and the hydration time under different confining stresses were explored. Increasing the static confining stress led to: shorter hydration time; smaller final GCL height; less final GCL bulk void ratio; smaller final bentonite moisture content. The confined swell pressure determined for the tested GCL was 82.2 kPa, and the relationships between confining stress, final bulk void ratio (or final GCL height, final bentonite moisture content) were attained through the analyses of the confined swell test results in this study.

  2. Fission induced swelling of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Jeong, G. Y.; Park, J. M.; Robinson, A. B.

    2015-10-01

    Fission-induced swelling of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel meat was measured using microscopy images obtained from post-irradiation examination. The data of reduced-size plate-type test samples and rod-type test samples were employed for this work. A model to predict the meat swelling of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel was developed. This model is composed of several submodels including a model for interaction layer (IL) growth between U-Mo and Al matrix, a model for IL thickness to IL volume conversion, a correlation for the fission-induced swelling of U-Mo alloy particles, a correlation for the fission-induced swelling of IL, and models of U-Mo and Al consumption by IL growth. The model was validated using full-size plate data that were not included in the model development.

  3. Mechanically robust, negative-swelling, mussel-inspired tissue adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Devin G; Bushnell, Grace G; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2013-05-01

    Most synthetic polymer hydrogel tissue adhesives and sealants swell considerably in physiologic conditions, which can result in mechanical weakening and adverse medical complications. This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of mechanically tough zero- or negative-swelling mussel-inspired surgical adhesives based on catechol-modified amphiphilic poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers. The formation, swelling, bulk mechanical, and tissue adhesive properties of the resulting thermosensitive gels were characterized. Catechol oxidation at or below room temperature rapidly resulted in a chemically cross-linked network, with subsequent warming to physiological temperature inducing a thermal hydrophobic transition in the PPO domains and providing a mechanism for volumetric reduction and mechanical toughening. The described approach can be easily adapted for other thermally sensitive block copolymers and cross-linking strategies, representing a general approach that can be employed to control swelling and enhance mechanical properties of polymer hydrogels used in a medical context. PMID:23184616

  4. The coral triangle initiative: What are we missing? A case study from Aceh

    KAUST Repository

    Rudi, Edi

    2012-10-01

    Abstract The Coral Triangle Initiative is an ambitious attempt to conserve the marine biodiversity hotspot known as the Coral Triangle. However, the reef fauna in many nearby regions remains poorly explored and, consequently, the focus on the Coral Triangle risks overlooking other areas of high conservation significance. One region of potential significance, Aceh, Indonesia, has not been visited by coral taxonomists since the Dutch colonial period. Here we document the species richness of scleractinian corals of Pulau Weh, Aceh. We also compare the species richness of the genus Acropora at 3-5 sites in each of nine regions in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Although dominated by widespread Indo-Pacific species, the coral fauna of Pulau Weh is also the eastern and western boundary for many Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean species, respectively. We identified a total of 133 scleractinian species, of which three have been previously recorded only in the western Indian Ocean and five are presently undescribed. The mean species richness of the Acropora at Pulau Weh is similar to regions within the Coral Triangle. This high species richness plus the high proportion of endemics suggests that the Andaman Sea is of similarly high conservation value to the Coral Triangle. We suggest that an international initiative similar to the Coral Triangle Initiative is required to conserve this region, which includes the territorial waters of six countries. © 2012 Fauna & Flora International.

  5. Detailed analysis of uranium silicide dispersion fuel swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swelling of U3Si and U3Si2 is analyzed. The growth of fission gas bubbles appears to be affected by fission rate, fuel loading, and micro structural change taking place in the fuel compounds during irradiation. Several mechanisms are explored to explain the observations. The present work is aimed at a better understanding of the basic swelling phenomenon in order to accurately model irradiation behavior of uranium silicide dispersion fuel. (orig.)

  6. Scrotal Swelling as a Complication of Hydrochlorothiazide Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Nikiforov; Qurat Mansoora; Hassan Al-Khalisy; Sarah Joseph; Pramil Cheriyath

    2015-01-01

    Background. Scrotal swelling is a rare complication of acute pancreatitis with few reported cases in the literature. In this case report, we present a 59-year-old male with hydrochlorothiazide induced pancreatitis who developed scrotal swelling. Case Presentation. A 59-year-old male presented to the emergency department with sharp epigastric abdominal pain that radiated to the back and chest. On physical examination, he had abdominal tenderness and distention with hypoactive bowel sounds. Com...

  7. Lepromatous leprosy presenting as a swelling in the neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Devraj

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old electrician presented with gradually, asymptomatic swelling on left of the neck since 2 years. The swelling which was initially diagnosed as cervical lymphadenitis by the internist represented the enlarged left great auricular nerve. Cutaneous examination revealed an ill-defined, hypoaesthetic macule with minimal atrophy on the pinna of the left ear. The histopathology of the nerve showed a lepromatous neuritis with bacteriological index (BI of 5+.

  8. Lepromatous leprosy presenting as a swelling in the neck

    OpenAIRE

    Dogra Devraj; Verma Kaushal; Sood Apra; Handa Rohini

    1999-01-01

    A 25-year-old electrician presented with gradually, asymptomatic swelling on left of the neck since 2 years. The swelling which was initially diagnosed as cervical lymphadenitis by the internist represented the enlarged left great auricular nerve. Cutaneous examination revealed an ill-defined, hypoaesthetic macule with minimal atrophy on the pinna of the left ear. The histopathology of the nerve showed a lepromatous neuritis with bacteriological index (BI) of 5+.

  9. Shrinkage and swelling properties of flocculated mature fine tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Y; Van Tol, A.F.; Van Paassen, L.A.; Vardon, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the atmospheric fines drying technique, mature fine tailings (MFT) are treated with polymers and deposited in thin layers on a sloped surface for sub-aerial drying. During the whole drying period, the tailings deposits can experience rewetting during periods of rainy weather or as result of the the placement of new layers. This paper addresses the shrinkage and swelling behavior of flocculated MFT (FMFT) under drying and rewetting cycles. The shrinkage and swelling paths of tailing samples...

  10. A swelling model of LEU silicide fuel for KMRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lot of efforts have been made internationally to understand the irradiation behavior and the safety characteristics of uranium silicide fuel. One of the important irradiation performance characteristics of the silicide dispersion fuel element is the diametral increase resulting from fuel swelling. This paper represents an attempt to develop the physical model for the swelling, DFSWELL, by modelling the basic irradiation behavior observed from in-reactor experiments. The most important part of developing the swelling model is the identification of the controlling physical processes. The swelling of the silicide fuel is comprised of the volume change due to three major components; (i) the formation of an interfacial layer between the fuel particle and matrix, (ii) the accumulation of gas bubble nucleation, (iii) the accumulation of solid fission products. In this study, the swelling of the fuel element is quantitatively estimated by considering temperature, fission rate, solid fission product build-up and gas bubble behavior. The DFSWELL model which takes into account the above physical components predicts well the absolute magnitude of silicide fuel swelling in accordance with the power histories in comparison with the experimental data

  11. Effect of activation on swelling property in Ca-bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compacted bentonite is attracting greater attention as buffer material for deep geological repository of high-level radioactive waste under current design concept. Swelling behavior is a significant property in achieving the low-permeability sealing function. The potential buffer material used is a locally available clayey material known as Zhisin clay in Taiwan. Zhisin clay is a Ca-type bentonite. Experimental data indicated that the swelling potential of Zhisin clay is much lower than that of Na-bentonite due to its exchangeable cation type and capacity. To enhance the swelling potential of Zhisin clay, a cation exchange process by addition of Na2CO3 powder is introduced in this research. Addition of Na2CO3 reagent to Zhisin clay caused precipitation of CaCO3 to occur and induced a replacement of Ca2+ ions by Na+ ions on the surface of bentonite in liquid phase. Experimental results show that Na2CO3-activated Zhisin clay is superior in swelling potential to untreated Zhisin clay. Due to the ion exchange hysteresis, activated bentonite shows different type of time-swell curve from traditional sigmoid-shaped curve. The optimal amount of Na2CO3 addition is found to be 1%, and the maximum swelling strain was found to be 3 times as much as that of untreated Zhisin clay. The Na2CO3 -activated Zhisin clay exhibited improved resistance to thermal environments and behaved similar to the Na-type bentonites under different hydrothermal temperatures. (authors)

  12. Irradiation swelling in self-ion irradiated niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refractory metals and their alloys offer distinct advantages for applications in nuclear systems where high temperatures are required because they exhibit high elevated temperature strength, better corrosion resistance in liquid alkali metal coolants and better thermophysical properties than other structural materials. One of the important aspects of applications of these materials at high temperatures in irradiation environments is the neutron induced swelling. However, swelling data for these materials are limited and the current theoretical treatments of swelling are not directly applicable to refractory metal since they were developed for face centered cubic (fcc) rather than body centered cubic (bcc) materials. This paper presents initial results of an investigation of swelling mechanisms in a model bcc metal; niobium. The objective of this work is to achieve an understanding of the elevated temperature swelling in bcc metals. A theory-experiment coupling is used to achieve this goal. The neutron induced swelling is simulated by irradiation with self-ions with an accumulated dose corresponding to approx.1 x 1023 n/cm2 (50 displacements per atom, dpa) which exceeds the fluences expected in SP-100

  13. Helium-induced blistering and volume swelling in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an experimental investigation of He-induced blistering are presented. The mechanisms involved in blistering were examined by observing the microstructure of the implanted region using TEM. The volume swelling was measured as a function of the implant depth. The investigation revealed factors important in understanding the mechanisms involved in blister formation. First, a direct comparison of measured skin-thicknesses with the location of the maximum volume swelling demonstrated that the skin separates at the peak swelling depth, not at the end of the swelling profile. Second, an examination of the assumptions that have been used to predict skin-thicknesses revealed that the differences between predicted and measured skin thicknesses at low energies can be attributed to: failure to account for volume swelling in the skin, using a Gaussian approximation to the range profile, or one generated with a Monte-Carlo code, and uncertainties in the electronic stopping powers. Beyond a certain dose, the density of cavities in the peak-swelling region decreased with increasing dose; indicating that cavity coalescence does occur. A calculation of the He concentration required to fracture the load-bearing cross section between the cavities revealed that a sufficient quantity of He was available to generate the required gas pressures. These observations indicate that models based on coalescence followed by gas-driven deformation provide an accurate description of the mechanisms involved in blistering; and they can accurately predict skin thicknesses at low energies

  14. Clinics in diagnostic imaging. 141. Complete anterior cruciate ligament tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hollie M Y; Peh, Wilfred C G

    2012-09-01

    A 38-year-old man presented with right knee pain and swelling following a football injury. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear and lateral meniscal tears. The torn ACL was repaired with a graft obtained from the semitendinosus muscle, and the menisci were debrided. The mechanisms of injury to the ACL are varied and may be due to direct or indirect contact with the knee as well as with twisting injuries. Knowledge of the ACL's normal anatomy, together with MR imaging technique and understanding of the appearance of the lesion on MR examination, is crucial to aid in the identification of an ACL tear. Diagnosis of an ACL tear should be based on direct MR imaging signs, although indirect signs may be helpful, particularly in chronic tears. Other associated injuries to be aware of include meniscal and other ligamentous injuries. Normal ACL graft and post-ACL graft reconstruction complications are also briefly discussed. PMID:23023908

  15. Swelling-activated ion channels: functional regulation in cell-swelling, proliferation and apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stutzin, A; Hoffmann, E K

    2006-01-01

    physiological control. Thus, cell volume is under a tight and dynamic control and abnormal cell volume regulation will ultimately lead to severe cellular dysfunction, including alterations in cell proliferation and cell death. This review describes the different swelling-activated ion channels that participate...... as key players in the maintenance of normal steady-state cell volume, with particular emphasis on the intracellular signalling pathways responsible for their regulation during hypotonic stress, cell proliferation and apoptosis.......Cell volume regulation is one of the most fundamental homeostatic mechanisms and essential for normal cellular function. At the same time, however, many physiological mechanisms are associated with regulatory changes in cell size meaning that the set point for cell volume regulation is under...

  16. Patella fracture following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milankov Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The most frequent procedure in treatment of acute or chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL rupture is the so called bone-tendon-bone reconstruction. A transverse dislocated patella fracture is a rare complication of this procedure with an incidence of 0.23%-2.3%. In a five year period, (1998-2002, 407 arthroscopic reconstructions of the anterior cruciate ligaments were done at our Clinic, and there was only one case of patella fracture. Case report An 18-year-old female patient, a handball player, suffered an acute rupture of anterior cruciate ligament of the left knee, so arthroscopic bone-tendon-bone reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament was performed. After adequate skin incision, a bone graft was taken from the patella and upper part of trapezoid tibia, which was 25 mm long, 10 mm wide and 5 mm thick, together with a part of patellar ligament. After the remains of the anterior cruciate ligament had been arthroscopically removed, tunnels were made in tibia and femur and a graft was inserted and fixed with two metal interference screws. Knee stability was tested, and drainage was put in the knee joint. The wound was closed by layers. The quadriceps exercises and passive knee movements started immediately. Full range of movements was accomplished six weeks later when the patient started to walk with full weight-bearing on her operated leg. Three weeks later, (nine weeks after the operation, the patient has accidentally lost her balance and fell. A transverse, dislocated fracture of the left patella was diagnosed and osteosynthesis of the fractured patella with two Kirschner wires and a metallic loop was performed. Postoperatively, full range of movement was allowed. Six months later, the patient felt no pain, there was no swelling, full range of knee movement was achieved, while the Lachman Test was identical in both knees and the pivot shift test was negative. Discussion Fracture of patella after ACL reconstruction is

  17. Travoprost Induced Granulomatous Anterior Uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of granulomatous anterior uveitis caused by travoprost. Methods. Single observational case report. Results. A 71-year-old who was fit and healthy presented with bilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis 2 months after he was started on travoprost in both eyes. There was no past history of uveitis. Blood test and radiological investigation were unremarkable. Travoprost was stopped. The uveitis resolved on topical steroid treatment. A rechallenge with travoprost was attempted in one eye. The inflammation recurred in this eye only. This subsided with the cessation of travoprost alone without topical steroid. Conclusion. This is the first case report of travoprost causing granulomatous anterior uveitis. The uveitis recurred with a rechallenge. Changing the prostaglandin analogue to another topical treatment may be adequate to cease the inflammation. PMID:22606464

  18. Effect of exposure on material response of a swelling elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pervez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper reports some results from a comparative study of the behavior of fresh and exposed samples of an EPDM-type water-swelling elastomer.Design/methodology/approach: Experiments were designed and performed in line with standard ASTM test methods and in consultation with petroleum development engineers. Small test fixtures were designed and fabricated, to be used together with standard testing equipment. Elastomer response was studied for hardness, compression set and tensile set (at different temperatures and for different periods of time, tensile properties (fracture strength and percent elongation, and swelling (gradual thickness and volume change with exposure to saline solution. In the swelling test, unconfined samples and samples mounted on steel plate were tested for a total duration of 1000 hours (roughly 45 days in salt solutions of different concentrations and at different temperatures.Findings: Exposed elastomer samples (EPDM1 showed higher hardness than fresh samples (EPDM2. Compression set values of exposed samples was significantly higher than fresh ones. Tensile set values were almost the same for the two sample types after 10-min test, but were higher fort exposed elastomer after longer-duration tests. Stress-strain graphs for both sample sets were almost linear, in contrast to highly nonlinear graphs for usual rubber-type materials. Values of fracture stress and elastic modulus for exposed elastomer were noticeably higher, but percent elongation was lower. Swelling behavior showed a fluctuating trend with increasing swelling time for both elastomers. For same temperature and salinity, fresh elastomer samples yielded much more swelling than exposed samples. All of these observations indicate that such swelling elastomers lose flexibility and swelling capacity when exposed to sun and moisture, etc for extended periods of time.Practical implications: Results of this study can be used by oilfield engineers to gauge the

  19. Evaluation of stress-controlled coal swelling processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jishan; Chen, Zhongwei [Shool of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, WA, 6009 (Australia); Elsworth, Derek [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, Penn State University, PA 16802-5000 (United States); Miao, Xiexing; Mao, Xianbiao [State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Underground Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology (China)

    2010-09-01

    Stress-controlled swelling tests are normally conducted in the laboratory to characterize the evolution of coal permeability under the influence of gas sorption. Typically reductions in permeability are observed from gas-sorption-induced swelling even where effective stresses remain constant. This behavior remains enigmatic as the permeability of the porous coal is determined by the effective stress only. When these observations were interpreted, a matchstick or cubic coal model was assumed. Under this assumption, matrix swelling would not affect coal permeability because of the complete separation between matrix blocks caused by through-going fractures. This is why current coal permeability models have little success in explaining this inconsistency. It is generally believed that the reason for the failure is the inconsistency between the experimental conditions and the model assumptions. However, in this paper, it is considered that the reason may be the internal actions between coal fractures and matrixes have not been taken into consideration. In this study, a model capable of replicating this apparently anomalous behavior is developed. We consider the interactions of the fractured coal mass where cleats do not create a full separation between adjacent matrix blocks but where solid rock bridges are present. We accommodate the role of swelling strains both over contact bridges that hold cleat faces apart but also over the non-contacting span between these bridges. The effects of swelling act competitively over these two components: increasing porosity and permeability due to swelling of the bridging contacts but reducing porosity and permeability due to the swelling of the intervening free-faces. Under these conditions, a new permeability model is formulated. The new model is the key cross link that couples the multiphysics of coal-gas interactions. The formulation and incorporation of this permeability model into the multiphysics simulation of coal

  20. Pure Electric and Pure Magnetic Resonances in Near-Infrared Metal Double-Triangle Metamaterial Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhi-Shen; PAN Jian; CHEN Zhuo; ZHAN Peng; MIN Nai-Ben; WANG Zhen-Lin

    2011-01-01

    @@ We experimentally and numerically investigate the optical properties of metamaterial arrays composed of double partially-overlapped metallic nanotriangles fabricated by an angle-resolved nanosphere lithography.We demonstrate that each double-triangle can be viewed as an artificial magnetic element analogous to the conventional metal split-ring-resonator.It is shown that under normal-incidence conditions,individual double-triangle can exhibit a strong local magnetic resonance,but the collective response of the metamaterial arrays is purely electric because magnetic resonances of the two double-triangles in a unit cell having opposite openings are out of phase.For oblique incidences the metamaterial arrays are shown to support a pure magnetic response at the same frequency band.Therefore,switchable electric and magnetic resonances are achieved in double-triangle arrays.Moreover,both the electric and magnetic resonances axe shown to allow for a tunability over a large spectral range down to near-infrared.%We experimentally and numerically investigate the optical properties of metamaterial arrays composed of double partially-overlapped metallic nanotriangles fabricated by an angle-resolved nanosphere lithography. We demonstrate that each double-triable can be viewed as an artificial magnetic element analogous to the conventional metal split-ring-resonator. It is shown that under normal-incidence conditions, individual double-triangle can exhibit a strong local magnetic resonance, but the collective response of the metamaterial arrays is purely electric because magnetic resonances of the two double-triangles in a unit cell having opposite openings are out of phase.For oblique incidences the metamaterial arrays are shown to support a pure magnetic response at the same frequency band. Therefore, switchable electric and magnetic resonances are achieved in double-triangle arrays.Moreover, both the electric and magnetic resonances are shown to allow for a tunability over

  1. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during a hip replacement through the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. ... the approach are operating through an internervous and intramuscular anatomic interval. It’s not necessary to detach any ...

  2. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... got coming out in “JBJS,” the early six-week recovery is dramatically different between a direct lateral abductor splitting approach and this anterior supine approach. Let me get this head on. My experience, these patients have full leg control in about 24 hours. Yeah. They can get out of bed and ...

  3. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening and welcome to ... should know that this is done under direct vision. Yeah. You are seeing everything you’re doing. ...

  4. Dissolution/swelling behavior of cycloolefin polymers in aqueous base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Allen, Robert D.; Opitz, Juliann; Wallow, Thomas I.; Truong, Hoa D.; Hofer, Donald C.; Varanasi, Pushkara R.; Jordhamo, George M.; Jayaraman, Saikumar; Vicari, Richard

    2000-06-01

    Polycycloolefins prepared by addition polymerization of norbornene derivatives are quite different from hydroxystyrene-based polymers in terms of their interaction with aqueous base. Their dissolution kinetics monitored on a quartz crystal microbalance is not a smooth function of the ratio of the polar to nonpolar functionalities in polymer but abruptly changes from very fast dissolution to massive swelling within a narrow range of composition. The maximum swelling is a function of thickness and the entire film thickness can swell in a few seconds at > 3,000 angstroms/sec or at immeasurably fast rates. The initial concentration of a pendant carboxylic acid in polymer has to be selected to minimize swelling and the concentration of an acid-labile group to induce fast dissolution in the exposed area. Furthermore, swelling which occurs in the partially- exposed regions must be minimized by incorporating a third monomer unit or by adding a dissolution modifying agent (DMA) such as t-butyl cholate. However, the function of DMA which is also acid-labile is quite complex; depending on the matrix polymer composition and its dissolution/swelling behavior, DMA could function as a swelling suppressor or promoter and a carboxylic acid generated by acidolysis of DMA as a dissolution or swelling promoter. Photochemically generated sulfonic acid could also affect the dissolution/swelling behavior. Base hydrolysis of anhydride during development is controlled by the polarity (carboxylic acid concentration) in polymer film, which has been demonstrated in an unequivocal fashion by IR spectroscopy under the condition strongly mimicking the development process and thus could boost development contrast but could hurt performance as well. Thus, incorporation of carboxylic acid in the form of methacrylic acid, for example, in radical copolymerization of norbornene with maleic anhydride must be handled carefully as it would increase the susceptibility of the anhydride hydrolysis and could

  5. Study of sorption and swelling on block coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Shijie; Chen, Guoqing; Yang, Jianli; Shen, Wenzhong; Li, Yunmei; Niu, Hongxian; Busch, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Reducing CO2 emission into atmosphere is very important for the mitigation of global climate change. Many processes have been proposed for this purpose, including CO2 sequestration in un-minable coalbeds and enhance coalbed methane production (CO2-ECBM). Several theoretical studies and worldwide demonstration sites have illustrated the potential of the process.Most of these projects experienced permeability reduction of the coalbed with time, leading to operational difficulties because of the loss of injectability. The permeability reduction is generally considered to be caused by the coal swelling that is induced by gas sorption, because it can narrow or close the cleat of the coalbed. As a result, the migration of injected CO2 in coal pore or cleat becomes more difficult. Therefore, sorption and swelling characterizations are important issues for forecasting the performance of aimed coalbed. In this work, CO2/CH4sorption and swelling isotherms of two Chinese block coals (QS and YQ) were measured simultaneously under different temperature and pressure conditions. It was found that the swelling ratio of coal block by CO2 sorption increased with the increase of the gas sorption amount until it approached to a value of ~3 mmol-gas/g-coal and decreased slightly afterwards for both coals; while the swelling ratio of coal block by CH4 sorption increased with the increase of the gas sorption amount in the entire test region for both coals. By correlating the gas sorption amount and the corresponding swelling ratio, it was found that the swelling ratio of coal block is independent of temperature and coal type when the gas sorption amount is less than ~2mmol/g-coal. The differential profile of the swelling ratio with respect to sorption amount is appeared with a maximum value at ~1 mmol/g-coal for CH4 and at ~1.8 mmol/g-coal for CO2. Based on the theories related to gas sorption and solid surface energy, a mathematical model which correlates sorption and swelling behavior

  6. Space vector-based analysis of overmodulation in triangle-comparison based PWM for voltage source inverter

    OpenAIRE

    Modi, Manoj Kumar; Venugopal, S.; Narayanan, G.

