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Sample records for anterior triangle swellings

  1. Management of anterior triangle swellings in a tertiary vascular centre with emphasis on the roles of duplex ultrasound, computed tomography angiogram and magnetic resonance angiogram: a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Colleran, Gabrielle C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior triangle masses pose an important clinical dilemma. It is very difficult to distinguish the potential pathologies pre operatively by clinical and radiological assessment. CASE REPORT: The first case highlights the management of a bilateral chemodectoma, the second case is a presentation of castleman\\'s disease and the third is that of metastatic tonsillar adenocarcinoma. All three cases had a similar presentation and radiological appearance pre-operatively. CONCLUSION: Anterior triangle masses span the clinical spectrum of pathologies from chemodectoma to castleman\\'s disease to carcinoma. Expert vascular and radiological management is required for optimum patient care and should take place in a tertiary referral centre. Duplex US, CTA and MRA are important pre operative assessment tools to ensure that adequate information regarding the relationship of the lesion to the carotid artery is available to the operating surgeon who should have vascular expertise as deliberate practice volume has been repeatedly shown to result in improved patient outcome.

  2. Volumetry and analysis of anatomical variants of the anterior portion of the petrous apex outlined by the kawase triangle using computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams Pérez, Juliano; Rassier Isolan, Gustavo; Pires de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Antunes, Apio Martins

    2014-06-01

    Background Anterior petrosectomy has become an increasingly used approach for petroclival lesions. This study measures the volume and the anatomical variants of the anterior portion of the petrous apex outlined by the Kawase triangle using computed tomography (CT). Methods This was a transversal retrospective study. We assessed the anterior petrous apex portion outlined by the Kawase triangle in consecutive patients > 18 years of age from CT scans of temporal bone stored in an archive system. The volumetry was performed on a workstation. Results A total of 154 petrosal apex were analyzed in 77 patients (36 men). The average volume of the region outlined by the Kawase triangle was 1.89 ± 0.52 cm(3). The volume average in men was 2.01 ± 0.58 cm(3), and the average in women was 1.79 ± 0.41 cm(3). Intra- and interobserver agreement were both excellent, and there was little variance. Nineteen petrous apex demonstrated anatomical variations. In 18 cases it was pneumatized, and in one case a vascular or nerve-like structure was identified, a report we did not find in the literature. Conclusion The volumetry of the petrous apex anterior portion outlined by the Kawase triangle can be made by CT with excellent intra- and interobserver agreement and reproducibility. There are anatomical variants in this region that are relevant to surgery.

  3. The effect of cold therapy on pain, swelling, and range of motion after anterior cruciate ligament reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, D M; Stone, M L; Arendt, D L

    1994-10-01

    This prospective study assessed the effect of cold therapy on pain, pain medication use, limb swelling, and knee range of motion in 131 patients who had an arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Patients were randomized into five treatment groups. Cooling pads were incorporated into the dressing in 89 patients, and no cooling pads were used in 42 patients. There were four cooling-pad temperature groups: 40 degrees F, 45 degrees F, 55 degrees F, and 70 degrees F. The cooling pads lowered the skin temperature. There was no difference between groups with respect to hospital stay, pain medication use, pain scale, knee girth, or range of motion.

  4. Pseudo-aneurysm of the anterior tibial artery, a rare cause of ankle swelling following a sports injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAteer Eamon

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle pain and swelling following sports injuries are common presenting complaints to the accident and emergency department. Frequently these are diagnosed as musculoskeletal injuries, even when no definitive cause is found. Vascular injuries following trauma are uncommon and are an extremely rare cause of ankle swelling and pain. These injuries may however be limb threatening and are important to diagnose early, in order that appropriate treatment can be delivered. We highlight the steps to diagnosis of these injuries, and methods of managing these injuries. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the potential for this injury in patients with seemingly innocuous trauma from sports injuries, who have significant ankle pain and swelling. Case presentation A young, professional sportsman presented with a swollen, painful ankle after an innocuous hyper-plantar flexion injury whilst playing football, which was initially diagnosed as a ligamentous injury after no bony injury was revealed on X-Ray. He returned 2 days later with a large ulcer at the lateral malleolus and further investigation by duplex ultrasound and transfemoral arteriogram revealed a Pseudo-Aneurysm of the Anterior Tibial Artery. This was initially managed with percutaneous injection of thrombin, and later open surgery to ligate the feeding vessel. The patient recovered fully and was able to return to recreational sport. Conclusion Vascular injuries remain a rare cause of ankle pain and swelling following sports injuries, however it is important to consider these injuries when no definite musculo-skeletal cause is found. Ultrasound duplex and Transfemoral arteriogram are appropriate, sensitive modalities for investigation, and may allow novel treatment to be directed percutaneously. Early diagnosis and intervention are essential for the successful outcome in these patients.

  5. 切牙区黑三角与正畸治疗的研究进展%Research progress on anterior black triangle and orthodontic therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支方静

    2011-01-01

    Black triangle is common phenomenon in our dental clinical treatment, the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of which involving periodontics, prosthodontics and orthodontics. During the dental treatment, we should strengthen the understanding, pay attention to multidisciplinary cooperation, in order to prevent the happening of black triangle effectively. As the increasing of esthetic consciousness, patients put a high demanding on orthodontic treatment. The occurrence of black triangle after orthodontic therapy would not only be unesthetic, but also adversely affect the health of periodontium, occlusal relationship and stability of teeth arrangement. In this article, the prevalence of anterior black triangle after orthodontic treatment, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and prevention were reviewed, in order to provide a reference for the orthodontic clinical.%黑三角在口腔临床中是较为常见的现象,其病因、诊断和治疗涉及牙周、修复、正畸等多个学科,临床诊疗过程中需要加强对黑三角的认识,注意多学科的密切合作,才能有效地预防黑三角的发生.随着审美意识的增强,正畸患者对治疗提出了更高的要求.正畸治疗后黑三角的发生不仅影响美观,而且严重影响了患者的牙周组织健康、咬合关系以及牙齿排列的稳定性.本文通过对切牙区黑三角在正畸治疗中的发病情况、相关危险因素、诊断、治疗和预防等作一综述,以期为临床提供参考.

  6. Pythagorean triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinski, Waclaw

    2011-01-01

    The Pythagorean Theorem is one of the fundamental theorems of elementary geometry, and Pythagorean triangles - right triangles whose sides are natural numbers - have been studied by mathematicians since antiquity. In this classic text, a brilliant Polish mathematician explores the intriguing mathematical relationships in such triangles.Starting with ""primitive"" Pythagorean triangles, the text examines triangles with sides less than 100, triangles with two sides that are successive numbers, divisibility of one of the sides by 3 or by 5, the values of the sides of triangles, triangles with th

  7. Faulhaber's Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi-Dashti, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Like Pascal's triangle, Faulhaber's triangle is easy to draw: all you need is a little recursion. The rows are the coefficients of polynomials representing sums of integer powers. Such polynomials are often called Faulhaber formulae, after Johann Faulhaber (1580-1635); hence we dub the triangle Faulhaber's triangle.

  8. Pythagorean triangles within Pythagorean triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Zelator, Konstantine

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the following question. Given a Pythagorean triangle BCA, with the right angle at C, let P be a point on the hupotenuse BA; and let D and E be the perpendicular projections of the point P onto the sides BC and CA respectively.When is either of the right triangles BDP and PEA Pythagorean? As it turns out, according to Theorem1, they are either both Pythagorean, or neither of them is.When they are both Pythagorean,a complete parametric description of these two triangles is given; in terms of the parameters that describe the Pythagorean triangle BCA. Later in the paper, we offer a complete analysis of three special cases:the case wherein the point P is the midpoint M of the hypotenuse BA; the case when P is the foot I of the 90 degree angle bisector;and the case in ehich the point P is the foot F of the perpendicular drawn from the vertex C to the hypotenuse. After that, some other cases are investigated as well.Specifically, we consider the case in which not only the triangles BDP a...

  9. High-dose intravenous pulse steroid therapy for optic disc swelling and subretinal fluid in non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kei; Kaneko, Hiroki; Kachi, Shu; Ra, Eimei; Ito, Yasuki; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is a disease with microvascular abnormality that causes acute optic disc swelling (ODS) and, in severe cases, subretinal fluid (SRF) accumulation. ODS causes compartment syndrome and subsequent axonal degeneration and loss of retinal ganglion cells by apoptosis. No treatment modalities have been effective, although some cases improved after the intake of oral systemic steroids. We reported a case of a 72-year-old man who was referred due to a visual defect in the right eye. At first presentation, visual acuity and visual field were disturbed; critical flicker frequency (CFF) was decreased; and optic coherence tomography (OCT) showed ODS and SRF. Microscopic examination revealed parapapillary hemorrhage and fluorescence angiography showed non-filling, temporal-superior choroidal lesion adjacent to the optic disc at an early phase. After high-dose intravenous steroid treatment, SRF and ODS were decreased, and completely resolved after 30 days. Visual acuity and CFF were improved, and visual field was enlarged. High-dose intravenous steroids could possibly resolve SRF and ODS and improve visual function of patients with NAION. Some cases in NAION improved visual acuity and visual function in natural course, more cases were needed to evaluate the efficiency.

  10. Bilateral Petit’s Triangle Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Bhasin, Arshad Bashir Khan, Sanjay Sharma

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar traingle hernia that occurs through lumbar triangles is very rare type of hernia. Only about 300 cases havebeen reported till date. Bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia find further rarity and the case under reference is probably thefirst ever reported case of Primary bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia. The present case is of a 46 years old married,multigravida female who presented with 1 year duration of LBA and subsequently notice of swelling both sides oflow back. FNAC revealed lipoma and on exploration it turned out to be rarest extra peritoneal bilateral Petit’s trianglehernia, fat as contents.

  11. Areas of Triangles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>We know that the area of any right triangle is half the area of the rectangle which has the same height and the same base with the triangle.The area of rectangle DFEG below is bh.So the area of triangle DFG is 1/2bh. Now we can give a proof of the conclusion that every triangle has half the area of a related rectangle.

  12. Facial swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help reduce facial swelling. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if you have: Sudden, painful, or severe facial ... or if you have breathing problems. The health care provider will ask about your medical and personal history. This helps determine treatment or ...

  13. The Fibonacci partition triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Fahr, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    In two previous papers we have presented partition formulae for the Fibonacci numbers motivated by the appearance of the Fibonacci numbers in the representation theory of the 3-Kronecker quiver and its universal cover, the 3-regular tree. Here we show that the basic information can be rearranged in two triangles. They are quite similar to the Pascal triangle of the binomial coefficients, but in contrast to the additivity rule for the Pascal triangle, we now deal with additivity along hooks, or, equivalently, with additive functions for valued translation quivers. As for the Pascal triangle, we see that the numbers in these Fibonacci partition triangles are given by evaluating polynomials. We show that the two triangles can be obtained from each other by looking at differences of numbers, it is sufficient to take differences along arrows and knight's moves.

  14. Dynamic Right Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyunkaya, Melike Yigit; Kastberg, Signe; Quinlan, James; Edwards, Michael Todd; Keiser, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Right triangles play a significant role in mathematics. In this favorite lesson, the authors help students understand variant and invariant properties by considering relationships among angle measures and side lengths in right triangles. Students explore these relationships using interactive mathematics software, changing one angle and observing…

  15. Triangles in a Lattice Parabola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, K. R. S.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are properties possessed by polygons inscribed in the lattice parabola y=x, including the area of a triangle, triangles of minimum area, conditions for right triangles, triangles whose area is the cube of an integer, and implications of Pick's Theorem. Further directions to pursue are suggested. (MDH)

  16. 数字化口腔修复(13)--消除前牙黑三角的数字化笑设计(附病例报告)%Digital restorative dentistry and prosthodontics(13)---Digital smile design of eliminating the black triangle in anterior teeth (a case report)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶娴; 姚江武

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To use computer aided design (CAD) changing the location of proximal contact point in crowns and pre-restorative digital smile design in order to get better communication and satisfaction with the patients. Method:One patient with anterior teeth broken and chronic periodontitis with the black triangle, would be proceed in all-ceramic crown restoration by two-dimensional digital smile design (2-DDSD) and three-dimensional smile designs (3-DDSD) via Photoshop CS6 software and CEREC®AC Omnicam 4.2 software. Result:Via comparison of the virtual images of 2- and 3-DDSD, both patient and dentist reached consensus on the images of the teeth morphology which were changed from triangle to square. Because of that the black triangles in anterior teeth were disappeared completely, this restoration was the most satis-faction. Conclusion:2- and 3-DDSD were effective communication channel and method. Meanwhile, changing the teeth morphology via moving proximal contact point contributed to eliminate the black triangle in anterior teeth.%目的:通过计算机辅助设计,改变修复体邻面接触点的位置,并进行修复前的数字化笑设计,以获得与患者良好的沟通。方法:利用Photoshop CS6软件和CEREC®AC Omnicam 4.2软件分别对1例冠折且伴有慢性牙周暴露“黑三角”的患者行全瓷冠修复和二维/三维数字化笑设计。结果:经过患者和口腔医师共同比较二维和三维数字化笑设计的虚拟图像,双方达成共识,即牙齿的基本形态由三角形改为方形,消除了“黑三角”,修复后效果最为满意。结论:医患双方共同参与的修复前二维和三维数字化笑设计是行之有效的沟通渠道和手段,同时通过移动邻面接触点改变牙齿基本形态的方法有利于消除前牙“黑三角”。

  17. The Copenhagen Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irwin, Alan

    2014-01-01

    I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden.......I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden....

  18. Mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅骧

    2004-01-01

    The Bernmda Triangle is also called Devil's Triangle. It is an imaginary area in the Atlantic Ocean. It extends more than one-million square kilometers between the island of Bermuda, the coast of southern Florida

  19. A triangle that matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Gershon, Tim

    2007-01-01

    "Physicists at "B-factories" in the US and Japan are closing in on an abstract diagram called the unitarity triangle in the quest to explain the difference between matter and antimatter. But such measurements could also point the way to the discovery of new fundamental particles." (5 pages)

  20. Femoralni trikotnik: The femoral triangle:

    OpenAIRE

    Mlakar, Boštjan; Ravnik, Dean

    1999-01-01

    The topography and structures of the femoral triangle are presented. The femorai triangle lies between the inguinal ligament at the base, the sartoriusmuscle at the lateral border and the long adductor muscle at the medial border. The apex of the femoral triangle is situated at the meeting point of the medial borders of the sartorius and long adductor muscles. The subinguinal space, which is divided into the lacuna musculorum and lacuna vasorum, provides a passageway for the lateral cutaneous...

  1. A Bermuda Triangle of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelsas, John

    2006-01-01

    The Bermuda Triangle is famous for the unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft, and for strange meteorological phenomena that allegedly have occurred within its boundaries. This article presents an activity wherein students are asked to create their own geographical triangles to research, but instead of focusing on the unexplainable,…

  2. The Bermuda Triangle of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Yves

    The pedagogical triangle of teacher, learner, and subject matter has in its center a fourth element: the communication system. Each feature of the pedagogical triangle, and the communication system as well, relies on a very important cultural component. Problems occur when communication processes in a classroom are fragmented and related to…

  3. Is it a triangle?

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In the theory of the Standard Model, the masses, interactions and physical states of quarks – the basic constituents of matter – are described mathematically by a matrix known as the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Three angles enter into the definition of the elements of the matrix. If their sum is not 180°, new physics might be the reason.   A typical LHCb event during the recent proton-lead ion run. The LHCb experiment at CERN has measured precisely for the first time at a hadron collider one of the three angles - the “gamma” angle – so far known with the largest uncertainty.  It’s a matter of angles: if their sum is not exactly 180°, the geometric shape is not a triangle. And if the angles are those related to the CKM matrix, we enter the realm of physics beyond the Standard Model. Experiments at B-factories have measured the three angles – α, β and γ &...

  4. Nasal Soft-Tissue Triangle Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2016-08-01

    The soft-tissue triangle is one of the least areas attended to in rhinoplasty. Any postoperative retraction, notching, or asymmetries of soft triangles can seriously affect the rhinoplasty outcome. A good understanding of the risk factors predisposing to soft triangle deformities is necessary to prevent such problems. The commonest risk factors in our study were the wide vertical domal angle between the lateral and intermediate crura, and the increased length of intermediate crus. Two types of soft triangle grafts were described to prevent and treat soft triangle deformities. The used soft triangle grafts resulted in an excellent long-term aesthetic and functional improvement.

  5. Cystic lymphangioma in the submandibular triangle in the adult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Sang Joon [Dankook Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-15

    Cystic lymphangioma is an uncommon benign developmental tumor of the lymphatic system, seen rarely in adults. A 23-year-old man visited DKUDH complaining of the painless swelling in the right submandibular triangle area. It was reported that swelling had increased since 5 months ago. Clinically, fluctuant and mobile mass was palpated at the right submancivular area. CT scan showed a large, well-defined, homogenous low density mass, measuring 5.0X2.5X4.0 cm. T1W MRI scan demonstrated a large, multiseptated homogenous low signal mass with septum and rim enhancement. Proton-density and T2W MRI scan showed mass of high signal intensity. MRI scan was able to delineate better the enhanced multiseptation and extent of the lesion. Histopathologically, a lobulated cystic mass lined by a layer of flattened endothelium was observed.

  6. Synchronization in Triangled Complex Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xin-Biao; LI Xiang; WANG Xiao-Fan

    2006-01-01

    Using a tunable clustering coefficient model withoutchanging the degree distribution, we investigate the effect of clustering coefficient on synchronization of networks with both unweighted and weighted couplings. For several typical categories of complex networks, the more triangles are in the networks, the worse the synchronizability of the networks is.

  7. Patterns in swelling hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMinn, Chris; Bertrand, Thibault; Peixinho, Jorge; Mukhopadhyay, Shomeek

    2016-11-01

    Swelling is a process in which a porous material spontaneously grows by absorbing additional pore fluid. Polymeric hydrogels are highly deformable materials that can experience very large volume changes during swelling. This allows a small amount of dry gel to absorb a large amount of fluid, making gels extremely useful in applications from moisture control to drug delivery. However, a well-known consequence of these extreme volume changes is the emergence of a striking morphological instability. We study the transient mechanics of this instability here by combining a theoretical model with a series of simple experiments, focusing on the extent to which this instability can be controlled by manipulating the rate of swelling.

  8. [Traumatic lumbar hernia of the Petit's triangle. A clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, L; Paino, O; Ginardi, A

    1996-12-01

    Lumbar hernias are very rare and no more than 300 are reported in literature. They can be classified as congenital and acquired. The latter are in turn subdivided into primary and secondary. Secondary traumatic lumbar hernias account for 25% of all cases. The site of the formation of this hernia is mainly Grynfelt's triangle and, to a lesser extent, Petit's triangle. Traumatic lumbar hernia have very moderate symptoms and may be corrected surgically relatively easily, in particular with the use of Marlex nets. Recidivations can be easily identified owing to the lack of aponeurotic support structures in this anatomic site. Owing to their traumatic etiopathogenesis these hernias are of particular medicolegal importance for the purposes of indemnity. The case reported refers to a 46-years-old man involved in a road accident who sustained an injury caused by the explosion of hollow viscera in the abdomen and the subsequent onset of a hernia swelling through Petit's triangle in the right lumbar region. Owing to the width of the breach, plastic surgery was carried out using a Marlex graft. A large recidivation was observed around one year later.

  9. Hotspot swells revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Scott D.; Adam, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    The first attempts to quantify the width and height of hotspot swells were made more than 30 years ago. Since that time, topography, ocean-floor age, and sediment thickness datasets have improved considerably. Swell heights and widths have been used to estimate the heat flow from the core-mantle boundary, constrain numerical models of plumes, and as an indicator of the origin of hotspots. In this paper, we repeat the analysis of swell geometry and buoyancy flux for 54 hotspots, including the 37 considered by Sleep (1990) and the 49 considered by Courtillot et al. (2003), using the latest and most accurate data. We are able to calculate swell geometry for a number of hotspots that Sleep was only able to estimate by comparison with other swells. We find that in spite of the increased resolution in global bathymetry models there is significant uncertainty in our calculation of buoyancy fluxes due to differences in our measurement of the swells’ width and height, the integration method (volume integration or cross-sectional area), and the variations of the plate velocities between HS2-Nuvel1a (Gripp and Gordon, 1990) and HS3-Nuvel1a (Gripp and Gordon, 2002). We also note that the buoyancy flux for Pacific hotspots is in general larger than for Eurasian, North American, African and Antarctic hotspots. Considering that buoyancy flux is linearly related to plate velocity, we speculate that either the calculation of buoyancy flux using plate velocity over-estimates the actual vertical flow of material from the deep mantle or that convection in the Pacific hemisphere is more vigorous than the Atlantic hemisphere.

  10. Mitosis is swell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatulovskiy, Evgeny; Skotheim, Jan M

    2015-11-23

    Cell volume and dry mass are typically correlated. However, in this issue, Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz et al. (2015. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201505056) and Son et al. (2015. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201505058) use new live-cell techniques to show that entry to mitosis coincides with rapid cell swelling, which is reversed before division.

  11. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, K.; Gronseth, G.; Aldrich, M.; Williams, A.

    1982-11-01

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was caused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunosuppressed cancer patient.

  12. Cervicoplastia anterior Anterior cervicoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Gomes Patrocínio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Muitos pacientes buscam correção estética da frouxidão da pele do pescoço, depósito de gordura na região submentoneana ou bandas de platisma. Em grande parte dos casos a ação medial, via cervicoplastia anterior é necessária. OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a casuística e avaliar os resultados e complicações com a técnica de cervicoplastia anterior no Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Relato de série. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Quarenta e dois pacientes, entre 39 e 65 anos de idade, sendo 40 (95,2% do sexo feminino e 2 (4,8% do masculino, foram submetidos a cervicoplastia anterior. Retrospectivamente foram avaliados resultados e complicações. RESULTADOS: Destes, 34 apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, 4 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo cirurgião, 3 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo paciente e 1 apresentou déficit estético necessitando cirurgia revisional. Ao estudo fotográfico, todos os pacientes apresentaram melhora do perfil cervical, redução das bandas de platisma e da frouxidão da pele, estabilização da musculatura cervical e acentuação do ângulo cervicomental, em graus variados. Houve complicação em 2 casos (discreto serohematoma e cicatriz um pouco alargada. CONCLUSÃO: A cervicoplastia, associada ou não à tração lateral pela ritidoplastia, é uma técnica que produz resultados satisfatórios na grande maioria dos casos.Many patients look for aesthetic correction of the laxity of neck skin, submandibular fat deposit or platisma bands. In a large part of the cases, medial action, through anterior cervicoplasty is necessary. AIM: To demonstrate the casuistic and to evaluate the results and complications with anterior cervicoplasty technique in the Otorhinolaryngology Service of the Federal University of Uberlândia. STUDY DESIGN: Serie report. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-two patients, between 39 and 65 years of age, being 40 (95

  13. Reverse Triangle Inequalities for Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Pritsker, I. E.; Saff, E. B.

    2013-01-01

    We study the reverse triangle inequalities for suprema of logarithmic potentials on compact sets of the plane. This research is motivated by the inequalities for products of supremum norms of polynomials. We find sharp additive constants in the inequalities for potentials, and give applications of our results to the generalized polynomials. We also obtain sharp inequalities for products of norms of the weighted polynomials $w^nP_n, deg(P_n)\\le n,$ and for sums of suprema of potentials with ex...

  14. Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Hugh

    1979-01-01

    A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)

  15. Altitude, Orthocenter of a Triangle and Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the altitudes of a triangle (the cevians perpendicular to the opposite sides. Using the generalized Ceva’s Theorem, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the orthocenter of a triangle [7]. Finally, we formalize in Mizar [1] some formulas [2] to calculate distance using triangulation.

  16. Circumcenter, Circumcircle and Centroid of a Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce, using the Mizar system [1], some basic concepts of Euclidean geometry: the half length and the midpoint of a segment, the perpendicular bisector of a segment, the medians (the cevians that join the vertices of a triangle to the midpoints of the opposite sides of a triangle.

  17. Representations of Subgroups of Universal Triangle Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Xia

    2007-01-01

    Let G be a universal triangle group, and H a subgroup of G such that the chamber system △H is a tight triangle geometryThen H, which is canonically isomorphic to the topological fundamental group π1(△H) of △ H, is a finitely presented group.For some H we give their representations.

  18. Cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durocher, Stephane; Gunderson, David S.; Li, Pak Ching;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We conjecture that the balanced complete bipartite graph K ⌊ n / 2 ⌋ , ⌈ n / 2 ⌉ contains more cycles than any other n -vertex triangle-free graph, and we make some progress toward proving this. We give equivalent conditions for cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs; show bounds...

  19. Triangle and GA Methods for UAVs Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on how to jam UAVs network efficiently. The system model is described and the problem is formulated. Based on two properties and a theorem which helps to decide good location for a jammer, we present the Triangle method to find good locations for jammers. The Triangle method is easy to understand and has overall computational complexity of ON2. We also present a genetic algorithm- (GA- based jamming method, which has computational complex of OLMN2. New chromosome, mutation, and crossover operations are redefined for the GA method. The simulation shows that Triangle and GA methods perform better than Random method. If the ratio of jammers’ number to UAVs’ number is low (lower than 1/5 in this paper, GA method does better than Triangle method. Otherwise, Triangle method performs better.

  20. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng

    2011-12-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pythagorean triangles of equal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina Baica

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The main intent in this paper is to find triples of Rational Pythagorean Triangles (abbr. RPT having equal areas. A new method of solving a2+ab+b2=c2 is to set a=y−1, b=y+1, y∈N−{0,1} and get Pell's equation c2−3y2=1. To solve a2−ab−b2=c2, we set a=12(y+1, b=y−1, y≥2, y∈N and get a corresponding Pell's equation. The infinite number of solutions in Pell's equation gives rise to an infinity of solutions to a2±ab+b2=c2. From this fact the following theorems are proved.

  2. Trautmann's triangle anatomy with application to posterior transpetrosal and other related skull base procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Griessenauer, Christoph; Loukas, Marios; Ansari, Shaheryar F; Fritsch, Michael H; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2014-10-01

    Trautmann's triangle (TT) faces the cerebellopontine angle and is exposed during posterior transpetrosal approaches. However, reports on the morphometric analysis of this structure are lacking in the literature. The goal was to better understand this important operative corridor. TT was exposed from an external approach (transmastoid) in ten cadavers (20 sides) and from an internal approach on 20 dry adult temporal bones. Measurements included calculation of the area of TT and the distance of the endolymphatic sac from the anterior border of the sigmoid sinus. The area range of TT was 45-210 mm(2) (mean 151 mm(2); SD 37 mm(2)). Three types of triangles were identified based on area. Type I triangles had areas less than 75 mm(2), Type II areas were 75-149 mm(2), and Type III areas were 150 mm(2) and greater. These types were observed in 37.5%, 35%, and 27.5% of sides, respectively. The distance from the jugular bulb's anterior border to the posterior border of the posterior semicircular canal ranged from 6 to 11 mm (mean 8.5 mm). The endolymphatic sac was located in the inferior portion of TT and traveled anterior to the sigmoid sinus. The horizontal distance from the anterior edge of the sigmoid sinus to the posterior edge of the endolymphatic sac ranged from 0 to 13.5 mm (mean 9 mm). Additional anatomic knowledge regarding TT may improve neurosurgical procedures in this region by avoiding intrusion into the endolymphatic sac and sigmoid sinus.

  3. Chiral Redox-Active Isosceles Triangles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalluri, Siva Krishna Mohan; Liu, Zhichang; Wu, Yilei; Hermann, Keith R; Samanta, Avik; Kim, Dong Jun; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Wasielewski, Michael R; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2016-05-11

    Designing small-molecule organic redox-active materials, with potential applications in energy storage, has received considerable interest of late. Herein, we report on the synthesis, characterization, and application of two rigid chiral triangles, each of which consist of non-identical pyromellitic diimide (PMDI) and naphthalene diimide (NDI)-based redox-active units. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic investigations in solution confirm the lower symmetry (C2 point group) associated with these two isosceles triangles. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal their rigid triangular prism-like geometries. Unlike previously investigated equilateral triangle containing three identical NDI subunits, both isosceles triangles do not choose to form one-dimensional supramolecular nanotubes by dint of [C-H···O] interaction-driven columnar stacking. The rigid isosceles triangle, composed of one NDI and two PMDI subunits, forms-in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide-two different types of intermolecular NDI-NDI and NDI-PMDI π-π stacked dimers with opposite helicities in the solid state. Cyclic voltammetry reveals that both isosceles triangles can accept reversibly up to six electrons. Continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double-resonance spectroscopic investigations, supported by density functional theory calculations, on the single-electron reduced radical anions of the isosceles triangles confirm the selective sharing of unpaired electrons among adjacent redox-active NDI subunit(s) within both molecules. The isosceles triangles have been employed as electrode-active materials in organic rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The evaluation of the structure-performance relationships of this series of diimide-based triangles reveals that the increase in the number of NDI subunits, replacing PMDI ones, within the molecules improves the electrochemical cell performance of the batteries.

  4. Are bilinear quadrilaterals better than linear triangles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.

    1993-08-01

    This paper compares the theoretical effectiveness of bilinear approximation over quadrilaterals with linear approximation over triangles. Anisotropic mesh transformation is used to generate asymptotically optimally efficient meshes for piecewise linear interpolation over triangles and bilinear interpolation over quadrilaterals. The theory and numerical results suggest triangles may have a slight advantage over quadrilaterals for interpolating convex data function but bilinear approximation may offer a higher order approximation for saddle-shaped functions on a well-designed mesh. This work is a basic study on optimal meshes with the intention of gaining insight into the more complex meshing problems in finite element analysis.

  5. Are Bilinear Quadrilaterals Better Than Linear Triangles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Azevedo, E.F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper compares the theoretical effectiveness of bilinear approximation over quadrilaterals with linear approximation over triangles. Anisotropic mesh transformation is used to generate asymptotically optimally efficient meshes for piecewise linear interpolation over triangles and bilinear interpolation over quadrilaterals. For approximating a convex function, although bilinear quadrilaterals are more efficient, linear triangles are more accurate and may be preferred in finite element computations; whereas for saddle-shaped functions, quadrilaterals may offer a higher order approximation on a well-designed mesh. A surprising finding is different grid orientations may yield an order of magnitude improvement in approximation accuracy.

  6. Engineering Significant of Swelling Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Kalantari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes some of the most important swelling characters of expansive soils when used as foundation materials to support various types of civil engineering structures. Expansive soils are considered among difficult foundation materials and expand upon wetting and shrink upon losing moisture. They are considered problematic soils for architectural and civil engineers. These types of soils may cause minor to major structural damages to pavements as well as buildings. It is therefore essential to detect swelling soils from non-problematic foundation soils before any civil engineering projects are constructed over or adjacent to them. The study begins with definition of expansive soils and shows its distributions in the world as well as the basic causes for swelling potential that these type of soils poses. It is also shown that, the most probable depth of expansion to check for possible swelling potential for swelling soils is soil’s active zone. This zone is the most upper depth of expansive soil and it may extend up to 20 ft. (6 m below ground level. The moisture content of soil through active zone varies during different seasons while in lower part of expansive soil the moisture content stays constant during hot and cold season. Among various methods to check for swelling potential, plastic index and liquid limits are two most crucial factors, as these factors tend to increase, the swelling potential increase as well.

  7. Triangle Lattice Green Functions for Vector Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Brian; Schwalm, William

    2000-03-01

    The triangle lattice is convenient for modeling fields and fluid flows in two dimensions. Discrete vector field equations are defined through the analogy between differential forms and simplicial homology theory. The basic vector difference operators on the lattice correspond to the graph adjacency matricies of the triangle, honeycomb, and Kagomé lattices. The scalar Green functions for nearest neighbor interactions on the triangle lattice are known in closed form in terms of the complete elliptic integrals. Green functions for vector field operators are obtained explicitly in terms of the known scalar Green functions. The scalar Green functions for the Kagomé lattice are thus written in terms of the Green functions for the triangle lattice and ultimately in closed form. Thus, Green functions for a wide range of vector difference models are reduced to closed form in terms of the complete elliptic integrals.

  8. Density conditions for triangles in multipartite graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Adrian; Shen, Jin; Thomassé, Stephan;

    2006-01-01

    subgraphs in G. We investigate in particular the case where G is a complete multipartite graph. We prove that a finite tripartite graph with all edge densities greater than the golden ratio has a triangle and that this bound is best possible. Also we show that an infinite-partite graph with finite parts has...... a triangle, provided that the edge density between any two parts is greater than 1/2....

  9. Triangle-hinge models for unoriented membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sugishita, Sotaro; Umeda, Naoya

    2016-07-01

    Triangle-hinge models [M. Fukuma, S. Sugishita, and N. Umeda, J. High Energy Phys. 1507, 088 (2015)] are introduced to describe worldvolume dynamics of membranes. The Feynman diagrams consist of triangles glued together along hinges and can be restricted to tetrahedral decompositions in a large-N limit. In this paper, after clarifying that all the tetrahedra resulting in the original models are orientable, we define a version of triangle-hinge models that can describe the dynamics of unoriented membranes. By regarding each triangle as representing a propagation of an open membrane of disk topology, we introduce a local worldvolume parity transformation which inverts the orientation of a triangle, and define unoriented triangle-hinge models by gauging the transformation. Unlike two-dimensional cases, this local transformation generally relates a manifold to a nonmanifold, but still is a well-defined manipulation among tetrahedral decompositions. We further show that matter fields can be introduced in the same way as in the original oriented models. In particular, the models will describe unoriented membranes in a target spacetime by taking matter fields to be the target space coordinates.

  10. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... swelling during pregnancy may be a sign of preeclampsia , a serious condition that includes high blood pressure ... Studdiford JS, Pickle S, Tully AS. Edema: Diagnosis and management. Am Fam Phys . 2013;88(2): 102-110. ...

  11. Triangle Counting in Dynamic Graph Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulteau, Laurent; Froese, Vincent; Pagh, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    , with a few exceptions, the algorithms have considered insert-only streams. We present a new algorithm estimating the number of triangles in dynamic graph streams where edges can be both inserted and deleted. We show that our algorithm achieves better time and space complexity than previous solutions......Estimating the number of triangles in graph streams using a limited amount of memory has become a popular topic in the last decade. Different variations of the problem have been studied, depending on whether the graph edges are provided in an arbitrary order or as incidence lists. However...... for various graph classes, for example sparse graphs with a relatively small number of triangles. Also, for graphs with constant transitivity coefficient, a common situation in real graphs, this is the first algorithm achieving constant processing time per edge. The result is achieved by a novel approach...

  12. LR: Compact connectivity representation for triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurung, T; Luffel, M; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2011-01-28

    We propose LR (Laced Ring) - a simple data structure for representing the connectivity of manifold triangle meshes. LR provides the option to store on average either 1.08 references per triangle or 26.2 bits per triangle. Its construction, from an input mesh that supports constant-time adjacency queries, has linear space and time complexity, and involves ordering most vertices along a nearly-Hamiltonian cycle. LR is best suited for applications that process meshes with fixed connectivity, as any changes to the connectivity require the data structure to be rebuilt. We provide an implementation of the set of standard random-access, constant-time operators for traversing a mesh, and show that LR often saves both space and traversal time over competing representations.

  13. Application of Sivasubramanian Kalimuthu Hypothesis to Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sivasubramanian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The interior angles sum of a number of Euclidean triangles was transformed into quadratic equations. The analysis of those quadratic equations yielded the following proposition: There exists Euclidean triangle whose interior angle sum is a straight angle. Approach: In this study, the researchers introduced a new hypothesis for quadratic equations and derived an entirely new result. Results: The result of the study was controversial, but mathematically consistent. Conclusion/Recommendations: The researchers politely requested the research community to establish the quadratic equation’s hypothesis.

