Sample records for anterior triangle swellings

  1. Management of anterior triangle swellings in a tertiary vascular centre with emphasis on the roles of duplex ultrasound, computed tomography angiogram and magnetic resonance angiogram: a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Colleran, Gabrielle C


    BACKGROUND: Anterior triangle masses pose an important clinical dilemma. It is very difficult to distinguish the potential pathologies pre operatively by clinical and radiological assessment. CASE REPORT: The first case highlights the management of a bilateral chemodectoma, the second case is a presentation of castleman\\'s disease and the third is that of metastatic tonsillar adenocarcinoma. All three cases had a similar presentation and radiological appearance pre-operatively. CONCLUSION: Anterior triangle masses span the clinical spectrum of pathologies from chemodectoma to castleman\\'s disease to carcinoma. Expert vascular and radiological management is required for optimum patient care and should take place in a tertiary referral centre. Duplex US, CTA and MRA are important pre operative assessment tools to ensure that adequate information regarding the relationship of the lesion to the carotid artery is available to the operating surgeon who should have vascular expertise as deliberate practice volume has been repeatedly shown to result in improved patient outcome.

  2. Triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Borth, Teddy


    Most shapes can be cut into triangles. They are an important shape. They make bridges stronger and they help push sailboats. Easy text and large pictures help early readers discover that triangles are fun!.

  3. Swelling (United States)

    Except in emergency situations (heart failure or pulmonary edema ), your provider will take your medical history and will perform a physical examination . You may be asked about the symptoms of your swelling. ...

  4. The triangle between the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments: an arthroscopic anatomy study. (United States)

    Kaya, Alper; Köken, Murat; Akan, Burak; Karagüven, Doğaç; Güçlü, Berk


    The goal of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is to place the graft in closest proximity to the native ACL anatomy. This study aims to examine the angular relation between intact anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (PCL) from an arthroscopic perspective. Forty patients (20 male, 20 female) with a mean age of 35.12 (range: 18-40) years that underwent knee arthroscopy for reasons other than ACL rupture were included in the study. Following diagnostic examination and repair of the primary pathology, the triangle between ACL and PCL was seen at different flexion degrees of the knee joint (120, 90, 60, and 30°) through standard anterolateral (AL) and anteromedial (AM) portals. The narrow top angle of the triangle between the long intersecting axes of ACL and PCL was measured using recorded images by 3 blind observers. The average ACL-PCL angle was 61°, (standard deviation±2°) at 90°of knee flexion. The angles were narrower when viewed through the AM portal. The degree of the angles was not affected by age, sex, body mass index (BMI), or the side (right or left) on which the procedure was performed. There was good-to-excellent intra- and interobserver reliability. The angular relation between intact ACL and PCL has the potential to provide a better view of the anatomy during arthroscopic ACL surgery. To perform better anatomic reconstructions, it is important to create a 60° angle between the ACL graft and PCL (as viewed through AL portal) at 90°of knee flexion.

  5. Pseudo-aneurysm of the anterior tibial artery, a rare cause of ankle swelling following a sports injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAteer Eamon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle pain and swelling following sports injuries are common presenting complaints to the accident and emergency department. Frequently these are diagnosed as musculoskeletal injuries, even when no definitive cause is found. Vascular injuries following trauma are uncommon and are an extremely rare cause of ankle swelling and pain. These injuries may however be limb threatening and are important to diagnose early, in order that appropriate treatment can be delivered. We highlight the steps to diagnosis of these injuries, and methods of managing these injuries. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the potential for this injury in patients with seemingly innocuous trauma from sports injuries, who have significant ankle pain and swelling. Case presentation A young, professional sportsman presented with a swollen, painful ankle after an innocuous hyper-plantar flexion injury whilst playing football, which was initially diagnosed as a ligamentous injury after no bony injury was revealed on X-Ray. He returned 2 days later with a large ulcer at the lateral malleolus and further investigation by duplex ultrasound and transfemoral arteriogram revealed a Pseudo-Aneurysm of the Anterior Tibial Artery. This was initially managed with percutaneous injection of thrombin, and later open surgery to ligate the feeding vessel. The patient recovered fully and was able to return to recreational sport. Conclusion Vascular injuries remain a rare cause of ankle pain and swelling following sports injuries, however it is important to consider these injuries when no definite musculo-skeletal cause is found. Ultrasound duplex and Transfemoral arteriogram are appropriate, sensitive modalities for investigation, and may allow novel treatment to be directed percutaneously. Early diagnosis and intervention are essential for the successful outcome in these patients.

  6. Pseudo-aneurysm of the anterior tibial artery, a rare cause of ankle swelling following a sports injury (United States)

    Marron, Conor D; McKay, Damian; Johnston, Ruth; McAteer, Eamon; Stirling, WJ Ivan


    Background Ankle pain and swelling following sports injuries are common presenting complaints to the accident and emergency department. Frequently these are diagnosed as musculoskeletal injuries, even when no definitive cause is found. Vascular injuries following trauma are uncommon and are an extremely rare cause of ankle swelling and pain. These injuries may however be limb threatening and are important to diagnose early, in order that appropriate treatment can be delivered. We highlight the steps to diagnosis of these injuries, and methods of managing these injuries. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the potential for this injury in patients with seemingly innocuous trauma from sports injuries, who have significant ankle pain and swelling. Case presentation A young, professional sportsman presented with a swollen, painful ankle after an innocuous hyper-plantar flexion injury whilst playing football, which was initially diagnosed as a ligamentous injury after no bony injury was revealed on X-Ray. He returned 2 days later with a large ulcer at the lateral malleolus and further investigation by duplex ultrasound and transfemoral arteriogram revealed a Pseudo-Aneurysm of the Anterior Tibial Artery. This was initially managed with percutaneous injection of thrombin, and later open surgery to ligate the feeding vessel. The patient recovered fully and was able to return to recreational sport. Conclusion Vascular injuries remain a rare cause of ankle pain and swelling following sports injuries, however it is important to consider these injuries when no definite musculo-skeletal cause is found. Ultrasound duplex and Transfemoral arteriogram are appropriate, sensitive modalities for investigation, and may allow novel treatment to be directed percutaneously. Early diagnosis and intervention are essential for the successful outcome in these patients. PMID:16225679

  7. Pythagorean triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinski, Waclaw


    The Pythagorean Theorem is one of the fundamental theorems of elementary geometry, and Pythagorean triangles - right triangles whose sides are natural numbers - have been studied by mathematicians since antiquity. In this classic text, a brilliant Polish mathematician explores the intriguing mathematical relationships in such triangles.Starting with ""primitive"" Pythagorean triangles, the text examines triangles with sides less than 100, triangles with two sides that are successive numbers, divisibility of one of the sides by 3 or by 5, the values of the sides of triangles, triangles with th

  8. Noninfectious prevertebral soft-tissue inflammation and hematoma eliciting swelling after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. (United States)

    Yagi, Kenji; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Okazaki, Toshiyuki; Irie, Shinsuke; Inagaki, Toru; Saito, Osamu; Nagahiro, Shinji; Saito, Koji


    OBJECTIVE Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) procedures are performed to treat patients with cervical myelopathy or radiculopathy. Dysphagia is a post-ACDF complication. When it coincides with prevertebral space enlargement and inflammation, surgical site infection and pharyngoesophageal perforation must be considered. The association between dysphagia and prevertebral inflammation has not been reported. The authors investigated factors eliciting severe dysphagia and its relationship with prevertebral inflammation in patients who had undergone ACDF. MATERIALS The clinical data of 299 patients who underwent 307 ACDF procedures for cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy at Kushiro Kojinkai Memorial Hospital and Kushiro Neurosurgical Hospital between December 2007 and August 2014 were reviewed. RESULTS After 7 ACDF procedures (2.3%), 7 patients suffered severe prolonged and/or delayed dysphagia and odynophagia that prevented ingestion. In all 7 patients the prevertebral space was enlarged. In 5 (1.6%) the symptom was thought to be associated with prevertebral soft-tissue edema; in all 5 an inflammatory response, hyperthermia, and an increase in the white blood cell count and in C-reactive protein level was observed. After 2 procedures (0.7%), we noted prevertebral hematoma without an inflammatory response. None of the patients who had undergone 307 ACDF procedures manifested pharyngoesophageal perforation or surgical site infection. CONCLUSIONS Severe dysphagia and odynophagia are post-ACDF complications. In most instances they are attributable to prevertebral soft-tissue edema accompanied by inflammatory responses such as fever and an increase in the white blood cell count and in C-reactive protein. In other cases these anomalies are elicited by hematoma not associated with inflammation.

  9. Pascal's Triangle. (United States)

    Barton, Patricia Shea


    Notes that Montessori classrooms provide children with the opportunity to explore and discover mathematics. Describes the introduction to Pascal's Triangle as a suggested opportunity to connect young children to deep mathematical truths. Provides teachers with materials requirements, and notes ideas on what can be acquired from the problem, the…

  10. The posterior triangle in radical neck surgery. (United States)

    Skolnik, E M; Yee, K F; Friedman, M; Golden, T A


    We evaluate the importance of cancer spread to the lymphatic system in the posterior triangle. The posterior triangle tissues of 51 radical neck specimens were serially sectioned and studied for metastic involvement. The findings were correlated with the findings in the anterior triangle and the primary tumor. Of the 51 neck operations performed, 25 were elective and 26 were therapeutic for carcinoma of the larynx, pharynx, and oral cavity. Metastasis in the anterior triangles was detected in 88.4% of the therapeutic group and in 24.0% of the elective group. However, no metastasis in the posterior triangel was found in either group, regardless of the site of the tumor. We suggest that the posterior triangle can be totally preserved in radical neck surgery, which may make preservation of the spinal accessory nerve a more likely practice.

  11. Leg Swelling (United States)

    ... ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw Hill Companies; 2016. Accessed Dec. 31, ... . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  12. Beyond Pascal's Triangle (United States)

    Minor, Darrell P.


    In "Beyond Pascals Triangle" the author demonstrates ways of using "Pascallike" triangles to expand polynomials raised to powers in a fairly quick and easy fashion. The recursive method could easily be implemented within a spreadsheet, or simply by using paper and pencil. An explanation of why the method works follows the several examples that are…

  13. systemic chemistry triangle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Systemic, problem solving, active learning, and cooperative learning. etc). USES OF SCT IN TEACHING AND LEARNING GENERAL CHEMISTRY CONCEPTS. In the present work we make use of SATL & Chemists triangle as teaching and learning methodologies to introduce the systemic triangle [SCT] as an easy model ...

  14. Nearly Nice Right Triangles. (United States)

    Reid, Bob


    Relationships among the sides are developed for right triangles whose sides are in the ratios 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5. The golden ratio appears in the results which can be used in secondary mathematics. (DC)

  15. Graphing trillions of triangles. (United States)

    Burkhardt, Paul


    The increasing size of Big Data is often heralded but how data are transformed and represented is also profoundly important to knowledge discovery, and this is exemplified in Big Graph analytics. Much attention has been placed on the scale of the input graph but the product of a graph algorithm can be many times larger than the input. This is true for many graph problems, such as listing all triangles in a graph. Enabling scalable graph exploration for Big Graphs requires new approaches to algorithms, architectures, and visual analytics. A brief tutorial is given to aid the argument for thoughtful representation of data in the context of graph analysis. Then a new algebraic method to reduce the arithmetic operations in counting and listing triangles in graphs is introduced. Additionally, a scalable triangle listing algorithm in the MapReduce model will be presented followed by a description of the experiments with that algorithm that led to the current largest and fastest triangle listing benchmarks to date. Finally, a method for identifying triangles in new visual graph exploration technologies is proposed.

  16. The Incompatibility Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Amarița


    Full Text Available Launch of the euro in the late 90s, can be interpreted as a first step towards the monetarysystem outlined by Mundell. Economists have noted the incompatibility of fixed exchange regime,perfect mobility of capital and the independence of monetary policy, the so-called triangle ofincompatibility, which was highlighted by Robert Mundell since 1968. Tommaso Padoa - Schioppacontinued his research on the harmonization and convergence required to economic policies in“Financial Europe". The author shows that the triangle is the freedom of movement of capital, theexchange rate stability and the autonomy of national monetary policies. The triangle ofincompatibility stems from the fact that they can be combined in their entirety, but only two. Theautonomy of monetary policy is the freedom of states to choose the appropriate monetary policyand take appropriate measures in case of recessions.

  17. The Copenhagen Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irwin, Alan


    I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden.......I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden....

  18. Gamma-ray triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Lopez-Gehler, Sergio; Molinaro, Emiliano


    We introduce a new type of gamma-ray spectral feature, which we denominate gamma-ray triangle. This spectral feature arises in scenarios where dark matter self-annihilates via a chiral interaction into two Dirac fermions, which subsequently decay in flight into another fermion and a photon...

  19. Discovery: Triangle Inequality Revisited (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville


    As outlined in the paper "The 20 Matchstick Triangle Challenge: An Activity to Foster Reasoning and Problem Solving" by Pat Graham and Helen Chick [EJ1093090], an incredibly useful set of information about the mathematical ability of your students will be revealed. You can look at the way your students try to solve the 20 matchsticks…

  20. Pascal's Infinite Set of Triangles (United States)

    Skurnick, Ronald


    Pascal's Triangle is, without question, the most well-known triangular array of numbers in all of mathematics. A well-known algorithm for constructing Pascal's Triangle is based on the following two observations. The outer edges of the triangle consist of all 1's. Each number not lying on the outer edges is the sum of the two numbers above it in…

  1. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling (United States)

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  2. Properties of hyperbolic Pascal triangles (United States)

    Belbachir, Hacene; Németh, László; Szalay, László


    Here we summarize some results on a recently introduced new generalization of Pascal's triangle called hyperbolic Pascal triangles. The name comes from the mathematical background, which goes back to regular mosaics on the hyperbolic plane. A few open questions will also be posed.

  3. A Bermuda Triangle of Science (United States)

    Winkelsas, John


    The Bermuda Triangle is famous for the unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft, and for strange meteorological phenomena that allegedly have occurred within its boundaries. This article presents an activity wherein students are asked to create their own geographical triangles to research, but instead of focusing on the unexplainable,…

  4. The Bermuda Triangle of Education. (United States)

    Bertrand, Yves

    The pedagogical triangle of teacher, learner, and subject matter has in its center a fourth element: the communication system. Each feature of the pedagogical triangle, and the communication system as well, relies on a very important cultural component. Problems occur when communication processes in a classroom are fragmented and related to…

  5. Is it a triangle?

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    In the theory of the Standard Model, the masses, interactions and physical states of quarks – the basic constituents of matter – are described mathematically by a matrix known as the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Three angles enter into the definition of the elements of the matrix. If their sum is not 180°, new physics might be the reason.   A typical LHCb event during the recent proton-lead ion run. The LHCb experiment at CERN has measured precisely for the first time at a hadron collider one of the three angles - the “gamma” angle – so far known with the largest uncertainty.  It’s a matter of angles: if their sum is not exactly 180°, the geometric shape is not a triangle. And if the angles are those related to the CKM matrix, we enter the realm of physics beyond the Standard Model. Experiments at B-factories have measured the three angles – α, β and γ &...

  6. Side Effects: Edema (Swelling) (United States)

    Edema is a condition in which fluid builds up in your body’s tissues. The swelling may be caused by chemotherapy, cancer, and conditions not related to cancer. Learn about signs of edema, including swelling in your feet, ankles, and legs.

  7. Neck Swelling (Symptom Checker) (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  8. Multigrid for refined triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, Yair


    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of (locally) refined finite element schemes using triangle meshes is introduced. In the isotropic SPD case, it is shown that the condition number of the preconditioned stiffness matrix is bounded uniformly for all sufficiently regular triangulations. This is also verified numerically for an isotropic diffusion problem with highly discontinuous coefficients.

  9. Hotspot swells revisited (United States)

    King, Scott D.; Adam, Claudia


    The first attempts to quantify the width and height of hotspot swells were made more than 30 years ago. Since that time, topography, ocean-floor age, and sediment thickness datasets have improved considerably. Swell heights and widths have been used to estimate the heat flow from the core-mantle boundary, constrain numerical models of plumes, and as an indicator of the origin of hotspots. In this paper, we repeat the analysis of swell geometry and buoyancy flux for 54 hotspots, including the 37 considered by Sleep (1990) and the 49 considered by Courtillot et al. (2003), using the latest and most accurate data. We are able to calculate swell geometry for a number of hotspots that Sleep was only able to estimate by comparison with other swells. We find that in spite of the increased resolution in global bathymetry models there is significant uncertainty in our calculation of buoyancy fluxes due to differences in our measurement of the swells’ width and height, the integration method (volume integration or cross-sectional area), and the variations of the plate velocities between HS2-Nuvel1a (Gripp and Gordon, 1990) and HS3-Nuvel1a (Gripp and Gordon, 2002). We also note that the buoyancy flux for Pacific hotspots is in general larger than for Eurasian, North American, African and Antarctic hotspots. Considering that buoyancy flux is linearly related to plate velocity, we speculate that either the calculation of buoyancy flux using plate velocity over-estimates the actual vertical flow of material from the deep mantle or that convection in the Pacific hemisphere is more vigorous than the Atlantic hemisphere.

  10. Encephalocele presenting as lower lid swelling: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Kumar Jain


    Full Text Available Encephalocele is a rare congenital abnormality characterized by abnormal protrusion of brain and meninges through an opening in the skull. We report an 8-year-old girl who presented with a swelling in the right lower lid for the last 6 years. In her infancy, she had undergone surgery for a very small swelling located in the right nasolacrimal area. On further clinicoradiological evaluation, anterior encephalocele was diagnosed. This case highlights the uncommon site of anterior encephalocele; misdiagnosis and mismanagement of which could result in dreaded complications such as meningitis and cerebrospinal fluid leaking fistula formation.

  11. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, K.; Gronseth, G.; Aldrich, M.; Williams, A.


    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was caused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunosuppressed cancer patient.

  12. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, K.; Gronseth, G.; Aldrich, M.; Williams, A.


    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was cauused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunsupporessed cancer patient. (orig.)

  13. Nasal Soft-Tissue Triangle Deformities. (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T


    The soft-tissue triangle is one of the least areas attended to in rhinoplasty. Any postoperative retraction, notching, or asymmetries of soft triangles can seriously affect the rhinoplasty outcome. A good understanding of the risk factors predisposing to soft triangle deformities is necessary to prevent such problems. The commonest risk factors in our study were the wide vertical domal angle between the lateral and intermediate crura, and the increased length of intermediate crus. Two types of soft triangle grafts were described to prevent and treat soft triangle deformities. The used soft triangle grafts resulted in an excellent long-term aesthetic and functional improvement. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Enjoyment of Euclidean planar triangles (United States)

    Srinivasan, V. K.


    This article adopts the following classification for a Euclidean planar ?, purely based on angles alone. A Euclidean planar triangle is said to be acute angled if all the three angles of the Euclidean planar ? are acute angles. It is said to be right angled at a specific vertex, say B, if the angle ? is a right angle with the two remaining angles as acute angles. It is said to be obtuse angled at the vertex B if ? is an obtuse angle, with the two remaining angles as acute angles. In spite of the availability of numerous text books that contain our human knowledge of Euclidean plane geometry, softwares can offer newer insights about the characterizations of planar geometrical objects. The author's characterizations of triangles involve points like the centroid G, the orthocentre H of the ?, the circumcentre S of the ?, the centre N of the nine-point circle of the ?. Also the radical centre rc of three involved diameter circles of the sides BC, AC and AB of the ? provides a reformulation of the orthocentre, resulting in an interesting theorem, dubbed by the author as 'Three Circles Theorem'. This provides a special result for a right-angled ?, again dubbed by the author as 'The Four Circles Theorem'. Apart from providing various inter connections between the geometrical points, the relationships between shapes of the triangle and the behaviour of the points are reasonably explored in this article. Most of these results will be useful to students that take courses in Euclidean Geometry at the college level and the high school level. This article will be useful to teachers in mathematics at the high school level and the college level.

  15. Pascal's Triangle: 100% of the Numbers Are Even! (United States)

    Bhindi, Nayan; McMenamin, Justin


    Pascal's triangle is an arrangement of the binomial coefficients in a triangle. Each number inside Pascal's triangle is calculated by adding the two numbers above it. When all the odd integers in Pascal's triangle are highlighted (black) and the remaining evens are left blank (white), one of many patterns in Pascal's triangle is displayed. By…

  16. Mitochondrial Swelling Induced by Glutathione (United States)

    Lehninger, Albert L.; Schneider, Marion


    Reduced glutathione, in concentrations approximating those occurring in intact rat liver, causes swelling of rat liver mitochondria in vitro which is different in kinetics and extent from that yielded by L-thyroxine. The effect is also given by cysteine, which is more active, and reduced coenzyme A, but not by L-ascorbate, cystine, or oxidized glutathione. The optimum pH is 6.5, whereas thyroxine-induced swelling is optimal at pH 7.5. The GSH-induced swelling is not inhibited by DNP or dicumarol, nor by high concentrations of sucrose, serum albumin, or polyvinylpyrrolidone, in contrast to thyroxine-induced swelling. ATP inhibits the GSH swelling, but ADP and AMP are ineffective. Mn-+ is a very potent inhibitor, but Mg++ is ineffective. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate is also an effective inhibitor of GSH-induced swelling. The respiratory inhibitors amytal and antimycin A do not inhibit the swelling action of GSH, but cyanide does; these findings are consistent with the view that the oxidation-reduction state of the respiratory chain between cytochrome c and oxygen is a determinant of GSH-induced swelling. Reversal of GSH-induced swelling by osmotic means or by ATP in KCl media could not be observed. Large losses of nucleotides and protein occur during the swelling by GSH, suggesting that the action is irreversible. The characteristically drastic swelling action of GSH could be prevented if L-thyroxine was also present in the medium. PMID:13630941

  17. The Surgical Anatomy of the Lumbosacroiliac Triangle: A Cadaveric Study. (United States)

    Zoccali, Carmine; Skoch, Jesse; Patel, Apar S; Walter, Christina M; Avila, Mauricio J; Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Demitri, Silvio; Baaj, Ali A


    The anatomic area delineated medially by the lateral part of the L4-L5 vertebral bodies, distally by the anterior-superior surface of the sacral wing, and laterally by an imaginary line joining the base of the L4 transverse process to the proximal part of the sacroiliac joint, is of particular interest to spine surgeons. We are referring to this area as the lumbo-sacro-iliac triangle (LSIT). Knowledge of LSIT anatomy is necessary during approaches for L5 vertebral and sacral fractures, sacral and iliac tumors, and extraforaminal decompression of the L5 nerve roots. We performed an anatomic dissection of the LSIT in 3 embalmed cadavers (6 triangles), using an anterior and posterior approach. We identified 3 key tissue planes: the neurological plexus plane, constituted by L4 and L5 nerve roots; an intermediate level constituted by the ileosacral tunnel; and posteriorly, by the lumbosacral ligament, and the posterior muscular plane. Improving anatomic knowledge of the LSIT may help surgeons decrease the risk of possible complications. When LSIT pathology is present, a lateral approach corresponding to the tip of the L4 transverse process, medially, is suggested to decrease the risk of vessel and nerve root damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fulfilling the Promise of the Learning Triangle (United States)

    Nichols, Paul


    The learning triangle described by Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) offers a powerful vision for improved student learning. Learning theory clearly plays a central role in the construct-centered approach presented by the learning triangle. But the assumption of such an important role requires Black et al. to devote corresponding care to the…

  19. The Weimar Triangle and The Ukrainian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Romer


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the activity of Weimar Triangle (Germany, France, Poland during Ukrainian crisis (2013-2014 as an efficient, but still largely underestimated negotiation force of the European Union. The evolution of role of Weimar Triangle in post-bipolar era is indicated, as well as the role of this specific structure during Ukrainian crisis.

  20. Toughness and Triangle-Free Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, D.; van den Heuvel, J.; Schmeichel, E.


    In this paper, we prove that there exist triangle-free graphs with arbitrarily large toughness, thereby settling a longstanding open question. We also explore the problem of whether there exists a t-tough, n/(t + 1)-regular, triangle-free graph on n vertices for various values of t, and provide a

  1. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng


    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Triangle and GA Methods for UAVs Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang


    Full Text Available We focus on how to jam UAVs network efficiently. The system model is described and the problem is formulated. Based on two properties and a theorem which helps to decide good location for a jammer, we present the Triangle method to find good locations for jammers. The Triangle method is easy to understand and has overall computational complexity of ON2. We also present a genetic algorithm- (GA- based jamming method, which has computational complex of OLMN2. New chromosome, mutation, and crossover operations are redefined for the GA method. The simulation shows that Triangle and GA methods perform better than Random method. If the ratio of jammers’ number to UAVs’ number is low (lower than 1/5 in this paper, GA method does better than Triangle method. Otherwise, Triangle method performs better.

  3. Cell swelling and volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay


    been reported. The role of the different channels was discussed. A taurine leak pathway is clearly activated after cell swelling both in astrocytes and in neurones. The relations between the effect of glutamate and cell swelling were discussed. Discussion on the clearance of potassium from...

  4. Are bilinear quadrilaterals better than linear triangles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.


    This paper compares the theoretical effectiveness of bilinear approximation over quadrilaterals with linear approximation over triangles. Anisotropic mesh transformation is used to generate asymptotically optimally efficient meshes for piecewise linear interpolation over triangles and bilinear interpolation over quadrilaterals. The theory and numerical results suggest triangles may have a slight advantage over quadrilaterals for interpolating convex data function but bilinear approximation may offer a higher order approximation for saddle-shaped functions on a well-designed mesh. This work is a basic study on optimal meshes with the intention of gaining insight into the more complex meshing problems in finite element analysis.

  5. Are Bilinear Quadrilaterals Better Than Linear Triangles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Azevedo, E.F.


    This paper compares the theoretical effectiveness of bilinear approximation over quadrilaterals with linear approximation over triangles. Anisotropic mesh transformation is used to generate asymptotically optimally efficient meshes for piecewise linear interpolation over triangles and bilinear interpolation over quadrilaterals. For approximating a convex function, although bilinear quadrilaterals are more efficient, linear triangles are more accurate and may be preferred in finite element computations; whereas for saddle-shaped functions, quadrilaterals may offer a higher order approximation on a well-designed mesh. A surprising finding is different grid orientations may yield an order of magnitude improvement in approximation accuracy.

  6. Density conditions for triangles in multipartite graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Adrian; Shen, Jin; Thomassé, Stephan


    subgraphs in G. We investigate in particular the case where G is a complete multipartite graph. We prove that a finite tripartite graph with all edge densities greater than the golden ratio has a triangle and that this bound is best possible. Also we show that an infinite-partite graph with finite parts has......We consider the problem of finding a large or dense triangle-free subgraph in a given graph G. In response to a question of P. Erdos, we prove that, if the minimum degree of G is at least 9 vertical bar V(G)vertical bar/10, the largest triangle-free subgraphs are precisely the largest bipartite...... a triangle, provided that the edge density between any two parts is greater than 1/2....

  7. Activities: Golden Triangles, Pentagons, and Pentagrams. (United States)

    Miller, William A.; Clason, Robert G.


    Presents lesson plans for activities to introduce recursive sequences of polygons: golden triangles, regular pentagons, and pentagrams. The resulting number patterns involve Fibonacci sequences. Includes reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

  8. Application of Sivasubramanian Kalimuthu Hypothesis to Triangles


    M. Sivasubramanian


    Problem statement: The interior angles sum of a number of Euclidean triangles was transformed into quadratic equations. The analysis of those quadratic equations yielded the following proposition: There exists Euclidean triangle whose interior angle sum is a straight angle. Approach: In this study, the researchers introduced a new hypothesis for quadratic equations and derived an entirely new result. Results: The result of the study was controversial, but mathematically consistent. Conclusion...

  9. 75 FR 68398 - Golden Triangle Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Golden Triangle Railroad Company (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35428] Golden Triangle Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Golden Triangle Railroad Company Golden Triangle...) Acquire from Golden Triangle Railroad Company (Old GTRA) and to operate approximately 8.6 miles of rail...

  10. Anterior mandibular swelling – A Case Report | Praveen | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predilection of lesions to occur at certain specific sites is of great aid in arriving at a logical diagnosis. However tendency of lesions to appear at particular site does not follow a rule book. Enigmatic lesions like ameloblastomas have varied presentation. Here is an unusual case report of a patient who presented to us with an ...

  11. Osmotic de-swelling and swelling of latex dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet-Gonnet, Cecile


    This research thesis reports the comparison of, on the one hand, direct measurements of de-swelling resistance of latex dispersions obtained by osmotic pressure with, on the other hand, predictions made by models of electrostatic interactions. This resistance is explained in the case of sulphate-stabilised polystyrene particles (direct repulsion between charged particles), and in the case of copolymer (ps-pba) particles covered by an amphiphilic polymer (interactions between surface macromolecules and polymers). The study of de-swelling and swelling cycles highlights the existence of thresholds beyond which the concentrated dispersion has some cohesion. This irreversibility can be modelled by a Van der Waals attraction. The role of hydrophobic forces in latex destabilisation is studied [fr

  12. LR: Compact connectivity representation for triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurung, T; Luffel, M; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J


    We propose LR (Laced Ring) - a simple data structure for representing the connectivity of manifold triangle meshes. LR provides the option to store on average either 1.08 references per triangle or 26.2 bits per triangle. Its construction, from an input mesh that supports constant-time adjacency queries, has linear space and time complexity, and involves ordering most vertices along a nearly-Hamiltonian cycle. LR is best suited for applications that process meshes with fixed connectivity, as any changes to the connectivity require the data structure to be rebuilt. We provide an implementation of the set of standard random-access, constant-time operators for traversing a mesh, and show that LR often saves both space and traversal time over competing representations.

  13. Triangle Counting in Dynamic Graph Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulteau, Laurent; Froese, Vincent; Pagh, Rasmus


    Estimating the number of triangles in graph streams using a limited amount of memory has become a popular topic in the last decade. Different variations of the problem have been studied, depending on whether the graph edges are provided in an arbitrary order or as incidence lists. However......, with a few exceptions, the algorithms have considered insert-only streams. We present a new algorithm estimating the number of triangles in dynamic graph streams where edges can be both inserted and deleted. We show that our algorithm achieves better time and space complexity than previous solutions...... for various graph classes, for example sparse graphs with a relatively small number of triangles. Also, for graphs with constant transitivity coefficient, a common situation in real graphs, this is the first algorithm achieving constant processing time per edge. The result is achieved by a novel approach...

  14. The Asia-Pacific Strategic Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk


    The objective of this paper is to give insight into the debate over the strategic triangle and how it impacts conflict and security in South Asia. First the new geopolitical motives of the United States in the Asia-Pacific are outlined. Then the concept of strategic triangle is elaborated and its...... of foreign policy calculations and moves in the strategic triangle; and finally, some concluding remarks are offered to explain the recent shifts in interactions between these core players in the emerging world order and whether a new geopolitical architecture is emerging...... applicability discussed; third, details about China and India’s relations and responses to the new US policy are being analyzed; the perspective turns to the implications for conflict and security in South Asia with a focus on Afghanistan and Iran where oil and energy security are the main denominators...

  15. Cystic swellings of scrotum: Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subith Kumar K, Sasikumar J, Seetharamaiah T, Ajay Kumar B, Venugopalacharyulu N CH


    Full Text Available The cystic swellings of scrotum are one among the commonest clinical entities faced by a surgeon in day to day practice and a cause of concern to the patient more with his fertility. Presenting with varied etiology they can represent a wide range of medical issues. Gold standard for the management of such cystic swellings of scrotum continues to be surgical extirpation of the lesion. Objective: To identify the cause, mode of presentation, various modalities of treatment and outcome of these with their complications. Method: A total of 170 cases of cystic swellings of scrotum fulfilling the methodology criteria were subjected to the preformatted study. Diagnosis was mostly by clinical examination and supported by ultrasonography. All cases were treated surgically with the appropriate surgical procedure. Results: Maximum patients were in the age group of 31-50 years and presented with scrotal swelling (59% and more commonly affecting the right side. The commonest cause for cystic swelling of the scrotum was primary vaginal hydrocele (55%. Surgical procedure using Lords Plication was found to be simple, effective and associated with minimum post operative complications; the other conventional techniques like Partial/sub-total excision of sac, everson of sac were associated with more complications like haematoma, scrotal edema and infection. Majority of patients were discharged on 7th Post-operative day. Conclusion: The present study, primary vaginal hydrocele was the commonest cystic swelling of scrotum and treated surgically showed good results. Lord’s procedure was associated with the less post-operative complications, minimal tissue handling and good haemostatic control.

  16. Fibonacci-like sequences and generalized Pascal's triangles (United States)

    Vincenzi, G.; Siani, S.


    The properties pertaining to diagonals of generalized Pascal's triangles are studied. Combinatorial relationships between Fibonacci-like sequences and Fibonacci sequence itself are determined, using the sequence of diagonals of generalized Pascal's triangle.

  17. Evaluation of the Historic Triangle Wayfinding Sign System. (United States)


    The "Historic Triangle" in Virginia is named for the historic areas comprising and surrounding Williamsburg, Jamestown, and Yorktown, Virginia. A Historic Triangle Wayfinding Sign System was designed to lead travelers from I-64 to historic sites in W...

  18. Scaling Ratios and Triangles in Siegel Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buff, Xavier; Henriksen, Christian


    Let f(z)=e^{2i\\pi \\theta} + z^2, where \\theta is a quadratic irrational. McMullen proved that the Siegel disk for f is self-similar about the critical point, and we show that if \\theta = (\\sqrt{5}-1)/2 is the golden mean, then there exists a triangle contained in the Siegel disk, and with one...

  19. Transfinite C2 interpolant over triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfeld, P.; Barnhill, R.E.


    A transfinite C 2 interpolant on a general triangle is created. The required data are essentially C 2 , no compatibility conditions arise, and the precision set includes all polynomials of degree less than or equal to eight. The symbol manipulation language REDUCE is used to derive the scheme. The scheme is discretized to two different finite dimensional C 2 interpolants in an appendix

  20. Towards better management of Coral Triangle tuna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, M.L.; Flores, J.; Pokajam, S.; Rashid Sumaila, U.


    Indonesia, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea, all part of a regional sub-group known as the Coral Triangle, have sizeable skipjack, yellowfin and bigeye tuna fisheries. Recent figures suggest that as much as a third of tuna catch from the western and central Pacific Ocean can be attributed to

  1. Dodecagonal Square-Triangle Tiling Growth Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, B; Ben-Abraham, S.


    Some alloy systems such as NiCr and VNiSi have quasicrystalline phases with twelve-fold symmetry. These can be interpreted in terms of dodecagonal tilings by squares and equilateral triangles. The formation of quasicrystals may be due to a number of mechanisms such as local growth rules, cluster covering, etc., which may act separately or in synergy. This research focuses on the growth of such dodecagonal quasicrystals as well as the abundance of their vertex configurations, both regular and defective. We have simulated growth from the melt under various conditions in order to find the minimal constraints necessary to produce realistic Patterns as well as realistic vertex statistics. We have also calculated the exact vertex frequencies of the ideal square-triangle tiling by relying on inflation symmetry. The simulation showed that unrestricted random growth typically results in phase separation of triangles from squares. Favoring triangles to attract squares and vice versa brings about nearly perfect patterns with nearly perfect vertex abundances and very realistic defect concentrations

  2. The Triangle of Smallest Area Which Circumscribes a Semicircle


    Li, Jun


    An interesting problem that determine a triangle of smallest area which circumscribes a semicircle is solved. Then a generalized golden right triangles sequence $T_n$ is obtained, and an interesting construction of the maximum generalized golden right triangle $T_2$ is also shown.

  3. 76 FR 52649 - Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Application (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-531-000] Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Application On August 5, 2011, Golden Triangle Storage, Inc. (Golden... County, Texas. Golden Triangle also seeks market based rates for its proposed expansion services, all as...

  4. Space vector-based analysis of overmodulation in triangle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The equivalence of triangle-comparison-based pulse width modulation (TCPWM) and space vector based PWM (SVPWM) during linear modulation is well-known. This paper analyses triangle-comparison based PWM techniques (TCPWM) such as sine-triangle PWM (SPWM) and common-mode voltage injection PWM ...

  5. Detecting Statistically Significant Communities of Triangle Motifs in Undirected Networks (United States)


    extend the work of Perry et al. [6] by developing a statistical framework that supports the detection of triangle motif- based clusters in complex...priori, the need for triangle motif- based clustering. 2. Developed an algorithm for clustering undirected networks, where the triangle con guration was...13 5 Application to Real Networks 18 5.1 2012 FBS Football Schedule Network

  6. Trautmann's triangle anatomy with application to posterior transpetrosal and other related skull base procedures. (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Griessenauer, Christoph; Loukas, Marios; Ansari, Shaheryar F; Fritsch, Michael H; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A


    Trautmann's triangle (TT) faces the cerebellopontine angle and is exposed during posterior transpetrosal approaches. However, reports on the morphometric analysis of this structure are lacking in the literature. The goal was to better understand this important operative corridor. TT was exposed from an external approach (transmastoid) in ten cadavers (20 sides) and from an internal approach on 20 dry adult temporal bones. Measurements included calculation of the area of TT and the distance of the endolymphatic sac from the anterior border of the sigmoid sinus. The area range of TT was 45-210 mm(2) (mean 151 mm(2); SD 37 mm(2)). Three types of triangles were identified based on area. Type I triangles had areas less than 75 mm(2), Type II areas were 75-149 mm(2), and Type III areas were 150 mm(2) and greater. These types were observed in 37.5%, 35%, and 27.5% of sides, respectively. The distance from the jugular bulb's anterior border to the posterior border of the posterior semicircular canal ranged from 6 to 11 mm (mean 8.5 mm). The endolymphatic sac was located in the inferior portion of TT and traveled anterior to the sigmoid sinus. The horizontal distance from the anterior edge of the sigmoid sinus to the posterior edge of the endolymphatic sac ranged from 0 to 13.5 mm (mean 9 mm). Additional anatomic knowledge regarding TT may improve neurosurgical procedures in this region by avoiding intrusion into the endolymphatic sac and sigmoid sinus. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Properties of distance spaces with power triangle inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Greenhoe


    Full Text Available Metric spaces provide a framework for analysis and have several very useful properties. Many of these properties follow in part from the  triangle inequality. However, there are several applications in which the triangle inequality does not hold but in which we may still like to perform analysis. This paper investigates what happens if the triangle inequality is removed all together, leaving what is called a distance space, and also what happens if the triangle inequality is replaced with a much more general two parameter relation, which is herein called the "power triangle inequality". The power triangle inequality represents an uncountably large class of inequalities, and includes the  triangle inequality,  relaxed triangle inequality, and   inframetric inequality as special cases. The power triangle inequality is defined in terms of a function that is herein called the power triangle function. The power triangle function is itself a power mean, and as such is continuous and monotone with respect to its exponential parameter, and also includes the operations of  maximum,  minimum,  mean square,  arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and  harmonic mean as special cases.

  8. Cell swelling and volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay


    The extracellular space in the brain is typically 20% of the tissue volume and is reduced to at least half its size under conditions of neural insult. Whether there is a minimum size to the extracellular space was discussed. A general model for cell volume regulation was presented, followed...... by a discussion on how many of the generally involved mechanisms are identified in neural cells and (or) in astrocytes. There seems to be clear evidence suggesting that parallel K+ and Cl- channels mediate regulatory volume decrease in primary cultures of astrocytes, and a stretch-activated cation channel has...... been reported. The role of the different channels was discussed. A taurine leak pathway is clearly activated after cell swelling both in astrocytes and in neurones. The relations between the effect of glutamate and cell swelling were discussed. Discussion on the clearance of potassium from...

  9. Swelling-resistant nuclear fuel (United States)

    Arsenlis, Athanasios [Hayward, CA; Satcher, Jr., Joe; Kucheyev, Sergei O [Oakland, CA


    A nuclear fuel according to one embodiment includes an assembly of nuclear fuel particles; and continuous open channels defined between at least some of the nuclear fuel particles, wherein the channels are characterized as allowing fission gasses produced in an interior of the assembly to escape from the interior of the assembly to an exterior thereof without causing significant swelling of the assembly. Additional embodiments, including methods, are also presented.

  10. A survey of numerical cubature over triangles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyness, J.N.; Cools, R.


    This survey collects together theoretical results in the area of numerical cubature over triangles and is a vehicle for a current bibliography. We treat first the theory relating to regular integrands and then the corresponding theory for singular integrands with emphasis on the ``full comer singularity.`` Within these two sections we treat successively approaches based on transforming the triangle into a square, formulas based on polynomial moment fitting, and extrapolation techniques. Within each category we quote key theoretical results without proof, and relate other results and references to these. Nearly all the references we have found may be readily placed in one of these categories. This survey is theoretical in character and does not include recent work in adaptive and automatic integration.

  11. Scaling Ratios and Triangles in Siegel Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buff, Xavier; Henriksen, Christian


    Let f(z)=e^{2i\\pi \\theta} + z^2, where \\theta is a quadratic irrational. McMullen proved that the Siegel disk for f is self-similar about the critical point, and we show that if \\theta = (\\sqrt{5}-1)/2 is the golden mean, then there exists a triangle contained in the Siegel disk, and with one ver...

  12. State of the Coral Triangle: Malaysia


    Asian Development Bank (ADB)


    Malaysia has made a firm commitment to sustainable management and conservation of its coastal and marine resources, helping formulate and implement the Sulu–Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion Initiative and the Coral Triangle Initiative. Rapid economic growth, uncontrolled tourism development, unregulated fishing, and unsustainable use of marine resources have depleted the country’s fish stocks, lost nearly 36% of its mangrove forests, and increased the number of endangered species. Despite impressive...

  13. Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The CKM Unitarity Triangle Workshop is meant to provide an opportunity for an intense and fruitful exchange of ideas between experimentalists and theorists to assess the present knowledge on fundamental parameters from the data of LEP and other colliders, to define an agenda of future measurements to further probe the model assumptions employed in the interpretation of the data and to indicate paths for the B physics programme at LHC.

  14. Laboratory study of the Flandres clay swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaddaj, Said


    The first chapter contains a survey about the swelling of soils, and about the experimental methods used to characterize this phenomenon. A classification of soils in function of their swelling potential is proposed. The second chapter deals with the properties of Flandres clay. Chemical and mineralogical compositions, mechanical properties and free swell index are given. The third chapter contains a presentation of the study of the swelling potential of Flandres clay using the oedometer. Four methods are described and used (free-swell, different pressures, pre-swell and direct-swell). A numerical simulation of free-swell tests is also given. The fourth chapter includes a presentation of the study of the swelling behaviour of Flandres clay using a triaxial cell. Three methods are used: free-swell, pre-swell and different-pressures. The last chapter contains a parametric study of the swelling behaviour of Flandres clay. The influence of some parameters such as sample thickness, initial water content, vertical load and load history is presented. (author) [fr

  15. Synthesis, rheological behavior and swelling properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... The swelling response of the copolymers networks as a function of time, temperature and swelling environment has been observed to be dependent on both structural ... The swelling has been observed to be decrease with increase in MBAAm in the copolypolymers networks.

  16. Critical swelling of fluctuating capsules (United States)

    Diamant, Haim; Haleva, Emir


    In many natural transport processes the solute molecules to be transported are encapsulated in semipermeable, flexible membrane vesicles of micron size. We study the swelling of such fluctuating capsules, as the number of encapsulated particles is increased, or the concentration of the outer solution is decreased. The approach to the maximum volume-to-area ratio and the associated buildup of membrane tension involve a continuous phase transition and follow universal scaling laws. The criticality and its features are model-independent, arising solely from the interplay between volume and surface degrees of freedom.ootnotetextE. Haleva and H. Diamant, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 078104 (2008).

  17. Effect of metallurgical variables on void swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, W.G.; Lauritzen, T.; Rosolowski, J.H.; Turkalo, A.M.


    The mechanism of void swelling is reviewed briefly and the anticipated effects of metallurgical variables are described. Experimental results showing the effects of metallurgical variables are reviewed, most of the work being done by simulation methods employing charged particle bombardments to simulate reactor damage. Although the early emphasis was on structural variables such as grain size, cold work and precipitates to control swelling, it now seems that the practical reduction of swelling will be achieved by modifying alloy composition. Void swelling is strongly influenced by the relative amounts of Fe, Cr, and Ni in an alloy; the amount of swelling can be varied by three orders of magnitude by changing the relative amounts of the three elements in an austenitic ternary alloy. The effect of composition on swelling of a simple ferritic alloy will also be described. The swelling of a simple austenitic alloy of Fe, Cr, and Ni can be reduced by certain minor element additions. The most effective swelling inhibitors are Si, Ti, Zr, and Nb, and combinations of Si and Ti are synergetic. Swelling reductions of two orders of magnitude have been achieved with combined additions. Predictions of swelling in commercial solid solution alloys are made on the basis of the present knowledge of the effects of major composition and minor element additions. The predictions agree with experimental results. For more complex commercial alloys, predictions are made for the effects on swelling of heat treatments that cause changes in matrix composition. In some cases, heat treatment is expected to change the peak swelling by more than a factor of ten, and to shift the peak swelling temperature by almost 100 0 C. Sensitivity of swelling to detailed matrix composition places emphasis on the need for developing understanding of the stability of structure and local composition in an irradiation environment

  18. Sex determination of human crania using Mastoid triangle and Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle. (United States)

    Jain, Deepali; Jasuja, O P; Nath, Surinder


    In the present study an attempt has been made to establish standards for sex determination from the various direct and indirect measurements of the cranium. A total of 100 cranium (50 of either sex) were measured for nine direct measurements pertaining to Mastoid triangle and Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle. These measurements were used further to calculate four indirect measurements pertaining to the calculation of Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle area and angles. Analysis of data reveals that the male crania exhibit greater values for all the measurements except the angle right Mastoidale-Opisthion-left Mastoidale. The sex difference has been observed to be statistically significant for all the measurements except for the angles of the Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle. Sectioning point was calculated for the diagnosis of sex based on the mean values of these measurements; the accuracy of sex determination varied from measurement to measurement. The highest value for determining sex was obtained for Asterion-Mastoidale length of right side i.e. 80%, followed by Bi-mastoid breadth i.e. 75%. This suggests that these measurements could be used with relatively high degree of accuracy in determining sex of the unknown crania. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Integral Isosceles Triangle-Parallelogram and Heron triangle-Rhombus Pairs with a Common Area and Common Perimeter. (United States)

    Das, Pradeep; Juyal, Abhishek; Moody, Dustin


    In this paper we show that there are infinitely many pairs of integer isosceles triangles and integer parallelograms with a common (integral) area and common perimeter. We also show that there are infinitely many Heron triangles and integer rhombuses with common area and common perimeter. As a corollary, we show there does not exist any Heron triangle and integer square which have a common area and common perimeter.

  20. Swelling soils in the road structures (United States)

    Pruška, Jan; Šedivý, Miroslav


    There are frequent problems with the soil swelling in the road construction in the past time. This phenomenon is known for decades. This situation is notably given by insufficient knowledge of this problem and difficulties with input parameters describing the swelling process. The paper in the first part proposed regression relations to predict swelling pressure, time of swelling and swelling strain for different initial water contents for soils and improvement soils. The relations were developed by using artificial neural network and QCExpert Professional software (on the data from site investigations by GeoTec-GS, a.s. and experimental data from CTU in Prague). The advantage of the relations is based on using the results of the basic soil tests (plasticity index, consistency index and colloidal activity) as input parameters. The authors inform the technical public with their current knowledge of the problems with the soil swelling on the motorway in the second part of the paper.