    2013-01-01

    The equivalence of triangle-comparison-based pulse width modulation (TCPWM) and space vector based PWM (SVPWM) during linear modulation is well-known. This paper analyses triangle-comparison based PWM techniques (TCPWM) such as sine-triangle PWM (SPWM) and common-mode voltage injection PWM during overmodulation from a space vector point of view. The average voltage vector produced by TCPWM during overmodulation is studied in the stationary (a-b) reference frame. This is compared and contraste...

  7. Swelling characteristics of Gaomiaozi bentonite and its prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De'an Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gaomiaozi (GMZ bentonite has been chosen as a possible matrix material of buffers/backfills in the deep geological disposal to isolate the high-level radioactive waste (HLRW in China. In the Gaomiaozi deposit area, calcium bentonite in the near surface zone and sodium bentonite in the deeper zone are observed. The swelling characteristics of GMZ sodium and calcium bentonites and their mixtures with sand wetted with distilled water were studied in the present work. The test results show that the relationship between the void ratio and swelling pressure of compacted GMZ bentonite-sand mixtures at full saturation is independent of the initial conditions such as the initial dry density and water content, but dependent on the ratio of bentonite to sand. An empirical method was accordingly proposed allowing the prediction of the swelling deformation and swelling pressure with different initial densities and bentonite-sand ratios when in saturated conditions. Finally, the swelling capacities of GMZ Na- and Ca-bentonites and Kunigel Na-bentonite are compared.

  8. Moisture absorption and hygroscopic swelling behavior of an underfill material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Moisture absorption and diffusion of an underfill material have been determined using sorption TGA. ► In general moisture diffusion follows Fick's law, and has an Arrhenius temperature dependence. ► Moisture-induced hygroscopic swelling was determined using DMA with a moisture chamber. ► Hygroscopic swelling is significant when compared to the thermal strain caused by thermal expansion. ► Hygrothermal aging can cause additional damage in the material, which increases moisture absorption. - Abstract: In situ moisture absorption and hygroscopic swelling behavior of an underfill material used for electronic packaging have been investigated using sorption thermogravimetric analysis (sorption TGA) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) techniques under a controlled relative humidity (RH) environment. Results showed that moisture diffusion in this material can be described by Fick's diffusion law when the relative humidity is 60% or less, while at a high moisture level (85% RH), non-Fickian diffusion becomes apparent in the latter stage of the diffusion process. An increase in moisture absorption ability was observed after exposure at high temperature and high humidity level, which can be attributed to hygrothermal aging-induced damage in the material. DMA results revealed that hygroscopic swelling is significant comparing with the thermal expansion of the material. The coefficient of hygroscopic swelling (CHS) was calculated and the results showed that CHS is temperature dependent, and it increases with the increasing temperature.

  9. Scrotal Swelling as a Complication of Hydrochlorothiazide Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Nikiforov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Scrotal swelling is a rare complication of acute pancreatitis with few reported cases in the literature. In this case report, we present a 59-year-old male with hydrochlorothiazide induced pancreatitis who developed scrotal swelling. Case Presentation. A 59-year-old male presented to the emergency department with sharp epigastric abdominal pain that radiated to the back and chest. On physical examination, he had abdominal tenderness and distention with hypoactive bowel sounds. Computed tomography (CT scan of the abdomen showed acute pancreatitis. The patient’s condition deteriorated and he was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU. After he improved and was transferred out of the ICU, the patient developed swelling of the scrotum and penis. Ultrasound (US of the scrotum showed large hydrocele bilaterally with no varicoceles or testicular masses. Good blood flow was observed for both testicles. The swelling diminished over the next eight days with the addition of Lasix and the patient was discharged home in stable condition. Conclusion. Scrotal swelling is a rare complication of acute pancreatitis. It usually resolves spontaneously with conservative medical management such as diuretics and elevation of the legs.

  10. Holliday Triangle Hunter (HolT Hunter): Efficient Software for Identifying Low Strain DNA Triangular Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, W.B.

    2012-04-16

    Synthetic DNA nanostructures are typically held together primarily by Holliday junctions. One of the most basic types of structures possible to assemble with only DNA and Holliday junctions is the triangle. To date, however, only equilateral triangles have been assembled in this manner - primarily because it is difficult to figure out what configurations of Holliday triangles have low strain. Early attempts at identifying such configurations relied upon calculations that followed the strained helical paths of DNA. Those methods, however, were computationally expensive, and failed to find many of the possible solutions. I have developed a new approach to identifying Holliday triangles that is computationally faster, and finds well over 95% of the possible solutions. The new approach is based on splitting the problem into two parts. The first part involves figuring out all the different ways that three featureless rods of the appropriate length and diameter can weave over and under one another to form a triangle. The second part of the computation entails seeing whether double helical DNA backbones can fit into the shape dictated by the rods in such a manner that the strands can cross over from one domain to the other at the appropriate spots. Structures with low strain (that is, good fit between the rods and the helices) on all three edges are recorded as promising for assembly.

  11. Perceptual grouping without awareness: superiority of Kanizsa triangle in breaking interocular suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Wang

    Full Text Available Much information could be processed unconsciously. However, there is no direct evidence on whether perceptual grouping could occur without awareness. To answer this question, we investigated whether a Kanizsa triangle (an example of perceptual grouping is processed differently from stimuli with the same local components but are ungrouped or weakly grouped. Specifically, using a suppression time paradigm we tested whether a Kanizsa triangle would emerge from interocular continuous flash suppression sooner than control stimuli. Results show a significant advantage of the Kanizsa triangle: the Kanizsa triangle emerged from suppression noise significantly faster than the control stimulus with the local Pacmen randomly rotated (t(9 = -2.78, p = 0.02; and also faster than the control stimulus with all Pacmen rotated 180° (t(11 = -3.20, p<0.01. Additional results demonstrated that the advantage of the grouped Kanizsa triangle could not be accounted for by the faster detection speed at the conscious level for the Kanizsa figures on a dynamic noise background. Our results indicate that certain properties supporting perceptual grouping could be processed in the absence of awareness.

  12. Monte Carlo package for simulating radiographic images of realistic anthropomorphic phantoms described by triangle meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badal, Andreu; Kyprianou, Iacovos; Badano, Aldo; Sempau, Josep; Myers, Kyle J.

    2007-03-01

    X-ray imaging system optimization increases the benefit-to-cost ratio by reducing the radiation dose to the patient while maximizing image quality. We present a new simulation tool for the generation of realistic medical x-ray images for assessment and optimization of complete imaging systems. The Monte Carlo code simulates radiation transport physics using the subroutine package PENELOPE, which accurately simulates the transport of electrons and photons within the typical medical imaging energy range. The new code implements a novel object-oriented geometry package that allows simulations with homogeneous objects of arbitrary shapes described by triangle meshes. The flexibility of this code, which uses the industry standard PLY input-file format, allows the use of detailed anatomical models developed using computer-aided design tools applied to segmented CT and MRI data. The use of triangle meshes highly simplifies the ray-tracing algorithm without reducing the generality of the code, since most surface models can be tessellated into triangles while retaining their geometric details. Our algorithm incorporates an octree spatial data structure to sort the triangles and accelerate the simulation, reaching execution speeds comparable to the original quadric geometry model of PENELOPE. Coronary angiograms were simulated using a tessellated version of the NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso (NCAT) phantom. The phantom models 330 objects, comprised in total of 5 million triangles. The dose received by each organ and the contribution of the different scattering processes to the final image were studied in detail.

  13. Influence of seawater on swelling characteristics of bentonite buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level-radioactive-waste disposal facility can be built on the coastal area. One reason is that transportation of the wastes is easy. Groundwater in the coastal zone which flows into disposal pit contains large amount of seawater salts. So, it is important to investigate the influence of seawater on bentonite buffer material which is one of the Barrier materials in the nuclear disposal facility. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of artificial seawater on swelling pressure and swelling deformation characteristics of five typical kinds of bentonites. Various factors, such as density, montmorillonite contents, sort of exchangeable-cation of the bentonite have been investigated. This experimental works clarified the some factors for which the influence of artificial sea water on swelling characteristics of bentonite depends. Based on experimental results, a specification for the buffer material which can overcome the influence of seawater was defined. (author)

  14. Swelling behavior of bisensitive interpenetrating polymer networks for microfluidic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, A T; Zschoche, S; Rohn, M; Hempel, C; Richter, A; Appelhans, D; Voit, B

    2016-07-01

    Bisensitive interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels of temperature sensitive net-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and pH sensitive net-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) for microfluidic applications were prepared via a sequential synthesis using free radical polymerization. The IPN indicated a suitable reversible alteration of swelling in response to the change in pH and temperature. The adequate change of the hydrogel volume is a basic requirement for microfluidic applications. Using the introduced correction factor f, it is possible to determine the cooperative diffusion coefficient (Dcoop) of cylindrical samples at any aspect ratio. The determined cooperative diffusion coefficient allowed the evaluation of varying swelling processes of different network structures. The presence of the second sub-network of the IPN improved the swelling behaviour of the first sub-network compared to the individual networks. PMID:27174740

  15. Effect of radiation on bulk swelling of plutonium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that plutonium alloys present bulk swelling. More precisely, length (as measured by dilatometry) and lattice parameter (as measured by X-ray diffraction) increase with time and seems to reach saturation after a few months for the microscopic scale. This bulk swelling can be correlated to self-induced radiation due to the decay of the different plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 241Pu and 242Pu) which also induce helium that tends to forms clusters, then bubbles. Many experimental and theoretical results have already been published on this topic. The goal of this paper is to review some of the results and to propose a strategy for both experiments and modelling to try to answer some of the remaining questions regarding swelling and more generally self-irradiation defects in plutonium alloys

  16. Effect of temperature on swelling and bubble growth in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of temperature on the swelling of copper-boron alloys has been studied in the temperature range of 900-1040deg C. It is observed that beyond 1030deg C, swelling as well as the rate of bubble growth decrease. Similar characteristics of the bubble growth have been observed in aluminium-boron alloys also. At 590deg C, the bubble growth in aluminium-boron alloys is faster as compared to that at 640deg C. It thus appears that the swelling as well as the growth of the gas bubble are retarded at temperatures near the melting point in metals. Possible reasons for this kind of behaviour are discussed. (author)

  17. Synthesis of hollow polymer microspheres by dynamic swelling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollow polymer microspheres about 5 μm in diameter were synthesized by dynamic swelling method using micron- sized polystyrene spheres with positive charges on surfaces as seeds. The synthesis process included swelling by organic solvents such as toluene and divinylbenzene, polymerizing and coating. The influences of variety and dosage of organic solvents on diameter, size distribution and hole structure of hollow microspheres were investigated, and the formation mechanism of hollow microspheres was discussed. It is indicated that some volatile organic solvents, such as toluene and dimethylbenzene, are crucial to hollow structure formation. Experimental results show that, more toluene leads to larger hollow structure after swelling, and dimethylbenzene is good for hollow structure formation, owing to its low solubility. (authors)

  18. Spinal-cord swelling in acute multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the frequent involvement of the spinal cord by multiple sclerosis, reports concerning neuroradiological findings regarding these lesions have been limited; most of them have demonstrated a normal or small spinal cord. Two cases of acute paraparesis showed evidence of spinal-cord swelling on myelography and CT myelography, initially suggesting the diagnosis of an intramedullary tumor. Spinal-cord swelling was demonstrated more clearly on CT myelography than on conventional myelography. The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis was made with the aid of the CSF findings, the clinical course, and the contracting-cord sign. The ''contracting-cord sign'' means the diminution of the spinal-cord diameter in the chronic stage. Since acute multiple sclerosis may produce spinal-cord swelling simulating a tumor, careful investigations are necessary to avoid unwarranted surgical interventions. (author)

  19. Swelling/deswelling of polyacrylamide gels in aqueous NaCl solution: Light scattering and macroscopic swelling study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sivanantham; B V R Tata

    2012-09-01

    Swelling kinetics of water-swollen polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels (WSG) was investigated in various concentrations of aqueous NaCl by macroscopic swelling measurements. For lower concentration of NaCl, WSG showed exponential swelling whereas at higher concentration of NaCl it underwent deswelling at short times and exponential swelling at long times. From these studies, collective diffusion coefficient, , of the polymer network and polymer–solvent interaction parameter, , were calculated and found to decrease with increase in [NaCl]. Collective diffusion coefficients measured from dynamic light scattering (DLS) and that obtained from macroscopic swelling measurements are found to agree well. Measured ensemble-averaged dynamic structure factor (, ) for WSG and salt-swollen gels (SSG) showed an initial decay followed by a plateau at long times and it can be described by harmonically bound Brownian particle (HBBP) model. Enhanced scattering intensity at low scattering angles using static light scattering (SLS) measurements revealed the presence of inhomogeneities in PAAm gels. The reasons for increased scattering intensity of SSG over WSG gel and the linear decrease of with increase in NaCl concentration are explained.

  20. Non-breaking swell dissipation from synthethic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopa, Justin; Husson, Romain; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Collard, Fabrice; Chapron, Bertrand

    2015-04-01

    Swells have the unique ability to propagate away from their generation region with very little attenuation. Only one study exists in the ocean wave literature that measures the decay rate by following a swell with in-situ measurements along its great circle route. More recently used space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to measure the attenuation. They estimated the dissipation rate from SAR with a limited number of cases: 11 storms with 22 total events. The present work extrapolates their technique to more events since ENVISAT has collected SAR data from 2002-2012. The dissipation rate is then determined in a two step process. First swell sources are identified from density maps of back-propagated waves at their group velocity along great circles. Next a "point-source" model is assumed and the waves from all directions and frequencies are propagated forward to find matching SAR observations. Relatively small directional bins are used to group observations creating transects from a given swell event. This ensemble of tracks is the basic dataset used to calculate a more statistically robust measure of the dissipation rate. Individual tracks and the swell behavior are explored through this dataset. Our results are in agreement with previous findings and it is verified that swells are very persistent with e-folding scales larger than 20,000 km and they behave nonlinearly as a function of wave frequency. The results are discussed in terms of their implications in spectral wave models as well as identify limitations of the remotely sensed wave spectra. The wind's role on the dissipation rate cannot be determined from this analysis stressing the need for concurrent wind and wave observations.

  1. Ultrasonographic evaluation of massive abdominal wall swellings in cattle and buffaloes

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ashwani; Mohindroo, Jitender; Sangwan, Vandana; Mahajan, Shashi Kant; SINGH, Kiranjeet; Anand, Arun; Saini, Narinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Eight cows and 7 buffaloes with massive abdominal wall swellings were examined. The aim of the ultrasonographic study was to learn the contents of the abdominal wall swellings. They were divided into 4 groups: Group I (prepubic tendon rupture or hernia), Group II (fibrino-cystic swelling), Group III (abscess), and Group IV (inflammatory swelling). Palpation of the swelling in semidorsal recumbency, needle aspiration, or surgery was used to confirm the diagnosis. In animals of Groups I, II, an...

  2. Swell dissipation from 10 years of Envisat advanced synthetic aperture radar in wave mode

    OpenAIRE

    Stopa, J. E.; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Husson, R.; Jiang, H. Y.; Chapron, B.; Collard, F.

    2016-01-01

    Swells are found in all oceans and strongly influence the wave climate and air-sea processes. The poorly known swell dissipation is the largest source of error in wave forecasts and hindcasts. We use synthetic aperture radar data to identify swell sources and trajectories, allowing a statistically significant estimation of swell dissipation. We mined the entire Envisat mission 2003-2012 to find suitable storms with swells (13 < T< 18 s) that are observed several times along their propagation....

  3. Interaction of edge waves with swell on a beach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excitation of edge waves on a beach by incoming swell is considered on the basis of shallow-water model. Subharmonic resonance mechanism of interaction is analyzed by multi-scaled expansion asymptotic techniques. The generation of edge waves between wave breakers is found to have a dynamic threshold. It is defined by intensity and frequency of incoming swell, geometry of a shore zone. Nonlinear no stationary wave solutions for the envelope of interacting edge waves are described by generalized Sine-Gordon model. An infinite set of exact solutions are received by the Lamb method for the phase synchronism regime of wave's interaction

  4. The physicochemical properties of polyurethane membranes determined by swelling measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Carja, Gabriela; Apostolescu, Gabriela; Apostolescu, Nicolae

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we have dispersed SAPO-5 zeolite particles in polyurethane matrix for preparation of porous mixed matrix membranes. The goal of work is the determination of the cohesive energy density for unfilled- and zeolite - filled polyurethane membranes. Experimental determination of cohesive energy density values for the prepared membranes is obtained by measuring the swelling coefficients in water and several alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol). The solubility parameters of the membranes are also calculated. For the unfilled membranes the corresponded values of cohesive energy density and solubility parameter increase in comparison to those of the filled membranes. All the tested membranes show a tendency to swell with ethanol.

  5. Swelling characteristics of immersed sand-bentonite mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰土根; 崔红斌; 孙德安; 杜冰

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory one-dimensional consolidation apparatus was employed to research the swelling stress and volume of the sand-bentonite mixture under immersed conditions. The stress-strain characteristics of mixtures under varied mixing ratios and loading statuses were analyzed. Based on the results of tests, the mechanism of mixture swelling and collapsing was further discussed. The results show that mixtures with low sand ratios are suitable as hydraulic barrier or containment barriers of general landfills, geological repository and other hydraulic infrastructure works.

  6. Temporomandibular joint osteochondromatosis: an unusual cause of preauricular swelling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Eimear

    2012-02-01

    We report an unusual and rare cause of preauricular swelling and review the most recent literature concerning synovial osteochondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint. We report the clinical and radiologic findings of a case of synovial osteochondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint that presented as preauricular swelling in a female patient. This disease typically affects large joints; fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature affect the temporomandibular joint. This case illustrates that disorders of the temporomandibular joint should also be included in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with a preauricular mass.

  7. 38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3... Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a veteran within 35 days of termination of active military service, it...

  8. Pediatric anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    McConkey, Mark O.; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Amendola, Annunziato

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are seen in children now than in the past due to increased sports participation. The natural history of ACL deficient knees in active individuals, particularly in children is poor. Surgical management of ACL deficiency in children is complex due to the potential risk of injury to the physis and growth disturbance. Delaying ACL reconstruction until maturity is possible but risks instability episodes and intra-articular damage. S...

  9. Anterior impingement syndrome in dancers

    OpenAIRE

    O’Kane, John William; Kadel, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Anterior impingement is a common problem in dancers occurring primarily secondary to the repetitive forced ankle dorsiflexion inherent in ballet. Symptoms generally occur progressively and may respond to conservative treatment including addressing biomechanical faults that contribute to the problem. As impingement progresses, movements essential to ballet may become impossible and arthroscopic ankle surgery is often effective for both diagnosis and treatment, allowing athletes to return to da...

  10. The description of triangle love in nicholas sparks’ novel “the notebook”

    OpenAIRE

    Fajar, Nurul

    2016-01-01

    he title of this paper is The Description of Triangle Love in Nicholas Sparks’ “The Notebook”, it is a kind of triangle love among Allie Nelson, Noah Calhoun, and Lon Hammond Jr.Allie and Noah loved each other, but their love had to be ended because of Allie’s parents did not agree with their relationship because of different status. Allie came from a rich family and Noah came from a poor family. Allie had no choice except leaving Noah and had to return to Winston-Salem with his parents. Aft...

  11. Gamma-ray triangles: a possible signature of asymmetric dark matter in indirect searches

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Lopez-Gehler, Sergio; Molinaro, Emiliano; Pato, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new type of gamma-ray spectral feature, which we denominate gamma-ray triangle. This spectral feature arises in scenarios where dark matter self-annihilates via a chiral interaction into two Dirac fermions, which subsequently decay in flight into another fermion and a photon. The resulting photon spectrum resembles a sharp triangle and can be readily searched for in the gamma-ray sky. Using data from the Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S. instruments, we find no evidence for such spectral ...