  14. The Asia-Pacific Strategic Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2014-01-01

    applicability discussed; third, details about China and India’s relations and responses to the new US policy are being analyzed; the perspective turns to the implications for conflict and security in South Asia with a focus on Afghanistan and Iran where oil and energy security are the main denominators......The objective of this paper is to give insight into the debate over the strategic triangle and how it impacts conflict and security in South Asia. First the new geopolitical motives of the United States in the Asia-Pacific are outlined. Then the concept of strategic triangle is elaborated and its...

  15. Cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durocher, Stephane; Gunderson, David S.; Li, Pak Ching

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We conjecture that the balanced complete bipartite graph K ⌊ n / 2 ⌋ , ⌈ n / 2 ⌉ contains more cycles than any other n -vertex triangle-free graph, and we make some progress toward proving this. We give equivalent conditions for cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs; show bounds...... on the numbers of cycles in graphs depending on numbers of vertices and edges, girth, and homomorphisms to small fixed graphs; and use the bounds to show that among regular graphs, the conjecture holds. We also consider graphs that are close to being regular, with the minimum and maximum degrees differing...

  16. Fibonacci-like sequences and generalized Pascal's triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzi, G.; Siani, S.

    2014-05-01

    The properties pertaining to diagonals of generalized Pascal's triangles are studied. Combinatorial relationships between Fibonacci-like sequences and Fibonacci sequence itself are determined, using the sequence of diagonals of generalized Pascal's triangle.

  17. Triangle-intersecting families on eight vertices

    CERN Document Server

    Filmus, Yuval

    2011-01-01

    Simonovits and S\\'{o}s conjectured that the maximal size of a triangle-intersecting family of graphs on $n$ vertices is $2^{\\binom{n}{2}-3}$. Their conjecture has recently been proved using spectral methods. We provide an elementary proof of the special case of $8$ vertices using a partition argument.

  18. Scaling Ratios and Triangles in Siegel Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buff, Xavier; Henriksen, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Let f(z)=e^{2i\\pi \\theta} + z^2, where \\theta is a quadratic irrational. McMullen proved that the Siegel disk for f is self-similar about the critical point, and we show that if \\theta = (\\sqrt{5}-1)/2 is the golden mean, then there exists a triangle contained in the Siegel disk, and with one...

  19. Pascal's Triangle. Popular Lectures in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskii, V. A.

    Pascal's Triangle is an important numerical table; with its help, a number of computation problems may be solved. Some of these problems are examined and the question of what"solving a problem" can mean is generally considered. (Author/MK)

  20. Cactus: The Centres of a Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Hartley

    2009-01-01

    This is the first of two articles which describe how to use "JavaSketchPad" to explore the centres of a triangle. This introductory exercise is suggested in the GSP "Workshop Guide". Students can use "JavaSketchPad Interactive Geometry" (JSP) at home at no cost. They are likely to impress their parents with their enthusiasm for geometry and all…

  1. Indolent palatal swelling: Catch 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Preeti; Wadhwan, Vijay; Kumar, K. V. Arun; Venkatesh, Arvind; Thapa, Timsy

    2016-01-01

    We present an interesting but intriguing case of an indolent palatal swelling. The lesion was asymptomatic causing little discomfort to the patient and thus was an incidental clinical finding. Provisional diagnosis was a benign, minor salivary gland tumor. Clinical differential diagnoses included benign lymphoepithelial lesion or mucus extravasation phenomenon. Nevertheless, we also considered malignancies such as mucoepidermoid carcinoma, lymphoma, and neoplasm of the maxillary sinus. However, the histopathology revealed a rare clinicopathologic entity prompting immediate treatment of the lesion.

  2. SYNERESIS AND SWELLING OF GELATIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitz, M

    1928-11-20

    1. When solid blocks of isoelectric gelatin are placed in cold distilled water or dilute buffer of pH 4.7, only those of a gelatin content of more than 10 per cent swell, while those of a lower gelatin content not only do not swell but actually lose water. 2. The final quantity of water lost by blocks of dilute gelatin is the same whether the block is immersed in a large volume of water or whether syneresis has been initiated in the gel through mechanical forces such as shaking, pressure, etc., even in the absence of any outside liquid, thus showing that syneresis is identical with the process of negative swelling of dilute gels when placed in cold water, and may be used as a convenient term for it. 3. Acid- or alkali-containing gels give rise to greater syneresis than isoelectric gels, after the acid or alkali has been removed by dialysis. 4. Salt-containing gels show greater syneresis than salt-free gels of the same pH, after the salt has been washed away. 5. The acid and alkali and also the salt effect on syneresis of gels disappears at a gelatin concentration above 8 per cent. 6. The striking similarity in the behavior of gels with respect to syneresis and of gelatin solutions with respect to viscosity suggests the probability that both are due to the same mechanism, namely the mechanism of hydration of the micellae in gelatin by means of osmosis as brought about either by diffusible ions, as in the presence of acid or alkali, or by the soluble gelatin present in the micellae. The greater the pressures that caused swelling of the micellae while the gelatin was in the sol state, the greater is the loss of water from the gels when the pressures are removed. 7. A quantitative study of the loss of water by dilute gels of various gelatin content shows that the same laws which have been found by Northrop to hold for the swelling of gels of high concentrations apply also to the process of losing water by dilute gels, i.e. to the process of syneresis. The general

  3. A survey of numerical cubature over triangles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyness, J.N.; Cools, R.

    1993-12-31

    This survey collects together theoretical results in the area of numerical cubature over triangles and is a vehicle for a current bibliography. We treat first the theory relating to regular integrands and then the corresponding theory for singular integrands with emphasis on the ``full comer singularity.`` Within these two sections we treat successively approaches based on transforming the triangle into a square, formulas based on polynomial moment fitting, and extrapolation techniques. Within each category we quote key theoretical results without proof, and relate other results and references to these. Nearly all the references we have found may be readily placed in one of these categories. This survey is theoretical in character and does not include recent work in adaptive and automatic integration.

  4. State of the Coral Triangle: Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has made a firm commitment to sustainable management and conservation of its coastal and marine resources, helping formulate and implement the Sulu–Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion Initiative and the Coral Triangle Initiative. Rapid economic growth, uncontrolled tourism development, unregulated fishing, and unsustainable use of marine resources have depleted the country’s fish stocks, lost nearly 36% of its mangrove forests, and increased the number of endangered species. Despite impressive...

  5. Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The CKM Unitarity Triangle Workshop is meant to provide an opportunity for an intense and fruitful exchange of ideas between experimentalists and theorists to assess the present knowledge on fundamental parameters from the data of LEP and other colliders, to define an agenda of future measurements to further probe the model assumptions employed in the interpretation of the data and to indicate paths for the B physics programme at LHC.

  6. Vector field processing on triangle meshes

    OpenAIRE

    De Goes, Fernando; Desbrun, Mathieu; Tong, Yiying

    2015-01-01

    While scalar fields on surfaces have been staples of geometry processing, the use of tangent vector fields has steadily grown in geometry processing over the last two decades: they are crucial to encoding directions and sizing on surfaces as commonly required in tasks such as texture synthesis, non-photorealistic rendering, digital grooming, and meshing. There are, however, a variety of discrete representations of tangent vector fields on triangle meshes, and each approach offers different tr...

  7. Optimal Design of Round Bottomed Triangle Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman T. Hameed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available     In optimal design concept, the geometric dimensions of a channel cross-section are determined in a manner to minimize the total construction costs. The Direct search optimization method by using MATALAB is used to solve the resulting channel optimization models for a specified flow rate, roughness coefficient and longitudinal slope. The developed optimization models are applied to design the round bottomed triangle channel and trapezoidal channels to convey a given design flow considering various design scenarios However, it also can be extended to other shapes of channels. This method optimizes the total construction cost by minimizing the cross-sectional area and wetted perimeter per unit length of the channel. In the present study, it is shown that for all values of side slope, the total construction cost in the round bottomed triangle cross-section are less than those of trapezoidal cross-section for the same values of discharge. This indicates that less excavation and a lining are involved and therefore implies that the round bottomed triangle cross-section is more economical than trapezoidal cross-section.

  8. The Triangle Closure is a Polyhedron

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Amitabh; Köppe, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Recently, cutting planes derived from maximal lattice-free convex sets have been studied intensively by the integer programming community. An important question in this research area has been to decide whether the closures associated with certain families of lattice-free sets are polyhedra. For a long time, the only result known was the celebrated theorem of Cook, Kannan and Schrijver who showed that the split closure is a polyhedron. Although some fairly general results were obtained by Andersen, Louveaux and Weismantel [An analysis of mixed integer linear sets based on lattice point free convex sets, Math. Oper. Res. 35, (2010) pp. 233--256], some basic questions have remained unresolved. For example, maximal lattice-free triangles are the natural family to study beyond the family of splits and it has been a standing open problem to decide whether the triangle closure is a polyhedron. In this paper, we resolve this by showing that the triangle closure is indeed a polyhedron, and its number of facets can be ...

  9. Leptonic Unitarity Triangles and Effective Mass Triangles of the Majorana Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2015-01-01

    Given the best-fit results of six neutrino oscillation parameters, we plot the Dirac and Majorana unitarity triangles (UTs) of the $3\\times 3$ lepton flavor mixing matrix to show their real shapes for the first time. The connections of the Majorana UTs with neutrino-antineutrino oscillations and neutrino decays are explored, and the possibilities of right or isosceles UTs are discussed. In the neutrino mass limit of $m^{}_1 \\to 0$ or $m^{}_3 \\to 0$, which is allowed by current experimental data, we show how the six triangles formed by the effective Majorana neutrino masses $\\langle m\\rangle^{}_{\\alpha\\beta}$ (for $\\alpha, \\beta = e, \\mu, \\tau$) and their corresponding component vectors look like in the complex plane. The relations of such triangles to the Majorana phases and to the lepton-number-violating decays $H^{++} \\to \\alpha^+ \\beta^+$ in the type-II seesaw mechanism are also illustrated.

  10. Segmentation of knee injury swelling on infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, John; Langet, Hélène; Herry, Christophe; Frize, Monique

    2011-03-01

    Interpretation of medical infrared images is complex due to thermal noise, absence of texture, and small temperature differences in pathological zones. Acute inflammatory response is a characteristic symptom of some knee injuries like anterior cruciate ligament sprains, muscle or tendons strains, and meniscus tear. Whereas artificial coloring of the original grey level images may allow to visually assess the extent inflammation in the area, their automated segmentation remains a challenging problem. This paper presents a hybrid segmentation algorithm to evaluate the extent of inflammation after knee injury, in terms of temperature variations and surface shape. It is based on the intersection of rapid color segmentation and homogeneous region segmentation, to which a Laplacian of a Gaussian filter is applied. While rapid color segmentation enables to properly detect the observed core of swollen area, homogeneous region segmentation identifies possible inflammation zones, combining homogeneous grey level and hue area segmentation. The hybrid segmentation algorithm compares the potential inflammation regions partially detected by each method to identify overlapping areas. Noise filtering and edge segmentation are then applied to common zones in order to segment the swelling surfaces of the injury. Experimental results on images of a patient with anterior cruciate ligament sprain show the improved performance of the hybrid algorithm with respect to its separated components. The main contribution of this work is a meaningful automatic segmentation of abnormal skin temperature variations on infrared thermography images of knee injury swelling.

  11. Triangle Counting in Dynamic Graph Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulteau, Laurent; Froese, Vincent; Pagh, Rasmus;

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the number of triangles in graph streams using a limited amount of memory has become a popular topic in the last decade. Different variations of the problem have been studied, depending on whether the graph edges are provided in an arbitrary order or as incidence lists. However...... combining sampling of vertex triples and sparsification of the input graph. In the course of the analysis of the algorithm we present a lower bound on the number of pairwise independent 2-paths in general graphs which might be of independent interest. At the end of the paper we discuss lower bounds...

  12. Dynamic Investigation of Triangles Inscribed in a Circle, Which Tend to an Equilateral Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupel, Moshe; Oxman, Victor; Sigler, Avi

    2017-01-01

    We present a geometrical investigation of the process of creating an infinite sequence of triangles inscribed in a circle, whose areas, perimeters and lengths of radii of the inscribed circles tend to a limit in a monotonous manner. First, using geometrical software, we investigate four theorems that represent interesting geometrical properties,…

  13. A Note on Tropical Triangles in the Plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.ANSOLA; M.J.de la PUENTE

    2009-01-01

    We define transversal tropical triangles (affine and projective) and characterize them via six inequalities to be satisfied by the coordinates of the vertices. We prove that the vertices of a transversal tropical triangle are tropically independent and they tropically span a classical hexagon whose sides have slopes ∞, 0, 1. Using this classical hexagon, we determine a parameter space for transversal tropical triangles. The coordinates of the vertices of a transversal tropical triangle determine a tropically regular matrix. Triangulations of the tropical plane are obtained.

  14. Description of Extrudate Swell for Polymer Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrudate swell is often observed to be weakened in nanocomposites compared to the pure polymer matrix. A theory quantifying this would be significant either for optimum processing or for understanding their viscoelasticity. A unified extrudate swell correlation with material properties and capillary parameters was suggested for polymer melt and their nanocomposites when considering the reservoir entry effect. More importantly, it was the first to find that the composite swell ratio can be the matrix swell ratio multiplied by the concentration shift factor, which is similar to the dynamic moduli expression for composites. The factor is a function of the shear field (stress or shear rate, filler content, filler internal structure and the surface state as well as the matrix properties. Several sets of swell data for nanocomposites were chosen from publications to test the new theories. The proposed quantitative model displayed good fit for the five kinds of nanocomposites, which verified the rationality of the swell theory for nanocomposites.

  15. Prediction of swelling rocks strain in tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsapour, D.; Fahimifar, A.

    2016-05-01

    Swelling deformations leading to convergence of tunnels may result in significant difficulties during the construction, in particular for long term use of tunnels. By extracting an experimental based explicit analytical solution for formulating swelling strains as a function of time and stress, swelling strains are predicted from the beginning of excavation and during the service life of tunnel. Results obtained from the analytical model show a proper agreement with experimental results. This closed-form solution has been implemented within a numerical program using the finite element method for predicting time-dependent swelling strain around tunnels. Evaluating effects of swelling parameters on time-dependent strains and tunnel shape on swelling behavior around the tunnel according to this analytical solution is considered. The ground-support interaction and consequent swelling effect on the induced forces in tunnel lining is considered too. Effect of delay in lining installation on swelling pressure which acting on the lining and its structural integrity, is also evaluated. A MATLAB code of " SRAP" is prepared and applied to calculate all swelling analysis around tunnels based on analytical solution.

  16. What Do You Find? Students Investigating Patterns in Pascal's Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, students used problem-solving skills to investigate what patterns exist in the Pascal triangle and incorporated technology using Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) in the process. Students came up with patterns such as natural numbers, triangular numbers, and Fibonacci numbers. Although the patterns inherent in Pascal's triangle may seem…

  17. Some Unusual Expressions for the Inradius of a Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R.

    2005-01-01

    Several formulae for the inradius of various types of triangles are derived. Properties of the inradius and trigonometric functions of the angles of Pythagorean and Heronian triangles are also presented. The entire presentation is elementary and suitable for classes in geometry, precalculus mathematics and number theory.

  18. Reverse Triangle Inequalities for Riesz Potentials and Connections with Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Pritsker, I. E.; Saff, E. B.; Wise, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study reverse triangle inequalities for Riesz potentials and their connection with polarization. This work generalizes inequalities for sup norms of products of polynomials, and reverse triangle inequalities for logarithmic potentials. The main tool used in the proofs is the representation for a power of the farthest distance function as a Riesz potential of a unit Borel measure.

  19. The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during ir...

  20. Triangle zone beer and bull May 11, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newson, A. C.; Kubli, T. E.; Dechesne, R. G.; MacKay, P. E.; Reid, J. P.; Varsek, J. L.

    1996-06-01

    A review and a summing up of the papers contributed to this special issue of the Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology on triangle zones was prepared in an informal `beer and bull` session by an ad hoc panel of contributors. There was no consensus as to the precise meaning, or the accuracy of the term `triangle zone`, although there was some agreement that if one wants to define structures with a roughly triangular shape, based on seismic expression alone, the term `wedge` might be more appropriate, since the focus of triangle zone development is tectonic activity creating a wedge that delaminates crust as it propagates towards the foreland. It was generally agreed (for now at least) that triangle zones are just one type of thrust front structure when viewed in the larger context of mountain belts around the world. In the classical sense, triangle zones appear to be restricted to the Alberta and Montana segment of the Cordilleran thrust belt. 1 ref.

  1. Submandibular swelling: Tooth or salivary stone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Capaccio

    2013-01-01

    Sialolithiasis should always be considered in the diagnostic iter of painful submandibular swelling. A careful evaluation of recurrence and characteristics of signs and symptoms associated to the swelling can help in making the correct diagnosis and planning a proper therapeutic strategy.

  2. "The mother of all black triangles" case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David

    2012-02-01

    Before the Bioclear matrix and a disciplined approach to composite treatment of black triangles, many treatments ended with significant compromise in periodontal health. Many cases debonded soon after placement. Others suffered problems with stain. Nonetheless, our patients are hopeful for a better solution. The interdental papilla serves as both a functional and aesthetic asset. Anatomically ideal interproximal composite shapes that are mirror smooth can serve as a predictable scaffold to regain this valuable gingival architecture. Clean enamel surfaces can be leveraged to permanently retain the restorations. However, the reader is cautioned that to attempt this elective procedure using no magnification, without a strict adherence to dentin detoxification with a blasting appliance, and using a flat matrix, nontreatment or referral is recommended. Our profession can change its thought processes, retrain its hands and expand its armamentarium to perform techniques that were previously impossible.

  3. The Top of the Biomimetic Triangle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei P. Sommer; Dan Zhu; Matthias Wiora; Hans-Joerg Fecht

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing observational evidence indicating that crystalline interfacial water layers play a central role in evolution and biology. For instance in cellular recognition processes, in particular during first contact events, where cells decide upon survival or entering apoptosis. Understanding water layers is thus crucial in biomedical engineering, specifically in the design of biomaterials inspired by biomimetic principles. Whereas there is ample experimental evidence for crystalline interfacial water layers on surfaces in air, their subaquatic presence could not be verified directly, so far. Analysing a polarity dependent asym- metry in the surface conductivity on hydrogenated nanocrystalline diamond, we show that crystalline interfacial water layers persist subaquatically. Nanoscopic interfacial water layers with an order different from that of bulk water have been identified at room temperature on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic model surfaces - in air and subaquatically. Their generalization and systematic inclusion into the catalogue of physical and chemical determinants of biocompatibility complete the biomimetic triangle.

  4. Anterior orbital varix presenting as a lacrimal sac mucocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, A M; Huaman, A M

    1998-05-01

    A 35-year-old woman was referred to the Oculoplastics Clinic because of a left nasal swelling and intermittent tearing of 1 year's duration. The clinical examination and echographic and radiologic findings were consistent with an anterior venous anomaly. Complete surgical excision was performed and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a varix.

  5. Grouper: A Compact, Streamable Triangle Mesh Data Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luffel, Mark [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Gurung, Topraj [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Lindstrom, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rossignac, Jarek [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU)

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present Grouper: an all-in-one compact file format, random-access data structure, and streamable representation for large triangle meshes. Similarly to the recently published SQuad representation, Grouper represents the geometry and connectivity of a mesh by grouping vertices and triangles into fixed-size records, most of which store two adjacent triangles and a shared vertex. Unlike SQuad, however, Grouper interleaves geometry with connectivity and uses a new connectivity representation to ensure that vertices and triangles can be stored in a coherent order that enables memory-efficient sequential stream processing. We also present a linear-time construction algorithm that allows streaming out Grouper meshes using a small memory footprint while preserving the initial ordering of vertices. In this construction, we show how the problem of assigning vertices and triangles to groups reduces to a well-known NP-hard optimization problem, and present a simple yet effective heuristic solution that performs well in practice. Our array-based Grouper representation also doubles as a triangle mesh data structure that allows direct access to vertices and triangles. Storing only about two integer references per triangle-i.e., less than the three vertex references stored with each triangle in a conventional indexed mesh format-Grouper answers both incidence and adjacency queries in amortized constant time. Our compact representation enables data-parallel processing on multicore computers, instant partitioning and fast transmission for distributed processing, as well as efficient out-of-core access. We demonstrate the versatility and performance benefits of Grouper using a suite of example meshes and processing kernels.

  6. Applied psychometrics in clinical psychiatry: the pharmacopsychometric triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety, antidepress......OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety...... psychometrics in psychiatry have been found to cover a pharmacopsychometric triangle illustrating the measurements of wanted and unwanted effects of pharmacotherapeutic drugs as well as health-related quality of life....

  7. Dalitz plot distributions in presence of triangle singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczepaniak, Adam P., E-mail: aszczepa@indiana.edu [Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Theory Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47403 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    We discuss properties of three-particle Dalitz distributions in coupled channel systems in presence of triangle singularities. The single channel case was discussed long ago [1] where it was found that as a consequence of unitarity, effects of a triangle singularity seen in the Dalitz plot are not seen in Dalitz plot projections. In the coupled channel case we find the same is true for the sum of intensities of all interacting channels. Unlike the single channel case, however, triangle singularities do remain visible in Dalitz plot projections of individual channels.

  8. Complex hyperbolic (3,3,n)-triangle groups.

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, John R.; Wang, Jieyan; Xie, Baohua

    2016-01-01

    Let p,q,rp,q,r be positive integers. Complex hyperbolic (p,q,r)(p,q,r) triangle groups are representations of the hyperbolic (p,q,r)(p,q,r) reflection triangle group to the holomorphic isometry group of complex hyperbolic space H2CHℂ2, where the generators fix complex lines. In this paper, we obtain all the discrete and faithful complex hyperbolic (3,3,n)(3,3,n) triangle groups for n≥4n≥4. Our result solves a conjecture of Schwartz in the case when p=q=3p=q=3.

  9. L curve for spherical triangle region quadtrees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN; Wen; CHENG; Chengqi; MA; Ainai; GUAN; Xiaojing

    2004-01-01

    The sequence of facets and nodes has a direct influence on the efficiency of access to spherical triangle region quadtree. Based on the labeling schema by Lee,spatial curves both for facets and nodes are proposed and the main algorithms for coordinate translation, node L sequence generation and visiting nodes are presented. In particular, constant time algorithms for generating node L sequence are advanced by using bit manipulation operations, which can be easily implemented with hardware. In L curve the distance between three nodes of a facet is mostly limited in a range of small value, thus making fast access possible. Though codes of sibling facets are continuous,the difference between codes of some cousins may occasionally be very large and makes the distance of a few facets also very large, thus greatly increasing the mean node distance and the total traversing distance. Therefore an m cluster of nodes is proposed as a basic storage unit for n cluster, which should store every shared node in each, and the distance between three nodes of a facet is limited to a controllable scope.

  10. Love triangles, quantum fluctuations and spin jam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hun

    When magnetic moments are interacting with each other in a situation resembling that of complex love triangles, called frustration, a large set of states that are energetically equivalent emerge. This leads to exotic spin states such as spin liquid and spin ice. Recently, we presented evidence for the existence of a topological glassy state, that we call spin jam, induced by quantum fluctuations. The case in point is SrCr9pGa12-9pO19 (SCGO(p)), a highly frustrated magnet, in which the magnetic Cr ions form a quasi-two-dimensional triangular system of bi-pyramids. This system has been an archetype in search for exotic spin states. Understanding the nature of the state has been a great intellectual challenge. Our new experimental data and theoretical spin jam model provide for the first time a coherent understanding of the phenomenon. Furthermore, the findings strongly support the possible existence of purely topological glassy states. Reference:

  11. Swelling kinetics of tea in hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Bhushan S; Farakte, Raosaheb A; Yadav, Geeta U; Patwardhan, Ashwin W; Singh, Gurmeet

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the swelling kinetics of individual tea particles as well as bed of tea granules were investigated for different types of teas. The swelling experiments involved image analysis and volume measurements of tea particles. Each individual particle shows different swelling characteristics. Separating funnels and cylindrical columns of varying sizes were used to study the changes in volume of tea bed. Swelling in separating funnel was observed to be more than that in column. The effect of temperature, particle size, bed height and vessel diameter were investigated. The extent as well as the rate of swelling is found to increase with rise in temperature (60 to 80 °C) and reduction in particle size. A decrease in swelling is observed with increase in bed height as well as decrease in vessel diameter and vice a versa. About 70 to 75 % swelling occurs in the first 40 to 45 s. Two empirical models viz. Weibull and Peleg were used to fit the experimental data. The rate parameters obtained for a sample T5 at different temperatures were in the range of 0.012 to 0.016. The volume changes of all the teas were compared with their elution behavior, by measuring the absorbance of a diluted sample of brew at 272 nm. The activation energies for the process of tea swelling calculated for T1 (1.2 mm), T5 (2.2 mm) and T5 (0.72 mm) were 14.156, 8.37 and 13.42 kJ/mol respectively.

  12. RESEARCH OF SWELLING OF SUZAKH CLAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubetskiy Valeriy Leonidovich

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the course of construction of Sangtudinsky hydropower plant-1 on the River Vakhsh, it was deemed necessary to identify clay swelling properties in the event of alterations of the humidity mode of fructured half-rock soils, or the Suzakh clay, that accommodated tunnel-shaped water outlets within a section that was 75 meters long. The depth of tunnels was about 100 m. Any interaction with swelling soils could lead to destruction of the tunnel lining. Suzakh clays demonstrated the following physical and mechanical properties: density of particles of soil ρ= 2,69 g/cm; soil density ρ = 2.40-2.47 g/cm; porosity of 8.2-10.8 %; ultimate resistance to uniaxial compression = 13.1-31.0 MPa. Water saturated clay samples disintegrated into cloddy fragments; the rate of a longitudinal ultrasonic wave in the area of unaltered soils was equal to = 2500 m/c; repulse coefficient k was equal to 15 MPa/m; solidity coefficient (according to Protodyakonov was equal to 1,5; modulus of deformation in the massif was equal to 0.23 х10 MPa. The author proposed a methodology and designed a pilot set of equipment units designated for the identification of the swelling properties of fractured half-rock soils. Results of the pilot unit operation are presented in the article. Swelling properties are based on the monolith testing results. The programme contemplated a set of experiments held in various limit states on the surface of monoliths. Dependence between the swelling pressure and the swelling deformation in the course of water saturation was identified. The experiment demonstrates that alterations of the humidity mode of free surface Suzakh clays cause the relative deformation of swelling up to 1.1 %, and if the lining is rigid, the swelling pressure can exceed 4 MPa.

  13. Band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Ying, E-mail: yliu5@bjtu.edu.cn; Liang, Tianshu

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals (FPPCs) are studied with the aim to clarify the effect of fractal hierarchy on the band structures. Firstly, one kind of FPPCs based on Sierpinski triangle routine is proposed. Then the influence of the porosity on the elastic wave dispersion in Sierpinski triangle FPPCs is investigated. The sensitivity of the band structures to the fractal hierarchy is discussed in detail. The results show that the increase of the hierarchy increases the sensitivity of ABG (Absolute band gap) central frequency to the porosity. But further increase of the fractal hierarchy weakens this sensitivity. On the same hierarchy, wider ABGs could be opened in Sierpinski equilateral triangle FPPC; whilst, a lower ABG could be opened at lower porosity in Sierpinski right-angled isosceles FPPCs. These results will provide a meaningful guidance in tuning band structures in porous phononic crystals by fractal design.

  14. A Heuristic Algorithm for Solving Triangle Packing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on the triangle packing problem has important theoretic significance, which has broad application prospects in material processing, network resource optimization, and so forth. Generally speaking, the orientation of the triangle should be limited in advance, since the triangle packing problem is NP-hard and has continuous properties. For example, the polygon is not allowed to rotate; then, the approximate solution can be obtained by optimization method. This paper studies the triangle packing problem by a new kind of method. Such concepts as angle region, corner-occupying action, corner-occupying strategy, and edge-conjoining strategy are presented in this paper. In addition, an edge-conjoining and corner-occupying algorithm is designed, which is to obtain an approximate solution. It is demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is highly efficient, and by the time complexity analysis and the analogue experiment result is found.

  15. On exact triangles consisting of stable vector bundles on tori

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Kazushi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the exact triangles consisting of stable holomorphic vector bundles on one-dimensional complex tori, and discuss their relations with the corresponding Fukaya category via the homological mirror symmetry.

  16. Kidney herniation through lumbar triangle following open pyeloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais Al Hooti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney herniation through the lumbar triangle is an uncommon type of hernia which is classically managed surgically. Contrast enhanced computerised tomography revealed lower pole of the right kidney herniating through the lumbar triangle in a 60-year-old woman, 10 years after an open right pyeloplasty. Surgical intervention was advised, however, patient opted for non-surgical management. Patient was successfully treated conservatively in clinic requiring regular analgesics for relief of mild pain.

  17. Perilaku Kecurangan Akademik Mahasiswa Akuntansi: Dimensi Fraud Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Fitriana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examine the dimensions of Fraud Triangle to explain this effect on the student’s cheating. This study uses a model of research The Academic Dishonesty Scale modifi cation. Sample in this study were 217 accounting students in Brawijaya University Malang. Data was collected through survey methods. This study have obtained empirical evidence that student’s cheating behaviorwas determined by the dimensions of the Fraud Triangle consists of incentive, opportunity and rationalization.

  18. When Can One Expect a Stronger Triangle Inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiziev, Valerii; Powers, Robert; Sahoo, Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    In 1997, Bailey and Bannister showed that a + b greater than c + h holds for all triangles with [gamma] less than arctan (22/7)where a, b, and c are the sides of the triangle, "h" is the altitude to side "c", and [gamma] is the angle opposite c. In this paper, we show that a + b greater than c + h holds approximately 92% of the time for all…

  19. The exact solution of an octagonal rectangle triangle random tiling

    CERN Document Server

    De Gier, J; Gier, Jan de; Nienhuis, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    We present a detailed calculation of the recently published exact solution of a random tiling model possessing an eight-fold symmetric phase. The solution is obtained using Bethe Ansatz and provides closed expressions for the entropy and phason elastic constants. Qualitatively, this model has the same features as the square-triangle random tiling model. We use the method of P. Kalugin, who solved the Bethe Ansatz equations for the square-triangle tiling, which were found by M. Widom.

  20. Postoperative pectoral swelling after shoulder arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercin, Ersin; Bilgili, Mustafa Gokhan; Ones, Halil Nadir; Kural, Cemal

    2015-01-01

    Fluid extravasation is possibly the most common complication of shoulder arthroscopy. Shoulder arthroscopy can lead to major increases in the compartment pressure of adjacent muscles and this phenomenon is significant when an infusion pump is used. This article describes a case of pectoral swelling due to fluid extravasation after shoulder arthroscopy. A 24-year-old male underwent an arthroscopic Bankart repair for recurrent shoulder dislocation. The surgery was performed in the beach chair position and lasted two hours. At the end of the procedure, the patient was found to have left pectoral swelling. A chest radiography showed no abnormality. Pectoral swelling due to fluid extravasation after shoulder arthroscopy has not previously been documented.

  1. A perioperative rehabilitation program for anterior cruciate ligament surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, T; Shelbourne, K D

    2000-01-01

    Rehabilitation programs have progressed alongside surgical advances in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A perioperative program has been successfully used at our clinic for more than 10 years to reduce postoperative complications and return patients to activity safely and quickly. The four-phase program starts at the time of injury and preoperatively includes aggressive swelling reduction, hyperextension exercises, gait training, and mental preparation. Goals after surgery are to control swelling while regaining full knee range of motion. After quadriceps strengthening goals are reached, patients can shift to sport-specific exercises.

  2. PFAPA with facial swelling- a new association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaghalian, B; Tewary, K K; Narchi, H

    2013-05-01

    PFAPA (periodic fever, apthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis) is a rare condition of unknown cause affecting children. Although the exact etiology is unknown, inflammatory, immunological or genetic causes have been suggested. The diagnosis is made by exclusion of other causes of periodic fever. Although management is essentially symptomatic, single corticosteroid dose, tonsillectomy and Cimetidine has been shown to be associated with resolution of symptoms. Although abdominal pain and genital ulcers have been reported in association with PFAPA, unilateral transient facial swelling has not been previously reported. The authors present a hitherto unreported association of PFAPA with recurrent episodes of unilateral facial swelling.

  3. Preparation and swelling behavior of polyvinyl alcohol physiological saline gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) physiological saline gel was prepared using physiological saline solution of the polymer by freezing and thawing method. The influences of the concentration of PVA, freezing and thawing cycle times and solvent swelling media on the swelling properties of PVA saline gel were investigated. The result show that the electrolytical ions have great effect on the swelling behavior of PVA saline gel. The equilibrium swelling ratio of PVA saline gel in aqueous swelling media is larger than that in saline swelling media. Also, the equilibrium swelling ratios of PVA saline gel in aqueous and in saline media decrease with the increase of gel concentration and the increase of freezing and thawing cycle times. The decreasing speed of equilibrium swelling ratio with the increase of freezing and thawing cycle times of PVA gel in distilled water is faster than that in physiological saline. The swelling kinetic equation can sufficiently describe the swelling behavior of PVA physiological saline gel.

  4. A heuristic method for solving triangle packing problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chuan-bo; HE Da-hua

    2005-01-01

    Given a set of triangles and a rectangle container, the triangle packing problem is to determine ifthese triangles can be placed into the container without overlapping. Triangle packing problem is a special case of polygon packing problem and also NP-hard, so it is unlikely that an efficient and exact algorithm can be developed to solve this problem. In this paper, a new concept of rigid placement is proposed, based on which a discrete solution space called rigid solution space is constructed. Each solution in the rigid solution space can be built by continuously applying legal rigid placements one by one until all the triangles are placed into the rectangle container without overlapping. The proposed Least-Destruction-First (LDF) strategy determines which rigid placement has the privilege to go into the rectangle container. Based on this, a heuristic algorithm is proposed to solve the problem.Combining Least-Destruction-First strategy with backtracking, the corresponding backtracking algorithm is proposed. Computational results show that our proposed algorithms are efficient and robust. With slight modification, these techniques can be conveniently used for solving polygon packing problem.

  5. Implementing the Law of Sines to solve SAS triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Zelator, Konstantine

    2010-01-01

    By "solving a triangle", one refers to determining the three sidelengths and the three angles, based on given information.Depending on the specific information, one or more triangles may satisfy the requirements of the given information.In the SAS case, two of sidelengths are given, as well as the angle contained by the two sides.According to Euclidean Geometry, such a triangle must be unique. In reference [1], and pretty much in standard trigonometry and precalculus texts,the Law of Cosines is employed in solving a SAS triangle. In this work we use an alternative approach by using the Law of Cosines.In Section 2, we list some basic trigonometric identities and in Section 3 we prove a lemma which is used in Section4. In Section4, we demonstrate the use of the Law of Sines in solving an SAS triangle. In Section 5 we offer three examples in detail; the last one being more general in nature.

  6. Value Triangles in the Management of Building Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    value, use value and quality of realization for product integrity, mainly for the design stage. Based on this framework an evaluation is made of the value management in six of DR’s building projects from the first around 1930 to the most recent – the new headquarters DR Byen finalised in 2009......The purpose of this paper is to investigate value triangles and their implementation in the management of building projects. The paper is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for Danish...... Broadcasting Corporation (DR) over time. The conventional iron triangle of quality, cost and schedule for project management is the theoretical starting point, but this is seen as mainly being related to process integrity in the construction stage. It is supplemented by a similar value triangle of cultural...