  1. Segmentation of knee injury swelling on infrared images (United States)

    Puentes, John; Langet, Hélène; Herry, Christophe; Frize, Monique


    Interpretation of medical infrared images is complex due to thermal noise, absence of texture, and small temperature differences in pathological zones. Acute inflammatory response is a characteristic symptom of some knee injuries like anterior cruciate ligament sprains, muscle or tendons strains, and meniscus tear. Whereas artificial coloring of the original grey level images may allow to visually assess the extent inflammation in the area, their automated segmentation remains a challenging problem. This paper presents a hybrid segmentation algorithm to evaluate the extent of inflammation after knee injury, in terms of temperature variations and surface shape. It is based on the intersection of rapid color segmentation and homogeneous region segmentation, to which a Laplacian of a Gaussian filter is applied. While rapid color segmentation enables to properly detect the observed core of swollen area, homogeneous region segmentation identifies possible inflammation zones, combining homogeneous grey level and hue area segmentation. The hybrid segmentation algorithm compares the potential inflammation regions partially detected by each method to identify overlapping areas. Noise filtering and edge segmentation are then applied to common zones in order to segment the swelling surfaces of the injury. Experimental results on images of a patient with anterior cruciate ligament sprain show the improved performance of the hybrid algorithm with respect to its separated components. The main contribution of this work is a meaningful automatic segmentation of abnormal skin temperature variations on infrared thermography images of knee injury swelling.

  2. Soil shrinkage characteristics in swelling soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboada, M.A.


    The objectives of this presentation are to understand soil swelling and shrinkage mechanisms, and the development of desiccation cracks, to distinguish between soils having different magnitude of swelling, as well as the consequences on soil structural behaviour, to know methods to characterize soil swell/shrink potential and to construct soil shrinkage curves, and derive shrinkage indices, as well to apply them to assess soil management effects

  3. Large swelling and percolation in irradiated zircon

    CERN Document Server

    Trachenko, K; Salje, E K H


    We study the effect of large swelling in irradiated zircon. We perform molecular dynamics simulation of the overlap of two radiation events and find that the damage produced in the second event scatters away from the densified boundary of the damaged region implanted previously. This serves as the microscopic mechanism of the increase of volume occupied by the damage. The additive nature of this effect results in large swelling observed experimentally. We translate the damage accumulation into the percolation problem, and show that volume swelling is a percolation phenomenon, with the swelling curve increasing rapidly at the percolation threshold. (letter to the editor)

  4. From Concept to Reality in Implementing the Knowledge Triangle (United States)

    Sjoer, Ellen; Nørgaard, Bente; Goossens, Marc


    The concept of Knowledge Triangle (KT) links together research, education and innovation and replaces the traditional "one way" flow of knowledge, essentially from research to education, by a "both ways" circular motion between all the corners of a triangle that, besides research and education, also includes innovation, the…

  5. Developing Formulas by Skipping Rows in Pascal's Triangle (United States)

    Buonpastore, Robert J.; Osler, Thomas J.


    A table showing the first thirteen rows of Pascal's triangle, where the rows are, as usual numbered from 0 to 12 is presented. The entries in the table are called binomial coefficients. In this note, the authors systematically delete rows from Pascal's triangle and, by trial and error, try to find a formula that allows them to add new rows to the…

  6. Teaching Pascal's Triangle from a Computer Science Perspective (United States)

    Skurnick, Ronald


    Pascal's Triangle is named for the seventeenth-century French philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal (the same person for whom the computer programming language is named). Students are generally introduced to Pascal's Triangle in an algebra or precalculus class in which the Binomial Theorem is presented. This article, presents a new method…

  7. What Do You Find? Students Investigating Patterns in Pascal's Triangle (United States)

    Obara, Samuel


    In this paper, students used problem-solving skills to investigate what patterns exist in the Pascal triangle and incorporated technology using Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) in the process. Students came up with patterns such as natural numbers, triangular numbers, and Fibonacci numbers. Although the patterns inherent in Pascal's triangle may seem…

  8. Albime triangles and Guy’s favourite elliptic curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Erika; Chahal, Jasbir S; Top, Jaap


    This text discusses triangles with the property that a bisector at one vertex, the median at another, and the altitude at the third vertex are concurrent. It turns out that since the 1930s, such triangles appeared in the problem sections of various journals. We recall their well known relation with


    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harmer, Mark


    Roč. 84, č. 2 (2008), s. 217-227 ISSN 1446-7887 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : triangle groups * spectral multiplicity * equilateral triangle Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.315, year: 2008

  10. Coloring triangle-free graphs with fixed size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten; Gimbel, John


    Combining recent results on colorings and Ramsey theory, we show that if G is a triangle-free graph with e edges then the chromatic number of G is at most cel(1/3)(log e)(-2/3) for some constant c. In a previous paper, we found an upper bound on the chromatic number of a triangle-free graph...

  11. Some Unusual Expressions for the Inradius of a Triangle (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R.


    Several formulae for the inradius of various types of triangles are derived. Properties of the inradius and trigonometric functions of the angles of Pythagorean and Heronian triangles are also presented. The entire presentation is elementary and suitable for classes in geometry, precalculus mathematics and number theory.

  12. Triangle-free graphs whose independence number equals the degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan


    In a triangle-free graph, the neighbourhood of every vertex is an independent set. We investigate the class S of triangle-free graphs where the neighbourhoods of vertices are maximum independent sets. Such a graph G must be regular of degree d = α (G) and the fractional chromatic number must...

  13. Homothetic Transformations and Geometric Loci: Properties of Triangles and Quadrilaterals (United States)

    Mammana, Maria Flavia


    In this paper, we use geometric transformations to find some interesting properties related with geometric loci. In particular, given a triangle or a cyclic quadrilateral, the locus generated by the centroid or by the orthocentre (for triangles) or by the anticentre (for cyclic quadrilaterals) when one vertex moves on the circumcircle of the…

  14. Uses of systemic approach and chemist's triangle in teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes uses of the systemic chemistry triangle [SCT] in which we get the benefits of both systemic approach and chemist's triangle in teaching and learning chemistry. SCT creates active learning environment enable students to gain high mental and professional skills, correct cognition, positive attitudes ...

  15. How to get the magic triangle and the MAD triangle into your protein crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Tobias; Cunha, Carlos Eduardo da; Sheldrick, George M.


    The handling of the phasing tools I3C and B3C is described, emphasizing practical aspects such as the preparation of solutions and incorporation of the compounds into protein crystals. The magic triangle 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid (I3C) and the MAD triangle 5-amino-2,4,6-tribromoisophthalic acid (B3C) are two representatives of a novel class of compounds that combine heavy atoms for experimental phasing with functional groups for protein interactions. These compounds are readily available and provide easy access to experimental phasing. The preparation of stock solutions and the incorporation of the compounds into protein crystals are discussed. As an example of incorporation via cocrystallization, the incorporation of B3C into bovine trypsin, resulting in a single site with high occupancy, is described

  16. "The mother of all black triangles" case. (United States)

    Clark, David


    Before the Bioclear matrix and a disciplined approach to composite treatment of black triangles, many treatments ended with significant compromise in periodontal health. Many cases debonded soon after placement. Others suffered problems with stain. Nonetheless, our patients are hopeful for a better solution. The interdental papilla serves as both a functional and aesthetic asset. Anatomically ideal interproximal composite shapes that are mirror smooth can serve as a predictable scaffold to regain this valuable gingival architecture. Clean enamel surfaces can be leveraged to permanently retain the restorations. However, the reader is cautioned that to attempt this elective procedure using no magnification, without a strict adherence to dentin detoxification with a blasting appliance, and using a flat matrix, nontreatment or referral is recommended. Our profession can change its thought processes, retrain its hands and expand its armamentarium to perform techniques that were previously impossible.

  17. Coal swelling and thermoplasticity under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndaji, F.E.; Butterfield, I.M.; Thomas, K.M. (Newcastle upon Tyne University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Northern Carbon Research Labs., Dept. of Chemistry)


    The literature on the following topics is reviewed: swelling and agglomeration of coal; measurements of swelling index and dilatometric and plastometric properties at high pressures; and the effects of oxidation, tar addition and minerals on high-pressure thermoplastic properties. 34 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Grouper: A Compact, Streamable Triangle Mesh Data Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luffel, Mark [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Gurung, Topraj [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Lindstrom, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rossignac, Jarek [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU)


    Here, we present Grouper: an all-in-one compact file format, random-access data structure, and streamable representation for large triangle meshes. Similarly to the recently published SQuad representation, Grouper represents the geometry and connectivity of a mesh by grouping vertices and triangles into fixed-size records, most of which store two adjacent triangles and a shared vertex. Unlike SQuad, however, Grouper interleaves geometry with connectivity and uses a new connectivity representation to ensure that vertices and triangles can be stored in a coherent order that enables memory-efficient sequential stream processing. We also present a linear-time construction algorithm that allows streaming out Grouper meshes using a small memory footprint while preserving the initial ordering of vertices. In this construction, we show how the problem of assigning vertices and triangles to groups reduces to a well-known NP-hard optimization problem, and present a simple yet effective heuristic solution that performs well in practice. Our array-based Grouper representation also doubles as a triangle mesh data structure that allows direct access to vertices and triangles. Storing only about two integer references per triangle-i.e., less than the three vertex references stored with each triangle in a conventional indexed mesh format-Grouper answers both incidence and adjacency queries in amortized constant time. Our compact representation enables data-parallel processing on multicore computers, instant partitioning and fast transmission for distributed processing, as well as efficient out-of-core access. We demonstrate the versatility and performance benefits of Grouper using a suite of example meshes and processing kernels.

  19. Fuel swelling importance in PCI mechanistic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimescu, V.I.


    Under certain conditions, fuel pellet swelling is the most important factor in determining the intensity of the pellet-to-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI). This is especially true during power ramps, which lead to a temperature increase to a higher terminal plateau that is maintained for hours. The time-dependent gaseous swelling is proportional to temperature and is also enhanced by the increased gas atom migration to the grain boundary during the power ramp. On the other hand, gaseous swelling is inhibited by a compressive hydrostatic stress in the pellet. Therefore, PCMI is the net result of combining gaseous swelling and pellet thermal expansion with the opposing feedback from the cladding mechanical reaction. The coupling of the thermal and mechanical processes, mentioned above, with various feedback loops is best simulated by a mechanistic fuel code. This paper discusses a mechanistic swelling model that is coupled with a fission gas release model as well as a mechanical model of the fuel pellet. The role of fuel swelling is demonstrated for typical power ramps at different burn-ups. Also, fuel swelling plays a significant role in avoiding the thermal instability for larger gap fuel rods, by limiting the potentially exponentially increasing gap due to the positive feedback loop effect of increasing fission gas release and the associated over-pressure inside the cladding. (author)

  20. Penrose triangles of the fossil-to-bio-based transition. (United States)

    Stankiewicz, Andrzej


    Transition within the chemical industry from fossil to green feedstocks is a complex process characterized by the generation of commercially viable feedstock-process-product triangles. The research in this area encompasses a great diversity of relevant topics. A number of those topics have been addressed within this volume of Faraday Discussions and are summarized in this paper. They are categorized and discussed along with seven general questions arising from the feedstock-process-product triangles. Opportunities are identified that should make more of these triangles technically and economically feasible. The future role of renewable electricity as the primary energy source for the bio-based industry is emphasized.

  1. GLINT. Gravitational-wave laser INterferometry triangle (United States)

    Aria, Shafa; Azevedo, Rui; Burow, Rick; Cahill, Fiachra; Ducheckova, Lada; Holroyd, Alexa; Huarcaya, Victor; Järvelä, Emilia; Koßagk, Martin; Moeckel, Chris; Rodriguez, Ana; Royer, Fabien; Sypniewski, Richard; Vittori, Edoardo; Yttergren, Madeleine


    When the universe was roughly one billion years old, supermassive black holes (103-106 solar masses) already existed. The occurrence of supermassive black holes on such short time scales are poorly understood in terms of their physical or evolutionary processes. Our current understanding is limited by the lack of observational data due the limits of electromagnetic radiation. Gravitational waves as predicted by the theory of general relativity have provided us with the means to probe deeper into the history of the universe. During the ESA Alpach Summer School of 2015, a group of science and engineering students devised GLINT (Gravitational-wave Laser INterferometry Triangle), a space mission concept capable of measuring gravitational waves emitted by black holes that have formed at the early periods after the big bang. Morespecifically at redshifts of 15 big bang) in the frequency range 0.01 - 1 Hz. GLINT design strain sensitivity of 5× 10^{-24} 1/√ { {Hz}} will theoretically allow the study of early black holes formations as well as merging events and collapses. The laser interferometry, the technology used for measuring gravitational waves, monitors the separation of test masses in free-fall, where a change of separation indicates the passage of a gravitational wave. The test masses will be shielded from disturbing forces in a constellation of three geocentric orbiting satellites.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Novianti


     Abstrak Teori-teori kritik sastra terus bermunculan, baik sebagai tanggapan, kritik, atau perkembangan dari teori-teori sebelumnya. Makalah ini memperkenalkan sebuah teori yang cukup baru yang bisa memperkaya khasanah kritik sastra di Indonesia, yaitu terapi sistem keluarga, melalui sebuah analisis terhadap novel berjudul Seize the Day karangan Saul Bellow, seorang penulis Amerika yang karya-karyanya terutama mengangkat tema keluarga dan permasalahan yang melingkupinya. Sebagai kritik terhadap teori Psikoanalisis oleh Freud dan variasi-variasinya, terapi sistem keluarga percaya bahwa identitas seseorang adalah bagian dari matriks identitas, sehingga analisis terhadap keterhubungan seseorang dengan orang lain yang terlibat dalam matriks tersebut diperlukan jika ingin memahami diri seseorang. Analisis menunjukkan bahwa protagonis novel tersebut, Wilhelm, terlibat dalam sebuah hubungan segitiga atau triangling dalam usahanya untuk menghadapi kegelisahan hidupnya; selain itu, hubungan segitiga hanyalah satu dari sekian jalan keluar untuk kegelisahan yang dihadapi protagonis. Makalah ini menyimpulkan bahwa teori psikoterapi keluarga cocok untuk menganalisis secara kritis karya-karya sastra yang berkenaan dengan masalah keluarga, seperti Seize the Day. Teori ini menawarkan sudut pandang baru, tidak hanya terhadap praktik dalam kritik sastra, tapi juga terhadap cara melihat permasalahan dalam hidup. Kata kunci: Terapi sistem keluarga, segitiga, kegelisahan.

  3. Band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Ying, E-mail:; Liang, Tianshu


    In this paper, the band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals (FPPCs) are studied with the aim to clarify the effect of fractal hierarchy on the band structures. Firstly, one kind of FPPCs based on Sierpinski triangle routine is proposed. Then the influence of the porosity on the elastic wave dispersion in Sierpinski triangle FPPCs is investigated. The sensitivity of the band structures to the fractal hierarchy is discussed in detail. The results show that the increase of the hierarchy increases the sensitivity of ABG (Absolute band gap) central frequency to the porosity. But further increase of the fractal hierarchy weakens this sensitivity. On the same hierarchy, wider ABGs could be opened in Sierpinski equilateral triangle FPPC; whilst, a lower ABG could be opened at lower porosity in Sierpinski right-angled isosceles FPPCs. These results will provide a meaningful guidance in tuning band structures in porous phononic crystals by fractal design.

  4. A Pascal-like triangle from finding power sums (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo


    A Pascal-like triangle is constructed so that power sums can be conveniently obtained by college (or high school) students with no need for memorizing complicated formulas or performing difficult calculations.

  5. The comfort triangles : A new tool for bioclimatic design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, J.M.


    This thesis presents a new graphic tool to identify and select bioclimatic strategies according to climate conditions and comfort requirements. The Comfort Triangle relates outdoor daily temperature variations with the modification of thermal performance achieved indoors, using two key variables,

  6. Note: Design and capability verification of fillet triangle flexible support. (United States)

    Wang, Tao; San, Xiao-Gang; Gao, Shi-Jie; Wang, Jing; Ni, Ying-Xue; Sang, Zhi-Xin


    By increasing the section thickness of a triangular flexible hinge, this study focuses on optimal selection of parameters of fillet triangle flexible hinges and flexible support. Based on Castigliano's second theorem, the flexibility expression of the fillet triangle flexible hinge was derived. Then, the case design is performed, and the comparison of three types of flexible hinges with this type of flexible hinge was carried out. The finite element models of fillet triangle flexible hinges and flexible support were built, and then the simulation results of performance parameters were calculated. Finally, the experiment platform was established to validate analysis results. The maximum error is less than 8%, which verifies the accuracy of the simulation process and equations derived; also the fundamental frequency fits the requirements of the system. The fillet triangle flexible hinge is proved to have the advantages of high precision and low flexibility.

  7. A Heuristic Algorithm for Solving Triangle Packing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Wang


    Full Text Available The research on the triangle packing problem has important theoretic significance, which has broad application prospects in material processing, network resource optimization, and so forth. Generally speaking, the orientation of the triangle should be limited in advance, since the triangle packing problem is NP-hard and has continuous properties. For example, the polygon is not allowed to rotate; then, the approximate solution can be obtained by optimization method. This paper studies the triangle packing problem by a new kind of method. Such concepts as angle region, corner-occupying action, corner-occupying strategy, and edge-conjoining strategy are presented in this paper. In addition, an edge-conjoining and corner-occupying algorithm is designed, which is to obtain an approximate solution. It is demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is highly efficient, and by the time complexity analysis and the analogue experiment result is found.

  8. Foot Swelling during Air Travel: A Concern? (United States)

    ... concern? What causes leg and foot swelling during air travel? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. ... had major surgery or you take birth control pills, for example — consult your doctor before flying. He ...

  9. An elastoplastic model of bentonite free swelling


    Pintado, Xavier; Alonso Aperte, Juan; Navarro Gamir, Vicente; Asensio, Laura; Yustres Real, Ángel


    This article proposes a new plastification mechanism to model bentonite free swelling processes by using an elastoplastic approach. The formulation is based on an interaction function that defines the plastic macrostructural strains induced by microstructural effects. This term is defined as a function of the microstructural void ratio, and it establishes a direct connection between the destructuration of the micro- and macrostructures of the bentonite during the free swelling processes. The ...

  10. Perilaku Kecurangan Akademik Mahasiswa Akuntansi: Dimensi Fraud Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Fitriana


    Full Text Available This study examine the dimensions of Fraud Triangle to explain this effect on the student’s cheating. This study uses a model of research The Academic Dishonesty Scale modifi cation. Sample in this study were 217 accounting students in Brawijaya University Malang. Data was collected through survey methods. This study have obtained empirical evidence that student’s cheating behaviorwas determined by the dimensions of the Fraud Triangle consists of incentive, opportunity and rationalization.

  11. The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during ir...... findings can find application in off-shore, seismic and other engi- neering practice, or inspire new branches of research and modelling wherever dynamic, cyclic or transient loaded sand is encountered....

  12. Some constructions on total labelling of m triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voon, Chen Huey; Hui, Liew How; How, Yim Kheng


    Let mK 3 = (V m , E m ) be a finite disconnected graph consisting of m disjoint triangles K 3 , where V m is the set of vertices, E m is the set of edges and both V m and E m are of the same size 3m. A total labelling of mK 3 is a function f which maps the elements in V m and E m to positive integer values, i.e. f : V m ∪ E m → {1, 2, 3,···}. Let c be a positive integer. A triangle is said have a c-Erdősian triangle labelling if it is a total labelling f : V m ∪ E m → {c, c + 1, ···, c + 6m − 1} such that f (x) + f (y) = f (xy) for any x, y ∈ V m and an edge xy ∈ E m joining them. In order to find all the c-Erdősian triangle labelling, a straightforward is to use the exhaustive search. However, the exhaustive search is only able to find c-Erdősian triangle labelling for m ≤ 5 due to combinatorial explosion. By studying the constant sum of vertex labels, we propose a strong permutation approach, which allows us to generate a certain classes of c-Erdősian triangle labelling up until m = 8.

  13. Local CO2-induced swelling of shales (United States)

    Pluymakers, Anne; Dysthe, Dag Kristian


    In heterogeneous shale rocks, CO2 adsorbs more strongly to organic matter than to the other components. CO2-induced swelling of organic matter has been shown in coal, which is pure carbon. The heterogeneity of the shale matrix makes an interesting case study. Can local swelling through adsorption of CO2 to organic matter induce strain in the surrounding shale matrix? Can fractures close due to CO2-induced swelling of clays and organic matter? We have developed a new generation of microfluidic high pressure cells (up to 100 bar), which can be used to study flow and adsorption phenomena at the microscale in natural geo-materials. The devices contain one transparent side and a shale sample on the other side. The shale used is the Pomeranian shale, extracted from 4 km depth in Poland. This formation is a potential target of a combined CO2-storage and gas extraction project. To answer the first question, we place the pressure cell under a Veeco NT1100 Interferometer, operated in Vertical Scanning Interferometry mode and equipped with a Through Transmissive Media objective. This allows for observation of local swelling or organic matter with nanometer vertical resolution and micrometer lateral resolution. We expose the sample to CO2 atmospheres at different pressures. Comparison of the interferometry data and using SEM-EDS maps plus optical microscopy delivers local swelling maps where we can distinguish swelling of different mineralogies. Preliminary results indicate minor local swelling of organic matter, where the total amount is both time- and pressure-dependent.

  14. Morphing of geometric composites via residual swelling. (United States)

    Pezzulla, Matteo; Shillig, Steven A; Nardinocchi, Paola; Holmes, Douglas P


    Understanding and controlling the shape of thin, soft objects has been the focus of significant research efforts among physicists, biologists, and engineers in the last decade. These studies aim to utilize advanced materials in novel, adaptive ways such as fabricating smart actuators or mimicking living tissues. Here, we present the controlled growth-like morphing of 2D sheets into 3D shapes by preparing geometric composite structures that deform by residual swelling. The morphing of these geometric composites is dictated by both swelling and geometry, with diffusion controlling the swelling-induced actuation, and geometric confinement dictating the structure's deformed shape. Building on a simple mechanical analog, we present an analytical model that quantitatively describes how the Gaussian and mean curvatures of a thin disk are affected by the interplay among geometry, mechanics, and swelling. This model is in excellent agreement with our experiments and numerics. We show that the dynamics of residual swelling is dictated by a competition between two characteristic diffusive length scales governed by geometry. Our results provide the first 2D analog of Timoshenko's classical formula for the thermal bending of bimetallic beams - our generalization explains how the Gaussian curvature of a 2D geometric composite is affected by geometry and elasticity. The understanding conferred by these results suggests that the controlled shaping of geometric composites may provide a simple complement to traditional manufacturing techniques.

  15. Impact of swelling characteristics on the permselective ... (United States)

    The removal of water from organic solvents and biofuels, including lower alcohols (i.e., methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol), is necessary for the production, blending, and reuse of those organic compounds. Water forms an azeotrope with many hydrophilic solvents, complicating the separation of water/solvent mixtures. The use of water-selective membranes in a pervaporation or vapor permeation process enables the removal of water from the solvents, even when an azeotrope is present. Common hydrophilic polymer membranes often swell in water, resulting in permeabilities and selectivities that are dependent on the water content of the feed mixture. Recent work has shown the benefit of overcoating a hydrophilic water-permselective membrane with a non-swelling perfluoropolymer film [1,2]. The perfluoropolymer layer reduces the activity of water the hydrophilic polymer layer experiences, thereby reducing swelling in that layer and increasing the water selectivity of the multi-layer membrane relative to the selectivity of the base hydrophilic polymer, usually at the expense of permeability. In this work, the effect of overcoating the hydrophilic layer with polymer films of various swelling characteristics was modelled. Top layers that swell in the solvent offer some advantages, particularly with regard to the water permeance of the multi-layer composite. 1. Huang, Y.; Baker, R. W.; Wijmans, J. G. Perfluoro-coated hydrophilic membranes with improved selectivity. In

  16. Swelling, mechanical and friction properties of PVA/PVP hydrogels after swelling in osmotic pressure solution. (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Xiong, Dangsheng; Liu, Yuntong; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Xiaoduo


    The potential of polyvinyl alcohol/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVA/PVP) hydrogels as articular cartilage replacements was in vitro evaluated by using a macromolecule-based solution to mimic the osmotic environment of cartilage tissue. The effects of osmotic pressure solution on the morphology, crystallinity, swelling, mechanical and friction properties of PVA/PVP hydrogels were investigated by swelling them in non-osmotic and osmotic pressure solutions. The results demonstrated that swelling ratio and equilibrium water content were greatly reduced by swelling in osmotic solution, and the swelling process was found to present pseudo-Fickian diffusion character. The crystallization degree of hydrogels after swelling in osmotic solution increased more significantly when it compared with that in non-osmotic solution. After swelling in osmotic solution for 28days, the compressive tangent modulus and storage modulus of hydrogels were significantly increased, and the low friction coefficient was reduced. However, after swelling in the non-osmotic solution, the compressive tangent modulus and friction coefficient of hydrogels were comparable with those of as-prepared hydrogels. The better material properties of hydrogels in vivo than in vitro evaluation demonstrated their potential application in cartilage replacement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Swelling pressure of highly compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.


    Highly compacted, dense Na bentonite is used to isolate metal canisters with highly radioactivity waste products from the surrounding rock. The main object was to investigate the relationship between the swelling pressure and bulk density of bentonite with special reference to the influence of ion exchange and temperature. A new type of oedometer for swelling pressure tests was developed. It was found that there seemed to be unique relationship between the bulk density and the sweeling pressure, and that a temperature increase to 70deg C reduced the pressure to approximately 50% of the value at 20degC. It was observed that the pore water chemistry was hardle a determinant of the swelling pressure in the bulk density above 2 ton per m 3 . (G.B.)

  18. A Hamiltonian Formulation On Tsunami Over Swell (United States)

    TIAN, M.; Sheremet, A.; Kaihatu, J. M.


    Tsunami induced by earthquakes typically evolves shore-ward with a significant amplification of amplitude during the last stages of shoaling. This study focuses on tsunami evolution in shallow water under the effects of the oceanographic environment such as breaking and tsunami- swell interaction. One generally describes wave breaking directly with a discontinuity in the solution to the classical nonlinear shallow water equations (NLSW) (e.g., Stoker 1985). This wave-front steepness calculation, however, has the potential problem that for the case of the single wave defined by solitary wave, breaking occurs much closer to the wave crest so that the method is formally invalid (Madsen et. al. 2008). Li and Raichlen (2002) applied a weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) shock-capturing scheme in the numerical NSWE model to capture the wave breaking process. The problem arises that a convenient hamiltonian formalism is lacking to describe wave breaking. One wants to evaluate breaking by deducing the decay of the tsunami energy in a straightforward manner. The linear effect of the tsunami background circulation on swell is well known (e.g., Madsen et. al. 2008). However, Kaihatu and El Safty(2011) hypothesized that this is only one "half" of the mutual interaction between the tsunami and the overlying swell field, which might have subtle effects on the tsunami front-face steepness and breaking process. These effects were observed in a laboratory experiments (Kaihatu and El Safty 2011). It was observed that the presence of swell affects the maximum surface amplitude of overall wave field and produces significant energy shifts to high frequencies, thus promoting tsunami breaking. The theoretical study for tsunami-swell interaction requires a phase-resolving wave-wave interaction model. In this study, we derive a Hamiltonian formulation for the tsunami-swell interaction using the quasi stream-function formulation. This formalism is better able to handle uneven

  19. Swelling in neutron-irradiated titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.T.


    Immersion density measurements have been performed on a series of titanium alloys irradiated in EBR-II to a fluence of 5 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) at 450 and 550 0 C. The materials irradiated were the near-alpha alloys Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S, the alpha-beta alloy Ti-64, and the beta alloy Ti-38644. Swelling was observed in all alloys with the greater swelling being observed at 550 0 C. Microstructural examination revealed the presence of voids in all alloys. Ti-38644 was found to be the most radiation resistant. Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S also displayed good radiation resistance, whereas considerable swelling and precipitation were observed in Ti-64 at 550 0 C

  20. Rapid Separation of Disconnected Triangle Meshes Based on Graph Traversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, S J; Wang, Y


    In recent year, The STL file become a de facto standard on the file presentation in CAD/CAM, computer graph and reverse engineering. When point cloud which is obtained by scanning object body using optical instrument is used to reconstruct an original model, the points cloud is presented by the STL file. Usually, datum of several separated and relative objects are stored in a single STL file, when such a file is operated by a computer, the datum in the file is firstly separated and then each element of every triangle pitch on the triangle mesh is traversed and visited and is calculated. The problem is analyzed and studied by many experts, but there is still a lack of a simple and quick algorithm. An algorithm which uses graph traversal to traverse each element of the triangle meshes and separate several disconnected triangle meshes is presented by the paper, the searching and calculating speed of the data on the triangle meshes is enhanced, memory size of the computer is reduced, complexity of the data structure is simplified and powerful guarantee is made for the next process by using this algorithm

  1. Cold Abscess of the Anterior Abdominal Wall: An Unusual Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal wall for the last three years. There were no other symptoms and the patient did not have any other past medical history suggestive of tuberculosis. Physical examination revealed a nontender swelling (7 cm × 5 cm) on the anterior abdominal wall to left of midline which extended from left hypochondrium above to ...

  2. Value Triangles in the Management of Building Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker


    The purpose of this paper is to investigate value triangles and their implementation in the management of building projects. The paper is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for Danish...... Broadcasting Corporation (DR) over time. The conventional iron triangle of quality, cost and schedule for project management is the theoretical starting point, but this is seen as mainly being related to process integrity in the construction stage. It is supplemented by a similar value triangle of cultural...... value, use value and quality of realization for product integrity, mainly for the design stage. Based on this framework an evaluation is made of the value management in six of DR’s building projects from the first around 1930 to the most recent – the new headquarters DR Byen finalised in 2009...

  3. Developing Lesson Design to Help Students’ Triangle Conseptual Understanding (United States)

    Prabawanto, S.; Mulyana, E.


    The research was aimed to develop a lesson design so that students’ triangle conceptual understanding could be achieved. The method that be used in this research was qualitative with applied didactical design research (DDR). The DDR consisted of three main stepts, namely prospective analysis, metapedadicdactic analysis, and retrospective analysis. From the three stepts above, it was gained the empirical lesson design of triangle topic. The reseach results are: (1) there were some learning obstacles of students deal with the triangle topic, namely ontogenical, epietimological, and didactical obstacles; (2) implementaion of the lesson was conducted under three main stepts, namely action, formulation, and validation. For answering weather the design can be applied to other group of students, it was recommended that it cound be investigated by doing advanced reseach.

  4. An Indoor Collaborative Coefficient-Triangle APIT Localization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ting Chen


    Full Text Available The Approximate Point-In-Triangulation (APIT localization algorithm is a widely used indoor positioning technology due to its simplicity and low power consumption. However, in practice, In-to-Out misjudgments exist regularly in APIT, and a considerable amount of nodes cannot be positioned due to the low node density. To tackle this issue, a Collaborative Coefficient-triangle APIT Localization (CCAL algorithm is proposed. Firstly, an effective triangle criterion is put forward to reduce the probability of In-to-Out misjudgment and reduce the computational complexity. Then, a further Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI location and weighted triangle coordinate calculation method is adopted to reduce the positioning error. Meanwhile, the idea of iterative collaborative positioning of the positioned unknown nodes is introduced to remarkably expand the localization coverage rate. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms APIT, RSSI, and other improved algorithms in terms of both node location error and localization coverage rate.

  5. Some constructions on total labelling of m triangles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voon, Chen Huey, E-mail:; Hui, Liew How, E-mail:; How, Yim Kheng, E-mail: [Department of Mathematical and Actuarial Sciences, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Sungai Long, Bandar Sungai Long, Cheras 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)


    Let mK{sub 3} = (V{sub m}, E{sub m}) be a finite disconnected graph consisting of m disjoint triangles K{sub 3}, where V{sub m} is the set of vertices, E{sub m} is the set of edges and both V{sub m} and E{sub m} are of the same size 3m. A total labelling of mK{sub 3} is a function f which maps the elements in V{sub m} and E{sub m} to positive integer values, i.e. f : V{sub m} ∪ E{sub m} → {1, 2, 3,···}. Let c be a positive integer. A triangle is said have a c-Erdősian triangle labelling if it is a total labelling f : V{sub m} ∪ E{sub m} → {c, c + 1, ···, c + 6m − 1} such that f (x) + f (y) = f (xy) for any x, y ∈ V{sub m} and an edge xy ∈ E{sub m} joining them. In order to find all the c-Erdősian triangle labelling, a straightforward is to use the exhaustive search. However, the exhaustive search is only able to find c-Erdősian triangle labelling for m ≤ 5 due to combinatorial explosion. By studying the constant sum of vertex labels, we propose a strong permutation approach, which allows us to generate a certain classes of c-Erdősian triangle labelling up until m = 8.

  6. Neurofibromas as bilateral cystic chest wall swellings.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clinical entity in our centre. This rare entity should be borne in mind when considering the differential diagnosis of benign cystic chest wall tumours. Key words: neurofibromatosis, cystic swelling, posterior ... We are reporting a single case of bilat- eral cystic degenerative changes in neurofibromas that presented clinically like ...

  7. Investigation of magnetically enhanced swelling behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    perties of nanoparticles affect their usability as a biomaterial in medicine pharmacy and veterinary practices. Swelling of native starch and iron oxide containing .... charge. This may lead to precipitation which could be dangerous if these particles are injected intravenously. Therefore, it is important to know the size of the ...

  8. synthesis, rheological behavior and swelling properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    temperature and swelling environment has been observed to be dependent on both structural aspects of the polymers and ... CONH–) of PNIPAAm hydrate to form an expanded structure when the temperature is below. LCST. ... was carried in glass tubes of 10 mm inner diameter at room temperature for 2 h, using APS and.

  9. Unusual presentation of ulcerative postauricular swelling as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The swelling became ulcerative and associated with progressive tinnitus and hoarseness of voice. The patient was investigated. Fine‑needle aspiration cytology suggested sebaceous cell carcinoma. Then excision biopsy was done, and histopathological examination of excised tissue confirmed the diagnosis. Extraorbital ...


    Kroll, Arnold J.; Kuwabara, Toichiro


    The prevention of phosphate-induced mitochondrial swelling in the whole retina of the rabbit was studied with the electron microscope. It was found that a mixture of ATP, Mg++, and bovine serum albumin protected the mitochondria in vitro. This finding confirmed the results obtained spectrophotometrically with isolated rat liver mitochondria by Lehninger. PMID:13927020

  11. The extrudate swell of HDPE: Rheological effects (United States)

    Konaganti, Vinod Kumar; Ansari, Mahmoud; Mitsoulis, Evan; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G.


    The extrudate swell of an industrial grade high molecular weight high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in capillary dies is studied experimentally and numerically using the integral K-BKZ constitutive model. The non-linear viscoelastic flow properties of the polymer resin are studied for a broad range of large step shear strains and high shear rates using the cone partitioned plate (CPP) geometry of the stress/strain controlled rotational rheometer. This allowed the determination of the rheological parameters accurately, in particular the damping function, which is proven to be the most important in simulating transient flows such as extrudate swell. A series of simulations performed using the integral K-BKZ Wagner model with different values of the Wagner exponent n, ranging from n=0.15 to 0.5, demonstrates that the extrudate swell predictions are extremely sensitive to the Wagner damping function exponent. Using the correct n-value resulted in extrudate swell predictions that are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements.

  12. Vertex Normals and Face Curvatures of Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang


    This study contributes to the discrete differential geometry of triangle meshes, in combination with discrete line congruences associated with such meshes. In particular we discuss when a congruence defined by linear interpolation of vertex normals deserves to be called a ʼnormal’ congruence. Our main results are a discussion of various definitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula.

  13. Coloring triangle-free graphs with fixed size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten; Gimbel, John


    Combining recent results on colorings and Ramsey theory, we show that if G is a triangle-free graph with e edges then the chromatic number of G is at most cel(1/3)(log e)(-2/3) for some constant c. In a previous paper, we found an upper bound on the chromatic number of a triangle-free graph...... of genus g. Using the new result, we slightly improve this bound to cg(1/3)(log g)(-2/3). Both bounds are best possible, up to a constant multiple. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Swell Propagation over Indian Ocean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchandra A. Bhowmick


    Full Text Available Swells are the ocean surface gravity waves that have propagated out of their generating fetch to the distant coasts without significant attenuation. Therefore they contain a clear signature of the nature and intensity of wind at the generation location. This makes them a precursor to various atmospheric phenomena like distant storms, tropical cyclones, or even large scale sea breeze like monsoon. Since they are not affected by wind once they propagate out of their generating region, they cannot be described by regional wave models forced by local winds. However, their prediction is important, in particular, for ship routing and off shore structure designing. In the present work, the propagation of swell waves from the Southern Ocean and southern Indian Ocean to the central and northern Indian Ocean has been studied. For this purpose a spectral ocean Wave Model (WAM has been used to simulate significant wave height for 13 years from 1993–2005 using NCEP blended winds at a horizontal spatial resolution of 1° × 1°. It has been observed that Indian Ocean, with average wave height of approximately 2–3 m during July, is mostly dominated by swell waves generated predominantly under the extreme windy conditions prevailing over the Southern Ocean and southern Indian Ocean. In fact the swell waves reaching the Indian Ocean in early or mid May carry unique signatures of monsoon arriving over the Indian Subcontinent. Pre-monsoon month of April contains low swell waves ranging from 0.5–1 m. The amplitudes subsequently increase to approximately 1.5–2 meters around 7–15 days prior to the arrival of monsoon over the Indian Subcontinent. This embedded signature may be utilized as one of the important oceanographic precursor to the monsoon onset over the Indian Ocean.

  15. Changes in interdental papillae heights following alignment of anterior teeth. (United States)

    Kandasamy, Sanjivan; Goonewardene, Mithran; Tennant, Marc


    Orthodontic alignment of overlapped incisors can reduce the apparent heights of the interdental papillae leading to unsightly dark triangles or open gingival embrasures. To determine if certain pretreatment contact point relationships between the maxillary anterior teeth were accompanied by changes in the heights of the interdental papillae after orthodontic alignment. Pre- and post-treatment intra-oral 35 mm slides, lateral cephalometric radiographs and study casts of 143 patients (60 males, 83 females) between 13 and 16 years of age were used. The patients had diastamata closed, imbricated teeth aligned and palatally or labially placed teeth repositioned. A sample of 25 patients (12 males, 13 females) between 13 and 16 years of age who had well-aligned anterior teeth at the start of treatment acted as a control group. All patients were treated for approximately 18 months. The clinical crowns of the maxillary incisors and the heights of the interdental papilla between the incisors were measured on projected images of the slides. The percentage increases or reductions in the heights of the interdental papillae were compared. The heights of the interdental papillae increased following palatal movement of labially placed (p teeth and the intrusion of one tooth relative to another. On the other hand, dark triangles are more likely to develop following labial movement of imbricated or palatally placed incisors and closure of a diastema. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of dark triangles developing in the latter group, particularly in older patients.

  16. Irradiation-induced swelling in solution annealed AISI 316

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.F.; Weiner, R.A.; Korenko, M.K.


    Swelling in solution annealed AISI 316 has been empirically described as a function of temperature and fluence. An equation, suitable for design purposes, has been developed from an analysis of all of the available swelling data and complementary investigations. The equation is bi-linear in nature and incorporates different temperature dependent functions for both the maximum linear swelling rate parameter and the incubation parameter. The equation describing the swelling rate parameter differs from previous functions in that a constant swelling rate occurs from around 450 to 500 0 C followed by a peak swelling rate at around 570 0 C

  17. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality. S Kesavan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 135-148. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Characteristic mixing triangles in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Temperature-salinity structures in the inner part of Bay of Bengal showed complete mixing processes in the upper bay, less than about 600 m can be characterisEd. by a mixing triangle constitutEd. by three characteristic water properties. In outer...

  19. Borromean Triangles and Prime Knots in an Ancient Temple

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 5. Borromean Triangles and Prime Knots in an Ancient Temple. Arul Lakshminarayan. General Article Volume 12 ... Author Affiliations. Arul Lakshminarayan1. Department of Physics Indian Institute of Technology Madras Chennai, 600036, India.

  20. Cohabitation promotes high diversity of clownfishes in the Coral Triangle. (United States)

    Camp, Emma F; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; De Brauwer, Maarten; Dumbrell, Alex J; Smith, David J


    Global marine biodiversity peaks within the Coral Triangle, and understanding how such high diversity is maintained is a central question in marine ecology. We investigated broad-scale patterns in the diversity of clownfishes and their host sea anemones by conducting 981 belt-transects at 20 locations throughout the Indo-Pacific. Of the 1508 clownfishes encountered, 377 fish occurred in interspecific cohabiting groups and cohabitation was almost entirely restricted to the Coral Triangle. Neither the diversity nor density of host anemone or clownfish species alone influenced rates of interspecific cohabitation. Rather cohabitation occurred in areas where the number of clownfish species exceeds the number of host anemone species. In the Coral Triangle, cohabiting individuals were observed to finely partition their host anemone, with the subordinate species inhabiting the periphery. Furthermore, aggression did not increase in interspecific cohabiting groups, instead dominant species were accepting of subordinate species. Various combinations of clownfish species were observed cohabiting (independent of body size, phylogenetic relatedness, evolutionary age, dentition, level of specialization) in a range of anemone species, thereby ensuring that each clownfish species had dominant reproductive individuals in some cohabiting groups. Clownfishes are obligate commensals, thus cohabitation is an important process in maintaining biodiversity in high diversity systems because it supports the persistence of many species when host availability is limiting. Cohabitation is a likely explanation for high species richness in other obligate commensals within the Coral Triangle, and highlights the importance of protecting these habitats in order to conserve unique marine biodiversity. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Triangles and tribulations: the politics of Nazi symbols. (United States)

    Elman, R A


    This article explores the politics of "reclamation." Its focus is on pink and black triangles, currently used as symbols for gay and lesbian pride and liberation. Previously, these same identifiers were worn by those destined for annihilation during the Holocaust. I suggest that, in [re]claiming these markers, activists, however well intentioned, run a path dangerously close to the denial of history.

  2. Self-assembly of self-assembled molecular triangles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While the solution state structure of 1 can be best described as a trinuclear complex, in the solidstate well-fashioned intermolecular - and CH- interactions are observed. Thus, in the solid-state further self-assembly of already self-assembled molecular triangle is witnessed. The triangular panels are arranged in a linear ...

  3. Determination of the CKM unitarity triangle parameters by end 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roudeau, P.; Stocchi, A.; Parodi, F.; Caravaglios, F.


    Within the Standard Model, a review of the current determination of the CKM unitarity triangle parameters is presented, using experimental constraints from the measurements of |ε K |, |V ub /V cb |, Δm d and from the limit on Δm s , available by end 1999. (authors)

  4. Triangle of Safety Technique: A New Approach to Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman F. M. S. Almutairi


    dissection of the Calot's triangle can lead to such injuries. The aim of the authors in this study is to present a new safe triangle of dissection. Patients and Method. 501 patients under went LC in the following approach; The cystic artery is identified and mobilized from the gall bladder (GB medial wall down towards the cystic duct which would simultaneously divide the medial GB peritoneal attachment. This is then followed by dividing the lateral peritoneal attachment. The GB will be unfolded and the borders of the triangle of safety (TST are achieved: cystic artery medially, cystic duct laterally and the gallbladder wall superiorly. The floor of the triangle is then divided to delineate both cystic duct and artery in an area relatively far from CBD. Results. There were little significant immediate or delayed complications. The mean operating time was 68 minutes, nearly equivalent to the conventional method. Conclusions. Dissection at TST appears to be a safe procedure which clearly demonstrates the cystic duct and may help to reduce the CBD injuries.

  5. Balancing in direction (1,-1 in Pascal's Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacene Belbachir


    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the problem of balancing binomial coefficients in Pascal's triangle. We give the complete solution in the direction (1,-1 for the first four cases of the possible rays. Some linked questions have been also examined.

  6. The chemist's triangle and a general systemic approach to teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three levels of science thought (macro, micro, symbolic), identified by Johnstone and represented by a triangle, may be viewed as a core closed-cluster concept map of the type advocated in the systemic approach to teaching and learning of chemistry. Some of the implications of this view for teaching, learning and ...

  7. Borromean Triangles and Prime Knots in an Ancient Temple

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have also been found in Japanese shrines and family emblems, and in medieval Christian iconography where it reconciles mono- theism with the potential polytheism implied by the Trinity of the. Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost. While the Borromean circles and triangles are topologically similar, they are geometrically ...

  8. Upper lip swelling caused by a large dentigerous cyst with mesiodens. (United States)

    Khan, M H; Alam, M T; Haque, S; Khan, S H; Fatema, C N; Tahsin, T; Choudhury, A R


    Swelling of upper lip can results from various diseases such as salivary tumors, infections and inflammatory diseases and cyst, typically involving unerrupted teeth, are sometimes associated with supernumerary teeth in the maxillary anterior incisor region called the mesiodens. Mesiodens with dentigerous cyst is actually a rare case in the world and of course in Bangladesh. The overall prevalence of this type of cyst is only 0.15-1.9% of the total population. Recently we have experienced this kind of case like dentigerous cyst with mesiodens in the department of dentistry, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM) Hospital. The patient was 24 years old male young complaining of slow growing painless swelling on the upper lip region for the last several years. Clinical examination revealed a soft intra oral swelling in the labial surface of maxillary incisor region and there was also extra orally upper lip swelling. Radiographic examination demonstrated a large radiolucent area with a mesiodens extending to the root of both lateral incisors. The patient was treated surgically by enucleation of total cysts and surgical extraction of mesiodens under local anesthesia.

  9. Identifying translational science within the triangle of biomedicine. (United States)

    Weber, Griffin M


    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap places special emphasis on "bench-to-bedside" research, or the "translation" of basic science research into practical clinical applications. The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Consortium is one example of the large investments being made to develop a national infrastructure to support translational science, which involves reducing regulatory burdens, launching new educational initiatives, and forming partnerships between academia and industry. However, while numerous definitions have been suggested for translational science, including the qualitative T1-T4 classification, a consensus has not yet been reached. This makes it challenging to tract the impact of these major policy changes. In this study, we use a bibliometric approach to map PubMed articles onto a graph, called the Triangle of Biomedicine. The corners of the triangle represent research related to animals, cells and molecules, and humans; and, the position of a publication on the graph is based on its topics, as determined by its Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). We define translation as movement of a collection of articles, or the articles that cite those articles, towards the human corner. The Triangle of Biomedicine provides a quantitative way of determining if an individual scientist, research organization, funding agency, or scientific field is producing results that are relevant to clinical medicine. We validate our technique using examples that have been previously described in the literature and by comparing it to prior methods of measuring translational science. The Triangle of Biomedicine is a novel way to identify translational science and track changes over time. This is important to policy makers in evaluating the impact of the large investments being made to accelerate translation. The Triangle of Biomedicine also provides a simple visual way of depicting this impact, which can be far more powerful than numbers alone.