  12. Bimodal zone of the soil textural triangle : common in tropical and subtropical regions

    OpenAIRE

    Condappa, D. De; Galle, Sylvie; Dewandel, B.; Haverkamp, Randel

    2008-01-01

    The USDA soil textural triangle shows a zone where sods have a low silt fraction compared with the fractions of sand and day. These soils have a particle-size distribution function showing two local maxima in weight percentage for the particle-size ranges of sand and clay. The soils are referred to as bimodal soil, with an associated bimodal zone in the soil textural triangle. It was shown that processes of pedogenesis in tropical and subtropical regions favor the generation of bimodal soils....

  13. On the integrability of the square-triangle random tiling model

    CERN Document Server

    De Gier, J; Gier, Jan de; Nienhuis, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that the square-triangle random tiling model is equivalent to an asymmetric limit of the three colouring model on the honeycomb lattice. The latter model is known to be the O(n) model at T=0 and corresponds to the integrable model connected to the affine $A_2^{(1)}$ Lie algebra. Thus it is shown that the weights of the square-triangle random tiling satisfy the Yang-Baxter equation, albeit in a singular limit of a more general model. The three colouring model for general vertex weights is solved by algebraic Bethe Ansatz.

  14. A note on a one-parameter family of non-symmetric number triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Falcão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent growing interest in special Clifford algebra valued polynomial solutions of generalized Cauchy-Riemann systems in \\((n + 1\\-dimensional Euclidean spaces suggested a detailed study of the arithmetical properties of their coefficients, due to their combinatoric relevance. This concerns, in particular, a generalized Appell sequence of homogeneous polynomials whose coefficient set can be treated as a one-parameter family of non-symmetric triangles of fractions. The discussion of its properties, similar to those of the ordinary Pascal triangle (which itself does not belong to the family, is carried out in this paper.

  15. Triangle based adaptive stencils for the solution of hyperbolic conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlofsky, Louis J.; Engquist, Bjorn; Osher, Stanley

    1992-01-01

    A triangle based total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme for the numerical approximation of hyperbolic conservation laws in two space dimensions is constructed. The novelty of the scheme lies in the nature of the preprocessing of the cell averaged data, which is accomplished via a nearest neighbor linear interpolation followed by a slope limiting procedures. Two such limiting procedures are suggested. The resulting method is considerably more simple than other triangle based non-oscillatory approximations which, like this scheme, approximate the flux up to second order accuracy. Numerical results for linear advection and Burgers' equation are presented.

  16. Management of giant inferior triangle lumbar hernia (Petit's triangle hernia): A rare complication following delayed breast reconstruction with extended latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap

    OpenAIRE

    Munhoz, Alexandre Mendonça; Montag, Eduardo; Arruda, Eduardo Gustavo; Sturtz, Gustavo; Gemperli, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Lumbar triangle hernia after breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flap (LDMF) is a very rare complication and few cases were previously described. Muscle mobilization and iatrogenic fascia defect are related etiologic factors. PRESENTATION OF CASE The authors describe a rare case of lumbar hernia in a 58-year-old woman who underwent delayed left breast reconstruction with LDMF. Two months after surgery, a progressive symptomatic lower left lumbar bulge was observed. The CT...

  17. Deuterium isotope effect on swelling process in aqueous polymer gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deuterium isotope effects on the swelling process of typical aqueous polymer gels (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel and polyacrylamide gel) have been investigated in this study. The swelling times of both the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel and the polyacrylamide gel in heavy water are longer than those in water. The deuterium isotope effect in the swelling process of gels is mainly arising from the higher viscosity in heavy water than in water. The additional deuterium isotope effect on the diffusion coefficient related to the swelling process should be due to the larger microscopic friction arising from the stronger polymer-solvent interaction in heavier water than in water. We also discuss in this paper the deuterium isotope effects on the size of the aqueous gels in the equilibrium state. Interestingly, the size in the equilibrium state of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel in heavy water is larger than that in water. In contrast to poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel, the size in the equilibrium state of polyacrylamide gel in heavy water is smaller than that in water. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Kinetic study of the swelling process of the polypeptide gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polymer gels are well known for the high absorbency and applied to various commodities. They are also utilized as the functional material with dramatic volume change in water absorption. The polypeptide gel is mentioned as one of such the materials. It is well known that a certain polypeptide gel film is accompanied by the helix-coil transition in water absorption and swelling, simultaneously with the transition molecular rigidity, volume, specific gravity, etc. greatly change, and large difference appears in the mechanical characteristic. However, only few attempts have so far been made to explore the in-situ structural change during the swelling process. The purpose of this research is to observe the change by the scattering technique. The time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and the wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) techniques were employed to investigate the structural change, using synchrotron radiation. The specimen used was the crosslinked poly (N-hydroxyethyl L-glutamine) (PHEG) films. The result tells that they composed of the helices with the average distance of 13.1A, and cylindrically aggregated with its radius of ca. 18A and its height of ca. 160A, at dry condition. Both the distance between helices and the cylindrical aggregation gradually became larger. The time dependence of the distances was in good agreement with that of the swelling ratio in its early stage, which means that the micro and the macro structures swelled similarly. (author)

  19. [A toddler with a swelling of his penis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staps, P; Smeets, C C J M

    2016-01-01

    A 4-year-old boy presented with a subcutaneous, yellowish swelling of 0.8 by 1.5 cm on his penis. We made the diagnosis of a smegma retention cyst. This cyst is the result of a physiologic phenomenon that originates from the separation of the foreskin. PMID:27405570

  20. Swelling and microstructure of neutron irradiated Inconel 706

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The swelling behaviour and the related microstructure evolution of SA INCONEL 706 irradiated up to 100dpa in Phenix as stressed tube samples and fuel pins are described. The TEM observations of the irradiated samples and corresponding unirradiated specimens annealed at the same irradiation temperature show that neutron irradiation induces the intragranular nucleation of a high density of Ni3 Ti-η platelets and small cavities which do not grow up to 100dpa. At higher temperature, it is shown that the swelling is responsible of the major part of the deformation. TEM examinations of thin foils prepared from pins areas irradiated at 5900C confirm that substantial void swelling can occur in the regions where the high density of finely distributed η platelets give place to a cellular η phase which tends to spread over the grains. At least we discuss about the correlation between the microstructure evolution under irradiation and the swelling resistance and the mechanical properties observed on this irradiated material

  1. Pool swell sub-scale testing and code comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the experiment was to investigate the pool swell dynamics in general and the forces on the lowered central part of the diaphragm between drywell and wetwell in particular. Apart from the high speed camera pressure transducers and strain gauges were used to monitor the transient. Data was recorded on a 14 channel FM recorder and then digitalised and plotted. In total more than one hundred tests were performed including parametric variations of for example geometry, break flow, initial drywell pressure and initial water level. In parallel to this experiment pool swell calculations have been performed with the computer codes COPTA and STEALTH. COPTA which is a lumped mass code for pressure suppression containment analysis has a slug pool swell mode. STEALTH which is a general purpose lagrangian hydrodynamics code has been used in a 2-D axisymmetric version. The STEALTH code has been used to calculate the radial variations in the vertical displacement and velocity of the pool surface and to predict the load on the lowered central part of the diaphragm. A comparison between the calculations and the experimental data indicates that both codes are sufficiently correct in their description of the pool swell transient. (orig.)

  2. Pool swell in a nuclear containment wetwell. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, T.

    1976-04-01

    A brief description is presented of scale model tests conducted to study LOCA induced wetwell pool swelling in the BWR Mk 1 containment pressure suppression system. The Mk 1 containment configuration is described together with the scale model design, the conduct of the tests, and the experimental results. (DG)

  3. [A former bodybuilder with a swelling on the forearm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijbos, Ruben M; Zwaard, Ton M

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old man came to the general practitioner with a solitary compressible swelling on his left forearm, which enlarged during exercise. The patient reported a history of bodybuilding and he worked as a plasterer. Physical examination revealed primary varicose of the upper extremity, a rare localisation of a common vascular disease. PMID:25804109

  4. Laboratory tests of hydraulic fracturing and swell healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunbo, Christensen Claes; Foged, Christensen Helle; Foged, Niels

    1998-01-01

    New laboratory test set-ups and test procedures are described - for testing the formation of hydraulically induced fractures as well as the potential for subsequent fracture closurefrom the relase of a swelling potential. The main purpose with the tests is to provide information on fracturing...

  5. How does a flexible chain of active particles swell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Babel, Sonja; ten Hagen, Borge; von Ferber, Christian; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-03-01

    We study the swelling of a flexible linear chain composed of active particles by analytical theory and computer simulation. Three different situations are considered: a free chain, a chain confined to an external harmonic trap, and a chain dragged at one end. First, we consider an ideal chain with harmonic springs and no excluded volume between the monomers. The Rouse model of polymers is generalized to the case of self-propelled monomers and solved analytically. The swelling, as characterized by the spatial extension of the chain, scales with the monomer number defining a Flory exponent ν which is ν = 1/2, 0, 1 in the three different situations. As a result, we find that activity does not change the Flory exponent but affects the prefactor of the scaling law. This can be quantitatively understood by mapping the system onto an equilibrium chain with a higher effective temperature such that the chain swells under an increase of the self-propulsion strength. We then use computer simulations to study the effect of self-avoidance on active polymer swelling. In the three different situations, the Flory exponent is now ν = 3/4, 1/4, 1 and again unchanged under self-propulsion. However, the chain extension behaves non-monotonic in the self-propulsion strength.

  6. Metastasis of feline pulmonary carcinoma presenting as multiple digital swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple digital swelling and painful lameness in four cats was found on clinical, radiographic and post mortem examination to be due to metastasis of primary bronchial carcinoma. Metastases were identified in several organs at necropsy and histological findings were consistent with arterial dissemination from the primary lesion

  7. Assessment for swelling of rock-like fuel by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmichi, Toshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-07-01

    Radiation damage of stabilised zirconia, alumina and spinel, components of the rock-like fuel, by neutron and fission fragment in their fuel life are reviewed and evaluated. For neutron irradiation, alumina shows some extent of swelling, though its structure stability is maintained. Zirconia and spinel have good irradiation resistance to neutron. As for the damage by fission fragment, the structure of alumina is destroyed due to amorphization, which cause a large volume swelling in low temperature region of the fuel. Spinel also could be amorphous by fission fragment damage and be accompanyed with a significant swelling. On the contrary, zirconia has an excellent stability to fission fragment. For the purpose of minimizing the volume of alumina and spinel damaged by fission fragment, which ought to have negative effects to the fuel performance, large diameter particles of zirconia containing plutonium would are needed to be dispersed in alumina and spinel. A tentative evaluation is made on behavior of swelling and thermal conductivity of the fuel pellets containing large diameter zirconia. (author)

  8. [A woman with acute pain and swelling of her wrist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, J.A. de; Koning, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    After hyperextension of both her wrists, a 39-year-old woman, who used coumarin derivatives for a known antiphospholipid syndrome, had acute pain and swelling of the left wrist. She had symptoms of an acute carpal tunnel syndrome. MRI revealed a hematoma compressing the median nerve in the carpal tu

  9. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. (Auburn Univ., AL (United States)); Gutterman, C. (Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)); Chander, S. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  10. Laboratory tests of hydraulic fracturing and swell healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunbo, Christensen Claes; Foged, Christensen Helle; Foged, Niels

    1998-01-01

    New laboratory test set-ups and test procedures are described - for testing the formation of hydraulically induced fractures as well as the potential for subsequent fracture closurefrom the relase of a swelling potential. The main purpose with the tests is to provide information on fracturing str...

  11. Multiple cystic swelling: Initial presentation of multiple myeloma

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Sunil; Jain A; Waghmare Swati

    2010-01-01

    Multiple myeloma, a disease allied to malignancy of reticuloendothelial cells, is not an uncommon condition. However, the diagnosis is often made quite late because the disease has multiple modes of presentation. We are reporting a case of multiple myeloma in a 55-year-old male who presented with multiple cystic swellings on the chest.

  12. Modeling SiC swelling under irradiation: Influence of amorphization

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, A; Defranceschi, M; Yip, S

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation-induced swelling of SiC is investigated using a molecular dynamics simulation-based methodology. To mimic the effect of heavy ion irradiation extended amorphous areas of various sizes are introduced in a crystalline SiC sample, and the resulting configurations are relaxed using molecular dynamics at constant pressure. Simulation results compare very well with data from existing ion implantation experiments. Analysis of the relaxed configurations shows very clearly that SiC swelling does not scale linearly with the amorphous fraction introduced. Two swelling regimes are observed depending on the size of the initial amorphous area: for small amorphous zones swelling scales like the amorphous fraction to the power 2/3, while for larger areas it scales like the amorphous fraction to the powers 2/3 and 4/3. Similar dependences on the amorphous fraction are obtained for the number of homonuclear bonds present in the initial amorphous volume and for the number of short bonds created at the interface betw...

  13. The Effect of Internet-Based Education on Student Success in Teaching of 8th Grade Triangles Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Deniz; Kesan, Cenk; Izgiol, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    In the study, it was researched the effect of internet-based application on student success. Internet-based application was used at the teaching of triangles subject which is included in 8th grade units of triangles and algebra. The study was carried out over the internet with a computer software program: Vitamin Program. The study was carried out…

  14. Highly swelling hydrogels from ordered galactose-based polyacrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B D; Linhardt, R J; Dordick, J S

    1998-01-01

    High swelling galactose-based hydrogels have been prepared using a chemoenzymatic procedure. Regioselective acylation of beta-O-methyl-galactopyranoside in nearly anhydrous pyridine with lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia yields the 6-acryloyl derivative (Compound I). Further lipase-catalysed acylation of the monoacrylate derivative in nearly anhydrous acetone yielded 2,6-diacryloyl-beta-O-methyl galactopyranoside (Compound II) that can act as a cross-linker with a structure similar to that of the sugar-based monomer. The high selectivity of enzyme catalysis yielded apparently highly regular hydrogel networks with swelling ratios at equilibrium ranging from 170 to 1100. elastic moduli ranging from 0.005 to 0.088 MPa and calculated mesh sizes ranging from 1160 to 6600 A. These values are far higher than conventional uncharged or lightly charged hydrogels at similar elastic moduli. Gel swelling was fast, with 75% of the equilibrium swelling value reached in a fractional time of 0.17. Non-selective chemical acryloylation of beta-O-methyl galactopyranoside followed by polymerization yielded a far lower-swelling hydrogel than that obtained using selective enzyme catalysis. These results indicate that the highly regular polymer structure achieved by regioselective enzyme-catalysed acylation yields relatively strong and highly swellable materials. Sugar-based hydrogels, such as those described herein, may find particular use as biomaterials because of their high water content, homogeneity, stability and expected non-toxicity. A wide range of pore sizes can be attained, suggesting that they may also be especially useful as matrices for enzyme immobilization and controlled delivery of biological macromolecules. PMID:9678852

  15. Bilateral inguinal hernias detected by peritoneal scintigraphy during the evaluation of scrotal swelling in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 47-year-old man with end-stage renal disease due to diabetic nephropathy underwent a peritoneal scintigraphy to evaluate the cause of recently developed scrotal swelling. Two liters of dialystate mixed with 111 MBq of Tc-99m sulfur colloid were adminstered into the peritoneal cavity via the dialysis catheter. Various anterior images of the abdomen and pelvis were obtained at 15 min, 2 hr and 4 hr after the tracer instillation. At 15 min, anterior images of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated linear tracts of activity through both inguinal canals, which were more prominent in the right side (A). Images at 2 hr revealed a passage of the radioactive fluid into the right hemiscrotum. At the same time, there was a considerable accumulation of activity in the right inguinal canal (B). In the delayed image, there was a progressive accumulation of activity in the inguinal canals and a prominent passage of the tracer into the scrotum (C). Both abdominal and inguinal hernias are commonly associated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Overall incidence of CAPD-induced hernia ranges from 2.7% to 25%. Inguinal hernias were frequently manifested as scrotal swelling. Leakages f dialysate fluid into the scrotum has been noted in CAPD patients with scrotal swelling, with or without clincal findings of inguinal hernia. In the present case, the right side had leakage from a clinical inguinal hernia and the left side, leakage, from a subclinial inguinal hernia. A subclinical inguinal hernia was easily demonstrable with peritoneal scintigraphy. Peritoneal scintigraphy is extremely helpful in the evaluation of scrotal swelling in a patient on CAPD

  16. Analysis of the Global Swell Distributions Using ECMWF Re-Analyses Wind Wave Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie; WANG Weili; GUAN Changlong

    2011-01-01

    The existence of three well-defined tongue-shaped zones of swell dominance,termed as 'swell pools',in the Pacific,the Atlantic and the Indian Oceans,was reported by Chen et al.(2002) using satellite data.In this paper,the ECMWF Re-analyses wind wave data,including wind speed,significant wave height,averaged wave period and direction,are applied to verify the existence of these swell pools.The swell indices calculated from wave height,wave age and correlation coefficient are used to identify swell events.The wave age swell index can be more appropriately related to physical processes compared to the other two swell indices.Based on the ECMWF data the swell pools in the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans are confirmed,but the expected swell pool in the Indian Ocean is not pronounced.The seasonal variations of global and hemispherical swell indices are investigated,and the argument that swells in the pools seemed to originate mostly from the winter hemisphere is supported by the seasonal variation of the averaged wave direction.The northward bending of the swell pools in the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans in summer is not revealed by the ECMWF data.The swell pool in the Indian Ocean and the summer northward bending of the swell pools in the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans need to be further verified by other datasets.

  17. Improved swelling resistance for PCA austenitic stainless steel under HFIR irradiation through microstructural control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six microstructural variants of Prime Candidate Alloy (PCA) were evaluated for swelling resistance during HFIR irradiation, together with several heats of type 316 stainless steel (316). Swelling was negligible in all the steels at 3000C after approx. 44 dpa. At 500 to 6000C 25%-cold-worked PCA showed better void swelling resistance than type 316 at approx. 44 dpa. There was less swelling variability among alloys at 4000C, but again 25%-cold-worked PCA was the best. Microstructurally, swelling resistance correlated with development of fine, stable bubbles whereas high swelling was due to coarser distributions of bubbles becoming unstable and converting to voids (bias-driven cavities)

  18. On the chromatic number of a space with forbidden equilateral triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvonarev, A E; Raigorodskii, A M; Kharlamova, A A [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Samirov, D V [Department of Innovations and High Technology, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudnyi, Moskovskaya obl. (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-30

    We improve the Frankl-Rödl estimate for the product of the numbers of edges in uniform hypergraphs with forbidden cardinalities of the intersection of edges. By using this estimate, we obtain explicit bounds for the chromatic number of a space with forbidden monochromatic equilateral triangles. Bibliography: 31 titles.

  19. Some Nice Relations between Right-Angled Triangles and the Golden Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimone, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    The international debate about experimental approaches to the teaching and learning mathematics is very current. While number theory lends itself naturally to such approaches, elementary geometry can also provide interesting starting points for creative work in class. This article shows how simple considerations about right triangles and the…

  20. The India-Pakistan-China strategic triangle and the role of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellaney, B

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the Asian landscape with its regional balances and imbalances and its changes after September 11 and subsequent events. The nuclear posture and the role of nuclear weapons inside the China-India-Pakistan triangle is analyzed with respect to the US non-proliferation policy and its expanding military presence over the Asian continent. (J.S.)

  1. The Soft-Skills Learning Triangle: A Learning Model for Supporting Online Management & Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the Soft-skills Learning Triangle (SLT)--a model created to help coaches, mentors, and educators understand how web-technologies can be used to support management learning and soft-skills development. SLT emerged as part of a larger action-learning research project--the NewMindsets Management Education…

  2. The V-Flex, Triangle Orientation, and Catalan Numbers in Hexaflexagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Ionut E.; McLean, T. Bruce; Wang, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Regular hexaflexagons mysteriously change faces as you pinch flex them. This paper describes a different flex, the V-flex, which allows the hexahexaflexagon (with only 9 faces under the pinch flex) to have 3420 faces. The article goes on to explain the classification of triangle orientations in a hexaflexagon and gives an example of the…

  3. The India-Pakistan-China strategic triangle and the role of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the Asian landscape with its regional balances and imbalances and its changes after September 11 and subsequent events. The nuclear posture and the role of nuclear weapons inside the China-India-Pakistan triangle is analyzed with respect to the US non-proliferation policy and its expanding military presence over the Asian continent. (J.S.)

  4. Random greedy triangle-packing beyond the 7/4 barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Bohman, Tom; Lubetzky, Eyal

    2011-01-01

    The random greedy algorithm for constructing a large partial Steiner-Triple-System is defined as follows. Begin with a complete graph on $n$ vertices and proceed to remove the edges of triangles one at a time, where each triangle removed is chosen uniformly at random out of all remaining triangles. This stochastic process terminates once it arrives at a triangle-free graph, and a longstanding open problem is to estimate the final number of edges, or equivalently the time it takes the process to conclude. The intuition that the edge distribution is roughly uniform at all times led to a folklore conjecture that the final number of edges is $n^{3/2+o(1)}$ with high probability, whereas the best known upper bound is $n^{7/4+o(1)}$. It is no coincidence that various methods break precisely at the exponent 7/4 as it corresponds to the inherent barrier where co-degrees become comparable to the variations in their values that arose earlier in the process. In this work we significantly improve upon the previous bounds...

  5. On the chromatic number of triangle-free graphs of large minimum degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    We prove that, for each. fixed real number c > 1/3, the triangle-free graphs of minimum degree at least cn (where n is the number of vertices) have bounded chromatic number. This problem was raised by Erdos and Simonovits in 1973 who pointed out that there is no such result for c <1/3....