  7. Oyster shell calcium induced parotid swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah Palaniappan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 59 year old female consumer was started on therapy with oyster shell calcium in combination with vitamin D3 and she presented with swelling below the ear, after two doses. She stopped the drug by herself and the swelling disappeared in one day. She started the drug one day after recovery and again she developed the swelling. She was advised to stop the drug with a suggestion to take lemon to enhance parotid secretion and the swelling subsided. Calcium plays major role in salivary secretion and studies have shown reduced parotid secretion in rats, deficient of vitamin D. But in humans involvement of calcium and vitamin D3 in parotid secretion is unknown. However, the patient had no history of reaction though she had previously taken vitamin D3 with calcium carbonate which was not from oyster shell. Hence, we ruled out vitamin D3 in this reaction and suspecting oyster shell calcium as a culprit. This adverse drug reaction (ADR was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO causality assessment, Naranjo′s and Hartwig severity scales. As per WHO causality assessment scale, the ADR was classified as "certain". This reaction was analyzed as per Naranjo′s algorithm and was classified as probable. According to Hartwig′s severity scale the reaction was rated as mild. Our case is an example of a mild but rare adverse effect of oyster shell calcium carbonate which is widely used.

  8. Nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis mimicking orbital inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch MC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Chen Lynch,1 Andrew B Mick21Optometry Clinic, Ocala West Veterans Affairs Specialty Clinic, Ocala, FL, USA; 2Eye Clinic, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: Anterior scleritis is an uncommon form of ocular inflammation, often associated with coexisting autoimmune disease. With early recognition and aggressive systemic therapy, prognosis for resolution is good. The diagnosis of underlying autoimmune disease involves a multidisciplinary approach.Case report: A 42-year-old African American female presented to the Eye Clinic at the San Francisco Veteran Affairs Medical Center, with a tremendously painful left eye, worse on eye movement, with marked injection of conjunctiva. There was mild swelling of the upper eyelid. Visual acuity was unaffected, but there was a mild red cap desaturation. The posterior segment was unremarkable. The initial differential diagnoses included anterior scleritis and orbital inflammatory disease. Oral steroid treatment was initiated with rapid resolution over a few days. Orbital imaging was unremarkable, and extensive laboratory work-up was positive only for antinuclear antibodies. The patient was diagnosed with idiopathic diffuse, nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis and has been followed for over 5 years without recurrence. The rheumatology clinic monitors the patient closely, as suspicion remains for potential arthralgias including human leukocyte antigen-B27-associated arthritis, lupus-associated arthritis, seronegative rheumatoid arthritis, recurrent juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and scleroderma, based on her constitutional symptoms and clinical presentation, along with a positive anti-nuclear antibody lab result.Conclusion: Untreated anterior scleritis can progress to formation of cataracts, glaucoma, uveitis, corneal melting, and posterior segment disease with significant risk of vision loss. Patients with anterior scleritis must be aggressively treated with systemic anti

  9. Anterior chest wall involvement in patients with pustulosis palmoplantaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurik, A G

    1990-01-01

    With the aim of determining the frequency and radiographic features of anterior chest wall involvement in patients with pustulosis palmoplantaris, a questionnaire was sent to 107 patients. Ninety-three patients returned the questionnaire, five of whom were excluded from further analysis due to the appearance of psoriatic lesions. Twenty-five (28%) of the remaining 88 patients reported pain and/or swelling of joints or bones in the anterior chest wall. All were examined radiographically, using tomography, and a group of 20 patients without anterior chest wall complaints were examined similarly. Sixteen of the patients with, but none of the patients without, complaints were found to have arthro-osteitis of the anterior chest wall, consisting of diffuse sclerosis of the manubrium sterni in one patient, localized sclerosis in seven patients, and sequelae of arthritis of the sternoclavicular, upper sternocostal and/or manubriosternal joint in eight patients.

  10. The Average-Case Area of Heilbronn-Type Triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, T.; Li, Ming; Vitányi, Paul

    1999-01-01

    From among $ {n \\choose 3}$ triangles with vertices chosen from $n$ points in the unit square, let $T$ be the one with the smallest area, and let $A$ be the area of $T$. Heilbronn's triangle problem asks for the maximum value assumed by $A$ over all choices of $n$ points. We consider the average-case: If the $n$ points are chosen independently and at random (with a uniform distribution), then there exist positive constants $c$ and $C$ such that $c/n^3 < \\mu_n < C/n^3$ for all large enough val...

  11. Robust Generation of Signed Distance Fields from Triangle Meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2005-01-01

    is then used to convert the binary volume into a distance field. The method is robust and handles holes, spurious triangles and ambiguities. Moreover, the method lends itself to Boolean operations between solids. Since a point cloud as well as a signed distance is generated, it is possible to extract an iso......-surface of the distance field and fit it to the point set. Using this method, one may recover sharp edge information. Examples are given where the method for generating distance fields coupled with mesh fitting is used to perform Boolean and morphological operations on triangle meshes....

  12. Vertex Normals and Face Curvatures of Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang

    2016-08-12

    This study contributes to the discrete differential geometry of triangle meshes, in combination with discrete line congruences associated with such meshes. In particular we discuss when a congruence defined by linear interpolation of vertex normals deserves to be called a ʼnormal’ congruence. Our main results are a discussion of various definitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula.

  13. CONGENITAL ANTERIOR TIBIOFEMURAL SUBLUXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahla

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anterior tibiofemoral subluxation is an extremely rare disorder. All reported cases accompanied by other abnormalities and syndromes. A 16-year-old high school girl referred to us with bilateral anterior tibiofemoral subluxation as the knees were extended and reduced at more than 30 degrees flexion. Deformities were due to tightness of the iliotibial band and biceps femuris muscles and corrected by surgical release. Associated disorders included bilateral anterior shoulders dislocation, short metacarpals and metatarsals, and right calcaneuvalgus deformity.

  14. Two patients with TAFRO syndrome exhibiting strikingly similar anterior mediastinal lesions with predominantly fat attenuation on chest computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Yoko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yasuo, Masanori; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Tateishi, Kazunari; Ushiki, Atsuhito; Kawakami, Satoshi; Fujinaga, Yasunari; Asaka, Shiho; Sano, Kenji; Takayama, Hiroshi; Imamura, Hiroshi; Hanaoka, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    We herein report on two middle-aged men with TAFRO (thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis or renal failure, and organomegaly) syndrome, a unique clinicopathological variant of multicentric Castleman׳s disease recently proposed in Japan. Strikingly similar anterior mediastinal fat swellings with soft tissue density were observed in the patients on chest computed tomography. In TAFRO syndrome, bilateral pleural effusion and slight lymph node swelling are common in the thoracic region; however, anterior mediastinal lesions have not been previously observed. Although the mechanisms of anterior mediastinal lesions have not been defined, these lesions seem to have a close relationship with TAFRO syndrome.

  15. Synovial hemangiohamartoma presenting as knee pain, swelling and a soft tissue mass: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Serkan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a case of a patient with juxtaarticular hemangiohamartoma with a synovial extension associated with hemorrhagic synovitis and recurrent spontaneous hemarthrosis. Case presentation A 21-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of pain and swelling at her knee for 6 months. In the magnetic resonance imaging, T2-weighted and fat-suppressed scans revealed a mass with high signal intensity just posterior to the patellar tendon. We performed an excisional biopsy of the mass through an anterior longitudinal incision. Excised material included arterial and venous vascular structures, which were found to be spread among the fat, connective and peripheral nerve tissues microscopically. Conclusion Although hemangiohamartomas are not true neoplasms, they may cause knee pain, swelling and hemarthrosis that warrant surgical resection. This lesion, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis, especially in teenagers and young adults.

  16. Expanding Prevertebral Soft Tissue Swelling Subsequent to a Motor Vehicle Collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical acceleration/deceleration or whiplash injuries are a common cause of cervical spine trauma. Cervical acceleration/deceleration can result in vertebral fractures, subluxations, and ligamentous and other soft tissue injuries. Severe injuries are often evidenced by increased prevertebral swelling on lateral X-ray. Assessment of the prevertebral space on lateral cervical spine films is an essential component for identifying potential traumatic neck injuries. We describe a case in which an 84-year-old man on coumadin presented to the emergency department after a low-impact motor vehicle crash. The patient initially complained of neck and shoulder pain which subsequently progressed to hoarseness, dysphagia, and dyspnea. Imaging studies revealed significant prevertebral tissue swelling with anterior compression of his airway that required airway stabilization via awake fiber-optic intubation and reversal of his anticoagulation therapy.

  17. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy precipitated by acute primary angle closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhari Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old man with a history of longstanding systemic hypotension developed asymmetric non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION apparently precipitated by bilateral sequential acute primary angle closure. NAION is very rarely reported in association with raised intraocular pressure. In contrast to optical coherence tomography, the failure of scanning laser polarimetry to detect axonal swelling was another interesting finding. Possible reasoning for these observations is discussed.

  18. Triangle of Safety Technique: A New Approach to Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman F. M. S. Almutairi

    2009-01-01

    dissection of the Calot's triangle can lead to such injuries. The aim of the authors in this study is to present a new safe triangle of dissection. Patients and Method. 501 patients under went LC in the following approach; The cystic artery is identified and mobilized from the gall bladder (GB medial wall down towards the cystic duct which would simultaneously divide the medial GB peritoneal attachment. This is then followed by dividing the lateral peritoneal attachment. The GB will be unfolded and the borders of the triangle of safety (TST are achieved: cystic artery medially, cystic duct laterally and the gallbladder wall superiorly. The floor of the triangle is then divided to delineate both cystic duct and artery in an area relatively far from CBD. Results. There were little significant immediate or delayed complications. The mean operating time was 68 minutes, nearly equivalent to the conventional method. Conclusions. Dissection at TST appears to be a safe procedure which clearly demonstrates the cystic duct and may help to reduce the CBD injuries.

  19. Eigenstructure of the equilateral triangle, Part II: The Neumann problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. McCartin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lame's formulas for the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Laplacian with Neumann boundary conditions on an equilateral triangle are derived using direct elementary mathematical techniques. They are shown to form a complete orthonormal system. Various properties of the spectrum and nodal lines are explored. Implications for related geometries are considered.

  20. Some Geometric Inequalities Relating to an Interior Point in Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Liang, Chun-Lei

    2010-01-01

    In this short note, by using one of Li and Liu's theorems [K.-H. Li, "The solution of CIQ. 39," "Commun. Stud. Inequal." 11(1) (2004), p. 162 (in Chinese)], "s-R-r" method, Cauchy's inequality and the theory of convex function, we solve some geometric inequalities conjectures relating to an interior point in triangle. (Contains 1 figure.)

  1. Determination of the CKM unitarity triangle parameters by end 1999

    CERN Document Server

    Caravaglios, F; Roudeau, Patrick; Stocchi, A

    2000-01-01

    Within the Standard Model, a review of the current determination of the CKMunitarity triangle parameters is presented, using experimental constraints fromthe measurements of |epsilon_K|, V_ub/V_cb, Delta m_d and from the limit onDelta m_s, available by end 1999.

  2. Characteristic mixing triangles in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Temperature-salinity structures in the inner part of Bay of Bengal showed complete mixing processes in the upper bay, less than about 600 m can be characterisEd. by a mixing triangle constitutEd. by three characteristic water properties. In outer...

  3. Simplified triangle method for estimating evaporative fraction over soybean crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Fuzzo, Daniela Fernanda; Rocha, Jansle Vieira

    2016-10-01

    Accurate estimates are emerging with technological advances in remote sensing, and the triangle method has demonstrated to be a useful tool for the estimation of evaporative fraction (EF). The purpose of this study was to estimate the EF using the triangle method at the regional level. We used data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer orbital sensor, referring to indices of surface temperature and vegetation index for a 10-year period (2002/2003 to 2011/2012) of cropping seasons in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The triangle method has shown considerable results for the EF, and the validation of the estimates, as compared to observed data of climatological water balance, showed values >0.8 for modified "d" of Wilmott and R2 values between 0.6 and 0.7 for some counties. The errors were low for all years analyzed, and the test showed that the estimated data are very close to the observed data. Based on statistical validation, we can say that the triangle method is a consistent tool, is useful as it uses only images of remote sensing as variables, and can provide support for monitoring large-scale agroclimatic, specially for countries of great territorial dimensions, such as Brazil, which lacks a more dense network of meteorological ground stations, i.e., the country does not appear to cover a large field for data.

  4. 78 FR 14366 - Triangle Capital Corporation; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ...\\ ``Restricted Stock'' means shares of Triangle's common stock that, at the time of issuance, are subject to...)(4) and rule 17d-1 permitting certain joint enterprises or arrangements and profit- sharing plans... whether the participation of the BDC in such enterprise, arrangement, or plan is consistent with...

  5. The incenter of a triangle as a cone isoperimetric center

    CERN Document Server

    O'Hara, Jun

    2010-01-01

    We show that the the image of the regular projection of a vertex of a cone over a triangle that minimizes the ratio of the cube of the area of the boundary of the cone and the square of the volume of the cone coincides with the incenter.

  6. Cohabitation promotes high diversity of clownfishes in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Emma F; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; De Brauwer, Maarten; Dumbrell, Alex J; Smith, David J

    2016-03-30

    Global marine biodiversity peaks within the Coral Triangle, and understanding how such high diversity is maintained is a central question in marine ecology. We investigated broad-scale patterns in the diversity of clownfishes and their host sea anemones by conducting 981 belt-transects at 20 locations throughout the Indo-Pacific. Of the 1508 clownfishes encountered, 377 fish occurred in interspecific cohabiting groups and cohabitation was almost entirely restricted to the Coral Triangle. Neither the diversity nor density of host anemone or clownfish species alone influenced rates of interspecific cohabitation. Rather cohabitation occurred in areas where the number of clownfish species exceeds the number of host anemone species. In the Coral Triangle, cohabiting individuals were observed to finely partition their host anemone, with the subordinate species inhabiting the periphery. Furthermore, aggression did not increase in interspecific cohabiting groups, instead dominant species were accepting of subordinate species. Various combinations of clownfish species were observed cohabiting (independent of body size, phylogenetic relatedness, evolutionary age, dentition, level of specialization) in a range of anemone species, thereby ensuring that each clownfish species had dominant reproductive individuals in some cohabiting groups. Clownfishes are obligate commensals, thus cohabitation is an important process in maintaining biodiversity in high diversity systems because it supports the persistence of many species when host availability is limiting. Cohabitation is a likely explanation for high species richness in other obligate commensals within the Coral Triangle, and highlights the importance of protecting these habitats in order to conserve unique marine biodiversity.

  7. The comfort triangles: a new tool for bioclimatic design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents a new graphic tool to identify and select bioclimatic strategies according to climate conditions and comfort requirements. The Comfort Triangle relates outdoor daily temperature variations with the modification of thermal performance achieved indoors, using two key variables, av

  8. The Roots of Adjoint Polynomial of the Graphs Contain Triangles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YECheng-fu

    2004-01-01

    We denote h(G,x) as the adjoint polynomial of graph G. In [5], Ma obtained the interpolation properties of the roots of adjoint polynomial of graphs containing triangles. By the properties, we prove the non-zero root of adjoint polynomial of Dn and Fn are single multiple.

  9. On Feynman's Triangle Problem and the Routh Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yiu-Kwong

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we give a brief history of the Feynman's Triangle problem and describe a simple method to solve a general version of this problem, which is called the Routh Theorem. This method could be found useful to school teachers, instructors or lecturers who are involved in teaching geometry.

  10. Exploring Dissections of Rectangles into Right-Angled Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In this article we highlight how a simple classroom activity associated with the dissection of rectangles into right-angled triangles can lead on to a number of interesting explorations for students following a post-16 mathematics course. Several results connected with this construction are obtained, and some of the educational benefits of…

  11. Swelling of acetylated wood in organic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Obataya, E; Obataya, Eiichi; Gril, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo spruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling in various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The acetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids such as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only slightly and/or very slowly. On the other hand, the swelling of wood in water, ethylene glycol and alcohols remained unchanged or decreased by the acetylation. Consequently the maximum volume of wood swollen in organic liquids was always larger than that in water. The effect of acetylation on the maximum swollen volume of wood was greater in liquids having smaller solubility parameters. The easier penetration of aprotic organic liquids into the acetylated wood was considered to be due to the scission of hydrogen bonds among the amorphous wood constituents by the substitution of hydroxyl groups with hydrophobic acetyl groups.

  12. Glial K(+) Clearance and Cell Swelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macaulay, Nanna; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    space into the glial cell are debated. Although spatial buffer currents may occur, their quantitative contribution to K(+) clearance is uncertain. The concept of spatial buffering of K(+) precludes intracellular K(+) accumulation and is therefore (i) difficult to reconcile with the K(+) accumulation...... repeatedly observed in glial cells during K(+) clearance and (ii) incompatible with K(+)-dependent glial cell swelling. K(+) uptake into non-voltage clamped cultured glial cells is carried out by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and the Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter in combination. In brain slices and intact optic...... nerve, however, only the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has been demonstrated to be involved in stimulus-evoked K(+) clearance. The glial cell swelling associated with K(+) clearance is prevented under conditions that block the activity of the Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter. The Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter...

  13. Pellet integrity and swelling of lithium ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollenberg, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to determine the swelling and pellet integrity of Li/sub 2/O, Li/sub 4/SlO/sub 4/, Li/sub 2/ZrO/sub 3/, and LiAlO/sub 2/ after irradiation in a fast neutron fluence. Differences in the pellet integrity of lithium ceramics irradiated in the EBR-II reactor were observed to be related to the level of thermal strains within the ceramics which resulted from differences in thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of the solids. Swelling in Li/sub 2/O was found to be significantly greater than that of Li/sub 2/ZrO/sub 3/, LiAlO/sub 2/, and Li/sub 4/SlO/sub 4/ at high temperatures. At 500/sup 0/C, Li/sub 2/O exhibited axial shrinkage which resulted in overall volumetric shrinkage of the pellets which is not presently understood. The high temperature swelling of Li/sub 2/O is thought to be caused by the high helium retention in this solid.

  14. Evolution of midplate hotspot swells: Numerical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mian; Chase, Clement G.

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of midplate hotspot swells on an oceanic plate moving over a hot, upwelling mantle plume is numerically simulated. The plume supplies a Gaussian-shaped thermal perturbation and thermally-induced dynamic support. The lithosphere is treated as a thermal boundary layer with a strongly temperature-dependent viscosity. The two fundamental mechanisms of transferring heat, conduction and convection, during the interaction of the lithosphere with the mantle plume are considered. The transient heat transfer equations, with boundary conditions varying in both time and space, are solved in cylindrical coordinates using the finite difference ADI (alternating direction implicit) method on a 100 x 100 grid. The topography, geoid anomaly, and heat flow anomaly of the Hawaiian swell and the Bermuda rise are used to constrain the models. Results confirm the conclusion of previous works that the Hawaiian swell can not be explained by conductive heating alone, even if extremely high thermal perturbation is allowed. On the other hand, the model of convective thinning predicts successfully the topography, geoid anomaly, and the heat flow anomaly around the Hawaiian islands, as well as the changes in the topography and anomalous heat flow along the Hawaiian volcanic chain.

  15. Water holding capacity and swelling of casein hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruif, C; Anema, Skelte G.; Zhu, Changjun; Havea, Palatasa; Coker, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The water holding capacity of casein gels was investigated by measuring the swelling and de-swelling under a variety of conditions of temperature and salt concentration. Transglutaminase cross-linked sodium caseinate (15% w/w) gels will swell in good solvents or shrink in poor solvents until an equi

  16. Synthesis and Swelling Properties of Thermosensitive Hydrogels based on Terpolymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Hua NI; Xian Yu ZENG; He HUANG

    2005-01-01

    Novel thermosensitive hydrogels based on polymerization of N-isopropyl acrylamide,Sodium acrylate, and diacetone acrylamide were synthesized. The swelling ratio and dynamic swelling were investigated. The results indicated that the hydrogels exhibited high water uptake and themosensitivity. The swelling properties and volume phase transition temperature could be adjusted by contents of the comonomers in the gels.

  17. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) ... and Recovery Coping With an ACL Injury About ACL Injuries A torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is ...

  18. List Total Colorings of Planar Graphs without Triangles at Small Distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin LIU; Jian Feng HOU; Gui Zhen LIU

    2011-01-01

    Suppose that G is a planar graph with maximum degree △.In this paper it is proved that G is total-( △+ 2)-choosable if (1) △ ≥7 and G has no adjacent triangles (i.e.,no two triangles are incident with a common edge); or (2) △ ≥ 6 and G has no intersecting triangles (i.e.,no two triangles are incident with a common vertex); or (3) △ ≥ 5,G has no adjacent triangles and G has no k-cycles for some integer k ∈ {5,6}.

  19. Irradiation creep relaxation of void swelling-driven stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, M.M., E-mail: hallmm63@comcast.net [MacRay Consulting, 1366 Hillsdale Drive, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation void swelling can cause distortion of reactor core components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constrained swelling can drive stresses beyond acceptable levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compressive stresses decrease irradiation swelling rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation creep relaxes swelling-driven stresses and core restraint forces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swelling-driven creep stresses are consistent with predictions of a proposed model. - Abstract: Swelling-driven-creep test specimens are used to measure the compressive stresses that develop due to constraint of irradiation void swelling. These specimens use a previously non-irradiated 20% CW Type 316 stainless steel holder to axially restrain two Type 304 stainless steel tubular specimens that were previously irradiated in the US Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) at 490 Degree-Sign C. One specimen was previously irradiated to fluence levels in the void nucleation regime (9 dpa) and the other in the quasi-steady void growth regime (28 dpa). A lift-off compliance measurement technique was used post-irradiation to determine compressive stresses developed during reirradiation of the two specimen assemblies in Row 7 of EBR-II at temperatures of 547 Degree-Sign C and 504 Degree-Sign C, respectively, to additional damage levels each of about 5 dpa. Results obtained on the higher fluence swelling-driven-creep specimen show that compressive stress due to constraint of swelling retards void swelling to a degree that is consistent with active load uniaxial compression specimens that were irradiated as part of a previously reported multiaxial in-reactor creep experiment. Swelling results obtained on the lower fluence swelling-driven creep specimen show a much larger effect of compressive stress in reducing swelling, demonstrating that the larger effect of stress on swelling is on void nucleation as compared to void growth. Test results are

  20. Quantitative analyses of extrudate swell for polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kejian; Sun, Chongxiao

    2009-07-01

    The quantitative theory of extrudate swell for nanocomposite and pure polymer is significant either for optimum processing or for understanding their viscoelasticity. Based on Song's die swell theory for entangled polymers, one extrudate swell correlation with material properties and capillary parameters was developed for polymer melt and their nanocomposites when compensating reservoir entry effect. It was the first to find that the composite swell ratio can be the matrix swell ratio multiplied by the concentration shift factor. The factor is the functions of the shear field, filler content, filler internal structure and the surface state as well as the matrix properties. The quantitative model was well fitful for the five kinds of nanoomposites.

  1. Detection on Straight Line Problem in Triangle Geometry Features for Digit Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Arbain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Geometric object especially triangle geometry has been widely used in digit recognition area. The triangle geometry properties have been implemented as the triangle features which are used to construct the triangle shape. Triangle is formed based on three points of triangle corner A, B and C. However, a problem occurs when three points of triangle corner were in parallel line. Thus, an algorithm has been proposed in order to solve the straight line problem. The Support Vector Machine (SVM and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP were used to measure based on the classification accuracy. Four datasets were used: HODA, IFCHDB, MNIST and BANGLA. The comparison results classification demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  2. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  3. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruy, H.J.

    1998-03-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  4. The Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Albeiro; Joyanes, Luis; López, Marcelo

    The so-called "Coffee Triangle" region is located in the Andean Region, in central Colombia, South America. This Andean Region is composed of the Departments of Caldas, Quindío and Risaralda. The Andean Region has been characterized by the production of coffee as a worldwide industry supported by high Quality and Research standards. These components have become the key bastions to compete in international markets. After the decline of the Coffee industry it is necessary to consider alternatives, supplemented by the success of the Software Industry at the global level. The strengthening of the Software Industry in the Coffee Triangle seeks to establish a productive alternative for regional growth in a visionary way, where knowledge, a fundamental input of the Software Industry, is emerging as one of the greatest assets present in this geographical area - Andean Region - of Colombia.

  5. Absence of Posterior Triangle: Clinical and Embryological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shikha; Loh, Hitendra Kumar; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and Trapezius (TM) muscle present in the cervical region serves as an important landmark in forming boundaries of posterior triangle of neck. This case reports a continuous muscle sheet obscuring the left posterior triangle in the neck of a 60-year-old Indian male cadaver. An unfamiliar oval gap was observed in its posterosuperior portion. Description of such a variant in anatomical literature is rare and is scarcely reported. An attempt has been made to portray its embryological and phylogenetic basis. In addition authors have endeavoured to discuss its clinical implications. Awareness of such anatomical variations is relevant for the operating surgeons in their endeavour to perform various reconstruction surgeries of head and neck, radiologists while concluding various levels in Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of the region and to the anaesthetists in their search for nerves and vessels while attempting various anaesthetic procedures. PMID:28384846

  6. Emerging lattice approach to the K-Unitarity Triangle

    CERN Document Server

    Lehner, Christoph; Soni, Amarjit

    2015-01-01

    It has been clear for past many years that in low energy observables new physics can only appear as a perturbation. Therefore precise theoretical predictions and precise experimental measurements have become mandatory. Here we draw attention to the significant advances that have been made on the lattice in recent years in $K\\to \\pi \\pi$, $\\Delta M_K$, the long-distance part of $\\varepsilon$ and rare K-decays. Thus, in conjunction with experiments, the construction of a unitarity triangle purely from Kaon physics should soon become feasible. Along with the B-unitarity triangle, this should allow for more stringent tests of the Standard Model and tighter constraints on new physics.

  7. On degree sums of a triangle-free graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Harant, J.; Naumann, S.

    2014-01-01

    For a simple triangle-free k-chromatic graph G with k >= 2 the upper bound m(n-f (k-2)) on the sum Sigma(2)(G) = Sigma(x is an element of V(G))d(2)(x) of the squares of the degrees of G is proved, where n, m, and f(1) are the order of G, the size of G, and the minimum order of a triangle-free l-c......-chromatic graph, respectively. Consequences of this bound are discussed. Moreover, we generalize the upper bound on Ep (G) = Sigma(p)(G) = Sigma(x is an element of V(G))d(x)) for p = 2 to P >= 3. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. Fibroma of tendon sheath located within Kager's triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Eva; Witlox, Marianne A; Hermus, Joris P S

    2014-01-01

    The formation of a fibroma of the tendon sheath, a rare, slow-growing, benign tumor, usually occurs in the upper extremities of young adult males. We present an extremely rare case of a fibroma of the tendon sheath arising adjacent to the Achilles tendon within Kager's triangle in a 41-year-old female. The patient presented with progressive pain localized to the posterior aspect of the left ankle. Complete excision and histopathologic analysis of the fibroma were performed. The patient experienced an uneventful recovery after the intervention and had no evidence of recurrence after 3 months of follow-up. Fibroma of the tendon sheath should be included in the differential diagnosis when a patient presents with a painful soft tissue mass in Kager's triangle.

  9. Algebraic proof and application of Lumley's realizability triangle

    CERN Document Server

    Gerolymos, G A

    2016-01-01

    Lumley [Lumley J.L.: Adv. Appl. Mech. 18 (1978) 123--176] provided a geometrical proof that any Reynolds-stress tensor $\\overline{u_i'u_j'}$ (indeed any tensor whose eigenvalues are invariably nonnegative) should remain inside the so-called Lumley's realizability triangle. An alternative formal algebraic proof is given that the anisotropy invariants of any positive-definite symmetric Cartesian rank-2 tensor in the 3-D Euclidian space $\\mathbb{E}^3$ define a point which lies within the realizability triangle. This general result applies therefore not only to $\\overline{u_i'u_j'}$ but also to many other tensors that appear in the analysis and modeling of turbulent flows. Typical examples are presented based on DNS data for plane channel flow.

  10. Self-assembly of self-assembled molecular triangles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mili C Naranthatta; V Ramkumar; Dillip Kumar Chand

    2014-09-01

    A rare variety of self-assembledmolecular triangle [Pd3(bpy)3(imidazolate)3](NO3)3, 1 is prepared by the combination of Pd(bpy)(NO3)2 with imidazole, at 1:1 ratio, in acetonitrile-water. Deprotonation of imidazole happened during the course of the complexation reaction where upon the metallomacrocycle is formed. The bowl-shaped trinuclear architecture of 1 is crafted with three peripheral bpy units capable of - stacking interactions. While the solution state structure of 1 can be best described as a trinuclear complex, in the solidstate well-fashioned intermolecular - and CH- interactions are observed. Thus, in the solid-state further self-assembly of already self-assembled molecular triangle is witnessed. The triangular panels are arranged in a linear manner utilizing intermolecular - interactions where upon two out of three bpy units of each molecule participated in the chain formation.

  11. Triangle-based key management scheme for wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hangyang DAI; Hongbing XU

    2009-01-01

    For security services in wireless sensor net-works, key management is a fundamental building block.In this article, we propose a triangle-based key predis-tribution approach and show that it can improve the effectiveness of key management in wireless sensor networks. This is achieved by using the bivariate polynomial in a triangle deployment system based on deployment information about expected locations of the sensor nodes. The analysis indicates that this scheme can achieve higher probability of both direct key establishment and indirect key establishment. On the other hand, the security analysis shows that its security against node capture would increase with a decrease of the sensor node deployment density and size of the deployment model and an increase of the polynomial degree.

  12. Factors of binomial sums from the Catalan triangle

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Victor J W

    2009-01-01

    By using the Newton interpolation formula, we generalize the recent identities on the Catalan triangle obtained by Miana and Romero as well as those of Chen and Chu. We further study divisibility properties of sums of products of binomial coefficients and an odd power of a natural number. For example, we prove that for all positive integers $n_1, ..., n_m$, $n_{m+1}=n_1$, and any nonnegative integer $r$, the expression

  13. Acyclic Edge Coloring of Planar Graphs without Adjacent Triangles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dezheng XIE; Yanqing WU

    2012-01-01

    An acyclic edge coloring of a graph G is a proper edge coloring such that there are no bichromatic cycles.The acyclic edge chromatic number of a graph G is the minimum number k such that there exists an acyclic edge coloring using k colors and is denoted by x'a(G).In this paper we prove that x'a(G)≤ Δ(G)+ 5 for planar graphs G without adjacent triangles.

  14. Quantum Algorithms for Finding Claws, Collisions and Triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, H; Hoyer, P; Magniez, F; Santha, M; De Wolf, R; Buhrman, Harry; Durr, Christoph; Hoyer, Peter; Magniez, Frederic; Santha, Miklos; Wolf, Ronald de

    2000-01-01

    We present several applications of quantum amplitude amplification to finding claws and collisions in ordered or unordered functions. Our algorithms generalize those of Brassard, Hoyer, and Tapp, and imply an N^{3/4} log(N) quantum upper bound for the element distinctness problem (contrasting with N\\log(N) classical complexity). We also give an algorithm to finding a triangle in a graph more efficiently than classically.

  15. Surface roughness stabilizes the clustering of self-propelled triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilse, Sven Erik; Holm, Christian; de Graaf, Joost

    2016-10-01

    Self-propelled particles can spontaneously form dense phases from a dilute suspension in a process referred to as motility-induced phase separation. The properties of the out-of-equilibrium structures that are formed are governed by the specifics of the particle interactions and the strength of the activity. Thus far, most studies into the formation of these structures have focused on spherical colloids, dumbbells, and rod-like particles endowed with various interaction potentials. Only a few studies have examined the collective behavior of more complex particle shapes. Here, we increase the geometric complexity and use molecular dynamics simulations to consider the structures formed by triangular self-propelled particles with surface roughness. These triangles either move towards their apex or towards their base, i.e., they possess a polarity. We find that apex-directed triangles cluster more readily, more stably, and have a smoother cluster interface than their base-directed counterparts. A difference between the two polarities is in line with the results of Wensink et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 010302 (2014)]; however, we obtain the reversed result when it comes to clustering, namely, that apex-directed triangles cluster more successfully. We further show that reducing the surface roughness negatively impacts the stability of the base-directed structures, suggesting that their formation is in large part due to surface roughness. Our results lay a solid foundation for future experimental and computational studies into the effect of roughness on the collective dynamics of swimmers.

  16. Emerging lattice approach to the K-unitarity triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Christoph; Lunghi, Enrico; Soni, Amarjit

    2016-08-01

    It has been clear for the past several years that new physics in the quark sector can only appear, in low energy observables, as a perturbation. Therefore precise theoretical predictions and precise experimental measurements have become mandatory. Here we draw attention to the significant advances that have been made in lattice QCD simulations in recent years in K → ππ, in the long-distance contribution to indirect CP violation in the Kaon system (ε) and in rare K-decays. Thus, in conjunction with experiments, the construction of a unitarity triangle purely from Kaon physics should soon become feasible. We want to emphasize that in our approach to the K-unitarity triangle, the ability of lattice QCD methods to systematically improve the calculation of the direct CP-violation parameter (ε‧) plays a pivotal role. Along with the B-unitarity triangle, this could allow, depending on the pattern of new physics, for more stringent tests of the Standard Model and tighter constraints on new physics.

  17. Putting matters on the triangle-hinge models

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Umeda, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper [arXiv:1503.08812] a new class of models generating three-dimensional random volumes are introduced, where the Boltzmann weight of each configuration is given by the product of values assigned to the triangles and the hinges. These triangle-hinge models are characterized by semisimple associative algebras, and the set of possible diagrams can be reduced such that only and all of the three-dimensional manifolds with tetrahedral decompositions are generated. In this letter, we give a general prescription to put matters on the models. We show that the degrees of freedom representing matter fields can be assigned to simplices of any dimensions (tetrahedra, triangles, edges and vertices) in such a way that they have local interactions. Simple examples include the Ising model, the q-state Potts models and the RSOS models coupled to three-dimensional quantum gravity. We also show that the three-dimensional colored tensor models can be obtained by putting specific matters on both tetrahedra and tria...

  18. Algorithmic self-assembly of DNA Sierpinski triangles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W K Rothemund

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms and information, fundamental to technological and biological organization, are also an essential aspect of many elementary physical phenomena, such as molecular self-assembly. Here we report the molecular realization, using two-dimensional self-assembly of DNA tiles, of a cellular automaton whose update rule computes the binary function XOR and thus fabricates a fractal pattern--a Sierpinski triangle--as it grows. To achieve this, abstract tiles were translated into DNA tiles based on double-crossover motifs. Serving as input for the computation, long single-stranded DNA molecules were used to nucleate growth of tiles into algorithmic crystals. For both of two independent molecular realizations, atomic force microscopy revealed recognizable Sierpinski triangles containing 100-200 correct tiles. Error rates during assembly appear to range from 1% to 10%. Although imperfect, the growth of Sierpinski triangles demonstrates all the necessary mechanisms for the molecular implementation of arbitrary cellular automata. This shows that engineered DNA self-assembly can be treated as a Turing-universal biomolecular system, capable of implementing any desired algorithm for computation or construction tasks.

  19. Pythagorean Triangles with Repeated Digits-Repeated Bases

    CERN Document Server

    Muzaffar, Habib

    2009-01-01

    In 1998, in the winter issue of the journal Mathematics and Computer education (see [1]), Monte Zerger posed the following problem. He had noticed the Pythagorean triple (216,630,666);(216)^2+(630)^2=(666)^2. Note that 216=6^3 and 666 is the hypotenuse length. The question was then, whether there existed a digit d and a positive integer k(other than the above); such that d^k is the leglength of a Pythagorean triangle whose hypotenuse length has exactly k digits, each being equal to d. In 1999, F.Luca and P.Bruckman, answered the above question in the negative. In 2001, K.Zelator(see [2]), took this question further and showed that no Pythagorean triangle exists such that one leg has length d^k, while the other leglegth has exactly k digits in its decimal expansion, with each digit bein equal to d. In this work, we explore the above phenomenon from the point of view of number bases other than 10. We prove five Theorems. As an example, in Theorem 1, we prove that there exists no Pythagorean triangle with one of...