  10. Capillary rise and swelling in cellulose sponges (United States)

    Ha, Jonghyun; Kim, Jungchul; Kim, Ho-Young


    A cellulose sponge, which is a mundane example of a porous hydrophilic structure, can absorb and hold a significant amount of liquid. We present the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of the dynamics of the capillary imbibition of various aqueous solutions in the sponge that swells at the same time. We find that the rate of water rise against the resistance caused by gravitational and viscous effects deviates from Washburn's rule beyond a certain threshold height. We rationalize the novel power law of the rise height versus time by combining Darcy's law with hygroscopic swelling equation and also predict the threshold height. The scaling law constructed through this work agrees well with the experimental results, shedding light on the physics of capillary flow in deforming porous media.

  11. [Extensive swelling reaction after a pentavalent vaccination]. (United States)

    Gébus, M; Barbier, C; Bost-Bru, C; Michard-Lenoir, A P; Plantaz, D


    Injection site reactions (ISRs) are quite common side effects defined by a local adverse drug reaction directly caused by a vaccine. Twenty-four hours after an intramuscular injection (in the deltoid muscle) of the diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenza type b (DTPCa-Hib) combined vaccine, a 3-year-old boy developed fever. A few hours later, local redness and swelling appeared at the injection site, with rapid extension to the entire limb, it was pain-free, and no other clinical anomalies were present. The patient received intravenous antibiotics for suspected cellulitis. The progression was favorable in 12h (apyrexia and decreased limb swelling), allowing the intravenous antibiotic treatment to be discontinued. Since the child was in excellent general health and recovery was fast, an ISR was diagnosed. Extensive limb swelling is frequent, mostly after the fourth dose of DTPCa-Hib. Deltoid muscle injection of DTP vaccine increases the risk of ISR compared to injection in the thigh, before the age of 3 years. The introduction of acellular pertussis vaccine decreased the risk of general side effects but may increase the risk of ISR. These reactions disappear with symptomatic treatment and do not contraindicate the product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanisms affecting swelling in alloys with precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, L.K.; Haynes, M.R.; Lee, E.H.


    In alloys under irradiation many mechanisms exist that couple phase instability to cavity swelling. These are compounded with the more familiar mechanisms associated with point defect behavior and the evolution of microstructure. The mechanisms may be classified according to three modes of operation. Some affect cavity swelling directly by cavity-precipitate particle association, others operate indirectly by precipitate-induced changes in sinks other than cavities and finally there are mechanisms that are mediated by precipitate-induced changes in the host matrix. The physics of one mechanism of each type is developed in detail and the results compared where possible to experimental measurements. In particular, we develop the theory necessary to treat the effects on swelling of precipitation-induced changes in overall sink density; precipitation-induced changes in point defect trapping by solute depletion and creation of precipitate particle-matrix interfacial trap sites; and preciwill come from waste wood available locally requiring minimal energy for recovery and transportation to the site. The applicant is strongly considering the use of a solar preheating unit anium southward as well as to deeper dened al half-lives with experimental ones, over a range of 24 orders of magnitude was obtained. This is a strong argument that the alpha decay could be considered a fission process with very high mass asymmetry and charge density asymmetry

  13. Effect of crosslinker on the swelling and adsorption properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methacryloyloxy) ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride have been prepared by free radical solution polymerization with different crosslinkers. They were subjected to repeated cycles of swelling and de-swelling in deionized water and NaCl solution.

  14. Synovial hemangiohamartoma presenting as knee pain, swelling and a soft tissue mass: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Serkan


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a case of a patient with juxtaarticular hemangiohamartoma with a synovial extension associated with hemorrhagic synovitis and recurrent spontaneous hemarthrosis. Case presentation A 21-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of pain and swelling at her knee for 6 months. In the magnetic resonance imaging, T2-weighted and fat-suppressed scans revealed a mass with high signal intensity just posterior to the patellar tendon. We performed an excisional biopsy of the mass through an anterior longitudinal incision. Excised material included arterial and venous vascular structures, which were found to be spread among the fat, connective and peripheral nerve tissues microscopically. Conclusion Although hemangiohamartomas are not true neoplasms, they may cause knee pain, swelling and hemarthrosis that warrant surgical resection. This lesion, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis, especially in teenagers and young adults.

  15. Anterior Horn Cell Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Firinciogullari


    Full Text Available The anterior horn cells control all voluntary movement. Motor activity, respiratory, speech, and swallowing functions are dependent upon signals from the anterior horn cells. Diseases that damage the anterior horn cells, therefore, have a profound impact. Symptoms of anterior horn cell loss (weakness, falling, choking lead patients to seek medical attention. In this article, anterior horn diseases were reviewed, diagnostic criteria and management were discussed in detail. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(3.000: 269-303

  16. [A boy with a swelling under his right jaw]. (United States)

    Gremmer, Jessica E; Moes, A R Roelof


    A 12-year-old boy presented with a painful swelling under his right jaw. Cat scratch disease was confirmed serologically. Two months later the swelling had increased in size and had become red. There was obvious fluctuation, which indicated abscess formation. After incision and drainage of the abscess, the swelling resolved within two weeks.

  17. Factors which determine the swelling rate of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Wolfer, W.G.


    Once void nucleation subsides, the swelling rate of many austenitic alloys becomes rather insensitive to variables that control the transient regime of swelling. Models are presented which describe the roles of nickel, chromium and silicon in void nucleation. The relative insensitivity of steady-state swelling to temperature, displacement rate and composition is also discussed

  18. A rare presentation of lower back swelling as tailgut cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Chand


    Full Text Available Retrorectal cystic hamartoma, also known as tailgut cyst, is a rare congenital developmental lesion arising from postnatal primitive gut remnants in the retrorectal space. The rarity of the lesion and its anatomical position usually leads to difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. This cyst predominantly occurs in women (female to male ratio, 3:1. Tailgut cysts can present as incidental findings during the routine examination but over half of the patients are thought to present with symptoms. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging has a crucial role in diagnosing these misdiagnosed cysts. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice for tailgut cysts as this provides a definitive diagnosis, relieves symptoms, and prevents possible complications such as infection, fistula formation, and malignant degeneration. We present a case of a 40-year-old female, who presented to us with lower back swelling (7 cm × 5 cm for last 2 years, which had become more prominent to her while sitting. The patient was investigated. Ultrasonography demonstrated ill-defined large cystic lesion (8 cm × 7 cm, posterior to the uterus. Fine needle aspiration cytology suggested sebaceous cyst. A lumbosacral contrast-enhanced computed tomography demonstrated well-defined fluid density mass/collection with enhancing walls in the retrorectal, presacral, precoccygeal area, and suggested tailgut duplication cyst/retrorectal cystic hamartoma. Surgical complete excision of the cystic mass was done with both anterior (transabdominal and posterior approach. Histopathology confirmed a tailgut cyst.

  19. Void swelling behaviour of austenitic stainless steel during electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Zhongqi; Xiao Hong; Peng Feng; Ti Zhongxin


    The irradiation swelling behaviour of 00Cr17Ni14Mo2 austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316L) was investigated by means of high voltage electron microscope. Results showed that in solution annealed condition almost no swelling incubation period existed, and the swelling shifted from the transition period to the steady-state one when the displacement damage was around 40 dpa. In cold rolled condition there was evidently incubation period, and when the displacement damage was up to 84 dpa the swelling still remained in the transition period. The average size and density of voids in both conditions were measured, and the factors, which influenced the void swelling, were discussed. (3 figs.)

  20. On degree sums of a triangle-free graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Harant, J.; Naumann, S.


    For a simple triangle-free k-chromatic graph G with k >= 2 the upper bound m(n-f (k-2)) on the sum Sigma(2)(G) = Sigma(x is an element of V(G))d(2)(x) of the squares of the degrees of G is proved, where n, m, and f(1) are the order of G, the size of G, and the minimum order of a triangle-free l......-chromatic graph, respectively. Consequences of this bound are discussed. Moreover, we generalize the upper bound on Ep (G) = Sigma(p)(G) = Sigma(x is an element of V(G))d(x)) for p = 2 to P >= 3. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruy, H.J.


    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  2. Applied psychometrics in clinical psychiatry: the pharmacopsychometric triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Bech, P


    OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety, antidepress......OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety......, antidepressive, antimanic, and antipsychotic), of clinically unwanted effects of these drugs, and the patients' own subjective perception of the balance between wanted and unwanted effects are analysed using rating scales assessed by modern psychometric tests (item response theory models) RESULTS: Symptom rating...... scales fulfilling the item response theory models have been shown to be psychometrically valid outcome scales as their total scores are sufficient statistics for demonstrating dose-response relationship within the various classes of antianxiety, antidepressive, antimanic or antipsychotic drugs. The total...

  3. The local triangle axiom in topology and domain theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Waszkiewicz


    Full Text Available We introduce a general notion of distance in weakly separated topological spaces. Our approach differs from existing ones since we do not assume the reflexivity axiom in general. We demonstrate that our partial semimetric spaces provide a common generalization of semimetrics known from Topology and both partial metrics and measurements studied in Quantitative Domain Theory. In the paper, we focus on the local triangle axiom, which is a substitute for the triangle inequality in our distance spaces. We use it to prove a counterpart of the famous Archangelskij Metrization Theorem in the more general context of partial semimetric spaces. Finally, we consider the framework of algebraic domains and employ Lebesgue measurements to obtain a complete characterization of partial metrizability of the Scott topology.

  4. Visualization on triangle concept using Adobe Flash Professional SC6 (United States)

    Sagita, Laela; Ratih Kusumarini, Adha


    The purpose of this paper is to develop teaching aids using Adobe Flash Professional CS6 emphasize on Triangle concept. A new alternative way to deliver a basic concept in geometry with visualization is software Adobe Flash Professional CS 6. Research method is research and development with 5 phase of Ploom’s model, namely (1) preliminary, (2) design, (3) realization/ construction, (4) test, evaluation and revision, and 5) implementation. The results showed that teaching aids was valid, practice, and effective. Validity: expert judgement for material score is 3.95 and media expert judgement produce an average score of 3,2, both in the category are valid. Practically: the average of questionnaire response is 4,04 (good). Effectiveness: n-gain test value is 0,36 (medium). It concluded that developed of teaching aids using Adobe Flash CS6 on triangle can improve student achievement.

  5. The Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle of Colombia (United States)

    Cuesta, Albeiro; Joyanes, Luis; López, Marcelo

    The so-called "Coffee Triangle" region is located in the Andean Region, in central Colombia, South America. This Andean Region is composed of the Departments of Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda. The Andean Region has been characterized by the production of coffee as a worldwide industry supported by high Quality and Research standards. These components have become the key bastions to compete in international markets. After the decline of the Coffee industry it is necessary to consider alternatives, supplemented by the success of the Software Industry at the global level. The strengthening of the Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle seeks to establish a productive alternative for regional growth in a visionary way, where knowledge, a fundamental input of the Software Industry, is emerging as one of the greatest assets present in this geographical area - Andean Region - of Colombia.

  6. Triangle Interception Scenario: A Finite-Time Guidance Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo


    Full Text Available Considering an aircraft threatened by an interceptor, one of the effective penetration strategies is to release a Defender from the aircraft to confront the interceptor. In this case, the aircraft, the Defender, and the interceptor constitute the three-body guidance relationship, and the cooperation of the aircraft and its Defender to achieve the best tactical effects turns into a concerned problem. This paper studies the triangle interception guidance problem via the finite-time theory. The paper presents linear system Input-Output Finite-Time Stabilization (IO-FTS method. The sufficient conditions of the linear system, being IO-FTS, under Finite-Time Boundedness (FTB constraint are proposed, by which the state feedback controllers design method is obtained, via Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs. The triangle interception guidance problems are studied in three different cases, where the proposed methods are applied to the guidance design. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  7. Landmarks for Identifying the Suprascapular Foramen Anteriorly: Application to Anterior Neurotization and Decompressive Procedures. (United States)

    Manouvakhova, Olga V; Macchi, Veronica; Fries, Fabian N; Loukas, Marios; De Caro, Raffaele; Oskouian, Rod J; Spinner, Robert J; Tubbs, R Shane


    Additional landmarks for identifying the suprascapular nerve at its entrance into the suprascapular foramen from an anterior approach would be useful to the surgeon. To identify landmarks for the identification of this hidden site within an anterior approach. In 8 adult cadavers (16 sides), lines were used to connect the superior angle of the scapula, the acromion, and the coracoid process tip thus creating an anatomic triangle. The suprascapular nerve's entrance into the suprascapular foramen was documented regarding its position within this anatomical triangle. Depths from the skin surface and specifically from the medial-most point of the clavicular attachment of the trapezius to the suprascapular nerve's entrance into the suprascapular foramen were measured using calipers and a ruler. The clavicle was then fractured and retracted superiorly to verify the position of the nerve's entrance into the suprascapular foramen. From the trapezius, the nerve's entrance into the foramen was 3 to 4.2 cm deep (mean, 3.5 cm). The mean distance from the tip of the corocoid process to the suprascapular foramen was 3.8 cm. The angle best used to approach the suprascapular foramen from the surface was 15° to 20°. Based on our study, an anterior suprascapular approach to the suprascapular nerve as it enters the suprascapular foramen can identify the most medial fibers of the trapezius attachment onto the clavicle and insert a finger at an angle of 15° to 20° laterally and advanced to an average depth of 3.5 cm. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  8. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    move so that the distances PA and PB are fixed and the areas shaded in the figure (i.e., all parts of the en- closed area, except the triangle ∆PAB) are fixed. The new polygon got by reflecting this figure across the line. LM will still be an equilateral polygon with the same perimeter. The change in the area is got by changing.

  9. Is Chronic Groin Pain a Bermuda Triangle of Sports Medicine?


    Šebečić, Božidar; Japjec, Mladen; Janković, Saša; Čuljak, Vencel; Dojčinović, Bojan; Starešinić, Mario


    Chronic groin pain is one the most complex conditions encountered in the field of sports medicine. Conservative treatment is long lasting and the result of treatment is often uncertain and symptom recurrences are common, which can be very frustrating for both the patient and the physician. The complex etiology and uncertainties during treatment of chronic groin pain is the reason why some authors call it the Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. In our prospective, 7-year study, 114 athletes w...

  10. Numerical problems with the Pascal triangle in moment computation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kautsky, J.; Flusser, Jan


    Roč. 306, č. 1 (2016), s. 53-68 ISSN 0377-0427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : moment computation * Pascal triangle * appropriate polynomial basis * numerical problems Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2016

  11. Sequential Triangle Strip Generator based on Hopfield Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Jiří; Lněnička, Radim


    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2009), s. 583-617 ISSN 0899-7667 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545; GA AV ČR 1ET100300517; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : sequential triangle strip * combinatorial optimization * Hopfield network * minimum energy * simulated annealing Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 2.175, year: 2009

  12. Enumeration of Triangles in a Divisor Cayley Graph | Chalapathi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a new class of arithmetic Cayley graphs, namely, divisor Cayley graphs associated with the divisor function d ƒvnƒw , n „d1,an integer is introduced. It is shown that this graph is regular, hamiltonian, connected and not bipartite, and when n is odd it is eulerian. The enumeration of triangles in this graph is also ...

  13. The phases of large networks with edge and triangle constraints (United States)

    Kenyon, Richard; Radin, Charles; Ren, Kui; Sadun, Lorenzo


    Based on numerical simulation and local stability analysis we describe the structure of the phase space of the edge/triangle model of random graphs. We support simulation evidence with mathematical proof of continuity and discontinuity for many of the phase transitions. All but one of the many phase transitions in this model break some form of symmetry, and we use this model to explore how changes in symmetry are related to discontinuities at these transitions.

  14. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)


    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  15. Golden triangle for folding rates of globular proteins. (United States)

    Garbuzynskiy, Sergiy O; Ivankov, Dmitry N; Bogatyreva, Natalya S; Finkelstein, Alexei V


    The ability of protein chains to spontaneously form their spatial structures is a long-standing puzzle in molecular biology. Experimentally measured rates of spontaneous folding of single-domain globular proteins range from microseconds to hours: the difference (11 orders of magnitude) is akin to the difference between the life span of a mosquito and the age of the universe. Here, we show that physical theory with biological constraints outlines a "golden triangle" limiting the possible range of folding rates for single-domain globular proteins of various size and stability, and that the experimentally measured folding rates fall within this narrow triangle built without any adjustable parameters, filling it almost completely. In addition, the golden triangle predicts the maximal size of protein domains that fold under solely thermodynamic (rather than kinetic) control. It also predicts the maximal allowed size of the "foldable" protein domains, and the size of domains found in known protein structures is in a good agreement with this limit.

  16. Lattice QCD inputs to the CKM unitarity triangle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laiho, Jack; Lunghi, E.; Van de Water, Ruth S.


    We perform a global fit to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle using the latest experimental and theoretical constraints. Our emphasis is on the hadronic weak matrix elements that enter the analysis, which must be computed using lattice QCD or other nonperturbative methods. Realistic lattice QCD calculations which include the effects of the dynamical up, down, and strange quarks are now available for all of the standard inputs to the global fit. We therefore present lattice averages for all of the necessary hadronic weak matrix elements. We attempt to account for correlations between lattice QCD results in a reasonable but conservative manner: whenever there are reasons to believe that an error is correlated between two lattice calculations, we take the degree of correlation to be 100%. These averages are suitable for use as inputs both in the global Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle fit and other phenomenological analyses. In order to illustrate the impact of the lattice averages, we make standard model predictions for the parameters B-circumflex K , |V cb |, and |V ub |/|V cb |. We find a (2-3)σ tension in the unitarity triangle, depending upon whether we use the inclusive or exclusive determination of |V cb |. If we interpret the tension as a sign of new physics in either neutral kaon or B mixing, we find that the scenario with new physics in kaon mixing is preferred by present data.

  17. Critical parameters controlling irradiation swelling in beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinko, V.I.


    Radiation effects in beryllium can hardly be explained within a framework of the conventional theory based on the bias concept due to elastic interaction difference (EID) between vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) since beryllium belongs to hexagonal close-packed metals where diffusion has been shown to be anisotropic. Diffusional anisotropy difference (DAD) between point defects changes the cavity bias for their absorption and leads to dependence of the dislocation bias on the distribution of dislocations over crystallographic directions. On the other hand, the elastic interaction between point defects and cavities gives rise to the size and gas pressure dependencies of the cavity bias, resulting in new critical quantities for bubble-void transition effects at low temperature irradiation. In the present paper, we develop the concept of the critical parameters controlling irradiation swelling with account of both DAD and EID, and take care of thermal effects as well since they are of major importance for beryllium which has an anomalously low self-diffusion activation energy. Experimental data on beryllium swelling are analyzed on the basis of the present theory. (orig.)

  18. Detection of radiographically occult-ankle fractures. Positive predictive value of post-traumatic soft-tissue swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Caruana, E.


    The objective of this study was to assess the value of soft-tissue swelling on plain radiographs as a predictor of radiographically occult fracture, after acute ankle injury (trauma). Patients with acute ankle trauma and plain radiographic evidence of soft-tissue swelling were included in this study. Patients were excluded if ankle trauma was sustained more than 48 hours previously or if fracture was visible on plain radiographs. All subjects (n=25) underwent computed tomography (CT) of the ankle in sagittal and coronal planes. Size of soft-tissue swelling was measured from initial Antero-posterior (AP) radiographs. The subjects in the study were placed into two groups according to whether a fracture was identified on CT or not. The results identified that those subjects without a fracture demonstrated by CT, had a soft-tissue swelling of less than 12.6 mm, while those with over 17.1mm swelling, showed a fracture on CT. Twelve patients (48 per cent) had radiographically occult fractures identified with CT. Fracture sites included: Talus/Talar Dome (n=9), posterior or lateral malleolos (n=2), distal tibia/fibula (n=1). CT detected significant soft-tissue injuries in six patients (24 per cent), composed of damaged anterior talo-fibular ligament (n=4), torn flexor tendons (n=1), and damaged fibular calcaneal ligament (n=1). One patient also showed gas in the talar dome. This study concludes that presence of a large soft-tissue swelling on plain radiographs after acute ankle trauma suggests an underlying fracture. A soft-tissue swelling of >15 mm is a reasonable threshold to prompt further imaging. Helical computed tomography provides good visualisation of subtle bone injuries and may detect clinically important soft-tissue injuries. While the study has a small sample, there is clear evidence that there is a trend worth investigating. Future research will seek to investigate a larger sample. Copyright (1999) Australian Institute of Radiography

  19. Angiosarcoma Presenting with Minor Erythema and Swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Cox


    Full Text Available A 76-year-old man presented with slowly progressive swelling in his forehead and left upper eyelid over the course of three months. CT scanning showed non-specific enhancement of subcutaneous tissues, suggesting a low-grade cellulitis. Poor response to treatment prompted an MRI, which revealed the presence of a soft tissue lesion. Biopsy of this lesion was positive for angiosarcoma. The patient underwent chemotherapy and radiation, but unfortunately succumbed to his malignancy eight months later. This case illustrates a rare example of facial/periorbital angiosarcoma, a benign-appearing but aggressive tumor associated with a high incidence of mortality. A review of the literature and current treatment options are discussed.

  20. An extensive swelling in the anterior mandible – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil M. Kurien


    Conclusion: We often neglect to include uncommon lesions in the differential diagnosis, which may lead to inadequacy in the management protocol. Whenever possible, incisional biopsy should be performed to confirm the lesion before surgical enucleation. Here we present a case in which we were fortunate enough to diagnose the lesion by an incisional biopsy and managed according to the standard protocol.

  1. Nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis mimicking orbital inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch MC


    Full Text Available Michelle Chen Lynch,1 Andrew B Mick21Optometry Clinic, Ocala West Veterans Affairs Specialty Clinic, Ocala, FL, USA; 2Eye Clinic, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: Anterior scleritis is an uncommon form of ocular inflammation, often associated with coexisting autoimmune disease. With early recognition and aggressive systemic therapy, prognosis for resolution is good. The diagnosis of underlying autoimmune disease involves a multidisciplinary approach.Case report: A 42-year-old African American female presented to the Eye Clinic at the San Francisco Veteran Affairs Medical Center, with a tremendously painful left eye, worse on eye movement, with marked injection of conjunctiva. There was mild swelling of the upper eyelid. Visual acuity was unaffected, but there was a mild red cap desaturation. The posterior segment was unremarkable. The initial differential diagnoses included anterior scleritis and orbital inflammatory disease. Oral steroid treatment was initiated with rapid resolution over a few days. Orbital imaging was unremarkable, and extensive laboratory work-up was positive only for antinuclear antibodies. The patient was diagnosed with idiopathic diffuse, nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis and has been followed for over 5 years without recurrence. The rheumatology clinic monitors the patient closely, as suspicion remains for potential arthralgias including human leukocyte antigen-B27-associated arthritis, lupus-associated arthritis, seronegative rheumatoid arthritis, recurrent juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and scleroderma, based on her constitutional symptoms and clinical presentation, along with a positive anti-nuclear antibody lab result.Conclusion: Untreated anterior scleritis can progress to formation of cataracts, glaucoma, uveitis, corneal melting, and posterior segment disease with significant risk of vision loss. Patients with anterior scleritis must be aggressively treated with systemic anti

  2. Midface swelling reveals nasofrontal dermal sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houneida, Zaghouani Ben Alaya; Manel, Limeme; Latifa, Harzallah; Habib, Amara; Dejla, Bakir; Chekib, Kraiem


    Nasofrontal dermal sinuses are very rare and generally occur in children. This congenital malformation can be revealed by midface swelling, which can be complicated by local infection or neuromeningitis. Such complications make the dermal sinus a life-threatening disease. Two cases of nasofrontal dermal sinuses are reported in this work. The first case is an 11-month-old girl who presented with left orbitonasal soft tissue swelling accompanied by inflammation. Physical examination found fever, left orbitonasal thickening, and a puncture hole letting out pus. Computed tomography revealed microabscesses located at the left orbitonasal soft tissues, a frontal bone defect, and an intracranial cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the transosseous tract between the glabella and the brain and affirmed the epidermoid nature of the intracranial cyst. The second case is a 7-year-old girl who presented with a nasofrontal non-progressive mass that intermittently secreted a yellow liquid through an external orifice located at the glabella. MRI revealed a cystic mass located in the deep layer of the glabellar skin related to an epidermoid cyst with a nasofrontal dermal sinus tract. In both cases, surgical excision was performed, and pathological confirmation was made for the diagnoses of dermal sinuses. The postoperative course was favorable. Through these cases, the authors stress the role of imaging methods in confirming the diagnosis and looking for associated cysts (dermoid and epidermoid) to improve recognition of this rare disease. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentations, imaging manifestations, and most common sites of occurrence of this malformation are needed to formulate a differential diagnosis.

  3. A triangle voting algorithm based on double feature constraints for star sensors (United States)

    Fan, Qiaoyun; Zhong, Xuyang


    A novel autonomous star identification algorithm is presented in this study. In the proposed algorithm, each sensor star constructs multi-triangle with its bright neighbor stars and obtains its candidates by triangle voting process, in which the triangle is considered as the basic voting element. In order to accelerate the speed of this algorithm and reduce the required memory for star database, feature extraction is carried out to reduce the dimension of triangles and each triangle is described by its base and height. During the identification period, the voting scheme based on double feature constraints is proposed to implement triangle voting. This scheme guarantees that only the catalog star satisfying two features can vote for the sensor star, which improves the robustness towards false stars. The simulation and real star image test demonstrate that compared with the other two algorithms, the proposed algorithm is more robust towards position noise, magnitude noise and false stars.

  4. Swelling behavior of titanium-modified AISI 316 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Brager, H.R.; Puigh, R.J.


    It appears that titanium additions to stainless steels covering a wide compositional range around the specifications of AISI 316 result only in an increased delay period before neutron-induced void swelling proceeds. Once swelling is initiated the post transient behavior of both annealed and cold-worked titanium-modified steels is quite consistent with that of AISI 316, approaching a relatively temperature-independent swelling rate of approx. 1% per dpa

  5. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy precipitated by acute primary angle closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhari Nikhil


    Full Text Available A 59-year-old man with a history of longstanding systemic hypotension developed asymmetric non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION apparently precipitated by bilateral sequential acute primary angle closure. NAION is very rarely reported in association with raised intraocular pressure. In contrast to optical coherence tomography, the failure of scanning laser polarimetry to detect axonal swelling was another interesting finding. Possible reasoning for these observations is discussed.

  6. Teaching and learning apheresis medicine: The Bermuda Triangle in Education. (United States)

    Crookston, Kendall P; Richter, Deana M


    Apheresis Medicine has evolved markedly due to an explosion of knowledge and technology, whereas the time available for training has shrunk as curricula have become increasingly overloaded. Apheresis teaching has inherited a strong clinical context where real patient problems are used in a hands-on environment. To optimize instruction, those involved in the education of apheresis professionals need to have (1) knowledge of how clinical laboratory medicine education has developed as a field, (2) an understanding of what is known from theory and research about how people learn, and (3) the skills to design teaching/learning activities in ways consistent with literature-based principles of adult education. These developments in education provide a context for curriculum projects currently underway by the American Society for Apheresis. Teachers must determine which competencies are central to the essence of a trained professional. Specific, robust, learning objectives targeted toward the development of higher levels of thinking, professional attitudes, and requisite skills are formulated to guide the learner toward mastering those competencies. Curriculum is developed for each objective, consisting of content and the best teaching/learning methods to help learners attain the objective. Appropriate assessment strategies are identified to determine whether the objective is being achieved. The integration of objectives, curriculum, and assessment creates The Bermuda Triangle of Education (Richter, The Circle of Learning and Bermuda Triangle in Education, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, 2004). When educators do not effectively navigate The Bermuda Triangle of Education, learning may disappear into the murky depths of confusion and apathy. When successfully navigated, the result will be a significant learning experience that leads to transformation through education. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Colouring the triangles determined by a point set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Fabila-Monroy


    Full Text Available Let P be a set of n points in general position in the plane. We study the chromatic number of the intersection graph of the open triangles determined by P. It is known that this chromatic number is at least n3/27+O(n2 and, if P is in convex position, the answer is n3/24+O(n2. We prove that for arbitrary P, the chromatic number is at most n3/19.259+O(n2.

  8. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Rehabilitation (United States)

    Wright, Rick W.; Haas, Amanda K.; Anderson, Joy; Calabrese, Gary; Cavanaugh, John; Hewett, Timothy E.; Lorring, Dawn; McKenzie, Christopher; Preston, Emily; Williams, Glenn; Amendola, Annunziato


    Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction rehabilitation has evolved over the past 20 years. This evolution has been driven by a variety of level 1 and level 2 studies. Evidence Acquisition: The MOON Group is a collection of orthopaedic surgeons who have developed a prospective longitudinal cohort of the ACL reconstruction patients. To standardize the management of these patients, we developed, in conjunction with our physical therapy committee, an evidence-based rehabilitation guideline. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Results: This review was based on 2 systematic reviews of level 1 and level 2 studies. Recently, the guideline was updated by a new review. Continuous passive motion did not improve ultimate motion. Early weightbearing decreases patellofemoral pain. Postoperative rehabilitative bracing did not improve swelling, pain range of motion, or safety. Open chain quadriceps activity can begin at 6 weeks. Conclusion: High-level evidence exists to determine appropriate ACL rehabilitation guidelines. Utilizing this protocol follows the best available evidence. PMID:26131301

  9. Assembling molecular Sierpiński triangle fractals. (United States)

    Shang, Jian; Wang, Yongfeng; Chen, Min; Dai, Jingxin; Zhou, Xiong; Kuttner, Julian; Hilt, Gerhard; Shao, Xiang; Gottfried, J Michael; Wu, Kai


    Fractals, being "exactly the same at every scale or nearly the same at different scales" as defined by Benoit B. Mandelbrot, are complicated yet fascinating patterns that are important in aesthetics, mathematics, science and engineering. Extended molecular fractals formed by the self-assembly of small-molecule components have long been pursued but, to the best of our knowledge, not achieved. To tackle this challenge we designed and made two aromatic bromo compounds (4,4″-dibromo-1,1':3',1″-terphenyl and 4,4‴-dibromo-1,1':3',1″:4″,1‴-quaterphenyl) to serve as building blocks. The formation of synergistic halogen and hydrogen bonds between these molecules is the driving force to assemble successfully a whole series of defect-free molecular fractals, specifically Sierpiński triangles, on a Ag(111) surface below 80 K. Several critical points that govern the preparation of the molecular Sierpiński triangles were scrutinized experimentally and revealed explicitly. This new strategy may be applied to prepare and explore various planar molecular fractals at surfaces.

  10. Is chronic groin pain a Bermuda triangle of sports medicine? (United States)

    Šebečić, Božidar; Japjec, Mladen; Janković, Saša; Vencel Čuljak; Dojčinović, Bojan; Starešinić, Mario


    Chronic groin pain is one the most complex conditions encountered in the field of sports medicine. Conservative treatment is long lasting and the result of treatment is often uncer- tain and symptom recurrences are common, which can be very frustrating for both the patient and the physician. The complex etiology and uncertainties during treatment of chronic groin pain is the reason why some authors call it the Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. In our prospective, 7-year study, 114 athletes with chronic groin pain resistant to conservative therapy were treated surgically. In 109 athletes with sports hernia, we performed nerve neurolysis along with resection of the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve and we also reinforced the posterior wall of inguinal canal using a modified Shouldice technique. In 26 athletes that had concomitant adductor tendinosis and in 5 athletes with isolated tendinosis we performed tenotomy. Eighty-one of 83 patients with isolated sports hernia returned to sports within a mean of 4.4 (range, 3-16) weeks. Thirty-one athletes with adductor tenotomy returned to sports activity within a mean of 11.8 (range, 10-15) weeks. If carefully diagnosed using detailed history taking, physical examination and correct imaging techniques, chronic groin pain can be treated very successfully and quickly, so it need not be a Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine.

  11. Applied psychometrics in clinical psychiatry: the pharmacopsychometric triangle. (United States)

    Bech, P


    To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety, antidepressive, antimanic, and antipsychotic), of clinically unwanted effects of these drugs, and the patients' own subjective perception of the balance between wanted and unwanted effects are analysed using rating scales assessed by modern psychometric tests (item response theory models) Symptom rating scales fulfilling the item response theory models have been shown to be psychometrically valid outcome scales as their total scores are sufficient statistics for demonstrating dose-response relationship within the various classes of antianxiety, antidepressive, antimanic or antipsychotic drugs. The total scores of side-effect rating scales are, however, not sufficient statistics, implying that each symptom has to be analysed individually. Self-rating scales with very few items appear to be sufficient statistics when measuring the patients' own perception of quality of life. Applied psychometrics in psychiatry have been found to cover a pharmacopsychometric triangle illustrating the measurements of wanted and unwanted effects of pharmacotherapeutic drugs as well as health-related quality of life.

  12. Species richness accelerates marine ecosystem restoration in the Coral Triangle. (United States)

    Williams, Susan L; Ambo-Rappe, Rohani; Sur, Christine; Abbott, Jessica M; Limbong, Steven R


    Ecosystem restoration aims to restore biodiversity and valuable functions that have been degraded or lost. The Coral Triangle is a hotspot for marine biodiversity held in its coral reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, all of which are in global decline. These coastal ecosystems support valuable fisheries and endangered species, protect shorelines, and are significant carbon stores, functions that have been degraded by coastal development, destructive fishing practices, and climate change. Ecosystem restoration is required to mitigate these damages and losses, but its practice is in its infancy in the region. Here we demonstrate that species diversity can set the trajectory of restoration. In a seagrass restoration experiment in the heart of the Coral Triangle (Sulawesi, Indonesia), plant survival and coverage increased with the number of species transplanted. Our results highlight the positive role biodiversity can play in ecosystem restoration and call for revision of the common restoration practice of establishing a single target species, particularly in regions having high biodiversity. Coastal ecosystems affect human well-being in many important ways, and restoration will become ever more important as conservation efforts cannot keep up with their loss. Published under the PNAS license.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchammad Nurif


    Full Text Available Kabupaten Bojonegoro ditetapkan sebagai salah satu Daerah Tujuan Wisata (DTW di Jawa Timur karena memiliki potensi obyek wisata alam dan budaya yang telah mendapatkan perhatian wisatawan nusantara pada umumnya. Dalam kebijakan pengembangan yang tertuang dalam Rencana Induk Pengembangan Pariwisata (RIPP Jawa Timur 1999-2015 Kabupaten Bojonegoro meskipun bukan sebagai gerbang utama namun memiliki peran strategis untuk mendorong pertumbuhan kawasan di sekitarnya. Dalam penelitian, peneliti melakukan pemetakan perubahan lingkungan eksternal, pemetakan pesaing dan pelanggan, analisis internal, dan analisis TOWS. Selanjutnya akan dirumuskan Strategic Place Triangle. Yang dimaksud dengan Strategic Place Triangle adalah suatu pendekatan strategi pemasaran wilayah yang mencakup tiga hal kunci, yaitu (1 Strategi yang mencakup Segmentasi-Targeting-Positioning, (2 Taktik yang mencakup Diferensiasi-Marketing Mix-Selling, (3 Value yang mencakup Brand-Servis-Proses. Analisis pemetaan terhadap lingkungan eksternal dan internal dengan menggunakan pendekatan Strategi Pemasaran Wilayah (Marketing Places tersebut akan menghasilkan Positioning, Diferensiasi, dan Brand, bagi potensi kawasan pariwisata Bojonegoro. Positioning- nya adalah ibarat Bali bagi Jawa Timur dengan kekhasan tetap memegang nilai-nilai religi dan kultur lokal setempat. Diferensiasi-nya adalah one-stop-shopping services, pesona wisata yang tak berakhir, cantik alami, penduduknya yang santun, ramah dan mempesona. Brand-nya adalah Pesona Wisata Bojonegoro.

  14. [Cysts in the posterior triangle of the neck in adults]. (United States)

    Brea-Álvarez, Beatriz; Roldán-Hidalgo, Amaya


    Cystic lesions of the posterior triangle are a pathologic entity whose diagnosis is made in the first two years of life. Its presentation in adulthood is an incidental finding and the differential diagnosis includes cystic lymphangioma, lymphatic metastasis of thyroid cancer and branchial cyst. Often with the finding of a cervical lump, FNA is made before diagnostic imaging is performed, however, this procedure is not always advisable. We reviewed the cases of patients who came last year to our department with a cystic mass in this location and correlating the imaging findings with pathologic specimen. We show characteristic findings of these lesions in order to make an early diagnosis and thus to get the approach and treatment appropriate of adult patients with a cystic lesion in the posterior cervical triangle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahla


    Full Text Available Congenital anterior tibiofemoral subluxation is an extremely rare disorder. All reported cases accompanied by other abnormalities and syndromes. A 16-year-old high school girl referred to us with bilateral anterior tibiofemoral subluxation as the knees were extended and reduced at more than 30 degrees flexion. Deformities were due to tightness of the iliotibial band and biceps femuris muscles and corrected by surgical release. Associated disorders included bilateral anterior shoulders dislocation, short metacarpals and metatarsals, and right calcaneuvalgus deformity.

  16. Prediction of Swelling Behavior of Addis Ababa Expansive Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study a simple hyperbolic mathematical model is used to predict the swelling behavior of an expansive soil from Addis Ababa. The main parameters that are needed to run the model are the applied pressure and initial dry density. The other parameters of the model including the initial slope of the swell-time curve, the ...

  17. Neurofibromas as bilateral cystic chest wall swellings. | Ugare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 35 year old male farmer presented with soft bilateral posterior chest wall swellings. He had no similar swellings elsewhere. There were no associated symptoms, except cosmetic deformity and discomfort when he lies on his back. A clinical diagnosis of posterior chest wall lipomata was made. However at surgery, the two ...

  18. Ocean swell within the kinetic equation for water waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Badulin


    Full Text Available Results of extensive simulations of swell evolution within the duration-limited setup for the kinetic Hasselmann equation for long durations of up to 2  ×  106 s are presented. Basic solutions of the theory of weak turbulence, the so-called Kolmogorov–Zakharov solutions, are shown to be relevant to the results of the simulations. Features of self-similarity of wave spectra are detailed and their impact on methods of ocean swell monitoring is discussed. Essential drop in wave energy (wave height due to wave–wave interactions is found at the initial stages of swell evolution (on the order of 1000 km for typical parameters of the ocean swell. At longer times, wave–wave interactions are responsible for a universal angular distribution of wave spectra in a wide range of initial conditions. Weak power-law attenuation of swell within the Hasselmann equation is not consistent with results of ocean swell tracking from satellite altimetry and SAR (synthetic aperture radar data. At the same time, the relatively fast weakening of wave–wave interactions makes the swell evolution sensitive to other effects. In particular, as shown, coupling with locally generated wind waves can force the swell to grow in relatively light winds.

  19. Thermal effects on granules and direct determination of swelling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 4, 2009 ... DEA. UAA. Abidjan. Côte d'Ivoire, pp. 25-28. Larrigue S, Alvarez G, Cuvelier G, Flick D (2008). Swelling kinetics of waxy maize and starches at high temperatures and heating rates. Carbohydr. Polym. 73: 148-155. Leach HW, MC Cowen LD, Schoch JJ (1959). Structure of the starch granule swelling and ...

  20. Periorbital swelling in emergency room: Get your eyes in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SenthilKumaran S


    Full Text Available Facial swelling and eye pain are very common patient complaints in Emergency Departments. Clinical evidence and investigations play a crucial role in making the correct diagnosis which impacts the final disposition and management of the patient. We present a case of a patient who presented with facial swelling and headache.

  1. Isolated Actinomycotic Swelling in Right Upper Cervical Region. (United States)

    Agrawal, Pankaj S; Bhargavan, P V; Mampilly, Neena


    Cervicofacial actinomycosis is today a rare disease in our country. Isolated neck swelling due to actinomycosis is extremely rare. A case of 52 year old man with an isolated neck swelling due to actinomycosis without any discharging sinus is reported here. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  2. Effect of Recrystallization on Gas Bubble Swelling in UMo Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shenyang; Lavender, Curt A.; Joshi, Vineet V.


    Recrystallization plays an important role in swelling kinetics of irradiated metallic nuclear fuels. This talk will present a three-dimensional microstructure-dependent swelling model by integrating the evolution of intra-and inter- granular gas bubbles, dislocation loop density, and recrystallization.

  3. Inguinoscrotal and inguinolabial swelling in infancy: Role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... have chronic and 3 acute inguinolabial swelling. Conclusion: Color Doppler ultrasonography is an accurate, safe and readily available imaging modality which can be used to identify different etiologies of inguinoscrotal and inguinolabial swelling in infants. KEYWORDS: Pediatric; Scrotum; Hydrocele; Hernia; Ultrasound ...

  4. Swelling behavior of PEMFC during conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Parrondo


    Full Text Available Polymeric cation exchange membranes (PEMFC are used in fuel cell technology. These membranes act as a physical barrier between anode and cathode, but diffusion through the membrane should allow protons to be carried from anode to cathode at a rate sufficient to supply energy requirements. They avoid any direct reaction of oxygen and hydrogen that would diminish fuel cell efficiency. Membranes have to be conditioned before use. This conditioning step changes membrane counterions and modifies their water content, which has an effect on their diffusion coefficients. In order to analyse and quantify the effect of conditioning techniques on membrane performance various experiments with Nafion 117 cation exchange membranes were carried out. Membranes were conditioned using various methods to change the charged cation in the membrane. The reactives used were ultrapure water, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide, sodium chloride, potassium chloride and ethylene glycol, all at room temperature. Some conditioning methods were carried out using solvents heated to 100 ºC. Water content was indirectly monitored by measuring membrane swelling. Results show that membrane conditioning with strong acids followed by treatment with water increases membrane water content by about 5%. Using high-temperature treatment the water content also increases. Water uptake or release from membranes is analysed in terms of water activity.

  5. Odontogenic facial swelling of unknown origin. (United States)

    Ranjitkar, S; Cheung, W; Yong, R; Deverell, J; Packianathan, M; Hall, C


    Current radiography techniques have limitations in detecting subtle odontogenic anomalies or defects that can lead to dentoalveolar and facial infections. This report examines the application of micro-CT imaging on two extracted teeth to enable detailed visualization of subtle odontogenic defects that had given rise to facial swelling. Two extracted non-carious mandibular left primary canine teeth (73) associated with odontogenic infections were selected from two patients, and an intact contralateral tooth (83) from one of the patients was used as a control. All three teeth were subjected to three-dimensional micro-CT imaging at a resolution of 20 μm. Tooth 73 from the first case displayed dentine pores (channels) that established communication between the pulp chamber and the exposed dentine surface. In comparison, tooth 73 from the second case had a major vertical crack extending from the external enamel surface into the pulp chamber. The control tooth did not display any anomalies or major cracks. The scope of micro-CT imaging can be extended from current in vitro applications to establish post-extraction diagnosis of subtle odontogenic defects, in a manner similar to deriving histopathological diagnoses in extracted teeth. Ongoing technological advancements hold the promise for more widespread translatory applications. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Thyroid swellings in the art of the Italian Renaissance. (United States)

    Sterpetti, Antonio V; De Toma, Giorgio; De Cesare, Alessandro


    Thyroid swellings in the art of the Italian Renaissance are sporadically reported in the medical literature. Six hundred paintings and sculptures from the Italian Renaissance, randomly selected, were analyzed to determine the prevalence of personages with thyroid swellings and its meaning. The prevalence of personages with thyroid swellings in the art of Italian Renaissance is much higher than previously thought. This phenomenon was probably secondary to iodine deficiency. The presence of personages with thyroid swelling was related to specific meanings the artists wanted to show in their works. Even if the function and the role of the thyroid were discovered only after thyroidectomy was started to be performed, at the beginning of the 19th century, artists of the Italian Renaissance had the intuition that thyroid swellings were related to specific psychological conditions. Artistic intuition and sensibility often comes before scientific demonstration, and it should be a guide for science development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Swelling and outgassing of heavily-irradiated lithium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souers, P.C.; Ackerman, F.J.; Biel, T.J.; Bigwood, J.; Brite, V.; Christensen, L.D.; Folkers, C.L.; Gede, V.; Griffith, C.M.; Huss, E.B.; Lindahl, R.; McCreary, T.; Otsuki, H.H.; Pond, R.L.; Snider, G.D.; Stanhope, C.; Stump, R.K.; Vanderhoofven, F.; Tsugawa, R.T.; Anderson, J.L.; Carstens, D.W.H.; Drumhiller, W.L.; Lewis, W.B.; Nasise, J.E.; Pretzel, F.E.; Szklarz, E.G.; Vier, D.T.; Bowman, R.C. Jr.; Attalla, A.


    Twenty-two years worth of data on lithium deuteride-tritide (Li(D, T)) from three national laboratories is presented. The percent linear swelling and the outgassing of hydrogen isotopes and 3 He for samples stored at 243 to 438 K are presented in summary tables. In some cases, up to a full half-life of tritium (12 years) has been spent in the study. Initial tritium concentrations range from 2 to 98 at%. The precision of the swelling is considered, and the evidence is ambiguous as to whether temperature cycling and handling affects swelling. The early outgassing is all hydrogen, but it turns to helium at long lines. The outgassing levels out for each sample but the amount outgassed varies wildly from sample to sample. At linear swellings beyond 11%, behavior becomes erratic. A maximum linear swelling of 23% is seen for one sample at 5000 days. (orig.)

  8. Swelling of the buffer of KBS-3V deposition hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempinen, A.


    At the time of the installation of spent nuclear fuel canister in the KBS-3V deposition hole, empty space is left around bentonite buffer for technical reasons. The gap between the buffer and the canister is about 10 mm, and the gap between the buffer and the rock is 30 to 35 mm. In this study, the swelling of the buffer to fill the gaps was simulated, when the gaps are initially filled with water and no external water is available. The model used here is a thermodynamical model for swelling clay, with parameters determined for bentonite. The simulations presented here were performed with Freefem++ software, which is a finite element application for partial differential equations. These equations come from the material model. The simulation results show that the swelling fills the outer gaps in few years, but no significant swelling pressure is generated. For swelling pressure, external water supply is required. (orig.)

  9. A novel chiral phase of achiral hard triangles and an entropy-driven demixing of enantiomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gantapara, A.P.; Qi, W.; Dijkstra, M.


    We investigate the phase behavior of a system of hard equilateral and right-angled triangles in two dimensions using Monte Carlo simulations. Hard equilateral triangles undergo a continuous isotropic–triatic liquid crystal phase transition at packing fraction f = 0.7. Similarly, hard right-angled

  10. Relations among Five Radii of Circles in a Triangle, Its Sides and Other Segments (United States)

    Sigler, Avi; Stupel, Moshe; Flores, Alfinio


    Students use GeoGebra to explore the mathematical relations among different radii of circles in a triangle (circumcircle, incircle, excircles) and the sides and other segments in the triangle. The more formal mathematical development of the relations that follows the explorations is based on known geometrical properties, different formulas…

  11. Revisiting the Didactic Triangle in the Case of an Adaptive Learning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Zaoui Seghroucheni


    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the classical approach of the didactic triangle designed for the classical learning situation (face to face and adapt it to the situation of an adaptive learning system, we discuss also the different components involved in this didactic triangle and how they interact and influence the learning process in an adaptive learning system.