  6. A BPTTF-based self-assembled electron-donating triangle capable of C60 binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeb, Sébastien; Bivaud, Sébastien; Dron, Paul Ionut; Balandier, Jean-Yves; Chas, Marcos; Sallé, Marc

    2012-03-25

    A kinetically stable self-assembled redox-active triangle is isolated. The resulting electron-donating cavity, which incorporates three BPTTF units, exhibits a remarkable binding ability for electron-deficient C(60), supported by a favorable combination of structural and electronic features. PMID:22344044

  7. New deterministic algorithms for counting pairs of intersecting segments and off-line triangle range searching

    OpenAIRE

    Pellegrini, M.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a new method for decomposing planar sets of segments and points. Using this method we obtain new efficient {\\em deterministic} algorithms for counting pairs of intersecting segments, and for answering off-line triangle range queries. In particular we obtain the following results: \

  8. Validation and scale dependencies of the triangle method for the evaporative fraction estimation over heterogeneous areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Tomás, Alberto; Nieto, Héctor; Guzinski, Radoslaw;

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing has proved to be a consistent tool for monitoring water fluxes at regional scales. The triangle method, in particular, estimates the evaporative fraction (EF), defined as the ratio of latent heat flux (LE) to available energy, based on the relationship between satellite observations...

  9. Iterates of Bernstein Type Operators on a Triangle with All Curved Sides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Cătinaş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider some Bernstein-type operators as well as their product and Boolean sum for a function defined on a triangle with all curved sides. Using the weakly Picard operators technique and the contraction principle, we study the convergence of the iterates of these operators.

  10. Iterates of Bernstein Type Operators on a Triangle with All Curved Sides

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora Cătinaş

    2014-01-01

    We consider some Bernstein-type operators as well as their product and Boolean sum for a function defined on a triangle with all curved sides. Using the weakly Picard operators technique and the contraction principle, we study the convergence of the iterates of these operators.

  11. When Two Circles Determine a Triangle. Discovering and Proving a Geometrical Condition in a Computer Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxas, Nikolaos; Karagiannidou, Andromachi

    2010-01-01

    Visualization of mathematical relationships enables students to formulate conjectures as well as to search for mathematical arguments to support these conjectures. In this project students are asked to discover the sufficient and necessary condition so that two circles form the circumscribed and inscribed circle of a triangle and investigate how…

  12. P 6- and triangle-free graphs revisited: structure and bounded clique-width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Brandstädt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Maximum Weight Stable Set (MWS Problem is one of the fundamental problems on graphs. It is well-known to be NP-complete for triangle-free graphs, and Mosca has shown that it is solvable in polynomial time when restricted to P 6- and triangle-free graphs. We give a complete structure analysis of (nonbipartite P 6- and triangle-free graphs which are prime in the sense of modular decomposition. It turns out that the structure of these graphs is extremely simple implying bounded clique-width and thus, efficient algorithms exist for all problems expressible in terms of Monadic Second Order Logic with quantification only over vertex predicates. The problems Vertex Cover, MWS, Maximum Clique, Minimum Dominating Set, Steiner Tree, and Maximum Induced Matching are among them. Our results improve the previous one on the MWS problem by Mosca with respect to structure and time bound but also extends a previous result by Fouquet, Giakoumakis and Vanherpe which have shown that bipartite P 6-free graphs have bounded clique-width. Moreover, it covers a result by Randerath, Schiermeyer and Tewes on polynomial time 3-colorability of P 6- and triangle-free graphs.

  13. Efficient Triangle Counting in Large Graphs via Degree-based Vertex Partitioning

    CERN Document Server

    Kolountzakis, Mihail N; Peng, Richard; Tsourakakis, Charalampos E

    2010-01-01

    The number of triangles is a computationally expensive graph statistic which is frequently used in complex network analysis (e.g., transitivity ratio), in various random graph models (e.g., exponential random graph model) and in important real world applications such as spam detection, uncovering of the hidden thematic structure of the Web and link recommendation. Counting triangles in graphs with millions and billions of edges requires algorithms which run fast, use small amount of space, provide accurate estimates of the number of triangles and preferably are parallelizable. In this paper we present an efficient triangle counting algorithm which can be adapted to the semistreaming model. The key idea of our algorithm is to combine the sampling algorithm of Tsourakakis et al. and the partitioning of the set of vertices into a high degree and a low degree subset respectively as in the Alon, Yuster and Zwick work treating each set appropriately. We obtain a running time $O \\left(m + \\frac{m^{3/2} \\Delta \\log{n...

  14. Early-Years Teachers' Concept Images and Concept Definitions: Triangles, Circles, and Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Levenson, Esther; Barkai, Ruthi; Tabach, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates practicing early-years teachers' concept images and concept definitions for triangles, circles, and cylinders. Teachers were requested to define each figure and then to identify various examples and non-examples of the figure. Teachers' use of correct and precise mathematical language and reference to critical and…

  15. On the chromatic number of a space with forbidden equilateral triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We improve the Frankl-Rödl estimate for the product of the numbers of edges in uniform hypergraphs with forbidden cardinalities of the intersection of edges. By using this estimate, we obtain explicit bounds for the chromatic number of a space with forbidden monochromatic equilateral triangles. Bibliography: 31 titles

  16. Allograft swelling after preparation during ACL reconstruction: do we need to upsize tunnels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbuch, Tristan; Conrad, Bryan P; Shields, Eric; Farmer, Kevin W

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the pull-through force of soft-tissue allografts increases over time after being hydrated with saline-soaked sponges. Eighteen aseptic soft-tissue, fresh-frozen anterior tibialis allograft specimens were thawed and sized using standard sizing guides. After sizing, initial pull-through force was measured using an Instron Model 5865 machine. Grafts were randomized to soak in saline sponges for 20, 40, or 60 min. After soaking, pull-through force was again assessed. Pre- and post-soaking pull-through forces were compared using a paired t test. The effect of time on pull-through force was evaluated using an ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. Two allografts had initial pull-through forces outside the inclusion criteria and were excluded. The average pull-through force for the remaining 16 allografts pre-soaking was 43.0 N and post-soaking was 81.7 N, for an increase of 90 % (P mind that allografts swell when stored in saline-soaked gauze and should size their tunnels accordingly. PMID:23526125

  17. Absence of scalenus anterior muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami S; Horiuchi K; Yamamoto C; Ohtsuka A; Murakami T.

    2003-01-01

    A rare anomaly of the scalenus muscles is described. In this case, the right scalenus anterior muscle was absent. As a substitute for this muscle, some aberrant muscle slips arose from the lower vertebrae and descended in front of the ventral rami of the lower cervical nerves. These aberrant slips then ran between the ventral rami of the the eighth cervical and first thoracic nerves, and were fused with the right scalenus medius muscle. Thus, the subclavian artery and vein ran in front of the...

  18. Lesiones del ligamento cruzado anterior

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Álvarez López; Yenima García Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Fundamento: el ligamento cruzado anterior desempeña un papel muy importante en la estabili-dad de la rodilla. La incidencia de esta afección es alta en pacientes que practican deportes de contacto y de no ser tratados de forma adecuada, los resultados son desfavorables. Objetivo: profundizar en los factores necesarios para el tratamiento adecuado de enfermos con esta lesión y evitar las complicaciones. Método: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de un total de 300 artículos publicados en Pu...

  19. Modelling the hydro-mechanical behaviour of swelling unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of compacted swelling soils in engineering practice is very widely spread, especially in geotechnical and environmental engineering. After their setup, these materials are likely to be subject to complex suction/stress paths involving significant variations of their hydro-mechanical properties which can affect their initial behaviour. It is important to be able to predict the hydro-mechanical behaviour of these materials taking into account the significant applications for which they are intended. Barcelona team developed a finite-element code (Code-Bright) for the thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling (THM) integrating the BBM elastoplastic model for unsaturated soils based on the independent variables approach. This model is recognized to correctly describe the hydro-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils but fails to take into account some particular observed aspects on swelling soils. A second model BExM was then proposed to address these aspects. The objective of this study is: (i) to implement the elastoplastic model BExM for the unsaturated swelling soils in the finite-element code (Code-Bright); (ii) to check the numerical model validity through the numerical simulation of laboratory tests made on swelling soils; and (iii) to apply this model to some practical problems. For this purpose, a new family of numerical procedures adapted to the BExM model was introduced into the code. The equation of the yield surface of this model for a given deviatoric stress states was given in a manner to facilitate calculations of its derivatives. The model was checked by the numerical simulation of suction-controlled odometric tests made on three different swelling soils. The simulation results showed that the numerical model is able to correctly reproduce the experimental data. Lastly, the model was applied to two practical problems: radioactive waste repository in deep geological layers and a shallow footing under the action of a swelling soil. The results obtained

  20. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Szekely

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.

  1. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Pablo; Korem, Yael; Moran, Uri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2015-10-01

    When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass. PMID:26465336

  2. Efficiency of a new Triangle Cycle with flash evaporation in a piston engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Triangle Cycle with a piston engine expansion unit is used to convert low temperature heat into electrical energy. In this process, the isentropic efficiency of the expansion unit is considered to be unknown, and a theoretical approach for the calculation of isentropic efficiency is presented. A number of influences are taken into account – dead volume, residual mass, liquid injection performance and wall heat transfer. Various working fluids are investigated in a wide range of temperatures (333K–573K), engine speeds (5 Hz–30 Hz) and stroke volumes (0.1 L–50 L). The isentropic efficiency of water as working fluid is in the range of 0.75–0.88 and drops significantly for high stroke volumes and engine speeds. In general, injection mass has the most impact on isentropic efficiency because it influences dead volume and injection performance. The injection mass increases with vapor density and therefore is significantly influenced by working fluid and temperatures. The Triangle Cycle is compared with Organic Rankine Cycles by using determined isentropic efficiency. The exergetic efficiency of the Triangle Cycle using water is up to 35–70% higher than that of supercritical Organic Rankine Cycles in situations with a heat source temperature of up to 450K. - Highlights: • The technical realization of a new Triangle Cycle with flash evaporation in a piston engine is described. • A thermodynamic model of the isentropic efficiency with different impacts is presented. • Dead volume, residual mass, injection valve performance and wall heat transfer have been taken into account. • The efficiency of the expansion unit significantly depends on temperature, stroke volume and engine speed. • The Triangle Cycle has a significantly higher efficiency than the Organic Rankine Cycle for heat sources below 450K

  3. Characterization of rat model of acute anterior uveitis using optical coherence tomography angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-03-01

    Uveitis, or ocular inflammation, is a cause of severe visual impairment. Rodent models of uveitis are powerful tools used to investigate the pathological mechanisms of ocular inflammation and to study the efficacy of new therapies prior to human testing. In this paper, we report the utility of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) angiography in characterizing the inflammatory changes induced in the anterior segment of a rat model of uveitis. Acute anterior uveitis (AAU) was induced in two rats by intravitreal injection of a killed mycobacterial extract. One of them received a concurrent periocular injection of steroids to model a treatment effect. OCT imaging was performed prior to inflammation induction on day 0 (baseline), and 2 days post-injection (peak inflammation). Baseline and inflamed images were compared. OCT angiography identified swelling of the cornea, inflammatory cells in the anterior and posterior chambers, a fibrinous papillary membrane, and dilation of iris vessels in the inflamed eyes when compared to baseline images. Steroid treatment was shown to prevent the changes associated with inflammation. This is a novel application of anterior OCT imaging in animal models of uveitis, and provides a high resolution, in vivo assay for detecting and quantifying ocular inflammation and the response to new therapies.

  4. An extremely rare case of metastatic retinoblastoma of parotids presenting as a massive swelling in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkayastha, Abhishek; Sharma, Neelam; Pathak, Abhishek; Kapur, Bhupendra Nath; Dutta, Vibha

    2016-04-01

    Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a common childhood malignancy but bilateral Rb with metastasis to parotids is very uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, bilateral Rb metastasizing to parotids is very rare and this is the fifth such case reported in world literature till date in a 2-year-old male child who underwent exenteration of left eye for bilateral Rb and later developed recurrent metastasis to left parotid requiring parotidectomy. A year later he presented again with swelling left parotid region extending from occipital region reaching upto left anterior chest wall with intra-cranial extension on magnetic resonance imaging. Histopathological examination of the parotid swelling and immunohistochemistry showed metastasis from Rb. He was treated with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy to local site and brain to which he responded well. Presently on regular follow up without any signs of locoregional and distal metastasis. Till date different types of primary parotid tumors have been reported in literature but a metastatic parotid tumor is extremely rare and therefore this case is being reported to highlight the extreme rarity, the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, the highly aggressive nature and overall dismal prognosis of this disease entity. PMID:27186527

  5. Anterior chest wall examination reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior chest wall involvement is not infrequently observed within inflammatory arthropaties, particularly if one considers seronegative spondiloarthritides and SAPHO syndrome. Physical examination is unreliable and conventional X-rays analysis is an unsatisfactory tool during diagnostic work-up of this region. Scintigraphic techniques yield informations both on the activity and on the anatomical extent of the disease while computerized tomography visualize the elementary lesions, such as erosions, which characterize the process. Moreover, when available, magnetic resonance imaging couple the ability to finely visualize such lesions with the possibility to show early alterations and to characterize the “activity” of the disease, presenting itself as a powerful tool both for diagnosis and follow-up. This review briefly shows the applications of imaging techniques for the evaluation of the anterior chest wall focusing on what has been done in the SAPHO syndrome which can be considered prototypical for this regional involvement since it is the osteo-articular target mainly affected by the disease.

  6. Dolor anterior de la rodilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Álvarez López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción:el dolor anterior de la rodilla constituye una importante causa de consulta en la especialidad de Ortopedia y Traumatología. La incidencia de otras enfermedades relacionadas con este síntoma es cada vez mayor, ejemplo de ello es la condromalacia de rótula, tendinitis patelar, osteoartritis patelofemoral entre otras, el diagnóstico de estas enfermedades se debe al cúmulo de experiencia y a la introducción de técnicas y equipos imagenológicos de avanzada. Desarrollo: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre el dolor anterior de la rodilla, con especial énfasis en las teorías involucradas en su fisiopatología, entre las que se encuentran la mala-alineación patelo-femoral, equilibrio de la homeostasis tisular y aumento de la presión intra-ósea, además de brindar brevemente el cuadro clínico de la enfermedad. Para finalizar se expone el enfoque terapéutico que se basa fundamentalmente en el tratamiento conservador, se mencionan además las modalidades de tratamiento quirúrgico.

  7. Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Michael D. [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom); Ahluwalia, Jatinder, E-mail: j.ahluwalia@uel.ac.uk [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-17

    Non-excitable cells such as neutrophil granulocytes are the archetypal inflammatory immune cell involved in critical functions of the innate immune system. The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential. For continuous function of the NADPH oxidase, I{sub e} has to be balanced to preserve electroneutrality, if not; sufficient depolarisation would prevent electrons from leaving the cell and neutrophil function would be abrogated. Subsequently, the depolarisation generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase I{sub e} must be counteracted by ion transport. The finding that depolarisation required counter-ions to compensate electron transport was followed by the observation that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the NADPH oxidase membrane depolarisation. In this mini review, we discuss the research findings that revealed the essential role of swell activated chloride channels in human neutrophil function.

  8. Investigation of magnetically enhanced swelling behaviour of superparamagnetic starch nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Bajpai; Sweta Likhitkar

    2013-02-01

    The present study follows a novel strategy for the preparation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles of cross-linked starch impregnated homogeneously with nanosized iron oxide. The prepared magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction and magnetization studies. The size of the magnetic polymeric particles was found to lie in the range of 20–80 nm, and they exhibited superparamagnetic properties. The particles were allowed to swell in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and the influence of factors such as chemical composition of nanoparticles, pH and temperature of the swelling bath and applied magnetic field was investigated on the water intake capacity of the nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles showed potential to provide a possible option for controlled and targeted delivery of anticancer drugs, applying external magnetic field.

  9. Evaluation of irradiation swelling behaviour of RSG-GAS fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of irradiation swelling behaviour of RSG-GAS fuel has been performed. The evaluation is intended to support the fuel utilization improvement program by increasing the fuel discharge burnup as high as possible. Fuel that has been evaluated is dispersion type of low enriched uranium of U3Si2-Al (2.96 gr U/cm3) in the form of straight plate (MTR box shape fuel element). The evaluation is based on DART calculation results for steady-state irradiation at RSG-GAS nominal power (30 MW thermal). Up to fuel burnup of 100% U235, the effect of fuel swelling for steady state irradiation on the mechanical integrity of fuel cladding and the thermal performance of the fuel can be ignored (within the design tolerance). This indicates that the silicide fuel being used in RSG-GAS basically can be irradiated until fuel burnup as high as 100% U235. (author)

  10. Hydration and swelling of amorphous cross-linked starch microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtasz, Joanna; Carlstedt, Jonas; Fyhr, Peter; Kocherbitov, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    Hydration of cross-linked starch microspheres, commercially available as a medical device, was investigated using a multi-method approach. We found that the uptake of water is accompanied by substantial swelling and changes of the polymer structure. Sorption calorimetry provided information about thermodynamics of water sorption, revealed presence of isothermal glass transition and absence of hydration-induced crystallization, observed in non-cross linked starch material. The changes in the surface and bulk properties of microspheres at different water-starch concentrations were investigated using synchrotron radiation X-ray scattering and analyzed using concept of fractals. The obtained information, combined with the results of differential scanning calorimetry, was used to construct a phase diagram of the studied material. Finally, hydration induced evolution of polymer structure revealed by the X-ray scattering was linked to the changes observed during swelling with optical microscopy. PMID:26453872

  11. Fuel miniplate thickness measurement system for dispersion fuel swelling evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the commissioning test results of a system designed for fuel swelling evaluation, and constructed at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The system will be used in the qualification process of U3O8-Al and U3Si2-Al dispersion fuels with 3.0 gU/cm3 and 4.8 gU/cm3, respectively. The determination of the fuel swelling will be performed by means of fuel miniplate thickness measurements along the irradiation time, during the shutdown period between the operational cycles of the IEA-R1 reactor. The system will be located at the reactor pool fuel storage area and it will be operated from the reactor pool border, allowing the measurement of the fuel miniplate thickness along its surface by electronic probes (LVDT). The results will be obtained by the instrumentation connected to the probes. (author)

  12. Modeling and Simulating for TSHD's Swell Compensator by ADAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi; NI Fusheng; ZHOU Hong

    2007-01-01

    CHC Trailing suction hopper dredgers (TSHD) have been widely used in dredging industry. In order to simulate the dredging process accurately, a mathematical model for a swell compensator used in TSHD is proposed, and a friendly simulation model based on the Automated Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) is built to test and validate the mathematical model for the swell compensator. The factors influencing the dynamic behavior of the TSHD suction pipe system, such as the motion of the vessel in an unquiet situation with different water current velocities, seabed profiles, seabed soil hardness and the forces acting on the suction pipe system, have been taken into consideration. The simulation results show that they fit in with the operating practice qualitatively.

  13. Hydric transfer in swelling clayey soils: influence of confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description of imbibition and swelling mechanisms in clayey soils represents an important stake in different scientific domains such as agronomy, geotechnics or petroleum industry. The aim of the present work is to show the effects of hydro-mechanical couplings during imbibition in a swelling clayey medium, under different confinement conditions. Our material is a bentonite-silt mixture, prepared with a known water content and compacted with a double-piston technique. This method allows us to produce uniform soil samples, in terms of humidity and bulk density. Experiments related to bottom imbibition are then carried out for three types of mechanical boundary conditions (free, oedometric, fixed volume). The non-intrusive dual-energy gamma-ray technique is used to assess the local variation of bulk density and humidity. Finally, the three imbibition kinetics are compared for each experiment in terms of hydraulic diffusivity, described in a Lagrangian way. (author)

  14. Microstructural insight into the nonlinear swelling of argillaceous rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, L. L.; Bornert, Michel; Yang, D S; HERIPRE, E; CHANCHOLE, S; HALPHEN, B.; Pouya, Ahmad; Caldemaison, D

    2015-01-01

    Argillaceous rocks are chosen as possible host rocks for underground radioactive nuclear waste disposal. These rocks exhibit complex coupled thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical behavior, the description of which would strongly benefit from an improved experimental insight on micro-scale. In this work we present some recent observations of the evolution of these rocks upon swelling on the scale of their composite microstructure, essentially made of a clay matrix with embedded grains of calcite and q...

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF SAGS AND SWELLS USING PIC MICROCONTROLLER

    OpenAIRE

    Santhanayaki.T; Dr.K.R .Valluvan

    2013-01-01

    Power quality is a set of limits of electrical properties that allows electrical systems to function in their intended manner without significant loss of performance. Power quality is a growing concern because today’s electricity consuming equipment ranging from personal computers to automated manufacturing process are much more susceptible to power quality problems. Power quality problems, typically, sags and swells are due to the natural events (e.g., lightning st...

  16. SuperLig Ion Exchange Resin Swelling and Buoyancy Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to achieve a fundamental understanding of SuperLig resin swelling and shrinking characteristics, which lead to channeling and early breakthrough during loading cycles. The density of salt solution that causes resin floating was also determined to establish a limit for operation. Specific tests performed include (a) pH dependence, (b) ionic strength dependence and (c) buoyancy effect vs. simulant composition

  17. Mid Arm Swelling- A Rare Presentation of Filariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Haren Oza; Jignasa Bhalodia; Ami Shah; Palak Modi

    2014-01-01

    Bancroftian Filariasis is a tropical and subtropical disease caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by the Culex mosquitoes. The diagnosis of it is conventionally made by demonstrating microfilariae in the peripheral blood smear. Microfilaria and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine needle aspirates of various lesions. We here report a rare case presentation of Bancroftian filariasis in 20 years old asymptomatic male coming from an endemic area with swelling in ...

  18. Schwannoma of the brachial plexus presenting as a cystic swelling

    OpenAIRE

    Somayaji, K. S. G.; Rajeshwari, A.; Gangadhara, K. S.