  20. The disease triangle: pathogens, the environment and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

    2007-02-01

    The primary means to define any disease is by naming a pathogen or agent that negatively affects the health of the host organism. Another assumed, but often overlooked, determinant of disease is the environment, which includes deleterious physical and social effects on mankind. The disease triangle is a conceptual model that shows the interactions between the environment, the host and an infectious (or abiotic) agent. This model can be used to predict epidemiological outcomes in plant health and public health, both in local and global communities. Here, the Irish potato famine of the mid-nineteenth century is used as an example to show how the disease triangle, originally devised to interpret plant disease outcomes, can be applied to public health. In parallel, malaria is used to discuss the role of the environment in disease transmission and control. In both examples, the disease triangle is used as a tool to discuss parameters that influence socioeconomic outcomes as a result of host-pathogen interactions involving plants and humans.

  1. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  2. In vitro study of the aortic interleaflet triangle reshaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismara, R; Leopaldi, A M; Mangini, A; Romagnoni, C; Contino, M; Antona, C; Fiore, G B

    2014-01-22

    Aortic interleaflet triangle reshaping (AITR) is a surgical approach to aortic valve incontinence that involves placing three stitches at half of the interleaflet triangles height. In this work, the relationship between the actual stitch height and valve functioning, and the safety margin that the surgeon can rely on in applying the stitches were systematically investigated in vitro. AITR surgery was applied to six swine aortic roots placing the stitches empirically at 50%, 60% and 75% of the triangle heights. Then the actual stitch heights were measured and the hydrodynamic performances were evaluated with a pulsatile hydrodynamic mock loop. Actual stitch heights were 45±2%, 61±4% and 79±6%. As compared to untreated conditions, the 50% configuration induced a significant variation in the effective orifice area. With stitches placed at 60%, the mean systolic pressure drop increased significantly with respect to the untreated case, but no significant changes were recorded with respect to the 50% configuration. At 75%, all the hydrodynamic parameters of systolic valve functioning worsened significantly. Summarizing, the AITR technique, when performed in a conservative manner did not induce significant alterations in the hydrodynamics of the aortic root in vitro, while more aggressive configurations did. The absence of a statistically significant difference between the 50% and 60% configurations suggests that there is a reasonably limited risk of inducing valve stenosis in the post-op scenario due to stitch misplacement.

  3. Refraction of swell by surface currents

    CERN Document Server

    Gallet, Basile

    2014-01-01

    Using recordings of swell from pitch-and-roll buoys, we have reproduced the classic observations of long-range surface wave propagation originally made by Munk et al. (1963) using a triangular array of bottom pressure measurements. In the modern data, the direction of the incoming swell fluctuates by about $\\pm 10^\\circ$ on a time scale of one hour. But if the incoming direction is averaged over the duration of an event then, in contrast with the observations by Munk et al. (1963), the sources inferred by great-circle backtracking are most often in good agreement with the location of large storms on weather maps of the Southern Ocean. However there are a few puzzling failures of great-circle backtracking e.g., in one case, the direct great-circle route is blocked by the Tuamoto Islands and the inferred source falls on New Zealand. Mirages like this occur more frequently in the bottom-pressure observations of Munk et al. (1963), where several inferred sources fell on the Antarctic continent. Using spherical ra...

  4. Angiosarcoma Presenting with Minor Erythema and Swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Cox

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old man presented with slowly progressive swelling in his forehead and left upper eyelid over the course of three months. CT scanning showed non-specific enhancement of subcutaneous tissues, suggesting a low-grade cellulitis. Poor response to treatment prompted an MRI, which revealed the presence of a soft tissue lesion. Biopsy of this lesion was positive for angiosarcoma. The patient underwent chemotherapy and radiation, but unfortunately succumbed to his malignancy eight months later. This case illustrates a rare example of facial/periorbital angiosarcoma, a benign-appearing but aggressive tumor associated with a high incidence of mortality. A review of the literature and current treatment options are discussed.

  5. Strong dissipation of steep swells observed across oceans

    CERN Document Server

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Collard, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    Global observations of ocean swell propagation is presented and analyzed, using on four years of satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar data. Tracking swells along their propagation paths yields an estimation of the dissipation of their energy. Swells can be very persistent with energy e-folding scales exceeding 30,000 km. For increasing swell steepness, this scale shrinks down to 2700 km, revealing a significant loss of swell energy. This pattern is consistent with a laminar to turbulent transition of the boundary layer, induced by the opposite wave-induced motions of air and water, with a threshold Reynolds number of the order of 100,000. This finding opens the way for more accurate wave forecasting models, and provides a constraint on swell-induced air-sea fluxes of momentum and energy.

  6. Swelling Behaviors of Polyaniline-Poly(Acrylic Acid) Hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG You-wei; ZHAO Jiong-xin; LI Xiao-feng; TAO Yong; WU Cheng-xun

    2005-01-01

    Using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) aqueous solution, NaOH aqueous solution, aniline(An) and ammonim persulfate(APS), PAn-PAA hydrogels with a semi-interpenetrating structure connected by physical interlocks, chemical ion bonds and hydrogen bonds wcre prepared. The swelling properties of the hydrogels in solutions of different pH values(adjusted by adding NaOH or HCl) were studied. All the hydrogels prepared have similar swelling curves (the curves of equilibrium swelling ratio vs. pH value) and reach their maximum swelling at pH of 8 - 10. The maximum swelling ratio of the hydrogels is dependent on composition, including molecular weight of PAA, polymer content of the hydrogel,and molar ratios of AA to An, APS to An, and NaOH to AA.And the compositional dependence of the swelling capacity of PAn-PAA hydrogels was also studied.

  7. The Initial Water Content Dependent Swelling Behavior of Clayey Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet Öngen, Ali; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal

    2015-04-01

    The variation in water content is known as a main controlling parameter for many physical and mechanical behaviors of clayey soils, particularly soils found in arid and semi-arid regions. Expansive soils found in such regions are naturally subjected to many volume increase and decrease cycles within unsaturated zone during rainy and dry periods, and thus these soils constitute severe hazard to low-rise light buildings and infrastructures constructed in shallow unsaturated depths. Although the relationships between swelling parameters (swelling pressure and swelling percent) and soils' physical - index properties have been investigated in details in previous researches, the continuous effect of water content on swelling mechanisms of soils is not yet sufficiently studied. The water content of unsaturated zone naturally fluctuates with changes in both seasonal climatic conditions and increasing in depths, and therefore, swelling parameters of a soil within unsaturated soils should not be represented with only one single value. For achieving accurate understanding of swelling behavior at field condition, soils should be subjected to swelling tests by considering different initial water content conditions. Considering requirement for further understanding in water content dependent swelling behavior of soils, a research program was aimed to investigate the effect of initial water content on swelling behavior of soil materials. For this purpose, soils having wide range of physical properties such as grain size distributions, mineralogical composition and consistency limits were collected from different locations in Turkey. To minimize the effect of dry unit weight on swelling behavior of soils, samples prepared at same dry unit weight (14.6 kN/m3) with various initial water contents ranging from 0% to approximately 37% were subjected to swelling tests by using convenient odometer device. Beside these tests, grain size distribution, Atterberg limits and mineralogical

  8. Large Intra-Articular Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ganglion Cyst, Presenting with Inability to Flex the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Sloane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old female presented with a 3-month history of gradually worsening anterior knee pain, swelling and inability to flex the knee. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a large intra-articular cystic swelling anterior to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL, extending into the Hoffa's infrapatellar fat pad. Following manipulation under anaesthesia and arthroscopic debridement of the cyst, the patient's symptoms were relieved with restoration of normal knee motion. ACL ganglion cysts are uncommon intra-articular pathological entities, which are usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally by MRI. This is the first reported case of an ACL cyst being so large as to cause a mechanical block to knee flexion.

  9. Variability in reef connectivity in the Coral Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. M.; Kleypas, J. A.; Castruccio, F. S.; Watson, J. R.; Curchitser, E. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Coral Triangle (CT) is not only the global center of marine biodiversity, it also supports the livelihoods of millions of people. Unfortunately, it is also considered the most threatened of all reef regions, with rising temperature and coral bleaching already taking a toll. Reproductive connectivity between reefs plays a critical role in the reef's capacity to recover after such disturbances. Thus, oceanographic modeling efforts to understand patterns of reef connectivity are essential to the effective design of a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to conserve marine ecosystems in the Coral Triangle. Here, we combine a Regional Ocean Modeling System developed for the Coral Triangle (CT-ROMS) with a Lagrangian particle tracking tool (TRACMASS) to investigate the probability of coral larval transport between reefs. A 47-year hindcast simulation (1960-2006) was used to investigate the variability in larval transport of a broadcasting coral following mass spawning events in April and September. Potential connectivity between reefs was highly variable and stochastic from year to year, emphasizing the importance of decadal or longer simulations in identifying connectivity patterns, key source and sink regions, and thus marine management targets for MPAs. The influence of temperature on realized connectivity (future work) may add further uncertainty to year-to-year patterns of connectivity between reefs. Nonetheless, the potential connectivity results we present here suggest that although reefs in this region are primarily self-seeded, rare long-distance dispersal may promote recovery and genetic exchange between reefs in the region. The spatial pattern of "subpopulations" based solely on the physical drivers of connectivity between reefs closely match regional patterns of biodiversity, suggesting that physical barriers to larval dispersal may be a key driver of reef biodiversity. Finally, 21st Century simulations driven by the Community Earth System Model (CESM

  10. Teaching and learning apheresis medicine: The Bermuda Triangle in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookston, Kendall P; Richter, Deana M

    2010-01-01

    Apheresis Medicine has evolved markedly due to an explosion of knowledge and technology, whereas the time available for training has shrunk as curricula have become increasingly overloaded. Apheresis teaching has inherited a strong clinical context where real patient problems are used in a hands-on environment. To optimize instruction, those involved in the education of apheresis professionals need to have (1) knowledge of how clinical laboratory medicine education has developed as a field, (2) an understanding of what is known from theory and research about how people learn, and (3) the skills to design teaching/learning activities in ways consistent with literature-based principles of adult education. These developments in education provide a context for curriculum projects currently underway by the American Society for Apheresis. Teachers must determine which competencies are central to the essence of a trained professional. Specific, robust, learning objectives targeted toward the development of higher levels of thinking, professional attitudes, and requisite skills are formulated to guide the learner toward mastering those competencies. Curriculum is developed for each objective, consisting of content and the best teaching/learning methods to help learners attain the objective. Appropriate assessment strategies are identified to determine whether the objective is being achieved. The integration of objectives, curriculum, and assessment creates The Bermuda Triangle of Education (Richter, The Circle of Learning and Bermuda Triangle in Education, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, 2004). When educators do not effectively navigate The Bermuda Triangle of Education, learning may disappear into the murky depths of confusion and apathy. When successfully navigated, the result will be a significant learning experience that leads to transformation through education.

  11. The Verification and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles (BoTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Verification and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles ( BoTs ) by Charith Ranawake ARL-CR-0761 February 2015...Ground, MD 22105 ARL-CR-0761 February 2015 The Verification and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles ( BoTs ) Charith...and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles ( BoTs ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  12. Pose Self-Measurement of Noncooperative Spacecraft Based on Solar Panel Triangle Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Jingzhou Song; Caixiu Cao

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the recognition and location of noncooperative spacecraft, this paper presents a monocular vision pose measurement method based on solar triangle structure. First of all, an autonomous recognition algorithm of feature structure based on sliding window Hough transformation (SWHT) and inscribed circle of a triangle is proposed, and the image coordinates of feature points on the triangle can be obtained relying on this algorithm, combined with the P4P algorithm and the structure of spa...

  13. Laparoscopic management of inferior lumbar hernia (Petit triangle hernia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, T; Eyuboglu, E; Aydingoz, O

    2005-05-01

    Lumbar hernias are rare defects in the posterolateral abdominal wall that may be congenital or acquired. We present a case of laparoscopic approach to repair an acquired inferior triangle (Petit) lumbar hernia in a woman by using polytetrafluoroethylene mesh. The size of the hernia was 8 x 10 cm. The length of her hospital stay was 2 days. The patient resumed normal activities in less than 2 weeks. The main advantage of this approach is excellent operative visualization, thus avoiding injury to structures near the hernia during repair. Patients benefit from a minimally invasive approach with less pain, shortened hospital course, less analgesic requirements, better cosmetic result, and minimal life-style interference.

  14. Pion-nucleon scattering inside the Mandelstam triangle

    CERN Document Server

    Büttiker, P; Büttiker, Paul; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    2000-01-01

    We study the third order pion-nucleon scattering amplitude obtained from heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory inside the Mandelstam triangle. We reconstruct the pion-nucleon amplitude in the unphysical region by use of dispersion relations and determine the pertinent low-energy constants by a fit to this amplitude. A detailed comparison with values obtained from phase shift analysis is given. Our analysis leads to a pion-nucleon sigma-term of sigma(0)=40 MeV based on the Karlsruhe partial wave analysis. We have repeated the same procedure using the latest solution of the VPI group and find a much larger value for sigma(0).

  15. Numerical approximation of weakly singular integrals on a triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Giada

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose product cubature rules based on the polynomial approximation in order to evaluate the following integrals I (F ;y )= ∫TK (x ,y ) F (x )ω (x )d x , where x = (x1, x2), y = (y1, y2), K is a "weakly"singular or a "nearly"singular kernel, T the domain T is the triangle of vertices (0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0), f is a given bivariate function defined on T and ω is a proper weight function.

  16. Membrane triangles with corner drilling freedoms. I - The EFF element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Ken; De La Fuente, Horacio M.; Haugen, Bjorn; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1992-01-01

    The formulation of 3-node 9-DOF membrane elements with normal-to-element-plane rotations (drilling freedoms) is examined in the context of parametrized variational principles. In particular, attention is given to the application of the extended free formulation (EFF) to the construction of a triangular membrane element with drilling freedoms that initially has complete quadratic polynomial expansions in each displacement component. The main advantage of the EFF over the free formulation triangle is that an explicit form is obtained for the higher-order stiffness.

  17. Colouring the triangles determined by a point set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Fabila-Monroy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Let P be a set of n points in general position in the plane. We study the chromatic number of the intersection graph of the open triangles determined by P. It is known that this chromatic number is at least n3/27+O(n2 and, if P is in convex position, the answer is n3/24+O(n2. We prove that for arbitrary P, the chromatic number is at most n3/19.259+O(n2.

  18. The $f_2(1810)$ as a triangle singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Ju-Jun; Oset, Eulogio

    2016-01-01

    We perform calculations showing that a source producing $K^* \\bar{K}^*$ in $J = 2$ and $L=0$ gives rise to a triangle singularity at $1810$ MeV with a width of about $200$ MeV from the mechanism $K^* \\to \\pi K$ and then $K\\bar{K}^*$ merging into the $a_1(1260)$ resonance. We suggest that this is the origin of the present $f_2(1810)$ resonance and propose to look at the $\\pi a_1(1260)$ mode in several reactions to clarify the issue.

  19. The first ANDES elements: 9-DOF plate bending triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Carmelo; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1991-01-01

    New elements are derived to validate and assess the assumed natural deviatoric strain (ANDES) formulation. This is a brand new variant of the assumed natural strain (ANS) formulation of finite elements, which has recently attracted attention as an effective method for constructing high-performance elements for linear and nonlinear analysis. The ANDES formulation is based on an extended parametrized variational principle developed in recent publications. The key concept is that only the deviatoric part of the strains is assumed over the element whereas the mean strain part is discarded in favor of a constant stress assumption. Unlike conventional ANS elements, ANDES elements satisfy the individual element test (a stringent form of the patch test) a priori while retaining the favorable distortion-insensitivity properties of ANS elements. The first application of this formulation is the development of several Kirchhoff plate bending triangular elements with the standard nine degrees of freedom. Linear curvature variations are sampled along the three sides with the corners as gage reading points. These sample values are interpolated over the triangle using three schemes. Two schemes merge back to conventional ANS elements, one being identical to the Discrete Kirchhoff Triangle (DKT), whereas the third one produces two new ANDES elements. Numerical experiments indicate that one of the ANDES element is relatively insensitive to distortion compared to previously derived high-performance plate-bending elements, while retaining accuracy for nondistorted elements.

  20. Is chronic groin pain a Bermuda triangle of sports medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šebečić, Božidar; Japjec, Mladen; Janković, Saša; Vencel Čuljak; Dojčinović, Bojan; Starešinić, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Chronic groin pain is one the most complex conditions encountered in the field of sports medicine. Conservative treatment is long lasting and the result of treatment is often uncer- tain and symptom recurrences are common, which can be very frustrating for both the patient and the physician. The complex etiology and uncertainties during treatment of chronic groin pain is the reason why some authors call it the Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. In our prospective, 7-year study, 114 athletes with chronic groin pain resistant to conservative therapy were treated surgically. In 109 athletes with sports hernia, we performed nerve neurolysis along with resection of the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve and we also reinforced the posterior wall of inguinal canal using a modified Shouldice technique. In 26 athletes that had concomitant adductor tendinosis and in 5 athletes with isolated tendinosis we performed tenotomy. Eighty-one of 83 patients with isolated sports hernia returned to sports within a mean of 4.4 (range, 3-16) weeks. Thirty-one athletes with adductor tenotomy returned to sports activity within a mean of 11.8 (range, 10-15) weeks. If carefully diagnosed using detailed history taking, physical examination and correct imaging techniques, chronic groin pain can be treated very successfully and quickly, so it need not be a Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine.

  1. Constructing "Reference" Triangle through Unitarity of CKM Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Randhawa, M; Randhawa, Monika; Gupta, Manmohan

    2001-01-01

    Motivated by the possibility of the low value of sin2\\beta in the measurements of BABAR and BELLE collaborations, a reference unitarity triangle is constructed using the unitarity of the CKM matrix and the experimental values of the well known CKM elements, without involving any inputs from the processes which might include the new physics effects. The angles of the triangle are evaluated by finding the CP violating phase \\delta through the Jarlskog's rephasing invariant parameter J. The present data and the unitarity of the CKM matrix gives for \\delta the range 28^o to 152^o, which for sin2\\beta translates to the range 0.21 to 0.88. This range is broadly in agreement with the recent BABAR and BELLE results. However, a value of sin2\\beta \\leq 0.2, advocated by Silva and Wolfenstein as a benchmark for new physics, would imply a violation in the three generation unitarity and would hint towards the existence of a fourth generation Further, the future refinements in the CKM elements will push the lower limit on ...

  2. Triangle bipolar pulse shaping and pileup correction based on DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili-sani, Vahid, E-mail: vaheed_esmaeely80@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moussavi-zarandi, Ali; Akbar-ashrafi, Nafiseh; Boghrati, Behzad [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-11

    Programmable Digital Signal Processing (DSP) microprocessors are capable of doing complex discrete signal processing algorithms with clock rates above 50 MHz. This combined with their low expense, ease of use and selected dedicated hardware make them an ideal option for spectrometer data acquisition systems. For this generation of spectrometers, functions that are typically performed in dedicated circuits, or offline, are being migrated to the field programmable gate array (FPGA). This will not only reduce the electronics, but the features of modern FPGAs can be utilized to add considerable signal processing power to produce higher resolution spectra. In this paper we report on an all-digital triangle bipolar pulse shaping and pileup correction algorithm that is being developed for the DSP. The pileup mitigation algorithm will allow the spectrometers to run at higher count rates or with multiple sources without imposing large data losses due to the overlapping of scintillation signals. This correction technique utilizes a very narrow bipolar triangle digital pulse shaping algorithm to extract energy information for most pileup events.

  3. Secure Minutiae-Based Fingerprint Templates Using Random Triangle Hashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhe; Jin Teoh, Andrew Beng; Ong, Thian Song; Tee, Connie

    Due to privacy concern on the widespread use of biometric authentication systems, biometric template protection has gained great attention in the biometric research recently. It is a challenging task to design a biometric template protection scheme which is anonymous, revocable and noninvertible while maintaining acceptable performance. Many methods have been proposed to resolve this problem, and cancelable biometrics is one of them. In this paper, we propose a scheme coined as Random Triangle Hashing which follows the concept of cancelable biometrics in the fingerprint domain. In this method, re-alignment of fingerprints is not required as all the minutiae are translated into a pre-defined 2 dimensional space based on a reference minutia. After that, the proposed Random Triangle hashing method is used to enforce the one-way property (non-invertibility) of the biometric template. The proposed method is resistant to minor translation error and rotation distortion. Finally, the hash vectors are converted into bit-strings to be stored in the database. The proposed method is evaluated using the public database FVC2004 DB1. An EER of less than 1% is achieved by using the proposed method.

  4. Conservation Narratives and Their Implications in the Coral Triangle Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Berdej

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conserving coral reefs, sustaining fisheries, and ensuring food security are multi-faceted challenges. Six nations in the Southeast Asia Coral Triangle have agreed to a region-wide framework to address these challenges through the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI. Based on a review of documentation, selected discussions and ongoing work in the region, we offer an initial assessment of narratives influencing conservation practice in the CTI. Current efforts in the CTI are framed by a crisis narrative that emphasises the importance of maintaining critical ecosystems and baseline conditions. This narrative has a strong empirical basis but it can also exacerbate a dualistic view of people and nature. However, CTI documentation and programming also reflect a recognition of linked social-ecological change and the historical co-evolution of communities and coastal-marine systems. This emerging narrative places an emphasis on building resilience to change, rather than resisting change. We do not advocate here for a single narrative with which to frame policy responses in the CTI, but rather draw attention to the ways that mainstreaming of certain narratives will have material effects on initiatives and programmes promoted in this region of globally significant marine biodiversity.

  5. Infections after reconstructions of anterior cruciate ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infections after anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions are rare, but, on the other hand, they are difficult to be treated. The aim of this study was to analyze causes of infections, risk factors, diagnostics, and possibilities of their prevention. Material and Methods. Seventeen deep infections (1.2% were found in 1425 patients who had undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Fifteen patients were males and two were females. Out of 475 professional athletes nine (1.9% had this postoperative complication. Eleven patients with septic arthritis were allergic to penicillin. Three of them had immunosuppressive diseases. Results. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in eleven cases (65%, other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus groups were found in four and three patients, respectively; while one patient had infection although the punctate was negative. Out of 965 patients with the patellar tendon grafts, ten (1.03% had this complication, while the incidence was 1.52% (7/460 in those with the hamstring grafts. Fifteen infections were acute with obvious symptoms within 14 days after surgery. Severe pain, limited range of motion, swelling of the knee joint and fever were the most common symptoms, while rubor and pus developed rarely. The infection was three times more frequent in the patients who had undergone surgery lasting more than 1.5 hour. Discussion and Conclusion. The following population groups are at risk of developing septic arthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions: professional athletes, those who are allergic to penicillin, and those with immunosuppressive diseases. Staphyllococus aureus is the most common cause of infection. The patients with the hamstring autografts have a higher risk than those with the patellar tendon grafts. Preventive measures that should be performed include aseptic conditions in operative rooms, irrigation of the graft before its placement into the bone tunnels

  6. Hereditary Angioedema Attacks : Local Swelling at Multiple Sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Zonne L M; Relan, Anurag; Hack, C. Erik

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) patients experience recurrent local swelling in various parts of the body including painful swelling of the intestine and life-threatening laryngeal oedema. Most HAE literature is about attacks located in one anatomical site, though it is mentioned that HAE attacks may al

  7. Nanoscale Electrodes for Flexible Electronics by Swelling Controlled Cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Wenjun; Shao, Jinyou; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao; Liu, Lu; Mei, Xuesong; Ding, Yucheng; Lu, Bingheng

    2016-08-01

    Nanogap electrodes are realized using pre-patterned electrodes and a swelling controlled cracking method. Parallel fabrication of nanogap electrodes on flexible substrates can be achieved using this method. This swelling-controlled cracking method is promising for fabricating high-performance flexible electronics. UV photodetectors with ZnO nanoparticle-bridged nanogap electrodes exhibit high responsivity and external quantum efficiency.

  8. Scrotal Lymphangioma – A Rare Cause of Scrotal Swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kajal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangioma is an extremely rare cause of scrotal swelling. We are reporting such a tumor in a one and half year old child presenting with a painless, progressive scrotal swelling. The mass was evaluated and excised completely. Histopathology confirmed it as Lymphangioma.

  9. Periorbital swelling in emergency room: Get your eyes in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SenthilKumaran S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial swelling and eye pain are very common patient complaints in Emergency Departments. Clinical evidence and investigations play a crucial role in making the correct diagnosis which impacts the final disposition and management of the patient. We present a case of a patient who presented with facial swelling and headache.

  10. Relationship with the Degree of Saturation of the Swelling Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjafrudin Latar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Expansive soil in SokooNgawi East Java often gives problems in the building stability. This research aims to study the properties of the soil in the area that mainly related to changes in moisture content in particular the influence of the degree of saturation of the swelling strain. Swelling tests were performed on disturbed soil by means of oedometer at 6.9 kPa overburden pressure. Initial moisture contents used were varied from 15.04% to 42.88%. Swelling strain was measured using overburden pressure 6.9 kPa and swelling pressure obtained from the pressure required to return the sample to the original condition. The test results show that for initial moisture content 15.04 % , γd= 1.471 gr/cm ³,S = 50.70 % the maximum swelling strain were 38.04% and swelling pressure was 2392 kPa. The initial moisture content 42.88%, γd= 0.926 gr / cm ³, S = 65.26 % the minimum swelling strain was 1.68 % and swelling pressure was 34 kPa.

  11. Anterior crucate ligament (ACL) injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An anterior cruciate ligament injury is the over-stretching or tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... may be injured. This is a medical emergency. Prevention Use proper techniques when playing sports or exercising. ...

  12. Ocean swell within the kinetic equation for water waves

    CERN Document Server

    Badulin, Sergei I

    2016-01-01

    Effects of wave-wave interactions on ocean swell are studied. Results of extensive simulations of swell evolution within the duration-limited setup for the kinetic Hasselmann equation at long times up to $10^6$ seconds are presented. Basic solutions of the theory of weak turbulence, the so-called Kolmogorov-Zakharov solutions, are shown to be relevant to the results of the simulations. Features of self-similarity of wave spectra are detailed and their impact on methods of ocean swell monitoring are discussed. Essential drop of wave energy (wave height) due to wave-wave interactions is found to be pronounced at initial stages of swell evolution (of order of 1000 km for typical parameters of the ocean swell). At longer times wave-wave interactions are responsible for a universal angular distribution of wave spectra in a wide range of initial conditions.

  13. Swelling of the buffer of KBS-3V deposition hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lempinen, A. [Marintel Ky, Turku (Finland)

    2006-12-15

    At the time of the installation of spent nuclear fuel canister in the KBS-3V deposition hole, empty space is left around bentonite buffer for technical reasons. The gap between the buffer and the canister is about 10 mm, and the gap between the buffer and the rock is 30 to 35 mm. In this study, the swelling of the buffer to fill the gaps was simulated, when the gaps are initially filled with water and no external water is available. The model used here is a thermodynamical model for swelling clay, with parameters determined for bentonite. The simulations presented here were performed with Freefem++ software, which is a finite element application for partial differential equations. These equations come from the material model. The simulation results show that the swelling fills the outer gaps in few years, but no significant swelling pressure is generated. For swelling pressure, external water supply is required. (orig.)

  14. Dynamics of swelling and drying in a spherical gel

    CERN Document Server

    Bertrand, Thibault; Mukhopadhyay, Shomeek; MacMinn, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    Swelling is a volumetric-growth process in which a porous material expands by spontaneous imbibition of additional pore fluid. Swelling is distinct from other growth processes in that it is inherently poromechanical: Local expansion of the pore structure requires that additional fluid be drawn from elsewhere in the material, or into the material from across the boundaries. Here, we study the swelling and subsequent drying of a sphere of hydrogel. We develop a dynamic model based on large-deformation poromechanics and compare the predictions of the model with a series of experiments performed with polyacrylamide spheres. We use the model and the experiments to study the complex internal dynamics of swelling and drying, and to highlight the fundamental differences between these two processes. Although we assume spherical symmetry, the model also provides insight into the transient patterns that form and then vanish during swelling as well as the risk of fracture during drying.

  15. Facetas em dentes anteriores

    OpenAIRE

    Veloso, Helena Rafaela Lourenço Martins

    2015-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária A presente revisão bibliográfica aborda as facetas estéticas em dentes anteriores, pela crescente valorização de um sorriso esteticamente agradável, facto que faz com que as pessoas procurem cada vez mais alternativas de tratamento para melhorar a aparência do seu sorriso. Os dentes anteriores são decisivos na aparência estética e, c...

  16. Congenital Subgaleal Cysts over the Anterior Fontanelle in Nigerians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeloye, Adelola; Odeku, E. Latunde

    1971-01-01

    Eighteen cases of a congenital cystic swelling located over the anterior fontanelle are described in Nigerian patients who were otherwise clinically normal, There was a female: male ratio of 2: 1. Radiologically and at operation, the cysts showed no evidence of intracranial connexion. Excision was curative. Of 14 cases which were histologically verified, all were dermoid cysts except one in which nerve tissue was present suggesting an encephalocele. Air cystography was the most useful diagnostic procedure. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:5555494

  17. Intradural anterior transpetrosal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Shinya; Hori, Satoshi; Hecht, Nils; Czabanka, Marcus; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The standard anterior transpetrosal approach (ATPA) for petroclival lesions is fundamentally an epidural approach and has been practiced for many decades quite successfully. However, this approach has some disadvantages, such as epidural venous bleeding around foramen ovale. We describe here our experience with a modified technique for anterior petrosectomy via an intradural approach that overcomes these disadvantages. Five patients with petroclival lesions underwent surgery via the intradural ATPA. The intraoperative hallmarks are detailed, and surgical results are reported. Total removal of the lesions was achieved in two patients with petroclival meningioma and two patients with pontine cavernoma, whereas subtotal removal was achieved in one patient with petroclival meningioma without significant morbidity. No patient experienced cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The intradural approach is allowed to tailor the extent of anterior petrosectomy to the individually required exposure, and the surgical procedure appeared to be more straightforward than via the epidural route. Caveats encountered with the approach were the temporal basal veins that could be spared as well as identification of the petrous apex due to the lack of familial epidural landmarks. The risk of injury to the temporal bridging veins is higher in this approach than in the epidural approach. Intradural approach is recommended in patients with a large epidural venous route, such as sphenobasal and sphenopetrosal vein. Navigation via bone-window computed tomography is useful to identify the petrous apex.

  18. A templating guest sorts out a molecular triangle from a dimer-trimer constitutional dynamic library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancan, Marzio; Dolmella, Alessandro; Seraglia, Roberta; Orlandi, Simonetta; Quici, Silvio; Armelao, Lidia

    2012-03-25

    Cu(II) and a bis-β-diketone ligand generate a small constitutional dynamic library (CDL). The designed introduction of a well suited guest drives the self-sorting of the system toward a supramolecular triangle. Alternatively, the triangle self-assembly is templated by the same guest in a one-pot synthesis.

  19. Revisiting the Pink Triangle Exercise: An Exploration of Experiential Learning in Graduate Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Greg L.

    2014-01-01

    The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…

  20. 76 FR 17327 - 100th Anniversary of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On March 25, 1911, a fire spread through the cramped floors of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in... cloth scraps, and containing few buckets of water to douse the flames--giving the factory workers...

  1. Revisiting the Didactic Triangle in the Case of an Adaptive Learning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Zaoui Seghroucheni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the classical approach of the didactic triangle designed for the classical learning situation (face to face and adapt it to the situation of an adaptive learning system, we discuss also the different components involved in this didactic triangle and how they interact and influence the learning process in an adaptive learning system.

  2. The Triangle of the Space Launch System Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayolle, Eric

    2010-09-01

    Firemen know it as “fire triangle”, mathematicians know it as “golden triangle”, sailormen know it as “Bermuda triangle”, politicians know it as “Weimar triangle”… This article aims to present a new aspect of that shape geometry in the space launch system world: “the triangle of the space launch system operations”. This triangle is composed of these three following topics, which have to be taken into account for any space launch system operation processing: design, safety and operational use. Design performance is of course taking into account since the early preliminary phase of a system development. This design performance is matured all along the development phases, thanks to consecutives iterations in order to respect the financial and timing constraints imposed to the development of the system. This process leads to a detailed and precise design to assess the required performance. Then, the operational use phase brings its batch of constraints during the use of the system. This phase is conducted by specific procedures for each operation. Each procedure has sequences for each sub-system, which have to be conducted in a very precise chronological way. These procedures can be processed by automatic way or manual way, with the necessity or not of the implication of operators, and in a determined environment. Safeguard aims to verify the respect of the specific constraints imposed to guarantee the safety of persons and property, the protection of public health and the environment. Safeguard has to be taken into account above the operational constraints of any space operation, without forgetting the highest safety level for the operators of the space operation, and of course without damaging the facilities or without disturbing the external environment. All space operations are the result of a “win-win” compromise between these three topics. Contrary to the fire triangle where one of the topics has to be suppressed in order to avoid the

  3. Triangle/Square Waveform Generator Using Area Efficient Hysteresis Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drinovsky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A function generator generating both square and triangle waveforms is proposed. The generator employs only one low area comparator with accurate hysteresis set by a bias current and a resistor. Oscillation frequency and its non-idealities are analyzed. The function of the proposed circuit is demonstrated on a design of 1 MHz oscillator in STMicroelectronics 180 nm BCD technology. The designed circuit is thoroughly simulated including trimming evaluation. It consumes 4.1 μA at 1.8 V and takes 0.0126 mm2 of silicon area. The temperature variation from -40°C to 125°C is ±1.5 % and the temperature coefficient is 127 ppm/°C.

  4. [Patient - doctor relationship from perspective of the Karpman drama triangle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samborska-Sablik, Anna; Sablik, Zbigniew

    2016-11-25

    Patients' confidence in doctors has been decreased for last years despite successes of Polish medicine. It seems to be related to particular conditions of patient - doctor relationship and patient's negative emotions may frequently burden it from the beginning. They may allow an interpersonal game, the Drama Triangle, to appear in the relationship. 3 persons are typically involved in the game: a victim, a persecutor and a rescuer. All of them neither feel guilty about the situation nor their activities are aimed at solving the crucial problem. It maintains continuation of the game. Both patient and doctor are capable to attend the game as any of the person mentioned above. Authors of the article think frameworks of organization of the health care system should permit doctors not only to tackle main disease but also to devote time individually tailored to patient's emotional problems.

  5. Linear stability of the Lagrangian triangle solutions for quasihomogeneous potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Santoprete, Manuele

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study the linear stability of the relative equilibria for homogeneous and quasihomogeneous potentials. Firstly, in the case the potential is a homogeneous function of degree $-a$, we find that any relative equilibrium of the $n$-body problem with $a>2$ is spectrally unstable. We also find a similar condition in the quasihomogeneous case. Then we consider the case of three bodies and we study the stability of the equilateral triangle relative equilibria. In the case of homogeneous potentials we recover the classical result obtained by Routh in a simpler way. In the case of quasihomogeneous potentials we find a generalization of Routh inequality and we show that, for certain values of the masses, the stability of the relative equilibria depends on the size of the configuration.

  6. Food supply depends on seagrass meadows in the coral triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Richard K. F.; Hinder, Stephanie L.; Bodger, Owen G.; Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C.