  12. Revisiting the Pink Triangle Exercise: An Exploration of Experiential Learning in Graduate Social Work Education (United States)

    Pugh, Greg L.


    The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…

  13. Maximal outerplanar graphs as chordal graphs, path-neighborhood graphs, and triangle graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. Laskar (R.C.); H.M. Mulder (Martyn); B. Novick (Beth)


    textabstractMaximal outerplanar graphs are characterized using three different classes of graphs. A path-neighborhood graph is a connected graph in which every neighborhood induces a path. The triangle graph $T(G)$ has the triangles of the graph $G$ as its vertices, two of these being adjacent

  14. Anterior open bite: aetiology and management. (United States)

    Sandler, Paul Jonathan; Madahar, Arun K; Murray, Alison


    Anterior open bite has a multi-factorial aetiology comprising: genetically inherited skeletal pattern, soft tissue effect and digit-sucking habits. To formulate an appropriate treatment plan, accurate diagnosis is essential. Simple open bites may sometimes resolve completely during the transition from mixed to permanent dentition, if the digit-sucking habit is broken. More significant open bites, however, sometimes extending right back to the terminal molars, rarely resolve spontaneously and will often require complex orthodontic treatment, involving active molar intrusion or even major orthognathic surgery. Unfortunately, surgery has associated risks attached, including pain, swelling, bruising, altered nerve sensation and, occasionally, permanent anaesthesia, as well as involving significant costs, as with any major surgical procedure under general anaesthesia. The introduction of Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs) has expanded the possibilities of orthodontic treatment, beyond traditional limitations of tooth movement. Molar intrusion can be successfully carried out without the need for major surgical intervention, thus avoiding all the attendant risks and disadvantages. This paper provides an overview of anterior open bite and uses an illustrative case where open bite was successfully treated with a combination of fixed appliance therapy and TADs. Anterior open bite is commonly seen in general practice. A knowledge of the possible aetiological factors and their potential management should be understood by general dental practitioners. The increased popularity of TADS allows a new and less invasive approach to management of these cases.

  15. Anterior ankle impingement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Johannes L.; van Dijk, C. Niek


    The anterior ankle impingement syndrome is a clinical pain syndrome that is characterized by anterior ankle pain on (hyper) dorsiflexion. The plain radiographs often are negative in patients who have anteromedial impingement. An oblique view is recommended in these patients. Arthroscopic excision of

  16. Flexible Triangle Search Algorithm for Block-Based Motion Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Antoniou


    Full Text Available A new fast algorithm for block-based motion estimation, the flexible triangle search (FTS algorithm, is presented. The algorithm is based on the simplex method of optimization adapted to an integer grid. The proposed algorithm is highly flexible due to its ability to quickly change its search direction and to move towards the target of the search criterion. It is also capable of increasing or decreasing its search step size to allow coarser or finer search. Unlike other fast search algorithms, the FTS can escape from inferior local minima and thus converge to better solutions. The FTS was implemented as part of the H.264 encoder and was compared with several other block matching algorithms. The results obtained show that the FTS can reduce the number of block matching comparisons by around 30–60% with negligible effect on the image quality and compression ratio.

  17. Using the Golden Triangle to optimize clearance and oral absorption. (United States)

    Johnson, Ted W; Dress, Klaus R; Edwards, Martin


    The Golden Triangle is a visualization tool developed from in vitro permeability, in vitro clearance and computational data designed to aid medicinal chemists in achieving metabolically stable, permeable and potent drug candidates. Classifying compounds as permeable and stable and plotting molecular weight (MW) versus octanol:buffer (pH 7.4) distribution coefficients (logD) or estimated octanol:buffer (pH 7.4) distribution coefficients (elogD) reveals useful trends. Analysis of at least two orthogonal trends, such as permeability and clearance, can be extremely effective in balancing and optimizing multiple properties. In addition, molecular weight and logD impact potency-efficiency calculations, allowing potency, clearance and permeability to be optimized simultaneously.

  18. 9th International Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle

    CERN Document Server



    The 9th International Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle (CKM 2016) will be held during November 28 to December 3, 2016 at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai, India. The CKM series is a well-established international meeting in the field of quark-flavour physics that brings both experimenters and theorists on a common platform. On the experimental front, we bridge borders between neutron, kaon, charm and beauty hadron, and top quark physics. The theory program tries to cover a wide range of approaches. We shall discuss how this marriage of the two can indirectly probe physics beyond the standard model, taking into account the interplay with high-pT collider searches.

  19. The Triangle of the Space Launch System Operations (United States)

    Fayolle, Eric


    Firemen know it as “fire triangle”, mathematicians know it as “golden triangle”, sailormen know it as “Bermuda triangle”, politicians know it as “Weimar triangle”… This article aims to present a new aspect of that shape geometry in the space launch system world: “the triangle of the space launch system operations”. This triangle is composed of these three following topics, which have to be taken into account for any space launch system operation processing: design, safety and operational use. Design performance is of course taking into account since the early preliminary phase of a system development. This design performance is matured all along the development phases, thanks to consecutives iterations in order to respect the financial and timing constraints imposed to the development of the system. This process leads to a detailed and precise design to assess the required performance. Then, the operational use phase brings its batch of constraints during the use of the system. This phase is conducted by specific procedures for each operation. Each procedure has sequences for each sub-system, which have to be conducted in a very precise chronological way. These procedures can be processed by automatic way or manual way, with the necessity or not of the implication of operators, and in a determined environment. Safeguard aims to verify the respect of the specific constraints imposed to guarantee the safety of persons and property, the protection of public health and the environment. Safeguard has to be taken into account above the operational constraints of any space operation, without forgetting the highest safety level for the operators of the space operation, and of course without damaging the facilities or without disturbing the external environment. All space operations are the result of a “win-win” compromise between these three topics. Contrary to the fire triangle where one of the topics has to be suppressed in order to avoid the

  20. Food supply depends on seagrass meadows in the coral triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, Richard K F; Hinder, Stephanie L; Bodger, Owen G; Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C


    The tropical seascape provides food and livelihoods to hundreds of millions of people, but the support of key habitats to this supply remains ill appreciated. For fisheries and conservation management actions to help promote resilient ecosystems, sustainable livelihoods, and food supply, knowledge is required about the habitats that help support fisheries productivity and the consequences of this for food security. This paper provides an interdisciplinary case study from the coral triangle of how seagrass meadows provide support for fisheries and local food security. We apply a triangulated approach that utilizes ecological, fisheries and market data combined with over 250 household interviews. Our research demonstrates that seagrass associated fauna in a coral triangle marine protected area support local food supply contributing at least 50% of the fish based food. This formed between 54% and 99% of daily protein intake in the area. Fishery catch was found to significantly vary with respect to village (p < 0.01) with habitat configuration a probable driver. Juvenile fish comprised 26% of the fishery catch and gear type significantly influenced this proportion (<0.05). Limited sustainability of fishery practices (high juvenile catch and a 51% decline in CPUE for the biggest fishery) and poor habitat management mean the security of this food supply has the potential to be undermined in the long-term. Findings of this study have implications for the management and assessment of fisheries throughout the tropical seascape. Our study provides an exemplar for why natural resource management should move beyond biodiversity and consider how conservation and local food security are interlinked processes that are not mutually exclusive. Seagrass meadows are under sustained threat worldwide, this study provides evidence of the need to conserve these not just to protect biodiversity but to protect food security. (letter)

  1. Comparing MapReduce and Pipeline Implementations for Counting Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelmira Pasarella


    Full Text Available A common method to define a parallel solution for a computational problem consists in finding a way to use the Divide and Conquer paradigm in order to have processors acting on its own data and scheduled in a parallel fashion. MapReduce is a programming model that follows this paradigm, and allows for the definition of efficient solutions by both decomposing a problem into steps on subsets of the input data and combining the results of each step to produce final results. Albeit used for the implementation of a wide variety of computational problems, MapReduce performance can be negatively affected whenever the replication factor grows or the size of the input is larger than the resources available at each processor. In this paper we show an alternative approach to implement the Divide and Conquer paradigm, named dynamic pipeline. The main features of dynamic pipelines are illustrated on a parallel implementation of the well-known problem of counting triangles in a graph. This problem is especially interesting either when the input graph does not fit in memory or is dynamically generated. To evaluate the properties of pipeline, a dynamic pipeline of processes and an ad-hoc version of MapReduce are implemented in the language Go, exploiting its ability to deal with channels and spawned processes. An empirical evaluation is conducted on graphs of different topologies, sizes, and densities. Observed results suggest that dynamic pipelines allows for an efficient implementation of the problem of counting triangles in a graph, particularly, in dense and large graphs, drastically reducing the execution time with respect to the MapReduce implementation.

  2. Swelling pressure and hydration behavior of porcine corneal stroma. (United States)

    Hatami-Marbini, Hamed; Etebu, Ebitimi; Rahimi, Abdolrasol


    The aim of this study was to characterize swelling pressure-thickness, swelling pressure-hydration and hydration-thickness relations of porcine cornea. Mechanical compression tests and free swelling experiments were performed on porcine cornea. A rheometer (DHR-2, TA Instruments) with a thermally controlled fluid chamber filled with 0.9% NaCl solution was used to measure the equilibrium swelling pressure of (n = 17) corneal stromal specimens. The samples were compressed incrementally and their swelling pressure-thickness relations were obtained. In parallel to this investigation, a transient digital imaging microscope (H800-CL, American Scope Inc.), a USB autofocus camera (UM05, ViTiny), and a precision weighing scale (AGZN100, Torbal) were simultaneously used to measure the weight-thickness relation of (n = 8) corneal specimens. This experimental study gave the thickness-hydration relationship required for expressing swelling pressure measurements as a function of hydration. At the in vivo 666 ± 68 µm central corneal thickness, an average swelling pressure of 52 ± 13 mmHg and hydration of 3.36 ± 0.25 mg H2O/mg dry tissue were found. The swelling pressure was reported as functions of both tissue thickness and hydration. The average fixed charge density of ρF/F ~ 42.8 mM and dry density of 1.47±0.15 g/cm3 were found. The thickness-hydration relationship was only linear when the tissue thickness was within the range of physiological thickness. Overall, the physiological hydration and swelling pressure of the porcine cornea were within the same range of those reported previously for other mammalian corneas such as steers, rabbits and humans. Nevertheless, the thickness-hydration behavior of the porcine cornea was only similar to that of the human cornea.

  3. Swelling of Polymeric Membranes in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izák, Pavel; Hovorka, Š.; Bartovský, T.; Bartovská, L.; Crespo, J.G.


    Roč. 296, 1-2 (2007), s. 131-138 ISSN 0376-7388 Grant - others:FCT(PT) SFRH/BPD/9470/2002; FCT(PT) POCTI/EQU/35437/2000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK ; R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : membrane swelling * swelling measurement * anisotropic swelling Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.432, year: 2007

  4. Seasonality of Ankle Swelling: Population Symptom Reporting Using Google Trends. (United States)

    Liu, Fangwei; Allan, G Michael; Korownyk, Christina; Kolber, Michael; Flook, Nigel; Sternberg, Harvey; Garrison, Scott


    In our experience, complaints of ankle swelling are more common in summer, typically from patients with no obvious cardiovascular disease. Surprisingly, this observation has never been reported. To objectively establish this phenomenon, we sought evidence of seasonality in the public's Internet searches for ankle swelling. Our data, obtained from Google Trends, consisted of all related Google searches in the United States from January 4, 2004, to January 26, 2016. Consistent with our expectations and confirmed by similar data for Australia, Internet searches for information on ankle swelling are highly seasonal (highest in midsummer), with seasonality explaining 86% of search volume variability. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  5. 76 FR 54762 - Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the... (United States)


    ... Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Golden...) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Golden Triangle Storage Expansion Project (GTS Expansion Project), involving construction and operation of facilities by Golden Triangle Storage, Inc. (GTS...

  6. Cinnamon polyphenols attenuate cell swelling and mitochondrial dysfunction following oxygen-glucose deprivation in glial cells (United States)

    Astrocyte swelling is an integral component of cytotoxic brain edema in ischemic injury. While mechanisms underlying astrocyte swelling are likely multifactorial, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are hypothesized to contribute to such swelling. We investigated the protective effects of...

  7. The Effect of Elasticityon the Extrudate Swell of Molten Polymers (United States)

    Hatzikiriakos, Savvas; Konaganti, Vinod Kumar; UBC Team


    The extrudate swell of an industrial grade high molecular weight high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in capillary dies is studied using the integral K-BKZ constitutive model. The non-linear viscoelastic flow properties of the polymer resin are studied for a broad range of large step shear strains and high shear rates using the cone partitioned plate (CPP) geometry of the stress/strain controlled rotational rheometer. This allowed the determination of the rheological parameters accurately, in particular the damping function, which is proven to be the most important in simulating transient flows such as extrudate swell. A series of simulations performed using the integral K-BKZ Wagner model with different values of the Wagner exponent n, ranging from n = 0.15 to 0.5, demonstrates that the extrudate swell predictions are extremely sensitive to the Wagner damping function exponent. Using the correct n - value resulted in extrudate swell predictions that are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. .

  8. Effect of crosslinker on the swelling and adsorption properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    016-1220-0. Effect of crosslinker on the swelling and adsorption properties of cationic superabsorbent. TARUN SHARMA and GIRIDHAR MADRAS. ∗. Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  9. Swelling in simple ferritic alloys irradiated to high fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.; Meinecke, R.L.


    A series of Fe-Cr-C-Mo simple alloys has been measured for density change as a function of irradiation in EBR-II over the temperature range 400 to 650 0 C to fluences as high as 2.13 x 10 23 n/cm 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) or 105 dpa. The highest swelling was found in a Fe-12Cr binary alloy, 4.72 percent, after 1.87 x 10 23 n/cm 2 or 95 dpa at 425 0 C, which corresponds to a swelling rate of 0.06%/dpa. This peak swelling rate value can be used to define swelling predictions for commercial ferritic alloys to 40 MWy/m 2

  10. Postoperative Submandibular Gland Swelling following Craniotomy under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Nakanishi


    Full Text Available Objective. Reporting of a rare case of postoperative submandibular gland swelling following craniotomy. Case Report. A 33-year-old male underwent resection for a brain tumor under general anesthesia. The tumor was resected via a retrosigmoid suboccipital approach and the patient was placed in a lateral position with his face down and turned to the right. Slight swelling of the right submandibular gland was observed just after the surgery. Seven hours after surgery, edematous change around the submandibular gland worsened and he required emergent reintubation due to airway compromise. The cause of submandibular gland swelling seemed to be an obstruction of the salivary duct due to surgical positioning. Conclusion. Once submandibular swelling and edematous change around the submandibular gland occur, they can worsen and compromise the air way within several hours after operation. Adequate precaution must be taken for any predisposing skull-base surgery that requires strong cervical rotation and flexion.

  11. Swelling and microstructure of neutrons irradiated 316 Ti SS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seran, J.L.; Le Naour, L.; Grosjean, P.; Hugon, M.P.; Carteret, Y.; Maillard, A.


    The analysis of the behaviour of fuel pins irradiated in the same RAPSODIE subassembly, shows that titanium has a marked beneficial effect on the swelling resistance of CW 316 SS in a large range of temperature. This effect is particularly visible at high temperature since CW 316 Ti SS does not swell above 550 0 C up to a dose of 100 French dpa. The results obtained on samples irradiated in a RAPSODIE experimental rig give us confirmation of the good behaviour of CW 316 Ti SS which swells less and at smaller temperature than the other steels of the 316 series such as SA 316 Ti or aged SA 316 Ti. The swelling differences between some of these materials can be associated to different microstructures which are also very different from the ones obtained on the irradiated steels aged in the same time and temperature conditions

  12. Triangle islands and cavities on the surface of evaporated Cu(In, Ga)Se2 absorber layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Anjun; Zhang Yi; Liu Wei; Li Boyan; Sun Yun


    Highlights: ► Lots of uncommon triangle islands and cavities are found on (1 1 2) planes terminated by Se atoms of evaporated Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 thin films. ► Se ad-dimer as a nucleus, Cu atom diffusion from Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 grains brings the epitaxial triangle island. ► The triangle islands grow with a two-dimensional layered mode. ► The triangle cavities are formed due to the insufficient coalescence of triangle islands. ► The performance of solar cell without triangle islands is improved. - Abstract: Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) thin films are co-evaporated at a constant substrate temperature of 500 °C on the Mo/soda lime glass substrates. The structural properties and chemical composition of the CIGS films are studied by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and an X-ray fluorescent spectrometer (XRF), respectively. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to study the surface morphology. Lots of uncommon triangle islands and cavities are found on some planes of the CIGS thin films. We investigate the formation mechanism of these triangle islands. It is found that the planes with the triangle islands are (1 1 2) planes terminated by Se atoms. Se ad-dimer as a nucleus, Cu diffusion from CIGS grains brings the epitaxial triangle islands which grow with a two-dimensional layered mode. The film with Cu/(Ga + In) = 0.94–0.98 is one key of the formation of these islands. The triangle cavities are formed due to the insufficient coalescence of triangle islands. The growth of triangle islands brings a compact surface with large layered grains and many jagged edges, but no triangle cavity. Finally, we compare the performance of solar cell with triangle islands and layered gains. It is found that the performance of solar cell with large layered gains is improved.

  13. Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Sub; Chung, Young Sun; Suh, Chee Jang; Won, Jong Jin


    Two cases of congenital anterior urethral diverticular which have occurred in a 4 year old and one month old boy are presented. Etiology, diagnostic procedures, and its clinical results are briefly reviewed

  14. Anterior knee pain (United States)

    ... thighbone where the kneecap normally rests is too shallow. You have flat feet. Anterior knee pain is ... the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation ( The information provided herein should ...

  15. Journal of EEA, Vol. 30, 2013 PREDICTION OF SWELLING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    modeling, swelling potential, swelling pressure. INTRODUCTION. In the capital ... clay system is a function of the permeability of soil, hydraulic gradient ... 1.9. Sand content (grain size. 2mm to 5 m), %. 6.10. 3.8. 2.8. Silt content (grain size. 75 m to 2 m), %. 17.41. 17.56. 15.4. Clay content. (grain size <2 m). 76.49. 78.64. 81.8.

  16. Swelling behavior of manganese-bearing AISI 216 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.; Garner, F.A.


    The inclusion of 8.5 wt % manganese in AISI 216 does not appear to alter the swelling behavior from that found to be typical of austenitic alloys with comparable levels of other austentite-stabilizing elements. The swelling in AISI 216 in EBR-II is quite insensitive to irradiation temperature in the range 400-650 0 C. Microscopy reveals that this may arise from the low level of precipitation that occurs in the alloy

  17. Lepromatous leprosy presenting as a swelling in the neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Devraj


    Full Text Available A 25-year-old electrician presented with gradually, asymptomatic swelling on left of the neck since 2 years. The swelling which was initially diagnosed as cervical lymphadenitis by the internist represented the enlarged left great auricular nerve. Cutaneous examination revealed an ill-defined, hypoaesthetic macule with minimal atrophy on the pinna of the left ear. The histopathology of the nerve showed a lepromatous neuritis with bacteriological index (BI of 5+.

  18. Detailed analysis of uranium silicide dispersion fuel swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.; Ryu, Woo-Seog.


    Swelling of U 3 Si and U 3 Si 2 is analyzed. The growth of fission gas bubbles appears to be affected by fission rate, fuel loading, and microstructural change taking place in the fuel compounds during irradiation. Several mechanisms are explored to explain the observations. The present work is aimed at a better understanding of the basic swelling phenomenon in order to accurately model irradiation behavior of uranium silicide disperson fuel. 5 refs., 10 figs

  19. Detailed analysis of uranium silicide dispersion fuel swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, G.L.; Ryu, Woo-Seog


    Swelling of U 3 Si and U 3 Si 2 is analyzed. The growth of fission gas bubbles appears to be affected by fission rate, fuel loading, and micro structural change taking place in the fuel compounds during irradiation. Several mechanisms are explored to explain the observations. The present work is aimed at a better understanding of the basic swelling phenomenon in order to accurately model irradiation behavior of uranium silicide dispersion fuel. (orig.)

  20. Identifying anterior segment crystals.


    Hurley, I W; Brooks, A M; Reinehr, D P; Grant, G B; Gillies, W E


    A series of 22 patients with crystals in the anterior segment of the eye was examined by specular microscopy. Of 10 patients with hypermature cataract and hyperrefringent bodies in the anterior chamber cholesterol crystals were identified in four patients and in six of the 10 in whom aspirate was obtained cholesterol crystals were demonstrated in three, two of these having shown crystals on specular microscopy. In 10 patients with intracorneal crystalline deposits, cholesterol crystals were f...

  1. Influence of swelling on irradiated cw 316 Ti embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fissolo, A.; Cauvain, R.; Hugot, J.P.; Levy, V.


    For fast breeder reactors core materials, the main limitations are usually swelling and irradiation embrittlement. Tensile tests and Charpy tests performed on CW 316 Ti wrappers irradiated in PHENIX up to 100 dpa NRT have shown strong evidence of correlation between swelling and embrittlement. Tensile tests were performed at room temperature, at 200 0 C and at irradiation temperature on tensile specimens machined from wrappers; the tests were done on different heats leading to different swelling values. Charpy tests were performed also at room temperature, 200 0 C and irradiation temperature, on Charpy specimens machined from different wrappers. As swelling increases, first we observe a large decrease of the total energy absorbed by specimen rupture in Charpy tests and the absence of necking before failure in tensile tests; when swelling reaches about 6 %, the total energy in Charpy tests becomes very low and uniform elongation in tensile tests decreases; at higher swelling values failure in tensile tests may occur without any plastic deformation, the UTS itself decreasing sharply

  2. Swelling and infusion of tea in tea bags. (United States)

    Yadav, Geeta U; Joshi, Bhushan S; Patwardhan, Ashwin W; Singh, Gurmeet


    The present study deals with swelling and infusion kinetics of tea granules in tea bags. The swelling and infusion kinetics of tea bags differing in tea loading and tea bag shapes were compared with loose tea. Increment in temperature and dipping frequency of tea bag in hot water increased the infusion kinetics of tea bags. Reduction in particle size enhanced the swelling and infusion kinetics of tea in a tea bag. The effects of tea particle size, tea bag dipping rate, loading of tea granules in tea bag and tea bag shapes on infusion kinetics were investigated. Increase in tea loading in tea bags resulted in reduced infusion kinetics. Double chambered tea bag showed the highest swelling (30%) and infusion kinetics (8.30% Gallic acid equivalence) while single chambered tea bags showed the lowest kinetics, amongst the various bags studied. The swelling and infusion kinetics of loose tea was always faster and higher than that of tea bags. It was found that overall effect of percentage filling of tea granules and height of tea bed in a tea bag affects tea infusion kinetics the most. Weibull model was found to be in good agreement with the swelling data.

  3. The number of colorings of planar graphs with no separating triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten


    A classical result of Birkhoff and Lewis implies that every planar graph with . n vertices has at least . 152n-1 distinct 5-vertex-colorings. Equality holds for planar triangulations with . n-4 separating triangles. We show that, if a planar graph has no separating triangle, then it has at least...... . (2+10-12)n distinct 5-vertex-colorings. A similar result holds for . k-colorings for each fixed . k≥5. Infinitely many planar graphs without separating triangles have less than . 2.252n distinct 5-vertex-colorings. As an auxiliary result we provide a complete description of the infinite 6-regular...

  4. Large Intra-Articular Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ganglion Cyst, Presenting with Inability to Flex the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Sloane


    Full Text Available A 41-year-old female presented with a 3-month history of gradually worsening anterior knee pain, swelling and inability to flex the knee. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a large intra-articular cystic swelling anterior to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL, extending into the Hoffa's infrapatellar fat pad. Following manipulation under anaesthesia and arthroscopic debridement of the cyst, the patient's symptoms were relieved with restoration of normal knee motion. ACL ganglion cysts are uncommon intra-articular pathological entities, which are usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally by MRI. This is the first reported case of an ACL cyst being so large as to cause a mechanical block to knee flexion.

  5. Evaluation of stress-controlled coal swelling processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jishan; Chen, Zhongwei [Shool of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, WA, 6009 (Australia); Elsworth, Derek [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, Penn State University, PA 16802-5000 (United States); Miao, Xiexing; Mao, Xianbiao [State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Underground Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology (China)


    Stress-controlled swelling tests are normally conducted in the laboratory to characterize the evolution of coal permeability under the influence of gas sorption. Typically reductions in permeability are observed from gas-sorption-induced swelling even where effective stresses remain constant. This behavior remains enigmatic as the permeability of the porous coal is determined by the effective stress only. When these observations were interpreted, a matchstick or cubic coal model was assumed. Under this assumption, matrix swelling would not affect coal permeability because of the complete separation between matrix blocks caused by through-going fractures. This is why current coal permeability models have little success in explaining this inconsistency. It is generally believed that the reason for the failure is the inconsistency between the experimental conditions and the model assumptions. However, in this paper, it is considered that the reason may be the internal actions between coal fractures and matrixes have not been taken into consideration. In this study, a model capable of replicating this apparently anomalous behavior is developed. We consider the interactions of the fractured coal mass where cleats do not create a full separation between adjacent matrix blocks but where solid rock bridges are present. We accommodate the role of swelling strains both over contact bridges that hold cleat faces apart but also over the non-contacting span between these bridges. The effects of swelling act competitively over these two components: increasing porosity and permeability due to swelling of the bridging contacts but reducing porosity and permeability due to the swelling of the intervening free-faces. Under these conditions, a new permeability model is formulated. The new model is the key cross link that couples the multiphysics of coal-gas interactions. The formulation and incorporation of this permeability model into the multiphysics simulation of coal

  6. Bermuda Triangle for the liver: alcohol, obesity, and viral hepatitis. (United States)

    Zakhari, Samir


    Despite major progress in understanding and managing liver disease in the past 30 years, it is now among the top 10 most common causes of death globally. Several risk factors, such as genetics, diabetes, obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, viral infection, gender, immune dysfunction, and medications, acting individually or in concert, are known to precipitate liver damage. Viral hepatitis, excessive alcohol consumption, and obesity are the major factors causing liver injury. Estimated numbers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected subjects worldwide are staggering (370 and 175 million, respectively), and of the 40 million known human immunodeficiency virus positive subjects, 4 and 5 million are coinfected with HBV and HCV, respectively. Alcohol and HCV are the leading causes of end-stage liver disease worldwide and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States and Europe. In addition, the global obesity epidemic that affects up to 40 million Americans, and 396 million worldwide, is accompanied by an alarming incidence of end-stage liver disease, a condition exacerbated by alcohol. This article focuses on the interactions between alcohol, viral hepatitis, and obesity (euphemistically described here as the Bermuda Triangle of liver disease), and discusses common mechanisms and synergy. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: Revelation of the gastrinoma triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hsin Yang, MD


    Full Text Available Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a complex condition in which one or more tumors form in the patient's pancreas or upper duodenum. These tumors, called gastrinomas, secrete excessive amounts of gastrin, and almost all develop ulcers. The vast majority of gastrinomas are present within the “gastrinoma triangle,” which is composed of the porta hepatis, duodenal sweep, and pancreatic head. As surgery remains the treatment of choice, localization of the primary lesion is often challenging but essential. We present a 50-year-old man with a tentative diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. His In-111 pentetreotide scan, fused onto a Tc-99m abdomen image, revealed an avid lesion adjacent to the duodenal loop. Operative resection was performed, and a primary pancreatic gastrinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining. The neuroendocrine tumors have somatostatin receptors upon them. Therefore, a penteteotide scan, using In-111 radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, is the current technique of choice. This dual-isotope display permits a visual perception of anatomic landmarks around the lesion.

  8. Sistem Prevensi School Violence di Madura Berbasis Galtung Conflict Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auliya Ridwan


    Full Text Available School violence may be understood as the threat or use of physical force with the intention to cause physical injury, damage of property or intimidation of another person at school. School violence is also violence that happens outside school as a result of a social interaction among the students. With regards to their prevention, many theories and propositions have been introduced including that of Conflict Triangle theory by Johan Galtung. This paper is aimed at analyzing school violence in Madura by using this theory as a general framework of analysis. The paper will begin by providing a general overview of both the theory and the so-called carok tradition of Madura; a tradition of self-defense using traditional blade which often involves killing. Upon highlighting school violence in this island, the paper will then move on by suggesting that in order to delegitimize this violence, one must speak of preventive programs at practical level, and of deconstructing the cultural strength of carok tradition at the discursive one. We assume that once the carok tradition is being deconstructed, one would loose the cultural legitimacy of committing violence. In Madura violence is often legitimated by the culture and tradition of carok. To eradicate violence is therefore to get rid of carok tradition in the first place.

  9. James Williamson d/b/a Golden Triangle Builders Information Sheet (United States)

    James Williamson d/b/a Golden Triangle Builders (the Company) is located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  10. Fact Sheet on EPA's Science, Technology, Engineering & Math (STEM) Outreach Program in Research Triangle Park (United States)

    Employees from EPA’s Research Triangle Park (RTP) campus serve as guest speakers at local schools and in the community. Hands-on activities and interactive discussions supplement classroom instruction and promote environmental awareness

  11. Airspora concentrations in the Vaal-triangle-monitoring and potential health-effects.2, fungal spores

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vismer, HF


    Full Text Available Atmospheric fungal spores were monitored in Vanderbijlpark for the period 1991-92 as part of the Vaal triangle air pollution health study of the medical research council and the CSIR. Cladosporium, Aspergillus/ Penicillium, Alternaria and Epicoccum...

  12. Texas Urban Triangle : pilot study to implement a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for sustainable mobility. (United States)


    This project addressed sustainable transportation in the Texas Urban Triangle (TUT) by conducting a pilot : project at the county scale. The project tested and developed the multi-attribute Spatial Decision Support : System (SDSS) developed in 2009 u...

  13. Functioning of the knowledge triangle in the example of IT education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The analysis of the interactions between knowledge triangle components in IT-education in the Republic of Belarus is described. This paper describes the results of research in the framework of the program of the European Union Tempus IV «Fostering the Knowledge Triangle in Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova» - «FKTBUM». The analysis of the obstacles to the effective integration of higher education, research and innovation is performed.

  14. Metric assessment of the "mastoid triangle" for sex determination: a validation study. (United States)

    Kemkes, Ariane; Göbel, Tanja


    Recently, a metric approach to skeletal sex determination was published by Paiva and Segre which is based on the summation of two triangular areas defined by three distinct craniometric landmarks: Porion, Mastoidale, and Asterion. According to the authors, values for the total triangle > or =1447.40 mm(2) are characteristic for male crania, while values asterion location undermine the value of the mastoid triangle as a sex determinant.

  15. Three-coloring graphs with no induced seven-vertex path II : using a triangle


    Chudnovsky, Maria; Maceli, Peter; Zhong, Mingxian


    In this paper, we give a polynomial time algorithm which determines if a given graph containing a triangle and no induced seven-vertex path is 3-colorable, and gives an explicit coloring if one exists. In previous work, we gave a polynomial time algorithm for three-coloring triangle-free graphs with no induced seven-vertex path. Combined, our work shows that three-coloring a graph with no induced seven-vertex path can be done in polynomial time.

  16. Inferring Properties of the Hawaiian Plume from the Hawaiian Swell (United States)

    Ribe, N. M.


    The most prominent geophysical signature associated with the Hawaiian island chain is a broad topographic anomaly ('swell') some 1000 km wide and 2500 km long. Isostasy requires the swell to be compensated by a layer of low-density material at depth whose shape in mapview is similar to that of the swell itself. That shape can be predicted using a simple 2-D thin-layer flow model in which buoyant fluid with constant viscosity is supplied at a volumetric rate Q by a fixed mantle plume and spreads laterally over the base of a plate moving at speed U. A more realistic 3-D version of the model involves a hot thermal plume in a fluid with temperature- and pressure-dependent viscosity that interacts with the shear flow generated by the plate motion. Comparison of the predictions of these models with observations of the Hawaiian swell yields several important inferences about the Hawaiian plume: (1) Plume buoyancy flux B. The observed height and width of the swell imply B ≈ 3000 kg s-1, much less than earlier estimates B = 6300-8700 kg s-1 based solely on the horizontal flux of (negative) swell buoyancy carried by the moving plate. The reason for the discrepancy is that the horizontal flux calculation neglects (a) the contribution of the buoyant residue of partial melting to the swell topography, and (b) the fact that the mean speed of downstream transport of the buoyant material by the shear flow is less than the plate speed. (2) Depth of compensation. The 3-D model predicts a geoid/topography ratio (GTR) ≈ 7-8 m/km for the Hawaiian swell, in apparent contradiction with earlier estimates ≈ 4-5 m/km based on the observed geoid and bathymetry alone. However, an extended version of the 3-D model including volcanic loading and lithospheric flexure reveals that the low values GTR≈ 4-5 m/km are artifacts of incomplete removal of the shallowly compensated volcanic islands and the surrounding flexural moat. The GTR of the swell itself is therefore ≈ 7-8 m/km, implying a

  17. Study of sorption and swelling on block coals (United States)

    Qu, Shijie; Chen, Guoqing; Yang, Jianli; Shen, Wenzhong; Li, Yunmei; Niu, Hongxian; Busch, Andreas


    Reducing CO2 emission into atmosphere is very important for the mitigation of global climate change. Many processes have been proposed for this purpose, including CO2 sequestration in un-minable coalbeds and enhance coalbed methane production (CO2-ECBM). Several theoretical studies and worldwide demonstration sites have illustrated the potential of the process.Most of these projects experienced permeability reduction of the coalbed with time, leading to operational difficulties because of the loss of injectability. The permeability reduction is generally considered to be caused by the coal swelling that is induced by gas sorption, because it can narrow or close the cleat of the coalbed. As a result, the migration of injected CO2 in coal pore or cleat becomes more difficult. Therefore, sorption and swelling characterizations are important issues for forecasting the performance of aimed coalbed. In this work, CO2/CH4sorption and swelling isotherms of two Chinese block coals (QS and YQ) were measured simultaneously under different temperature and pressure conditions. It was found that the swelling ratio of coal block by CO2 sorption increased with the increase of the gas sorption amount until it approached to a value of ~3 mmol-gas/g-coal and decreased slightly afterwards for both coals; while the swelling ratio of coal block by CH4 sorption increased with the increase of the gas sorption amount in the entire test region for both coals. By correlating the gas sorption amount and the corresponding swelling ratio, it was found that the swelling ratio of coal block is independent of temperature and coal type when the gas sorption amount is less than ~2mmol/g-coal. The differential profile of the swelling ratio with respect to sorption amount is appeared with a maximum value at ~1 mmol/g-coal for CH4 and at ~1.8 mmol/g-coal for CO2. Based on the theories related to gas sorption and solid surface energy, a mathematical model which correlates sorption and swelling behavior

  18. The coral triangle initiative: What are we missing? A case study from Aceh

    KAUST Repository

    Rudi, Edi


    Abstract The Coral Triangle Initiative is an ambitious attempt to conserve the marine biodiversity hotspot known as the Coral Triangle. However, the reef fauna in many nearby regions remains poorly explored and, consequently, the focus on the Coral Triangle risks overlooking other areas of high conservation significance. One region of potential significance, Aceh, Indonesia, has not been visited by coral taxonomists since the Dutch colonial period. Here we document the species richness of scleractinian corals of Pulau Weh, Aceh. We also compare the species richness of the genus Acropora at 3-5 sites in each of nine regions in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Although dominated by widespread Indo-Pacific species, the coral fauna of Pulau Weh is also the eastern and western boundary for many Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean species, respectively. We identified a total of 133 scleractinian species, of which three have been previously recorded only in the western Indian Ocean and five are presently undescribed. The mean species richness of the Acropora at Pulau Weh is similar to regions within the Coral Triangle. This high species richness plus the high proportion of endemics suggests that the Andaman Sea is of similarly high conservation value to the Coral Triangle. We suggest that an international initiative similar to the Coral Triangle Initiative is required to conserve this region, which includes the territorial waters of six countries. © 2012 Fauna & Flora International.

  19. Scrotal Swelling as a Complication of Hydrochlorothiazide Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Nikiforov


    Full Text Available Background. Scrotal swelling is a rare complication of acute pancreatitis with few reported cases in the literature. In this case report, we present a 59-year-old male with hydrochlorothiazide induced pancreatitis who developed scrotal swelling. Case Presentation. A 59-year-old male presented to the emergency department with sharp epigastric abdominal pain that radiated to the back and chest. On physical examination, he had abdominal tenderness and distention with hypoactive bowel sounds. Computed tomography (CT scan of the abdomen showed acute pancreatitis. The patient’s condition deteriorated and he was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU. After he improved and was transferred out of the ICU, the patient developed swelling of the scrotum and penis. Ultrasound (US of the scrotum showed large hydrocele bilaterally with no varicoceles or testicular masses. Good blood flow was observed for both testicles. The swelling diminished over the next eight days with the addition of Lasix and the patient was discharged home in stable condition. Conclusion. Scrotal swelling is a rare complication of acute pancreatitis. It usually resolves spontaneously with conservative medical management such as diuretics and elevation of the legs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rogobete


    Full Text Available Vertisols are deep clayey soils, with more than 45 % clay, dominated by clay minerals, such as smectites, that expand upon wetting and shrink upon drying. The most important physical characteristics of Vertisols are a low hydraulic conductivity and stickiness when wet and high flow of water through the cracks when dry. They become very hard when dry and in all the time are difficult to work. During the rainy season, the cracks disappear and the soil becomes sticky and plastic with a very slippery surface which makes Vertisols in – trafficable when wet. Water movement in soil that change volume with water content is not well understood and management of swelling soil remains problematic. Swelling or shrinking result in vertical displacement of the wet soil, which involves gravitational work and contributes to an overburden component to the total potential of the soil water. Many swelling soil crack and the network of cracks provides pathways for rapid flow of water which prejudice application of theory based on Darcian flow. One – dimensional flow of water in a swelling system requires material balance equation for both the aqueous and solid phases. The analytical data offers some values particle – size distribution, compression, swelling degree and pressure, plasticity index, elastic modulus, triaxial shear, angle of shear and load carrying capacity in order to realize a foundation study for some constructions.

  1. Overview of the swelling behavior of 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.


    The austenitic stainless steel designated as AISI 316 is currently being used as the major structural material for fast breeder reactors in the United States, Britain and France. Efforts are now underway in each country to optimize the swelling resistance of this alloy for further application to both fission and fusion power generating devices. The optimization effort requires knowledge of the factors which control swelling in order that appropriate compositional and fabricational modifications can be made to the alloy specification. The swelling data for this alloy are reviewed and the conclusion is reached that optimization efforts must focus on the incubation or transient regime of swelling rather than the post-transient or ''steady-state'' regime. Attempts to reduce the swelling of this steel by solute modification have focused on elements such as phosphorus and titanium. It is shown that the action of these solutes is manifested only in their ability to extend the transient regime. It is also shown that irradiation at high helium/dpa ratios does not appear to change the conclusions of this study. Another important conclusion is that small differences in reactor environmental history can have a larger influence than either helium or solutes. 31 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab

  2. Spinal-cord swelling in acute multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Seiji; Tashiro, Kunio; Naganuma, Mutsuo; Hida, Kazutoshi; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Abe, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Kazuo


    Despite the frequent involvement of the spinal cord by multiple sclerosis, reports concerning neuroradiological findings regarding these lesions have been limited; most of them have demonstrated a normal or small spinal cord. Two cases of acute paraparesis showed evidence of spinal-cord swelling on myelography and CT myelography, initially suggesting the diagnosis of an intramedullary tumor. Spinal-cord swelling was demonstrated more clearly on CT myelography than on conventional myelography. The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis was made with the aid of the CSF findings, the clinical course, and the contracting-cord sign. The ''contracting-cord sign'' means the diminution of the spinal-cord diameter in the chronic stage. Since acute multiple sclerosis may produce spinal-cord swelling simulating a tumor, careful investigations are necessary to avoid unwarranted surgical interventions. (author)

  3. Adsorption and strain: The CO 2-induced swelling of coal (United States)

    Vandamme, M.; Brochard, L.; Lecampion, B.; Coussy, O.


    Enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM) consists in injecting carbon dioxide in coal bed methane reservoirs in order to facilitate the recovery of the methane. The injected carbon dioxide gets adsorbed at the surface of the coal pores, which causes the coal to swell. This swelling in confined conditions leads to a closure of the coal reservoir cleat system, which hinders further injection. In this work we provide a comprehensive framework to calculate the macroscopic strains induced by adsorption in a porous medium from the molecular level. Using a thermodynamic approach we extend the realm of poromechanics to surface energy and surface stress. We then focus on how the surface stress is modified by adsorption and on how to estimate adsorption behavior with molecular simulations. The developed framework is here applied to the specific case of the swelling of CO 2-injected coal, although it is relevant to any problem in which adsorption in a porous medium causes strains.

  4. Effect of temperature on swelling and bubble growth in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, G.P.


    The effect of temperature on the swelling of copper-boron alloys has been studied in the temperature range of 900-1040deg C. It is observed that beyond 1030deg C, swelling as well as the rate of bubble growth decrease. Similar characteristics of the bubble growth have been observed in aluminium-boron alloys also. At 590deg C, the bubble growth in aluminium-boron alloys is faster as compared to that at 640deg C. It thus appears that the swelling as well as the growth of the gas bubble are retarded at temperatures near the melting point in metals. Possible reasons for this kind of behaviour are discussed. (author)

  5. Equilibrium swelling of poly(methacrylic acid-g-ethylene glycol) hydrogels. Effect of swelling medium and synthesis conditions. (United States)

    Mathur, A M; Hammonds, K F; Klier, J; Scranton, A B


    Responsive hydrogel networks comprising of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) backbone and oligomeric ethylene glycol (PEG) grafts were synthesized by free-radical solution polymerization and their equilibrium swelling properties were characterized in aqueous solutions of a homologous series of alcohols. These hydrogels are known to exhibit swelling transitions in response to external stimuli which lead to formation or disruption of hydrogen-bonded complexes between the backbone and the grafts. Swelling studies performed in aqueous mixtures of methanol, ethanol and propanol revealed that the effectiveness of an alcohol in breaking the PMAA/PEG complexes increased as the aliphatic segment length of the alcohol was increased. These results confirm the importance of hydrophobic interactions for stabilizing the complexes. Studies performed to determine the effect of the synthesis conditions on the equilibrium swelling properties revealed that the equilibrium degree of swelling increased as the solvent fraction during synthesis was increased. Finally, molecular stimulations revealed that it is sterically possible to form complexes with a 1:1 stoichiometry between chains of poly(methacrylic acid) and poly(ethylene glycol) with essentially no additional bond strain.

  6. Calcium in the mechanism of ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling. (United States)

    Jayakumar, Arumugam R; Rama Rao, Kakulavarapu V; Tong, Xiaoying Y; Norenberg, Michael D


    Brain edema, due largely to astrocyte swelling, is an important clinical problem in patients with acute liver failure. While mechanisms underlying astrocyte swelling in this condition are not fully understood, ammonia and associated oxidative/nitrosative stress appear to be involved. Mechanisms responsible for the increase in reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS) and their role in ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling, however, are poorly understood. Recent studies have demonstrated a transient increase in intracellular Ca2+ in cultured astrocytes exposed to ammonia. As Ca2+ is a known inducer of RONS, we investigated potential mechanisms by which Ca2+ may be responsible for the production of RONS and cell swelling in cultured astrocytes after treatment with ammonia. Exposure of cultured astrocytes to ammonia (5 mM) increased the formation of free radicals, including nitric oxide, and such increase was significantly diminished by treatment with the Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,-N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetraacetoxy-methyl ester (BAPTA). We then examined the activity of Ca2+-dependent enzymes that are known to generate RONS and found that ammonia significantly increased the activities of NADPH oxidase (NOX), constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS), and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and such increases in activity were significantly diminished by BAPTA. Pre-treatment of cultures with 7-nitroindazole, apocyanin, and quinacrine, respective inhibitors of cNOS, NOX, and PLA2, all significantly diminished RONS production. Additionally, treatment of cultures with BAPTA or with inhibitors of cNOS, NOX, and PLA2 reduced ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling. These studies suggest that the ammonia-induced rise in intracellular Ca2+ activates free radical producing enzymes that ultimately contribute to the mechanism of astrocyte swelling.

  7. Mechanical properties, anisotropic swelling behaviours and structures of jellyfish mesogloea. (United States)

    Zhu, Jintang; Wang, Xuezhen; He, Changcheng; Wang, Huiliang


    Learning from nature is a promising way for designing and fabricating new materials with special properties. As the first step, we need to understand the structures and properties of the natural materials. In this work, we paid attention to the mesogloea of an edible jellyfish (Rhopilema esculenta Kishinouye) and mainly focused on its structure, mechanical and swelling properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigations show that jellyfish mesogloea has a well-developed anisotropic microstructure, which consists of nano-sized membranes connected with many fibres. The tensile and compressive properties of swollen and dried jellyfish mesogloea samples are measured. The jellyfish mesogloea displays very high tensile strength (0.17 MPa) and compressive strength (1.43 MPa) even with 99 wt % water. The mechanical properties of jellyfish mesogloea exceed most synthetic hydrogels with similar or even lower water contents. Swelling in acidic and basic buffer solutions weakens the mechanical properties of jellyfish mesogloea. The dried jellyfish mesogloea has very high tensile strength and modulus, which are very similar to those of synthetic plastics. The swelling properties of jellyfish mesogloea in solutions with different pH values were studied. The jellyfish mesogloea exhibits pH-sensitive and anisotropic swelling properties. The jellyfish mesogloea swells (expands) in height but deswells (shrinks) in length and width, without significant change in the volume. This phenomenon has never been reported for synthetic hydrogels. This study may provide gel scientists new ideas in designing and fabricating hydrogels with well-defined microstructures and unique mechanical and swelling properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reliability of Arch dams subject to concrete swelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, J.M.; Silva, H.S.; Pinho, S. de [Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil (LNEC), Lisboa (Portugal)] [and others


    In this report, results of several studies are presented. The main aim of those studies was to assess the reliability of the three arch dams, in which swelling occurred due to alkali- aggregate reactions in various stages of development and having different effects on their reliability: the Cahora-Bassa dam, in Mozambique, where swelling accumulated up to the moment are very moderate and their development is apparently homogeneous; Santa-Luzia dam, in Portugal, where accumulated swelling have already considerable magnitude, nevertheless, important fissuration has not been observed up to the moment due to the homogeneous development of the swelling process; Alto-Ceira dam, also in Portugal, where accumulated swelling have also considerable magnitude but with a heterogeneous development, causing in conjunction with thermal variations important fissuration. Mention is made of mineralogical, chemical and petrographic analyses carried out for identification of the nature of reactions developed in each case and the back-analysis and other technics used in the assessment of the magnitude and distribution of swelling. Results are presented of measurement tests of the ultrasonic pulse velocity, used both in the assessment of alterations in the physical properties of concretes and in the determination of the depth of fissuration. Results are also presented of tests for characterisation of the rheology of integral concrete. Lastly, considerations are made about the reliability of the works on the basis of studies and the results of analyses of the state of stress, performed by means of the finite element method, by assuming for either visco-elastic or visco-elastic-plastic behaviour.