    2004-01-01

    Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumours. A small percentage of these tumours arise from the brachial plexus. Cystic degeneration and hemorrhagic necrosis can occur in these tumours in up to 40% of the cases. Detailed preoperative evaluation and careful dissection during surgery will avoid post operative neurological complications. We report a case of schwannoma of the brachial plexus presenting as a cystic neck swelling which was successfully managed by us.

  19. An unusual case of acute painful calf swelling

    OpenAIRE

    Sohoni, Chandrashekhar A; Dipti C Sohoni

    2013-01-01

    Cysticercosis commonly involves central nervous system. Isolated involvement of skeletal muscles is rare. We have reported a case of cysticercosis herein presented as acute painful calf swelling, which is an extremely unusual presentation and, hence, a diagnostic challenge. The diagnosis was strongly suspected on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The laboratory findings of peripheral eosinophilia and a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for IgG antibod...

  20. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva presenting as a pedunculated swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Shramana

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare, locally aggressive soft tissue tumor that has high propensity for local recurrence. It involves mainly the pelvis, vulva, perineum, vagina and urinary bladder in adult women in the reproductive age. Considering its locally aggressive nature, appropriate management and long-term follow-up is necessary. We describe a case of a 22-year-old young pregnant patient presenting with a large pedunculated swelling on the left labia majora.

  1. Identification of Swelling cause on Rubber Gaskets

    OpenAIRE

    Fagerland, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this master thesis was to develop an analysis method which identifies the swelling cause of EPDM rubber gaskets. The method shall facilitate failure investigation of rubber gaskets used in plate heat exchangers which require both determinations of volatile and involatile compounds as well as polar and non-polar compounds. To achieve this goal a combination analysis method of Headspace Gas chromatography Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid-liquid extraction Fourier Transform Infrar...

  2. Thermo-mechanical behaviour of a compacted swelling clay

    OpenAIRE

    TANG, Anh Minh; Cui, Yu-Jun; Barnel, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    International audience Compacted unsaturated swelling clay is often considered as a possible buffer material for deep nuclear waste disposal. An isotropic cell permitting simultaneous control of suction, temperature and pressure was used to study the thermo-mechanical behaviour of this clay. Tests were performed at total suctions ranging from 9 to 110 MPa, temperature from 25 to 80 °C, isotropic pressure from 0.1 to 60 MPa. It was observed that heating at constant suction and pressure indu...

  3. Cytological diagnosis of multiple myeloma presenting as a jaw swelling

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Ghazala; Ansari Hena; Haider Nazima

    2009-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a systemic B-cell lymphoproliferative disease with varied manifestations. Its diagnosis can therefore pose difficulties for both the clinicians and pathologists. Jaw lesions, though not uncommon, rarely present as the first sign in multiple myeloma. We present here the case of a 45 year-old female who presented with a swelling of the jaw and on subsequent work-up, was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. Recent research regarding this disease has also been highlighted.

  4. Young's modulus of polyelectrolyte multilayers from microcapsule swelling

    OpenAIRE

    Vinogradova, O. I.; Andrienko, D.; Lulevich, V. V.; Nordschild, S.; Sukhorukov, G. B.

    2003-01-01

    We measure Young's modulus of a free polyelectrolyte multilayer film by studying osmotically induced swelling of polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules filled with the polyelectrolyte solution. Different filling techniques and core templates were used for the capsule preparation. Varying the concentration of the polyelectrolyte inside the capsule, its radius and the shell thickness yielded an estimate of an upper limit for Young's modulus of the order of 100 MPa. This corresponds to an elas...

  5. Brain Swelling and Death in Children with Cerebral Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydel, Karl B.; Kampondeni, Samuel D.; Valim, Clarissa; Potchen, Michael J.; Milner, Danny A.; Muwalo, Francis W.; Birbeck, Gretchen L.; Bradley, William G.; Fox, Lindsay L.; Glover, Simon J.; Hammond, Colleen A.; Heyderman, Robert S.; Chilingulo, Cowles A.; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Taylor, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Case fatality rates among African children with cerebral malaria remain in the range of 15 to 25%. The key pathogenetic processes and causes of death are unknown, but a combination of clinical observations and pathological findings suggests that increased brain volume leading to raised intracranial pressure may play a role. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) became available in Malawi in 2009, and we used it to investigate the role of brain swelling in the pathogenesis of fatal cerebral malaria in African children. METHODS We enrolled children who met a stringent definition of cerebral malaria (one that included the presence of retinopathy), characterized them in detail clinically, and obtained MRI scans on admission and daily thereafter while coma persisted. RESULTS Of 348 children admitted with cerebral malaria (as defined by the World Health Organization), 168 met the inclusion criteria, underwent all investigations, and were included in the analysis. A total of 25 children (15%) died, 21 of whom (84%) had evidence of severe brain swelling on MRI at admission. In contrast, evidence of severe brain swelling was seen on MRI in 39 of 143 survivors (27%). Serial MRI scans showed evidence of decreasing brain volume in the survivors who had had brain swelling initially. CONCLUSIONS Increased brain volume was seen in children who died from cerebral malaria but was uncommon in those who did not die from the disease, a finding that suggests that raised intracranial pressure may contribute to a fatal outcome. The natural history indicates that increased intracranial pressure is transient in survivors. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and Wellcome Trust U.K.) PMID:25785970

  6. Positioning of anterior teeth in removable dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strajnić Ljiljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this paper was to present methods of placement of artificial anterior teeth in edentulous individuals. The following review takes account of the majority of papers published during the last 100 years. The review has been divided into sections regarding the method used to determine the position of artificial anterior teeth. Geometric aspect Gysi (1895-1920 produced the first scientific theory about the position of artificial anterior teeth. Physiognomic theory The aim of this theory is to find the most natural position for artificial anterior teeth for each individual. Camper's "face angle" as a physiognomic criterion, has been introduced in papers of Wehrli (1961, Marxhors (1966, Tanzer (1968, Lombardi (1973. Esthetic aspect Important names in the field of dental esthetics are: Schön and Singer (1961, Arnheim (1965, Krajiček (1969, Tanzer (1968, Lombardi (1973, Goldstein (1976. They have introduced principles of visual aspects for selection of contours, dimension and position of artificial anterior teeth. Constitution aspect Flagg (1880, Williams (1913 and Hrauf (1957, 1958, have considered body constitution and individual characteristics regarding position of artificial anterior teeth. Physiological theory In 1971, Marxhors pointed to the fact that the position of artificial teeth corresponds with the function of the surrounding soft tissue and from the aspect of physiognomy as well. Phonetic aspect According to Silverman (1962 artificial anterior teeth are nearest when we pronounce the sound "S". Cephalometrical research Rayson (1970, Watson (1989, Strajnić Lj. (1999, Bassi F. (2001 have presented cephalometric radiographic analyses of natural anterior teeth compared with cephalometric radiographic analyses of artificial anterior teeth. A review of dental literature shows several factors suggesting modalities which should determine the position of artificial anterior teeth. Numerous methods have been designed for

  7. Pharyngocutaneous fistula after anterior cervical spine surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sansur, Charles A.; Early, Stephen; Reibel, James; Arlet, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Pharyngocutaneous fistulae are rare complications of anterior spine surgery occurring in less than 0.1% of all anterior surgery cases. We report a case of a 19 year old female who sustained a C6 burst fracture with complete quadriplegia. She was treated urgently with a C6 corpectomy with anterior cage and plating followed by posterior cervical stabilization at another institution. Post operatively she developed a pharyngocutaneous fistula that failed to heal despite several attempts of closu...

  8. Phase stability and swelling in the V-series alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of the V-series alloys to irradiation to a fluence of 7 x 1022 n/cm2 at 5930C covers a range of behavior from a minimum swelling of 0.6% (V4) to a maximum of 8.1% (V5). The major phases identified in the V series alloys examined after irradiation to 7 x 1022 n/cm2 at 5930C are TiC and laves. Between the fluences of 2 x 1022 n/cm2 and 7 x 1022 n/cm2 the compositions of the precipitates identified do not vary significantly. Results of this investigation indicate that the minimum amount of titanium in solution should be approx. 0.16 wt %. Higher levels of titanium in solution will promote more efficient pinning of the dislocation structure and result in lower swelling. Silicon levels greater than 0.5 wt % promote severe phase instabilities which deplete the matrix of elements which suppress swelling. The irradiation performance of this type alloy depends upon the achievement of a uniform distribution of Ti and a balance of Ti, Si, and C in solution which will encourage precipitation of TiC during service

  9. Radiation preparation and swelling behavior of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is a kind of degraded polymer under γ-irradiation. However, in this work, it has been found that CMC crosslinks partially to form hydrogel by radiation technique at more than 20% CMC aqueous solution. The gel fraction increases with the dose. The crosslinking reaction of CMC is promoted in the presence of N2 or N2O due to the increase of free radicals on CMC backbone, but gel fraction of CMC hydrogel is not high (g, number average molecular weight of network Mc were calculated according to the Charlesby-Pinner equation. The results indicated that although crosslinked CMC hydrogel could be prepared by radiation method, the rate of radiation degradation of CMC was faster than that of radiation crosslinking due to the character of CMC itself. Swelling dynamics of CMC hydrogel and its swelling behavior at different conditions, such as acidic, basic, inorganic salt as well as temperature were also investigated. Strong acidity, strong basicity, small amount of inorganic salts and lower temperature can reduce swelling ratio

  10. Adrenergic activation attenuates astrocyte swelling induced by hypotonicity and neurotrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardjan, Nina; Horvat, Anemari; Anderson, Jamie E; Yu, Dou; Croom, Deborah; Zeng, Xiang; Lužnik, Zala; Kreft, Marko; Teng, Yang D; Kirov, Sergei A; Zorec, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Edema in the central nervous system can rapidly result in life-threatening complications. Vasogenic edema is clinically manageable, but there is no established medical treatment for cytotoxic edema, which affects astrocytes and is a primary trigger of acute post-traumatic neuronal death. To test the hypothesis that adrenergic receptor agonists, including the stress stimulus epinephrine protects neural parenchyma from damage, we characterized its effects on hypotonicity-induced cellular edema in cortical astrocytes by in vivo and in vitro imaging. After epinephrine administration, hypotonicity-induced swelling of astrocytes was markedly reduced and cytosolic 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was increased, as shown by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer nanosensor. Although, the kinetics of epinephrine-induced cAMP signaling was slowed in primary cortical astrocytes exposed to hypotonicity, the swelling reduction by epinephrine was associated with an attenuated hypotonicity-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) excitability, which may be the key to prevent astrocyte swelling. Furthermore, in a rat model of spinal cord injury, epinephrine applied locally markedly reduced neural edema around the contusion epicenter. These findings reveal new targets for the treatment of cellular edema in the central nervous system. GLIA 2016;64:1034-1049. PMID:27018061

  11. Dynamic mechanical and swelling properties of maleated hyaluronic acid hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Kai; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-06-01

    A series of maleated hyaluronan (MaHA) are developed by modification with maleic anhydride. The degrees of substitution (DS) of MaHA vary between 7% and 75%. The DS of MaHA is both higher and wider than methacrylated HA derivatives (MeHA) reported in the literature. MaHA hydrogels are then prepared by photopolymerization and their dynamic mechanical and swelling properties of the hydrogels are investigated. The results showed that MaHA hydrogels with moderate DS (25%, 50% and 65%) have higher storage modulus and lower equilibrium swelling ratios than those with either low or high DS (7%, 15% and 75%). Theoretical analyses also suggest a similar pattern among hydrogels with different DS. The results confirm that the increased cross-linking density enhances the strength of hydrogels. Meanwhile, the hydrophilicity of introduced groups during modification and the degree of incomplete crosslinking reaction might have negative impact on the mechanical and swelling properties of MaHA hydrogels. PMID:25843871

  12. A rare cause of prepubertal scrotal swelling; Mature Cystic Teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekmenli T et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this report we aimed to present a case with testicular mature cystic teratoma via clinical, surgical, and histopathological findings. A 10-years-old boy complaining of left scrotal swelling for the last two years admitted to our department. Physical observation revealed a painless, firm, smooth surfaced scrotal swelling. The distention of the left hemiscrotum did not allow the palpation of the testicle. At the preoperative period the case was considered as a non-communicating hydrocele. Surgical exploration was done via a left sided inguinal incision. Surgical exploration revealed a thick capsulated mass with a diameter of 10x8x6 cm. The mass was containing hairy pieces, gelatinous fluid and tooth like calcifications no testicular tissues present. The mass was totally excised. Histopathological examination of the specimen revealed a mature cystic teratoma. If testes could not be palpated or the swelling of the scrotum could not allow making the physical examination, mature cystic teratoma that is a rare cause of testicular mass should be considered.

  13. Impurities effect on the swelling of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donne, M.D.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    An important factor controlling the swelling behaviour of fast neutron irradiated beryllium is the impurity content which can strongly affect both the surface tension and the creep strength of this material. Being the volume swelling of the old beryllium (early sixties) systematically higher than that of the more modem one (end of the seventies), a sensitivity analysis with the aid of the computer code ANFIBE (ANalysis of Fusion Irradiated BEryllium) to investigate the effect of these material properties on the swelling behaviour of neutron irradiated beryllium has been performed. Two sets of experimental data have been selected: the first one named Western refers to quite recently produced Western beryllium, whilst the second one, named Russian refers to relatively old (early sixties) Russian beryllium containing a higher impurity rate than the Western one. The results obtained with the ANFIBE Code were assessed by comparison with experimental data and the used material properties were compared with the data available in the literature. Good agreement between calculated and measured values has been found.

  14. Unexpected diagnosis for preauricular swelling - two case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Preauricular swelling in children may be associated with a wide range of pathology. The history, clinical presentation and imaging features of such swellings may be non-specific. Sometimes it can be caused by underlying bone lesion. Case reports. We report about two children who were admitted to the hospital with swelling in the preauricular region and an unexpected final diagnosis. We found aneurismal bone cyst and central giant cell granuloma, respectively. Conclusions. Awareness of such lesions is important to avoid diagnostic errors and a potential mismanagement. These lesions are often difficult to differentiate on the basis of their radiographic features alone. A high-resolution US enables an accurate analysis of soft tissue and helps in the differential diagnosis. It also enables an accurate location of the lesion, which helps to avoid a wrong interpretation based on the clinical finding only. The CT-scan performed afterwards provides necessary information for the assessment of location, structure and size of the lesion. (author)

  15. Herniation of the anterior lens capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Nolette

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Herniation of the anterior lens capsule is a rare abnormality in which the capsule bulges forward in the pupillary area. This herniation can be mistaken for an anterior lenticonus where both the capsule and the cortex bulge forward. The exact pathology behind this finding is still unclear. We report the clinical, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM and histopathological findings of a case of herniation of the anterior lens capsule. UBM helped to differentiate this entity from anterior lenticonus. Light microscopy revealed capsular splitting suggestive of capsular delamination and collection of fluid (aqueous in the area of herniation giving it a characteristic appearance.

  16. Some comparisons between small-scale pool swell experiments and model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predictions from a one-dimensional pool swell model are compared with results from small-scale pool swell tests. The main elements of the model other than the geometric simplification are identical to the assumptions that underlie the hydrodynamic scaling laws investigated in the pool swell experiments. An experimental record of air bubble growth history is compared with the predictions from an axisymmetric pool swell code calculation. 10 refs

  17. Estimate Evapotranspiration Using Modis Data with a Modified Triangle Method for a Semi-arid Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, F.; Wang, W.; Liu, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Three major types of ET estimation methods are commonly used on the basis of remote sensed data, that is, statistical analysis method, energy balance residual method, and evaporation fraction (EF) method. Evaporation-ratio method estimates ET by calculating the ratio between latent heat flux and surface available energy (i.e., net solar radiation Rn - soil surface heat flux G) so as to avoid the calculation of sensible heat flux which has high uncertainty due to its sensitivity to the estimation of air resistance. The critical part with the EF method is the calculation of EF, for which the triangle method is most widely used. The triangle method is developed based on vegetation index ~ surface temperature (VI~Ts) feature space. The triangle method is comparatively easy to apply and based on mostly remotely sensed data, but it does not effectively distinguish soil evaporation from vegetation transpiration, and it assumes that for fully vegetated area actual ET is equal to potential ET, without considering the effects of vegetation water stress on the transpiration of plants, which result in significant overestimation of actual ET. A more recently developed EF method is the MOD16 algorithm (Nishida, 2003) which considers EF as a mixture of EF for bare soil (EFsoil) and EF for fully vegetated area (EFveg) according to the vegetation coverage (fveg), so that the contribution of soil and vegetation to total ET are explicitly separated. However, while theoretically MOD16 algorithm takes into account more physical processes, more uncertainties are introduced due to much more complicated calculations. In addition, the MOD16 algorithm is calculated based on NDVI time series whereas many studies have shown that Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) is a better alternative to NDVI. In the present study, we estimated ET based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) EVI and land surface temperature data with a modified triangle method which has the same framework as

  18. Perawatan Gigitan Terbalik Anterior Dengan Menggunakan Inclined Plane

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Wilda A.

    2008-01-01

    Gigitan terbalik anterior adalah suatu anomali posisi gigi anterior atas yang lebih ke lingual dibandingkan gigi anterior bawah. Anomali gigitan terbalik anterior dapat ditemui pada periode gigi sulung, gigi bercampur, dan gigi permanen. Faktor etiologi gigitan terbalik anterior dibedakan atas dental, fungsional atau skeletal. Untuk menentukan etiologi dari anomali gigitan terbalik anterior perlu dilakukan diagnosa yang tepat. Perawatan gigitan terbalik anterior ini dapat dilakukan de...

  19. Inversion and assessment of swell waveheights from HF radar spectra in the Iroise Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weili; Forget, Philippe; Guan, Changlong

    2016-04-01

    As an extension of previous work in Wang et al. (Ocean Dyn 64:1447-1456, 2014), this article presents significant waveheights of swell inverted from a 13 month dataset of two high-frequency (HF) phased array radars. As an important intermediate variable in the calculation of significant waveheights, relative swell directions obtained by two different methods from a single radar station are also presented. The impact of the inaccuracy of relative swell direction on the calculation of waveheight is investigated and an alternative way of using constant swell direction is proposed. Radar-inverted swell significant waveheights using different ranges of relative swell directions are investigated. Results are assessed by WAVEWATCH III model hind casts. Analysis of the complete database shows that radar-inverted swell significant waveheights agree reasonably well with model estimates with large scatter. Standard deviation of the difference between the two estimations increases with waveheight, whereas the relative standard deviation, normalized by waveheight, keeps nearly constant. The constant direction scheme of waveheight inversion gives good estimations except for energetic swell exceeding the small perturbation assumption. Statistical analysis suggests that radar measurement uncertainty explains a considerable part of the difference between radar and model estimates. Swell estimates from both radar stations are consistent. This enables combined use of both radar spectra at common radar cells. Use of double spectra solves the ambiguity of relative swell direction, i.e., absolute swell direction is obtained, and effectively improves the accuracy of swell direction by the least-squares method.

  20. Outcomes on the pharmacopsychometric triangle in bupropion-SR vs. buspirone augmentation of citalopram in the STAR*D trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Fava, Maurizio; Trivedi, M H;

    2012-01-01

    Bech P, Fava M, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR, Rush AJ. Outcomes on the pharmacopsychometric triangle in bupropion-SR vs. buspirone augmentation of citalopram in the STAR*D trial. Objective: To compare within the framework of a novel pharmacopsychometric triangle, augmentation treatment with bupropion...... intention to treat sample was used. Results: Within the pharmacopsychometric triangle, bupropion-SR (sustained release) was superior to buspirone when augmented to the current citalopram treatment. Thus, in the domain of pure antidepressive effect, bupropion-SR was superior (P = 0.05) on the HAM-D(6) , IDS...... depressed outpatients not responding to citalopram....

  1. Absence of scalenus anterior muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami S

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A rare anomaly of the scalenus muscles is described. In this case, the right scalenus anterior muscle was absent. As a substitute for this muscle, some aberrant muscle slips arose from the lower vertebrae and descended in front of the ventral rami of the lower cervical nerves. These aberrant slips then ran between the ventral rami of the the eighth cervical and first thoracic nerves, and were fused with the right scalenus medius muscle. Thus, the subclavian artery and vein ran in front of the aberrant slips, together with the ventral ramus of the first thoracic nerve. The aberrant muscle slips issued 2 accessory bundles. One bundle ran between the ventral rami of the fourth and fifth cervical nerves and was fused with the scalenus medius muscle; the other bundle ran between the ventral rami of the fifth and sixth cervical nerves and was fused with the scalenus medius muscle.

  2. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome (TASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Öner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is a sterile intraocular inflammation caused by noninfectious substances, resulting in extensive toxic damage to the intraocular tissues. Possible etiologic factors of TASS include surgical trauma, bacterial endotoxin, intraocular solutions with inappropriate pH and osmolality, preservatives, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVD, inadequate sterilization, cleaning and rinsing of surgical devices, intraocular lenses, polishing and sterilizing compounds which are related to intraocular lenses. The characteristic signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, corneal edema, hypopyon and nonreactive pupil usually occur 24 hours after the cataract surgery. The differential diagnosis of TASS from infectious endophthalmitis is important. The main treatment for TASS formation is prevention. TASS is a cataract surgery complication that is more commonly seen nowadays. In this article, the possible underlying causes as well as treatment and prevention methods of TASS are summarized. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2011; 41: 407-13

  3. Mild toxic anterior segment syndrome mimicking delayed onset toxic anterior segment syndrome after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Na Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is an acute sterile postoperative anterior segment inflammation that may occur after anterior segment surgery. I report herein a case that developed mild TASS in one eye after bilateral uneventful cataract surgery, which was masked during early postoperative period under steroid eye drop and mimicking delayed onset TASS after switching to weaker steroid eye drop.