    2014-09-01

    The tropical seascape provides food and livelihoods to hundreds of millions of people, but the support of key habitats to this supply remains ill appreciated. For fisheries and conservation management actions to help promote resilient ecosystems, sustainable livelihoods, and food supply, knowledge is required about the habitats that help support fisheries productivity and the consequences of this for food security. This paper provides an interdisciplinary case study from the coral triangle of how seagrass meadows provide support for fisheries and local food security. We apply a triangulated approach that utilizes ecological, fisheries and market data combined with over 250 household interviews. Our research demonstrates that seagrass associated fauna in a coral triangle marine protected area support local food supply contributing at least 50% of the fish based food. This formed between 54% and 99% of daily protein intake in the area. Fishery catch was found to significantly vary with respect to village (p type significantly influenced this proportion (<0.05). Limited sustainability of fishery practices (high juvenile catch and a 51% decline in CPUE for the biggest fishery) and poor habitat management mean the security of this food supply has the potential to be undermined in the long-term. Findings of this study have implications for the management and assessment of fisheries throughout the tropical seascape. Our study provides an exemplar for why natural resource management should move beyond biodiversity and consider how conservation and local food security are interlinked processes that are not mutually exclusive. Seagrass meadows are under sustained threat worldwide, this study provides evidence of the need to conserve these not just to protect biodiversity but to protect food security.

  7. REGIONAL TOURISM COOPERATION IN TRIANGLE ZONE OF LIAONING PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Jiang-zhi

    2005-01-01

    Strengthening the regional tourism cooperation is the requirement of both tourism development and tourist competition drive. On the one hand, resources, products, market and infrastructure in tourism are characteristics of half-public goods, which are the externalities. On the other hand, tourism competition has evolved from individual scenic spot, or firm competition to regional competition, which also requires urgent regional tourism cooperation. In recent years, the regional economic cooperation has been becoming popular in the world. The triangle tourism zone of Liaoning Province, constituted by Shenyang, Dalian and Dandong, is the core region of Liaoning tourism system. This regional tourism cooperation has been raised for a long time, but has not made substantial progress as yet. In recent years, the strategic cooperation among them has been becoming urgent, along with the change of tourism competition models, as well as the desire for building a Northeast Asia tourist economy circle. Based on literature, this paper establishes a conceptual frame of regional tourism cooperation and applies it in the analysis of the strategic tourism cooperation of Liaoning Province's golden triangle zone. This paper firstly examines both qualifications and motives concerning with cooperation among the three cities, and believes that the biggest difficulties involve traditional ideas, administrative institutions, communications, economic performances, time constraints, and more overlap among their tourist markets. Then this paper continues to construct a cooperating mechanism, including participant arrangements, construction of operating mechanism and construction of assisting mechanism. At last, this paper proposes approaches to the strategic cooperation such as introducing Xiuyan County, strategic integration and developing differentiated and complemented tourism products.

  8. Comparing MapReduce and Pipeline Implementations for Counting Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelmira Pasarella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A common method to define a parallel solution for a computational problem consists in finding a way to use the Divide and Conquer paradigm in order to have processors acting on its own data and scheduled in a parallel fashion. MapReduce is a programming model that follows this paradigm, and allows for the definition of efficient solutions by both decomposing a problem into steps on subsets of the input data and combining the results of each step to produce final results. Albeit used for the implementation of a wide variety of computational problems, MapReduce performance can be negatively affected whenever the replication factor grows or the size of the input is larger than the resources available at each processor. In this paper we show an alternative approach to implement the Divide and Conquer paradigm, named dynamic pipeline. The main features of dynamic pipelines are illustrated on a parallel implementation of the well-known problem of counting triangles in a graph. This problem is especially interesting either when the input graph does not fit in memory or is dynamically generated. To evaluate the properties of pipeline, a dynamic pipeline of processes and an ad-hoc version of MapReduce are implemented in the language Go, exploiting its ability to deal with channels and spawned processes. An empirical evaluation is conducted on graphs of different topologies, sizes, and densities. Observed results suggest that dynamic pipelines allows for an efficient implementation of the problem of counting triangles in a graph, particularly, in dense and large graphs, drastically reducing the execution time with respect to the MapReduce implementation.

  9. Mitigation of Voltage Swells by Static Series Compensator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Hilmy; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    Swells and overvoltages can cause overheating, tripping or even destruction of industrial equipment such as motor drives and control relays. This paper investigates the possibility of employing the Static Series Compensator (SSC) to mitigate voltage swells/overvoltages. In the case of voltage...... swells, active power may be drawn from the grid into the energy-storage capacitor (ESC) of the SSC, depending on the load current and the SSC impedance. This active power may overcharge the ESC. Two possibilities to overcome this situation are explored in this paper: 1) if the dc-voltage of the ESC...

  10. Late inflammatory swelling by carrageenan in rat's subcutaneous neck tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T S; Mathur, M; Bhide, N K

    1988-01-01

    When injected subcutaneously in the dorsum of neck in albino rats, carrageenan produced inflammatory swelling which reached peak after about 16 hr. The occurrence of the peak inflammatory swelling was delayed but not significantly reduced in severity by aspirin or indomethacin which were administered repeatedly. Phenylbutazone significantly reduced and dexamethasone almost completely inhibited it. In rat hind paw model, subplantar carrageenan injection produced peak inflammatory swelling after about 4 hr which was significantly reduced by all anti-inflammatory drugs mentioned above. It is interesting that an inflammagen when injected at different sites in the same species elicits responses which differ in the time course and drug responses.

  11. Seasonality of Ankle Swelling: Population Symptom Reporting Using Google Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangwei; Allan, G Michael; Korownyk, Christina; Kolber, Michael; Flook, Nigel; Sternberg, Harvey; Garrison, Scott

    2016-07-01

    In our experience, complaints of ankle swelling are more common in summer, typically from patients with no obvious cardiovascular disease. Surprisingly, this observation has never been reported. To objectively establish this phenomenon, we sought evidence of seasonality in the public's Internet searches for ankle swelling. Our data, obtained from Google Trends, consisted of all related Google searches in the United States from January 4, 2004, to January 26, 2016. Consistent with our expectations and confirmed by similar data for Australia, Internet searches for information on ankle swelling are highly seasonal (highest in midsummer), with seasonality explaining 86% of search volume variability.

  12. Anterior knee pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLopis, Eva [Hospital de la Ribera, Alzira, Valencia (Spain) and Carretera de Corbera km 1, 46600 Alzira Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: ellopis@hospital-ribera.com; Padron, Mario [Clinica Cemtro, Ventisquero de la Condesa no. 42, 28035 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: mario.padron@clinicacemtro.com

    2007-04-15

    Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries.

  13. The anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  14. Hubungan tweed triangle dan posisi bibir terhadap garis estetik (Relationship between tweed triangle and the lips position to esthetic line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Oktaviona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aimed of almost all of patient came for orthodontics treatment, were to recover face esthetic or their profile. The facial profile not only determined by the hard tissue, but will also be influenced by the soft tissue such as nose, lip, and chin. Tweed has done face analysis with cephalometric by using three angles which are FMA, FMIA, and IMPA. There are many facial profile analysis that usually use in lateral cephalometric one of them is Ricketts analysis that draw the line from pogonion to the tip of nose. The biggest tribe in Indonesia is Javanese, the Javanese have a specific characteristic. Javanese people do not have a long nose and the chin not really uppermost, thick lip, convex profile and female’s profile more convex than male. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the relation between Tweed triangle, upper lip and lower lip to esthetic line according to Ricketts. Methods: The facial profile pictures of subjects which were taken base on sample criteria changed into silhouette black and white. The photo selected by orthodontist and lay persons. Then the lateral cephalometric radiograph was taken and measured the angle of Tweed triangle and the lip position to esthetic line. Results: The FMA were 28.830, FMIA were 56.740 and IMPA were 94.430. The upper lip distance among males were closer to the esthetic line than female. The lower lip of males located in front of esthetic line and female lower lip located rare of esthetic line. Conclusion: There was corelation between FMA and FMIA with lower lip. There was no corelation between IMPA towards upper lip and also lower lip.Latar belakang: Tujuan dari hampir seluruh pasien yang datang untuk perawatan ortodonti adalah untuk memperbaiki estetis wajah atau profilnya. Profil fasial tidak hanya ditentukan oleh jaringan keras, akan tetapi juga akan sangat dipengaruhi oleh jaringan lunak hidung, bibir, dan dagu. Tweed melakukan analisis wajah pada sefalometri menggunakan 3

  15. A case of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy associated with uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugahara M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Michitaka Sugahara, Takayuki Fujimoto, Kyoko Shidara, Kenji Inoue, Masato Wakakura Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: Here, we describe a patient who presented with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION and subsequently developed uveitis. Case: A 69-year-old man was referred to our hospital and initially presented with best-corrected visual acuities (BCVA of 20/40 (right eye and 20/1000 (left eye and relative afferent pupillary defect. Slit-lamp examination revealed no signs of ocular inflammation in either eye. Fundus examination revealed left-eye swelling and a pale superior optic disc, and Goldmann perimetry revealed left-eye inferior hemianopia. The patient was diagnosed with nonarteritic AION in the left eye. One week later, the patient returned to the hospital because of vision loss. The BCVA of the left eye was so poor that the patient could only count fingers. Slit-lamp examination revealed 1+ cells in the anterior chamber and the anterior vitreous in both eyes. Funduscopic examination revealed vasculitis and exudates in both eyes. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral panuveitis, and treatment with topical betamethasone was started. No other physical findings resulting from other autoimmune or infectious diseases were found. No additional treatments were administered, and optic disc edema in the left eye improved, and the retinal exudates disappeared in 3 months. The patient's BCVA improved after cataract surgery was performed. Conclusion: Panuveitis most likely manifests after the development of AION. Keywords: anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, uveitis

  16. Lymphangioma of epidydimis: An extremely rare cause of scrotal swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K K Pai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangioma of epidydimis is a very rare cause of scrotal swelling. We report a case of lymphangioma of epidydimis in a 24 year old male. This case is being presented in view of its rarity.

  17. Postoperative Submandibular Gland Swelling following Craniotomy under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Nakanishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Reporting of a rare case of postoperative submandibular gland swelling following craniotomy. Case Report. A 33-year-old male underwent resection for a brain tumor under general anesthesia. The tumor was resected via a retrosigmoid suboccipital approach and the patient was placed in a lateral position with his face down and turned to the right. Slight swelling of the right submandibular gland was observed just after the surgery. Seven hours after surgery, edematous change around the submandibular gland worsened and he required emergent reintubation due to airway compromise. The cause of submandibular gland swelling seemed to be an obstruction of the salivary duct due to surgical positioning. Conclusion. Once submandibular swelling and edematous change around the submandibular gland occur, they can worsen and compromise the air way within several hours after operation. Adequate precaution must be taken for any predisposing skull-base surgery that requires strong cervical rotation and flexion.

  18. Nucleon swelling and the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epele, L.N.; Garcia Canal, C.A.; Fanchiotti, H.; Mendez Galain, R.

    1987-04-23

    A previously proposed explanation of the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly based on the nucleon swelling inside a nuclei is reanalyzed. We found a clear incompatibility beetween this proposal and the experimental results.

  19. MOELCULAR SIZE EXCLUSION BY SOIL ORGANIC MATERIALS ESTIMATED FROM THEIR SWELLING IN ORGANIC SOLVENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A published method previously developed to measure the swelling characteristics of pow dered coal samples has been adapted for swelling measurements on various peat, pollen, chain, and cellulose samples The swelling of these macromolecular materials is the volumetric manifestatio...

  20. Labial swelling: a rare presentation of pubic bone tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Prajakta; Gandhewar, Manisha; Gaikwad, Pradip; Nanaware, Sandip; Risbud Joshi, Prachi

    2016-09-14

    Tuberculosis (TB), being a global health problem, represents variedly. Its presentation as a labial swelling secondary to pubic bone TB has been reported rarely in literature. We report a case of pubic bone TB presenting as a labial swelling in a woman of reproductive age. Early diagnosis with fine needle aspiration cytology, acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining, AFB culture and magnetic resonance imaging with early initiation of treatment resulted in a favourable outcome.

  1. Swelling packer technology : case histories in open hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkens, A. [Easywell, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented case histories of swelling packer technology open hole innovations. Challenges such as fluid flow management and the restriction of solids entering the well bore were discussed. Other challenges included the need to reduce well construction costs, long-term reliability, production optimization methods and positive economic returns. In order to simplify production methods, minimize pay zone damage and eliminate moving parts, it is advisable to return to the simpler open hole well-bore method. Zonal isolation issues were discussed. The role of oil swelling packer was described with reference to its flexibility attributes such as the fact that rubber swells in hydrocarbons, activates in oil but not pure water, and creates an effective seal in open hole. Swell packer for oil-based mud was examined, along with details of successful applications. Functionality issues were discussed. The advantages of swell pack for oil-based mud is that it is rugged, self-repairing and has no environmental impact. It also has a good track record and is more flexible than concrete, more durable than Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (HNBR) and regains integrity after failure. Various well construction advances, completion advances and global installations were discussed. Reservoir, well construction and completion challenges were reviewed. Economic challenges were discussed. Various features of the Constrictor swell packer, which enables annular fluid flow management, were presented. The Oil Selector, a product that enables automatic water control, was also reviewed. 7 figs.

  2. Rate dependence of swelling in lithium-ion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, KY; Siegel, JB; Secondo, L; Kim, SU; Samad, NA; Qin, JW; Anderson, D; Garikipati, K; Knobloch, A; Epureanu, BI; Monroe, CW; Stefanopoulou, A

    2014-12-01

    Swelling of a commercial 5 Ah lithium-ion cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. In combination with sensitive displacement measurements, knowledge of the electrode configuration within this prismatic cell's interior allows macroscopic deformations of the casing to be correlated to electrochemical and mechanical transformations in individual anode/separator/cathode layers. Thermal expansion and interior charge state are both found to cause significant swelling. At low rates, where thermal expansion is negligible, the electrode sandwich dilates by as much as 1.5% as the charge state swings from 0% to 100% because of lithium-ion intercalation. At high rates a comparably large residual swelling was observed at the end of discharge. Thermal expansion caused by joule heating at high discharge rate results in battery swelling. The changes in displacement with respect to capacity at low rate correlate well with the potential changes known to accompany phase transitions in the electrode materials. Although the potential response changes minimally with the C-rate, the extent of swelling varies significantly, suggesting that measurements of swelling may provide a sensitive gauge for characterizing dynamic operating states. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Multidisciplinary management of anterior diastemata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Herkrath, Fernando José; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino

    2007-01-01

    Anterior diastemata may compromise the harmony of a patient's smile. Consideration of etiologic factors, previous gingival conditioning, and individual treatment planning are essential in the proper management of anterior diastemata. An integrated orthodontic-restorative approach may enhance...... the aesthetic results when orthodontic therapy itself is not feasible. This article presents integrated orthodonticrestorative solutions of anterior diastemata, associated with the conditioning of the gingival tissue with composite resin, and discusses the most relevant aspects related to their etiology...

  4. Can we map swelling clays with remote sensing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Freek

    Swelling soils are soils containing clay minerals that change volume with water content. The original volume of natural soils may change up to 150 percent with increasing water content, which creates major geological hazards that cause extensive damage worldwide. Current engineering practice for delineating areas of potential high swell builds on extensive laboratory analysis, including X-ray diffraction analysis for establishing clay mineralogy and Atterberg limits for deriving the swelling index. This is labour-intensive and thus expensive. Of key importance in assessing the swelling potential of soils is accurate mapping of clay mineralogy and amount (particularly of high swelling smectite and low swelling kaolinite-group minerals) and mapping of soil moisture. For applications related to slope instability processes, surface height and surface deformation need to be examined. Results from spectral analysis of clay mineral spectra presented in this paper show that careful examination of absorption bands allows the characterization and mapping of the clay mineralogy of the soil, which, in conjunction with spectral unmixing, may lead to surface fractions of the various clay minerals. This can potentially be empirically linked with current engineering tests. Remote sensing perspectives for spatial reproduction of these results are further examined in this paper. Imaging spectrometry ( ie, data acquisition in many narrow spectral bands that allow images of reflectance spectra to be derived) may provide insight in surface mineralogy, while microwave remote sensing could deliver soil moisture information. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) is one method of remotely sensed elevation mapping; other remote sensing approaches include radar and laser altimetry and the derivation of digital terrain data from stereoscopic imagery ( ie, Spot, MOMS, etc). This paper could form the basis for formulating a number of research projects within a framework of mapping swelling potential of

  5. Triangle singularities, ADE-chains, and weighted projective lines

    CERN Document Server

    Kussin, Dirk; Meltzer, Hagen

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the triangle singularity $f=x^a+y^b+z^c$, or $S=k[x,y,z]/(f)$, attached to a weighted projective line $X$ given by the weight triple $(a,b,c)$. We investigate the stable category of vector bundles on $X$ obtained from the vector bundles by factoring out all line bundles. This category is triangulated and has Serre duality. It is, moreover, naturally equivalent to the stable category of graded maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules over $S$ (or matrix factorizations of $f$), and then by results of Buchweitz and Orlov to the graded singularity category of $f$. We show that this category is fractional Calabi-Yau with a CY-dimension that is a function of the Euler characteristic of $X$. We show the existence of a tilting object which has the shape of an $(a-1)(b-1)(c-1)$-cuboid. Particular attention is given to the weight types $(2,a,b)$, yielding an explanation of Happel-Seidel symmetry for a class of important Nakayama algebras. In particular, the weight sequence $(2,3,p)$ corresponds to an ADE-chain, th...

  6. Bermuda Triangle for the liver: alcohol, obesity, and viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhari, Samir

    2013-08-01

    Despite major progress in understanding and managing liver disease in the past 30 years, it is now among the top 10 most common causes of death globally. Several risk factors, such as genetics, diabetes, obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, viral infection, gender, immune dysfunction, and medications, acting individually or in concert, are known to precipitate liver damage. Viral hepatitis, excessive alcohol consumption, and obesity are the major factors causing liver injury. Estimated numbers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected subjects worldwide are staggering (370 and 175 million, respectively), and of the 40 million known human immunodeficiency virus positive subjects, 4 and 5 million are coinfected with HBV and HCV, respectively. Alcohol and HCV are the leading causes of end-stage liver disease worldwide and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States and Europe. In addition, the global obesity epidemic that affects up to 40 million Americans, and 396 million worldwide, is accompanied by an alarming incidence of end-stage liver disease, a condition exacerbated by alcohol. This article focuses on the interactions between alcohol, viral hepatitis, and obesity (euphemistically described here as the Bermuda Triangle of liver disease), and discusses common mechanisms and synergy.

  7. Skull Triangles: Flinders Petrie, Race Theory and Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Challis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1902 the Egyptian archaeologist William Matthew Flinders Petrie published a graph of triangles indicating skull size, shape and ‘racial ability’. In the same year a paper on Naqada crania that had been excavated by Petrie’s team in 1894–5 was published in the anthropometric journal Biometrika, which played an important part in the methodology of cranial measuring in biometrics and helped establish Karl Pearson’s biometric laboratory at University College London. Cicely D. Fawcett’s and Alice Lee’s paper on the variation and correlation of the human skull used the Naqada crania to argue for a controlled system of measurement of skull size and shape to establish homogeneous racial groups, patterns of migration and evolutionary development. Their work was more cautious in tone and judgement than Petrie’s pronouncements on the racial origins of the early Egyptians but both the graph and the paper illustrated shared ideas about skull size, shape, statistical analysis and the ability and need to define ‘race’. This paper explores how Petrie shared his archaeological work with a broad number of people and disciplines, including statistics and biometrics, and the context for measuring and analysing skulls at the turn of the twentieth century.

  8. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: Revelation of the gastrinoma triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hsin Yang, MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a complex condition in which one or more tumors form in the patient's pancreas or upper duodenum. These tumors, called gastrinomas, secrete excessive amounts of gastrin, and almost all develop ulcers. The vast majority of gastrinomas are present within the “gastrinoma triangle,” which is composed of the porta hepatis, duodenal sweep, and pancreatic head. As surgery remains the treatment of choice, localization of the primary lesion is often challenging but essential. We present a 50-year-old man with a tentative diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. His In-111 pentetreotide scan, fused onto a Tc-99m abdomen image, revealed an avid lesion adjacent to the duodenal loop. Operative resection was performed, and a primary pancreatic gastrinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining. The neuroendocrine tumors have somatostatin receptors upon them. Therefore, a penteteotide scan, using In-111 radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, is the current technique of choice. This dual-isotope display permits a visual perception of anatomic landmarks around the lesion.

  9. Sistem Prevensi School Violence di Madura Berbasis Galtung Conflict Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auliya Ridwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available School violence may be understood as the threat or use of physical force with the intention to cause physical injury, damage of property or intimidation of another person at school. School violence is also violence that happens outside school as a result of a social interaction among the students. With regards to their prevention, many theories and propositions have been introduced including that of Conflict Triangle theory by Johan Galtung. This paper is aimed at analyzing school violence in Madura by using this theory as a general framework of analysis. The paper will begin by providing a general overview of both the theory and the so-called carok tradition of Madura; a tradition of self-defense using traditional blade which often involves killing. Upon highlighting school violence in this island, the paper will then move on by suggesting that in order to delegitimize this violence, one must speak of preventive programs at practical level, and of deconstructing the cultural strength of carok tradition at the discursive one. We assume that once the carok tradition is being deconstructed, one would loose the cultural legitimacy of committing violence. In Madura violence is often legitimated by the culture and tradition of carok. To eradicate violence is therefore to get rid of carok tradition in the first place.

  10. Minimum Weight Cycles and Triangles: Equivalences and Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Roditty, Liam

    2011-01-01

    We consider the fundamental algorithmic problem of finding a cycle of minimum weight in a weighted graph. In particular, we show that the minimum weight cycle problem in an undirected n-node graph with edge weights in {1,...,M} or in a directed n-node graph with edge weights in {-M,..., M} and no negative cycles can be efficiently reduced to finding a minimum weight triangle in an Theta(n)-node undirected graph with weights in {1,...,O(M)}. Roughly speaking, our reductions imply the following surprising phenomenon: a minimum cycle with an arbitrary number of weighted edges can be "encoded" using only three edges within roughly the same weight interval! This resolves a longstanding open problem posed by Itai and Rodeh [SIAM J. Computing 1978 and STOC'77]. A direct consequence of our efficient reductions are O (Mn^{omega})-time algorithms using fast matrix multiplication (FMM) for finding a minimum weight cycle in both undirected graphs with integral weights from the interval [1,M] and directed graphs with inte...

  11. The Triangle Anomaly in Triple-Regge Limits

    CERN Document Server

    White, Alan R

    2001-01-01

    Reggeized gluon interactions due to a single quark loop are studied in the full triple-regge limit and in closely related helicity-flip helicity-pole limits. Triangle diagram reggeon interactions are generated that include local axial-vector effective vertices. It is shown that the massless quark U(1) anomaly is present as an infra-red divergence in the interactions generated by maximally non-planar Feynman diagrams. A multi-regge asymptotic dispersion relation formalism is developed which provides a systematic counting of anomaly contributions. The 48 triple discontinuities in the dispersion relation are of two kinds. The first kind are to one-particle inclusive cross-sections. The second kind contains the anomaly and the multi-regge theory has some special features, including a signature conservation rule. It is shown that the anomaly is present only in multiple discontinuities obtained from the maximally non-planar diagrams and that in the scattering of elementary quarks or gluons the signature and color p...

  12. Approximate Bregman near neighbors in sublinear time: Beyond the triangle inequality

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Amirali; Venkatasubramanian, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Bregman divergences are important distance measures that are used extensively in data-driven applications such as computer vision, text mining, and speech processing, and are a key focus of interest in machine learning. Answering nearest neighbor (NN) queries under these measures very important in these applications and has been the subject of extensive study, but is problematic because these distance measures lack metric properties like symmetry and the triangle inequality. In this paper, we present the first approximate nearest-neighbor (ANN) algorithms, which run in polylog(n) time for Bregman divergences of fixed dimension. To do so, we explore two properties of Bregman divergences that are vital to the analysis: a reverse triangle inequality (RTI) and a relaxed triangle inequality called mu-defectiveness. We show that even though Bregman divergences do not satisfy the triangle inequality, the above properties can be utilized to design an efficient search data structure that follows the general two-stage ...

  13. [Anterior cervical hypertrichosis: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Gutiérrez, Mario H; Sánchez-Corona, José; García-Ortiz, José E; Castañeda-Cisneros, Gema; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Nory O; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; García-Cruz, Diana

    2016-10-01

    The non-syndromic anterior cervical hypertrichosis (OMIM N° 600457) is a genetic disorder characterized by a patch of hair at the level of the laryngeal prominence. We present a 12-year-old boy with anterior cervical hypertrichosis and mild generalized hypertrichosis. He has no neurological, ophthalmological or skeletal anomalies. The clinical follow up is 10 years.

  14. Vocal cord mucosal flap for the treatment of acquired anterior laryngeal web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yang; Wang Jun; Han Demin; Ma Lijing; Ye Jingying; Xu Wen

    2014-01-01

    Background Anterior glottic web is one type of laryngeal stenosis.Previous surgical methods had some drawbacks,such as large surgical trauma,long postoperative recovery time,and multiple-stage surgery.This study aimed to explore better treatment to repair anterior glottis web.Methods We performed vocal cord mucosal flap procedure on 32 patients with anterior laryngeal webs.All subjects received vocal cord scar releasing and vocal cord mucosal flap repair and suture under general anesthesia with selfretaining laryngoscope.Results All 32 patients completed surgery in one stage,without postoperative laryngeal edema,difficulty in breathing,or other complications.After the surgery,the anterior commissure of vocal cords recovered to a decent triangle shape in 28 patients; however,in four patients there were 2 to 3 mm adhesion residuals on the anterior ends of the vocal cords,accompanied by scar appearance of bilateral vocal cords.The GRB score,voice handicap index scores,and maximum phonation time score significantly improved in all patients after the surgery.There was no evidence of recurrent laryngeal webbing in the 6-rnonth follow-up.Conclusion Vocal cords mucosal flap repair surgery has the advantages of less trauma,quick recovery,and significant improvement of the voice in the treatment of laryngeal webs.

  15. A zero-one law for the existence of triangles in random key graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Yagan, Osman

    2009-01-01

    Random key graphs are random graphs induced by the random key predistribution scheme of Eschenauer and Gligor under the assumption of full visibility. For this class of random graphs we show the existence of a zero-one law for the appearance of triangles, and identify the corresponding critical scaling. This is done by applying the method of first and second moments to the number of triangles in the graph.

  16. Dose-response relationship of sertindole and haloperidol using the pharmacopsychometric triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Tanghøj, P; Andreasson, K;

    2011-01-01

    Renewed insight into dose-related effects of sertindole and haloperidol was sought by re-analysing published data for antipsychotic effect, extrapyramidal effect, and patient wellbeing - i.e., the important pharmacopsychometric triangle domains.......Renewed insight into dose-related effects of sertindole and haloperidol was sought by re-analysing published data for antipsychotic effect, extrapyramidal effect, and patient wellbeing - i.e., the important pharmacopsychometric triangle domains....

  17. Dihedral f-tilings of the sphere by rhombi and triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Breda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We classify, up to an isomorphism, the class of all dihedral f-tilings of S 2, whose prototiles are a spherical triangle and a spherical rhombus. The equiangular case was considered and classified in Ana M. Breda and Altino F. Santos, Dihedral f-tilings of the sphere by spherical triangles and equiangular well-centered quadrangles. Here we complete the classification considering the case of non-equiangular rhombi.

  18. CHROMATICITY COORDINATES EVALUATION OF TRIANGLE VERTICES GAMUT FOR DISPLAYS WITH MAXIMUM AREA OF COLOR REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zharinov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of calculating chromaticity coordinates estimates of triangle vertices gamut for displays with maximum area of color reproduction. Initial data for the evaluation are tabulated data on the shape of the spectral locus interpolated by Bezier splines. Research results are chromaticity coordinates of the triangle vertices gamut maximum area specified on the color chart according to the standards of the International Commission on Illumination.

  19. Inestabilidad Anterior de Hombro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo David Flint Kuran

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ción La luxación recidivante de hombro es una patología frecuente en pacientes jóvenes, laboralmente activos. Existen numerosas técnicas quirúrgicas para la inestabilidad glenohumeral. La técnica de Bristow, discutida por no ser anatómica y por sus complicaciones, continúa vigente debido al bajo índice de reluxaciones. Los objetivos fueron determinar el índice de recidiva, alteraciones funcionales e índice de consolidación del injerto. Materiales­ y­ Métodos Se evaluaron 24 pacientes del sexo masculino, de entre 19 y 40 años, operados por luxación anterior recidivante de hombro según la técnica de Bristow, entre enero de 2003 y agosto de 2011. Se evaluó la tasa de reluxación, la función articular según el puntaje de Constant y el posicionamiento del injerto con respecto a la superficie articular con tomografía y radiografías para evaluar la consolidación del injerto. Se registraron las complicaciones quirúrgicas. Resultados ­Todos los pacientes eran hombres, con rango de edad de 19 a 40 años. La causa fue traumática en 24 pacientes. Dieciséis pacientes presentaron más de 3 episodios de luxación prequirúrgicos. Según la escala de Constant, 21 obtuvieron entre 96 y 100 puntos, y los restantes, entre 90 y 95 puntos. No hubo nuevos episodios de luxaciones. La tomografía mostró la consolidación en todos los casos. Un paciente tuvo una imagen osteolítica alrededor del tornillo, sin compromiso funcional del hombro. Conclusión La técnica de Bristow para tratar la luxación anterior recidivante de hombro provocó un bajo índice de complicaciones, con resultados funcionales entre excelentes y buenos. No hubo episodios de reluxación y se logró la consolidación del injerto óseo en todos los casos.

  20. An arbitrary boundary triangle mesh generation method for multi-modality imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanxuan; Deng, Yong; Gong, Hui; Meng, Yuanzheng; Yang, Xiaoquan; Luo, Qingming

    2012-03-01

    Low-resolution and ill-posedness are the major challenges in diffuse optical tomography(DOT)/fluorescence molecular tomography(FMT). Recently, the multi-modality imaging technology that combines micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) with DOT/FMT is developed to improve resolution and ill-posedness. To take advantage of the fine priori anatomical maps obtained from micro-CT, we present an arbitrary boundary triangle mesh generation method for FMT/DOT/micro-CT multi-modality imaging. A planar straight line graph (PSLG) based on the image of micro-CT is obtained by an adaptive boundary sampling algorithm. The subregions of mesh are accurately matched with anatomical structures by a two-step solution, firstly, the triangles and nodes during mesh refinement are labeled respectively, and then a revising algorithm is used to modifying meshes of each subregion. The triangle meshes based on a regular model and a micro-CT image are generated respectively. The results show that the subregions of triangle meshes can match with anatomical structures accurately and triangle meshes have good quality. This provides an arbitrary boundaries triangle mesh generation method with the ability to incorporate the fine priori anatomical information into DOT/FMT reconstructions.

  1. The coral triangle initiative: What are we missing? A case study from Aceh

    KAUST Repository

    Rudi, Edi

    2012-10-01

    Abstract The Coral Triangle Initiative is an ambitious attempt to conserve the marine biodiversity hotspot known as the Coral Triangle. However, the reef fauna in many nearby regions remains poorly explored and, consequently, the focus on the Coral Triangle risks overlooking other areas of high conservation significance. One region of potential significance, Aceh, Indonesia, has not been visited by coral taxonomists since the Dutch colonial period. Here we document the species richness of scleractinian corals of Pulau Weh, Aceh. We also compare the species richness of the genus Acropora at 3-5 sites in each of nine regions in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Although dominated by widespread Indo-Pacific species, the coral fauna of Pulau Weh is also the eastern and western boundary for many Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean species, respectively. We identified a total of 133 scleractinian species, of which three have been previously recorded only in the western Indian Ocean and five are presently undescribed. The mean species richness of the Acropora at Pulau Weh is similar to regions within the Coral Triangle. This high species richness plus the high proportion of endemics suggests that the Andaman Sea is of similarly high conservation value to the Coral Triangle. We suggest that an international initiative similar to the Coral Triangle Initiative is required to conserve this region, which includes the territorial waters of six countries. © 2012 Fauna & Flora International.

  2. Depleting depletion: Polymer swelling in poor solvent mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherji, Debashish; Marques, Carlos; Stuehn, Torsten; Kremer, Kurt

    A polymer collapses in a solvent when the solvent particles dislike monomers more than the repulsion between monomers. This leads to an effective attraction between monomers, also referred to as depletion induced attraction. This attraction is the key factor behind standard polymer collapse in poor solvents. Strikingly, even if a polymer exhibits poor solvent condition in two different solvents, it can also swell in mixtures of these two poor solvents. This collapse-swelling-collapse scenario is displayed by poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in aqueous alcohol. Using molecular dynamics simulations of a thermodynamically consistent generic model and theoretical arguments, we unveil the microscopic origin of this phenomenon. Our analysis suggests that a subtle interplay of the bulk solution properties and the local depletion forces reduces depletion effects, thus dictating polymer swelling in poor solvent mixtures.

  3. Radiation preparation and swelling behavior of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Zhai, Maolin; Li, Jiuqiang; Peng, Jing; Wu, Jilan

    2002-03-01

    Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is a kind of degraded polymer under γ-irradiation. However, in this work, it has been found that CMC crosslinks partially to form hydrogel by radiation technique at more than 20% CMC aqueous solution. The gel fraction increases with the dose. The crosslinking reaction of CMC is promoted in the presence of N 2 or N 2O due to the increase of free radicals on CMC backbone, but gel fraction of CMC hydrogel is not high (radiation crosslinking due to the character of CMC itself. Swelling dynamics of CMC hydrogel and its swelling behavior at different conditions, such as acidic, basic, inorganic salt as well as temperature were also investigated. Strong acidity, strong basicity, small amount of inorganic salts and lower temperature can reduce swelling ratio.

  4. SWELLING EQUILIBRIUM OF NONIONIC POLYACRYLAMIDE HYDROGEL IN AQUEOUS SALT SOLUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A series of nonionic polyacrylamide hydrogels, using acrylamide as monomer and N,N’-methylene diacrylamide as crosslinking agent, were prepared by the free radical polymerization in aqueous solution. Swelling equilibria for the gels were carried out in aqueous solutions of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, Na2HPO4 and K2HPO4 with concentration ranging from 10-3 to 5mol/kgH2O at 25℃. Experimental results revealed that the chlorides and phosphates cause a different behavior at higher salt concentration. The swelling ratio increases with increasing concentration of chlorides salts, while decreases with the increased phosphates salt concentration. The phenomena seem to be related to the different interactions of chloride and hydrogen phosphate ions with the network groups. Furthermore, the effects of different concentration of crosslinking agent and total monomers on gel swelling performance were also investigated.

  5. Swelling/deswelling of polyacrylamide gels in aqueous NaCl solution: Light scattering and macroscopic swelling study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sivanantham; B V R Tata

    2012-09-01

    Swelling kinetics of water-swollen polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels (WSG) was investigated in various concentrations of aqueous NaCl by macroscopic swelling measurements. For lower concentration of NaCl, WSG showed exponential swelling whereas at higher concentration of NaCl it underwent deswelling at short times and exponential swelling at long times. From these studies, collective diffusion coefficient, , of the polymer network and polymer–solvent interaction parameter, , were calculated and found to decrease with increase in [NaCl]. Collective diffusion coefficients measured from dynamic light scattering (DLS) and that obtained from macroscopic swelling measurements are found to agree well. Measured ensemble-averaged dynamic structure factor (, ) for WSG and salt-swollen gels (SSG) showed an initial decay followed by a plateau at long times and it can be described by harmonically bound Brownian particle (HBBP) model. Enhanced scattering intensity at low scattering angles using static light scattering (SLS) measurements revealed the presence of inhomogeneities in PAAm gels. The reasons for increased scattering intensity of SSG over WSG gel and the linear decrease of with increase in NaCl concentration are explained.