  9. Temporomandibular joint osteochondromatosis: an unusual cause of preauricular swelling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Eimear


    We report an unusual and rare cause of preauricular swelling and review the most recent literature concerning synovial osteochondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint. We report the clinical and radiologic findings of a case of synovial osteochondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint that presented as preauricular swelling in a female patient. This disease typically affects large joints; fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature affect the temporomandibular joint. This case illustrates that disorders of the temporomandibular joint should also be included in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with a preauricular mass.

  10. Influence of seawater on swelling characteristics of bentonite buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naoi, Yutaka; Komine, Hideo; Yasuhara, Kazuya; Murakami, Satoshi; Momose, Kazuo; Sakagami, Takeharu


    A high level radioactive waste disposal facility may be built on a coastal area. Therefore, it is important to investigate the influence of seawater on bentonite buffer material. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of seawater on the swelling pressure and swelling deformation characteristics of five typical kinds of bentonites. This experimental work clarified the relations between the influence grade of seawater and compaction density, type of exchangeable-cation, montmorillonite content of the bentonite, and vertical pressure condition. Based on experimental results, a specification for the buffer material which can overcome the influence of seawater was defined. (author)

  11. Influence of effective stress on swelling pressure of expansive soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baille Wiebke


    Full Text Available The volume change and shear strength behaviour of soils are controlled by the effective stress. Recent advances in unsaturated soil mechanics have shown that the effective stress as applicable to unsaturated soils is equal to the difference between the externally applied stress and the suction stress. The latter can be established based on the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC of the soil. In the present study, the evolution of swelling pressure in compacted bentonite-sand mixtures was investigated. Comparisons were made between magnitudes of applied suction, suction stress, and swelling pressure.

  12. [Edematous swelling of the eyelids caused by contact allergy]. (United States)

    Blum, A; Brummer, C; Lischka, G


    Cosmetics and ophthalmological topical preparations are the main causes of allergic contact eczema about the eye. In most cases, clinical signs are conjunctival injection, blepharitis, periorbital dermatitis and edema of lids, often combined with itching. Pure edematous swelling of the eyelids should not immediately be blamed on a contact allergy, but sufficiently evaluated to exclude a benign or malignant process of the eyelids, orbita, lacrimal duct and paranasal sinus. We present a patient with pure edematous swelling of the eyelids due to a contact allergy by the sympathicomimetic phenylephrine hydrochloride, an uncommon allergen.

  13. anterior hyaloidal fibrovascular proliferation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    It most commonly occurs after phakic vitrectomy and scleral buckling for diabetic traction retinal detachment. It usually manifests with haemorrhage into the vitreous cavity or anterior hyaloid 3 to 12 weeks after vitrectomy and is the result of fibrovascular proliferation from the peripheral retina extending toward the equator of ...

  14. Triangle network motifs predict complexes by complementing high-error interactomes with structural information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labudde Dirk


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A lot of high-throughput studies produce protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs with many errors and missing information. Even for genome-wide approaches, there is often a low overlap between PPINs produced by different studies. Second-level neighbors separated by two protein-protein interactions (PPIs were previously used for predicting protein function and finding complexes in high-error PPINs. We retrieve second level neighbors in PPINs, and complement these with structural domain-domain interactions (SDDIs representing binding evidence on proteins, forming PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles. Results We find low overlap between PPINs, SDDIs and known complexes, all well below 10%. We evaluate the overlap of PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles with known complexes from Munich Information center for Protein Sequences (MIPS. PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles have ~20 times higher overlap with MIPS complexes than using second-level neighbors in PPINs without SDDIs. The biological interpretation for triangles is that a SDDI causes two proteins to be observed with common interaction partners in high-throughput experiments. The relatively few SDDIs overlapping with PPINs are part of highly connected SDDI components, and are more likely to be detected in experimental studies. We demonstrate the utility of PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles by reconstructing myosin-actin processes in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cytoskeleton, which were not obvious in the original PPIN. Using other complementary datatypes in place of SDDIs to form triangles, such as PubMed co-occurrences or threading information, results in a similar ability to find protein complexes. Conclusion Given high-error PPINs with missing information, triangles of mixed datatypes are a promising direction for finding protein complexes. Integrating PPINs with SDDIs improves finding complexes. Structural SDDIs partially explain the high functional similarity of second-level neighbors in PPINs. We estimate that

  15. Coaptation Triangle and Golden Proportion in mitral valve anatomy. Does nature play with geometry? (United States)

    Deorsola, Luca; Bellone, Alessandra


    The Coaptation Triangle, or Tenting Area, can be identified on long-axis 2D images. Its assessment is a routine practice during echocardiographic mitral evaluation. The Golden Proportion is a particular geometric ratio between two segments. Its value is an irrational number, commonly rounded to 0.618 and showing unique geometrical/mathematical properties. Interestingly, its presence has been documented in an extremely variable number of natural settings. Hypothesizing the presence of the Golden Proportion in normal mitral anatomy, we examined the Coaptation Triangle of healthy valves to investigate such a theory. A total of 41 healthy adults, with normal mitral valves, underwent 2D echocardiography. Adequate images were chosen and loaded into custom software. Firstly, the Coaptation Triangle was manually drawn by the operator. Then, a second Coaptation Triangle, with the same base, but based on Golden Proportion, was automatically built by the software. Eventually, the two triangles were analyzed and compared. All retrieved measurements were investigated for differences and correlations. Ratios close to the Golden Proportion were found in several locations of the manually drawn Coaptation Triangle. On the other hand, comparing the manually drawn Coaptation Triangle with the automatically built one, no significant differences were revealed, and very strong correlations were demonstrated. The Golden Proportion appears present in the geometry of normal mitral valves. Studying such an aspect and identifying disruption in anatomical proportions could improve early diagnosis of mitral alterations, and allows a more standardized follow-up and help surgeons to plan a repair strategy, particularly quantifying the needed surgical modifications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Anterior cruciate ligament repair - slideshow (United States)

    ... this page: // Anterior cruciate ligament repair - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a ligament in the center of ...

  17. Multidisciplinary management of anterior diastemata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Herkrath, Fernando José; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino


    Anterior diastemata may compromise the harmony of a patient's smile. Consideration of etiologic factors, previous gingival conditioning, and individual treatment planning are essential in the proper management of anterior diastemata. An integrated orthodontic-restorative approach may enhance...

  18. The Swelling Behaviour of Polystyrene (PS)/ Polyvinylacetate (Pvac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Swelling Behaviour of Polystyrene (PS)/ Polyvinylacetate (Pvac) Blends in Different Solvents and the Effects of Ą-Cellulose used as Filler on the Electrical Conductivity. ... temperature range of 323-363K shows promising semi conducting ability which appreciated with amount of filler in the polymer-polymer matrix.

  19. Cell swelling and glycogen metabolism in hepatocytes from fasted rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustafson, L. A.; Jumelle-Laclau, M. N.; van Woerkom, G. M.; van Kuilenburg, A. B.; Meijer, A. J.


    Cell swelling is known to increase net glycogen production from glucose in hepatocytes from fasted rats by activating glycogen synthase. Since both active glycogen synthase and phosphorylase are present in hepatocytes, suppression of flux through phosphorylase may also contribute to the net increase

  20. Mechanism of activation of liver glycogen synthase by swelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A. J.; Baquet, A.; Gustafson, L.; van Woerkom, G. M.; Hue, L.


    The mechanism linking the stimulation of liver glycogen synthesis to swelling induced either by amino acids or hypotonicity was studied in hepatocytes, in gel-filtered liver extracts, and in purified preparations of particulate glycogen to which glycogen-metabolizing enzymes are bound. High

  1. Evaluation Of Postoperative Facial Swelling Following The Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: The complications associated with the removal of impacted third molars should not be underestimated. The surgery entails incision, stripping of periosteum, bone and tooth removal, and suturing. Swelling is almost universal after this procedure which, affect patients daily life activities. Objectives: To assess the use ...

  2. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. (Auburn Univ., AL (United States)); Gutterman, C. (Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)); Chander, S. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))


    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  3. investigating water absorption and thickness swelling tendencies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    INVESTIGATING WATER ABSORPTION AND THICKNESS SWELLING TENDENCIES OF POLYMERIC COMPOSITE … O. Adekomaya & K. Adama. Nigerian Journal of Technology,. Vol. 37, No. 1, January 2018. 169. Table 2: Physical and thermal properties of epoxy resin materials (Adapted from manufacturer data sheet).

  4. Splenogonadal fusion: a forgotten cause of testicular swelling in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of suspicion of a testicular tumor [4]. This is of great importance and to obviate this, physicians caring for these patients should be aware of this differential diagnosis and if there is doubt intraoperatively regarding the nature of the swelling, frozen section biopsy should be performed to avoid unnecessary orchiectomy.

  5. Grewia Gum 1: Some Mechanical and Swelling Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the mechanical and dynamic swelling properties of grewia gum, evaluate its compression behaviour and determine the effect of drying methods on its properties. Methods: Compacts (500 mg) of both freeze-dried and air-dried grewia gum were separately prepared by compression on a potassium bromide ...

  6. Laboratory tests of hydraulic fracturing and swell healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunbo, Christensen Claes; Foged, Christensen Helle; Foged, Niels


    New laboratory test set-ups and test procedures are described - for testing the formation of hydraulically induced fractures as well as the potential for subsequent fracture closurefrom the relase of a swelling potential. The main purpose with the tests is to provide information on fracturing...... stresses and whether or not the material in question possesses the potential for fracture closure....

  7. Kimura's disease: A case presentation of postauricular swelling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kimura's disease: A case presentation of postauricular swelling. A Rajesh, T Prasanth, V.C. Naga Sirisha, M.D.S. Azmi. Abstract. Kimura's disease (KD) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of subcutaneous tissues and occurs predominantly in head and neck region. It is seen primarily in young Asian males. Typical clinical ...

  8. Clozapine- induced recurrent and transient parotid gland swelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mainly due to its side effect of agranulocytosis. Hypersalivation is another distressing and common side effect of clozapine which occurs in about 23 % of patients.3. Hypersalivation , a poorly understood paradoxical side effect of clozapine, may sometimes cause salivary gland swelling. Rarely, the anticholinergic effect of ...

  9. Laboratory tests of hydraulic fracturing and swell healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunbo, Christensen Claes; Foged, Christensen Helle; Foged, Niels


    New laboratory test set-ups and test procedures are described - for testing the formation of hydraulically induced fractures as well as the potential for subsequent fracture closurefrom the relase of a swelling potential. The main purpose with the tests is to provide information on fracturing...

  10. Multiple renal anomalies associated with encapsulated swellings of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current observation reports the occurrence of the left renal anomalies and encapsulated swellings involving the left sciatic nerve in a 47 years old male cadaver. Renal anomalies consisted of left double kidney, left bifid ureter and double arterial supply to the left kidney. The double kidney consisted of the two upper and ...

  11. Modeling SiC swelling under irradiation: Influence of amorphization

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, A; Defranceschi, M; Yip, S


    Irradiation-induced swelling of SiC is investigated using a molecular dynamics simulation-based methodology. To mimic the effect of heavy ion irradiation extended amorphous areas of various sizes are introduced in a crystalline SiC sample, and the resulting configurations are relaxed using molecular dynamics at constant pressure. Simulation results compare very well with data from existing ion implantation experiments. Analysis of the relaxed configurations shows very clearly that SiC swelling does not scale linearly with the amorphous fraction introduced. Two swelling regimes are observed depending on the size of the initial amorphous area: for small amorphous zones swelling scales like the amorphous fraction to the power 2/3, while for larger areas it scales like the amorphous fraction to the powers 2/3 and 4/3. Similar dependences on the amorphous fraction are obtained for the number of homonuclear bonds present in the initial amorphous volume and for the number of short bonds created at the interface betw...

  12. Swelling Characteristics and Tensile Properties of Natural Fiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Swelling characteristics of samples of this composite material were determined by monitoring- forth nightly, changes in weight of the samples within the test period and tensile test was conducted on the samples after 16 weeks using Hounsfeild (Monsanto) tensometer. The results show that the solvents reduced the strengths ...

  13. Splenogonadal fusion: A forgotten cause of testicular swelling in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Splenogonadal fusion is a rare congenital anomaly in which there is fusion of the spleen and the gonad. This report describes a 25-month-old male child who presented with left scrotal swelling. On exploration, a discontinuous type of splenogonadal fusion was found. It was successfully and completely separated from the ...

  14. Irradiated PVAl membrane swelled with chitosan solution as dermal equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodas, A.C.D.; Ohnuki, T.; Mathor, M.B.; Lugao, A.B.


    Synthetic membranes as dermal equivalent can be applied at in vitro studies for developing new transdermal drugs or cosmetics. These membranes could be composed to mimic the dermis and seed cultivated keratinocytes as epidermal layer on it. The endothelial cells ingrowth to promote neovascularization and fibroblasts ingrowth to promote the substitution of this scaffold by natural components of the dermis. As, they can mimic the scaffold function of dermis; the membranes with biological interaction could be used for in vivo studies as dermal equivalent. For this application, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAl) membranes crosslinked by gamma radiation were swelled with chitosan solution. PVAl do not interact with the organism when implanted and is intended to mimic the mechanical characteristics of the dermal scaffold. The chitosan as a biocompatible biosynthetic polysaccharide were incorporated into PVAl membranes to improve the organism response. Degradation of chitosan by the organism occurs preferably by hydrolysis or enzymatic action, for example, by lysozyme. For this purpose the swelling kinetic of PVAl membranes with chitosan solution were performed and it was verified their degradation in vitro. The results showed that the swelling equilibrium of the PVAl membranes with chitosan membranes was reached in 120 h with average swelling of 1730%. After swelling, PVAl and chitosan/PVAl membranes were dried and immersed in phosphate buffer solution pH 5.7 and pH 7.4, with and without lysozyme, as those pH values are the specific physiologic pH for external skin and the general physiological pH for the organism, respectively. It was verified that the pure PVAl membrane did not showed change in their mass during 14 days. PVAl membranes swelled with chitosan solution showed mass decrease from 1 to 14 days inside these solutions. The highest mass decrease was verified at pH 5.7 in phosphate buffer solution without lysozyme. The smallest mass decrease was verified at pH 7.4 in

  15. In the golden triangle with a handful of dollars. (United States)

    Nepote, J


    The only way of reaching this part of the world, which is on the borders of northern Thailand, Burma and Laos, is by helicopter. It is a mountainous region, mostly covered by forest and inhabited by a tribal population estimated at 300,000 to 500,000 persons who live in some 3,000 villages. The people, who are seminomadic move about with their personal property and weapons, without any form of control. They have been cultivating the opium poppy since the beginning of the century and this single crop provides all that is needed for the livelihood of the families. In an area where all transport is by back-pack, opium provides a good return for a low weight. The opium is used to supply the international market and is also the source of regional drug addiction, which can perhaps be better described as the local therapy for the pains of illness and old age. To consider banning poppy cultivation or destruction of the plantations is a pipe-dream in this inaccessible, uncontrollable area, which has no administrative infrastructure. Consequently, repressive action is directed only against traffickers. Because of the geographical position of the "Golden Triangle", there is substantial cross-frontier traffic. The boundary lines are tortuous, mountainous and frostcovered, and surveillance is therefore quite impossible. Police tactics are therefore to let traffickers proceed sufficiently far into the country so that they can be attacked without their being able to escape across the frontier. The over all enforcement activity throughout Thailand has yielded results and statistics are available to prove it. What is now needed is to find a substitute for opium poppy cultivation and start on this has been made with the help of the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control (UNFDAC). This very ambitious plan consists in completely transforming the economic life of the tribes. The people will be induced to abandon their nomadic life and become sedentary and to switch over from a

  16. Evaluating the swelling, erosion, and compaction properties of cellulose ethers. (United States)

    Ghori, Muhammad U; Grover, Liam M; Asare-Addo, Kofi; Smith, Alan M; Conway, Barbara R


    Swelling, erosion, deformation, and consolidation properties can affect the performance of cellulose ethers, the most commonly used matrix former in hydrophilic sustained tablet formulations. The present study was designed to comparatively evaluate the swelling, erosion, compression, compaction, and relaxation properties of the cellulose ethers in a comprehensive study using standardised conditions. The interrelationship between various compressional models and the inherent deformation and consolidation properties of the polymers on the derived swelling and erosion parameters are consolidated. The impact of swelling (K w ) on erosion rates (K E ) and the inter-relationship between Heckel and Kawakita plasticity constants was also investigated. It is evident from the findings that the increases in both substitution and polymer chain length led to higher K w , but a lower K E ; this was also true for all particle size fractions regardless of polymer grade. Smaller particle size and high substitution levels tend to increase the relative density of the matrix but reduce porosity, yield pressure (P y ), Kawakita plasticity parameter (b -1 ) and elastic relaxation. Both K W versus K E (R 2  = 0.949-0.980) and P y versus. b -1 correlations (R 2  = 0.820-0.934) were reasonably linear with regards to increasing hydroxypropyl substitution and molecular size. Hence, it can be concluded that the combined knowledge of swelling and erosion kinetics in tandem with the in- and out-of-die compression findings can be used to select a specific polymer grade and further to develop and optimize formulations for oral controlled drug delivery applications.

  17. A description of the lumbar interfascial triangle and its relation with the lateral raphe: anatomical constituents of load transfer through the lateral margin of the thoracolumbar fascia (United States)

    Schuenke, M D; Vleeming, A; Van Hoof, T; Willard, F H


    Movement and stability of the lumbosacral region is contingent on the balance of forces distributed through the myofascial planes associated with the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF). This structure is located at the common intersection of several extremity muscles (e.g. latissimus dorsi and gluteus maximus), as well as hypaxial (e.g. ventral trunk muscles) and epaxial (paraspinal) muscles. The mechanical properties of the fascial constituents establish the parameters guiding the dynamic interaction of muscle groups that stabilize the lumbosacral spine. Understanding the construction of this complex myofascial junction is fundamental to biomechanical analysis and implementation of effective rehabilitation in individuals with low back and pelvic girdle pain. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to describe the anatomy of the lateral margin of the TLF, and specifically the interface between the fascial sheath surrounding the paraspinal muscles and the aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis (TA) and internal oblique (IO) muscles. The lateral margin of the TLF was exposed via serial reduction dissections from anterior and posterior approaches. Axial sections (cadaveric and magnetic resonance imaging) were examined to characterize the region between the TA and IO aponeurosis and the paraspinal muscles. It is confirmed that the paraspinal muscles are enveloped by a continuous paraspinal retinacular sheath (PRS), formed by the deep lamina of the posterior layer of the TLF. The PRS extends from the spinous process to transverse process, and is distinct from both the superficial lamina of the posterior layer and middle layer of the TLF. As the aponeurosis approaches the lateral border of the PRS, it appears to separate into two distinct laminae, which join the anterior and posterior walls of the PRS. This configuration creates a previously undescribed fat-filled lumbar interfascial triangle situated along the lateral border of the paraspinal muscles from the 12th

  18. Visual Search for Wines with a Triangle on the Label in a Virtual Store. (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Huang, Fuxing; Spence, Charles; Wan, Xiaoang


    Two experiments were conducted in a virtual reality (VR) environment in order to investigate participants' in-store visual search for bottles of wines displaying a prominent triangular shape on their label. The experimental task involved virtually moving along a wine aisle in a virtual supermarket while searching for the wine bottle on the shelf that had a different triangle on its label from the other bottles. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that the participants identified the bottle with a downward-pointing triangle on its label more rapidly than when looking for an upward-pointing triangle on the label instead. This finding replicates the downward-pointing triangle superiority (DPTS) effect, though the magnitude of this effect was more pronounced in the first as compared to the second half of the experiment, suggesting a modulating role of practice. The results of Experiment 2 revealed that the DPTS effect was also modulated by the location of the target on the shelf. Interestingly, however, the results of a follow-up survey demonstrate that the orientation of the triangle did not influence the participants' evaluation of the wine bottles. Taken together, these findings reveal how in-store the attention of consumers might be influenced by the design elements in product packaging. These results therefore suggest that shopping in a virtual supermarket might offer a practical means of assessing the shelf standout of product packaging, which has important implications for food marketing.

  19. Visual Search for Wines with a Triangle on the Label in a Virtual Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao


    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted in a virtual reality (VR environment in order to investigate participants’ in-store visual search for bottles of wines displaying a prominent triangular shape on their label. The experimental task involved virtually moving along a wine aisle in a virtual supermarket while searching for the wine bottle on the shelf that had a different triangle on its label from the other bottles. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that the participants identified the bottle with a downward-pointing triangle on its label more rapidly than when looking for an upward-pointing triangle on the label instead. This finding replicates the downward-pointing triangle superiority (DPTS effect, though the magnitude of this effect was more pronounced in the first as compared to the second half of the experiment, suggesting a modulating role of practice. The results of Experiment 2 revealed that the DPTS effect was also modulated by the location of the target on the shelf. Interestingly, however, the results of a follow-up survey demonstrate that the orientation of the triangle did not influence the participants’ evaluation of the wine bottles. Taken together, these findings reveal how in-store the attention of consumers might be influenced by the design elements in product packaging. These results therefore suggest that shopping in a virtual supermarket might offer a practical means of assessing the shelf standout of product packaging, which has important implications for food marketing.

  20. Sex Determination Using Inion-Opistocranium-Asterion (IOA) Triangle in Nigerians' Skulls. (United States)

    Orish, C N; Didia, B C; Fawehinmi, H B


    Background. Determination of sex is an important concern to the forensic anthropologists as it is critical for individual identification. This study has investigated the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dimensions and the area of the IOA triangle. Methods. A total of 100 adult dry skulls, (78 males; 22 females) from departments of anatomy in Nigerian universities were used for this study. Automatic digital calliper was used for the measurement. Coefficient of variation, correlation, linear regression, percentiles, and sexual dimorphism ratio were computed from the IOA triangle measurements. The IOA triangle area was compared between sexes. Results. The male parameters were significantly (P asterion length was 71.09 ± 0.56 and 61.68 ± 3.35 mm and the right opistocranium-asterion length was 69.73 ± 0.49 and 60.92 ± 2.10 mm for male and female, respectively. A total area of IOA triangle of 1938.88 mm(2) and 1305.68 mm(2) for male and female, respectively, was calculated. The left IOA indices were 46.42% and 37.40% in males and females, respectively, while the right IOA indices for males and females were 47.19% and 38.87%, respectively. Conclusion. The anthropometry of inion-opistocranium-asterion IOA triangle can be a guide in gender determination of unknown individuals.

  1. Sex Determination Using Inion-Opistocranium-Asterion (IOA Triangle in Nigerians’ Skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Orish


    Full Text Available Background. Determination of sex is an important concern to the forensic anthropologists as it is critical for individual identification. This study has investigated the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dimensions and the area of the IOA triangle. Methods. A total of 100 adult dry skulls, (78 males; 22 females from departments of anatomy in Nigerian universities were used for this study. Automatic digital calliper was used for the measurement. Coefficient of variation, correlation, linear regression, percentiles, and sexual dimorphism ratio were computed from the IOA triangle measurements. The IOA triangle area was compared between sexes. Results. The male parameters were significantly (P<0.05 higher than female parameters. The left opistocranium-asterion length was 71.09±0.56 and 61.68±3.35 mm and the right opistocranium-asterion length was 69.73±0.49 and 60.92±2.10 mm for male and female, respectively. A total area of IOA triangle of 1938.88 mm2 and 1305.68 mm2 for male and female, respectively, was calculated. The left IOA indices were 46.42% and 37.40% in males and females, respectively, while the right IOA indices for males and females were 47.19% and 38.87%, respectively. Conclusion. The anthropometry of inion-opistocranium-asterion IOA triangle can be a guide in gender determination of unknown individuals.

  2. Holliday Triangle Hunter (HolT Hunter): Efficient Software for Identifying Low Strain DNA Triangular Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, W.B.


    Synthetic DNA nanostructures are typically held together primarily by Holliday junctions. One of the most basic types of structures possible to assemble with only DNA and Holliday junctions is the triangle. To date, however, only equilateral triangles have been assembled in this manner - primarily because it is difficult to figure out what configurations of Holliday triangles have low strain. Early attempts at identifying such configurations relied upon calculations that followed the strained helical paths of DNA. Those methods, however, were computationally expensive, and failed to find many of the possible solutions. I have developed a new approach to identifying Holliday triangles that is computationally faster, and finds well over 95% of the possible solutions. The new approach is based on splitting the problem into two parts. The first part involves figuring out all the different ways that three featureless rods of the appropriate length and diameter can weave over and under one another to form a triangle. The second part of the computation entails seeing whether double helical DNA backbones can fit into the shape dictated by the rods in such a manner that the strands can cross over from one domain to the other at the appropriate spots. Structures with low strain (that is, good fit between the rods and the helices) on all three edges are recorded as promising for assembly.

  3. Anterior Urethral Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar P. Mali


    Full Text Available We studied the clinical presentation and management of four patients with anterior urethral valves; a rare cause of urethral obstruction in male children. One patient presented antenatally with oligohydramnios, bilateral hydronephrosis and bladder thickening suggestive of an infravesical obstruction. Two other patients presented postnatally at 1 and 2 years of age, respectively, with poor stream of urine since birth. The fourth patient presented at 9 years with frequency and dysuria. Diagnosis was established on either micturating cystourethrogram (MCU (in 2 or on cystoscopy (in 2. All patients had cystoscopic ablation of the valves. One patient developed a postablation stricture that was resected with an end-to-end urethroplasty. He had an associated bilateral vesicoureteric junction (VUJ obstruction for which a bilateral ureteric reimplantation was done at the same time. On long-term follow-up, all patients demonstrated a good stream of urine. The renal function is normal. Patients are continent and free of urinary infections. Anterior urethral valves are rare obstructive lesions in male children. The degree of obstruction is variable, and so they may present with mild micturition difficulty or severe obstruction with hydroureteronephrosis and renal impairment. Hence, it is important to evaluate the anterior urethra in any male child with suspected infravesical obstruction. The diagnosis is established by MCU or cystoscopy and the treatment is always surgical, either a transurethral ablation or an open resection. The long-term prognosis is good.

  4. A mechanism for the downturn in inverse susceptibility in triangle-based frustrated spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, M


    A mechanism for the downturn of inverse magnetic susceptibility below an intermediate temperature, recently observed in many experiments, is proposed as an intrinsic feature of lattices with triangle-based frustrated geometries. The temperature at the bending of the inverse susceptibility curve may be related to the features of other thermodynamic properties; the hump of the specific heat and the emergence of a 1/3 plateau in magnetization under a magnetic field. This fact is derived through a Monte Carlo simulation study of the Ising model on triangular and kagome lattices, and the exact calculation for the single and small-sized triangle clusters, on both the Ising and Heisenberg models. These results may indicate the dominance of S(S z ) = 1/2 quantum (classical) trimer formation in the intermediate-energy regime in two-dimensional triangle-based lattices

  5. A Dissimilarity Measure for Clustering High- and Infinite Dimensional Data that Satisfies the Triangle Inequality (United States)

    Socolovsky, Eduardo A.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)


    The cosine or correlation measures of similarity used to cluster high dimensional data are interpreted as projections, and the orthogonal components are used to define a complementary dissimilarity measure to form a similarity-dissimilarity measure pair. Using a geometrical approach, a number of properties of this pair is established. This approach is also extended to general inner-product spaces of any dimension. These properties include the triangle inequality for the defined dissimilarity measure, error estimates for the triangle inequality and bounds on both measures that can be obtained with a few floating-point operations from previously computed values of the measures. The bounds and error estimates for the similarity and dissimilarity measures can be used to reduce the computational complexity of clustering algorithms and enhance their scalability, and the triangle inequality allows the design of clustering algorithms for high dimensional distributed data.

  6. Modelling the hydro-mechanical behaviour of swelling unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrad, M.


    The use of compacted swelling soils in engineering practice is very widely spread, especially in geotechnical and environmental engineering. After their setup, these materials are likely to be subject to complex suction/stress paths involving significant variations of their hydro-mechanical properties which can affect their initial behaviour. It is important to be able to predict the hydro-mechanical behaviour of these materials taking into account the significant applications for which they are intended. Barcelona team developed a finite-element code (Code-Bright) for the thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling (THM) integrating the BBM elastoplastic model for unsaturated soils based on the independent variables approach. This model is recognized to correctly describe the hydro-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils but fails to take into account some particular observed aspects on swelling soils. A second model BExM was then proposed to address these aspects. The objective of this study is: (i) to implement the elastoplastic model BExM for the unsaturated swelling soils in the finite-element code (Code-Bright); (ii) to check the numerical model validity through the numerical simulation of laboratory tests made on swelling soils; and (iii) to apply this model to some practical problems. For this purpose, a new family of numerical procedures adapted to the BExM model was introduced into the code. The equation of the yield surface of this model for a given deviatoric stress states was given in a manner to facilitate calculations of its derivatives. The model was checked by the numerical simulation of suction-controlled odometric tests made on three different swelling soils. The simulation results showed that the numerical model is able to correctly reproduce the experimental data. Lastly, the model was applied to two practical problems: radioactive waste repository in deep geological layers and a shallow footing under the action of a swelling soil. The results obtained

  7. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigitan Terbuka Anterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniar Zen


    Full Text Available Perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior telah lama dianggap sebagai tantangan bagi ortodontis. Prevalensi gigitan terbuka anterior antara 3,5% hingga 11% terdapat pada berbagai usia dan kelompok etnis, serta ada sekitar 17% pasien ortodonti memiliki gigitan terbuka. Stabilitas hasil perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior sangat sulit, karena adanya kombinasi diskrepansi anteroposterior dengan gigitan terbuka skeletal sehingga dibutuhkan tingkat keterampilan diagnosis dan klinis yang tinggi. Etiologi gigitan terbuka anterior sangat kompleks karena dapat melibatkan skeletal, dental, dan faktor-faktor habitual. Eliminasi faktor etiologi merupakan hal yang penting dalam perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior. Berbagai cara perawatan untuk koreksi gigitan terbuka anterior diantaranya bedah ortognatik dan perawatan ortodontik kamuflase, seperti high-pull headgear, chincup, bite blocks, alatfungsional, pencabutan gigi, multi-loop edgewise archwires dan mini implan. Stabilitas hasil perawatan adalah kriteria yang paling penting dalam menentukan cara perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior. Orthodontic Treatment of Anterior Open Bite. An anterior open bite therapy has long been considered a challenge to orthodontist. The prevalence of anterior openbite range from 3,5 % to 11% among various age and ethnic groups and it has been shown that approximately 17% of orthodontic patients have open bite. Stability of treatment result of anterior open bite with well-maintained results is difficult, because the combination of anteroposteriorly discrepancy with skeletal open bite requires the highest degree of diagnostic and clinical skill. The etiology is complex, potentially involving skeletal, dental and habitual factors. The importance of an anterior open bite therapy is to eliminate the cause of the open bite. Various treatment modalities for the correction of an anterior open bite have been proposed, orthognatic surgery and orthodontic camouflage treatment such as high

  8. Validation and scale dependencies of the triangle method for the evaporative fraction estimation over heterogeneous areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Tomás, Alberto; Nieto, Héctor; Guzinski, Radoslaw


    Remote sensing has proved to be a consistent tool for monitoring water fluxes at regional scales. The triangle method, in particular, estimates the evaporative fraction (EF), defined as the ratio of latent heat flux (LE) to available energy, based on the relationship between satellite observations...... a heterogeneous area in central Spain, using Landsat5-TM, Envisat-AATSR/MERIS and MSG-SEVIRI images. Some aspects affecting the model performance such as spatial resolution, terrain conditions, vegetation index applied and method for deriving the triangle edges have been assessed. The derived EF estimations have...

  9. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2008 (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.A.


    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area's water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2007 through September 2008. Major findings for this period include:

  10. Structure and radiation induced swelling of steels and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshin, A.M.


    Regularities of vacancy void formation and radiation induced swelling of austenitic chromium-nickel steels and alloyse ferritic steels as well as titanium α-alloys under radiation by light and heavy ions and neutrons are considered. Possible methods for preparation of alloys with increased resistance to radiation swelling are described. Accounting for investigations into ferritic steels and α-alloys of titanium the basic way of weakening vacancy smelling is development of continuous homogeneous decomposition of solid solution using alloying with vividly expressed incubation period at a certain volumetric dilatation as well as decompositions of the type of ordering, K-state, lamination of solid solutions, etc. Additional alloying of solid solutions is also shown to be necessary for increasing recrystallization temperature of cold-deformed steel

  11. Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Michael D. [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom); Ahluwalia, Jatinder, E-mail: [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom)


    Non-excitable cells such as neutrophil granulocytes are the archetypal inflammatory immune cell involved in critical functions of the innate immune system. The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential. For continuous function of the NADPH oxidase, I{sub e} has to be balanced to preserve electroneutrality, if not; sufficient depolarisation would prevent electrons from leaving the cell and neutrophil function would be abrogated. Subsequently, the depolarisation generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase I{sub e} must be counteracted by ion transport. The finding that depolarisation required counter-ions to compensate electron transport was followed by the observation that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the NADPH oxidase membrane depolarisation. In this mini review, we discuss the research findings that revealed the essential role of swell activated chloride channels in human neutrophil function.

  12. Anterior knee pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLopis, Eva [Hospital de la Ribera, Alzira, Valencia (Spain) and Carretera de Corbera km 1, 46600 Alzira Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail:; Padron, Mario [Clinica Cemtro, Ventisquero de la Condesa no. 42, 28035 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail:


    Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries.

  13. Evaluating anterior knee pain. (United States)

    Hong, Engene; Kraft, Michael C


    Musculoskeletal complaints account for about 20% to 30% of all primary care office visits; of these visits, discomfort in the knee, shoulder, and back are the most prevalent musculoskeletal symptoms. Having pain or dysfunction in the front part of the knee is a common presentation and reason for a patient to see a health care provider. There are a number of pathophysiological etiologies to anterior knee pain. This article describes some of the common and less common causes, and includes sections on diagnosis and treatment for each condition as well as key points. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.


    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  15. SuperLig Ion Exchange Resin Swelling and Buoyancy Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.


    The objective of this study was to achieve a fundamental understanding of SuperLig resin swelling and shrinking characteristics, which lead to channeling and early breakthrough during loading cycles. The density of salt solution that causes resin floating was also determined to establish a limit for operation. Specific tests performed include (a) pH dependence, (b) ionic strength dependence and (c) buoyancy effect vs. simulant composition

  16. A FACSIMILE code for calculating void swelling, version VS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windsor, M.; Bullough, R.; Wood, M.H.


    VS1 is the first of a series of FACSIMILE codes that are being made available to predict the swelling of materials under irradiation at different temperatures, using chemical rate equations for the point defect losses to voids, interstitial loops, dislocation network, grain boundaries and foil surfaces. In this report the rate equations used in the program are given together with a detailed description of the code and directions for its use. (author)

  17. Clayey landslide initiation and acceleration strongly modulated by soil swelling (United States)

    Schulz, William; Smith, Joel B.; Wang, Gonghui; Jiang, Yao; Roering, Joshua J.


    Largely unknown mechanisms restrain motion of clay-rich, slow-moving landslides that are widespread worldwide and rarely accelerate catastrophically. We studied a clayey, slow-moving landslide typical of thousands in northern California, USA, to decipher hydrologic-mechanical interactions that modulate landslide dynamics. Similar to some other studies, observed pore-water pressures correlated poorly with landslide reactivation and speed. In situ and laboratory measurements strongly suggested that variable pressure along the landslide's lateral shear boundaries resulting from seasonal soil expansion and contraction modulated its reactivation and speed. Slope-stability modeling suggested that the landslide's observed behavior could be predicted by including transient swell pressure as a resistance term, whereas modeling considering only transient hydrologic conditions predicted movement 5–6 months prior to when it was observed. All clayey soils swell to some degree; hence, our findings suggest that swell pressure likely modulates motion of many landslides and should be considered to improve forecasts of clayey landslide initiation and mobility.

  18. Bias factors for radiation creep, growth and swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, F.A.


    Central to the present concepts of the origin of the radiation-induced creep, growth and swelling phenomena is the relative interaction of interstitials and vacancies with various sinks. Radiation-induced climb of dislocations, which figures in many theories of radiation creep and growth, requires the absorption of an excess of either vacancies or interstitials. On the other hand, radiation swelling requires the absorption of an excess of vacancies to effect void growth. These relative preferences are normally expressed in theoretical models by certain bias factors, or capture efficiencies, usually assumed to be constant. Several attempts have been made to estimate their magnitude theoretically but all are seen to involve errors or physically unrealistic assumptions. We present here a unified treatment in which these various bias factors are estimated in a self-consistent model which incorporates, for the first time, all the essential physics, i.e., defect production, interactions of both vacancies and interstitials with sinks and the presence of two types of sinks. We present quantitative evaluations for the SIPA creep model and for radiation swelling, and compare with previous estimates of these phenomena. (orig.)

  19. Bias factors for radiation creep, growth and swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, F.A.


    Central to the present concepts of the origin of the radiation-induced creep, growth and swelling phenomena is the relative interaction of interstitials and vacancies with various sinks. Radiation-induced climb of dislocations, which figures in many theories of radiation creep and growth, requires the absorption of an excess of either vacancies or interstitials. On the other hand, radiation swelling requires the absorption of an excess of vacancies to affect void growth. These relative preferences are normally expressed in theoretical models by certain bias factors, or capture efficiencies, usually assumed to be constant. Several attempts have been made to estimate their magnitude theoretically but all are seen to involve errors or physically unrealistic assumptions. We present here a unified treatment in which these various bias factors are estimated in a self-consistent model which incorporates, for the first time, all the essential physics, i.e., defect production, interactions of both vacancies and interstitials with sinks and the presence of two types of sinks. We present quantitative evaluations for the SIPA creep model and for radiation swelling, and compare with previous estimates of these phenomena

  20. Swell impact on wind stress and atmospheric mixing in a regional coupled atmosphere-wave model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Lichuan; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik


    Over the ocean, the atmospheric turbulence can be significantly affected by swell waves. Change in the atmospheric turbulence affects the wind stress and atmospheric mixing over swell waves. In this study, the influence of swell on atmospheric mixing and wind stress is introduced into an atmosphere......-neutral and unstable stratification conditions is introduced by changing the roughness length. Five year simulation results indicate that adding the swell influence on atmospheric mixing has limited influence, only slightly increasing the near-surface wind speed; in contrast, adding the swell influence on wind stress....... The influence varies with wave characteristics for different sea basins. Swell occurs infrequently in the studied area, and one could expect more influence in high-swell-frequency areas (i.e., low-latitude ocean). We conclude that the influence of swell on atmospheric mixing and wind stress should be considered...

  1. What Causes Ankle Swelling During Pregnancy - And What Can I do About it? (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week What causes ankle swelling during pregnancy — and what can I do ... M.D. Various factors contribute to foot and ankle swelling during pregnancy. For starters, your body retains ...

  2. Characterization of calcium, phosphate and peroxide interactions in activation of mitochondrial swelling using derivative of the swelling curves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drahota, Zdeněk; Endlicher, R.; Staňková, P.; Rychtrmoc, D.; Milerová, Marie; Červinková, Z.


    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2012), s. 309-315 ISSN 0145-479X R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT12370 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP305/09/P145 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondrial swelling * mitochondrial permeability transition pore * Calcium, phosphate and peroxide interactions Subject RIV: FG - Pediatrics Impact factor: 1.604, year: 2012

  3. Bilateral inguinal hernias detected by peritoneal scintigraphy during the evaluation of scrotal swelling in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee [School of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)


    A 47-year-old man with end-stage renal disease due to diabetic nephropathy underwent a peritoneal scintigraphy to evaluate the cause of recently developed scrotal swelling. Two liters of dialystate mixed with 111 MBq of Tc-99m sulfur colloid were adminstered into the peritoneal cavity via the dialysis catheter. Various anterior images of the abdomen and pelvis were obtained at 15 min, 2 hr and 4 hr after the tracer instillation. At 15 min, anterior images of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated linear tracts of activity through both inguinal canals, which were more prominent in the right side (A). Images at 2 hr revealed a passage of the radioactive fluid into the right hemiscrotum. At the same time, there was a considerable accumulation of activity in the right inguinal canal (B). In the delayed image, there was a progressive accumulation of activity in the inguinal canals and a prominent passage of the tracer into the scrotum (C). Both abdominal and inguinal hernias are commonly associated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Overall incidence of CAPD-induced hernia ranges from 2.7% to 25%. Inguinal hernias were frequently manifested as scrotal swelling. Leakages f dialysate fluid into the scrotum has been noted in CAPD patients with scrotal swelling, with or without clincal findings of inguinal hernia. In the present case, the right side had leakage from a clinical inguinal hernia and the left side, leakage, from a subclinial inguinal hernia. A subclinical inguinal hernia was easily demonstrable with peritoneal scintigraphy. Peritoneal scintigraphy is extremely helpful in the evaluation of scrotal swelling in a patient on CAPD.

  4. Hypoosmotic cell swelling as a novel mechanism for modulation of cloned HCN2 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calloe, Kirstine; Elmedyb, Pernille; Olesen, Søren-Peter


    with hypoosmotic media. This indicates that cell swelling and not a change in ionic strength of the media, caused the observed swelling-induced increase in current. The increase in HCN2 current induced by cell swelling could be abolished by cytochalasin D treatment, indicating that an intact F-actin cytoskeleton...

  5. A grain-scale study of unsaturated flow in highly swelling granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweijen, Thomas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369415191


    Unsaturated flow in swelling porous materials are common and important phenomena in industrial products and earth materials; for example, in paper, hygienic products, swelling clays, and foods. Swelling causes porous media to expand and to deform, which results in a change in pore structure and thus

  6. Recent experimental and theoretical insights on the swelling of austenitic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Wolfer, W.G.


    Once void nucleation subsides, the swelling rate of many austenitic alloys becomes rather insensitive to the variables that determine the duration of the transient regime of swelling. Models are presented which describe the roles of nickel, chromium and silicon in void nucleation. The relative insensitivity of steady-state swelling to temperature and composition is also discussed

  7. Recent studies on wind seas and swells in the Indian Ocean: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Rashmi, R.; Samiksha, S.V.; Aboobacker, V.M.

    , decrease in swell period and a common propagation direction (northwest) for wind seas and swells Also the swells generated at 40 degrees S, propagate in the north Indian Ocean, and enter in the Bay of Bengal than the Arabian Sea During fair weather season...

  8. [Anterior guidance in complete dentures]. (United States)

    Dubreuil, J; Trevelo, A


    Although the anterior guidance in complete dentures is not really a guide, the arrangement of the anterior maxillary and mandibular prosthetic teeth, defines a propulsive line called the virtual anterior guidance, a part from the cinematic criterias. The influence of this guide on cuspal movement is superior, in all mandibular points, to the influence of the condylar pathway. If this line is not respected, the practitioner may have to do excessive grindings during occlusal adjustments.

  9. Multidisciplinary management of anterior diastemata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Herkrath, Fernando José; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino


    Anterior diastemata may compromise the harmony of a patient's smile. Consideration of etiologic factors, previous gingival conditioning, and individual treatment planning are essential in the proper management of anterior diastemata. An integrated orthodontic-restorative approach may enhance...... the aesthetic results when orthodontic therapy itself is not feasible. This article presents integrated orthodonticrestorative solutions of anterior diastemata, associated with the conditioning of the gingival tissue with composite resin, and discusses the most relevant aspects related to their etiology...

  10. An improved approximation algorithm for the asymmetric TSP with strengthened triangle inequalityd

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bläser, M.; Manthey, B.; Sgall, Jiří


    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2006), s. 623-632 ISSN 1570-8667 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : traveling salesman problem * strengthened triangle inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. On the Structure of a Triangle-Free Infinite-Chromatic Graph of Gyarfas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Eggan


    Full Text Available Gyárfás has recently constructed an elegant new example of a triangle-free infinite graph G with infinite chromatic number. We analyze its structure by studying the properties of a nested family of subgraphs Gn whose union is G.

  12. Some Nice Relations between Right-Angled Triangles and the Golden Section (United States)

    Scimone, Aldo


    The international debate about experimental approaches to the teaching and learning mathematics is very current. While number theory lends itself naturally to such approaches, elementary geometry can also provide interesting starting points for creative work in class. This article shows how simple considerations about right triangles and the…

  13. Grading and Academic Freedom: An English Academic's Angle on Hill's Contentious Triangle (United States)

    Buglear, John


    Following the dismissal of a Canadian professor over disputed grading practices, Hill produced his triangle model of competing interests of academics, administrators and students. In the UK, academic freedom in relation to grading is increasingly constrained reflecting more assertive institutional management supervising over-burdened academic…

  14. Some peculiarities of chiral breaking for triangles in the Bogoliubov-Parasiuk renormalization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucheryavy, V.I.


    The character of a canonical Ward identities violation in the quantum field theory (QFT) is extremely important for QFT itself and for its applications in physics. Triangle spinor amplitudes are the most popular objects of QFT in such investigations. The result of an application some effective realization of the Bogoliubov-Parasiuk (BP) renormalization scheme to the well-known subject is present

  15. Variation in the Course and Termination of the Cephalic Vein in the Deltopectoral Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogood Atoni Atoni


    Full Text Available The knowledge of cephalic vein variation would aid proper identification and prevent error in surgical emergencies. The path, distribution, and termination of the cephalic vein in relation to the deltopectoral triangle were studied in twenty formalin-embalmed cadavers.

  16. DNA nanotubes assembled from tensegrity triangle tiles with circular DNA scaffolds. (United States)

    Afshan, Noshin; Ali, Mashooq; Wang, Meng; Baig, Mirza Muhammad Faran Ashraf; Xiao, Shou-Jun


    Using small circular DNA molecules of different lengths as scaffolds, we successfully synthesised DNA nanotubes consisting of Mao's DNA tensegrity triangle tiles with four-arm junctions (Holliday junctions) at all vertices. Due to the intrinsic curvature of the triangle tile and the consecutive tile alignment, the 2D arrays are organised in the form of nanotubes. Two sized triangle tiles with equilateral side lengths of 1.5 and 2.5 full helical turns are connected by the sticky ended cohesion of a duplex with a length of 2.5 helical turns respectively, and their parallel lozenge tiling lattices were demonstrated by high resolution AFM images, where the former lozenge unit cell has a lattice constant of 13.6 nm, and the latter has a larger lattice constant of 17.0 nm. Modification of the triangle tile with infinitesimal disturbance on side lengths and insertion of one thymine single stranded loop at every vertex resulted in comparably similar nanotubes.


    The paper discusses various aspects of the EPA's new 1.2 million square foot building in Research Triangle Park that pertain to indoor air, with a particular focus on the process EPA used to select furniture to meet its indoor air guidelines. In keeping with its mission of protec...