  4. Totally thrombosed giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Roopesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant anterior communicating artery aneurysmsarerare. Apatient presented with visual dysfunction, gait ataxia and urinary incontinence. MRI showed a giant suprasellar mass.At surgery, the lesion was identified as being an aneurysm arising from the anterior communicating artery.The difficulty in preoperative diagnosis and relevant literature are reviewed.

  5. Anterior capsular rupture following blunt ocular injury

    OpenAIRE

    Gremida, Anas; Kassem, Iris; Traish, Aisha

    2011-01-01

    A 10-year-old boy suffered a large, oblique anterior capsular tear following blunt injury to his right eye. The boy was followed daily for hyphema resolution and progressive traumatic cataract formation. After the hyphema had resolved, the lens was removed using an anterior approach and an intraocular lens was placed with excellent visual outcome.

  6. Dentulous Appliance for Upper Anterior Edentulous Span

    OpenAIRE

    Chalakkal, Paul; Devi, Ramisetty Sabitha; Srinivas, G Vijay; Venkataramana, Pammi

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses about a fixed dentulous appliance that was constructed to replace the primary upper anterior edentulous span in a four year old girl. It constituted a design, whereby the maxillary primary second molars were used to support the appliance through bands and a wire that contained an acrylic flange bearing trimmed acrylic teeth, anteriorly. The appliance was functionally and aesthetically compliant.

  7. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis: a sporadic case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Sezen; Yaşar, Şirin; Serdar, Zehra Aşiran; Gizlenti, Sevda

    2016-03-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis is a very rare form of primary localized hypertrichosis. It consists of a tuft of terminal hair on the anterior neck just above the laryngeal prominence. The etiology is still unknown. In this article, we reported a 15-year-old female patient who presented to our clinic with a complaint of hypertrichosis on the anterior aspect of the neck for the last five years. Her past medical history revealed no pathology except for vesicoureteral reflux. On the basis of clinical presentation, our patient was diagnosed with anterior cervical hypertrichosis and she was considered to be a sporadic case due to lack of other similar cases in familial history. To date, 33 patients with anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis can be associated with other abnormalities, but it frequently presents as an isolated defect (70%). The association of vesicoureteral reflux and anterior cervical hypertrichosis which was observed in our patient might be coincidental. So far, no case of anterior cervical hypertrichosis associated with vesicoureteral reflux has been reported in the literature. PMID:27103865

  8. A Dual Triangle Timing Circuit for Improved Performance of 4-Quadrant H-Bridge Switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermilab is in the process of upgrading its Booster Correction Element System to include full field correction element magnets to correct position and chromaticity throughout the booster cycle. This upgrade requires power supplies with maximum outputs of ±180V/±65A, with current bandwidths of 5k Hz and with slew rates of min to max current in 1ms. For seamless operation around zero current and voltage, we use continuous switching on both sides of the bridge. Although the straightforward way of coordinating the switching on both sides of the bridge can be accomplished with one triangle timing wave and one voltage reference, we have found that using two triangle waves yields a switching coordination that effectively doubles the frequency of the differential ripple on the load and allows for better filtering of the output ripple

  9. An Interactive Control Algorithm Used for Equilateral Triangle Formation with Robotic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an interactive control algorithm, called Triangle Formation Algorithm (TFA, used for three neighboring robotic sensors which are distributed randomly to self-organize into and equilateral triangle (E formation. The algorithm is proposed based on the triangular geometry and considering the actual sensors used in robotics. In particular, the stability of the TFA, which can be executed by robotic sensors independently and asynchronously for E formation, is analyzed in details based on Lyapunov stability theory. Computer simulations are carried out for verifying the effectiveness of the TFA. The analytical results and simulation studies indicate that three neighboring robots employing conventional sensors can self-organize into E formations successfully regardless of their initial distribution using the same TFAs.

  10. Effects of reduced surface tension on void drift between triangle tight lattice subchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Void drift between triangle tight lattice subchannels has been studied experimentally and analytically. In the experiment, a channel having two subchannels simplifying the triangle tight lattice subchannels was used. Experimental data were obtained for both air-water and air-water with a surfactant flows to know the effects of the reduced surface tension on flow and void redistributions due to the void drift. In the analysis, the experimental data were compared with the calculation by a subchannel analysis code based on a one-dimensional two-fluid model in which various constitutive equations of wall and interfacial friction forces were tested. The results of such experiment and test of analysis will be reported. (author)

  11. Electric potential and field calculation of charged BEM triangles and rectangles by Gaussian cubature

    CERN Document Server

    Glück, Ferenc

    2016-01-01

    It is a widely held view that analytical integration is more accurate than the numerical one. In some special cases, however, numerical integration can be more advantageous than analytical integration. In our paper we show this benefit for the case of electric potential and field computation of charged triangles and rectangles applied in the boundary element method (BEM). Analytical potential and field formulas are rather complicated (even in the simplest case of constant charge densities), they have usually large computation times, and at field points far from the elements they suffer from large rounding errors. On the other hand, Gaussian cubature, which is an efficient numerical integration method, yields simple and fast potential and field formulas that are very accurate far from the elements. The simplicity of the method is demonstrated by the physical picture: the triangles and rectangles with their continuous charge distributions are replaced by discrete point charges, whose simple potential and field ...

  12. The use of triangle diagram in the detection of explosive and illicit drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudac, Davorin; Baricevic, Martina; Obhodas, Jasmina; Franulovic, Andrej; Valkovic, Vladivoj

    2010-04-01

    A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density. Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.

  13. Golden Root Geometry Structuring the Polyhedra and Other Forms Via Plato’s Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Chr. Stefanides

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Under Golden Root Geometry Structuring the Polyhedra and other Forms Via Plato’s Triangles, we refer to the basic geometric configurations which, as this theory contemplates, are necessary for the progressive mode of formation of the five polyhedral and the geometries involved in their sections and related circles and further to logarithms, via lines, areas and volumes. Basis of all these structures is a very special Scalene Orthogonal Triangle “Plato’s Most Beautiful” [F25], together with his Orthogonal Isosceles one. Structural Forms are identified bearing in common these triangular identities. The particular angle of the Scalene Orthogonal is that whose ArcTan[Θ]=Τ and T = SQR ((SQR. (5 + 1/2.

  14. Pascal (Yang Hui) triangles and power laws in the logistic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Carlos; Robledo, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    We point out the joint occurrence of Pascal triangle patterns and power-law scaling in the standard logistic map, or more generally, in unimodal maps. It is known that these features are present in its two types of bifurcation cascades: period and chaotic-band doubling of attractors. Approximate Pascal triangles are exhibited by the sets of lengths of supercycle diameters and by the sets of widths of opening bands. Additionally, power-law scaling manifests along periodic attractor supercycle positions and chaotic band splitting points. Consequently, the attractor at the mutual accumulation point of the doubling cascades, the onset of chaos, displays both Gaussian and power-law distributions. Their combined existence implies both ordinary and exceptional statistical-mechanical descriptions of dynamical properties.

  15. Anatomical Variations in the Arteries and Nerves of the Right Carotid Triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Quadros LS; Pandey AK; D'Souza AS

    2014-01-01

    Variations of the arteries and nerves are of clinical importance to the clinicians and surgeons in performing the surgeries. During the routine dissection for the undergraduates, variation in the branches of external carotid artery was noted in the right carotid triangle. The superior thyroid artery showed an upward loop from its origin and had a highly tortuous course, the lingual and facial arteries arouse from a common linguo-facial trunk and the ascending pharyngeal artery took origin fro...

  16. Towards an appropriate model of the local church in the Vaal Triangle / by Mosielle Peter Mohapi

    OpenAIRE

    Mohapi, Mosielle Peter

    2008-01-01

    This study seeks to discover more specifically how the Bible, rather than traditions, comfortable habits, or past practices, should guide us in achieving qualitative and quantitative church-growth in the Vaal Triangle, and in doing so to investigate different models, with the view of suggesting one typical to the conditions in the area. The literature review revealed that the local churches as they exist today are in disrepute. Together with other societal institutions, they are suspect, dist...

  17. Relative Contribution of the Topographic Influence on the Triangle Approach for Evapotranspiration Estimation over Mountainous Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaosong Zhao; Yuanbo Liu

    2014-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the water budget. Estimation ET through remote sensing over a mountainous terrain is typically obstructed by topographic effects. In this paper, topographic corrections were applied to ET estimates using the surface-air temperature difference-Normalized Difference Vegetation Index ((Ts-Ta)-NDVI) triangle method with MODIS data for the Taihu Basin in China. The effect of topography on ET was evaluated over an area with a complex terrain. Aft...

  18. MILITARYPOLITICAL RELATIONS IN THE TRIANGLE US — TURKEY — FRANCE: 2009–2012

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Avatkov; A. O. Domanov

    2013-01-01

    The article explores interaction in the U.S.-Turkey-France triangle on military and political issues related to the rejoining of NATO military organization by France in 2009. This analysis is important to clarify the level of NATO coherence, speed of the emergence of polycentric world and to forecast behavior of these three partners. The article studies differences in doctrines and approaches of the three countries to the Iranian, Syrian, Libyan and Afghan crises. In regards to each of the cr...

  19. Contribution of the triangle graphs to the neutron electric dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Kibayashi-Maskawa model we compute a new contribution to the neutron electric dipole moment induced by C P violating flavour-changing transitions of the type s->d+gluon+γ through heavy quark loops. This contribution, essentially given by the triangle anomaly graph, is by itself gauge invariant. We obtain from this mechanism Dsub(n)/e=3.10-32 cm, one order of magnitude below our previous estimate from usual penguin diagram contributions. (orig.)

  20. A thermodynamic classification of pairs of real numbers via the Triangle Multi-dimensional continued fraction

    OpenAIRE

    Garrity, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A new classification scheme for pairs of real numbers is given, generalizing earlier work of the author that used continued fraction, which in turn was motivated by ideas from statistical mechanics in general and work of Knauf and Fiala and Kleban in particular. Critical for this classification are the number theoretic and geometric properties of the triangle map, a type of multi-dimensional continued fraction.

  1. Applying convex layers, nearest neighbor and triangle inequality to the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP)

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Sing

    2012-01-01

    The author would like to propose a simple but yet effective method, convex layers, nearest neighbor and triangle inequality, to approach the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). No computer is needed in this method. This method is designed for plain folks who faced the TSP everyday but do not have the sophisticated knowledge of computer science, programming language or applied mathematics. The author also hopes that it would give some insights to researchers who are interested in the TSP.

  2. Ray system in lasers, nonlinear arithmetic pyramid and nonlinear arithmetic triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Yurkin, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes a system of rays declining at small angles in lasers. The correlation between a group of rays and binomial coefficients is shown. The correlation of distribution of rays in the system of numbers placed in a three-dimensional table, the nonlinear arithmetic pyramid is shown. Two types of nonlinear arithmetic triangles are considered. Various types of partitions of integers is described.

  3. Controlling morphology in swelling-induced wrinkled surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breid, Derek Ronald

    Wrinkles represent a pathway towards the spontaneous generation of ordered surface microstructure for applications in numerous fields. Examples of highly complex ordered wrinkle structures abound in Nature, but the ability to harness this potential for advanced material applications remains limited. This work focuses on understanding the relationship between the patterns on a wrinkled surface and the experimental conditions under which they form. Because wrinkles form in response to applied stresses, particular attention is given to the nature of the stresses in a wrinkling surface. The fundamental insight gained was then utilized to account for observed wrinkle formation phenomena within more complex geometric and kinetic settings. In order to carefully control and measure the applied stresses on a wrinkling film, a swelling-based system was developed using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), surface-oxidized with a UV-ozone treatment. The swelling of the oxidized surface upon exposure to an ethanol vapor atmosphere was characterized using beam-bending experiments, allowing quantitative measurements of the applied stress. The wrinkle morphologies were characterized as a function of the overstress, defined as the ratio of the applied swelling stress to the critical buckling stress of the material. A transition in the dominant morphology of the wrinkled surfaces from dimple patterns to ridge patterns was observed at an overstress value of ˜2. The pattern dependence of wrinkles on the ratio of the principal stresses was examined by fabricating samples with a gradient prestress. When swollen, these samples exhibited a smooth morphological transition from non-equibiaxial to equibiaxial patterns, with prestrains as low as 2.5% exhibiting non-equibiaxial characteristics. This transition was seen both in samples with low and high overstresses. To explore the impact of these stress states in more complex geometries, wrinkling hemispherical surfaces with radii of curvature

  4. Considerations in small-scale modeling of pool swell in BWR containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, P.W.; Sonin, A.A.; Anderson, W.G.; Burke, R.P.; Ruggieri, N.G.

    1979-11-01

    Experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale test system to study limitations to the hydrodynamic scaling laws used in reduced scale simulations of BWR pool swell. Detailed experimental records of pool swell are presented. Predictions from a one-dimensional pool swell model are compared with results from small scale pool swell tests. The main elements of the model other than the geometric simplification are identical to the assumptions that underlie the hydrodynamic scaling laws investigated in the pool swell experiments. Based on a simple model for the vent flow and pool swell processes, calculations are performed to illustrate the effects that mis-scaling of vent volume and orifice placement can have on typical small-scale pool swell simulations in single-vent systems.

  5. Considerations in small-scale modeling of pool swell in BWR containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale test system to study limitations to the hydrodynamic scaling laws used in reduced scale simulations of BWR pool swell. Detailed experimental records of pool swell are presented. Predictions from a one-dimensional pool swell model are compared with results from small scale pool swell tests. The main elements of the model other than the geometric simplification are identical to the assumptions that underlie the hydrodynamic scaling laws investigated in the pool swell experiments. Based on a simple model for the vent flow and pool swell processes, calculations are performed to illustrate the effects that mis-scaling of vent volume and orifice placement can have on typical small-scale pool swell simulations in single-vent systems

  6. Influence of solutes on heavy ion induced void-swelling in binary copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As radiation induced swelling of metals depends on their constitution, swelling of copper and copper alloys with low solute concentration is studied. Diffusion coefficients and solubility of solute in copper were used as criteria of selection of the alloys. The samples were irradiated by 200keV copper ions. Swelling and void densities were measured by transmission electron microscopy. The measurements show low dependence of swelling upon the diffusibility of the solute in the solvent and a strong dependence on their concentration. Alloys of 0.1at% solute show more swelling than pure copper, and alloys of 1at% show less swelling under the irradiation conditions. The different swelling behavior in Cu-Ni alloys is due to the different void densities. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of the swelling behaviour of iota-carrageenan in monolithic matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, András; Buchholcz, Gyula; Sovány, Tamás; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2015-08-10

    The swelling properties of monolithic matrix tablets containing iota-carrageenan were studied at different pH values, with measurements of the swelling force and characterization of the profile of the swelling curve. The swelling force meter was linked to a PC by an RS232 cable and the measured data were evaluated with self-developed software. The monitor displayed the swelling force vs. time curve with the important parameters, which could be fitted with an Analysis menu. In the case of iota-carrageenan matrix tablets, it was concluded that the pH and the pressure did not influence the swelling process, and the first section of the swelling curve could be fitted by the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. PMID:25966465

  8. Void swelling resistance in Fe-Cr alloys at 200 dpa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microstructural examinations have been performed on a serious of binary Fe-cr alloys irradiated to 200 dpa at 425 C in a fast breeder reactor. The alloy compositions ranged from 3% to 18% Cr in 3% Cr increments, and the irradiation temperature corresponded to the peak swelling condition for this alloy class. Density measurements showed swelling levels as high as 7.4%, with the highest swelling found in the Fe-9Cr and Fe-6Cr alloys. Microstructural examinations revealed that the highest swelling conditions contained well-developed voids, often as large as 100 nm, and a dislocation network comprised of both a/2 and a Burgers vectors. Swelling was lower in the other alloys, and the swelling reduction could be correlated with increased precipitation. These results are considered in light of the current theories for low swelling in ferritic alloys, but no theory is available to completely explain the results

  9. Evaluation of the cephalometric changes of Tweed triangle in patients with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shirazi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cleft lip and palate patients require orthodontic treatments during their childhood and adolescence. Tweed diagnostic triangle as well as cephalometric assessments provides important data regarding the skeletal patterns for the treatment and diagnostic purposes. The present study determined the cephalometric changes of Tweed triangle in the cleft lip and palate patients compared to normal patients. Materials and Methods: In total, 101 cleft and palate patients as well as 95 normal individuals with the balanced age, gender and race were evaluated. All the cleft and palate patients had similar treatment histories. Radiographic clichés were obtained from both groups and the images were traced after identifying the anatomic landmarks. The studied landmarks included points, lines, and plans as well as dental and skeletal angles and distance ratios measured in radiographic images. The landmarks were statistically analyzed using Student t test. Results: Significant differences were found between the cleft lip and palate patients and normal individuals regarding craniofacial complex morphology (P0.05. Conclusion: In total, significant differences were observed between normal and cleft lip and palate individuals regarding Tweed diagnostic triangle area. These differences were decreased IMPA and increased FMA and FMIA angles. No significant differences were found in terms of other indices.

  10. Pose Self-Measurement of Noncooperative Spacecraft Based on Solar Panel Triangle Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhou Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the recognition and location of noncooperative spacecraft, this paper presents a monocular vision pose measurement method based on solar triangle structure. First of all, an autonomous recognition algorithm of feature structure based on sliding window Hough transformation (SWHT and inscribed circle of a triangle is proposed, and the image coordinates of feature points on the triangle can be obtained relying on this algorithm, combined with the P4P algorithm and the structure of spacecraft, calculating the relative pose of target expressed by rotation and translation matrix. The whole algorithm can be loaded into the prewritten onboard program, which will get the autocomplete feature structure extraction and relative pose measurement without human intervention, and this method does not need to mount any markers on the target. Then compare the measured values with the accurate value of the laser tracker, so that a conclusion can be drawn that the maximum position error is lower than 5% and the rotation error is lower than 4%, which meets the requirements of noncooperative spacecraft’s pose measurement for observations, tracking, and docking in the final rendezvous phase.

  11. Assessing the plasmonics of gold nano-triangles with higher order laser modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Hennemann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Regular arrays of metallic nano-triangles – so called Fischer patterns – are fabricated by nano-sphere lithography. We studied such gold nano-triangle arrays on silicon or glass substrates. A series of different samples was investigated with a parabolic mirror based confocal microscope where the sample is scanned through the laser focus. By employing higher order laser modes (azimuthally and radially polarised laser beams, we can excite the Fischer patterns using either a pure in-plane (x,y electric field or a strongly z-directional (optical axis of the optical microscope electric field. We collected and evaluated the emitted luminescence and thereby investigated the respectively excited plasmonic modes. These varied considerably: firstly with the light polarisation in the focus, secondly with the aspect ratio of the triangles and thirdly with the employed substrate. Moreover, we obtained strongly enhanced Raman spectra of an adenine (sub-monolayer on gold Fischer patterns on glass. We thus showed that gold Fischer patterns are promising surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS substrates.

  12. New orientations in the stereographic triangle for self-assembled faceting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Camacho, R.; Méndez-García, V. H.; López-López, M.; Cruz-Hernández, E.

    2016-06-01

    Energetically unstable crystalline surfaces, among their uses, can be templates for the growth of periodic arrays of one-dimensional (1D) nanoscale structures. However, few studies have explored self-assembled faceting on high-index (HI) planes inside the stereographic triangle, and extant studies have not produced any criteria for encouraging the formation of one-dimensional periodic arrays. In this Letter, by analyzing the MBE growth of homoepitaxial facets on (631)A GaAs, a HI plane inside the triangle, we present a criteria to produce highly uniform 1D periodic arrays on unexplored surfaces. These families of planes are those belonging to the lines connecting the energetically stable HI GaAs (11 5 2) plane with any of the (100), (110), and (111) planes at the corners of the stereographic triangle. This novel strategy can lead to new possibilities in self-assembling 1D structures and manipulating physical properties, which in turn may result in new HI- and 1D-based experiments and devices.

  13. The Caucasian Triangle (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia – Tourism Development and Threats to General and Distinctive Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Roistomashvili

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caucasus triangle is one of the most interesting regions in the world firstly, with its geo-political location and also being a part of post-social space. These involve a number of factors determining existence and development of these three states. The world order today from economic and political point of view require readiness from certain states for establishing themselves in this big space. It especially concerns developing and semi-developed countries and the countries having less experience of being a state, which in fact are in the process of creating the institutes which will determine their independence and co-existence with the democratic world having more experience in this respect.Study on the Caucasus triangle arises great interest. The actuality of this issue is also determined by the political and economic dynamic changes taking place inside these states (evolution of Soviet space. Their political choice is determined by the less-stable environment and weakness of state, political partners and political and economic interests generally and towards one another. Unpredictable situation within the triangle is more important as it is a live process with new and changeable threats. For this reason it is very interesting for the scientists to study the development of this kind of countries. Ambition of these countries to establish themselves in the field of tourism is very important for us and that is why it is necessary to follow the process in dynamics, analyze and evaluate their development in this respect.