  6. Influence of effective stress on swelling pressure of expansive soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baille Wiebke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The volume change and shear strength behaviour of soils are controlled by the effective stress. Recent advances in unsaturated soil mechanics have shown that the effective stress as applicable to unsaturated soils is equal to the difference between the externally applied stress and the suction stress. The latter can be established based on the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC of the soil. In the present study, the evolution of swelling pressure in compacted bentonite-sand mixtures was investigated. Comparisons were made between magnitudes of applied suction, suction stress, and swelling pressure.

  7. Swelling studies of camel and bovine corneal stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki Almubrad

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Turki Almubrad, Mohammad Faisal Jamal Khan, Saeed AkhtarCornea Research Chair, Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: In the present study we investigated the swelling characteristics of fresh camel and bovine cornea in sodium salt solutions. Swelling studies were carried out at 20 minutes, 14 hours, and 46 hours on five fresh camel and 5 five fresh bovine corneas. During the 20-minute hydration of fresh corneal stroma was investigated using sodium chloride (NaCl, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, sodium acetate (CH3COONa, sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN, and sodium floride (NaF at 2-minute time intervals. During a 46-hour time period, the hydration study was carried out using NaCl (150, 300 mM and NaF (150 mM at random intervals. The 14-hour study was carried out to assess the rehydration of corneal stroma after 6 hours of drying. During the 20-minute swelling studies in the first 2 minutes the rate of hydration in both camel and bovine corneas was high but gradually reduced in the 2–20-minute period. The rates and levels of hydration of camel and bovine cornea were not significantly different from each other in all the strengths of solutions. During the 46-hour swelling studies, the initial rate of hydration (0–2 hours of camel and bovine stroma, in all solutions was significantly higher (Z = 0.056 compared to hydration during later hours (2–46 hours. Camel stromal hydration (high in 150 mM NaCl was significantly higher compared to bovine stromal hydration in the same solution during the 10–24, and 24–46-hour time periods. Rehydration in camel stroma was significantly lower than bovine in 150 mM NaF. The 20-minute study showed that there was no selective affinity for particular ions in camel or bovine corneal stroma. Initial swelling in both corneal and bovine stroma is faster and more prominant compared to later swelling. The swelling in camel cornea is more prominant compared

  8. Swelling characteristics of immersed sand-bentonite mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰土根; 崔红斌; 孙德安; 杜冰

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory one-dimensional consolidation apparatus was employed to research the swelling stress and volume of the sand-bentonite mixture under immersed conditions. The stress-strain characteristics of mixtures under varied mixing ratios and loading statuses were analyzed. Based on the results of tests, the mechanism of mixture swelling and collapsing was further discussed. The results show that mixtures with low sand ratios are suitable as hydraulic barrier or containment barriers of general landfills, geological repository and other hydraulic infrastructure works.

  9. Temporomandibular joint osteochondromatosis: an unusual cause of preauricular swelling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, Eimear

    2012-02-01

    We report an unusual and rare cause of preauricular swelling and review the most recent literature concerning synovial osteochondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint. We report the clinical and radiologic findings of a case of synovial osteochondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint that presented as preauricular swelling in a female patient. This disease typically affects large joints; fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature affect the temporomandibular joint. This case illustrates that disorders of the temporomandibular joint should also be included in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with a preauricular mass.

  10. Subtemporal-anterior transtentoral approach to middle cranial fossa microsurgical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiming; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jingjing; Liu, Wei; Feng, Yugong; Li, Gang

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to describe the topography of inferior and external dura mater of the middle cranial fossa through subtemporal-anterior transpetrosal approach and discuss the feasibility of improving the approach. Eight formalin-fixed adult cadaveric heads were studied, with the bones milled away in the lateral triangle region of the petrous bone, Kawase rhombus region, and inner triangle region of the petrous apex. The distances between the targets in these regions, as well as the angles after the dissection of zygomatic arch, were measured, and then the exposed petroclival and retrochiasmatic areas were observed under the microscope. There were significant variations in the distances between targets in the 3 milled regions among the specimens. After the dissection of zygomatic arch, the surgical view got an average increase of 12 degrees. The subtemporal anterior transpetrosal approach, as an improved subtemporal approach, can expose the lesions optimally, causing no injury to the hearing and reducing injuries to temporal lobe. On the other hand, the lateral bone of the petrous parts of the temporal bone is removed so as to improve the view to the retrochiasmatic area and expand the operative field.

  11. Pure Electric and Pure Magnetic Resonances in Near-Infrared Metal Double-Triangle Metamaterial Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhi-Shen; PAN Jian; CHEN Zhuo; ZHAN Peng; MIN Nai-Ben; WANG Zhen-Lin

    2011-01-01

    @@ We experimentally and numerically investigate the optical properties of metamaterial arrays composed of double partially-overlapped metallic nanotriangles fabricated by an angle-resolved nanosphere lithography.We demonstrate that each double-triangle can be viewed as an artificial magnetic element analogous to the conventional metal split-ring-resonator.It is shown that under normal-incidence conditions,individual double-triangle can exhibit a strong local magnetic resonance,but the collective response of the metamaterial arrays is purely electric because magnetic resonances of the two double-triangles in a unit cell having opposite openings are out of phase.For oblique incidences the metamaterial arrays are shown to support a pure magnetic response at the same frequency band.Therefore,switchable electric and magnetic resonances are achieved in double-triangle arrays.Moreover,both the electric and magnetic resonances axe shown to allow for a tunability over a large spectral range down to near-infrared.%We experimentally and numerically investigate the optical properties of metamaterial arrays composed of double partially-overlapped metallic nanotriangles fabricated by an angle-resolved nanosphere lithography. We demonstrate that each double-triable can be viewed as an artificial magnetic element analogous to the conventional metal split-ring-resonator. It is shown that under normal-incidence conditions, individual double-triangle can exhibit a strong local magnetic resonance, but the collective response of the metamaterial arrays is purely electric because magnetic resonances of the two double-triangles in a unit cell having opposite openings are out of phase.For oblique incidences the metamaterial arrays are shown to support a pure magnetic response at the same frequency band. Therefore, switchable electric and magnetic resonances are achieved in double-triangle arrays.Moreover, both the electric and magnetic resonances are shown to allow for a tunability over

  12. Triangle network motifs predict complexes by complementing high-error interactomes with structural information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labudde Dirk

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A lot of high-throughput studies produce protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs with many errors and missing information. Even for genome-wide approaches, there is often a low overlap between PPINs produced by different studies. Second-level neighbors separated by two protein-protein interactions (PPIs were previously used for predicting protein function and finding complexes in high-error PPINs. We retrieve second level neighbors in PPINs, and complement these with structural domain-domain interactions (SDDIs representing binding evidence on proteins, forming PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles. Results We find low overlap between PPINs, SDDIs and known complexes, all well below 10%. We evaluate the overlap of PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles with known complexes from Munich Information center for Protein Sequences (MIPS. PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles have ~20 times higher overlap with MIPS complexes than using second-level neighbors in PPINs without SDDIs. The biological interpretation for triangles is that a SDDI causes two proteins to be observed with common interaction partners in high-throughput experiments. The relatively few SDDIs overlapping with PPINs are part of highly connected SDDI components, and are more likely to be detected in experimental studies. We demonstrate the utility of PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles by reconstructing myosin-actin processes in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cytoskeleton, which were not obvious in the original PPIN. Using other complementary datatypes in place of SDDIs to form triangles, such as PubMed co-occurrences or threading information, results in a similar ability to find protein complexes. Conclusion Given high-error PPINs with missing information, triangles of mixed datatypes are a promising direction for finding protein complexes. Integrating PPINs with SDDIs improves finding complexes. Structural SDDIs partially explain the high functional similarity of second-level neighbors in PPINs. We estimate that

  13. Hydrogel films and coatings by swelling-induced gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, David; Chauvet, Caroline; Etienne, François; Rannou, François P; Corté, Laurent

    2016-11-22

    Hydrogel films used as membranes or coatings are essential components of devices interfaced with biological systems. Their design is greatly challenged by the need to find mild synthesis and processing conditions that preserve their biocompatibility and the integrity of encapsulated compounds. Here, we report an approach to produce hydrogel films spontaneously in aqueous polymer solutions. This method uses the solvent depletion created at the surface of swelling polymer substrates to induce the gelation of a thin layer of polymer solution. Using a biocompatible polymer that self-assembles at high concentration [poly(vinyl alcohol)], hydrogel films were produced within minutes to hours with thicknesses ranging from tens to hundreds of micrometers. A simple model and numerical simulations of mass transport during swelling capture the experiments and predict how film growth depends on the solution composition, substrate geometry, and swelling properties. The versatility of the approach was verified with a variety of swelling substrates and hydrogel-forming solutions. We also demonstrate the potential of this technique by incorporating other solutes such as inorganic particles to fabricate ceramic-hydrogel coatings for bone anchoring and cells to fabricate cell-laden membranes for cell culture or tissue engineering.

  14. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.W. (Auburn Univ., AL (United States)); Gutterman, C. (Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)); Chander, S. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  15. Uncommon inflammatory swelling of the lips: orofacial granulomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Abdul; Mufeed, Abdulla; Kandasamy, Gopinath; Krishnapillai, Rekha

    2016-01-12

    Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) is an unusual condition associated with permanent or recurrent swelling of orofacial tissues together with oral mucosal ulceration and a variety of orofacial characteristics. The chronic inflammation inherent to OFG often displays granulomas in the subepithelial stroma. We present a case of OFG and its management. The patient responded to intralesional injections of corticosteroids.

  16. Demonstration of Solvent Differences by Visible Polymer Swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph H.

    1983-01-01

    Effect of the "polarity" of low-polarity solvents on the amount of swelling produced in a solid polymer (demonstrated in an organic chemistry lecture) is also suitable as a laboratory experiment. Students can be assigned to a small group of solvents from the list provided. Procedures and materials needed are included. (Author/JN)

  17. [A former bodybuilder with a swelling on the forearm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijbos, Ruben M; Zwaard, Ton M

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old man came to the general practitioner with a solitary compressible swelling on his left forearm, which enlarged during exercise. The patient reported a history of bodybuilding and he worked as a plasterer. Physical examination revealed primary varicose of the upper extremity, a rare localisation of a common vascular disease.

  18. Lupus erythematosus--a case of facial swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loescher, A; Edmondson, H D

    1988-04-01

    A case is reported of acute facial swelling following tooth extraction that failed to respond in a normal manner. The patient developed systemic signs and symptoms ultimately revealing the diagnosis of lupus erythematosus. The possibility of soft tissue lesions arising in some forms of lupus is emphasised by this report.

  19. Congenital osteolytic dural fibrosarcoma presenting as a scalp swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohi, Shams Raza; Dilber, Muzamil

    2012-08-01

    An extremely rare case of congenital dural fibrosarcoma is reported in a 2 months old child who presented with scalp swelling since birth. CT scan revealed an osteolytic lesion compressing the underlying atrophic brain. Tumour was completely excised and duroplasty was done with a patch graft. Postoperative CSF leak was managed with aspirations and lumbar puncture.

  20. Case of a non-pulsatile groin swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razif, M A Mohamed; Rajasingam, V; Abdullah, B J J

    2002-12-01

    We report a case of a non-pulsatile groin swelling in a 38 years old male drug addict without the typical clinical signs of an aneurysm. Ultrasound revealed a left femoral artery pseudo-aneurysm. He was surgically treated and the vessels were ligated without revascularisation.

  1. Linear Viscoelasticity and Swelling of Polyelectrolyte Complex Coacervates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Fawzi; Colby, Ralph

    2012-02-01

    The addition of near equimolar amounts of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) to poly(isobutylene-alt-maleate sodium), results in formation of a polyelectrolyte complex coacervate. Zeta-potential titrations conclude that these PE-complexes are nearly charge-neutral. Swelling and rheological properties are studied at different salt concentrations in the surrounding solution. The enhanced swelling observed at high salt concentration suggests the system behaves like a polyampholyte gel, and weaker swelling at very low salt concentrations implies polyelectrolyte gel behavior. Linear viscoelastic oscillatory shear measurements indicate that the coacervates are viscoelastic liquids and that increasing ionic strength of the medium weakens the electrostatic interactions between charged units, lowering the relaxation time and viscosity. We use the time-salt superposition idea recently proposed by Spruijt, et al., allowing us to construct master curves for these soft materials. Similar swelling properties observed when varying molecular weights. Rheological measurements reveal that PE-complexes with increasing molecular weight polyelectrolytes form a network with higher crosslink density, suggesting time-molecular weight superposition idea.

  2. Thaumasite swelling in historic mortars: field observations and laboratory research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, R.P.J. van; Wijffels, T.J.; Klugt, L.J.A.R. van der

    2003-01-01

    The formation of thaumasite in historic mortars was found to be a recurrent problem in cases of conservation of historic masonry in the Netherlands. Several case studies in which mortar swelling occurred were performed. In this paper two case studies concerning thaumasite formation are briefly descr

  3. Shrink-swell behavior of soil across a vertisol catena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinking and swelling of soils and the associated formation and closing of cracks can vary spatially within the smallest hydrologic unit subdivision utilized in surface hydrology models. Usually in the application of surface hydrology models, cracking is not considered to vary within a hydrologic u...

  4. Laboratory tests of hydraulic fracturing and swell healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunbo, Christensen Claes; Foged, Christensen Helle; Foged, Niels

    1998-01-01

    New laboratory test set-ups and test procedures are described - for testing the formation of hydraulically induced fractures as well as the potential for subsequent fracture closurefrom the relase of a swelling potential. The main purpose with the tests is to provide information on fracturing...

  5. Metal surface swelling by heavy charged particle irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Terasawa, M; Liu, L; Tsubakino, H; Niibe, M

    2002-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steel specimens of Type 316SS were irradiated with 200 keV He sup + or N sup + ions, and the irradiated specimen surfaces were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). At the ion irradiation in high temperatures the specimens show surface step-up. In case of He sup + , the surface swelling is remarkable and increases linearly with He ion fluence, which indicates the swelling is due to formation of He bubbles. The irradiated surface is sometimes in irregularity, especially at and near grain boundary, remarkable ridging is observed. In case of N sup + , the surface step-up is less remarkable compared with He sup +. The swelling shows a so-called bi-linear behavior, i.e. a threshold of N sup + fluence appears and beyond the threshold the swelling increase is almost linearly presumably due to evolution of voids induced by the N sup + irradiation in high temperature. Denudation of void formation adjacent to grain boundary is recognized.

  6. Anterior chamber depth during hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracitelli CPB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa Gracitelli,1 Francisco Rosa Stefanini,1 Fernando Penha,1 Miguel Ângelo Góes,2 Sérgio Antonio Draibe,2 Maria Eugênia Canziani,2 Augusto Paranhos Junior1 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Division of Nephrology, Federal University of São Paulo – UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Exacerbation of chronic glaucoma or acute glaucoma is occasionally observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD because of anterior chamber depth changes during this therapy. Purpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth and axial length in patients during HD sessions. Methods: A total of 67 eyes of 35 patients were prospectively enrolled. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured using ultrasonic biometry, and these measures were evaluated at three different times during HD sessions. Body weight and blood pressure pre- and post-HD were also measured. Results: There was no difference in the axial length between the three measurements (P = 0.241. We observed a significantly decreased anterior chamber depth (P = 0.002 during HD sessions. Conclusion: Our results support the idea that there is a change in anterior chamber depth in HD sessions. Keywords: anterior chamber, hemodialysis, axial length, acute angle-closure glaucoma

  7. Diffuse anterior retinoblastoma: current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jing Yang,1–3 Yalong Dang,1–3 Yu Zhu,1 Chun Zhang2,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, 3Clinical Stem Cell Research Center, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Diffuse anterior retinoblastoma is a rare variant of retinoblastoma seeding in the area of the vitreous base and anterior chamber. Patients with diffuse anterior retinoblastoma are older than those with the classical types, with the mean age being 6.1 years. The original cells of diffuse anterior retinoblastoma are supposed to be cone precursor. Patients most commonly present with pseudouveitis, pseudohypopyon, and increased intraocular pressure. The retina under fundus examination is likely to be normal, and the clinical features mimic the inflammation progress, which can often lead to misdiagnosis. The published diffuse anterior retinoblastoma cases were diagnosed after fine-needle aspiration biopsy running the potential risk of inducing metastasis. The most common treatment for diffuse anterior retinoblastoma is enucleation followed by systematic chemotherapy according to the patient’s presentation and clinical course. This review summarizes the recent advances in etiology (including tumorigenesis and cell origin, pathology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and new treatment. The challenges of early diagnosis and prospects are also discussed. Keywords: pathology, microenvironment, treatment, diagnosis 

  8. Swell impact on wind stress and atmospheric mixing in a regional coupled atmosphere-wave model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Lichuan; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik;

    2016-01-01

    Over the ocean, the atmospheric turbulence can be significantly affected by swell waves. Change in the atmospheric turbulence affects the wind stress and atmospheric mixing over swell waves. In this study, the influence of swell on atmospheric mixing and wind stress is introduced into an atmosphere......-wave-coupled regional climate model, separately and combined. The swell influence on atmospheric mixing is introduced into the atmospheric mixing length formula by adding a swell-induced contribution to the mixing. The swell influence on the wind stress under wind-following swell, moderate-range wind, and near......-neutral and unstable stratification conditions is introduced by changing the roughness length. Five year simulation results indicate that adding the swell influence on atmospheric mixing has limited influence, only slightly increasing the near-surface wind speed; in contrast, adding the swell influence on wind stress...

  9. Holliday Triangle Hunter (HolT Hunter): Efficient Software for Identifying Low Strain DNA Triangular Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, W.B.

    2012-04-16

    Synthetic DNA nanostructures are typically held together primarily by Holliday junctions. One of the most basic types of structures possible to assemble with only DNA and Holliday junctions is the triangle. To date, however, only equilateral triangles have been assembled in this manner - primarily because it is difficult to figure out what configurations of Holliday triangles have low strain. Early attempts at identifying such configurations relied upon calculations that followed the strained helical paths of DNA. Those methods, however, were computationally expensive, and failed to find many of the possible solutions. I have developed a new approach to identifying Holliday triangles that is computationally faster, and finds well over 95% of the possible solutions. The new approach is based on splitting the problem into two parts. The first part involves figuring out all the different ways that three featureless rods of the appropriate length and diameter can weave over and under one another to form a triangle. The second part of the computation entails seeing whether double helical DNA backbones can fit into the shape dictated by the rods in such a manner that the strands can cross over from one domain to the other at the appropriate spots. Structures with low strain (that is, good fit between the rods and the helices) on all three edges are recorded as promising for assembly.

  10. Perceptual grouping without awareness: superiority of Kanizsa triangle in breaking interocular suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Wang

    Full Text Available Much information could be processed unconsciously. However, there is no direct evidence on whether perceptual grouping could occur without awareness. To answer this question, we investigated whether a Kanizsa triangle (an example of perceptual grouping is processed differently from stimuli with the same local components but are ungrouped or weakly grouped. Specifically, using a suppression time paradigm we tested whether a Kanizsa triangle would emerge from interocular continuous flash suppression sooner than control stimuli. Results show a significant advantage of the Kanizsa triangle: the Kanizsa triangle emerged from suppression noise significantly faster than the control stimulus with the local Pacmen randomly rotated (t(9 = -2.78, p = 0.02; and also faster than the control stimulus with all Pacmen rotated 180° (t(11 = -3.20, p<0.01. Additional results demonstrated that the advantage of the grouped Kanizsa triangle could not be accounted for by the faster detection speed at the conscious level for the Kanizsa figures on a dynamic noise background. Our results indicate that certain properties supporting perceptual grouping could be processed in the absence of awareness.

  11. Swell impact on wind stress and atmospheric mixing in a regional coupled atmosphere-wave model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lichuan; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik; Guo Larsén, Xiaoli

    2016-07-01

    Over the ocean, the atmospheric turbulence can be significantly affected by swell waves. Change in the atmospheric turbulence affects the wind stress and atmospheric mixing over swell waves. In this study, the influence of swell on atmospheric mixing and wind stress is introduced into an atmosphere-wave-coupled regional climate model, separately and combined. The swell influence on atmospheric mixing is introduced into the atmospheric mixing length formula by adding a swell-induced contribution to the mixing. The swell influence on the wind stress under wind-following swell, moderate-range wind, and near-neutral and unstable stratification conditions is introduced by changing the roughness length. Five year simulation results indicate that adding the swell influence on atmospheric mixing has limited influence, only slightly increasing the near-surface wind speed; in contrast, adding the swell influence on wind stress reduces the near-surface wind speed. Introducing the wave influence roughness length has a larger influence than does adding the swell influence on mixing. Compared with measurements, adding the swell influence on both atmospheric mixing and wind stress gives the best model performance for the wind speed. The influence varies with wave characteristics for different sea basins. Swell occurs infrequently in the studied area, and one could expect more influence in high-swell-frequency areas (i.e., low-latitude ocean). We conclude that the influence of swell on atmospheric mixing and wind stress should be considered when developing climate models.

  12. Anterior knee pain: an update of physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Suzanne

    2014-10-01

    Anterior knee pain is one of the most common knee problems in physically active individuals. The reason for anterior knee pain has been suggested to be multifactorial with patella abnormalities or extensor mechanism disorder leading to patellar malalignment during flexion and extension of the knee joint. Some patients complain mostly of non-specific knee pain, while others report patellar instability problems. The patients present with a variety of symptoms and clinical findings, meaning that a thorough clinical examination is the key for optimal treatment. Weakness of the quadriceps muscle, especially during eccentric contractions, is usually present in the majority of anterior knee pain patients. However, irrespective of whether pain or instability is the major problem, hypotrophy and reduced activity of the vastus medialis are often found, which result in an imbalance between vastus medialis and vastus lateralis. This imbalance needs to be corrected before quadriceps exercises are started. The non-operative rehabilitation protocol should be divided into different phases based on the patient's progress. The goal of the first phase is to reduce pain and swelling, improve the balance between vastus medialis and vastus lateralis, restore normal gait, and decrease loading of the patello-femoral joint. The second phase should include improvement of postural control and coordination of the lower extremity, increase of quadriceps strength and when needed hip muscle strength, and restore good knee function. The patient should be encouraged to return to or to start with a suitable regular physical exercise. Therefore, the third phase should include functional exercises. Towards the end of the treatment, single-leg functional tests and functional knee scores should be used for evaluating clinical outcome. A non-operative treatment of patients with anterior knee pain should be tried for at least 3 months before considering other treatment options.

  13. Comparative Phylogeography of the Coral Triangle and Implications for Marine Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent E. Carpenter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme concentration of marine biodiversity and exploitation of marine resources in the Coral Triangle pose challenges to biogeographers and resource managers. Comparative phylogeography provides a powerful tool to test biogeographic hypotheses evoked to explain species richness in the Coral Triangle. It can also be used to delineate management units for marine resources. After about a decade of phylogeographical studies, patterns for the Coral Triangle are emerging. Broad connectivity in some species support the notion that larvae have maintained gene flow among distant populations for long periods. Other phylogeographic patterns suggest vicariant events resulting from Pleistocene sea level fluctuations, which have, at least occasionally, resulted in speciation. Divergence dates ranging back to the Miocene suggest that changing land configurations may have precipitated an explosion of species diversification. A synthesis of the marine phylogeographic studies reveals repeated patterns that corroborate hypothesized biogeographic processes and suggest improved management schemes for marine resources.

  14. The Didactical Relevance of the Pauli Pascal Triangle (Die didaktische Relevanz des Pauli-Pascal-Dreiecks)

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, M E

    2006-01-01

    In high school physics and physics at university level anti-commutative and non-commutative quantities play an outstanding role at the theoretical description of physical relations. But while using commutative quantities, the basic formal relations of mathematical physics are introduced clearly and step-by-step, a similar clear presentation of non-commuatative relations with didactical sensible examples is lacking. On the basis of a q-analog of the Pascal triangle (sometimes called quantum Pascal triangle) this paper discusses whether a less abstract introduction into non-commutative relations is possible. The didactical relevance of this approach is analysed. In an attachment all three triangles of the Pauli Pascal plane are presented.

  15. Transmission probability method based on triangle meshes for solving the unstructured geometry neutron transport problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hongchun; LIU Pingping; ZHOU Yongqiang; CAO Liangzhi

    2007-01-01

    The fuel assembly or core with unstructured geometry is frequently used in the advanced reactor. To calculate the fuel assembly, the transmission probability method (TPM) is widely used. However, the rectangular or hexagonal meshes are mainly used in the TPM codes for the normal core structure. The triangle meshes are most useful for expressing the complicated unstructured geometry. Even though the finite element method and Monte-Carlo methodare well suited for solving the unstructured geometry problem, they are very time-consuming. Therefore, a TPM code based on the triangle meshes is developed here. This code was applied to the hybrid fuel geometry, and compared with the results of the MCNP code and other codes. The results of the comparison were consistent with each other. The TPM with triangle meshes can thus be applied to the two-dimensional arbitrary fuel assembly.

  16. The Pascal Triangle of a Discrete Image: Definition, Properties and Application to Shape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Boutin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We define the Pascal triangle of a discrete (gray scale image as a pyramidal arrangement of complex-valued moments and we explore its geometric significance. In particular, we show that the entries of row k of this triangle correspond to the Fourier series coefficients of the moment of order k of the Radon transform of the image. Group actions on the plane can be naturally prolonged onto the entries of the Pascal triangle. We study the prolongation of some common group actions, such as rotations and reflections, and we propose simple tests for detecting equivalences and self-equivalences under these group actions. The motivating application of this work is the problem of characterizing the geometry of objects on images, for example by detecting approximate symmetries.

  17. Patella fracture following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milankov Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The most frequent procedure in treatment of acute or chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL rupture is the so called bone-tendon-bone reconstruction. A transverse dislocated patella fracture is a rare complication of this procedure with an incidence of 0.23%-2.3%. In a five year period, (1998-2002, 407 arthroscopic reconstructions of the anterior cruciate ligaments were done at our Clinic, and there was only one case of patella fracture. Case report An 18-year-old female patient, a handball player, suffered an acute rupture of anterior cruciate ligament of the left knee, so arthroscopic bone-tendon-bone reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament was performed. After adequate skin incision, a bone graft was taken from the patella and upper part of trapezoid tibia, which was 25 mm long, 10 mm wide and 5 mm thick, together with a part of patellar ligament. After the remains of the anterior cruciate ligament had been arthroscopically removed, tunnels were made in tibia and femur and a graft was inserted and fixed with two metal interference screws. Knee stability was tested, and drainage was put in the knee joint. The wound was closed by layers. The quadriceps exercises and passive knee movements started immediately. Full range of movements was accomplished six weeks later when the patient started to walk with full weight-bearing on her operated leg. Three weeks later, (nine weeks after the operation, the patient has accidentally lost her balance and fell. A transverse, dislocated fracture of the left patella was diagnosed and osteosynthesis of the fractured patella with two Kirschner wires and a metallic loop was performed. Postoperatively, full range of movement was allowed. Six months later, the patient felt no pain, there was no swelling, full range of knee movement was achieved, while the Lachman Test was identical in both knees and the pivot shift test was negative. Discussion Fracture of patella after ACL reconstruction is

  18. Relapse of leprosy presenting as nodular lymph node swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphadenopathy is known to be associated with lepromatous leprosy and has also been observed as a feature of type-2 lepra reaction. However, nodular lymph node enlargement is not commonly reported in leprosy patients or as a feature of relapse. We herewith are presenting a case of bacteriological relapse in a patient of lepromatous leprosy treated 22 years before till smear negativity with WHO multidrug therapy (MDT multibacillary type (MB. She presented with prominent nodular swelling of the cervical group of lymph nodes along with generalized lymphadenopathy, which was mistakenly treated as tubercular lymphadenopathy. A diagnosis of late bacteriological relapse of lepromatous leprosy presenting with prominent lymphadenopathy and ENL was made after relevant investigations. The patient was started on treatment with WHO MDT MB (daily dapsone and clofazimine and monthly rifampicin and thalidomide (200 mg/day. Nerve pain regressed within 2 weeks of therapy. The lymph nodal swelling regressed within 3 months of starting treatment.

  19. Simulation of extrudate swell using an extended finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Joon; Hulsen, Martien A.

    2011-09-01

    An extended finite element method (XFEM) is presented for the simulation of extrudate swell. A temporary arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) scheme is incorporated to cope with the movement of the free surface. The main advantage of the proposed method is that the movement of the free surface can be simulated on a fixed Eulerian mesh without any need of re-meshing. The swell ratio of an upper-convected Maxwell fluid is compared with those of the moving boundary-fitted mesh problems of the conventional ALE technique, and those of Crochet & Keunings (1980). The proposed XFEM combined with the temporary ALE scheme can provide similar accuracy to the boundary-fitted mesh problems for low Deborah numbers. For high Deborah numbers, the method seems to be more stable for the extrusion problem.

  20. Myxoid liposarcoma presenting like a cystic neck swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmeet Sahni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue sarcomas are rare and unusual neoplasm's, accounting for approximately 1% of adult human cancers and 15% of pediatric malignancies. Most liposarcomas occur in deep soft tissues of the extremities and retroperitoneum; only a very small percentage (as low as 2% occurs in the head and neck. Here we present a case of a 48yr old male with a painless mass in the neck clinically presenting as a cystic swelling. The CT neck was suggestive of cystic lesion in the neck representing benign cystic lesion. The swelling was excised and sent for histopathology which was suggestive of myxoid liposarcoma. The patient was planned for wide excision of the edges and scar and adjuvant chemo and radio therapy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(5.000: 1281-1284

  1. Modeling the rapid de-swelling of toroidal hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Chang, Ya-Wen; Alexeev, Alexander; Fernandez de Las Nieves, Alberto

    2015-03-01

    The utilization of synthetic hydrogel networks as 3-D cell culture platforms has allowed researchers to more effectively study how epigenetic factors affect cell growth and physiology. As a whole, this has emphasized the biomechanical role of scaffold structures and led to a number of advances in tissue engineering. Our current research focuses on modeling temperature activated shape transformations of toroidal poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) pNIPAM gels. We use dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to simulate the steady (slow heating rates) and unsteady (fast heating rates) de-swelling behavior of these thermo-sensitive gels. Our simulations show that for slow heating rates the aspect ratio of the tori remains constant during de-swelling. For rapid heating rates we observe buckling instabilities. Our simulations agree with the experimental observations. Financial support by NSF CAREER Award DMR-1255288 is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. Reactivity, swelling and aggregation of mixed-size silicate nanoplatelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segad, M.; Cabane, B.; Jönsson, Bo

    2015-10-01

    Montmorillonite is a key ingredient in a number of technical applications. However, little is known regarding the microstructure and the forces between silicate platelets. The size of montmorillonite platelets from different natural sources can vary significantly. This has an influence on their swelling behavior in water as well as in salt solutions, particularly when tactoid formation occurs, that is when divalent counterions are present in the system. A tactoid consists of a limited number of platelets aggregated in a parallel arrangement with a constant separation. The tactoid size increases with platelet size and with very small nanoplatelets, ~30 nm, no tactoids are observed irrespectively of the platelet origin and concentration of divalent ions. The formation and dissociation of tactoids seem to be reversible processes. A large proportion of small nanoplatelets in a mixed-size system affects the tactoid formation, reduces the aggregation number and increases the extra-lamellar swelling in the system.

  3. Investigation of magnetically enhanced swelling behaviour of superparamagnetic starch nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Bajpai; Sweta Likhitkar

    2013-02-01

    The present study follows a novel strategy for the preparation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles of cross-linked starch impregnated homogeneously with nanosized iron oxide. The prepared magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction and magnetization studies. The size of the magnetic polymeric particles was found to lie in the range of 20–80 nm, and they exhibited superparamagnetic properties. The particles were allowed to swell in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and the influence of factors such as chemical composition of nanoparticles, pH and temperature of the swelling bath and applied magnetic field was investigated on the water intake capacity of the nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles showed potential to provide a possible option for controlled and targeted delivery of anticancer drugs, applying external magnetic field.

  4. Anaplastic myeloma presenting as mandibular swelling: Diagnosis by cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Subitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a disease resulting from clonal proliferation of plasma cells. A disease of the elderly, jaw lesions are seen in 14% of patients affected with myeloma. Rarely the oral and maxillofacial lesions can be the first manifestation of the disease. We report the case of a 75-year-old man who presented with mandibular swelling. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was done from the swelling and smears were suggestive of anaplastic myeloma, which is a rare and aggressive variant of myeloma. The diagnosis of a plasmacytoma was confirmed by biopsy. Further workup of the patient revealed osteolytic lesions in skull, M band in electrophoresis and evidence of renal failure. Peripheral smear and bone marrow findings were also consistent with myeloma.

  5. Thermo-mechanical behaviour of a compacted swelling clay

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Anh-Minh; Barnel, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Compacted unsaturated swelling clay is often considered as a possible buffer material for deep nuclear waste disposal. An isotropic cell permitting simultaneous control of suction, temperature and pressure was used to study the thermo-mechanical behaviour of this clay. Tests were performed at total suctions ranging from 9 to 110 MPa, temperature from 25 to 80 degrees C, isotropic pressure from 0.1 to 60 MPa. It was observed that heating at constant suction and pressure induces either swelling or contraction. The results from compression tests at constant suction and temperature evidenced that at lower suction, the yield pressure was lower, the elastic compressibility parameter and the plastic compressibility parameter were higher. On the other hand, at a similar suction, the yield pressure was slightly influenced by the temperature; and the compressibility parameters were insensitive to temperature changes. The thermal hardening phenomenon was equally evidenced by following a thermo-mechanical path of loading...

  6. Modeling imbibition of liquids into rigid and swelling porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoodi, Reza

    hydrodynamic pressure as well as the capillary suction-pressure are the drivers, was studied experimentally and modeled analytically. Both the Darcy's-law based approach as well as the Washburn-equation based approach were used as models. The former was shown to work better at zero or low external pressures, while the latter displayed good predictive capabilities at higher imposed pressures. We also studied flow in non-rigid swelling porous media. The continuity equation was modified to include the liquid-absorption and swelling effects, and then Darcy's law was employed to model wicking in paper stripes made from cellulose and superabsorbent polymers. The proposed model showed very good agreement with previous experimental results. It was shown that the wicking predictions by the newly proposed model are identical to the predictions of another theoretical model in which Washburn equation was modified to include the swelling effects. The wicking in swelling paper stripes was also modeled numerically using PORE-FLOW(c). Once again the continuity equation, modified to include the liquid-absorption and swelling effects, coupled with the Darcy's law formed the governing equations. The porosity and hence permeability in a swelling medium are a function of time in such a situation. A new method was proposed to estimate the local permeability in such swelling media from the absorbed-mass-vs-time plot to enable the numerical simulation of such a wicking process. The numerical results compared well with the experimental data and it proved the effectiveness of our suggested local-permeability estimation method as well as our wicking model for the swelling media.

  7. A note on a one-parameter family of non-symmetric number triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Falcão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent growing interest in special Clifford algebra valued polynomial solutions of generalized Cauchy-Riemann systems in \\((n + 1\\-dimensional Euclidean spaces suggested a detailed study of the arithmetical properties of their coefficients, due to their combinatoric relevance. This concerns, in particular, a generalized Appell sequence of homogeneous polynomials whose coefficient set can be treated as a one-parameter family of non-symmetric triangles of fractions. The discussion of its properties, similar to those of the ordinary Pascal triangle (which itself does not belong to the family, is carried out in this paper.

  8. Faulting and block rotation in the Afar triangle, East Africa: The Danakil "crank-arm" model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souriot, T.; Brun, J.-P.

    1992-10-01

    Several domains of contrasted extensional deformation have been identified in the southern Afar triangle (East Africa) from fault patterns analyzed with panchromatic stereoscopic SPOT (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre) images. Stretching directions and statistical orientation and offset variations of faults fit with the Danakii "crank-arm" model of Sichler: A 10° sinistral rotation of the Danakil block explains the fault geometry and dextral block rotation in the southern part of the Afar triangle, as well as the oblique extension in the Tadjoura Gulf. Analogue modeling supports this interpretation.