  18. On the chromatic number of a space with forbidden equilateral triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonarev, A E; Raigorodskii, A M; Kharlamova, A A; Samirov, D V


    We improve the Frankl-Rödl estimate for the product of the numbers of edges in uniform hypergraphs with forbidden cardinalities of the intersection of edges. By using this estimate, we obtain explicit bounds for the chromatic number of a space with forbidden monochromatic equilateral triangles. Bibliography: 31 titles

  19. Invariant triangle-based stationary oil platform detection from multitemporal synthetic aperture radar data (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Yang, Kang; Tong, Lihua; Liu, Yongxue; Li, Manchun


    An automatic algorithm for stationary oil platform detection from multitemporal synthetic aperture radar data is proposed. The proposed algorithm consists of the following two parts. (1) A two-parameter constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) algorithm is used to extract targets from the Environment Satellite (ENVISAT) advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR), in which the focus is to determine the appropriate parameters of CFAR, thus ensuring as few as possible false-alarm targets when sea-surface targets are effectively extracted. (2) A simple point cluster matching pattern is proposed based on an invariant triangle rule, by which targets extracted from multitemporal ENVISAT ASAR images are automatically matched for detection of stationary targets (e.g., oil platforms). This invariant triangle rule is that any three moving targets have an extremely low probability of maintaining a relative position in multitemporal images, whereas stationary targets can always maintain a fixed relative position. Even under high noise, this invariant triangle rule can be used to realize the target data matching with high robustness. The experiment shows that the false-alarm rate and the missing rate are relatively low when all the targets are detected. The proposed invariant-triangle-based point cluster matching pattern can conduct effective detection and monitoring of stationary oil platforms.

  20. Managing Online Discussion Forums: Building Community by Avoiding the Drama Triangle (United States)

    Gerlock, Jennifer Ann; McBride, Dawn Lorraine


    The authors critically analyze how the concept of the drama triangle--part of the game theory associated with transactional analysis--can be used by post secondary instructors teaching online to build a sense of community and decrease students' dependence on instructors in discussion forums. The article begins with an overview of sense of…

  1. Constructing Geometric Properties of Rectangle, Square, and Triangle in the Third Grade of Indonesian Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilham Rizkianto


    Full Text Available Previous studies have provided that when learning shapes for the first time, young children tend to use the prototype as the reference point for comparisons, but often fail when doing so since they do not yet think about the defining attributes or the geometric properties of the shapes. Most of the time, elementary students learn geometric properties of shapes only as empty verbal statements to be memorized, without any chance to experience the contepts meaningfully. In the light of it, a sequence of instructional activities along with computer manipulative was designed to support Indonesian third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle. The aim of the present study is to develop a loval instructional theory to support third graders in constructing geometric properties of rectangle, square, and triangle. Thirty seven students of one third grade classes in SD Pupuk Sriwijaya Palembang, along with their class teacher, were involved in the study. Our findings suggest that the combination of computer and non-computer activities suppots third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle in that it provides opportunities to the students to experience and to develop the concepts meaningfully while using their real experiences as the bases to attain a higher geometric thinking level.Key concepts: Geometric properties, rectangle, square, triangle, design research, realistic mathematics education DOI:

  2. From apathy to oblivion? The shameful history of heritage resource management in the Vaal Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Prins


    archaeological reserves, have been completely obliterated. Redan has become progressively neglected and abandoned. This paper examines the impasse presently surrounding Redan, and the failure of the relevant bodies, to conserve and sustain the non-renewable prehistoric culture remains of the Vaal Triangle.

  3. 75 FR 61788 - Triangle Capital Corporation, et al.; Notice of Application (United States)


    ... investments and capital appreciation from equity related investments. Triangle has an eight member board of... exceptions, sales or purchases of any security or other property between BDCs and certain of their affiliates... Subsidiary with respect to the purchase or sale of securities or other property. Applicants also seek an...

  4. From Commodity Production to Sign Production: A Triple Triangle Model for Marx's Semiotics and Peirce's Economics. (United States)

    Kim, Joohoan

    Using the viewpoint of semiotics, this paper "re-reads" Karl Marx's labor theory of value and suggests a "triple triangle" model for commodity production and shows how this model could be a model for semiosis in general. The paper argues that there are three advantages to considering homogeneity of the sign production and the…

  5. A BPTTF-based self-assembled electron-donating triangle capable of C60 binding. (United States)

    Goeb, Sébastien; Bivaud, Sébastien; Dron, Paul Ionut; Balandier, Jean-Yves; Chas, Marcos; Sallé, Marc


    A kinetically stable self-assembled redox-active triangle is isolated. The resulting electron-donating cavity, which incorporates three BPTTF units, exhibits a remarkable binding ability for electron-deficient C(60), supported by a favorable combination of structural and electronic features.

  6. The India-Pakistan-China strategic triangle and the role of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellaney, B


    This paper presents the Asian landscape with its regional balances and imbalances and its changes after September 11 and subsequent events. The nuclear posture and the role of nuclear weapons inside the China-India-Pakistan triangle is analyzed with respect to the US non-proliferation policy and its expanding military presence over the Asian continent. (J.S.)

  7. Evaluation of the mastoid triangle for determining sexual dimorphism: A Saudi population based study. (United States)

    Madadin, Mohammed; Menezes, Ritesh G; Al Dhafeeri, Obaid; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Al Ibrahim, Rana; Nagesh, K R; Ramadan, Selma Uysal


    Demographic assessment of skeletal remains in forensic investigations includes identification of sex. The present study aimed to develop population-specific, sex-discriminating anthropometric standards for the mastoid triangle of a documented Saudi population using computed tomographic (CT) images of the lateral aspect of the skull. The present study was performed on 206 CT images of a documented Saudi population of known sex and age. The clinical CT images of subjects visiting the Department of Radiology, Dammam Medical Complex, Dammam, Saudi Arabia (KSA) were evaluated to know the validity of the metric assessment of the mastoid triangle for identification of sex in a Saudi population. The distance between asterion to porion (AP), asterion to mastoidale (AM), porion to mastoidale (PM) were measured and the area of the mastoid triangle (AMT) was calculated using these measurements. Discriminant function procedure was used to analyze the data for sexual dimorphism. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that all the 3 sides of the mastoid triangle and AMT were sexually dimorphic in the sampled Saudi population with PM being the best individual parameter in discriminating sex with an accuracy of 69.4%. Whereas, all the parameters combined showed the highest accuracy (71.4%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The India-Pakistan-China strategic triangle and the role of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellaney, B.


    This paper presents the Asian landscape with its regional balances and imbalances and its changes after September 11 and subsequent events. The nuclear posture and the role of nuclear weapons inside the China-India-Pakistan triangle is analyzed with respect to the US non-proliferation policy and its expanding military presence over the Asian continent. (J.S.)

  9. Tributes beyond Words: Art Educators' Use of Textiles to Memorialize the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire (United States)

    Mercurio, Mia Lynn; Randall, Régine


    Through the study of The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, pre-service art teachers learn the about interdisciplinary design and the importance of using discipline-specific literacy strategies alongside the materials and methods of their craft. The creativity and enthusiasm with which these preservice teachers approached the work convinced us that…

  10. Surrounding the consequences of watershed disasters in the periphery of the Indian triangle (United States)

    Rohan Ekanayake


    The watershed of the 'Indian Triangle' is formed by the flow of two mighty rivers which emanate from the Himalaya. The Ganges and teh Brahmaputra embrace the lands and the peoples of Nepal*, India* and Bangladesh* before emptying in the Bay of Bengal. A recent monsoon submerged two thirds of the low-lying Bangladesh rendering 23 million people homeless. can...

  11. 76 FR 17327 - 100th Anniversary of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire (United States)


    ... since the Triangle factory fire, we are still fighting to provide adequate working conditions for all... the flames--giving the factory workers there little time to escape. When the panicked workers tried to... collective bargaining as a tool to give workers a seat at the tables of power. Working Americans are the...

  12. Color Degree Sum Conditions for Rainbow Triangles in Edge-Colored Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Ruonan; Ning, Bo; Zhang, Shenggui

    Let G be an edge-colored graph and v a vertex of G. The color degree of v is the number of colors appearing on the edges incident to v. A rainbow triangle in G is one in which all edges have distinct colors. In this paper, we first prove that an edge-colored graph on n vertices contains a rainbow

  13. Decomposing series-parallel graphs into paths of length 3 and triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merker, Martin


    An old conjecture by Jünger, Reinelt and Pulleyblank states that every 2-edge-connected planar graph can be decomposed into paths of length 3 and triangles, provided its size is divisible by 3. We prove the conjecture for a class of planar graphs including all 2-edge-connected series-parallel...

  14. Subtemporal-anterior transtentoral approach to middle cranial fossa microsurgical anatomy. (United States)

    Xu, Zhiming; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jingjing; Liu, Wei; Feng, Yugong; Li, Gang


    This study aimed to describe the topography of inferior and external dura mater of the middle cranial fossa through subtemporal-anterior transpetrosal approach and discuss the feasibility of improving the approach. Eight formalin-fixed adult cadaveric heads were studied, with the bones milled away in the lateral triangle region of the petrous bone, Kawase rhombus region, and inner triangle region of the petrous apex. The distances between the targets in these regions, as well as the angles after the dissection of zygomatic arch, were measured, and then the exposed petroclival and retrochiasmatic areas were observed under the microscope. There were significant variations in the distances between targets in the 3 milled regions among the specimens. After the dissection of zygomatic arch, the surgical view got an average increase of 12 degrees. The subtemporal anterior transpetrosal approach, as an improved subtemporal approach, can expose the lesions optimally, causing no injury to the hearing and reducing injuries to temporal lobe. On the other hand, the lateral bone of the petrous parts of the temporal bone is removed so as to improve the view to the retrochiasmatic area and expand the operative field.

  15. Bioengineered anterior cruciate ligament (United States)

    Altman, Gregory (Inventor); Kaplan, David (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor); Martin, Ivan (Inventor)


    The present invention provides a method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament ex vivo. The method comprises seeding pluripotent stem cells in a three dimensional matrix, anchoring the seeded matrix by attachment to two anchors, and culturing the cells within the matrix under conditions appropriate for cell growth and regeneration, while subjecting the matrix to one or more mechanical forces via movement of one or both of the attached anchors. Bone marrow stromal cells are preferably used as the pluripotent cells in the method. Suitable matrix materials are materials to which cells can adhere, such as a gel made from collagen type I. Suitable anchor materials are materials to which the matrix can attach, such as Goinopra coral and also demineralized bone. Optimally, the mechanical forces to which the matrix is subjected mimic mechanical stimuli experienced by an anterior cruciate ligament in vivo. This is accomplished by delivering the appropriate combination of tension, compression, torsion, and shear, to the matrix. The bioengineered ligament which is produced by this method is characterized by a cellular orientation and/or matrix crimp pattern in the direction of the applied mechanical forces, and also by the production of collagen type I, collagen type III, and fibronectin proteins along the axis of mechanical load produced by the mechanical forces. Optimally, the ligament produced has fiber bundles which are arranged into a helical organization. The method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament can be adapted to produce a wide range of tissue types ex vivo by adapting the anchor size and attachment sites to reflect the size of the specific type of tissue to be produced, and also adapting the specific combination of forces applied, to mimic the mechanical stimuli experienced in vivo by the specific type of tissue to be produced. The methods of the present invention can be further modified to incorporate other stimuli experienced in vivo by the

  16. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space. (United States)

    Szekely, Pablo; Korem, Yael; Moran, Uri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri


    When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.

  17. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space (United States)

    Szekely, Pablo; Korem, Yael; Moran, Uri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri


    When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes—phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass. PMID:26465336

  18. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Szekely


    Full Text Available When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.

  19. Controlling morphology in swelling-induced wrinkled surfaces (United States)

    Breid, Derek Ronald

    Wrinkles represent a pathway towards the spontaneous generation of ordered surface microstructure for applications in numerous fields. Examples of highly complex ordered wrinkle structures abound in Nature, but the ability to harness this potential for advanced material applications remains limited. This work focuses on understanding the relationship between the patterns on a wrinkled surface and the experimental conditions under which they form. Because wrinkles form in response to applied stresses, particular attention is given to the nature of the stresses in a wrinkling surface. The fundamental insight gained was then utilized to account for observed wrinkle formation phenomena within more complex geometric and kinetic settings. In order to carefully control and measure the applied stresses on a wrinkling film, a swelling-based system was developed using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), surface-oxidized with a UV-ozone treatment. The swelling of the oxidized surface upon exposure to an ethanol vapor atmosphere was characterized using beam-bending experiments, allowing quantitative measurements of the applied stress. The wrinkle morphologies were characterized as a function of the overstress, defined as the ratio of the applied swelling stress to the critical buckling stress of the material. A transition in the dominant morphology of the wrinkled surfaces from dimple patterns to ridge patterns was observed at an overstress value of ˜2. The pattern dependence of wrinkles on the ratio of the principal stresses was examined by fabricating samples with a gradient prestress. When swollen, these samples exhibited a smooth morphological transition from non-equibiaxial to equibiaxial patterns, with prestrains as low as 2.5% exhibiting non-equibiaxial characteristics. This transition was seen both in samples with low and high overstresses. To explore the impact of these stress states in more complex geometries, wrinkling hemispherical surfaces with radii of curvature

  20. Simulation of high fluence swelling behavior in technological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Powell, R.W.; Diamond, S.; Lauritzen, T.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Sprague, J.A.; Keefer, D.


    The U.S. Breeder Reactor Program is employing charged particle irradiation experiments at accelerated displacement rates to simulate neutron-induced microstructural changes in materials of technological interest. Applications of the simulation technique range from the study of fundamental microstructural mechanisms to the development of predictions of the high fluence swelling behavior of candidate alloys for breeder reactor ducts and fuel cladding. An exact equivalence probably cannot be established between all facets of the microstructural evolution which occurs in the disparate charged-particle and neutron environments. To aid in the correlation of data developed in the two environments an assessment has been made of the factors influencing the simulation process. A series of intercorrelation programs and analysis activities have been conducted to identify and explore the relevant phenomena. The factors found to exert substantial influence on the correlation process fall into two categories, one which deals with those variables which are atypical of the neutron environment and one which deals with the additional factors which arise due to the large differences in displacement rate of the two irradiation environments. While the various simulation techniques have been invaluable in determining the basic mechanisms and parametric dependencies of swelling, the potential of these tools in the confident prediction of swelling at high neutron fluence has yet to be realized. The basic problem lies in the inability of the simulation technique to reproduce the early microstructural development in the period that precedes and encompasses the incubation of voids. The concepts of temperature shift and dose equivalency have also been found to be more complicated than previously imagined. Preconditioning of metals in a neutron environment prior to simulation testing is now being employed in order to provide more appropriate starting microstructures

  1. A case report on desmoplastic ameloblastoma of anterior mandible. (United States)

    Sharma Lamichhane, Narayan; Liu, Qilin; Sun, Hongchen; Zhang, Wei


    Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA) is a rare variant that accounts for approximately 4-13% of ameloblastoma, displaying significant differences in anatomical site, imaging, and histologic appearance. It has been included in WHO classification of head and neck tumor (WHO-2005) as a variant of ameloblastoma. The tumor resembles benign fibro-osseous lesion for being frequently occurring in the anterior region of jaws as a mixed radiopaque-radiolucent lesion. We present a case of DA in a 43-year-old female with a painless swelling in the anterior region of mandible. No fluid was evident on fine needle aspiration. A mixed lesion with multilocular appearance was evident on both panoramic radiographs as well as computed tomography scan. An incisional biopsy confirmed it to be a case of desmoplastic ameloblastoma. Segmental mandibulectomy was performed from teeth 35 to 44. The patient is on routine follow-up and is currently free of ailment. The present case deserves emphasis because of its unfamiliar appearance, potentially aggressive nature and deceptive radiologic appearance maximizing the chances of misdiagnosis. So, the clinician should be alert enough to include desmoplastic ameloblastoma in differential diagnosis of any lesion/growth with mixed radiolucent-radiopaque appearance having ill-defined borders and occurring in anterior maxilla or mandible.

  2. Mitigation of Voltage Swells by Static Series Compensator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Hilmy; Blaabjerg, Frede


    is lower than a predetermined voltage level, the active power is employed to charge the ESC to this voltage level; 2) otherwise, the overvoltage protection of the SSC must operate. This paper also applies an overvoltage protection scheme based on a combination of a dc resistor with a chopper and the valves...... of the SSC. The design of the dc resistor is discussed. A 10 kV SSC experimental setup is exploited to carry out experiments in the case of balanced and unbalanced voltage swells at the grid side....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Scrotal swelling can present from early childhood to old age with the varying causes presenting widely across the age spectrum. The presentation can range from incidental finding to severe illness. A careful history and physical exam can distinguish from benign pathology like hydrocele to potentially morbid conditions like Fournier’s gangrene to life-threatening conditions like testicular cancer. In certain emergency conditions like torsion of testis, timely identification and early intervention can save testis. We present our experience in managing a wide range of scrotal pathologies at our institute.

  4. Effect of fusion burn cycle on first wall swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.H.; Bement, A.L.; Russell, K.C.


    A mathematical simulation of first wall swelling has been performed for stainless steel under a hypothetical duty cycle of 50 sec burn, 50 sec cool. In most instances steady state nucleation conditions were not established during the burn cycle, thereby necessitating the use of transient nucleation theory. The effects of transmutation helium and of surface active impurities were modelled in an approximate way. Both kinds of impurity were found to give large increases in the void nucleation rate. Suggestions for refining and extending the calculations are also given

  5. Magnetic relaxation--coal swelling, extraction, pore size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doetschman, D.C.


    The grant activities during this period fall into four categories: (1) Completion of preparatory work, (2) Procedure refinement and actual preparation of whole coal, coal residue, coal extract and swelled coal samples for NMR studies, (3) Related studies of coal photolysis that employ materials from preliminary extractions and that examine the u.v.-visible and mass spectra of the extracts and (4) Continued investigations of the pulsed EPR characteristics of the whole coal samples that were prepared in the first quarter of the grant.

  6. Phenomenological theory of sintering and its application to swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornyushin Y.


    Full Text Available The general phenomenological theory of sintering, formulated by the author in 1998 is applied to the problem of swelling. Driving forces, caused by the presence of the evolution of heat in the volume of a sample (electric contact, hf, inductive heating or penetrating radiation, e.g., neutrons could be the sources of the heat in the bulk of a sample are considered. The influence of these driving forces on sintering, structure and properties is discussed. The role of mobile and immobile dislocations, grain boundaries, and pores is considered. Cycling and pulsing regimes of sintering are investigated.

  7. Kimura's Disease: A Rare Cause of Postauricular Swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Kumar Das


    Full Text Available Introduction Kimura’s Disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of lymph node which is very rare in Indian population. Case Report A 15 year old boy with multiple postauricular swelling for 18 months presenting in OPD and diagnosed having eosinophilia. Then excision biopsy was taken, which indicates Kimura’s Disease. Patient was treated with high dose of corticosteroid. Conclusion Kimura’s disease, though rare should be kept in mind for treating a patient with lymphadenopathy with eosinophilia or high IgE level, because it can spare the patient unnecessary invasive procedure.

  8. Effect of vacancy loops on swelling of metals under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubov, S.I.


    Subsequent analysis of vacancy loops formation in metals under irradiation is carried out and effect of vacancy loops on vacancy porosity is studied. Expression for quasistationary function of vacancy loops distribution according to sizes taking into consideration two mechanisms of their initiation-cascade and fluctuational ones - is obtained. It is shown that rate of vacancy absorption and interstitials by vacancy loops in quasiequilibrium state is similar and depends only on summary length of loops, for its calculations the self-coordinated procedure is formulated. For the rate of metal swelling under irradiation obtained is the expression taking into consideration the presence of vacancy loops [ru

  9. Genital tuberculosis: A rare cause of vulvovaginal discharge and swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Alhakeem


    Full Text Available Herein, we report a patient with vulvovaginal tuberculosis (TB presented with a vulvovaginal mass and vaginal discharge.The diagnosis was made by both histopathological examination of the excised specimen which was clinicallysuspected to be a malignant lesion and cervical smear culture positivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The patientwas prescribed a full course of anti-tuberculous drugs. In this report, we discuss the genital TB and its gynecologicaleffects in the light of medical literature. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(3: 140-142Key words: Genital tuberculosis, vulvovaginal swelling

  10. A Universal Ts-VI Triangle Method for the Continuous Retrieval of Evaporative Fraction From MODIS Products (United States)

    Zhu, Wenbin; Jia, Shaofeng; Lv, Aifeng


    The triangle method based on the spatial relationship between remotely sensed land surface temperature (Ts) and vegetation index (VI) has been widely used for the estimates of evaporative fraction (EF). In the present study, a universal triangle method was proposed by transforming the Ts-VI feature space from a regional scale to a pixel scale. The retrieval of EF is only related to the boundary conditions at pixel scale, regardless of the Ts-VI configuration over the spatial domain. The boundary conditions of each pixel are composed of the theoretical dry edge determined by the surface energy balance principle and the wet edge determined by the average air temperature of open water. The universal triangle method was validated using the EF observations collected by the Energy Balance Bowen Ratio systems in the Southern Great Plains of the United States of America (USA). Two parameterization schemes of EF were used to demonstrate their applicability with Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products over the whole year 2004. The results of this study show that the accuracy produced by both of these two parameterization schemes is comparable to that produced by the traditional triangle method, although the universal triangle method seems specifically suited to the parameterization scheme proposed in our previous research. The independence of the universal triangle method from the Ts-VI feature space makes it possible to conduct a continuous monitoring of evapotranspiration and soil moisture. That is just the ability the traditional triangle method does not possess.

  11. Influence of applied stress on swelling behavior in Type 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igata, N.; Fujihira, T.; Kohno, Y.; Tsunakawa, M.


    The swelling behavior of Type 304 stainless steel during stress application was investigated by means of electron irradiation using a high-voltage electron microscope (HVEM). The dose dependence of swelling under stress is similar to the linearafter-incubation swelling scheme of other electron irradiation studies. The effect of applied stress on the swelling characteristics appeared through the control of incubation regime of swelling rather than of the swelling rate. The incubation dose first increases, then decreases, and increases again with increasing applied stress. The prominent finding in this study, based on the advantage of HVEM in situ observation, is that the saturated void density is equal to the number density of interstitial dislocation loops observed in the early stage of irradiation. Essentially, applied stress affects the loop nucleation process. The dislocation loop density then affects the incubation dose of swelling through its control of dislocation behavior and the saturation dose of dislocation density

  12. Development of simulation technique and examination of mechanism for swelling of steam generator tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Jin; Kim, Ki Nam; Park, Myung Chul; Shin, Gyeong Su; Cho, Jae Hwan


    This study was aimed at identifying the mechanism of the swelling through the development of simulation techniques for the swelling of steam generator tubes and correct understanding of swelling so as to evaluate the effect of swelling on soundness of steam generator based on results of the study. Test apparatus designed to simulate the tube swelling was fabricated and through a number of preliminary experiments at different conditions, swelling simulation was successfully completed. A tube swelling phenomenon is caused by a sort of ratcheting which is analyzable and is considered as a sort of fatigue phenomenon in which the stress is accumulated by action/reaction moment resulting from repeated impact of low energy, despite of hoop stress by internal pressure is significantly lower than yield strength of the material which has effect on hoop stress, overcoming the yield strength and causing the tubes to suffer plastic deformation

  13. Site-Specific Pre-Swelling-Directed Morphing Structures of Patterned Hydrogels. (United States)

    Wang, Zhi Jian; Hong, Wei; Wu, Zi Liang; Zheng, Qiang


    Morphing materials have promising applications in various fields, yet how to program the self-shaping process for specific configurations remains a challenge. Herein we show a versatile approach to control the buckling of individual domains and thus the outcome configurations of planar-patterned hydrogels. By photolithography, high-swelling disc gels were positioned in a non-swelling gel sheet; the swelling mismatch resulted in out-of-plain buckling of the disc gels. To locally control the buckling direction, masks with holes were used to guide site-specific swelling of the high-swelling gel under the holes, which built a transient through-thickness gradient and thus directed the buckling during the subsequent unmasked swelling process. Therefore, various configurations of an identical patterned hydrogel can be programmed by the pre-swelling step with different masks to encode the buckling directions of separate domains. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Development and validation of constitutive equation of HBS irradiation swelling considering hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Lijun; Jiang Shengyao; Yu Jiyang; Chen Bingde; Xiao Zhong


    The mechanism of hydrostatic pressure affecting the irradiation swelling of UO 2 high burnup structure was analyzed. Three basic assumptions used to develop the constitutive equation of irradiation swelling were made accordingly. It is concluded that hydrostatic pressure imposes an important impact on irradiation swelling mainly through compressing the UO 2 high burnup structure pores. Based on the already developed correlation of the irradiation swelling of UO 2 high burnup structure, pore shrinkage due to the application of hydrostatic pressure and thus the reduction of irradiation swelling of UO 2 high burnup structure were determined quantitatively, and the constitutive equation of irradiation swelling of UO 2 high burnup structure considering the hydrostatic pressure was constructed successfully. The constitutive equation is validated using available irradiation swelling data of UO 2 high burnup structure, which demonstrates its reasonability. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of the swelling behaviour of iota-carrageenan in monolithic matrix tablets. (United States)

    Kelemen, András; Buchholcz, Gyula; Sovány, Tamás; Pintye-Hódi, Klára


    The swelling properties of monolithic matrix tablets containing iota-carrageenan were studied at different pH values, with measurements of the swelling force and characterization of the profile of the swelling curve. The swelling force meter was linked to a PC by an RS232 cable and the measured data were evaluated with self-developed software. The monitor displayed the swelling force vs. time curve with the important parameters, which could be fitted with an Analysis menu. In the case of iota-carrageenan matrix tablets, it was concluded that the pH and the pressure did not influence the swelling process, and the first section of the swelling curve could be fitted by the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of pressure on the transient swelling rate of oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, E.E.


    An analysis of the transient swelling rate of oxide fuel, based on fission-gas bubble conditions calculated with the FRAS3 code, has been developed and implemented in the code. The need for this capability arises in the coupling of the FRAS3 fission-gas analysis code to the FPIN fuel-pin mechanics code. An efficient means of closely coupling the calculations of swelling strains and stresses between the modules is required. The present analysis provides parameters that allow the FPIN calculation to proceed through a fairly large time step, using estimated swelling rates, to calculate the stresses. These stress values can then be applied in the FRAS3 detailed calculation to refine the swelling calculation, and to provide new values for the parameters to estimate the swelling in the next time step. The swelling rates were calculated for two representative transients and used to estimate swelling over a short time period for various stress levels

  17. Swelling pressures of a potential buffer material for high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Owan; Cho, Won Jin; Chun, Kwan Sik


    The swelling pressure of a potential buffer material was measured and the effect of dry density, bentonite content and initial water content on the swelling pressure was investigated to provide the information for the selection of buffer material in a high-level waste repository. Swelling tests were carried out according to Box-Behnken's experimental design. Measured swelling pressures were in the wide range of 0.7 Kg/cm 2 to 190.2 Kg/cm 2 under given experimental conditions. Based upon the experimental data, a 3-factor polynomial swelling model was suggested to analyze the effect of dry density, bentonite content and initial water content on the swelling pressure. The swelling pressure increased with an increase in the dry density and bentonite content, while it decreased with increasing the initial water content and, beyond about 12 wt.% of the initial water content, levelled to nearly constant value. (author). 21 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Inestabilidad Anterior de Hombro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo David Flint Kuran


    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ción La luxación recidivante de hombro es una patología frecuente en pacientes jóvenes, laboralmente activos. Existen numerosas técnicas quirúrgicas para la inestabilidad glenohumeral. La técnica de Bristow, discutida por no ser anatómica y por sus complicaciones, continúa vigente debido al bajo índice de reluxaciones. Los objetivos fueron determinar el índice de recidiva, alteraciones funcionales e índice de consolidación del injerto. Materiales­ y­ Métodos Se evaluaron 24 pacientes del sexo masculino, de entre 19 y 40 años, operados por luxación anterior recidivante de hombro según la técnica de Bristow, entre enero de 2003 y agosto de 2011. Se evaluó la tasa de reluxación, la función articular según el puntaje de Constant y el posicionamiento del injerto con respecto a la superficie articular con tomografía y radiografías para evaluar la consolidación del injerto. Se registraron las complicaciones quirúrgicas. Resultados ­Todos los pacientes eran hombres, con rango de edad de 19 a 40 años. La causa fue traumática en 24 pacientes. Dieciséis pacientes presentaron más de 3 episodios de luxación prequirúrgicos. Según la escala de Constant, 21 obtuvieron entre 96 y 100 puntos, y los restantes, entre 90 y 95 puntos. No hubo nuevos episodios de luxaciones. La tomografía mostró la consolidación en todos los casos. Un paciente tuvo una imagen osteolítica alrededor del tornillo, sin compromiso funcional del hombro. Conclusión La técnica de Bristow para tratar la luxación anterior recidivante de hombro provocó un bajo índice de complicaciones, con resultados funcionales entre excelentes y buenos. No hubo episodios de reluxación y se logró la consolidación del injerto óseo en todos los casos.

  19. Shrinkage/swelling of compacted clayey loose and dense soils (United States)

    Nowamooz, Hossein; Masrouri, Farimah


    This Note presents an experimental study performed on expansive compacted loose and dense samples using osmotic oedometers. Several successive wetting and drying cycles were applied in a suction range between 0 and 8 MPa under different values of constant net vertical stress (15, 30, and 60 kPa). During the suction cycles, the dense samples showed cumulative swelling strains, while the loose samples showed volumetric shrinkage accumulation. At the end of the suction cycles, the volumetric strains converged to an equilibrium stage that indicated elastic behavior of the swelling soil for any further hydraulic variations. At this stage, the compression curves for the studied soil at the different imposed suctions (0, 2, and 8 MPa) converged towards the saturated state curve for the high applied vertical stresses. We defined this pressure as the saturation stress(P). The compression curves provided sufficient data to examine the soil mechanical behavior at the equilibrium stage. To cite this article: H. Nowamooz, F. Masrouri, C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  20. Hereditary Angioedema Attacks: Local Swelling at Multiple Sites. (United States)

    Hofman, Zonne L M; Relan, Anurag; Hack, C Erik


    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) patients experience recurrent local swelling in various parts of the body including painful swelling of the intestine and life-threatening laryngeal oedema. Most HAE literature is about attacks located in one anatomical site, though it is mentioned that HAE attacks may also involve multiple anatomical sites simultaneously. A detailed description of such multi-location attacks is currently lacking. This study investigated the occurrence, severity and clinical course of HAE attacks with multiple anatomical locations. HAE patients included in a clinical database of recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH) studies were evaluated. Visual analog scale scores filled out by the patients for various symptoms at various locations and investigator symptoms scores during the attack were analysed. Data of 219 eligible attacks in 119 patients was analysed. Thirty-three patients (28%) had symptoms at multiple locations in anatomically unrelated regions at the same time during their first attack. Up to five simultaneously affected locations were reported. The observation that severe HAE attacks often affect multiple sites in the body suggests that HAE symptoms result from a systemic rather than from a local process as is currently believed.

  1. He+ and H+ microbeam damage, swelling and annealing in diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, S.P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Prawer, S.


    The effects of scanned 2 MeV He + and 1.4 MeV H + microbeam irradiation on unimplanted and P implanted diamond are discussed. Although diamond was found to be resistant to lattice defect production, it was found to swell very rapidly in comparison with other materials, giving rise to serious swelling induced dechanneling at scan edges at relatively low doses (10 17 /cm 2 for 2 MeV He + ). Microbeams annealed the damage due to a 1.5 μm deep Phosphorus implantation at a dose of 10 15 P + /cm 2 . The implantation damage was reduced at a dose of (1.6 x 10 17 /cm 2 ) by up to 21 % for 2 MeV He + irradiation, up to 16% for high flux 1.4 MeV H + irradiation and 12% for low flux H + irradiation. For the choice of analysis beam, all these beam effects were found to be most significant for He + microbeams, so H + microbeams should be used for analysis of diamond unless high depth resolution is required. 13 refs., 10 figs

  2. Textureless Macula Swelling Detection with Multiple Retinal Fundus Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Grisan, Enrico [University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Favaro, Paolo [Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh; Ruggeri, Alfredo [University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)


    Retinal fundus images acquired with non-mydriatic digital fundus cameras are a versatile tool for the diagnosis of various retinal diseases. Because of the ease of use of newer camera models and their relatively low cost, these cameras can be employed by operators with limited training for telemedicine or Point-of-Care applications. We propose a novel technique that uses uncalibrated multiple-view fundus images to analyse the swelling of the macula. This innovation enables the detection and quantitative measurement of swollen areas by remote ophthalmologists. This capability is not available with a single image and prone to error with stereo fundus cameras. We also present automatic algorithms to measure features from the reconstructed image which are useful in Point-of-Care automated diagnosis of early macular edema, e.g., before the appearance of exudation. The technique presented is divided into three parts: first, a preprocessing technique simultaneously enhances the dark microstructures of the macula and equalises the image; second, all available views are registered using non-morphological sparse features; finally, a dense pyramidal optical flow is calculated for all the images and statistically combined to build a naiveheight- map of the macula. Results are presented on three sets of synthetic images and two sets of real world images. These preliminary tests show the ability to infer a minimum swelling of 300 microns and to correlate the reconstruction with the swollen location.

  3. Unusual presentation of ulcerative postauricular swelling as sebaceous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Chand


    Full Text Available Sebaceous glands have high concentration over head and neck region. Despite high concentration, sebaceous cell adenoma and carcinomas are infrequent. Sebaceous cell carcinoma is an uncommon, cutaneous aggressive tumor arising from the sebaceous glands and seen almost exclusively on the eyelids (75%. It accounts for just 0.2-0.7% of all eyelid tumors in the USA and very few cases that have originated in areas other than the eyelids have been reported. A 67-year-old male presented with swelling (3 cm Χ 4 cm, on the right postauricular region, since about 1-month. The swelling became ulcerative and associated with progressive tinnitus and hoarseness of voice. The patient was investigated. Fine-needle aspiration cytology suggested sebaceous cell carcinoma. Then excision biopsy was done, and histopathological examination of excised tissue confirmed the diagnosis. Extraorbital sebaceous cell carcinoma is an aggressive and invasive malignancy. It clinically mimics other diseases and is difficult to diagnose. Hence, an accurate and prompt diagnosis is crucial because of its fulminant course, serious associations with Muir-Torre syndrome and high potential for regional and distant metastasis.

  4. Mechanical Blepharoptosis and Eyelid Swelling Caused by Silicone Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabit A. Mustafa


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to report a case of upper eyelid mechanical ptosis caused by silicone oil migration in a Jordanian patient after pars plana vitrectomy and intraocular silicone oil injection. A 20-year-old male patient was referred to the oculoplastic clinic for the management of a left upper eyelid swelling and complete ptosis that developed 12 years after pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil placement for retinal detachment secondary to perforating eye injury. Eye examination showed upper eyelid swelling and a complete ptosis induced by the weight of inflammatory tissue and silicone oil, as proved by histopathologic examination. We presumed that silicone oil had leaked through the pars plana vitrectomy ports or through a subtle traumatic perforation of the posterior segment, which might have been aggravated by increased intra-ocular pressure postoperatively. In conclusion, mechanical ptosis caused by silicone oil migration after retinal detachment surgery is rare and this is one of the few reports in the literature.

  5. Swelling and tensile properties of neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.


    Vanadium-base alloys are candidates for use as structural material in magnetic fusion reactors. In comparison to other candidate structural materials (e.g., Type 316 stainless and HT-9 ferritic steels), vanadium-base alloys such as V-15Cr-5Ti and V-20Ti have intrinsically lower long-term neutron activation, neutron irradiation after-heat, biological hazard potential, and neutron-induced helium and hydrogen transmutation rates. Moreover, vanadium-base alloys can withstand a higher surface-heat, flux than steels because of their lower thermal stress factor. In addition to having these favorable neutronic and physical properties, a candidate alloy for use as structural material in a fusion reactor must have dimensional stability, i.e., swelling resistance, and resistance to embrittlement during the reactor lifetime at a level of structural strength commensurate with the reactor operating temperature and structural loads. In this paper, we present experimental results on the swelling and tensile properties of several vanadium-base alloys after irradiation at 420, 520, and 600 degree C to neutron fluences ranging from 0.3 to 1.9 x 10 27 neutrons/m 2 (17 to 114 atom displacements per atom [dpa])

  6. Pore-scale Modelling of Capillarity in Swelling Granular Materials (United States)

    Hassanizadeh, S. M.; Sweijen, T.; Nikooee, E.; Chareyre, B.


    Capillarity in granular porous media is a common and important phenomenon in earth materials and industrial products, and therefore has been studied extensively. To model capillarity in granular porous media, one needs to go beyond current models which simulate either two-phase flow in porous media or mechanical behaviour in granular media. Current pore-scale models for two-phase flow such as pore-network models are tailored for rigid pore-skeletons, even though in many applications, namely hydro-mechanical coupling in soils, printing, and hygienic products, the porous structure does change during two-phase flow. On the other hand, models such as Discrete Element Method (DEM), which simulate the deformable porous media, have mostly been employed for dry or saturated granular media. Here, the effects of porosity change and swelling on the retention properties was studied, for swelling granular materials. A pore-unit model that was capable to construct the capillary pressure - saturation curve was coupled to DEM. Such that the capillary pressure - saturation curve could be constructed for varying porosities and amounts of absorbed water. The study material was super absorbent polymer particles, which are capable to absorb water 10's to 200 times their initial weight. We have simulated quasi-static primary imbibition for different porosities and amounts of absorbed water. The results reveal a 3 dimensional surface between capillary pressure, saturation, and porosity, which can be normalized by means of the entry pressure and the effective water saturation to a unique curve.

  7. Rock swelling during shaft construction caused by low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demich, L.M.; Kozel, A.M.; Kostyrkin, A.A.; Koldobskii, Yu.A.


    This paper Discusses effects of rock swelling during shaft sinking using rock freezing. A coal mine shaft is sunk up to a depth of 314.8m. The average temperature of sedimentary rocks amounts to 30.5 C. A zone 17.5m in diameter is frozen by 63 freezing pipes. Temperature of freezing mixture amounts to minus 30 C. Location of boreholes and control boreholes as well as fluctuating dimensions of frozen zone are shown in 2 schemes. Rock swelling caused by expansion of water in pores and fissures up to a depth of 135 m is analyzed. Liner deformations reach 30 mm. The most intensive deformations occur in aleurolite zone, with moisture content up to 22.4%. The maximum load which acts on liners amounts to 2,773 kPa. Deformed liners are reinforced by roof bolting and wire net. Negative effects of deformation of monolithic concrete are stressed. It is suggested that when using rock freezing in shaft sinking in porous rock bearing strata rock expansion caused by low temperature should be considered in calculations. Using yielding materials in zones exposed to the highest deformations is recommended. (3 refs.) (In Russian)

  8. Anterior ankle arthrodesis (United States)

    Slater, Gordon L; Sayres, Stephanie C; O’Malley, Martin J


    Ankle arthrodesis is a common procedure that resolves many conditions of the foot and ankle; however, complications following this procedure are often reported and vary depending on the fixation technique. Various techniques have been described in the attempt to achieve ankle arthrodesis and there is much debate as to the efficiency of each one. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of anterior plating in ankle arthrodesis using customised and Synthes TomoFix plates. We present the outcomes of 28 ankle arthrodeses between 2005 and 2012, specifically examining rate of union, patient-reported outcomes scores, and complications. All 28 patients achieved radiographic union at an average of 36 wk; the majority of patients (92.86%) at or before 16 wk, the exceptions being two patients with Charcot joints who were noted to have bony union at a three year review. Patient-reported outcomes scores significantly increased (P plate offers added compression and provides a rigid fixation for arthrodesis stabilization. PMID:24649408

  9. An Interactive Control Algorithm Used for Equilateral Triangle Formation with Robotic Sensors (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Hongcai


    This paper describes an interactive control algorithm, called Triangle Formation Algorithm (TFA), used for three neighboring robotic sensors which are distributed randomly to self-organize into and equilateral triangle (E) formation. The algorithm is proposed based on the triangular geometry and considering the actual sensors used in robotics. In particular, the stability of the TFA, which can be executed by robotic sensors independently and asynchronously for E formation, is analyzed in details based on Lyapunov stability theory. Computer simulations are carried out for verifying the effectiveness of the TFA. The analytical results and simulation studies indicate that three neighboring robots employing conventional sensors can self-organize into E formations successfully regardless of their initial distribution using the same TFAs. PMID:24759118

  10. Golden Root Geometry Structuring the Polyhedra and Other Forms Via Plato’s Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Chr. Stefanides


    Full Text Available Under Golden Root Geometry Structuring the Polyhedra and other Forms Via Plato’s Triangles, we refer to the basic geometric configurations which, as this theory contemplates, are necessary for the progressive mode of formation of the five polyhedral and the geometries involved in their sections and related circles and further to logarithms, via lines, areas and volumes. Basis of all these structures is a very special Scalene Orthogonal Triangle “Plato’s Most Beautiful” [F25], together with his Orthogonal Isosceles one. Structural Forms are identified bearing in common these triangular identities. The particular angle of the Scalene Orthogonal is that whose ArcTan[Θ]=Τ and T = SQR ((SQR. (5 + 1/2.

  11. Pascal (Yang Hui) triangles and power laws in the logistic map (United States)

    Velarde, Carlos; Robledo, Alberto


    We point out the joint occurrence of Pascal triangle patterns and power-law scaling in the standard logistic map, or more generally, in unimodal maps. It is known that these features are present in its two types of bifurcation cascades: period and chaotic-band doubling of attractors. Approximate Pascal triangles are exhibited by the sets of lengths of supercycle diameters and by the sets of widths of opening bands. Additionally, power-law scaling manifests along periodic attractor supercycle positions and chaotic band splitting points. Consequently, the attractor at the mutual accumulation point of the doubling cascades, the onset of chaos, displays both Gaussian and power-law distributions. Their combined existence implies both ordinary and exceptional statistical-mechanical descriptions of dynamical properties.

  12. Analysing Diagnostic Assessment on the Ratio of Sine in a Right Triangle (United States)

    Andika, R.; Juandi, D.; Rosjanuardi, R.


    This study aims to develop diagnostic assessment with the special topic of the ratio of sinus in a right triangle and analyze the result whether the students are ready to continue to the next lesson of trigonometry specially the sinus rule. The methodology that use in this study is a design research of Plomp model which is it comprises of 3 phases: (a) preliminary research; (b) prototyping phase; and (c) assessment phase. The findings show that almost half of students made a mistake in determining the ratio of sin in a right triangle, consequently the procedure for solving the problem went wrong. In strategic competency and adaptive communication most of students did not solve the problem that was given. According to the result, the students have to get remedial program before to the next lesson, the rule of sin.

  13. A rare case of bifurcated lesser occipital nerve in the posterior triangle of the neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar


    Full Text Available The origin of the lesser occipital nerve (LON may vary, but variations in its pattern are rare. We report here a case of LON, bifurcated into superior and inferior roots in the posterior triangle of the neck. Bifurcation of the LON formed about 1.5 cm above the nerve point of the neck, near the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Both roots ascended obliquely upwards, and later united to form a single trunk in the upper part of the posterior triangle of the neck. It then entered the scalp where its distribution was normal. Since the cutaneous nerves of the cervical plexus are anesthetized for pain relief, as with cervicogenic headache, exceptional morphological variations of these nerves should be taken into consideration before any anesthetic procedures are performed in this region. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(3.000: 184-186

  14. Remarks on the P{sub c} structures and triangle singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng-Kun [Chinese Academy of Science, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Nieves, Juan [Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Valencia (Spain); Yang, Zhi [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany)


    It was proposed that the narrow P{sub c}(4450) structure observed by the LHCb Collaboration in the reaction Λ{sub b} → J/ψpK might be due to a triangle singularity around the χ{sub c1}-proton threshold at 4.45 GeV. We discuss the occurrence of a similar triangle singularity in the J/ψp invariant mass distribution for the decay Λ{sub b} → J/ψpπ, which could explain the bump around 4.45 GeV in the data. More precise measurements of this process would provide valuable information towards an understanding of the P{sub c} structures. (orig.)

  15. Surface charge method for molecular surfaces with curved areal elements I. Spherical triangles (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Kuo


    Parametrizing a curved surface with flat triangles in electrostatics problems creates a diverging electric field. One way to avoid this is to have curved areal elements. However, charge density integration over curved patches appears difficult. This paper, dealing with spherical triangles, is the first in a series aiming to solve this problem. Here, we lay the ground work for employing curved patches for applying the surface charge method to electrostatics. We show analytically how one may control the accuracy by expanding in powers of the the arc length (multiplied by the curvature). To accommodate not extremely small curved areal elements, we have provided enough details to include higher order corrections that are needed for better accuracy when slightly larger surface elements are used.

  16. Anterior segment indocyanine green angiography in anterior scleritis and episcleritis. (United States)

    Guex-Crosier, Yan; Durig, Jacques


    To evaluate the pattern of anterior segment indocyanine green (ICG) angiography in episcleritis and scleritis. Prospective comparative (paired-eye) observational case series. Twenty subjects presenting clinical diseases compatible with episcleritis or scleritis. Anterior segment ICG angiography was performed according to a standard protocol in subjects presenting either episcleritis or scleritis. Photographs of the anterior segment were taken in the early phase (up to 3 minutes after dye injection), intermediate phase (10-12 minutes) and late phase (30-45 minutes). The inflamed zones were compared with the same regions of the controlateral eye. The amount of protein ICG exudation was scored by a masked observer as follows: zero for no exudation, one for slight exudation, two for moderate exudation, and three for severe exudation. Evaluation of dye leakage, which reflects protein exudation, with anterior segment ICG angiography in episcleritis and scleritis. Twenty subjects with a mean age of 43 +/- 15 years (7 male, 13 female) were enrolled in the study. Thirteen subjects had anterior scleritis (7 nodular, 5 diffuse, and 1 scleromalacia perforans), and 7 subjects had episcleritis. Only 1 out of 7 subjects with episcleritis showed a slight ICG leakage (a score of one), whereas all subjects with scleritis had ICG leakage scores of one or more (P = 0.0005, Fisher exact test). ICG angiography of the anterior segment of the eye is a good clinical test to differentiate episcleritis from scleritis.

  17. Proofs to two inequality conjectures for a point on the plane of a triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjian Huang


    Full Text Available Abstract We prove two conjectures for a point on the plane of a triangle presented in (Liu in J. Math. Inequal. 8(3:597-611, 2014, doi: 10.1007/s11590-013-0708-4 by using the successive difference substitution algorithm NEWTSDS. Compared with the original proof, the new one is simpler and more easily understood. Similar problems can be treated with the same procedure.

  18. Robust Sierpiński triangle fractals on symmetry-mismatched Ag(100). (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Li, Na; Liu, Liwei; Gu, Gaochen; Li, Chao; Tang, Hao; Peng, Lianmao; Hou, Shimin; Wang, Yongfeng


    Sierpiński triangle fractals were constructed on both Ag(111) and symmetry-mismatched fourfold Ag(100) surfaces through chemical reaction between H3PH molecules and Fe atoms under vacuum. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the fractals were stabilized by the strong coordination interaction between Fe and O atoms. In comparison, pure H3PH molecules formed fractals via moderately strong hydrogen bonds only on Ag(111), not on Ag(100).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda-Marina BĂDULESCU


    Full Text Available The author highlights the creative training based on the golden triangle in the pedagogical approach: professor-trainer – student – researcher. The individual style of teaching and learning is enhanced by the creative style of the educator-researcher and of the student-researcher. It succeeds in this way to achieve added value in the process of training and self-training for a qualitative leap in scientific research.