  14. Fast GPU perspective grid construction and triangle tracing for exhaustive ray tracing of highly coherent rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we address the problem of computing, storing and sorting, at an interactive rate, all of the intersections between millions of triangles (a 3D scene) and millions of rays starting from the same point. In this paper we focus on the fast GPU construction of a grid in projective space referencing the triangles of a 3D scene. We introduce a fast GPU algorithm used to build a grid of the rays constituting the scene, in the same projective space. This ray-based grid is computed during the initialization of the scene, which allows us to achieve higher performance, and to construct the triangle-based grid in distinct passes for very large scenes, without having to manage memory transfers between CPU and GPU. This algorithm works the same way for both static and dynamic scenes, allowing us to achieve interactive processing of complex and dynamic scenes. These optimizations are used to speed up the geometrical computations used in the nuclear field to evaluate the impact of radiative sources on an operator. These geometrical computations are similar to those of traditional ray tracing, except that only highly coherent rays are thrown in our application, and that we are looking for all intersections along each ray. (authors)

  15. Gamma-ray triangles: a possible signature of asymmetric dark matter in indirect searches

    CERN Document Server

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Molinaro, Emiliano; Pato, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new type of gamma-ray spectral feature, which we denominate gamma-ray triangle. This spectral feature arises in scenarios where dark matter self-annihilates via a chiral interaction into two Dirac fermions, which subsequently decay in flight into another fermion and a photon. The resulting photon spectrum resembles a sharp triangle and can be readily searched for in the gamma-ray sky. Using data from the Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S. instruments, we find no evidence for such spectral feature and therefore set strong upper bounds on the corresponding annihilation cross section. A concrete realisation of a scenario yielding gamma-ray triangles consists of an asymmetric dark matter model where the dark matter particle carries lepton number. We show explicitly that this class of models can lead to intense gamma-ray spectral features, potentially at the reach of upcoming gamma-ray telescopes, opening a new window to explore asymmetric dark matter through indirect searches.

  16. Role of peripheral phenanthroline groups in the self-assembly of self-assembled molecular triangles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mili C Naranthatta; V Ramkumar; Dillip Kumar Chand

    2015-02-01

    Self-assembled molecular triangles [Pd3(phen)3(imidazolate)3](NO3)3, 1a and [Pd3(phen)3 (imidazolate)3](PF6)3, 1b are prepared by the combination of imidazole with Pd(phen)(NO3)2 and Pd(phen) (PF6)2, respectively. Imidazole was deprotonated during the complexation reactions and the imidazolate so formed acted as a bis-monodentate bridging ligand to form the bowl-shaped trinuclear architectures of 1a/b. Relative orientation of the imidazolate moieties can be best described as syn,anti,anti as observed in the crystal structure of 1b. However, in solution state, slow conformational changes are assumed on the basis of 1HNMR spectral data. The molecular triangles are crafted with three peripheral phen units capable of − stacking interactions. Well-fashioned intermolecular − interactions are observed in the solid-state, wherein further self-assembly of already self-assembled triangle is observed.

  17. Two new Dy3 triangles with trinuclear circular helicates and their single-molecule magnet behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuang-Yan; Zhao, Lang; Guo, Yun-Nan; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Yang; Tang, Jinkui

    2012-10-15

    Self-assembly of polydentate Schiff base 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol di(benzoy1hydrazone) (H(3)L), with dysprosium thiocyanate and sodium azide, affords two novel trinuclear triangular circular helicate dysprosium(III) complexes, [Dy(3)(μ(3)-OCH(3))(2)(HL)(3)(SCN)]·4CH(3)OH·2CH(3)CN·2H(2)O (1) or [Dy(3)(μ(3)-N(3))(μ(3)-OH)(H(2)L)(3)(SCN)(3)](SCN)·3CH(3)OH·H(2)O (2), depending on the presence or absence of base. Single-crystal X-ray analyses show that two μ(3)-methoxy oxygens cap the Dy(3) triangle in complex 1 and that one μ(3)-OH and one μ(3)-N(3)(-) cap the Dy(3) triangle of complex 2, representing the first example of a μ(3)-N(3)(-)-capped lanthanide complex reported to date. Ac susceptibility measurements reveal that multiple relaxation processes and the onset of slow magnetization relaxation occur for complex 1 and 2, respectively. Theoretical calculations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanism; however, the different magnetic anisotropy of the respective structures, which is dictated by the coordination environment of Dy(III) ions and structural parameters of the triangles, is mostly responsible for the distinctive relaxation dynamics observed. PMID:22510150

  18. Anterior Shoulder Instability with Concomitant Superior Labrum from Anterior to Posterior (SLAP) Lesion Compared to Anterior Instability without SLAP Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durban, Claire Marie C.; Kim, Je Kyun; Kim, Sae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with combined anterior instability and superior labrum from anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions, and to analyze the effect of concomitant SLAP repair on surgical outcomes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent arthroscopic stabilization for anterior shoulder instability between January 2004 and March 2013. A total of 120 patients were available for at least 1-year follow-up. Forty-four patients with reparable concomitant detached SLAP lesions (group I) underwent combined SLAP and anterior stabilization, and 76 patients without SLAP lesions (group II) underwent anterior stabilization alone. Patient characteristics, preoperative and postoperative pain scores, Rowe scores, and shoulder ranges of motion were compared between the 2 groups. Results Patients in group I had higher incidences of high-energy trauma (p = 0.03), worse preoperative pain visual analogue scale (VAS) (p = 0.02), and Rowe scores (p = 0.04). The postoperative pain VAS and Rowe scores improved equally in both groups without significant differences. Limitation in postoperative range of motion was similar between the groups (all p-value > 0.05). Conclusions Anterior instability with SLAP lesion may not be related to frequent episodes of dislocation but rather to a high-energy trauma. SLAP fixation with anterior stabilization procedures did not lead to poor functional outcomes if appropriate surgical techniques were followed. PMID:27247742

  19. Gamma radiation synthesis of rapid swelling superporous polyacrylamide hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report a simple route for gamma radiation induced synthesis of superporous hydrogel (SPH) is described. Conventional SPH synthesis requires foaming and cross-linking reactions to take place simultaneously. However, in radiation synthesis it is difficult to introduce foaming during the cross-linking reactions. In order to overcome this limitation, the foaming and radiation cross-linking reactions were decoupled and carried out in two stages. The polyacrylamide SPH synthesized by this approach has very fast swelling kinetics compared to the non-porous hydrogel.

  20. Mitigation of Voltage Swells by Static Series Compensator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Hilmy; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    swells, active power may be drawn from the grid into the energy-storage capacitor (ESC) of the SSC, depending on the load current and the SSC impedance. This active power may overcharge the ESC. Two possibilities to overcome this situation are explored in this paper: 1) if the dc-voltage of the ESC is...... lower than a predetermined voltage level, the active power is employed to charge the ESC to this voltage level; 2) otherwise, the overvoltage protection of the SSC must operate. This paper also applies an overvoltage protection scheme based on a combination of a dc resistor with a chopper and the valves...

  1. Dynamic measurement of starch granule swelling during microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasnovas, Johnny; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C

    2016-10-20

    The size of starch granules in dilute aqueous suspension was measured in-line during gelatinization in a microwave-heated, well-mixed system. The results were compared with those of a previous study conducted with conventional heating. For the starches used (common corn, waxy maize, and cross-linked waxy maize), no significant difference was found between microwave and conventional heating in terms of maximum diameter, temperature of maximum rate of diameter increase, or diameter vs. temperature behavior. These results suggest that there are no differences in the swelling behavior of common and modified maize starches between microwave and conventional heating. PMID:27474654

  2. Root cause analysis of swelling problem in Kartini reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root cause analysis (RCA) is applied for the swelling problem in the Kartini reactor. The RCA result shows that probable root cause of swelling are as follows: It is probable that the seal on the cover plate in the service pool has deteriorated and allowed water to enter both the thermal column and the space between the aluminium reactor pool liner and the concrete. The water will also saturate the concrete and has the potential to corrode the steel reinforcement close to the surface of the concrete. It is believed that water leakage from the service pool has entered the area behind the aluminium pool liner and has saturated the concrete. It is believed that carbon steel reinforcement close to the inner surface of the reactor block has corroded. The expanding corrosion product (rust) has the forced layer of concrete covering the steel reinforcement and subsequently pushing the aluminium pool liner inwards, causing the swelling. There are two issues: the mechanism for the creation of the swellings or bulges dominated by Iron corrosion, and the potential for corrosion of aluminium dominated by the pH of water in contact with the aluminium. As the evidence for this condition were: the apparent corrosion of steel reinforcement behind aluminium liner and formation of Ca(CO3) on outside of concrete reactor block indicating water saturation of the concrete block. The condition is advancing and will most probably result in a loss of pool liner integrity, this may or may not result in a loss of pool water due to the concrete backing behind the pool liner. Based on the above analysis, the remedial actions that can be considered are as follows: The pool liner would be patched with a welded panel that would allow the features we have observed to keep growing in a harmless way. It is expected that they will reach a finite size as the iron is consumed by corrosion. The area behind the pool liner would be dried out, this should limit further growth of the bulges by improving the

  3. Influence of microorganisms on swelling behavior of smectites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Considerable interaction of smectitic clay minerals and water leads to the pronounced seal effect needed for barrier materials in the toxic and nuclear waste storage. Nano-structural processes on the molecular level cause macroscopic material properties such as fluid/ion permeability and volume change/swelling pressure development, that are taken into account when characterizing the barrier material. In situ behavior results from a combination of specific influence factors (e.g. electrolyte concentration, temperature, pH-value) due to the great dependence on the environmental conditions of clay water interaction. Considering this aspect, the origin of change in chemical and physical variables become relevant. Particularly in terms of naturally existing and rapid changing factors such as microbial activity. Due to the biodiversity of microorganisms and their individual diversity of metabolism processes, many species have been studied with respect to the influence on the different soil properties. In this study, the effects created by microbial biocenose have been the object of investigation. This corresponds to natural conditions rather than the isolated species. The present study concerns the swelling behavior of smectitic clay with respect to the influence of induced microbial accumulation. Two types of smectites were studied, Calcigel (Ca2+-ions embedded between the silicate layers) and MX80 (Na+-ions embedded). A natural silt was mixed at a ratio of 70:30 for the dry mass with smectites, this provided an amount of microbial portfolio. Using the mixtures, samples were created (20 mm height, 70 mm diameter) with two types of water contents. They exhibited the same dry densities of 1.495 g/cm3 (Calcigel) and 1.386 g/cm3 (MX80). Water adsorption was permitted through the contact of the sample with the liquid phase and also unhindered volume change in one dimension. The addition of nutrients to the liquid phase

  4. Model for laser swelling of a polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper theoretically considers laser swelling of polymers and presents a model that relates this phenomenon to the glass-rubber transition induced by laser heating. The model takes into account both the relaxation nature of a glass-rubber transition and the temperature dependence of the relaxation time. This model theoretically follows the expansion-contraction dynamics of a polymer surface irradiated by a laser and qualitatively explains some features of published experimental data [T. Masubuchi, H. Furutani, H. Fukumura, H. Masuhara, J. Phys. Chem. B 105 (2001) 2518] on nanosecond time-resolved interferometry of UV laser-irradiated PMMA film.

  5. An unusual case of acute painful calf swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar A Sohoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis commonly involves central nervous system. Isolated involvement of skeletal muscles is rare. We have reported a case of cysticercosis herein presented as acute painful calf swelling, which is an extremely unusual presentation and, hence, a diagnostic challenge. The diagnosis was strongly suspected on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The laboratory findings of peripheral eosinophilia and a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test for IgG antibodies against Taenia solium further supported the diagnosis. Complete clinical recovery was seen after 6 weeks of oral therapy with albendazole.

  6. Genital tuberculosis: A rare cause of vulvovaginal discharge and swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Alhakeem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a patient with vulvovaginal tuberculosis (TB presented with a vulvovaginal mass and vaginal discharge.The diagnosis was made by both histopathological examination of the excised specimen which was clinicallysuspected to be a malignant lesion and cervical smear culture positivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The patientwas prescribed a full course of anti-tuberculous drugs. In this report, we discuss the genital TB and its gynecologicaleffects in the light of medical literature. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(3: 140-142Key words: Genital tuberculosis, vulvovaginal swelling

  7. Rhinosporidiosis of lacrimal sac: An interesting case of orbital swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sandip Kanti; Bain, Jayanta; Maity, Kuntal; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Baitalik, Debasis; Majumdar, Bijay Kumar; Gupta, Vivek; Kumar, Ashwini; Dalal, Bibhas Saha; Malik, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic localized granulomatous disease caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi, an aquatic protistan parasite belonging to a clade, Mesomycetozoea. Infestation of Rhinosporidiosis to the eye and adnexa is termed oculosporidiosis, in such cases, conjunctival mucosa is mostly involved; however in our case, it involved only the lacrimal sac and deeper periorbital tissue and presented as a case of orbital swelling. Surgical excision of the lesion was done, postoperatively dapsone therapy was given for 6 months, and the patient responded very well with no recurrence till date. PMID:27003980

  8. ON SWELLING CHARACTERISTICS AND MECHANISM OF TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE HYDROGELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xisheng; TONG Shuixin; SUN Yishi

    1990-01-01

    A series of N-substituted acrylamide monomers and the temperature sensitive hydrogels of their copolymer with N, N ' methylene-bis -acrylamide (Bis) have been synthesized. The effects of monomer structures, composition of the initial monomer mixture, polymerization temperature, the extent of ionization of the network and the presence of acid, base, salt or organic compound on the formation and the swelling characteristics of the temperature sensitive hydrogels have been systematically studied. The mechanism of the temperature sensitive phase transformation of the hydrogels was also investigated.

  9. Effect of fusion burn cycle on first wall swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical simulation of first wall swelling has been performed for stainless steel under a hypothetical duty cycle of 50 sec burn, 50 sec cool. In most instances steady state nucleation conditions were not established during the burn cycle, thereby necessitating the use of transient nucleation theory. The effects of transmutation helium and of surface active impurities were modelled in an approximate way. Both kinds of impurity were found to give large increases in the void nucleation rate. Suggestions for refining and extending the calculations are also given

  10. Swelling behavior of GMZ01 buffer/backfill material under flexible boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the high-level radioactive waste geological repository, the swelling properties of buffer/backfill material play an important role for insuring the long-term stability and safety of the repository. Traditionally, soil swelling behavior has been thoroughly examined under two extreme boundary conditions that included constant volume and constant stress. However, there exist infinite possible intermediate conditions that are neither constant volume nor constant stress and are termed flexible boundary conditions. In literature, the information on soil swelling behavior under flexible boundary condition is limited. In this investigation, a special flexible load ring-type device was developed to perform swelling tests on Gaomiaozi (GMZ01) bentonite under flexible boundary conditions, where the applied stress increases with increasing volume at a specified function. The initial dry density of the soil sample is 1.7 g/cm3, the applied initial axial stress is 0.2 MPa. The results indicate that the developed load ring-type device is effective to characterize the swelling behavior of soil sample under flexible boundary conditions; both the swelling strain and swelling pressure increase with increasing flooding time and then gradually reach stabilization, and the void ratio of the sample increases linearly with increasing swelling pressure; with increasing stiffness of the load ring, the finial swelling stain decreases while the final swelling pressure increases. For the tested soil sample, as the stiffness of the load ring increases from 278.5 N/mm to 2152 N/mm, the final equilibrium swelling strain decreases from 15.88% to 6.84%, while the final equilibrium swelling pressure increases from 0.59 MPa to 1.50 MPa. The experimental results highlights that choosing an appropriate swelling testing technique to simulate the field conditions is essential for design and evaluation of soil swelling potential. (authors)

  11. Prevention of Atrioventricular Block During Radiofrequency Ablation by Pace Mapping of Koch’s Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Vakili

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complete atrioventricular block (AV block is a serious complication of slow pathway ablation therapy in the treatment of atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT. The present study was aimed at determining whether the electroanatomical pace mapping of Koch’s triangle could significantly improve the safety, efficiency, and efficacy of selective slow pathway ablation in the treatment of AVNRT. Methods: A total number of 124 patients were selected to be studied consecutively for radiofrequency (RF ablation therapy in the treatment of AVNRT. The subjects were divided into two groups: one, designated Group 1, to serve as the control group, and the other, designated Group 2, to serve as the study group. Conventional fluoroscopic slow pathway ablation was performed on the Group 1 subjects (n=66, with the Group 2 subjects receiving slow pathway ablation therapy guided by pace mapping of Koch’s triangle. The slow pathway ablation in Group 2 (n=58 was performed with regard to the pace mapping data obtained on the basis of the St-H interval in the anteroseptal (AS, midseptal (MS, and posteroseptal (PS regions of Koch’s triangle. The anterograde fast pathway (AFP location was determined based on the shortest St-H interval obtained by stimulating the anteroseptal (AS, midseptal (MS, and posteroseptal (PS aspects of Koch’s triangle. Results: In the Group 2 subjects, AFP location was AS in 50 (86.2% of the cases, MS in 7 (12% of the cases, and PS in 1 case (1.7%. One patient with posteroseptal AFP was administered retrograde fast pathway ablation therapy. One patient in the control group (Group 1, representing 1.5% of the group, developed persistent AV block in the course of the treatment, but none of the subjects in the study group (Group 2 developed any complications. Conclusion: It was concluded that an atypical fast pathway location is conducive to the development of atrioventricular block in the ablation therapy in AVNRT

  12. Swelling, Compressibility, and Phase Behavior of Soft Ionic Microgels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Alan

    Soft colloids have inspired great attention recently for their rich and tunable materials properties. Particular interest has focused on microgels - microscopic cross-linked polymer gel particles that, when dispersed in water, become swollen and can acquire charge through dissociation of counterions. Electrostatic interparticle interactions strongly influence the structure and thermodynamics of ionic microgel suspensions*. Permeability to solvent molecules and small ions creates a competition between elastic and electrostatic forces that determines equilibrium particle sizes. Swelling can be controlled by adjusting temperature, pH, and salt concentration, with applications to chemical/biosensing and targeted drug delivery. By combining molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation with Poisson-Boltzmann theory of electrostatics and Flory-Rehner theory of swollen polymer networks, we investigate swelling and compressibility of ionic microgel particles and implications for thermodynamic phase behavior of bulk suspensions at concentrations approaching and exceeding hard-sphere close packing. Predictions for particle size and osmotic pressure are compared with available experimental data. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1106331.

  13. AFM investigation of kraft pulp ber swelling in controlled humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Kraft pulp fibers are wood fibers from softwood, typically spruce and pine, which are the main constituent for so called kraft paper. Kraft paper is used mainly for packaging applications, where a high strength is required. In this work, the swelling behavior of spruce kraft pulp fibers is investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). To perform this task, the AFM was equipped with a fluid cell and a setup where the relative humidity inside the fluid cell can be controlled. The setup enables to select any humidity value between approximately 5% and 80% relative humidity. With this setup, a change in surface morphology of the scanned area could be observed. Furthermore, the evolution of the characteristic surface wrinkles of dried pulp fibers with increasing humidity was quantified in two different ways. One way is to measure the distance between the surface wrinkles, the other to determine their height. It could be shown that the distance between the wrinkles is increasing, whereas the height is decreasing. This means that the surface is becoming smoother when the ber is swelling, which is best observed on a completely wet fiber. (author)

  14. TRACB04 study on suppression pool swelling during containment venting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following postulated loss-of-decay-heat removal accidents in a boiling water reactor (BWR), continued steam generation in the core could lead to containment overpressurization. The Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPG), developed jointly by the BWR Owners Group and General Electric Company, recommend operator action to vent the primary containment, as the last resort, to avoid adverse consequence to the containment or potentially to the core. The EPGs provide recommendations to be used by individual utilities in development of their plant's unique emergency operating procedures (EOPs). In formulation of the EOPs for containment venting, a number of factors must be assessed to assure that the operator actions are taken at the proper time and that the minimum consequence of venting results. Among these factors, induced pool-swell loads on containment were postulated due to such events as downcomer clearing and bulk nucleation. This paper presents the results of a study, using computer code TRACB04 of pool swelling induced by venting the containment at high pressure. TRACB04, an enhanced version of TRAC, is a best-estimate computer code for the analysis of BWR transients

  15. WOVEN HYBRID COMPOSITES: WATER ABSORPTION AND THICKNESS SWELLING BEHAVIOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. S. Abdul Khalil

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB/woven jute fibres (Jw reinforced epoxy hybrid composites were prepared by hand lay-up technique by keeping the EFB/ woven jute fibre weight ratios constant, i.e. 4:1. By combining oil palm EFB and woven jute fibre, it is possible to take advantage of both fibres while at the same time suppressing their less desirable qualities. These hybrids provide a new type of sandwich structure with a good skin-core adhesion and the potential for their applications as cost-effective sandwich construction. The effect of the layering pattern on the water absorption and thickness swelling of the hybrid composites was studied. It was observed that water diffusion occurred in the composites, depending on the fibre type as well as the layering pattern. EFB fibre composites exhibited maximum water absorption during the whole duration of immersion. The hybridization of oil palm EFB composites with woven jute fibre showed beneficial effects on both the water absorption and thickness swelling by improving fibre/matrix bonding.

  16. Textureless Macula Swelling Detection with Multiple Retinal Fundus Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Grisan, Enrico [University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Favaro, Paolo [Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh; Ruggeri, Alfredo [University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Retinal fundus images acquired with non-mydriatic digital fundus cameras are a versatile tool for the diagnosis of various retinal diseases. Because of the ease of use of newer camera models and their relatively low cost, these cameras can be employed by operators with limited training for telemedicine or Point-of-Care applications. We propose a novel technique that uses uncalibrated multiple-view fundus images to analyse the swelling of the macula. This innovation enables the detection and quantitative measurement of swollen areas by remote ophthalmologists. This capability is not available with a single image and prone to error with stereo fundus cameras. We also present automatic algorithms to measure features from the reconstructed image which are useful in Point-of-Care automated diagnosis of early macular edema, e.g., before the appearance of exudation. The technique presented is divided into three parts: first, a preprocessing technique simultaneously enhances the dark microstructures of the macula and equalises the image; second, all available views are registered using non-morphological sparse features; finally, a dense pyramidal optical flow is calculated for all the images and statistically combined to build a naiveheight- map of the macula. Results are presented on three sets of synthetic images and two sets of real world images. These preliminary tests show the ability to infer a minimum swelling of 300 microns and to correlate the reconstruction with the swollen location.