  9. Bilateral inguinal hernias detected by peritoneal scintigraphy during the evaluation of scrotal swelling in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee [School of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    A 47-year-old man with end-stage renal disease due to diabetic nephropathy underwent a peritoneal scintigraphy to evaluate the cause of recently developed scrotal swelling. Two liters of dialystate mixed with 111 MBq of Tc-99m sulfur colloid were adminstered into the peritoneal cavity via the dialysis catheter. Various anterior images of the abdomen and pelvis were obtained at 15 min, 2 hr and 4 hr after the tracer instillation. At 15 min, anterior images of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated linear tracts of activity through both inguinal canals, which were more prominent in the right side (A). Images at 2 hr revealed a passage of the radioactive fluid into the right hemiscrotum. At the same time, there was a considerable accumulation of activity in the right inguinal canal (B). In the delayed image, there was a progressive accumulation of activity in the inguinal canals and a prominent passage of the tracer into the scrotum (C). Both abdominal and inguinal hernias are commonly associated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Overall incidence of CAPD-induced hernia ranges from 2.7% to 25%. Inguinal hernias were frequently manifested as scrotal swelling. Leakages f dialysate fluid into the scrotum has been noted in CAPD patients with scrotal swelling, with or without clincal findings of inguinal hernia. In the present case, the right side had leakage from a clinical inguinal hernia and the left side, leakage, from a subclinial inguinal hernia. A subclinical inguinal hernia was easily demonstrable with peritoneal scintigraphy. Peritoneal scintigraphy is extremely helpful in the evaluation of scrotal swelling in a patient on CAPD.

  10. Impurities effect on the swelling of neutron irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donne, M.D.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    An important factor controlling the swelling behaviour of fast neutron irradiated beryllium is the impurity content which can strongly affect both the surface tension and the creep strength of this material. Being the volume swelling of the old beryllium (early sixties) systematically higher than that of the more modem one (end of the seventies), a sensitivity analysis with the aid of the computer code ANFIBE (ANalysis of Fusion Irradiated BEryllium) to investigate the effect of these material properties on the swelling behaviour of neutron irradiated beryllium has been performed. Two sets of experimental data have been selected: the first one named Western refers to quite recently produced Western beryllium, whilst the second one, named Russian refers to relatively old (early sixties) Russian beryllium containing a higher impurity rate than the Western one. The results obtained with the ANFIBE Code were assessed by comparison with experimental data and the used material properties were compared with the data available in the literature. Good agreement between calculated and measured values has been found.

  11. Water influx and cell swelling after nanosecond electropermeabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Stefania; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Levine, Zachary A; Gundersen, Martin A; Vernier, P Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Pulsed electric fields are used to permeabilize cell membranes in biotechnology and the clinic. Although molecular and continuum models provide compelling representations of the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, a clear structural link between the biomolecular transformations displayed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and the micro- and macroscale cellular responses observed in the laboratory has not been established. In this paper, plasma membrane electropermeabilization is characterized by exposing Jurkat T lymphoblasts to pulsed electric fields less than 10ns long (including single pulse exposures), and by monitoring the resulting osmotically driven cell swelling as a function of pulse number and pulse repetition rate. In this way, we reduce the complexity of the experimental system and lay a foundation for gauging the correspondence between measured and simulated values for water and ion transport through electropermeabilized membranes. We find that a single 10MV/m pulse of 5ns duration produces measurable swelling of Jurkat T lymphoblasts in growth medium, and we estimate from the swelling kinetics the ion and water flux that follows the electropermeabilization of the membrane. From these observations we set boundaries on the net conductance of the permeabilized membrane, and we show how this is consistent with model predictions for the conductance and areal density of nanoelectropulse-induced lipid nanopores.

  12. Unilateral optic disc swelling in a fighter pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokroy, Russell; Barenboim, Erez; Carter, Dan; Assa, Amit; Alhalel, Amir

    2009-10-01

    Optic disc swelling occurs when there is an obstruction to axonal transport at the level of the lamina cribrosa. This may result from compression, ischemia, inflammation, or metabolic and toxic etiologies. Some of these etiologies may be life threatening and others may be self-limited. Thus, differentiating the different etiologies is important, albeit often difficult. We present a case of a 25-yr-old high-performance fighter aviator who presented with unilateral optic disc swelling 2 d after an F-16 flight, in which decompression was suspected. Visual acuity of the affected eye was decreased to 20/25, with enlarged blind spot and shallow arcuate scotomata on visual field testing. Pupil function, brightness intensity, and color vision were normal. Marked swelling of the entire optic disc, retinal flame-shaped hemorrhages, and engorgement of the retinal veins were seen. Since decompression sickness with nitrogen bubbles obstructing the optic nerve head vasculature was suspected, he was treated with hyperbaric oxygen. He rapidly improved, recovering full vision function within 6 d. No concurrent disease was found on extensive investigation. He returned to high-performance aviation 3 mo after onset of symptoms. No recurrence was seen during 3 yr of follow-up.

  13. A rare cause of prepubertal scrotal swelling; Mature Cystic Teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekmenli T et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this report we aimed to present a case with testicular mature cystic teratoma via clinical, surgical, and histopathological findings. A 10-years-old boy complaining of left scrotal swelling for the last two years admitted to our department. Physical observation revealed a painless, firm, smooth surfaced scrotal swelling. The distention of the left hemiscrotum did not allow the palpation of the testicle. At the preoperative period the case was considered as a non-communicating hydrocele. Surgical exploration was done via a left sided inguinal incision. Surgical exploration revealed a thick capsulated mass with a diameter of 10x8x6 cm. The mass was containing hairy pieces, gelatinous fluid and tooth like calcifications no testicular tissues present. The mass was totally excised. Histopathological examination of the specimen revealed a mature cystic teratoma. If testes could not be palpated or the swelling of the scrotum could not allow making the physical examination, mature cystic teratoma that is a rare cause of testicular mass should be considered.

  14. Radiation preparation and swelling behavior of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Pengfei; Zhai Maolin; Li Jiuqiang; Peng Jing; Wu Jilan E-mail: wangwq@sun.ihep.ac.cn

    2002-03-01

    Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is a kind of degraded polymer under {gamma}-irradiation. However, in this work, it has been found that CMC crosslinks partially to form hydrogel by radiation technique at more than 20% CMC aqueous solution. The gel fraction increases with the dose. The crosslinking reaction of CMC is promoted in the presence of N{sub 2} or N{sub 2}O due to the increase of free radicals on CMC backbone, but gel fraction of CMC hydrogel is not high (<40%). Some important values related to this kind of new CMC hydrogel synthesized under different conditions, such as radiation yield of crosslinking G(x), gelation dose R{sub g}, number average molecular weight of network M{sub c} were calculated according to the Charlesby-Pinner equation. The results indicated that although crosslinked CMC hydrogel could be prepared by radiation method, the rate of radiation degradation of CMC was faster than that of radiation crosslinking due to the character of CMC itself. Swelling dynamics of CMC hydrogel and its swelling behavior at different conditions, such as acidic, basic, inorganic salt as well as temperature were also investigated. Strong acidity, strong basicity, small amount of inorganic salts and lower temperature can reduce swelling ratio.

  15. Dynamic mechanical and swelling properties of maleated hyaluronic acid hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Kai; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-06-05

    A series of maleated hyaluronan (MaHA) are developed by modification with maleic anhydride. The degrees of substitution (DS) of MaHA vary between 7% and 75%. The DS of MaHA is both higher and wider than methacrylated HA derivatives (MeHA) reported in the literature. MaHA hydrogels are then prepared by photopolymerization and their dynamic mechanical and swelling properties of the hydrogels are investigated. The results showed that MaHA hydrogels with moderate DS (25%, 50% and 65%) have higher storage modulus and lower equilibrium swelling ratios than those with either low or high DS (7%, 15% and 75%). Theoretical analyses also suggest a similar pattern among hydrogels with different DS. The results confirm that the increased cross-linking density enhances the strength of hydrogels. Meanwhile, the hydrophilicity of introduced groups during modification and the degree of incomplete crosslinking reaction might have negative impact on the mechanical and swelling properties of MaHA hydrogels.

  16. 'Shamal' swells in the Arabian Sea and their influence along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Vethamony, P.; Rashmi, R.

    . The notable wave characteristics during these events are: an increase in wave height, decrease in swell period and a common propagation direction (northwest) for wind sea and swell. IFREMER/CERSAT blended winds clearly show the presence of strong northwesterly...

  17. Guest-responsive reversible swelling and enhanced fluorescence in a super-absorbent, dynamic microporous polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K Venkata; Mohapatra, Sudip; Maji, Tapas Kumar; George, Subi J

    2012-04-10

    A swell idea! The guest-responsive reversible swelling and fluorescence enhancement of a dynamic, microporous polymer network is presented. Guest-induced breathing of hydrophobic pores imparts multi-functional properties, such as super-absorbency, phase-selective swelling of oil from water and encapsulation of C(60) (see figure), to this soft micro-porous organic polymer.

  18. Early transient leg swelling at the side of renal transplant in two children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster-Kamphuis, L.; Die, C.E. van; Vliet, J.A. van der; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Two children are described with a huge leg swelling shortly after renal transplantation. The swelling was located at the side of the renal transplant. The swelling was caused by the compression of the iliac vein by the renal transplant combined with perirenal fluid collection. Doppler flow studies a

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  20. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Malheiros Luzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  1. On the Helly Number for Line Transversals to Parallel Triangles%关于平行三角形集簇直线横截的Helly数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏战军; 丁仁

    2004-01-01

    We prove two results about the problem of finding the Helly number for line transversals to a family of parallel triangles in the plane: (1) If each three triangles of a family of parallel right triangles are intersected by an ascending (or a descending) line, then there is an ascending (or a descending) line that intersects all the triangles of the family; (2) If each three triangles of a family of parallel obtuse triangles are intersected by an ascending (or a descending) line, then there is an as cending (or a descending) line that intersects all the triangles of the family. We also obtain that the Helly number of a family of parallel right or obtuse triangles is 3.

  2. The V-Flex, Triangle Orientation, and Catalan Numbers in Hexaflexagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Ionut E.; McLean, T. Bruce; Wang, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Regular hexaflexagons mysteriously change faces as you pinch flex them. This paper describes a different flex, the V-flex, which allows the hexahexaflexagon (with only 9 faces under the pinch flex) to have 3420 faces. The article goes on to explain the classification of triangle orientations in a hexaflexagon and gives an example of the…

  3. A new approach of QRS complex detection based on matched filtering and triangle character analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjun; Yan, Hong; Hong, Feng; Song, Jinzhong

    2012-09-01

    QRS complex detection usually provides the fundamentals to automated electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. In this paper, a new approach of QRS complex detection without the stage of noise suppression was developed and evaluated, which was based on the combination of two techniques: matched filtering and triangle character analysis. Firstly, a template of QRS complex was selected automatically by the triangle character in ECG, and then it was time-reversed after removing its direct current component. Secondly, matched filtering was implemented at low computational cost by finite impulse response, which further enhanced QRS complex and attenuated non-QRS regions containing P-wave, T-wave and various noise components. Subsequently, triangle structure-based threshold decision was processed to detect QRS complexes. And RR intervals and triangle structures were further analyzed for the reduction of false-positive and false-negative detections. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm was tested on all 48 records of the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database. The results demonstrated that the detection rate reached 99.62 %, the sensitivity got 99.78 %, and the positive prediction was 99.85 %. In addition, the proposed method was able to identify QRS complexes reliably even under the condition of poor signal quality.

  4. When Two Circles Determine a Triangle. Discovering and Proving a Geometrical Condition in a Computer Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxas, Nikolaos; Karagiannidou, Andromachi

    2010-01-01

    Visualization of mathematical relationships enables students to formulate conjectures as well as to search for mathematical arguments to support these conjectures. In this project students are asked to discover the sufficient and necessary condition so that two circles form the circumscribed and inscribed circle of a triangle and investigate how…

  5. From Commodity Production to Sign Production: A Triple Triangle Model for Marx's Semiotics and Peirce's Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joohoan

    Using the viewpoint of semiotics, this paper "re-reads" Karl Marx's labor theory of value and suggests a "triple triangle" model for commodity production and shows how this model could be a model for semiosis in general. The paper argues that there are three advantages to considering homogeneity of the sign production and the…

  6. Some Nice Relations between Right-Angled Triangles and the Golden Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimone, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    The international debate about experimental approaches to the teaching and learning mathematics is very current. While number theory lends itself naturally to such approaches, elementary geometry can also provide interesting starting points for creative work in class. This article shows how simple considerations about right triangles and the…

  7. Local-field enhancement of optical nonlinearities in the AGZO nano-triangle array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hua; Bao, Lijiao; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shuhui; Wang, Bing

    2016-10-01

    Enhancement of the third order optical nonlinearities in Ga and Al co-doped ZnO (AGZO) nano-triangle array was investigated by performing a Z-scan method with a femtosecond laser (800 nm, 40 fs). The AGZO nano-triangle array was fabricated on silica substrates by nanosphere lithography (NSL) method, showing a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak around 3 μm. The two photon absorption (TPA) coefficient and nonlinear refractive index of the AGZO nano-triangle array were determined to be 340 cm/GW and 3.22 × 10-2 cm2/GW under an excitation intensity of 26 GW/cm2. It shows a 3.4-fold enhancement of the nonlinear refraction in the AGZO array with respect to that in the AGZO film, which attributes to the local field enhancement effect. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation was in agreement with the experimental results. It indicates that the AGZO nano-triangle arrays have potential applications for nonlinear optical devices like all-optical switching, optical limiting and other types of signal processing.

  8. Triangles, tricks and tics: Hyper-mentalizing in response to animated shapes in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Clare M; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2015-10-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) can feature complex tics involving socially inappropriate behaviours. Adults with TS can also demonstrate differences to healthy controls when reasoning about mental states. This study investigated spontaneous mentalizing in TS. Twenty adults with TS and twenty healthy controls completed the animations task. Participants were asked to watch short ambiguous animations involving two triangles and describe what was happening. Some animations featured random movement of the triangles, while others depicted social interactions that were simple (e.g., dancing) or more complex (e.g., one triangle tricking the other). Measures were taken of executive functions, alexithymia and clinical symptoms. Individuals with TS responded similarly to controls when viewing animations featuring simple and complex interactions, demonstrating intact mentalizing ability. However, significant group differences were apparent for the random movement animations. TS was associated with a greater tendency to attribute mental states during this condition, and to describe random movements as motivated actions guided by the intentions of the triangles. There were no group differences for the alexithymia scale, but TS was associated with mild executive deficits. No relationships were apparent between animation responses and other measures. Our findings suggest that TS is associated with a propensity to adopt the intentional stance. Hyper-mentalizing in TS could be linked to both dopamine dysfunction and altered social behaviour, whereby amplified salience of social cues could contribute to the complex interplay between environmental context and tic expression. These observations may offer further insight into the potential effects of dopamine dysfunction on social cognition.

  9. Validation and scale dependencies of the triangle method for the evaporative fraction estimation over heterogeneous areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Tomás, Alberto; Nieto, Héctor; Guzinski, Radoslaw;

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing has proved to be a consistent tool for monitoring water fluxes at regional scales. The triangle method, in particular, estimates the evaporative fraction (EF), defined as the ratio of latent heat flux (LE) to available energy, based on the relationship between satellite observation...

  10. Early-Years Teachers' Concept Images and Concept Definitions: Triangles, Circles, and Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Levenson, Esther; Barkai, Ruthi; Tabach, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates practicing early-years teachers' concept images and concept definitions for triangles, circles, and cylinders. Teachers were requested to define each figure and then to identify various examples and non-examples of the figure. Teachers' use of correct and precise mathematical language and reference to critical and…

  11. The India-Pakistan-China strategic triangle and the role of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellaney, B

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the Asian landscape with its regional balances and imbalances and its changes after September 11 and subsequent events. The nuclear posture and the role of nuclear weapons inside the China-India-Pakistan triangle is analyzed with respect to the US non-proliferation policy and its expanding military presence over the Asian continent. (J.S.)

  12. Decomposing series-parallel graphs into paths of length 3 and triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merker, Martin

    2015-01-01

    An old conjecture by Jünger, Reinelt and Pulleyblank states that every 2-edge-connected planar graph can be decomposed into paths of length 3 and triangles, provided its size is divisible by 3. We prove the conjecture for a class of planar graphs including all 2-edge-connected series-parallel gra...

  13. Constructing Geometric Properties of Rectangle, Square, and Triangle in the Third Grade of Indonesian Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilham Rizkianto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have provided that when learning shapes for the first time, young children tend to use the prototype as the reference point for comparisons, but often fail when doing so since they do not yet think about the defining attributes or the geometric properties of the shapes. Most of the time, elementary students learn geometric properties of shapes only as empty verbal statements to be memorized, without any chance to experience the contepts meaningfully. In the light of it, a sequence of instructional activities along with computer manipulative was designed to support Indonesian third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle. The aim of the present study is to develop a loval instructional theory to support third graders in constructing geometric properties of rectangle, square, and triangle. Thirty seven students of one third grade classes in SD Pupuk Sriwijaya Palembang, along with their class teacher, were involved in the study. Our findings suggest that the combination of computer and non-computer activities suppots third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle in that it provides opportunities to the students to experience and to develop the concepts meaningfully while using their real experiences as the bases to attain a higher geometric thinking level.Key concepts: Geometric properties, rectangle, square, triangle, design research, realistic mathematics education DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.2.414.160-171

  14. P 6- and triangle-free graphs revisited: structure and bounded clique-width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Brandstädt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Maximum Weight Stable Set (MWS Problem is one of the fundamental problems on graphs. It is well-known to be NP-complete for triangle-free graphs, and Mosca has shown that it is solvable in polynomial time when restricted to P 6- and triangle-free graphs. We give a complete structure analysis of (nonbipartite P 6- and triangle-free graphs which are prime in the sense of modular decomposition. It turns out that the structure of these graphs is extremely simple implying bounded clique-width and thus, efficient algorithms exist for all problems expressible in terms of Monadic Second Order Logic with quantification only over vertex predicates. The problems Vertex Cover, MWS, Maximum Clique, Minimum Dominating Set, Steiner Tree, and Maximum Induced Matching are among them. Our results improve the previous one on the MWS problem by Mosca with respect to structure and time bound but also extends a previous result by Fouquet, Giakoumakis and Vanherpe which have shown that bipartite P 6-free graphs have bounded clique-width. Moreover, it covers a result by Randerath, Schiermeyer and Tewes on polynomial time 3-colorability of P 6- and triangle-free graphs.

  15. Semiotic Triangle Revisited for the Purposes of Ontology-based Terminology Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kudashev, Igor; Kudasheva, Irina

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the limitations of the traditional semiotic triangle from the point of view of ontology-based, multipurpose terminology management and suggest an alternative model based on the concept of terminological lexeme. The new model is being tested in the TermFactory project aimed at creating a platform and a workflow for distributed collaborative ontology-based terminology work.

  16. 75 FR 61788 - Triangle Capital Corporation, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... the Act.\\2\\ Triangle operates as a specialty finance company that provides customized financing...'s investment objective is to seek attractive returns by generating current income from debt... the public interest and consistent with the protection of investors and the purposes fairly...

  17. Efficient Triangle Counting in Large Graphs via Degree-based Vertex Partitioning

    CERN Document Server

    Kolountzakis, Mihail N; Peng, Richard; Tsourakakis, Charalampos E

    2010-01-01

    The number of triangles is a computationally expensive graph statistic which is frequently used in complex network analysis (e.g., transitivity ratio), in various random graph models (e.g., exponential random graph model) and in important real world applications such as spam detection, uncovering of the hidden thematic structure of the Web and link recommendation. Counting triangles in graphs with millions and billions of edges requires algorithms which run fast, use small amount of space, provide accurate estimates of the number of triangles and preferably are parallelizable. In this paper we present an efficient triangle counting algorithm which can be adapted to the semistreaming model. The key idea of our algorithm is to combine the sampling algorithm of Tsourakakis et al. and the partitioning of the set of vertices into a high degree and a low degree subset respectively as in the Alon, Yuster and Zwick work treating each set appropriately. We obtain a running time $O \\left(m + \\frac{m^{3/2} \\Delta \\log{n...

  18. Random greedy triangle-packing beyond the 7/4 barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Bohman, Tom; Lubetzky, Eyal

    2011-01-01

    The random greedy algorithm for constructing a large partial Steiner-Triple-System is defined as follows. Begin with a complete graph on $n$ vertices and proceed to remove the edges of triangles one at a time, where each triangle removed is chosen uniformly at random out of all remaining triangles. This stochastic process terminates once it arrives at a triangle-free graph, and a longstanding open problem is to estimate the final number of edges, or equivalently the time it takes the process to conclude. The intuition that the edge distribution is roughly uniform at all times led to a folklore conjecture that the final number of edges is $n^{3/2+o(1)}$ with high probability, whereas the best known upper bound is $n^{7/4+o(1)}$. It is no coincidence that various methods break precisely at the exponent 7/4 as it corresponds to the inherent barrier where co-degrees become comparable to the variations in their values that arose earlier in the process. In this work we significantly improve upon the previous bounds...

  19. Válvula de uretra anterior Anterior urethral valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Tucci Jr.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: apresentar os aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos de pacientes portadores de válvula da uretra anterior. Descrição: em dois neonatos, o diagnóstico presuntivo de patologia obstrutiva do trato urinário foi sugerido pela ultra-sonografia realizada no período pré-natal, confirmando-se o diagnóstico de válvula de uretra anterior pela avaliação pós-natal. Os pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico paliativo, com vesicostomia temporária e, posteriormente, definitivo, pela fulguração endoscópica das válvulas. Ambos evoluíram com função renal normal. Comentários: a válvula da uretra anterior é anomalia rara que deve ser considerada em meninos com quadro radiológico pré-natal sugestivo de obstrução infravesical, secundariamente à hipótese mais comum de válvula da uretra posterior. Ressaltamos a utilização da vesicostomia como derivação urinária temporária nestes casos, prevenindo potenciais complicações pela manipulação da uretra do recém-nascido.Objective: to discuss clinical signs, diagnostic tools and therapeutics of anterior urethral valves, an obstructive anomaly of the urinary system in males. Description: signs of urinary tract obstruction were identified on pre-natal ultrasound in two male fetuses and the diagnosis of anterior urethral valves was made through post-natal evaluation. As an initial treatment, vesicostomy was performed in both patients. Later, the valves were fulgurated using an endoscopic procedure. During the follow-up period both patients presented normal renal function. Comments: anterior urethral valves are a rare form of urethral anomaly that must be ruled out in boys with pre-natal ultrasound indicating infravesical obstruction. Vesicostomy used as an initial treatment rather than transurethral fulguration may prevent potential complications that can occur due to the small size of the neonatal urethra.

  20. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Szekely

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.

  1. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Pablo; Korem, Yael; Moran, Uri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2015-10-01

    When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.

  2. Modeling multidomain hydraulic properties of shrink-swell soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ryan D.; Abou Najm, Majdi R.; Rupp, David E.; Selker, John S.

    2016-10-01

    Shrink-swell soils crack and become compacted as they dry, changing properties such as bulk density and hydraulic conductivity. Multidomain models divide soil into independent realms that allow soil cracks to be incorporated into classical flow and transport models. Incongruously, most applications of multidomain models assume that the porosity distributions, bulk density, and effective saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil are constant. This study builds on a recently derived soil shrinkage model to develop a new multidomain, dual-permeability model that can accurately predict variations in soil hydraulic properties due to dynamic changes in crack size and connectivity. The model only requires estimates of soil gravimetric water content and a minimal set of parameters, all of which can be determined using laboratory and/or field measurements. We apply the model to eight clayey soils, and demonstrate its ability to quantify variations in volumetric water content (as can be determined during measurement of a soil water characteristic curve) and transient saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks (as can be measured using infiltration tests). The proposed model is able to capture observed variations in Ks of one to more than two orders of magnitude. In contrast, other dual-permeability models assume that Ks is constant, resulting in the potential for large error when predicting water movement through shrink-swell soils. Overall, the multidomain model presented here successfully quantifies fluctuations in the hydraulic properties of shrink-swell soil matrices, and are suitable for use in physical flow and transport models based on Darcy's Law, the Richards Equation, and the advection-dispersion equation.

  3. Management of posttraumatic brain swelling based on clinical typing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟国; 裘五四; 沈宏; 王卫民

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical typing and prophylactico-therapeutic measures for acute posttraumatic brain swelling (BS).Methods: A retrospective study was performed in 66 cases of acute posttraumatic BS. There were 3 groups based on computered tomography (CT) scanning: 23 cases of hemisphere brain swelling (HBS) with middle line shift for less than 5 mm within 24 hours ( Group A), 20 with middle line shift for more than 5 mm (Group B ), and 23 with bilateral diffuse brain swelling (Group C).Results : (1) The mortality rates of the operative and nonoperative management in Group A, Group B, and Group C were 20.0%, 31.6%, and 75.0% versus 44.4%,0, and 85.7 %, respectively ( P > 0.05 ); while the rates in subgroups with different middle line shift ( more than 5 mm and less or equal 5 mm) were 29.2% and 75.0% versus 75.0% and 44.4%, respectively (0.05 >P >0.01). (2) The good recovery rate and mortality in Group A were 47.8 % and 39.1%, respectively and in Group C, 8.7 % and 78.3%, respectively. There was a very significant difference between Group A and Group C (P <0.01). (3) The total survival rate of the selective comprehensive therapy was 53.1%.Conclusions : ( 1 ) Acute posttraumatic BS needs to be diagnosed correctly and promptly with CT scanning within 4 hours. (2) For patients with midline shift for more than 5 mm, especially with thin-layered subdural hematoma,surgical intervention is essential to reduce the fatality of acute posttraumatic BS.

  4. Upper limb swelling following mastectomy: lymphedema or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armer, Jane

    2007-04-01

    Having experienced an excisional biopsy, sentinel lymph node biopsy, and mastectomy, BH is at lifetime risk of developing post-breast cancer lymphedema in the arm on the side where her breast cancer was treated. She has two additional risk factors, among those documented in the literature: history of an infection (specifically a systemic infection, significant in that it required hospitalization for intravenous antibiotics) in the postsurgery period, and a moderate increase in bilateral limb volume and weight (body mass index) over the months and years following the breast cancer diagnosis. Further, the patient-reported transient hand swelling on the affected side and gradual weight increase are cues indicating a need for patient vigilance and careful monitoring by the health-care team. Preventing future infections, managing weight at an optimal level, and preventing trauma or injury to the affected arm and chest are important self-management precautions to reduce risk of chronic lymphedema development. BH needs continued support in reviewing evidence-based risk-reduction guidelines and understanding ways to apply them to her lifestyle. In the absence of preoperative baseline or contralateral limb measurements (with circumferences or perometry or water displacement), assessment of limb change at a level identified as diagnostic of lymphedema (commonly, 200-mL volume or 2-cm girth increase from baseline or as compared to the contralateral limb) is very challenging. Without bilateral preop limb measurements for baseline and contralateral limb comparisons, BH might have been diagnosed with lymphedema at postop or at 48 months, when both limbs increased symmetrically. Symptom assessment is also crucial, as symptom report of heaviness and swelling is found to be associated with limb volume changes indicative of lymphedema. Transient hand swelling may be evidence of latent lymphedema and cause for increased risk-reduction education and vigilance in assessment for

  5. ON SWELLING CHARACTERISTICS AND MECHANISM OF TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE HYDROGELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xisheng; TONG Shuixin; SUN Yishi

    1990-01-01

    A series of N-substituted acrylamide monomers and the temperature sensitive hydrogels of their copolymer with N, N ' methylene-bis -acrylamide (Bis) have been synthesized. The effects of monomer structures, composition of the initial monomer mixture, polymerization temperature, the extent of ionization of the network and the presence of acid, base, salt or organic compound on the formation and the swelling characteristics of the temperature sensitive hydrogels have been systematically studied. The mechanism of the temperature sensitive phase transformation of the hydrogels was also investigated.

  6. An unusual case of acute painful calf swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar A Sohoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis commonly involves central nervous system. Isolated involvement of skeletal muscles is rare. We have reported a case of cysticercosis herein presented as acute painful calf swelling, which is an extremely unusual presentation and, hence, a diagnostic challenge. The diagnosis was strongly suspected on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The laboratory findings of peripheral eosinophilia and a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test for IgG antibodies against Taenia solium further supported the diagnosis. Complete clinical recovery was seen after 6 weeks of oral therapy with albendazole.

  7. Evaluation of the swelling behaviour of iota-carrageenan in monolithic matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, András; Buchholcz, Gyula; Sovány, Tamás; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2015-08-10

    The swelling properties of monolithic matrix tablets containing iota-carrageenan were studied at different pH values, with measurements of the swelling force and characterization of the profile of the swelling curve. The swelling force meter was linked to a PC by an RS232 cable and the measured data were evaluated with self-developed software. The monitor displayed the swelling force vs. time curve with the important parameters, which could be fitted with an Analysis menu. In the case of iota-carrageenan matrix tablets, it was concluded that the pH and the pressure did not influence the swelling process, and the first section of the swelling curve could be fitted by the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation.

  8. Fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, J.; Washiyama, K.; Hong, K.C.; Ibuchi, Y.

    1981-08-01

    Three cases of angiographically demonstrated fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery are reported. Fenestration occurred at the medial half of the horizontal segment of the anterior cerebral artery in all cases. Its embryology and clinical significance are briefly discussed, and the anatomical and radiological literature on fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery is reviewed.

  9. 38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3... Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a veteran within 35 days of termination of active military service, it...

  10. Epidermoid cyst in Anterior, Middle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankane Vivek Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are benign slow growing more often extra-axial tumors that insinuate between brain structures, we present the clinical, imaging, and pathological findings in 35 years old female patients with atypical epidermoid cysts which was situated anterior, middle & posterior cranial fossa. NCCT head revealed hypodense lesion over right temporal and perisylvian region with extension in prepontine cistern with mass effect & midline shift and MRI findings revealed a non-enhancing heterogeneous signal intensity cystic lesion in right frontal & temporal region extending into prepontine cistern with restricted diffusion. Patient was detoriated in night of same day of admission, emergency Fronto-temporal craniotomy with anterior peterousectomy and subtotal resection was done. The histological examination confirms the epidermoid cyst. The timing of ectodermal tissue sequestration during fetal development may account for the occurrence of atypical epidermoid cysts.

  11. Pore-scale Modelling of Capillarity in Swelling Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanizadeh, S. M.; Sweijen, T.; Nikooee, E.; Chareyre, B.

    2015-12-01

    Capillarity in granular porous media is a common and important phenomenon in earth materials and industrial products, and therefore has been studied extensively. To model capillarity in granular porous media, one needs to go beyond current models which simulate either two-phase flow in porous media or mechanical behaviour in granular media. Current pore-scale models for two-phase flow such as pore-network models are tailored for rigid pore-skeletons, even though in many applications, namely hydro-mechanical coupling in soils, printing, and hygienic products, the porous structure does change during two-phase flow. On the other hand, models such as Discrete Element Method (DEM), which simulate the deformable porous media, have mostly been employed for dry or saturated granular media. Here, the effects of porosity change and swelling on the retention properties was studied, for swelling granular materials. A pore-unit model that was capable to construct the capillary pressure - saturation curve was coupled to DEM. Such that the capillary pressure - saturation curve could be constructed for varying porosities and amounts of absorbed water. The study material was super absorbent polymer particles, which are capable to absorb water 10's to 200 times their initial weight. We have simulated quasi-static primary imbibition for different porosities and amounts of absorbed water. The results reveal a 3 dimensional surface between capillary pressure, saturation, and porosity, which can be normalized by means of the entry pressure and the effective water saturation to a unique curve.

  12. Swelling and tensile properties of neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1990-07-01

    Vanadium-base alloys are candidates for use as structural material in magnetic fusion reactors. In comparison to other candidate structural materials (e.g., Type 316 stainless and HT-9 ferritic steels), vanadium-base alloys such as V-15Cr-5Ti and V-20Ti have intrinsically lower long-term neutron activation, neutron irradiation after-heat, biological hazard potential, and neutron-induced helium and hydrogen transmutation rates. Moreover, vanadium-base alloys can withstand a higher surface-heat, flux than steels because of their lower thermal stress factor. In addition to having these favorable neutronic and physical properties, a candidate alloy for use as structural material in a fusion reactor must have dimensional stability, i.e., swelling resistance, and resistance to embrittlement during the reactor lifetime at a level of structural strength commensurate with the reactor operating temperature and structural loads. In this paper, we present experimental results on the swelling and tensile properties of several vanadium-base alloys after irradiation at 420, 520, and 600{degree}C to neutron fluences ranging from 0.3 to 1.9 {times} 10{sup 27} neutrons/m{sup 2} (17 to 114 atom displacements per atom (dpa)).

  13. Shrinkage/swelling of compacted clayey loose and dense soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowamooz, Hossein; Masrouri, Farimah

    2009-11-01

    This Note presents an experimental study performed on expansive compacted loose and dense samples using osmotic oedometers. Several successive wetting and drying cycles were applied in a suction range between 0 and 8 MPa under different values of constant net vertical stress (15, 30, and 60 kPa). During the suction cycles, the dense samples showed cumulative swelling strains, while the loose samples showed volumetric shrinkage accumulation. At the end of the suction cycles, the volumetric strains converged to an equilibrium stage that indicated elastic behavior of the swelling soil for any further hydraulic variations. At this stage, the compression curves for the studied soil at the different imposed suctions (0, 2, and 8 MPa) converged towards the saturated state curve for the high applied vertical stresses. We defined this pressure as the saturation stress(P). The compression curves provided sufficient data to examine the soil mechanical behavior at the equilibrium stage. To cite this article: H. Nowamooz, F. Masrouri, C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  14. Functionalized positive nanoparticles reduce mucin swelling and dispersion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Y T Chen

    Full Text Available Multi-functionalized nanoparticles (NPs have been extensively investigated for their potential in household and commercial products, and biomedical applications. Previous reports have confirmed the cellular nanotoxicity and adverse inflammatory effects on pulmonary systems induced by NPs. However, possible health hazards resulting from mucus rheological disturbances induced by NPs are underexplored. Accumulation of viscous, poorly dispersed, and less transportable mucus leading to improper mucus rheology and dysfunctional mucociliary clearance are typically found to associate with many respiratory diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF, and COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Whether functionalized NPs can alter mucus rheology and its operational mechanisms have not been resolved. Herein, we report that positively charged functionalized NPs can hinder mucin gel hydration and effectively induce mucin aggregation. The positively charged NPs can significantly reduce the rate of mucin matrix swelling by a maximum of 7.5 folds. These NPs significantly increase the size of aggregated mucin by approximately 30 times within 24 hrs. EGTA chelation of indigenous mucin crosslinkers (Ca(2+ ions was unable to effectively disperse NP-induced aggregated mucins. Our results have demonstrated that positively charged functionalized NPs can impede mucin gel swelling by crosslinking the matrix. This report also highlights the unexpected health risk of NP-induced change in mucus rheological properties resulting in possible mucociliary transport impairment on epithelial mucosa and related health problems. In addition, our data can serve as a prospective guideline for designing nanocarriers for airway drug delivery applications.