  20. Students of two-curriculum types Performance on a proof for congruent triangles


    Sears, Ruthmae; Chávez, Óscar


    International audience; This descriptive study examines students’ performance on a proof task about corresponding parts of congruent triangles. We collected data from 1936 students, 59.8% used a subject-specific curriculum and 40.2 % used an integrated curriculum. Our findings indicate that, regardless of curriculum type, students experience difficulty with constructing the proof. Additionally, we observed that although students from the integrated curriculum were more likely to obtain partia...

  1. The Uneven City: Planning Insurgencies in Ramlet Bulaq and Maspero Triangle


    Shakran, Khalid


    Cairo, Egypt holds 4 of the 30 largest “mega-slums” in the world with nearly 60 percent of Cairo’s population inhabiting informal settlements (Davis, 2007; Khalifa, 2013). Two of these settlements, Ramlet Bulaq and the Maspero Triangle in West Cairo, consistently experience evictions inflicted by state and private developers since the mid-2000s. The central question orienting this research is: How do Ramlet Bulaq and Maspero inhabitants develop insurgent planning practices to resist state and...

  2. Modification of Duval Triangle for Diagnostic Transformer Fault through a Procedure of Dissolved Gases Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhy Serry Dessouky


        The evaluation is carried out on DGA data obtained from three different groups of transformers. A Matlab program was developed to automate the evaluation of  Duval Triangle graph to numerical modification, Also the fault gases can be generated due to oil decomposing effected by transformer over excitation which increasing thetransformer exciting current lead to rising the temperature inside transformer core beside the other causes.

  3. Triangles, tricks and tics: Hyper-mentalizing in response to animated shapes in Tourette syndrome. (United States)

    Eddy, Clare M; Cavanna, Andrea E


    Tourette syndrome (TS) can feature complex tics involving socially inappropriate behaviours. Adults with TS can also demonstrate differences to healthy controls when reasoning about mental states. This study investigated spontaneous mentalizing in TS. Twenty adults with TS and twenty healthy controls completed the animations task. Participants were asked to watch short ambiguous animations involving two triangles and describe what was happening. Some animations featured random movement of the triangles, while others depicted social interactions that were simple (e.g., dancing) or more complex (e.g., one triangle tricking the other). Measures were taken of executive functions, alexithymia and clinical symptoms. Individuals with TS responded similarly to controls when viewing animations featuring simple and complex interactions, demonstrating intact mentalizing ability. However, significant group differences were apparent for the random movement animations. TS was associated with a greater tendency to attribute mental states during this condition, and to describe random movements as motivated actions guided by the intentions of the triangles. There were no group differences for the alexithymia scale, but TS was associated with mild executive deficits. No relationships were apparent between animation responses and other measures. Our findings suggest that TS is associated with a propensity to adopt the intentional stance. Hyper-mentalizing in TS could be linked to both dopamine dysfunction and altered social behaviour, whereby amplified salience of social cues could contribute to the complex interplay between environmental context and tic expression. These observations may offer further insight into the potential effects of dopamine dysfunction on social cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spinning and tumbling of micron-sized triangles in a micro-channel shear flow (United States)

    Fries, J.; Kumar, M. Vijay; Mihiretie, B. Mekonnen; Hanstorp, D.; Mehlig, B.


    We report on measurements of the angular dynamics of micron-sized equilaterally triangular platelets suspended in a micro-channel shear flow. Our measurements confirm that such particles spin and tumble like a spheroid in a simple shear. Since the triangle has corners, we can observe the spinning directly. In general, the spinning frequency is different from the tumbling frequency and the spinning is affected by tumbling. This gives rise to doubly periodic angular dynamics.

  5. Sex Determination Using Inion-Opistocranium-Asterion (IOA) Triangle in Nigerians’ Skulls


    Orish, C. N.; Didia, B. C.; Fawehinmi, H. B.


    Background. Determination of sex is an important concern to the forensic anthropologists as it is critical for individual identification. This study has investigated the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dimensions and the area of the IOA triangle. Methods. A total of 100 adult dry skulls, (78 males; 22 females) from departments of anatomy in Nigerian universities were used for this study. Automatic digital calliper was used for the measurement. Coefficient of variation, correlation, line...

  6. Anterior knee pain: an update of physical therapy. (United States)

    Werner, Suzanne


    Anterior knee pain is one of the most common knee problems in physically active individuals. The reason for anterior knee pain has been suggested to be multifactorial with patella abnormalities or extensor mechanism disorder leading to patellar malalignment during flexion and extension of the knee joint. Some patients complain mostly of non-specific knee pain, while others report patellar instability problems. The patients present with a variety of symptoms and clinical findings, meaning that a thorough clinical examination is the key for optimal treatment. Weakness of the quadriceps muscle, especially during eccentric contractions, is usually present in the majority of anterior knee pain patients. However, irrespective of whether pain or instability is the major problem, hypotrophy and reduced activity of the vastus medialis are often found, which result in an imbalance between vastus medialis and vastus lateralis. This imbalance needs to be corrected before quadriceps exercises are started. The non-operative rehabilitation protocol should be divided into different phases based on the patient's progress. The goal of the first phase is to reduce pain and swelling, improve the balance between vastus medialis and vastus lateralis, restore normal gait, and decrease loading of the patello-femoral joint. The second phase should include improvement of postural control and coordination of the lower extremity, increase of quadriceps strength and when needed hip muscle strength, and restore good knee function. The patient should be encouraged to return to or to start with a suitable regular physical exercise. Therefore, the third phase should include functional exercises. Towards the end of the treatment, single-leg functional tests and functional knee scores should be used for evaluating clinical outcome. A non-operative treatment of patients with anterior knee pain should be tried for at least 3 months before considering other treatment options.

  7. The fast and accurate 3D-face scanning technology based on laser triangle sensors (United States)

    Wang, Jinjiang; Chang, Tianyu; Ge, Baozhen; Tian, Qingguo; Chen, Yang; Kong, Bin


    A laser triangle scanning method and the structure of 3D-face measurement system were introduced. In presented system, a liner laser source was selected as an optical indicated signal in order to scanning a line one times. The CCD image sensor was used to capture image of the laser line modulated by human face. The system parameters were obtained by system calibrated calculated. The lens parameters of image part of were calibrated with machine visual image method and the triangle structure parameters were calibrated with fine wire paralleled arranged. The CCD image part and line laser indicator were set with a linear motor carry which can achieve the line laser scanning form top of the head to neck. For the nose is ledge part and the eyes are sunk part, one CCD image sensor can not obtain the completed image of laser line. In this system, two CCD image sensors were set symmetric at two sides of the laser indicator. In fact, this structure includes two laser triangle measure units. Another novel design is there laser indicators were arranged in order to reduce the scanning time for it is difficult for human to keep static for longer time. The 3D data were calculated after scanning. And further data processing include 3D coordinate refine, mesh calculate and surface show. Experiments show that this system has simply structure, high scanning speed and accurate. The scanning range covers the whole head of adult, the typical resolution is 0.5mm.

  8. Combined Visibility and Surrounding Triangles Method for Simulation of Crack Discontinuities in Meshless Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pirali


    Full Text Available In this paper a combined node searching algorithm for simulation of crack discontinuities in meshless methods called combined visibility and surrounding triangles (CVT is proposed. The element free Galerkin (EFG method is employed for stress analysis of cracked bodies. The proposed node searching algorithm is based on the combination of surrounding triangles and visibility methods; the surrounding triangles method is used for support domains of nodes and quadrature points generated at the vicinity of crack faces and the visibility method is used for points located on the crack faces. In comparison with the conventional methods, such as the visibility, the transparency, and the diffraction method, this method is simpler with reasonable efficiency. To show the performance of this method, linear elastic fracture mechanics analyses are performed on number of standard test specimens and stress intensity factors are calculated. It is shown that the results are in good agreement with the exact solution and with those generated by the finite element method (FEM.

  9. Cressey’s fraud triangle (1953 and agency theory: study applied to brazilian banking institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rílany Rodrigues Machado


    Full Text Available This research examined if Cressey’s (1953 fraud triangle and the agency theory, jointly, enables investigate corporate fraud occurrence in Brazilian banking institutions. It was formulated  six research hypotheses were segregated in fraud triangle – pressure,  opportunity and rationalization – and measured by variables taken from the agency theory, criminology and empirical papers on corporate fraud. The identification of probability of fraud occurrence was operationalized from multinomial logistic model, applied to data of 44 banking, for the period between January 2001 and December 2012. For element pressure, hypotheses No. 01 was confirmed, since this showed that the lower an institution’s previous performance, the greater probability there is of fraudulent events occurring in the future.  In the element of opportunity, the hypothesis No. 03 was confirmed, which showed that low corporate governance indicators increased the possibility of fraud occurrences.  In rationalization element, the hypothesis No. 08 was confirmed, therefore, the predominance of women in management reduces the probability of fraud.  We thereby conclude that Cressey’s Triangle, when combined with the theory of agency is an appropriate research instrument to use when carrying out an investigation into corporate fraud occurrence in banking institutions.

  10. The Caucasian Triangle (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia – Tourism Development and Threats to General and Distinctive Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Roistomashvili


    Full Text Available The Caucasus triangle is one of the most interesting regions in the world firstly, with its geo-political location and also being a part of post-social space. These involve a number of factors determining existence and development of these three states. The world order today from economic and political point of view require readiness from certain states for establishing themselves in this big space. It especially concerns developing and semi-developed countries and the countries having less experience of being a state, which in fact are in the process of creating the institutes which will determine their independence and co-existence with the democratic world having more experience in this respect.Study on the Caucasus triangle arises great interest. The actuality of this issue is also determined by the political and economic dynamic changes taking place inside these states (evolution of Soviet space. Their political choice is determined by the less-stable environment and weakness of state, political partners and political and economic interests generally and towards one another. Unpredictable situation within the triangle is more important as it is a live process with new and changeable threats. For this reason it is very interesting for the scientists to study the development of this kind of countries. Ambition of these countries to establish themselves in the field of tourism is very important for us and that is why it is necessary to follow the process in dynamics, analyze and evaluate their development in this respect.

  11. Environmental pollution from illegal waste disposal and health effects: a review on the "triangle of death". (United States)

    Triassi, Maria; Alfano, Rossella; Illario, Maddalena; Nardone, Antonio; Caporale, Oreste; Montuori, Paolo


    The term "triangle of death" was used for the first time by Senior and Mazza in the journal The Lancet Oncology referring to the eastern area of the Campania Region (Southern Italy) which has one of the worst records of illegal waste dumping practices. In the past decades, many studies have focused on the potential of illegal waste disposal to cause adverse effects on human health in this area. The great heterogeneity in the findings, and the bias in media communication has generated great healthcare doubts, anxieties and alarm. This paper addresses a review of the up-to-date literature on the "triangle of death", bringing together the available information on the occurrence and severity of health effects related to illegal waste disposal. The Scopus database was searched using the search terms "waste", "Campania", "Naples", "triangle of death" and "human biomonitoring". Despite the methodological and sampling heterogeneity between the studies, this review examines the evidence from published data concerning cancer incidence, childhood mortality and birth defects, so that the current situation, knowledge gaps and research priorities can be established. The review aims to provide a contribution to the scientific community, and to respond to the concerns of the general population.

  12. Assessing the plasmonics of gold nano-triangles with higher order laser modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Hennemann


    Full Text Available Regular arrays of metallic nano-triangles – so called Fischer patterns – are fabricated by nano-sphere lithography. We studied such gold nano-triangle arrays on silicon or glass substrates. A series of different samples was investigated with a parabolic mirror based confocal microscope where the sample is scanned through the laser focus. By employing higher order laser modes (azimuthally and radially polarised laser beams, we can excite the Fischer patterns using either a pure in-plane (x,y electric field or a strongly z-directional (optical axis of the optical microscope electric field. We collected and evaluated the emitted luminescence and thereby investigated the respectively excited plasmonic modes. These varied considerably: firstly with the light polarisation in the focus, secondly with the aspect ratio of the triangles and thirdly with the employed substrate. Moreover, we obtained strongly enhanced Raman spectra of an adenine (sub-monolayer on gold Fischer patterns on glass. We thus showed that gold Fischer patterns are promising surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS substrates.

  13. Available pressure amplitude of linear compressor based on phasor triangle model (United States)

    Duan, C. X.; Jiang, X.; Zhi, X. Q.; You, X. K.; Qiu, L. M.


    The linear compressor for cryocoolers possess the advantages of long-life operation, high efficiency, low vibration and compact structure. It is significant to study the match mechanisms between the compressor and the cold finger, which determines the working efficiency of the cryocooler. However, the output characteristics of linear compressor are complicated since it is affected by many interacting parameters. The existing matching methods are simplified and mainly focus on the compressor efficiency and output acoustic power, while neglecting the important output parameter of pressure amplitude. In this study, a phasor triangle model basing on analyzing the forces of the piston is proposed. It can be used to predict not only the output acoustic power, the efficiency, but also the pressure amplitude of the linear compressor. Calculated results agree well with the measurement results of the experiment. By this phasor triangle model, the theoretical maximum output pressure amplitude of the linear compressor can be calculated simply based on a known charging pressure and operating frequency. Compared with the mechanical and electrical model of the linear compressor, the new model can provide an intuitionistic understanding on the match mechanism with faster computational process. The model can also explain the experimental phenomenon of the proportional relationship between the output pressure amplitude and the piston displacement in experiments. By further model analysis, such phenomenon is confirmed as an expression of the unmatched design of the compressor. The phasor triangle model may provide an alternative method for the compressor design and matching with the cold finger.

  14. Evaluation of the cephalometric changes of Tweed triangle in patients with cleft lip and palate

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    Mohsen Shirazi


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cleft lip and palate patients require orthodontic treatments during their childhood and adolescence. Tweed diagnostic triangle as well as cephalometric assessments provides important data regarding the skeletal patterns for the treatment and diagnostic purposes. The present study determined the cephalometric changes of Tweed triangle in the cleft lip and palate patients compared to normal patients. Materials and Methods: In total, 101 cleft and palate patients as well as 95 normal individuals with the balanced age, gender and race were evaluated. All the cleft and palate patients had similar treatment histories. Radiographic clichés were obtained from both groups and the images were traced after identifying the anatomic landmarks. The studied landmarks included points, lines, and plans as well as dental and skeletal angles and distance ratios measured in radiographic images. The landmarks were statistically analyzed using Student t test. Results: Significant differences were found between the cleft lip and palate patients and normal individuals regarding craniofacial complex morphology (P0.05. Conclusion: In total, significant differences were observed between normal and cleft lip and palate individuals regarding Tweed diagnostic triangle area. These differences were decreased IMPA and increased FMA and FMIA angles. No significant differences were found in terms of other indices.

  15. Pose Self-Measurement of Noncooperative Spacecraft Based on Solar Panel Triangle Structure

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    Jingzhou Song


    Full Text Available Aiming at the recognition and location of noncooperative spacecraft, this paper presents a monocular vision pose measurement method based on solar triangle structure. First of all, an autonomous recognition algorithm of feature structure based on sliding window Hough transformation (SWHT and inscribed circle of a triangle is proposed, and the image coordinates of feature points on the triangle can be obtained relying on this algorithm, combined with the P4P algorithm and the structure of spacecraft, calculating the relative pose of target expressed by rotation and translation matrix. The whole algorithm can be loaded into the prewritten onboard program, which will get the autocomplete feature structure extraction and relative pose measurement without human intervention, and this method does not need to mount any markers on the target. Then compare the measured values with the accurate value of the laser tracker, so that a conclusion can be drawn that the maximum position error is lower than 5% and the rotation error is lower than 4%, which meets the requirements of noncooperative spacecraft’s pose measurement for observations, tracking, and docking in the final rendezvous phase.

  16. Walras’s law of markets as special case of the general Triangle Theorem: a laconic proof


    Kakarot-Handtke, Egmont


    From the set of the first three structural axioms follows the - economic - triangle theorem. It asserts that the product of the three key ratios, which characterize the firm, the market outcome, and the income distribution, is always equal to unity. The theorem contains only unit-free variables, is testable in principle, and involves no behavioral assumptions. The differentiated triangle theorem applies to an arbitrary number of firms. Therefrom Walras’s Law can be derived without recourse to...

  17. The impact and management of illegal immigration into the Vaal Triangle (1994-2008) / Twala Sibongile Doreen


    Twala, Sibongile Doreen


    The aim of this research was to investigate that whether the Department of Home Affairs has a proper, effective management skill to deal with the impact of illegal immigrants in the Vaal Triangle Region, since the Department of Home Affairs regional offices has the institutionalized procedures and mechanism to process and deport illegal immigrants. For the purpose of this study, the hypothesis was formulated that “the Department of Home Affairs in the Vaal Triangle is currently unable to mana...

  18. Anterior Knee Pain (Chondromalacia Patellae). (United States)

    Garrick, James G.


    This article presents a pragmatic approach to the definition, diagnosis, and management of anterior knee pain. Symptoms and treatment are described. Emphasis is on active involvement of the patient in the rehabilitation exercise program. (IAH)

  19. Anterior approach for knee arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurlo, J.V.; Towers, J.D.; Golla, S.


    Objective. To develop a new method of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) of the knee using an anterior approach analogous to the portals used for knee arthroscopy.Design. An anterior approach to the knee joint was devised mimicking anterior portals used for knee arthroscopy. Seven patients scheduled for routine knee MRA were placed in a decubitus position and under fluoroscopic guidance a needle was advanced from a position adjacent to the patellar tendon into the knee joint. After confirmation of the needle tip location, a dilute gadolinium solution was injected.Results and conclusion. All the arthrograms were technically successful. The anterior approach to knee MRA has greater technical ease than the traditional approach with little patient discomfort. (orig.)

  20. Microscale patterning of thermoplastic polymer surfaces by selective solvent swelling. (United States)

    Rahmanian, Omid; Chen, Chien-Fu; DeVoe, Don L


    A new method for the fabrication of microscale features in thermoplastic substrates is presented. Unlike traditional thermoplastic microfabrication techniques, in which bulk polymer is displaced from the substrate by machining or embossing, a unique process termed orogenic microfabrication has been developed in which selected regions of a thermoplastic surface are raised from the substrate by an irreversible solvent swelling mechanism. The orogenic technique allows thermoplastic surfaces to be patterned using a variety of masking methods, resulting in three-dimensional features that would be difficult to achieve through traditional microfabrication methods. Using cyclic olefin copolymer as a model thermoplastic material, several variations of this process are described to realize growth heights ranging from several nanometers to tens of micrometers, with patterning techniques include direct photoresist masking, patterned UV/ozone surface passivation, elastomeric stamping, and noncontact spotting. Orogenic microfabrication is also demonstrated by direct inkjet printing as a facile photolithography-free masking method for rapid desktop thermoplastic microfabrication.

  1. Experimental study of swelling of irradiated solid methane during annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabalin, E.; Fedorov, A.; Kulagin, E.; Kulikov, S.; Melikhov, V.; Shabalin, D.


    Solid methane is still widely in use at pulsed neutron sources due to its excellent neutronic performance (IPNS, KENS, Second Target Station at ISIS), notwithstanding poor radiation properties. One of the specific problems is radiolytic hydrogen gas pressure on the walls of a methane chamber during annealing of methane. In this paper results of an experimental study of this phenomenon under fast neutron irradiation with the help of a specially made low temperature irradiation rig at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor are presented. The peak pressure on the wall of the experimental capsule during heating of a sample irradiated at 23-35 K appears to have a maximum of 2.7 MPa at an absorbed dose 20 MGy and then falls down with higher doses. The pressure always reached its peak value at the temperature range 72-79 K. Generally, three phases of methane swelling during heating can be distinguished, each characterized by a proper rate and intensity.

  2.  Soft Tissue Swelling at the Subscapular Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Al Kindi


    Full Text Available A 38-year-old female presented with a longstanding painless swelling overlying the scapula on the right side and has been gradually increasing in size with occasional episodes of pain radiating to the right arm. The clinical diagnosis was a soft tissue tumor. MRI was reported as suggestive of irregular fibro-fatty tissue with muscular infiltration and inflammation. Fine needle aspiration (FNA retrieved a paucicellular aspirate with a few clusters of adipocytes. The diagnosis was a lipomatous lesion and excision was advised for histopathological examination. The intraoperative findings showed the tumor located deep into the rhomboids and latissimus dorsi and extending deep into the right scapula. The excised specimen was sent for histopathological examination. 

  3. Void migration, coalescence and swelling in fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, G.A.


    A recent analysis of the migration of voids and bubbles, produced in neutron irradiated fusion materials, is outlined. The migration, brought about by thermal hopping of atoms on the surface of a void, is normally a random Brownian motion but, in a temperature gradient, can be slightly biassed up the gradient. Two effects of such migrations are the transport of voids and trapped transmutation helium atoms to grain boundaries, where embrittlement may result; and the coalescence of migrating voids, which reduces the number of non-dislocation sites available for the capture of knock-on point defects and thereby enables the dislocation bias process to maintain void swelling. A selection of candidate fusion power plant armour and structural metals have been analysed. The metals most resistant to void migration and its effects are tungsten and molybdenum. Steel and beryllium are least so and vanadium is intermediate

  4. MRI estimation of extraocular muscle swelling in dysthyroid ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Kakisu, Yonetsugu; Hatakeyama, Masayuki; Asanagi, Kaoru


    The thickness and width of superior, inferior and medial rectus muscles were measured via T1-weighted coronal images using a 0.5 T superconducting MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) system in 10 patients with dysthyroid ophthalmopathy and 27 normal orbits. Lateral rectus muscles were not measured because the partial volume effect obscured their contours. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the severity of ophthalmopathy. Group A had no ophthalmopathy, group B had corneal involvement or restricted eye movement, group C had optic nerve involvement. Mean muscle thickness increased in the order A, B and C. Mean rectus muscle width was normal in group A, but dramatically increased in group C, results suggesting that swelling of the extraocular muscles is a characteristic pathologic change in dysthyroid ophthalmopathy. It is concluded that MRI is a safe and useful method of evaluating the severity of and prognosing dysthyroid ophthalmopathy. (author)

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of clays: swelling, sedimentation, dissolution (United States)

    Dvinskikh, Sergey; Furo, Istvan


    measure of clay distribution in extended samples during different physical processes such as swelling, dissolution, and sedimentation on the time scale from minutes to years [1-3]. To characterize the state of colloids that form after/during clay swelling the water self-diffusion coefficient was measured on a spatially resolved manner. Both natural clays and purified and ion-exchanged montmorillonite clays were investigated. The primary variables were clay composition and water ionic strength. These results have a significant impact for engineering barriers for storage of spent nuclear fuel where clay erosion by low salinity water must be addressed. Presented methods were developed under the motivation of using bentonite clays as a buffer medium to build in-ground barriers for the encapsulation of radioactive waste. Nevertheless, the same approaches can be found suitable in other applications in soil and environmental science to study other types of materials as they swell, dissolve, erode, or sediment. Acknowledgements: This work has been supported by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) and the Swedish Research Council VR. [1] N. Nestle, T. Baumann, R. Niessner, Magnetic resonance imaging in environmental science. Environ. Sci. Techn. 36 154A (2002). [2] S. V. Dvinskikh, K. Szutkowski, I. Furó. MRI profiles over a very wide concentration ranges: application to swelling of a bentonite clay. J. Magn. Reson. 198 146 (2009). [3] S. V. Dvinskikh, I. Furó. Magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of bentonite systems. Technical Report, TR-09-27, SKB (2009),

  6. Ethanol-induced swelling in neonatal rat primary astrocyte cultures. (United States)

    Aschner, M; Allen, J W; Mutkus, L A; Cao, C


    We tested the hypothesis that astrocytes swell in response to ethanol (EtOH) exposure. The experimental approach consisted of an electrical impedance method designed to measure cell volume. In chronic experiments, EtOH (100 mM) was added to the culture media for 1, 3, or 7 days. The cells were subsequently exposed for 15 min to isotonic buffer (122 mM NaCl) also containing 100 mM EtOH. Subsequently, the cells were washed and exposed to hypotonic buffer (112 mM NaCl) containing 100 mM mannitol. Chronic exposure to EtOH led to a marked increase in cell volume compared with control cells. Specific anion cotransport blockers, such as SITS, DIDS, furosemide, or bumetanide, when simultaneously added with EtOH to hyponatremic buffer, failed to reverse the EtOH-induced effect on swelling. In acute experiments, confluent neonatal rat primary astrocyte cultures were exposed to isotonic media (122 mM NaCl) for 15 min, followed by 45-min exposure to hypotonic media (112 mM NaCl, mimicking in vivo hyponatremic conditions associated with EtOH withdrawal) in the presence of 0-100 mM EtOH. This exposure led to a concentration-dependent increase in cell volume. Combined, these studies suggest that astrocytes exposed to EtOH accumulate compensatory organic solutes to maintain cell volume, and that in response to hyponatremia and EtOH withdrawal their volume increases to a greater extent than in cells exposed to hyponatremia alone. Furthermore, the changes associated with EtOH are osmotic in nature, and they are not reversed by anion cotransport blockers.

  7. Tamoxifen does not inhibit the swell activated chloride channel in human neutrophils during the respiratory burst. (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Jatinder


    Effective functioning of neutrophils relies upon electron translocation through the NADPH oxidase (NOX). The electron current generated (I(e)) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential in activated human neutrophils. Swelling activated chloride channels have been demonstrated in part to counteract the depolarisation generated by the NADPH oxidase I(e). In the present study, the effects of inhibitors of swell activated chloride channels on ROS production and on the swelling activated chloride conductance was investigated in activated human neutrophils. Tamoxifen (10 microM), a specific inhibitor for swell activated chloride channels in neutrophils, completely inhibited both the PMA and FMLP stimulated respiratory burst. This inhibition of the neutrophil respiratory burst was not due to the blocking effect of tamoxifen on the swelling activated chloride conductance in these cells. These results demonstrate that a tamoxifen insensitive swell activated chloride channel has important significance during the neutrophil respiratory burst.

  8. Can radial gradients of swelling and of mechanical properties create extra deformation of fast fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, Patrick; Boutard, Jean-Louis


    The temperature gradient inside the cladding causes swelling gradients and irradiation creep modulus gradient at a temperature higher than 500 0 C (at least for steel 316). Swelling contribution to an increase in cladding length and diameter are equal to the mean swelling, if variations of mechanical properties with temperature are neglected. If mechanical property gradient are taken into account the solution of the problem is obtained by a classical analytic calculation with hypothesis on one dimension deformations and constant stress. In this case swelling contribution is different to the mean swelling. An additional term can be evaluated with the following assumptions: the tube is thin and swelling gradient and irradiation creep are constant, as but extra deformations are low [fr

  9. Improved swelling resistance for PCA austenitic stainless steel under HFIR irradiation through microstructural control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziasz, P.J.; Braski, D.N.


    Six microstructural variants of Prime Candidate Alloy (PCA) were evaluated for swelling resistance during HFIR irradiation, together with several heats of type 316 stainless steel (316). Swelling was negligible in all the steels at 300 0 C after approx. 44 dpa. At 500 to 600 0 C 25%-cold-worked PCA showed better void swelling resistance than type 316 at approx. 44 dpa. There was less swelling variability among alloys at 400 0 C, but again 25%-cold-worked PCA was the best. Microstructurally, swelling resistance correlated with development of fine, stable bubbles whereas high swelling was due to coarser distributions of bubbles becoming unstable and converting to voids (bias-driven cavities)

  10. Investigation of Pre- and Post-Swelling Behavior of Elastomeric Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akhtar


    Full Text Available In the last ten years, a new type of modern polymer, known as swelling elastomer, has been used extensively as a sealing element in the oil and gas industry. These elastomers have been instrumental in various new applications such as water shut off, zonal isolation, and sidetracking. Though swell packers can significantly reduce costs and increase productivity, their failure can lead to serious losses. The integrity and reliability of swelling elastomer seals under different field conditions is a major concern. The investigation of changes in material behavior over a specified swelling period is a necessary first step for performance evaluation of elastomer seals. The current study is based on experimental analysis of changes in geometric and mechanical behavior (hardness, tensile, compressive, bulk of an elastomeric material due to swelling. Tests were carried out before and after various stages of swelling. Specimens were placed in saline water (0.6% and 12% concentrations at a temperature of 50°C, with the total swelling period being one month. Swelling, hardness, compression, and bulk tests were conducted using disc samples, while ring samples were used for tensile experiments. A small test rig was designed and constructed for determination of bulk modulus. Stress-strain curves under tension and compression, and pressure volumetric-strain curves were obtained for specimens subjected to different swelling periods. Due to the fast-swell nature of the elastomer, there were sharp changes in mechanical properties within the first few days of swelling for both salinities. Elastic modulus derived from tensile and compressive tests showed a 90% decrease in the first few days. Bulk modulus showed fluctuation in its variation with an increasing swelling period. There was a small effect of salinity only during the first 5 or 6 days.

  11. Swelling of Fe-Mn and Fe-Cr-Mn alloys at high neutron fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Brager, H.R.


    Swelling data on neutron-irradiated simple Fe-Cr-Mn and Fe-Mn alloys, as well as commercial Fe-Cr-Mn base alloys are now becoming available at exposure levels approaching 50 dpa. The swelling rate decreases from the ∼1%/dpa found at lower exposures, probably due to the extensive formation of ferritic phases. As expected, commercial alloys swell less than the simple alloys

  12. A SIPA-based theory of irradiation creep in the low swelling rate regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Woo, C.H.


    A model is presented which describes the major facets of the relationships between irradiation creep, void swelling and applied stress. The increasing degree of anisotropy in distribution of dislocation Burger's vectors with stress level plays a major role in this model. Although bcc metals are known to creep and swell at lower rates than fcc metals, it is predicted that the creep-swelling coupling coefficient is actually larger

  13. Specimen Machining for the Study of the Effect of Swelling on CGR in PWR Environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teysseyre, Sebastien Paul [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This report describes the preparation of ten specimens to be used for the study of the effect of swelling on the propagation of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking cracks. Four compact tension specimens, four microscopy plates and two tensile specimens were machined from a AISI 304 material that was irradiated up to 33 dpa. The specimens had been machined such as to represent the behavior of materials with 3.7%swelling and <2% swelling.

  14. Comparison of swelling for structural materials on neutron and ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, B.A.


    The swelling of V-base alloys, Type 316 stainless steel, Fe-25Ni-15Cr alloys, ferritic steels, Cu, Ni, Nb-1% Zr, and Mo on neutron irradiation is compared with the swelling for these materials on ion irradiation. The results of this comparison show that utilization of the ion-irradiation technique provides for a discriminative assessment of the potential for swelling of candidate materials for fusion reactors.

  15. Guest-responsive reversible swelling and enhanced fluorescence in a super-absorbent, dynamic microporous polymer. (United States)

    Rao, K Venkata; Mohapatra, Sudip; Maji, Tapas Kumar; George, Subi J


    A swell idea! The guest-responsive reversible swelling and fluorescence enhancement of a dynamic, microporous polymer network is presented. Guest-induced breathing of hydrophobic pores imparts multi-functional properties, such as super-absorbency, phase-selective swelling of oil from water and encapsulation of C(60) (see figure), to this soft micro-porous organic polymer. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. High Fluoroquinolone Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori in the Golden triangle (United States)

    Vilaichone, Ratha Korn; Ratanachu ek, Thawee; Gamnarai, Pornpen; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Uchida, Tomahisa; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Mahachai, Varocha


    Background and aims: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections, associated with fatal GI diseases such as gastric cancer and MALT lymphoma, remain a major health problem in ASEAN countries. The Golden triangle has long been known as one of Asia’s main opium-producing areas. There have been no prior studies of H. pylori infection in this area. The major objectives of this project were therefore to establish prevalence, antibiotic resistance patterns and associated predictive in the Golden triangle. Methods: We recruited dyspeptic patients in Chiang khong and Chiang saen districts, Chiangrai province of Thailand. All subjects underwent gastroscopy, and 3 antral gastric biopsies were collected for rapid urease tests and H. pylori culture. E-tests were used to evaluate the MICs for metronidazole (MNZ), levofloxacin (LVX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), amoxicillin(AMX), tetracycline (TET) and clarithromycin (CLR). Results: Total of 148 patients was included. H. pylori infection was present in 36.3%(37/102) of Chiang khong and 34.8 % (16/46) of Chiang saen subjects and the overall H. pylori infection rate was 35.8% (53/148). Antibiotic resistance was demonstrated in 44%, including 2% for CLR and 26% for MNZ, whereas fluoroquinolone resistance was demonstrated to be as high as 25% in Chiang khong. Multi-drug resistant H. pylori was detected in 4%. There was no AMX and TET resistance in this study. The prevalence of CLR resistance on a background of gastritis was significantly higher than peptic ulcer disease in the golden triangle area (100%vs 0%: P= 0.04). Conclusions: H. pylori remains a common infection in the Golden triangle. MNZ resistance appears to be high, whereas fluoroquinolone resistance is prevalent and is becoming a significant problem in this area. Diagnosis of gastritis might be a predictor of CLR resistance in the Golden triangle. H. pylori eradication with an appropriate regimen by using the local antibiotic resistant pattern is a key important tool to reduce H

  17. A volatile tracer-assisted headspace analytical technique for determining the swelling capacity of superabsorbent polymers. (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Xin; Jiang, Ran; Chai, Xin-Sheng


    This paper reports on a new method for the determination of swelling capacity of superabsorbent polymers by a volatile tracer-assisted headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC). Toluene was used as a tracer and added to the solution for polymers swelling test. Based on the differences of the tracer partitioned between the vapor and hydrogel phase before and after the polymer's swelling capacity, a transition point (corresponding to the material swelling capacity) can be observed when plotting the GC signal of toluene vs. the ratio of solution added to polymers. The present method has good precision (RSDpolymers at the elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Improved swelling resistance for PCA austenitic stainless steel under HFIR irradiation through microstructural control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziasz, P.J.; Braski, D.N.


    Swelling evaluation of PCA variants and 20%-cold-worked (N-Lot) type 316 stainless steel (CW 316) at 300 to 600 0 C was extended to 44 dpa. Swelling was negligible in all the steels at 300 0 C after approx. 44 dpa. At 500 to 600 0 C 25%-cold-worked PCA showed better void swelling resistance than type 316 at approx. 44 dpa. There was less swelling variation among alloys at 400 0 C, but again 25%-cold-worked PCA was the best

  19. Effect of geometric scale on the extrudate swell of plastic micro-tubes (United States)

    Ren, Zhong; Huang, Xingyuan


    In this study, the effect of geometric scale on the extrudate swell of plastic micro-tubes was numerically studied by using the finite element method. The four geometric models with same inner diameter but different wall thicknesses were used. Under the same boundary conditions, material parameters, and numerical algorithms, the extrudate swells and flow field distributions of two plastic micro-tubes were obtained. Study results show that the extrudate swell effect of plastic micro-tubes increase with the decreasing of geometric scale. Finally, the mechanisms of the geometric scale on the extrudate swell for the plastic micro-tubes were analyzed.

  20. High dose stainless steel swelling data on interior and peripheral oxide fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boltax, A.; Foster, J.P.; Nayak, U.P.


    High dose (2 x 10 23 n/cm 2 , E > 0.1 Mev) swelling data obtained on 20% cold-worked AISI 316 stainless steel (N-lot) cladding from mixed-oxide fuel pins show large differences in swelling incubation dose due to pre-incubation dose temperature changes. Circumferential swelling variations of 1.5 to 4 times were found in peripheral fuel pin cladding which experienced 30 to 60 deg C temperature changes due to movement in a temperature gradient. Consideration is given to the implications of these results to low swelling materials development and core design. (author)

  1. Toxic anterior segment syndrome following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Sevimli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We present the case of a 31-year-old patient with toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS that developed after undergoing deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK. She had keratoconus, and despite wearing hard contact lenses for many years in the left eye, her vision had deteriorated; therefore, DALK was performed on this eye. The preoperative visual acuity (VA was finger counting at 3 m. Routine DALK was performed using the "big-bubble" technique. The corneal entry incision was hydrated at the end of the surgery, which was terminated by air injection into the anterior chamber. On postoperative day 1, VA was at the level of hand movements, and the cornea was edematous. Topical high-dose dexamethasone and oral steroids were initiated considering the diagnosis of TASS. Subsequently, the patient's VA increased, and the corneal edema decreased. We believe that the use of re-sterilized cannulas may have been the likely cause of TASS. Although DALK can be performed without interfering with the anterior chamber, one should keep in mind that TASS may occur in response to the solution used to hydrate the incision site and the air injected into the anterior chamber.

  2. Correlates of knee laxity change in early rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. (United States)

    Morrissey, M C; Hudson, Z L; Drechsler, W I; Coutts, F J; King, J B; McAuliffe, T B


    Factors other than ligament graft length (knee ROM, knee swelling, initial knee laxity) may need to be accounted for in interpreting changes in knee laxity during rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) surgery. Twenty-three patients recovering from ACLR surgery (16 M, 7 F, age mean = 30) were tested at 2 and 6 weeks after ACLR with knee laxity measured using th Knee Signature System arthrometer, passive ROM with a standard goniometer and swelling by measuring knee circumference at the mid-patella level using a cloth measuring tape. Spearman correlation coefficients (in parentheses) were calculated using rankings of the change in the injured minus uninjured knee laxity as the dependent variable and the following independent variables: pre-test injured minus uninjured knee laxity (ranked; -0.457; statistically significant two-tailed P guide rehabilitation after ACLR.

  3. Swinging door lateral orbitotomy for management of anteriorly placed orbital tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atreyee Pradhan


    Full Text Available A 70 years old female; who came to us; with drooping of right upper eyelid, gradual progressive diminution of vision with a slowly progressive swelling over right upper outer orbit of 1 year duration. Examination revealed non-axial proptosis with downward and inward deviation of the right eye. An irregular, lobulated nontender swelling was present in the superolateral orbit. CT scan revealed a well circumscribed oval encapsulated lesion with no bony destruction. The mass was removed by a modified lateral orbitotomy without removing lateral orbital rim. Histopathological evaluation showed it to be a pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. Patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery. This presentation describes a method of lateral orbitotomy for anterior orbital lesions in which the lateral orbital rim is swung outwards without detaching it from its attachment to the temporalis muscle. This surgical approach may reduce the chance of avascular necrosis of the lateral orbital wall bone and infections of the orbit.

  4. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, P.A.J.; Golanó, P.; Clavero, J.A.; van Dijk, C.N.


    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly

  5. Generation of Continental Rifts, Basins and Swells by Lithosphere Instabilities (United States)

    Milelli, L.; Fourel, L.; Jaupart, C. P.


    Domal uplifts, volcanism, basin formation and rifting have often struck the same continent in different areas at the same time. Their characteristics and orientations are difficult to reconcile with mantle convection or tectonic forces and suggest a driving mechanism that is intrinsic to the continent. The rifts seem to develop preferentially at high angles to the edge of the continent whereas swells and basins seem confined to the interior. Another intriguing geometrical feature is that the rifts often branch out in complicated patterns at their landward end. In Western Africa, for example, magmatic activity currently occurs in a number of uplifted areas including the peculiar Cameroon Volcanic Line that stretches away from the continental margin over about 1000 km. Magmatic and volcanic activity has been sustained along this line for 70 My with no age progression. The mantle upwelling that feeds the volcanoes is not affected by absolute plate motions and hence is attached to the continent. The Cameroon Volcanic Line extends to the Biu swell to the North and the Jos plateau to the West defining a striking Y-shaped pattern. This structure segues into several volcanic domes including the Air, the Hoggar, the Darfur, the Tibesti and the Haruj domes towards the Mediterranean coast. Another example is provided by North America, where the late Proterozoic-early Ordovician saw the formation of four major basins, the Michigan, Illinois, Williston and Hudson Bay, as well as of major rifts in southern Oklahoma and the Mississipi Valley within a short time interval. At the same time, a series of uplifts developed, such as the Ozark and Nashville domes. Motivated by these observations, we have sought an explanation in the continental lithosphere itself. We describe a new type of convective instability at the base of the lithosphere that leads to a remarkable spatial pattern at the scale of an entire continent. We carried out fluid mechanics laboratory experiments on buoyant

  6. Coupled thermo-hydro-chemical models of swelling bentonites (United States)

    Samper, Javier; Mon, Alba; Zheng, Liange; Montenegro, Luis; Naves, Acacia; Pisani, Bruno


    The disposal of radioactive waste in deep geological repositories is based on the multibarrier concept of retention of the waste by a combination of engineered and geological barriers. The engineered barrier system (EBS) includes the solid conditioned waste-form, the waste container, the buffer made of materials such as clay, grout or crushed rock that separate the waste package from the host rock and the tunnel linings and supports. The geological barrier supports the engineered system and provides stability over the long term during which time radioactive decay reduces the levels of radioactivity. The strong interplays among thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes during the hydration, thermal and solute transport stages of the engineered barrier system (EBS) of a radioactive waste repository call for coupled THMC models for the metallic overpack, the unsaturated compacted bentonite and the concrete liner. Conceptual and numerical coupled THMC models of the EBS have been developed, which have been implemented in INVERSE-FADES-CORE. Chemical reactions are coupled to the hydrodynamic processes through chemical osmosis (C-H coupling) while bentonite swelling affects solute transport via changes in bentonite porosity changes (M-H coupling). Here we present THMC models of heating and hydration laboratory experiments performed by CIEMAT (Madrid, Spain) on compacted FEBEX bentonite and numerical models for the long-term evolution of the EBS for 1 Ma. The changes in porosity caused by swelling are more important than those produced by the chemical reactions during the early evolution of the EBS (t iron mineral phases (corrosion products) released by the corrosion of the carbon steel canister; and 2) The hyper alkaline plume produced by the concrete liner. Numerical results show that the pH in the bentonite pore water in the presence of a concrete liner can vary from neutral to up to 13 over a time scale of 1 Ma although dissolution of

  7. Swelling pressure and water absorption property of compacted granular bentonite during water absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, T.; Komine, H.; Murakami, S.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekine, I.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. Bentonite is currently planned to be used as buffer materials in engineered barrier of radioactive waste disposal. Granular bentonites are expected as the materials used in constructions as buffer materials by in-situ compaction methods. After applying these buffer materials, it is expected that the condition of the buffer area changes in long-term by the seepage of groundwater into buffer area. Therefore, it is important to understand water movement and swelling behavior of the buffer materials for evaluating the performance of engineered barrier. In this study, we investigated water absorption property and swelling pressure of compacted granular bentonite. Specifically, the process of swelling pressure and amount of water absorption of granular bentonite-GX (Kunigel-GX, produced at the Tsukinuno mine in Japan) were observed by laboratory tests. To discuss the influence of maximum grain size of bentonite particle on swelling pressure and water absorption property, two types of samples were used. One is granular sample which is Bentonite-GX controlled under 2 mm the maximum grain size, the other is milled sample which is Bentonite-GX with the maximum grain size under 0.18 mm by milling with the agate mortar. In addition, the mechanism on the swelling pressure of compacted granular bentonite was considered and discussed. In the cases of granular sample, swelling pressure increases rapidly, then gradually continues to increase up to maximum value. In the cases of milled sample, swelling pressure also increases rapidly at first. However, then its value decreases before progressing of gradual increase continues. Especially, this trend was clearly observed at a relatively low dry density. At the peaks of these curves, the swelling pressure of granular samples is lower than that of milled samples. In addition, the increasing of swelling pressure by the time the peak observed during the process of swelling pressure from

  8. Anterior ethmoid anatomy facilitates dacryocystorhinostomy. (United States)

    Blaylock, W K; Moore, C A; Linberg, J V


    The ethmoid air cell labyrinth lies adjacent to the medial orbital wall, extending even beyond the sutures of the ethmoid bone. Its anatomic relationship to the lacrimal sac fossa is important in lacrimal surgery. We evaluated computed tomographic scans of 190 orbits with normal ethmoid anatomy to define the anatomic relationship of anterior ethmoid air cells to the lacrimal sac fossa. In 93% of the orbits, the cells extended anterior to the posterior lacrimal crest, with 40% entering the frontal process of the maxilla. This anatomic relationship may be used to facilitate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. During a 10-year period (310 cases), one of us routinely entered the anterior ethmoid air cells to initiate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. This technique has helped to avoid lacerations of the nasal mucosa.

  9. Clinical cytology of companion animals: Part II . Cytology of subcutaneous swellings, skin tumours and skin lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teske, E.


    Clinical Cytology of Companion Animals: Part 2. Clinical Cytology of Companion Animals: Part 2. Cytology of subcutaneous swellings, skin tumours and skin lesions Subcutaneous swellings, skin tumours, and skin lesions are extremely well suited for cytological examination via FNAB (Fine needle

  10. Evolution of swelling pressure of cohesive-frictional, rough and elasto-plastic granulates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luding, Stefan; Bauer, Erich; Jiang, Mingjing; Liu, Fang; Bolton, Malcolm


    The subject of this study is the modeling of the evolution of the swell-ing pressure of granulates with cohesive-frictional, rough and elasto-plastic “mi-croscopic” contact properties. The spherical particles are randomly arranged in a periodic cubic space with a fixed volume so that an increase of

  11. Swelling behaviour of isora/natural rubber composites in oils used in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The solvent swelling characteristics of natural rubber composites containing both untreated and alkali treated fibres were investigated in aromatic and aliphatic solvents like toluene, and -hexane. The diffusion experiments were conducted by the sorption gravimetric method. The restrictions on elastomer swelling exerted ...

  12. Loss of knee-extension strength is related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten T; Bencke, Jesper


    To examine whether changes in knee-extension strength and functional performance are related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).......To examine whether changes in knee-extension strength and functional performance are related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty (TKA)....

  13. Theoretical basis for unified analysis of experimental data and design of swelling-resistant alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, L.K.; Lee, E.H.


    Essential aspects of the theory of radiation-induced swelling are reviewed. In particular, concepts central to the understanding of experimental data and the control of swelling by alloy design are discussed. The knowledge that a critical number of gas atoms is required in a cavity before point defect-driven swelling can begin is a most important contribution of theory. The mathematical expression that have been derived for calculating this critical quantity are given in terms of materials parameters and irradiation conditions. After swelling begins, its magnitude as a function of dose is governed strongly by the relative sink strengths for point defects of dislocations and cavities, expressed in terms of an index of the microstructure, Q. Hich swelling and low swelling microstructures can be categorized into four types based on this index. Wide ranges of experimental swelling results covering ferritic/martensite and austenitic alloys, neutron and ion irradiations and a variety of compositions and irradiation conditions are analyzed and found to be explained consistently within this framework. Based on the understanding gained, approaches to alloy design for swelling resistance are recommended. (orig.)

  14. Polymerization of alanine in the presence of a non-swelling montmorillonite (United States)

    Paecht-Horowitz, M.; Lahav, N.


    Alanine, starting from alanine-adenylate, has been polymerized in the presence of non-swelling Al-montmorillonite. The yield of polymerization is much lower than that obtained in the presence of swelling Na-montmorillonite. The possibility that the changing interlayer spacing in Na-montmorillonite might be responsible for its catalytic properties, is discussed.