  17. Review of the HBWR data base on fuel swelling behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical utilities are constantly striving to increase the burnup at which nuclear fuel rods are discharged from the reactor. The incentive is a reduction in the fuel cycle cost and a decrease in the amount of spent fuel to be reprocessed. Higher burnups have to be achieved while maintaining the safe and reliable operation of LWR fuel. It is therefore of great importance to investigate the fuel solid swelling, which is one of the dominant processes in the fuel at high burnup. This report summarises the results on fuel solid swelling from both in-pile measurements and post irradiation examination (PIE) from eleven experiments containing UO2 and MOX fuel carried out under HBWR conditions and in a LWR loop. The experiments (IFAs 655, 610.2, 610.3, 629.3, 629.4, 534.14, 597.3, 515.10, 504, 519.9) have reached burnup levels between ∼50 and ∼100 MWd/kgOxide, except IFA-633 which is at medium burnup, ∼35 MWd/kgOxide. (Author)

  18. Hereditary Angioedema Attacks: Local Swelling at Multiple Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Zonne L M; Relan, Anurag; Hack, C Erik

    2016-02-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) patients experience recurrent local swelling in various parts of the body including painful swelling of the intestine and life-threatening laryngeal oedema. Most HAE literature is about attacks located in one anatomical site, though it is mentioned that HAE attacks may also involve multiple anatomical sites simultaneously. A detailed description of such multi-location attacks is currently lacking. This study investigated the occurrence, severity and clinical course of HAE attacks with multiple anatomical locations. HAE patients included in a clinical database of recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH) studies were evaluated. Visual analog scale scores filled out by the patients for various symptoms at various locations and investigator symptoms scores during the attack were analysed. Data of 219 eligible attacks in 119 patients was analysed. Thirty-three patients (28%) had symptoms at multiple locations in anatomically unrelated regions at the same time during their first attack. Up to five simultaneously affected locations were reported. The observation that severe HAE attacks often affect multiple sites in the body suggests that HAE symptoms result from a systemic rather than from a local process as is currently believed. PMID:25527240

  19. Controlled swelling and adsorption properties of polyacrylate/montmorillonite composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natkanski, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Kustrowski, Piotr, E-mail: kustrows@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Bialas, Anna; Piwowarska, Zofia [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Michalik, Marek [Institute of Geological Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Oleandry 2a, 30-063 Krakow (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    A series of novel polyacrylate/montmorillonite composites was synthesized by in situ polymerization in aqueous slurry of clay. Dissociated (obtained by adding ammonium or sodium hydroxide) and undissociated forms of acrylic acid were used as monomers in the hydrogel synthesis. The structure and composition of the samples were studied by powder X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance infra-red Fourier transform spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and elemental analysis. It has been found that the kind of monomer influences strongly the location of a polymer chain in the formed composite. Complete intercalation of hydrogel into the interlayer space of montmorillonite was observed for sodium polyacrylate, whereas polyacrylic acid and ammonium polyacrylate mainly occupied the outer surface of the clay. The position of hydrogel determined the swelling and adsorption properties of the studied composites. The important factor influencing the kinetics of Fe(III) cation adsorption was pH. The analysis of adsorption isotherms allowed to propose the mechanism of Fe(III) cation adsorption. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyacrylate hydrogels can be introduced into the interlayers of clay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The position of hydrogel in the composite depends on the polymer type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonium polyacrylate places outside the clay, sodium one is intercalated into it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swelling and adsorption capacities can be controlled by the polymer position. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High adsorption efficiency in Fe(III) removal was observed.

  20. Swelling and osmotic flow in a potential host rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of osmotic and hydraulic permeability are reported for a series of tests conducted on Opalinus Clay samples from the Mont Terri underground research laboratory in the Jura Mountains of NE Switzerland. Osmotic flow was observed across discs of this clay-shale separating 0,245 M NaCl solution from distilled water. Pressure transients monitored during constant flow rate testing were analysed to give permeability and specific storage values. The mean permeability normal to bedding of the two Opalinus Clay specimens was 7,9 x 10-21 m2. The mean specific storage based on all reliable determinations was 4,1 x 10-4 m-1. Values calculated from the steady-state pressure gradients established during constant flow rate testing were very close to those obtained by mathematical analysis of pressure transients. The calculation of the transients was carried out using a new model of flow and solute transport which included terms for the osmotic coupling. The form of the pressure transients and the magnitude of the strain seen during the tests lead to a revision to the definition of solid phase compressibility to incorporate a term dependent upon the osmotic coupling coefficient. Steady-state osmotic flow rates were in the range 0,1 to 0,6 μL.hr-1 when the specimens were placed between a sodium chloride solution with a theoretical osmotic pressure of 1,19 MPa and distilled water. Transient flow rates were substantially larger. Membrane efficiencies were found to be relatively low, ranging from 1% to 6% (mean around 4%). The mean osmotic permeability normal to bedding was 3,5 x 10-22 m2. Specific storage and pore compressibility values were substantially larger than anticipated, suggesting that the volumetric strain of the clay-shale under the conditions of laboratory testing must be largely determined by quasi-elastic deformation processes such as swelling and crack dilation. To test this hypothesis, a 3D swelling test was performed on a cubic specimen of the same

  1. Anterior retropharyngeal approach to the cervical spine.

    OpenAIRE

    Behari S; Banerji D; Trivedi P; Jain V; Chhabra D

    2001-01-01

    The anterior retropharyngeal approach (ARPA) accesses anteriorly situated lesions from the clivus to C3, in patients with a short neck, Klippel Feil anomaly or those in whom the C2-3 and C3-4 disc spaces are situated higher in relation to the hyoid bone and the angle of mandible where it is difficult to approach this region using the conventional anterior approach, due to the superomedial obliquity of the trajectory. The ARPA avoids the potentially contaminated oropharyngeal cavity providing ...

  2. Mini-open anterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhoke, Gurpreet S; Ricks, Christian; Tempel, Zachary; Zuckerbraun, Brian; Hamilton, D Kojo; Okonkwo, David O; Kanter, Adam S

    2016-07-01

    In deformity surgery, anterior lumbar interbody fusion provides excellent biomechanical support, creates a broad surface area for arthrodesis, and induces lordosis in the lower lumbar spine. Preoperative MRI, plain radiographs, and, when available, CT scan should be carefully assessed for sacral slope as it relates to pubic symphysis, position of the great vessels (especially at L4/5), disc space height, or contraindication to an anterior approach. This video demonstrates the steps in an anterior surgical procedure with minimal open exposure. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/r3bC4_vu1hQ . PMID:27364424

  3. Interpretation of Coal-Seam Sequestration Data Using a New Swelling and Shrinkage Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Smith, D.H.

    2006-10-01

    This paper deals with the influence of swelling and shrinkage of coal on the production of methane from, and sequestration of carbon dioxide in, a coalbed reservoir. A three-dimensional swelling and shrinkage model was developed. It is based on constitutive equations that account for coupled fluid pressure-deformation behavior of a porous medium that undergoes swelling and shrinkage. The swelling and shrinkage strains are computed on the basis of the amounts of different gases (e.g., CO2, CH4) sorbed or desorbed. The amounts of sorption and desorption are computed from measured isotherms with the aid of the Ideal Adsorbed Solution model for mixed gases. The permeability of the reservoir is modified according to the swelling-shrinkage model. The paper presents numerical results for the influence of swelling and shrinkage on reservoir performance during injection of carbon dioxide. The paper includes results from a number of examples, and analysis of a field injection into a coal seam at a site in the San Juan basin. Results show that with the incorporation of swelling and shrinkage into the analysis, it is possible to get a better history-match of production data. Results also show that coal swelling can reduce the injection volumes of carbon dioxide significantly. The interpretation of field data with the new swelling-shrinkage model shows that the coal swelling during carbon dioxide sequestration in coal-seams is an important factor that can influence field performance.

  4. Secondary anterior crocodile shagreen of Vogt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, R C; Bron, A J

    1975-01-01

    The clincopathological features and pathogenesis of secondary mosaic degeneration of the cornea (anterior crocodile shagreen of Vogt) are described. The structural basis for the normal anterior corneal mosaic pattern seems to lie in the particular arrangement of many prominent collagen lamellae of the anterior stroma that thake an oblique course to gain insertion into Bowman's layer. Since, at normal intraocular pressure, Bowman's layer is under tension, when viewed from the anterior surface the cornea appears smooth. By releasing the tension, however, a reproducible polygonal ridge pattern becomes manifest. It is suggested that a prolonged phthisical state of the eye is one condition wherein the mosaic pattern may become permanent and that, as a secondary event, this is followed by irregular calcification of Bowman's layer which particularly involves the ridges projecting into the epithelium. Biomicroscopically these ridges corresponded to the branching reticular arrangement of the mosaic opacities. Images PMID:1079137

  5. Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Plating

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Plating Broward Health Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 17, 2011 I'm Dr. Matthew Moore, head of the Spine Care Center here at North Broward Medical Center. And ...

  6. Stress-strain relations for swelling anhydritic clay rocks – A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Simon; Blum, Philipp; Butscher, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    The swelling of clay-sulfate rocks is a major threat in tunnel engineering, causing serious damage to tunnels and producing high additional costs during tunnel construction and operation. The swelling leads to geomechanical processes that may result in heave of the tunnel invert, destruction of the lining or uplift of the entire tunnel section. Heave-pressure-time relations are needed when predictions should be made about the mechanical behavior of swelling rock. For pure clay rocks, there is a linear relation between the swelling heave (strain) and the logarithm of pressure (Grob 1972). A generally accepted relation for clay-sulfate rocks, however, is still lacking to date. Therefore, finding appropriate and sustainable counter measures for an actual tunneling project affected by swelling remains extremely difficult. Grob (1972) proposed the linear relation between heave and the logarithm of pressure ("semi-logarithmic swelling law") not only for clay rocks, but also for clay-sulfate rocks. Pimentel (2007), however, presented laboratory experiments indicating that the semi-logarithmic swelling law may be inadequate for describing the swelling of clay-sulfate rocks. The laboratory tests revealed three different stages in the swelling process, including minimal deformation and prevented gypsum crystallization at high pressures (> 6 MPa); large deformation and gypsum crystallization at medium pressures; and only small deformation, possibly along with gypsum dissolution, at low pressures (generally doubts the existence of a fixed relation between swelling strain and (final) pressure. According to him, swelling pressures and their temporal development are controlled by water inflow into the rock, which cannot be reflected by general strain-stress relations. The present study critically reviews stress-strain relations for swelling anhydritic clay rocks proposed by various authors. Subsequently, published laboratory data from oedometric swelling tests are presented that

  7. Trypan blue dye for anterior segment surgeries

    OpenAIRE

    Jhanji, V; Chan, E.; Das, S.; Zhang, H; Vajpayee, R B

    2011-01-01

    Use of vital dyes in ophthalmic surgery has gained increased importance in the past few years. Trypan blue (TB) has been a popular choice among anterior segment surgeons mainly due to its safety, ease of availability, and remarkable ability to enable an easy surgery in difficult situations mostly related to visibility of the targeted tissue. It is being used in cataract surgery since nearly a decade and its utilization has been extended to other anterior segment surgeries like trabeculectomy ...

  8. Functional Outcomes of Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Tibialis Anterior Allograft

    OpenAIRE

    Başar, Selda; Büyükafşar, Enes; Hazar, Zeynep; Ataoğlu, Baybars; Kanatlı, Ulunay

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Allografts have potential advantages in primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), including the absence of donor site morbidity, shorter operative times, improved cosmesis, and easier rehabilitation. There is limited and conflicting outcome data for ACLR with tibialis anterior allograft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of ACLR with tibialis anterior allograft. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients underwent ACLR using with...

  9. Swelling and erosion of pectin matrix tablets and their impact on drug release behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Thirawong, Nartaya; Weerapol, Yossanun; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Sungthongjeen, Srisagul

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate swelling and erosion behaviors of hydrophilic matrix tablets using pectin and their impact on drug release. The matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression using different types of pectin. Swelling and erosion studies of pectin matrix tablets were carried out in various media. The pectin matrix tablets formed a continuous gel layer while in contact with the aqueous medium undergoing a combination of swelling and erosion. The swelling action of pectin matrices was controlled by the rate of its hydration in the medium. Release studies showed that the swelling and erosion of matrices influenced the drug release. The extent of matrix swelling, erosion and diffusion of drug determined the kinetics as well as mechanism of drug release from pectin-based matrix tablets. The release data showed a good fit into the power law or the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation indicating the combined effect of diffusion and erosion mechanisms of drug release. PMID:17267193

  10. The correlation between swelling and radiation-induced segregation in iron-chromium-nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnitudes of both void swelling and radiation-induced segregation (RIS) in iron-chromium-nickel alloys are dependent on bulk alloy composition. Because the diffusivity of nickel via the vacancy flux is slow relative to chromium, nickel enriches and chromium depletes at void surfaces during irradiation. This local composition change reduces the subsequent vacancy flux to the void, thereby reducing void swelling. In this work, the resistance to swelling from major element segregation is estimated using diffusivities derived from grain boundary segregation measurements in irradiated iron-chromium-nickel alloys. The resistance to void swelling in iron- and nickel-base alloys correlates with the segregation and both are functions of bulk alloy composition. Alloys that display the greatest amount of nickel enrichment and chromium depletion are found to be most resistant to void swelling, as predicted. Additionally, swelling is shown to be greater in alloys in which the RIS profiles are slow to develop

  11. Effect of phosphorus on swelling behavior of D9I steel studied by nickel ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The void swelling behavior of D9I alloys with varying phosphorous and silicon concentration is studied using heavy ion irradiation. The cold worked samples were pre-implanted with 30 appm of helium atoms spanning a width of about 640 nm. Subsequently the samples were irradiated with 5 MeV nickel ions to create a peak damage of 100 dpa in the temperature interval of 700 to 970 K. The gross swelling up to the implanted range was measured by using step height measurements. It is observed that the peak swelling temperature and magnitude of swelling at peak swelling temperature depends upon the composition of the alloy. This paper discusses the effects of phosphorus and silicon on the void swelling behavior of D9I alloys. (author)

  12. Median nerve neuropathy in the forearm due to recurrence of anterior wrist ganglion that originates from the scaphotrapezial joint: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Median nerve neuropathy caused by compression from a tumor in the forearm is rare. Cases with anterior wrist ganglion have high recurrence rates despite surgical treatment. Here, we report the recurrence of an anterior wrist ganglion that originated from the Scaphotrapezial joint due to incomplete resection and that caused median nerve neuropathy in the distal forearm. Case presentation A 47-year-old right-handed housewife noted the appearance of soft swelling on the volar aspect of her left distal forearm, and local resection surgery was performed twice at another hospital. One year after the last surgery, the swelling reappeared and was associated with numbness and pain in the radial volar aspect of the hand. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the multicystic lesion originated from the Scaphotrapezial joint and had expanded beyond the wrist. Exploration of the left median nerve showed that it was compressed by a large ovoid cystic lesion at the distal forearm near the proximal end of the carpal tunnel. We resected the cystic lesion to the Scaphotrapezial joint. Her symptoms disappeared 1 week after surgery, and complications or recurrent symptoms were absent 13 months after surgery. Conclusions A typical median nerve compression was caused by incomplete resection of an anterior wrist ganglion, which may have induced widening of the cyst. Cases with anterior wrist ganglion have high recurrence rates and require extra attention in their treatment.

  13. Anterior Eye Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong

    The development of corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology has advanced rapidly in recently years. The scan geometry and imaging wavelength are both important choices to make in designing anterior segment OCT systems. Rectangular scan geometry offers the least image distortion and is now used in most anterior OCT systems. The wavelength of OCT light source affects resolution and penetration. An optimal choice of the OCT imaging wavelength (840, 1,050, or 1,310 nm) depends on the application of interest. Newer generation Fourier-domain OCT technology can provide scan speed 100-1000 times faster than the time-domain technology. Various commercial anterior OCT systems are available on the market. A wide spectrum of diagnostic and surgical applications using anterior segment OCT had been investigated, including mapping of corneal and epithelial thicknesses, keratoconus screening, measuring corneal refractive power, corneal surgery planning and evaluation in LASIK, intracorneal ring implantation, assessment of angle closure glaucoma, anterior chamber biometry and intraocular lens implants, intraocular lens power calculation, and eye bank donor cornea screening.

  14.  Soft Tissue Swelling at the Subscapular Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Al Kindi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old female presented with a longstanding painless swelling overlying the scapula on the right side and has been gradually increasing in size with occasional episodes of pain radiating to the right arm. The clinical diagnosis was a soft tissue tumor. MRI was reported as suggestive of irregular fibro-fatty tissue with muscular infiltration and inflammation. Fine needle aspiration (FNA retrieved a paucicellular aspirate with a few clusters of adipocytes. The diagnosis was a lipomatous lesion and excision was advised for histopathological examination. The intraoperative findings showed the tumor located deep into the rhomboids and latissimus dorsi and extending deep into the right scapula. The excised specimen was sent for histopathological examination. 

  15. Sarcoidosis detected due to tattoo swellings in an Indian female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Ghorpade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A female patient presented with asymptomatic swellings in old blue-black tattoo marks of her forearms. On careful skin examination, few raised erythematous, circular plaques were also found on the non-tattooed skin on her back, about which she was unaware. The diagnosis of cutaneous and systemic sarcoidosis was confirmed after classical histopathological findings from skin lesions from her non tattooed back and from papulonodular tattooed lesions, ruling out other causes of granulomas and supported by a negative Mantoux test, raised serum angiotensin converting enzyme level, high resolution computed tomography thorax, etc. She responded well to oral steroid therapy. The importance of a careful skin examination, easy access provided by skin lesions in suspected cases of cutaneous/systemic sarcoidosis, the value of sudden tattoo changes in the diagnosis here and the possible contribution of tattoos toward the causation of cutaneous and/or systemic sarcoidosis are highlighted.

  16. WAVELET BASED CLASSIFICATION OF VOLTAGE SAG, SWELL & TRANSIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Gajanan Neve

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available When the time localization of the spectral components is needed, the WAVELE TRANSFORM (WT can be used to obtain the optimal time frequency representation of the signal. This paper deals with the use of a wavelet transform to detect and analyze voltage sags, voltage swell and transients. It introduces voltage disturbance detection approach based on wavelet transform, identifies voltage disturbances, and discriminates the type of event which has resulted in the voltage disturbance, e.g. either a fault or a capacitor-switching incident.Feasibility of the proposed disturbance detection approach is demonstrated based on digital time-domain simulation of a distribution power system using the PSCAD software package, and is implemented using MATLAB. The developed algorithm has been applied to the 14-buses IEEE system to illustrate its application. Results are analyzed.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of clays: swelling, sedimentation, dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvinskikh, Sergey; Furo, Istvan

    2010-05-01

    measure of clay distribution in extended samples during different physical processes such as swelling, dissolution, and sedimentation on the time scale from minutes to years [1-3]. To characterize the state of colloids that form after/during clay swelling the water self-diffusion coefficient was measured on a spatially resolved manner. Both natural clays and purified and ion-exchanged montmorillonite clays were investigated. The primary variables were clay composition and water ionic strength. These results have a significant impact for engineering barriers for storage of spent nuclear fuel where clay erosion by low salinity water must be addressed. Presented methods were developed under the motivation of using bentonite clays as a buffer medium to build in-ground barriers for the encapsulation of radioactive waste. Nevertheless, the same approaches can be found suitable in other applications in soil and environmental science to study other types of materials as they swell, dissolve, erode, or sediment. Acknowledgements: This work has been supported by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) and the Swedish Research Council VR. [1] N. Nestle, T. Baumann, R. Niessner, Magnetic resonance imaging in environmental science. Environ. Sci. Techn. 36 154A (2002). [2] S. V. Dvinskikh, K. Szutkowski, I. Furó. MRI profiles over a very wide concentration ranges: application to swelling of a bentonite clay. J. Magn. Reson. 198 146 (2009). [3] S. V. Dvinskikh, I. Furó. Magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of bentonite systems. Technical Report, TR-09-27, SKB (2009), www.skb.se.

  18. Fibromatosis colli - a rare cytological diagnosis in infantile neck swellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sabina; Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba; Husain, Musharraf

    2014-11-01

    Fibromatosis colli or sternocleidomastoid tumour is a rare cause of benign neck mass in infants. It is a self limiting fibroblastic lesion usually presenting with torticollis and a history of birth trauma.It is one of the few causes in which Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is indicated in a neonate to confirm the diagnosis and to differentiate it from other congenital, inflammatory and neoplastic causes. FNAC provides a rapid, cost-effective, reliable, non invasive method of diagnosis resulting in conservative management of these lesions. We present two interesting cases of neck swelling in infants where FNAC performed as the first diagnostic procedure was instrumental in establishing the diagnosis of fibromatosis colli thus avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention. PMID:25584233

  19. Mid Arm Swelling- A Rare Presentation of Filariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haren Oza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bancroftian Filariasis is a tropical and subtropical disease caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by the Culex mosquitoes. The diagnosis of it is conventionally made by demonstrating microfilariae in the peripheral blood smear. Microfilaria and adult filarial worm have been incidentally detected in fine needle aspirates of various lesions. We here report a rare case presentation of Bancroftian filariasis in 20 years old asymptomatic male coming from an endemic area with swelling in subcutaneous tissue of left mid-arm. Our aim is to highlight the finding of microfilaria in fine needle aspiration cytology in an unsuspected case at an unusual site. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(3.000: 256-258

  20. WATER STATES IN SBR BASED WATER SWELLING RUBBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Water swelling rubber (WSR) was prepared by reaction blending SBR and sodium polyacrylate (PAANa). The existing states of water in the WSR was studied by means of DSC and TG. It was found that water exists in three states: nonfreezing water,bound freezable water and free water. The relationships between water states and structure of PAANa were investigated. The results showed that the amount of non-freezing water was related to total water content, and the ratio of non-freezing water versus -COONa groups on PAANa (mol/mol) was about 4. However, total water content slightly affected the content of bound freezable water and remarkably affected the amount of free waer.