  15. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is involved in polyphenol-induced swelling of the endothelial glycocalyx. (United States)

    Peters, Wladimir; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Oberleithner, Hans; Schillers, Hermann


    Previous studies show that polyphenol-rich compounds can induce a swelling of the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC). Our goal was to reveal the mechanism behind the eGC-swelling. As polyphenols are potent modulators of fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel, the hypothesis was tested whether polyphenol-induced increase in CFTR activity is responsible for the eGC-swelling. The impact of the polyphenols resveratrol, (-)-epicatechin, and quercetin on nanomechanics of living endothelial GM7373 cells was monitored by AFM-nanoindentation. The tested polyphenols lead to eGC-swelling with a simultaneous decrease in cortical stiffness. EGC-swelling, but not the change in cortical stiffness, was prevented by the inhibition of CFTR. Polyphenol-induced eGC-swelling could be mimicked by cytochalasin D, an actin-depolymerizing agent. Thus, in the vascular endothelium, polyphenols induce eGC-swelling by softening cortical actin and activating CFTR. Our findings imply that CFTR plays an important role in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis and may explain the vasoprotective properties of polyphenols. Many vascular problems clinically can be attributed to a dysregulation of endothelial glycocalyx (eGC). The underlying mechanism however remains unclear. In this article, the authors used nanoindentation and showed that polyphenols could swell the endothelial glycocalyx and alter its function. This investigative method can lead to further mechanistic studies of other molecular pathways. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A purple swelling on the tongue | Panta | Pan African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A painless, purple, dome shaped swelling was discovered on routine oral examination in a 20 year old male, near the right lateral border of the tongue. He revealed that the swelling had been growing in a subtle manner since 2 months, and he reported no history of trauma. It measured about 1.5x1.5 cm, surface appeared ...

  17. Swelling of whey and egg white protein hydrogels with stranded and particulate microstructures. (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Xiao Dong; Mercadé-Prieto, Ruben


    Swelling of protein hydrogels in alkaline conditions strongly depends on the gel microstructure. Stranded transparent gels swell as predicted using a modified Flory-Rehner model with the net protein charge. Particulate opaque gels swell very differently, with a sudden increase at a narrow pH range. Its swelling is not controlled by the protein charge, but by the destruction of the non-covalent interactions. Comparable dissolution thresholds, one with pH and another with the degree of swelling, are observed in both types of microstructures. These conclusions are valid for both whey protein isolate (WPI) gels and egg white gels, suggesting that they are universal for all globular proteins that can form such microscructures. Differences are observed, however, from the prevalent chemical crosslinks in each protein system. Non-covalent interactions dominate WPI gels; when such interactions are destroyed at pH≥11.5 the gels swell extensively and eventually dissolve. In egg white gels, the higher degree of disulphide crosslinking allows extensive swelling when non-covalent interactions are destroyed, but dissolution only occurs at pH≥13 when covalent crosslinks are cleaved. The current study highlights that the microstructure of protein hydrogels, a unique particularity of protein systems compared to other synthetic hydrogels, defines swelling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Swelling/deswelling of polyacrylamide gels in aqueous NaCl solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the osmosis effect ceases and mixing dominates resulting in the exponential swelling of the gel. Further, it can also be seen that DoS depends strongly on the concentration of NaCl. Present observations are consistent with those reported earlier [6,14,15]. To understand the PAAm gels swelling at higher concentrations of ...

  19. Modelling of fission gas swelling in the high burnup UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Chan Bock; Bang, Je Gun; Jung, Yeon Ho


    Discharge burnup of the fuel in LWR has been increased to improve the fuel economy, and currently the high burnup fuel of over 70 MWd/kg U-rod avg. is being developed by the fuel vendors worldwide. At high burnup, thermal / mechanical properties of the fuel is known to change and new phenomenon could arise. This report describes the model development on fission gas swelling in high burnup UO 2 fuel. For the low burnup fuel, swelling only by the solid fission products has been considered in the fuel performance analysis. However, at high burnup fuel, swelling by fission gas bubbles can not be neglected anymore. Therefore, fission gas swelling model which can predict bubble swelling of the high burnup UO 2 fuel during the steady-state and the transient conditions in LWR was developed. Based on the bubble growth model, the empirical fission gas swelling model was developed as function of burnup, time and temperature. The model showed that fuel bubble swelling would be proportional to the burnup by the power of 1.157 and to the time by the power of 0.157. Comparison of the model prediction with the measured fission gas swelling data under the various burnup and temperature conditions showed that the model would predict the measured data reasonably well. (author). 20 refs., 8 tabs., 17 figs

  20. Grain-scale modelling of swelling granular materials; application to super absorbent polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweijen, T.; Chareyre, B.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Karadimitriou, N.K.

    Swelling is an important process in many natural materials and industrial products, such as swelling clays, paper, and Super Absorbent Polymer (SAP) particles in hygienic products. SAP particles are capable to absorb large amounts of fluid. Each grain of SAP can absorb water 30 to 1000 times its

  1. A rare cause of calf swelling: the Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moriarty, J M


    Calf swelling is a common clinical presentation with a wide and varied differential diagnosis. The Morel-Lavallee is a rare cause of subcutaneous swelling, caused by post-traumatic shearing of the hypodermis from the underlying fascia. The potential space so created fills with blood, lymph and necrotic fat giving specific findings on MR evaluation.

  2. Swelling characterization and drug delivery kinetics of polyacrylamide-co-itaconic acid/chitosan hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Hybrid polymeric networks composed of polyacrylamide and chitosan were developed to determine their swelling and ascorbic acid delivery kinetics at various chitosan concentrations. The hybrid acrylamide/chitosan hydrogels were synthesized in aqueous itaconic acid solution (1% w/w. Young’s modulus was also evaluated for the hydrogels, and the results were correlated with the swelling properties. Swelling experiments were carried out using three different pH solutions: acidic (pH 4 buffer solution, neutral (distilled water and basic (pH 10 buffer solution. The results of the swelling study showed that the swelling properties of the network varied with the changes of the pH in the swelling solution, as well as concentration of chitosan. When chitosan concentration increased, the swelling capacity diminished, and therefore Young’s modulus increased. The results indicated that the swelling process followed a second order kinetics. The ascorbic acid diffusion inside the hydrogel follows a Fickian mechanism. The ascorbic acid diffusion coefficients are reported as a function of chitosan concentration.

  3. Relationship between phase development and swelling of AISI 316 during temperature changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.J.S.; Garner, F.A.


    The effect of temperature changes on radiation-induced swelling and phase development of AISI 316 has been examined for specimens irradiated in two different experiments. The formation of radiation-stable phases at low temperature appears to precede swelling but these phases tend to dissolve when subsequently subjected to higher temperature. Phases which develop at high temperature persist when the temperature is subsequently lowered. Once nucleated at low temperatures, voids tend to persist without reduction in density at higher temperatures. However, a new round of void nucleation occurs when the temperature is decreased during irradiation. If the swelling has entered the steady-state swelling regime prior to the temperature change, there is no effect on the subsequent swelling rate. For temperature changes that occur before the end of the transient swelling regime, substantial changes can occur in the swelling behavior, particularly if the changes occur in the range around 500 0 . The isothermal swelling behavior of AISI 316 is much less sensitive to irradiation temperature than previously envisioned

  4. Experimental Analysis on Shrinkage and Swelling in Ordinary Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kucharczyková


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the experimental determination of shrinkage development during concrete ageing. Three concrete mixtures were made. They differed in the amount of cement in the fresh mixture, 300, 350, and 400 kg/m3. In order to determine the influence of plasticiser on the progress of volume changes, another three concrete mixtures were prepared with plasticiser in the amount of 0.25% by cement mass. Measurements were performed with the goal of observing the influence of cement and plasticiser content on the overall development of volume changes in the concrete. Changes in length and mass losses of the concrete during ageing were measured simultaneously. The continuous measurement of concrete mass losses caused by drying of the specimen’s surface proved useful during the interpretation of results obtained from the concrete shrinkage measurement. During the first 24 hours of ageing, all the concrete mixtures exhibited swelling. Its magnitude and progress were influenced by cement, water, and plasticiser content. However, a loss of mass caused by water evaporation from the surface of the specimens was also recorded in this stage. The measured progress of shrinkage corresponded well to the progress of mass loss.

  5. Simulation of PVT and swelling experimental data: a systematic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Paulo S.M.V. [PETROBRAS S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bahia]. E-mail:; Alves, Danilo C.R.; Sacramento, Vinicio S.; Costa, Gloria M.N. [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Petroleo e Gas Natural (CEPGN)]. E-mail:


    Accurate data of the phase behavior of oil and gas mixtures are needed, for example, for the design of process plants and reservoir simulation studies. Often, experimental PVT data are available, but in practice a few PVT measurements are carried out for a given mixture. Therefore, it is necessary to use a thermodynamic model when planning production strategies for a given petroleum reservoir. This raises the question of what accuracy can be obtained using a cubic equation of state for phase equilibrium calculations, for example at conditions in which oil and gas are being produced. The only way to improve the agreement between measured and calculated results is to adjust the equation of state parameters. Currently, there is not a clear methodology to make these modifications. The objective of this study is to investigate the best tuning to describe the PVT experimental data: differential liberation, constant composition expansion and swelling test. The following programs were used: SPECS and MI-PVT (Technical University of Denmark) and WinProp (windows version of CMGPROP). The Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of sate was also used. Experimental data for 06 oil samples from Reconcavo Basin (Bahia- Brazil) were obtained in the CEPGN (Study Center on Oil and Natural Gas at UNIFACS) and used in the tuning (author)

  6. Internal structure and swelling behaviour of in silico microgel particles (United States)

    Rovigatti, Lorenzo; Gnan, Nicoletta; Zaccarelli, Emanuela


    Microgels are soft colloids that, by virtue of their polymeric nature, can react to external stimuli such as temperature or pH by changing their size. The resulting swelling/deswelling transition can be exploited in fundamental research as well as for many diverse practical applications, ranging from art restoration to medicine. Such an extraordinary versatility stems from the complex internal structure of the individual microgels, each of which is a crosslinked polymer network. Here we employ a recently-introduced computational method to generate realistic microgel configurations and look at their structural properties, both in real and Fourier space, for several temperatures across the volume phase transition as a function of the crosslinker concentration and of the confining radius employed during the ‘in-silico’ synthesis. We find that the chain-length distribution of the resulting networks can be analytically predicted by a simple theoretical argument. In addition, we find that our results are well-fitted to the fuzzy-sphere model, which correctly reproduces the density profile of the microgels under study.

  7. Controlling the swelling and wettability of weak polyelectrolyte brushes (United States)

    Gurtowski, Richard; Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Elaine


    Weak polyelectrolytes (PE) of tunable ionization shows great potential as ``smart'' polymer materials for diverse applications from drug delivery to energy storage. However, the conformational dynamics of surfaced-tethered weak PE chains remain inadequately understood due to the complexity of their dynamic charge states in response to solvation and surface immobilization conditions. In this work, we investigate the wetting and swelling characteristics of poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (P2VP) brushes grafted to a gold substrate by AFM and water contact angle measurements. We observe the collapse of P2VP brushes, accompanied with increased surface hydrophobicity, as increasing solution pH across a critical transition pH, which is considerably lower than the pKa of free P2VP chains in bulk solution. Surprisingly, the broadness of the transition pH range shows a strong dependence with brush thickness, but not grafting density, suggesting a distribution of chain ionization along grafted P2VP brushes. We further manipulate P2VP brush structures by applying ac-electric fields across the brushes to make tunable and switchable polymer surfaces.

  8. Mechanical and swelling behaviour of well characterized polybutadiene networks (United States)

    Mckenna, Gregory B.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.


    Endlinking of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene with the appropriate isocyanate has been used to prepare well characterized networks. Two networks have been studied with molecular weights of the prepolymers being 6100 and 2400 g/mole by g.p.c. Cylindrical specimens were prepared and the derivatives of the stored energy function with respect to the stretch invariants were determined by torque and normal force measurements in torsion. From these data the Valanis-Landel (1967) stored energy function derivatives w-prime(lambda) were determined for both networks. The stored energy function for the junction constraint model of Flory (1953, 1977, 1979, 1985) which is a special form of the Valanis-Landel function, has been fitted to that determined from the experiments. The contributions to the stored energy function from the phantom network and from the junction constraints respectively do not agree with predictions from the topologies of the networks. In spite of this, the form of w-prime(lambda) for the junction constraint model gives an excellent 'curve fit' to the data. Comparison is also made with equilibrium swelling.

  9. Nanoscale Swelling Heterogeneities in Type I Collagen Fibrils. (United States)

    Spitzner, Eike-Christian; Röper, Stephanie; Zerson, Mario; Bernstein, Anke; Magerle, Robert


    The distribution of water within the supramolecular structure of collagen fibrils is important for understanding their mechanical properties as well as the biomineralization processes in collagen-based tissues. We study the influence of water on the shape and the mechanical properties of reconstituted fibrils of type I collagen on the nanometer scale. Fibrils adsorbed on a silicon substrate were imaged with multiset point intermittent contact (MUSIC)-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) in air at 28% relative humidity (RH) and in a hydrated state at 78% RH. Our data reveal the differences in the water uptake between the gap and overlap regions during swelling. This provides direct evidence for different amounts of bound and free water within the gap and overlap regions. In the dry state, the characteristic D-band pattern visible in AFM images is due to height corrugations along a fibril's axis. In the hydrated state, the fibril's surface is smooth and the D-band pattern reflects the different mechanical properties of the gap and overlap regions.

  10. Brain Cell Swelling During Hypocapnia Increases with Hyperglycemia or Ketosis (United States)

    Glaser, Nicole; Bundros, Angeliki; Anderson, Steve; Tancredi, Daniel; Lo, Weei; Orgain, Myra; O'Donnell, Martha


    Severe hypocapnia increases the risk of DKA-related cerebral injury in children, but the reason for this association is unclear. To determine whether the effects of hypocapnia on the brain are altered during hyperglycemia or ketosis, we induced hypocapnia (pCO2 20 ± 3 mmHg) via mechanical ventilation in three groups of juvenile rats: 25 controls, 22 hyperglycemic rats (serum glucose 451± 78 mg/dL) and 15 ketotic rats (beta-hydroxy butyrate 3.0 ± 1.0 mmol/L). We used magnetic resonance imaging to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in these groups and in 17 ventilated rats with normal pCO2 (40±3 mmHg). In a subset (n=35), after 2 hrs of hypocapnia, pCO2 levels were normalized (40±3 mmHg) and ADC and CBF measurements repeated. Declines in CBF with hypocapnia occurred in all groups. Normalization of pCO2 after hypocapnia resulted in striatal hyperemia. These effects were not substantially altered by hyperglycemia or ketosis, however, declines in ADC during hypocapnia were greater during both hyperglycemia and ketosis. We conclude that brain cell swelling associated with hypocapnia is increased by both hyperglycemia and ketosis, suggesting that these metabolic conditions may make the brain more vulnerable to injury during hypocapnia. PMID:24443981

  11. Soil water content assessment: critical issues concerning the operational application of the triangle method. (United States)

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo


    Knowledge of soil water content plays a key role in water management efforts to improve irrigation efficiency. Among the indirect estimation methods of soil water content via Earth Observation data is the triangle method, used to analyze optical and thermal features because these are primarily controlled by water content within the near-surface evaporation layer and root zone in bare and vegetated soils. Although the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer theory describes the ongoing processes, theoretical models reveal limits for operational use. When applying simplified empirical formulations, meteorological forcing could be replaced with alternative variables when the above-canopy temperature is unknown, to mitigate the effects of calibration inaccuracies or to account for the temporal admittance of the soil. However, if applied over a limited area, a characterization of both dry and wet edges could not be properly achieved; thus, a multi-temporal analysis can be exploited to include outer extremes in soil water content. A diachronic empirical approach introduces the need to assume a constancy of other meteorological forcing variables that control thermal features. Airborne images were acquired on a Sicilian vineyard during most of an entire irrigation period (fruit-set to ripening stages, vintage 2008), during which in situ soil water content was measured to set up the triangle method. Within this framework, we tested the triangle method by employing alternative thermal forcing. The results were inaccurate when air temperature at airborne acquisition was employed. Sonic and aerodynamic air temperatures confirmed and partially explained the limits of simultaneous meteorological forcing, and the use of proxy variables improved model accuracy. The analysis indicates that high spatial resolution does not necessarily imply higher accuracies.

  12. Music Composition from the Cosine Law of a Frequency-Amplitude Triangle (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Vaggelis D.; Sotiropoulos, Anastasios D.

    We propose a frequency-amplitude triangle whose cosine law is used as a recurrence equation to algorithmically compose music. The triangle is defined by two sides and the angle between them; one of the sides is the sound frequency, x, at a step, the other side is the sound amplitude, y, at the same step, while the angle between them is a free parameter to be chosen by the composer. The resulting third side of the triangle is defined as the square root of the sound frequency, x, of the next step. The sound amplitude, y, at each step depends, in general, on the amplitude and frequency of the same or previous step(s) in any way the composer chooses. To test our proposition for bifurcation and chaos against known solutions, we consider in detail the case where the amplitude depends only on the frequency of the same or some previous step as yn = b(xn-m)λ, with b being a free parameter, m either zero or a positive integer, and λ a real number greater than or equal to zero. If λ is taken as zero, the resulting equation after a change of variables becomes the one parameter logistic recurrence equation. From the known range of the parameter for bifurcation and chaos, we obtain the range of values for sound amplitude and angle θ for periodic and chaotic music. For specific values, the frequencies corresponding to musical notes are obtained from the proposed triangular recurrence equation and musical chaotic scores are composed and presented. Other λ's are also considered and their effect on the periodicity of the frequencies is examined.

  13. High-order triangle-based discontinuous Galerkin methods for hyperbolic equations on a rotating sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo, Francis X.


    High-order triangle-based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for hyperbolic equations on a rotating sphere are presented. The DG method can be characterized as the fusion of finite elements with finite volumes. This DG formulation uses high-order Lagrange polynomials on the triangle using nodal sets up to 15th order. The finite element-type area integrals are evaluated using order 2N Gauss cubature rules. This leads to a full mass matrix which, unlike for continuous Galerkin (CG) methods such as the spectral element (SE) method presented in Giraldo and Warburton [A nodal triangle-based spectral element method for the shallow water equations on the sphere, J. Comput. Phys. 207 (2005) 129-150], is small, local and efficient to invert. Two types of finite volume-type flux integrals are studied: a set based on Gauss-Lobatto quadrature points (order 2N - 1) and a set based on Gauss quadrature points (order 2N). Furthermore, we explore conservation and advection forms as well as strong and weak forms. Seven test cases are used to compare the different methods including some with scale contractions and shock waves. All three strong forms performed extremely well with the strong conservation form with 2N integration being the most accurate of the four DG methods studied. The strong advection form with 2N integration performed extremely well even for flows with shock waves. The strong conservation form with 2N - 1 integration yielded results almost as good as those with 2N while being less expensive. All the DG methods performed better than the SE method for almost all the test cases, especially for those with strong discontinuities. Finally, the DG methods required less computing time than the SE method due to the local nature of the mass matrix

  14. Soil Water Content Assessment: Critical Issues Concerning the Operational Application of the Triangle Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Maltese


    Full Text Available Knowledge of soil water content plays a key role in water management efforts to improve irrigation efficiency. Among the indirect estimation methods of soil water content via Earth Observation data is the triangle method, used to analyze optical and thermal features because these are primarily controlled by water content within the near-surface evaporation layer and root zone in bare and vegetated soils. Although the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer theory describes the ongoing processes, theoretical models reveal limits for operational use. When applying simplified empirical formulations, meteorological forcing could be replaced with alternative variables when the above-canopy temperature is unknown, to mitigate the effects of calibration inaccuracies or to account for the temporal admittance of the soil. However, if applied over a limited area, a characterization of both dry and wet edges could not be properly achieved; thus, a multi-temporal analysis can be exploited to include outer extremes in soil water content. A diachronic empirical approach introduces the need to assume a constancy of other meteorological forcing variables that control thermal features. Airborne images were acquired on a Sicilian vineyard during most of an entire irrigation period (fruit-set to ripening stages, vintage 2008, during which in situ soil water content was measured to set up the triangle method. Within this framework, we tested the triangle method by employing alternative thermal forcing. The results were inaccurate when air temperature at airborne acquisition was employed. Sonic and aerodynamic air temperatures confirmed and partially explained the limits of simultaneous meteorological forcing, and the use of proxy variables improved model accuracy. The analysis indicates that high spatial resolution does not necessarily imply higher accuracies.

  15. Optical scatter imaging of cellular and mitochondrial swelling in brain tissue models of stroke (United States)

    Johnson, Lee James


    The severity of brain edema resulting from a stroke can determine a patient's survival and the extent of their recovery. Cellular swelling is the microscopic source of a significant part of brain edema. Mitochondrial swelling also appears to be a determining event in the death or survival of the cells that are injured during a stroke. Therapies for reducing brain edema are not effective in many cases and current treatments of stroke do not address mitochondrial swelling at all. This dissertation is motivated by the lack of a complete understanding of cellular swelling resulting from stroke and the lack of a good method to begin to study mitochondrial swelling resulting from stroke in living brain tissue. In this dissertation, a novel method of detecting mitochondrial and cellular swelling in living hippocampal slices is developed and validated. The system is used to obtain spatial and temporal information about cellular and mitochondrial swelling resulting from various models of stroke. The effect of changes in water content on light scatter and absorption are examined in two models of brain edema. The results of this study demonstrate that optical techniques can be used to detect changes in water content. Mie scatter theory, the theoretical basis of the dual- angle scatter ratio imaging system, is presented. Computer simulations based on Mie scatter theory are used to determine the optimal angles for imaging. A detailed account of the early systems is presented to explain the motivations for the system design, especially polarization, wavelength and light path. Mitochondrial sized latex particles are used to determine the system response to changes in scattering particle size and concentration. The dual-angle scatter ratio imaging system is used to distinguish between osmotic and excitotoxic models of stroke injury. Such distinction cannot be achieved using the current techniques to study cellular swelling in hippocampal slices. The change in the scatter ratio is

  16. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: reducing anterior tibial subluxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Bart; Duerr, Eric R. H.; van Dijk, C. Niek; Fu, Freddie H.


    To measure and compare the amount of anterior tibial subluxation (ATS) after anatomic ACL reconstruction for both acute and chronic ACL-deficient patients. Fifty-two patients were clinically and radiographically evaluated after primary, unilateral, anatomic ACL reconstruction. Post-operative true

  17. The Measurement of Polymer Swelling Processes by an Interferometric Method and Evaluation of Diffusion Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Mráček


    Full Text Available The amorphous polymer film swelling in a liquid solvent below the glass transition temperature was characterized by a few kinetic parameters (especially the mutual diffusion coefficient of swelling and its mean value obtained by interference of monochromatic light in the wedge arrangement. This interferometric method allows one to determine the concentration field in the swollen surface layer and consequently to compute the concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient. A software system developed at the Department of Physics and Material Engineering at TBU in Zlin has been used for the evaluation of the main kinetic parameters of the swelling process. The software can be used for the on-line analyses of interferograms during the swelling process. The main application outputs are the computation of the concentration profile, the concentration gradient, the mutual diffusion coefficient of the swelling by the solvent and its mean value.

  18. The Influence of Temperature on Swelling Characteristics of Compacted Bentonite for Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Moniruzzaman Shirazi


    Full Text Available A series of experiment was conducted to find out the temperature effect on swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite. The expansion of partly saturated bentonite affects the volume change of air in the specimen respect to initial dry density. Swelling pressure reaches nearly maximum when degree of saturation of specimen is about 95% for all initial dry densities (1.29 ~ 1.95 g/cm3 in swelling pressure test using temperature 20 ~80°C. Initial dry density and temperature are the governing parameter to control the swelling pressure and deformation of compacted bentonite. To predict the swelling pressure an equation has been proposed in relation to content of montmorillonite, temperature and initial dry density of bentonite. The maximum difference between the experimental values and the fitting of this equation is 15% on an average.

  19. Cell swelling activates separate taurine and chloride channels in Ehrlich mouse ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Hoffmann, Else Kay


    The taurine efflux from Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is stimulated by hypotonic cell swelling. The swelling-activated taurine efflux is unaffected by substitution of gluconate for extracellular Cl– but inhibited by addition of MK196 (anion channel blocker) and 4,4 -diisothiocyanostilbene-2......,2 -disulfonic acid (DIDS; anion channel and anion exchange blocker) and by depolarization of the cell membrane. This is taken to indicate that taurine does not leave the osmotically swollen Ehrlich cells in exchange for extracellular Cl–, i.e., via the anion exchanger but via a MK196- and DIDS-sensitive channel...... that is potential dependent. An additional stimulation of the swelling-activated taurine efflux is seen after addition of arachidonic acid and oleic acid. Cell swelling also activates a Mini Cl– channel. The Cl– efflux via this Cl– channel, in contrast to the swelling-activated taurine efflux, is unaffected by DIDS...

  20. Combining the triangle method with thermal inertia to estimate regional evapotranspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, Simon; Sandholt, Inge; Nørgaard, Anette


    Spatially distributed estimates of evaporative fraction and actual evapotranspiration are pursued using a simple remote sensing technique based on a remotely sensed vegetation index (NDVI) and diurnal changes in land surface temperature. The technique, known as the triangle method, is improved...... in surface temperature, dTs with an interpretation of the triangular shaped dTs-NDVI space allows for a direct estimation of evaporative fraction. The mean daytime energy available for evapotranspiration (Rn-G) is estimated using several remote sensors and limited ancillary data. Finally regional estimates...

  1. Historical and commercial triangle of Athens. Patrimonalization through imaginary urban projects, rhetoric and rediscovery of tradition


    Katerina Polychroniadi


    Athens has both famous and infamous identities. A city immersed in history surrounded by an"ugly"contemporary urban environment. A city which people love to ‘hate’ exactly due to this dense urban environment and fast pace, but which at the same time is celebrated for its lively everyday (and night) life and creativity. In this paper we focus on the so called "historical and commercial triangle", the city’s downtown in which the historic image of Athens juxtaposes to (coexists with) the most i...

  2. Synthesis of Vertically Standing MoS2 Triangles on SiC


    Feifei Lan; Zhanping Lai; Yongkuan Xu; Hongjuan Cheng; Zaien Wang; Chengjun Qi; Jianli Chen; Song Zhang


    Layered material MoS2 has been attracting much attention due to its excellent electronical properties and catalytic property. Here we report the synthesis of vertically standing MoS2 triangles on silicon carbon(SiC), through a rapid sulfidation process. Such edge-terminated films are metastable structures of MoS2, which may find applications in FinFETs and catalytic reactions. We have confirmed the catalytic property in a hydrogen evolution reaction(HER). The Tafel slope is about 54mV/decade.

  3. Utilization of triangle nanosilver to prepare spherical nanosilver and quantitatively detect trace titanium by SERS


    Liu, Qingye; Wen, Guiqing; Zhang, Xinghui; Liang, Aihui; Jiang, Zhiliang


    The blue triangle nanosilver (BAgNP) sol was prepared by the two reducers of NaBH4 and H2O2. Using BAgNP as the precursor, a small spherical nanosilver (AgNP) sol in yellow was synthesized by addition of suitable amounts of X ? (X?=?Cl, Br, and I). The oxidization process of BAgNP to AgNP was studied in detail by resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS), surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), laser scattering, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption, and microscope techniques. It has been ob...

  4. Visualisation of uncertainty for the trade-off triangle used in sustainable agriculture (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Takahashi, Taro; Lee, Michael


    Agriculture at the global-scale is at a critical juncture where competing requirements for maximal production and minimal pollution have led to the concept of sustainable intensification. All farming systems (arable, grasslands, etc.) are part of this debate, where each have particular associated environmental risks such as water and air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and soil degradation, as well as issues affecting production efficiency, product quality and consumer acceptability, reflected in the development of agricultural sustainability policies. These challenges necessitate multidisciplinary solutions that can only be properly researched, implemented and tested in real-world production systems which are suited to their geographical and climatic production practice. In this respect, various high-profile agricultural data collection experiments have been set up, such as the North Wyke Farm Platform ( to research agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices. In this farm-scale grasslands experiment, data on hydrology, emissions, nutrient cycling, biodiversity, productivity and livestock welfare/health are collected, that in turn, are converted to trade-off metrics with respect to: (i) economic profits, (ii) societal benefits and (iii) environmental concerns, under the umbrella of sustainable intensification. Similar agriculture research platforms have similar objectives, where data collections are ultimately synthesised into trade-off metrics. Trade-offs metrics can then be usefully visualized via the usual sustainable triangle, with a new triangle for each key time period (e.g. baseline versus post-baseline). This enables a visual assessment of change in sustainability harmony or discord, according to the remit of the given research experiment. In this paper, we discuss different approaches to calculation of the sustainability trade-off metrics that are required from the farm

  5. The World Financial and Economic Crisis and Its Impact on China-US-Russia Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Dmitrievich Voskressenski


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current state of relations in the triangle of Russia-US-China after the late-2000s global financial crisis from the point of view of their national interests, East Asian policy of the USA, China's growth and the strengthening of Russia in Asia. The author critically examines the existing approaches, foreign policy concepts and the latest initiatives which could shift the balance of power in the post-crisis period. According to the author, Russia still has all the chances to reshape its relations with China and the United States.

  6. Adults and 5-year-old children draw rectangles and triangles around a prototype but not in the golden ratio. (United States)

    Kalénine, Solène; Cheam, Caroline; Izard, Véronique; Gentaz, Edouard


    This study uses a production task to probe the representations of two geometrical shape categories (rectangles and triangles) in adults and children before the onset of geometry instruction. We specifically assessed whether drawings of these shapes would average around a prototype and whether the prototypical side-length ratio of the shapes would be situated in the range of the 'golden ratio', as it has been reported in the perception domain. We asked 78 adults and 68 five-year-old children to draw one rectangle and one triangle. In both populations, the prototypical rectangle was horizontally oriented with a ratio between sides superior to the 'golden' value of 1.62. For the triangle, both children and adults tended to produce horizontal acute isosceles triangles with a ratio inferior to the golden value. These findings suggest that adults' and children's shape categories of triangles and rectangles are organized around a prototypical shape, but the characteristics of this prototype may differ to a certain extent with the ones observed in previous perceptual tasks. Implications of this perception/production dissociation for length concept development, as well as the potential origins of these prototypes are discussed. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Fracture of the anterior colliculus. (United States)

    Skie, M C; Ebraheim, N A; Woldenberg, L; Randall, K


    The authors retrospectively reviewed 33 cases of fracture involving the anterior colliculus of the medial malleolus to examine clinical results of operative treatment for these fractures. Although this injury appears innocuous, it can be difficult to obtain stable fixation of the fragment intraoperatively, and painful nonunion can result. A simple reduction maneuver and method of tension band fixation are described.

  8. Assessment of void swelling in austenitic stainless steel PWR core internals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H. M.; Energy Technology


    As many pressurized water reactors (PWRs) age and life extension of the aged plants is considered, void swelling behavior of austenitic stainless steel (SS) core internals has become the subject of increasing attention. In this report, the available database on void swelling and density change of austenitic SSs was critically reviewed. Irradiation conditions, test procedures, and microstructural characteristics were carefully examined, and key factors that are important to determine the relevance of the database to PWR conditions were evaluated. Most swelling data were obtained from steels irradiated in fast breeder reactors at temperatures >385 C and at dose rates that are orders of magnitude higher than PWR dose rates. Even for a given irradiation temperature and given steel, the integral effects of dose and dose rate on void swelling should not be separated. It is incorrect to extrapolate swelling data on the basis of 'progressive compounded multiplication' of separate effects of factors such as dose, dose rate, temperature, steel composition, and fabrication procedure. Therefore, the fast reactor data should not be extrapolated to determine credible void swelling behavior for PWR end-of-life (EOL) or life-extension conditions. Although the void swelling data extracted from fast reactor studies is extensive and conclusive, only limited amounts of swelling data and information have been obtained on microstructural characteristics from discharged PWR internals or steels irradiated at temperatures and at dose rates comparable to those of a PWR. Based on this relatively small amount of information, swelling in thin-walled tubes and baffle bolts in a PWR is not considered a concern. As additional data and relevant research becomes available, the newer results should be integrated with existing data, and the worthiness of this conclusion should continue to be scrutinized. PWR baffle reentrant corners are the most likely location to experience high swelling

  9. Assessment of void swelling in austenitic stainless steel PWR core internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.


    As many pressurized water reactors (PWRs) age and life extension of the aged plants is considered, void swelling behavior of austenitic stainless steel (SS) core internals has become the subject of increasing attention. In this report, the available database on void swelling and density change of austenitic SSs was critically reviewed. Irradiation conditions, test procedures, and microstructural characteristics were carefully examined, and key factors that are important to determine the relevance of the database to PWR conditions were evaluated. Most swelling data were obtained from steels irradiated in fast breeder reactors at temperatures >385 C and at dose rates that are orders of magnitude higher than PWR dose rates. Even for a given irradiation temperature and given steel, the integral effects of dose and dose rate on void swelling should not be separated. It is incorrect to extrapolate swelling data on the basis of 'progressive compounded multiplication' of separate effects of factors such as dose, dose rate, temperature, steel composition, and fabrication procedure. Therefore, the fast reactor data should not be extrapolated to determine credible void swelling behavior for PWR end-of-life (EOL) or life-extension conditions. Although the void swelling data extracted from fast reactor studies is extensive and conclusive, only limited amounts of swelling data and information have been obtained on microstructural characteristics from discharged PWR internals or steels irradiated at temperatures and at dose rates comparable to those of a PWR. Based on this relatively small amount of information, swelling in thin-walled tubes and baffle bolts in a PWR is not considered a concern. As additional data and relevant research becomes available, the newer results should be integrated with existing data, and the worthiness of this conclusion should continue to be scrutinized. PWR baffle reentrant corners are the most likely location to experience high swelling rates, and

  10. Generation of continental rifts, basins, and swells by lithosphere instabilities (United States)

    Fourel, Loïc.; Milelli, Laura; Jaupart, Claude; Limare, Angela


    Continents may be affected simultaneously by rifting, uplift, volcanic activity, and basin formation in several different locations, suggesting a common driving mechanism that is intrinsic to continents. We describe a new type of convective instability at the base of the lithosphere that leads to a remarkable spatial pattern at the scale of an entire continent. We carried out fluid mechanics laboratory experiments on buoyant blocks of finite size that became unstable due to cooling from above. Dynamical behavior depends on three dimensionless numbers, a Rayleigh number for the unstable block, a buoyancy number that scales the intrinsic density contrast to the thermal one, and the aspect ratio of the block. Within the block, instability develops in two different ways in an outer annulus and in an interior region. In the outer annulus, upwellings and downwellings take the form of periodically spaced radial spokes. The interior region hosts the more familiar convective pattern of polygonal cells. In geological conditions, such instabilities should manifest themselves as linear rifts striking at a right angle to the continent-ocean boundary and an array of domal uplifts, volcanic swells, and basins in the continental interior. Simple scaling laws for the dimensions and spacings of the convective structures are derived. For the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, these dimensions take values in the 500-1000 km range, close to geological examples. The large intrinsic buoyancy of Archean lithospheric roots prevents this type of instability, which explains why the widespread volcanic activity that currently affects Western Africa is confined to post-Archean domains.

  11. Cell swelling and ion redistribution assessed with intrinsic optical signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Cell volume changes are associated with alterations of intrinsic optical signals (IOS. In submerged brain slices in vitro, afferent stimulation induces an increase in light transmission. As assessed by measurement of the largely membrane impermeant ion tetramethylammonium (TMA in the extracellular space, these IOS correlate with the extent and time course of the change of the extracellular space size. They have a high signal to noise ratio and allow measurements of IOS changes in the order of a few percent. Under conditions of reduced net KCl uptake (low Cl solution a directed spatial buffer mechanism (K syphoning can be demonstrated in the neocortex with widening of the extracellular space in superficial layers associated with a reduced light transmission and an increase of extracellular K concentration. The nature of the IOS under pathophysiological conditions is less clear. Spreading depressions first cause an increase of light transmission, then a decrease. Such a decrease has also been observed following application of NMDA where it was associated with structural damage. Pharmacological analyses suggest that under physiological conditions changes of extracellular space size are mainly caused by astrocytic volume changes while with strong stimuli and under pathophysiological conditions also neuronal swelling occurs. With reflected light usually signals opposite to those observed with transmitted light are seen. Recording of IOS from interface slices gives very complex signals since under these conditions an increase of light transmission has been reported to be superimposed by a decrease of the signal due to mechanical lensing effects of the slice surface. Depending on the method of measurement and the exact conditions, several mechanisms may contribute to IOS. Under well defined conditions IOS are a useful supplementary tool to monitor changes of extracellular volume both in space and time.

  12. Anterior cervical spine surgery-associated complications in a retrospective case-control study. (United States)

    Tasiou, Anastasia; Giannis, Theofanis; Brotis, Alexandros G; Siasios, Ioannis; Georgiadis, Iordanis; Gatos, Haralampos; Tsianaka, Eleni; Vagkopoulos, Konstantinos; Paterakis, Konstantinos; Fountas, Kostas N


    Anterior cervical spine procedures have been associated with satisfactory outcomes. However, the occurrence of troublesome complications, although uncommon, needs to be taken into consideration. The purpose of our study was to assess the actual incidence of anterior cervical spine procedure-associated complications and identify any predisposing factors. A total of 114 patients undergoing anterior cervical procedures over a 6-year period were included in our retrospective, case-control study. The diagnosis was cervical radiculopathy, and/or myelopathy due to degenerative disc disease, cervical spondylosis, or traumatic cervical spine injury. All our participants underwent surgical treatment, and complications were recorded. The most commonly performed procedure (79%) was anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Fourteen patients (12.3%) underwent anterior cervical corpectomy and interbody fusion, seven (6.1%) ACDF with plating, two (1.7%) odontoid screw fixation, and one anterior removal of osteophytes for severe Forestier's disease. Mean follow-up time was 42.5 months (range, 6-78 months). The overall complication rate was 13.2%. Specifically, we encountered adjacent intervertebral disc degeneration in 2.7% of our cases, dysphagia in 1.7%, postoperative soft tissue swelling and hematoma in 1.7%, and dural penetration in 1.7%. Additionally, esophageal perforation was observed in 0.9%, aggravation of preexisting myelopathy in 0.9%, symptomatic recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in 0.9%, mechanical failure in 0.9%, and superficial wound infection in 0.9%. In the vast majority anterior cervical spine surgery-associated complications are minor, requiring no further intervention. Awareness, early recognition, and appropriate management, are of paramount importance for improving the patients' overall functional outcome.

  13. CALL: A Triangle of Triangles (United States)

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine


    Institutional investment in technology and infrastructure for the provision of new online and self-access language learning opportunities is not always accompanied by the necessary changes in the practices of learners, practitioners and managers in higher education (Wertsch, 2002). As a result, feelings of frustration, helplessness and confusion…

  14. Válvula de uretra anterior Anterior urethral valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Tucci Jr.


    Full Text Available Objetivo: apresentar os aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos de pacientes portadores de válvula da uretra anterior. Descrição: em dois neonatos, o diagnóstico presuntivo de patologia obstrutiva do trato urinário foi sugerido pela ultra-sonografia realizada no período pré-natal, confirmando-se o diagnóstico de válvula de uretra anterior pela avaliação pós-natal. Os pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico paliativo, com vesicostomia temporária e, posteriormente, definitivo, pela fulguração endoscópica das válvulas. Ambos evoluíram com função renal normal. Comentários: a válvula da uretra anterior é anomalia rara que deve ser considerada em meninos com quadro radiológico pré-natal sugestivo de obstrução infravesical, secundariamente à hipótese mais comum de válvula da uretra posterior. Ressaltamos a utilização da vesicostomia como derivação urinária temporária nestes casos, prevenindo potenciais complicações pela manipulação da uretra do recém-nascido.Objective: to discuss clinical signs, diagnostic tools and therapeutics of anterior urethral valves, an obstructive anomaly of the urinary system in males. Description: signs of urinary tract obstruction were identified on pre-natal ultrasound in two male fetuses and the diagnosis of anterior urethral valves was made through post-natal evaluation. As an initial treatment, vesicostomy was performed in both patients. Later, the valves were fulgurated using an endoscopic procedure. During the follow-up period both patients presented normal renal function. Comments: anterior urethral valves are a rare form of urethral anomaly that must be ruled out in boys with pre-natal ultrasound indicating infravesical obstruction. Vesicostomy used as an initial treatment rather than transurethral fulguration may prevent potential complications that can occur due to the small size of the neonatal urethra.

  15. The 2004 UTfit collaboration report on the status of the unitarity triangle in the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bona, Marcella; Ciuchini, Marco; Franco, Enrico; Lubicz, Vittorio; Martinelli, Guido; Parodi, Fabrizio; Pierini, Maurizio; Roudeau, Patrick; Schiavi, Carlo; Silvestrini, Luca; Stocchi, Achille


    Using the latest determinations of several theoretical and experimental parameters, we update the Unitarity Triangle analysis in the Standard Model. The basic experimental constraints come from the measurements of |V ub /V cb |, Δm d , the lower limit on Δm s , ε K , and the measurement of the phase of the B d - B-bar d mixing amplitude through the time-dependent CP asymmetry in B 0 →J/ψK 0 decays. In addition, we consider the direct determination of α, γ, 2β+γ and cos 2β from the measurements of new CP-violating quantities, recently performed at the B factories. We also discuss the opportunities offered by improving the precision of the various physical quantities entering in the determination of the Unitarity Triangle parameters. The results and the plots presented in this paper can also be found at the URL , where they are continuously updated with the newest experimental and theoretical results

  16. Strain analysis in the Orijärvi triangle, southwestern Finland; in perspective of tectonic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stel, H.


    Full Text Available Finite strain analyses were performed in metavolcanic rocks (agglomerates and pillowed metabasalts from the Orijärvi area, southwestern Finland. In this area, tight folding (F1 of layered metasedimentary rocks and development of a penetrative axial plane schistosity (S1 took place during an early stage in the Svecofennian orogeny. Within the domain, there is no evidence of older deformational structures or of a later deformation phase; except in narrow, late-stage shear zones that bound the Orijärvi triangle. During the orogenic evolution, a pervasive attenuation of the fabric in metavolcanic rocks has taken place. In order to quantify strain intensity and to investigate the relation of strain in metavolcanics and folding in metasediments, strain analyses were performed by the Rf/φ method on (subelliptical markers. Metavolcanic rocks demonstrate relatively homogeneous strain values on the outcrop scale, but strain parameters vary strongly on the scale of the study area. This variation in strain correlates with variation in rock composition; felsic metavolcanics demonstrate consistently lower strain intensities than mafic ones. Finite strain ellipsoids are prolate, indicating that the rocks underwent apparent constriction. X axes of strain are(subparallel to the regional fold axis. Constriction in the Orijärvi triangle is not in conflict with any of the current tectonic models. However, given the local structural setting, the most straightforward interpretation is that of progressive constriction by plutonic diapirism.

  17. Ablation lesions in Koch's triangle assessed by three-dimensional myocardial contrast echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cate Folkert


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE allows visualization of radiofrequency (RF ablation lesions in the left ventricle in an animal model. Aim: To test whether MCE allows visualization of RF and cryo ablation lesions in the human right atrium using three-dimensional echocardiography. Methods 18 patients underwent catheter ablation of a supraventricular tachycardia and were included in this prospective single-blind study. Twelve patients were ablated inside Koch's triangle and 6, who served as controls, outside this area. Three-dimensional echocardiography of Koch's triangle was performed before and after the ablation procedure in all patients, using respiration and ECG gated pullback of a 9 MHz ICE transducer, with and without continuous intravenous echocontrast infusion (SonoVue, Bracco. Two independent observers analyzed the data off-line. Results MCE identified ablation lesions as a low contrast area within the normal atrial myocardial tissue. Craters on the endocardial surface were seen in 10 (83% patients after ablation. Lesions were identified in 11 out of 12 patients (92%. None of the control patients were recognized as having been ablated. The confidence score of the independent echo reviewer tended to be higher when the number of applications increased. Conclusions 1. MCE allows direct visualization of ablation lesions in the human atrial myocardium. 2. Both RF and cryo energy lesions can be identified using MCE.

  18. Bermuda Triangle: a subsystem of the 168/E interfacing scheme used by Group B at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Levinson, L.J.; Trang, Q.H.


    The Bermuda Triangle system is a method of interfacing several 168/E microprocessors to a central system for control of the processors and overlaying their memories. The system is a three-way interface with I/O ports to a large buffer memory, a PDP11 Unibus and a bus to the 168/E processors. Data may be transferred bidirectionally between any two ports. Two Bermuda Triangles are used, one for the program memory and one for the data memory. The program buffer memory stores the overlay programs for the 168/E, and the data buffer memory, the incoming raw data, the data portion of the overlays, and the outgoing processed events. This buffering is necessary since the memories of 168/E microprocessors are small compared to the main program and the amount of data being processed. The link to the computer facility is via a Unibus to IBM channel interface. A PDP11/04 controls the data flow. 7 figures, 4 tables

  19. The semiosis of the Anthropocene geological era. Reflections between geoethics and semiotics starting from Peirce's triangle (United States)

    De Pascale, Francesco; Dattilo, Valeria


    This paper presents the first formulation of a theoretical proposal which aims to reconcile, or better, to work together, two different approaches: geoethics and the semiotic tradition of Peirce, on the basis of some important affinities. We will refer to geoethics, discipline that deals with the ethical, social and cultural implications of geological and geographical practice, at the intersection of Geoscience, Geography, Philosophy, Sociology and Economy. The proposal of this work is to try to explain the new processes of the Anthropocene era through geoethics and semiotics, using as a "translator mechanism" one of the key notions of Peirce semiotics: the semiotic triangle. On the one hand, we employ the geoethical paradigm as a possible interpretative framework for such processes (in other words, we identify in the geoethical paradigm a significant exemplification of hippocratic type, according to some scientists); on the other hand, we use the triangle "geology / geography - planet illness - society", as a metaphor of the principles and the processes inherent Anthropocene era, able to return them in a particularly random way through the semiotic triangulation of Peirce.

  20. Childhood catatonia, autism and psychosis past and present: is there an 'iron triangle'? (United States)

    Shorter, E; Wachtel, L E


    To explore the possibility that autism, catatonia and psychoses in children are different manifestations of a single underlying form of brain pathology - a kind of 'Iron Triangle' of symptomatology - rather than three separate illnesses. Systematic evaluation of historical case literature on autism to determine if catatonic and psychotic symptoms accompanied the diagnosis, as is found in some challenging present-day cases. It is clear from the historical literature that by the 1920s all three diagnoses in the Iron Triangle - catatonia, autism and childhood schizophrenia - were being routinely applied to children and adolescents. Furthermore, it is apparent that children diagnosed with one of these conditions often qualified for the other two as well. Although conventional thinking today regards these diagnoses as separate entities, the presence of catatonia in a variety of conditions is being increasingly recognized, and there is also growing evidence of connections between childhood-onset psychoses and autism. Recognition of a mixed form of catatonia, autism and psychosis has important implications for both diagnosis and treatment. None of the separate diagnoses provides an accurate picture in these complex cases, and when given single diagnoses such as 'schizophrenia', the standard treatment options may prove markedly ineffective. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.