  15. Outcome of surgical treatment for umbilical swellings in bovine youngstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, H J; Gillespie, A V; Oultram, J W; Cripps, P J; Holman, A N

    2014-03-01

    Umbilical swellings are commonly identified in calves and can be caused by hernia formation, infection of the remnants of umbilical vessels or a combination of both. Ninety-one cases with umbilical swellings were admitted to the Leahurst Farm Animal Practice (LFAP) between July 2004 and February 2012; 55 were simple hernias and 36 had associated infection. Eighty-seven cases underwent surgery of which 86 survived until discharge. Postoperative complications occurred in 65/86 animals (73 per cent). In 51 cases (81 per cent) this was classified as minor requiring no additional treatment. Placement of a prosthetic mesh was associated with a higher OR for developing severe postoperative complication when compared with those not receiving a mesh (OR=19.3; 95% CI 4.5 to 83.5). Long-term survival results were available for 49 animals, 22 of which were remaining in the herd with a median age of 1346 days (3.7 years). Of the 27 animals which had exited the herd, 16 were adult dairy cows, 7 were dairy heifers, 2 were beef animals and 2 exited at an unknown stage. Umbilical surgery in calves carries a good prognosis, although placement of a mesh increases the risk of complications occurring in the postoperative period.

  16. Hereditary Angioedema Attacks: Local Swelling at Multiple Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Zonne L M; Relan, Anurag; Hack, C Erik

    2016-02-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) patients experience recurrent local swelling in various parts of the body including painful swelling of the intestine and life-threatening laryngeal oedema. Most HAE literature is about attacks located in one anatomical site, though it is mentioned that HAE attacks may also involve multiple anatomical sites simultaneously. A detailed description of such multi-location attacks is currently lacking. This study investigated the occurrence, severity and clinical course of HAE attacks with multiple anatomical locations. HAE patients included in a clinical database of recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH) studies were evaluated. Visual analog scale scores filled out by the patients for various symptoms at various locations and investigator symptoms scores during the attack were analysed. Data of 219 eligible attacks in 119 patients was analysed. Thirty-three patients (28%) had symptoms at multiple locations in anatomically unrelated regions at the same time during their first attack. Up to five simultaneously affected locations were reported. The observation that severe HAE attacks often affect multiple sites in the body suggests that HAE symptoms result from a systemic rather than from a local process as is currently believed.

  17. Swelling/syneresis phenomena in gel-forming interpolymer complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C L; Peppas, N A

    1996-01-01

    Grafted poly(methacrylic acid-g-ethylene glycol) (P(MAA-g-EG)) copolymers were synthesized and their pH sensitivity investigated as a function of copolymer composition and PEG graft molecular weight. Interpolymer complexation occurred by hydrogen bonding between carboxylic groups on poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) and ether groups on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). This complexation was sensitive to the surrounding environment as complexes formed at pH levels low enough to insure substantial protonation of PMAA acid groups. At high pH, the acid groups became neutralized and did not form complexes. P(MAA-g-EG) membranes showed pH-sensitivity due to complex formation and dissociation. Uncomplexed equilibrium swelling ratios were much higher than those of the complexed states and varied according to copolymer composition and PEG graft length. Mesh sizes in the two states were determined. Swelling under oscillatory pH conditions and constant ionic strength revealed the dynamic sensitivity of P(MAA-g-EG) membranes. Under changing pH conditions, network syneresis (complexation) occurred more rapidly than network expansion (decomplexation) because of the rates of diffusion of specific ions causing the responses. No distinct water fronts were observed. Instead, water transport was continuous through the gel. These gels show great promise for a number of biomedical applications where fast biomaterial response is necessary.

  18. In situ characterization of structural dynamics in swelling hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Sepulveda, J R; Deng, J; Fang, J Y; Dogariu, A

    2016-07-06

    Characterizing the structural morphology and the local viscoelastic properties of soft complex systems raises significant challenges. Here we introduce a dynamic light scattering method capable of in situ, continuous monitoring of structural changes in evolving systems such as swelling gels. We show that the inherently non-stationary dynamics of embedded probes can be followed using partially coherent radiation, which effectively isolates only single scattering contributions even during the dramatic changes in the scattering regime. Using a simple and robust experimental setup, we demonstrate the ability to continuously monitor the structural dynamics of chitosan hydrogels formed by the Ag(+) ion-triggered gelation during their long-term swelling process. We demonstrate that both the local viscoelastic properties of the suspending medium and an effective cage size experienced by diffusing probe particles loaded into the hydrogel can be recovered and used to describe the structural dynamics of hydrogels with different levels of cross-linking. This characterization capability is critical for defining and controlling the hydrogel performance in different biomedical applications.

  19. Controlled swelling and adsorption properties of polyacrylate/montmorillonite composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natkanski, Piotr [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Kustrowski, Piotr, E-mail: kustrows@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Bialas, Anna; Piwowarska, Zofia [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Michalik, Marek [Institute of Geological Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Oleandry 2a, 30-063 Krakow (Poland)

    2012-10-15

    A series of novel polyacrylate/montmorillonite composites was synthesized by in situ polymerization in aqueous slurry of clay. Dissociated (obtained by adding ammonium or sodium hydroxide) and undissociated forms of acrylic acid were used as monomers in the hydrogel synthesis. The structure and composition of the samples were studied by powder X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance infra-red Fourier transform spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and elemental analysis. It has been found that the kind of monomer influences strongly the location of a polymer chain in the formed composite. Complete intercalation of hydrogel into the interlayer space of montmorillonite was observed for sodium polyacrylate, whereas polyacrylic acid and ammonium polyacrylate mainly occupied the outer surface of the clay. The position of hydrogel determined the swelling and adsorption properties of the studied composites. The important factor influencing the kinetics of Fe(III) cation adsorption was pH. The analysis of adsorption isotherms allowed to propose the mechanism of Fe(III) cation adsorption. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyacrylate hydrogels can be introduced into the interlayers of clay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The position of hydrogel in the composite depends on the polymer type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonium polyacrylate places outside the clay, sodium one is intercalated into it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swelling and adsorption capacities can be controlled by the polymer position. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High adsorption efficiency in Fe(III) removal was observed.

  20. Validation and Parameter Sensitivity Tests for Reconstructing Swell Field Based on an Ensemble Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Tandeo, Pierre; Fablet, Ronan; Husson, Romain; Guan, Lei; Chen, Ge

    2016-11-25

    The swell propagation model built on geometric optics is known to work well when simulating radiated swells from a far located storm. Based on this simple approximation, satellites have acquired plenty of large samples on basin-traversing swells induced by fierce storms situated in mid-latitudes. How to routinely reconstruct swell fields with these irregularly sampled observations from space via known swell propagation principle requires more examination. In this study, we apply 3-h interval pseudo SAR observations in the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to reconstruct a swell field in ocean basin, and compare it with buoy swell partitions and polynomial regression results. As validated against in situ measurements, EnKF works well in terms of spatial-temporal consistency in far-field swell propagation scenarios. Using this framework, we further address the influence of EnKF parameters, and perform a sensitivity analysis to evaluate estimations made under different sets of parameters. Such analysis is of key interest with respect to future multiple-source routinely recorded swell field data. Satellite-derived swell data can serve as a valuable complementary dataset to in situ or wave re-analysis datasets.

  1. Validation and Parameter Sensitivity Tests for Reconstructing Swell Field Based on an Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Tandeo, Pierre; Fablet, Ronan; Husson, Romain; Guan, Lei; Chen, Ge

    2016-01-01

    The swell propagation model built on geometric optics is known to work well when simulating radiated swells from a far located storm. Based on this simple approximation, satellites have acquired plenty of large samples on basin-traversing swells induced by fierce storms situated in mid-latitudes. How to routinely reconstruct swell fields with these irregularly sampled observations from space via known swell propagation principle requires more examination. In this study, we apply 3-h interval pseudo SAR observations in the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to reconstruct a swell field in ocean basin, and compare it with buoy swell partitions and polynomial regression results. As validated against in situ measurements, EnKF works well in terms of spatial–temporal consistency in far-field swell propagation scenarios. Using this framework, we further address the influence of EnKF parameters, and perform a sensitivity analysis to evaluate estimations made under different sets of parameters. Such analysis is of key interest with respect to future multiple-source routinely recorded swell field data. Satellite-derived swell data can serve as a valuable complementary dataset to in situ or wave re-analysis datasets. PMID:27898005

  2. Conservation of clay-bearing stones: Understanding the swelling and damage mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangler, Timothy

    Certain sandstones used in historic monuments and decorative building facades may contain clays that swell upon wetting, producing differential strains during wetting and drying cycles and leading to the development of stresses that are on the order of the strength of the stone. This leads to damage observed in the field as buckling and surface delamination, damage expected to occur during a wetting cycle as a thin wet layer of stone goes into compression relative to the bulk of the dry stone. Clays swell due to hydration of counterbalancing cations that exist between the negatively charged aluminosilicate layers that make up a clay particle. This swelling has been observed to occur over two distinct ranges: short-range, discrete intracrystalline swelling, and long-range, continuous, osmotic swelling. Additionally, it has been shown that swelling can be reduced, but not eliminated, by exchanging the counterbalancing cations in the interlayer with alpha,o diaminoalkanes. In order to mitigate damage due to swelling, it is important to understand the mechanism by which clays swell, the mechanism by which alpha,o diaminoalkanes inhibit swelling, and the mechanism by which damage occurs on a macroscopic level. In this work, it is shown that for the sandstones studied, clays swell almost entirely via intracrystalline swelling and that alpha,o diaminoalkanes inhibit swelling via ion exchange and subsequently reduced rehydration. A buckling damage mechanism is verified experimentally and a flaw propagation mechanism in which flaws can grow to a critical buckling size is explored. An understanding of the development of stresses during wetting is explored via a novel warping experiment and swelling pressure experiments.

  3. Feet swelling in a multistage ultraendurance triathlete: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knechtle B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Beat Knechtle,1 Matthias Alexander Zingg,2 Patrizia Knechtle,1 Thomas Rosemann,2 Christoph Alexander Rüst2 1Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, 2Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: Recent studies investigating ultraendurance athletes showed an association between excessive fluid intake and swelling of the lower limbs such as the feet. To date, this association has been investigated in single-stage ultraendurance races, but not in multistage ultraendurance races. In this case study, we investigated a potential association between fluid intake and feet swelling in a multistage ultraendurance race such as a Deca Iron ultratriathlon with ten Ironman triathlons within 10 consecutive days. A 49-year-old well-experienced ultratriathlete competed in autumn 2013 in the Deca Iron ultratriathlon held in Lonata del Garda, Italy, and finished the race as winner within 129:33 hours:minutes. Changes in body mass (including body fat and lean body mass, foot volume, total body water, and laboratory measurements were assessed. Food and fluid intake during rest and competing were recorded, and energy and fluid turnovers were estimated. During the ten stages, the volume of the feet increased, percentage body fat decreased, creatinine and urea levels increased, hematocrit and hemoglobin values decreased, and plasma [Na+] remained unchanged. The increase in foot volume was significantly and positively related to fluid intake during the stages. The poststage volume of the foot was related to poststage total body water, poststage creatinine, and poststage urea. This case report shows that the volume of the foot increased during the ten stages, and the increase in volume was significantly and positively related to fluid intake during the stages. Furthermore, the poststage volume of the foot was related to poststage total body water, poststage creatinine, and poststage urea. The continuous feet swelling during the race was

  4. Graphene circular polarization analyzer based on spiral metal triangle antennas arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bofeng; Ren, Guobin; Gao, Yixiao; Wu, Beilei; Wan, Chenglong; Jian, Shuisheng

    2015-09-21

    In this paper we propose a circular polarization analyzer based on spiral metal triangle antenna arrays deposited on graphene. Via the dipole antenna resonances, plasmons are excited on graphene surface and the wavefront can be tailed by arranging metal antennas into linetype, circular or spiral arrays. Especially, for spiral antenna arrays, the geometric phase effect can be cancelled by or superposed on the chirality carried within circular polarization incidence, producing spatially separated solid dot or donut shape fields at the center. Such a phenomenon enables the graphene based spiral metal triangle antennas arrays to achieve functionality as a circular polarization analyzer. Extinction ratio over 550 can be achieved and the working wavelength can be tuned by adjusting graphene Fermi level dynamically. The proposed analyzer may find applications in analyzing chiral molecules using different circularly polarized waves.

  5. Golden Root Geometry Structuring the Polyhedra and Other Forms Via Plato’s Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Chr. Stefanides

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Under Golden Root Geometry Structuring the Polyhedra and other Forms Via Plato’s Triangles, we refer to the basic geometric configurations which, as this theory contemplates, are necessary for the progressive mode of formation of the five polyhedral and the geometries involved in their sections and related circles and further to logarithms, via lines, areas and volumes. Basis of all these structures is a very special Scalene Orthogonal Triangle “Plato’s Most Beautiful” [F25], together with his Orthogonal Isosceles one. Structural Forms are identified bearing in common these triangular identities. The particular angle of the Scalene Orthogonal is that whose ArcTan[Θ]=Τ and T = SQR ((SQR. (5 + 1/2.

  6. The use of triangle diagram in the detection of explosive and illicit drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudac, Davorin; Baricevic, Martina; Obhodas, Jasmina; Franulovic, Andrej; Valkovic, Vladivoj

    2010-04-01

    A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density. Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.

  7. The transition from fracton to phonon states in a Sierpinski triangle lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, E.L. da, E-mail: edroaldo@gmail.co [Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis-SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Cunha, C.R. da, E-mail: creq@eel.ufsc.b [Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis-SC 88040-900 (Brazil)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: A Sierpinski triangle was studied with different self-similarity levels and disorder. A transition from fracton to phonon states was observed for low disorder. A second transition was observed from extended to localized phonon states. The transitions correspond to a change in topology in the average density of states. - Abstract: Lattice dynamics of a Sierpinski triangle submitted to different levels of disorder was studied via atomistic Green's functions. It was found that there is a critical level of disorder that separates two regions of thermal transport. The first is characterized by a fast destruction of fracton states and the formation of spatially extended phonon states. The second region is characterized by a transition from extended to localized phonon states as predicted by the Anderson model.

  8. Electric potential and field calculation of charged BEM triangles and rectangles by Gaussian cubature

    CERN Document Server

    Glück, Ferenc

    2016-01-01

    It is a widely held view that analytical integration is more accurate than the numerical one. In some special cases, however, numerical integration can be more advantageous than analytical integration. In our paper we show this benefit for the case of electric potential and field computation of charged triangles and rectangles applied in the boundary element method (BEM). Analytical potential and field formulas are rather complicated (even in the simplest case of constant charge densities), they have usually large computation times, and at field points far from the elements they suffer from large rounding errors. On the other hand, Gaussian cubature, which is an efficient numerical integration method, yields simple and fast potential and field formulas that are very accurate far from the elements. The simplicity of the method is demonstrated by the physical picture: the triangles and rectangles with their continuous charge distributions are replaced by discrete point charges, whose simple potential and field ...

  9. Remarks on the P{sub c} structures and triangle singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng-Kun [Chinese Academy of Science, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Nieves, Juan [Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Valencia (Spain); Yang, Zhi [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    It was proposed that the narrow P{sub c}(4450) structure observed by the LHCb Collaboration in the reaction Λ{sub b} → J/ψpK might be due to a triangle singularity around the χ{sub c1}-proton threshold at 4.45 GeV. We discuss the occurrence of a similar triangle singularity in the J/ψp invariant mass distribution for the decay Λ{sub b} → J/ψpπ, which could explain the bump around 4.45 GeV in the data. More precise measurements of this process would provide valuable information towards an understanding of the P{sub c} structures. (orig.)

  10. Berry curvature, triangle anomalies, and the chiral magnetic effect in Fermi liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dam Thanh; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2012-11-02

    In a three-dimensional Fermi liquid, quasiparticles near the Fermi surface may possess a Berry curvature. We show that if the Berry curvature has a nonvanishing flux through the Fermi surface, the particle number associated with this Fermi surface has a triangle anomaly in external electromagnetic fields. We show how Landau's Fermi liquid theory should be modified to take into account the Berry curvature. We show that the "chiral magnetic effect" also emerges from the Berry curvature flux.

  11. New perspectives on the dynamics of the adoption triangle using biographical, literary and psychoanalytic sources

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Robert William Kyle

    2013-01-01

    The difficulty of qualitative research in the area of adoption process is the starting point for this work. Forms of data gathering and analysis that will capture the emotionality of adoption participants are outlined. The aim was to extend our psychoanalytic understanding of the dynamics of the ‘searching’ phenomenon in the adoption triangle.\\ud A review of the psychoanalytic literature pertinent to adoption was compiled and the applicability of the core concepts explored. There was a clear ...

  12. On the Weight of Minor Faces in Triangle-Free 3-Polytopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borodin Oleg V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The weight w(f of a face f in a 3-polytope is the degree-sum of vertices incident with f. It follows from Lebesgue’s results of 1940 that every triangle-free 3-polytope without 4-faces incident with at least three 3-vertices has a 4-face with w ≤ 21 or a 5-face with w ≤ 17. Here, the bound 17 is sharp, but it was still unknown whether 21 is sharp.

  13. Exact many-electron ground states on diamond and triangle Hubbard chains

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We construct exact ground states of interacting electrons on triangle and diamond Hubbard chains. The construction requires (i) a rewriting of the Hamiltonian into positive semidefinite form, (ii) the construction of a many-electron ground state of this Hamiltonian, and (iii) the proof of the uniqueness of the ground state. This approach works in any dimension, requires no integrability of the model, and only demands sufficiently many microscopic parameters in the Hamiltonian which have to fu...

  14. Proofs to two inequality conjectures for a point on the plane of a triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjian Huang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prove two conjectures for a point on the plane of a triangle presented in (Liu in J. Math. Inequal. 8(3:597-611, 2014, doi: 10.1007/s11590-013-0708-4 by using the successive difference substitution algorithm NEWTSDS. Compared with the original proof, the new one is simpler and more easily understood. Similar problems can be treated with the same procedure.

  15. Applying convex layers, nearest neighbor and triangle inequality to the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP)

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Sing

    2012-01-01

    The author would like to propose a simple but yet effective method, convex layers, nearest neighbor and triangle inequality, to approach the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). No computer is needed in this method. This method is designed for plain folks who faced the TSP everyday but do not have the sophisticated knowledge of computer science, programming language or applied mathematics. The author also hopes that it would give some insights to researchers who are interested in the TSP.

  16. Numerical Verification of the Weak Turbulent Model for Swell Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkevich, A O; Resio, D; Zakharov, V E

    2007-01-01

    We performed numerical simulation of an ensemble of nonlinearly interacting free gravity waves (swell) by two different methods: solution of primordial dynamical equations describing potential flow of the ideal fluid with a free surface and, solution of the kinetic Hasselmann equation, describing the wave ensemble in the framework of the theory of weak turbulence. Comparison of the results demonstrates applicability of the weak turbulent approach. In both cases we observed effects predicted by this theory: frequency downshift, angular spreading and formation of Zakharov-Filonenko spectrum $I_{\\omega} \\sim \\omega^{-4}$. One of the results of our article consists in the fact that physical processes in finite size laboratory wave tanks and in the ocean are quite different, and the results of such laboratory experiments can be applied to modeling of the ocean phenomena with extra care. We also present the estimate on the minimum size of the laboratory installation, allowing to model open ocean surface wave dynami...

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of clays: swelling, sedimentation, dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvinskikh, Sergey; Furo, Istvan

    2010-05-01

    measure of clay distribution in extended samples during different physical processes such as swelling, dissolution, and sedimentation on the time scale from minutes to years [1-3]. To characterize the state of colloids that form after/during clay swelling the water self-diffusion coefficient was measured on a spatially resolved manner. Both natural clays and purified and ion-exchanged montmorillonite clays were investigated. The primary variables were clay composition and water ionic strength. These results have a significant impact for engineering barriers for storage of spent nuclear fuel where clay erosion by low salinity water must be addressed. Presented methods were developed under the motivation of using bentonite clays as a buffer medium to build in-ground barriers for the encapsulation of radioactive waste. Nevertheless, the same approaches can be found suitable in other applications in soil and environmental science to study other types of materials as they swell, dissolve, erode, or sediment. Acknowledgements: This work has been supported by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) and the Swedish Research Council VR. [1] N. Nestle, T. Baumann, R. Niessner, Magnetic resonance imaging in environmental science. Environ. Sci. Techn. 36 154A (2002). [2] S. V. Dvinskikh, K. Szutkowski, I. Furó. MRI profiles over a very wide concentration ranges: application to swelling of a bentonite clay. J. Magn. Reson. 198 146 (2009). [3] S. V. Dvinskikh, I. Furó. Magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of bentonite systems. Technical Report, TR-09-27, SKB (2009), www.skb.se.

  18. WAVELET BASED CLASSIFICATION OF VOLTAGE SAG, SWELL & TRANSIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Gajanan Neve

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available When the time localization of the spectral components is needed, the WAVELE TRANSFORM (WT can be used to obtain the optimal time frequency representation of the signal. This paper deals with the use of a wavelet transform to detect and analyze voltage sags, voltage swell and transients. It introduces voltage disturbance detection approach based on wavelet transform, identifies voltage disturbances, and discriminates the type of event which has resulted in the voltage disturbance, e.g. either a fault or a capacitor-switching incident.Feasibility of the proposed disturbance detection approach is demonstrated based on digital time-domain simulation of a distribution power system using the PSCAD software package, and is implemented using MATLAB. The developed algorithm has been applied to the 14-buses IEEE system to illustrate its application. Results are analyzed.

  19. Co-hydrogasification of lignocellulosic biomass and swelling coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Zheng, N.; Wang, J.

    2016-08-01

    The hydrogasification of pine wood (PW) and rice husk (RH) was carried out in a two-stage fixed-bed reactor to investigate the effects of hydrogen pressure and hydrocracking temperature on the yields of gas and tar compositions. The elevation in hydrogen pressure promoted the conversion of two biomasses, leading to the improvement in gaseous hydrocarbons but resulted in a decrease in the yield of BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene). The increased severity of hydrocracking boosted the yield of methane, ethane and BTX mainly at the expense of heavy compounds in tar for PW under 1 MPa. The co-hydrogasification of biomass and DWG swelling coal chiefly showed a synergistic effect on the yields of BTX and PCX (phenol, cresol and xylenol) at 500 °C hydrocracking temperature under 5 MPa.

  20. WATER STATES IN SBR BASED WATER SWELLING RUBBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Water swelling rubber (WSR) was prepared by reaction blending SBR and sodium polyacrylate (PAANa). The existing states of water in the WSR was studied by means of DSC and TG. It was found that water exists in three states: nonfreezing water,bound freezable water and free water. The relationships between water states and structure of PAANa were investigated. The results showed that the amount of non-freezing water was related to total water content, and the ratio of non-freezing water versus -COONa groups on PAANa (mol/mol) was about 4. However, total water content slightly affected the content of bound freezable water and remarkably affected the amount of free waer.

  1. Sarcoidosis detected due to tattoo swellings in an Indian female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Ghorpade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A female patient presented with asymptomatic swellings in old blue-black tattoo marks of her forearms. On careful skin examination, few raised erythematous, circular plaques were also found on the non-tattooed skin on her back, about which she was unaware. The diagnosis of cutaneous and systemic sarcoidosis was confirmed after classical histopathological findings from skin lesions from her non tattooed back and from papulonodular tattooed lesions, ruling out other causes of granulomas and supported by a negative Mantoux test, raised serum angiotensin converting enzyme level, high resolution computed tomography thorax, etc. She responded well to oral steroid therapy. The importance of a careful skin examination, easy access provided by skin lesions in suspected cases of cutaneous/systemic sarcoidosis, the value of sudden tattoo changes in the diagnosis here and the possible contribution of tattoos toward the causation of cutaneous and/or systemic sarcoidosis are highlighted.

  2. An unusual cause of dyspnoea complicating right upper abdominal swelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanjay Kumar Mandal; Partha Pratim Chakraborty; Rana Bhattacharjee; Subhasis Roy Chowdhury; Shounak Majumdar

    2006-01-01

    A middle aged, non-addict male presented with right upper abdominal pain and swelling with respiratory distress. Examination revealed central cyanosis, bipedal pitting edema with prominentepigastric and back veins.Liver was enlarged, tender, spanned 20 cm without any splenomegaly or ascites. Other systems were clinically normal. Laboratory investigations showed polymorphonuclear leucocytosis with slightly deranged liver function. Abdominal ultrasonography showed an abscess in the right lobe of the liver with compressed inferior vena cava (IVC), middle and left hepatic veins.Arterial blood gas (ABG) documented hypoxia with orthodeoxia and air-contrast echocardiography was suggestive of an intrapulmonary shunt. A diagnosis of hepato-pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was made with near normal liver function secondary to amebic liver abscess.It reversed completely following successful treatment of the liver abscess.

  3. Unexpected Swelling of Stiff DNA in a Polydisperse Crowded Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hongsuk; Toan, Ngo Minh; Hyeon, Changbong; Thirumalai, D

    2015-09-02

    We investigate the conformations of DNA-like stiff chains, characterized by contour length (L) and persistence length (lp), in a variety of crowded environments containing monodisperse soft spherical (SS) and spherocylindrical (SC) particles, a mixture of SS and SC, and a milieu mimicking the composition of proteins in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm. The stiff chain, whose size modestly increases in SS crowders up to ϕ ≈ 0.1, is considerably more compact at low volume fractions (ϕ ≤ 0.2) in monodisperse SC particles than in a medium containing SS particles. A 1:1 mixture of SS and SC crowders induces greater chain compaction than the pure SS or SC crowders at the same ϕ, with the effect being highly nonadditive. We also discover a counterintuitive result that the polydisperse crowding environment, mimicking the composition of a cell lysate, swells the DNA-like polymer, which is in stark contrast to the size reduction of flexible polymers in the same milieu. Trapping of the stiff chain in a fluctuating tube-like environment created by large-sized crowders explains the dramatic increase in size and persistence length of the stiff chain. In the polydisperse medium, mimicking the cellular environment, the size of the DNA (or related RNA) is determined by L/lp. At low L/lp, the size of the polymer is unaffected, whereas there is a dramatic swelling at an intermediate value of L/lp. We use these results to provide insights into recent experiments on crowding effects on RNA and also make testable predictions.

  4. Kinetics of swelling of polyelectrolyte gels: Fixed degree of ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Swati; Kundagrami, Arindam, E-mail: arindam@iiserkol.ac.in [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Mohanpur 741246, West Bengal (India)

    2015-12-14

    The swelling kinetics of uncharged and charged polymer (polyelectrolyte) gels in salt-free conditions is studied in one dimension by solving the constitutive equation of motion (Newton’s law for the elementary gel volume) of the displacement variable by two theoretical methods: one in which the classical definition of stress is used with the bulk modulus taken as a parameter, and the other in which a phenomenological expression of the osmotic stress as a function of polymer density and degree of ionization is taken as an input to the dynamics. The time-evolution profiles for spatially varying polymer density and stress, along with the location of the gel-solvent interface, are obtained from the two methods. We show that both the polymer density (volume fraction) and stress inside the gel follow expected behaviours of being maximum for the uniformly shrunken gel, and relaxing slowly to the lowest values as the gel approaches equilibrium. We further show that, by comparing the temporal profiles of the gel-solvent interface and other variables between the two methods, one may attempt to assign an effective bulk modulus to the polyelectrolyte gel as a function of the degree of ionization and other parameters of the gel such as hydrophobicity, cross-link density, and the temperature. The major result we get is that the effective bulk modulus of a polyelectrolyte gel increases monotonically with its degree of ionization. In the process of identifying the parameters for a monotonic swelling, we calculated using a well-known expression of the free energy the equilibrium results of two-phase co-existence and the critical point of a polyelectrolyte gel with a fixed degree of ionization.

  5. Kinetics of swelling of polyelectrolyte gels: Fixed degree of ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Swati; Kundagrami, Arindam

    2015-12-01

    The swelling kinetics of uncharged and charged polymer (polyelectrolyte) gels in salt-free conditions is studied in one dimension by solving the constitutive equation of motion (Newton's law for the elementary gel volume) of the displacement variable by two theoretical methods: one in which the classical definition of stress is used with the bulk modulus taken as a parameter, and the other in which a phenomenological expression of the osmotic stress as a function of polymer density and degree of ionization is taken as an input to the dynamics. The time-evolution profiles for spatially varying polymer density and stress, along with the location of the gel-solvent interface, are obtained from the two methods. We show that both the polymer density (volume fraction) and stress inside the gel follow expected behaviours of being maximum for the uniformly shrunken gel, and relaxing slowly to the lowest values as the gel approaches equilibrium. We further show that, by comparing the temporal profiles of the gel-solvent interface and other variables between the two methods, one may attempt to assign an effective bulk modulus to the polyelectrolyte gel as a function of the degree of ionization and other parameters of the gel such as hydrophobicity, cross-link density, and the temperature. The major result we get is that the effective bulk modulus of a polyelectrolyte gel increases monotonically with its degree of ionization. In the process of identifying the parameters for a monotonic swelling, we calculated using a well-known expression of the free energy the equilibrium results of two-phase co-existence and the critical point of a polyelectrolyte gel with a fixed degree of ionization.

  6. Assessing the plasmonics of gold nano-triangles with higher order laser modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Hennemann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Regular arrays of metallic nano-triangles – so called Fischer patterns – are fabricated by nano-sphere lithography. We studied such gold nano-triangle arrays on silicon or glass substrates. A series of different samples was investigated with a parabolic mirror based confocal microscope where the sample is scanned through the laser focus. By employing higher order laser modes (azimuthally and radially polarised laser beams, we can excite the Fischer patterns using either a pure in-plane (x,y electric field or a strongly z-directional (optical axis of the optical microscope electric field. We collected and evaluated the emitted luminescence and thereby investigated the respectively excited plasmonic modes. These varied considerably: firstly with the light polarisation in the focus, secondly with the aspect ratio of the triangles and thirdly with the employed substrate. Moreover, we obtained strongly enhanced Raman spectra of an adenine (sub-monolayer on gold Fischer patterns on glass. We thus showed that gold Fischer patterns are promising surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS substrates.

  7. New orientations in the stereographic triangle for self-assembled faceting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Méndez-Camacho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Energetically unstable crystalline surfaces, among their uses, can be templates for the growth of periodic arrays of one-dimensional (1D nanoscale structures. However, few studies have explored self-assembled faceting on high-index (HI planes inside the stereographic triangle, and extant studies have not produced any criteria for encouraging the formation of one-dimensional periodic arrays. In this Letter, by analyzing the MBE growth of homoepitaxial facets on (631A GaAs, a HI plane inside the triangle, we present a criteria to produce highly uniform 1D periodic arrays on unexplored surfaces. These families of planes are those belonging to the lines connecting the energetically stable HI GaAs (11 5 2 plane with any of the (100, (110, and (111 planes at the corners of the stereographic triangle. This novel strategy can lead to new possibilities in self-assembling 1D structures and manipulating physical properties, which in turn may result in new HI- and 1D-based experiments and devices.

  8. New orientations in the stereographic triangle for self-assembled faceting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Camacho, R.; Méndez-García, V. H.; López-López, M.; Cruz-Hernández, E.

    2016-06-01

    Energetically unstable crystalline surfaces, among their uses, can be templates for the growth of periodic arrays of one-dimensional (1D) nanoscale structures. However, few studies have explored self-assembled faceting on high-index (HI) planes inside the stereographic triangle, and extant studies have not produced any criteria for encouraging the formation of one-dimensional periodic arrays. In this Letter, by analyzing the MBE growth of homoepitaxial facets on (631)A GaAs, a HI plane inside the triangle, we present a criteria to produce highly uniform 1D periodic arrays on unexplored surfaces. These families of planes are those belonging to the lines connecting the energetically stable HI GaAs (11 5 2) plane with any of the (100), (110), and (111) planes at the corners of the stereographic triangle. This novel strategy can lead to new possibilities in self-assembling 1D structures and manipulating physical properties, which in turn may result in new HI- and 1D-based experiments and devices.

  9. Environmental pollution from illegal waste disposal and health effects: a review on the "triangle of death".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triassi, Maria; Alfano, Rossella; Illario, Maddalena; Nardone, Antonio; Caporale, Oreste; Montuori, Paolo

    2015-01-22

    The term "triangle of death" was used for the first time by Senior and Mazza in the journal The Lancet Oncology referring to the eastern area of the Campania Region (Southern Italy) which has one of the worst records of illegal waste dumping practices. In the past decades, many studies have focused on the potential of illegal waste disposal to cause adverse effects on human health in this area. The great heterogeneity in the findings, and the bias in media communication has generated great healthcare doubts, anxieties and alarm. This paper addresses a review of the up-to-date literature on the "triangle of death", bringing together the available information on the occurrence and severity of health effects related to illegal waste disposal. The Scopus database was searched using the search terms "waste", "Campania", "Naples", "triangle of death" and "human biomonitoring". Despite the methodological and sampling heterogeneity between the studies, this review examines the evidence from published data concerning cancer incidence, childhood mortality and birth defects, so that the current situation, knowledge gaps and research priorities can be established. The review aims to provide a contribution to the scientific community, and to respond to the concerns of the general population.

  10. Cutter-workpiece engagement determination for general milling using triangle mesh modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Gong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutter-workpiece engagement (CWE is the instantaneous contact geometry between the cutter and the in-process workpiece during machining. It plays an important role in machining process simulation and directly affects the calculation of the predicted cutting forces and torques. The difficulty and challenge of CWE determination come from the complexity due to the changing geometry of in-process workpiece and the curved tool path of cutter movement, especially for multi-axis milling. This paper presents a new method to determine the CWE for general milling processes. To fulfill the requirement of generality, which means for any cutter type, any in-process workpiece shape, and any tool path even with self-intersections, all the associated geometries are to be modeled as triangle meshes. The involved triangle-to-triangle intersection calculations are carried out by an effective method in order to realize the multiple subtraction Boolean operations between the tool and the workpiece mesh models and to determine the CWE. The presented method has been validated by a series of case studies of increasing machining complexity to demonstrate its applicability to general milling processes.

  11. Ten things to get right for marine conservation planning in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Rebecca; Pressey, Robert L; Wilson, Joanne R; Knight, Maurice; Horigue, Vera; Abesamis, Rene A; Acosta, Renerio; Jompa, Jamaluddin

    2014-01-01

    Systematic conservation planning increasingly underpins the conservation and management of marine and coastal ecosystems worldwide. Amongst other benefits, conservation planning provides transparency in decision-making, efficiency in the use of limited resources, the ability to minimise conflict between diverse objectives, and to guide strategic expansion of local actions to maximise their cumulative impact. The Coral Triangle has long been recognised as a global marine conservation priority, and has been the subject of huge investment in conservation during the last five years through the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security. Yet conservation planning has had relatively little influence in this region. To explore why this is the case, we identify and discuss 10 challenges that must be resolved if conservation planning is to effectively inform management actions in the Coral Triangle. These are: making conservation planning accessible; integrating with other planning processes; building local capacity for conservation planning; institutionalising conservation planning within governments; integrating plans across governance levels; planning across governance boundaries; planning for multiple tools and objectives; understanding limitations of data; developing better measures of progress and effectiveness; and making a long term commitment. Most important is a conceptual shift from conservation planning undertaken as a project, to planning undertaken as a process, with dedicated financial and human resources committed to long-term engagement.

  12. The Caucasian Triangle (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia – Tourism Development and Threats to General and Distinctive Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Roistomashvili

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caucasus triangle is one of the most interesting regions in the world firstly, with its geo-political location and also being a part of post-social space. These involve a number of factors determining existence and development of these three states. The world order today from economic and political point of view require readiness from certain states for establishing themselves in this big space. It especially concerns developing and semi-developed countries and the countries having less experience of being a state, which in fact are in the process of creating the institutes which will determine their independence and co-existence with the democratic world having more experience in this respect.Study on the Caucasus triangle arises great interest. The actuality of this issue is also determined by the political and economic dynamic changes taking place inside these states (evolution of Soviet space. Their political choice is determined by the less-stable environment and weakness of state, political partners and political and economic interests generally and towards one another. Unpredictable situation within the triangle is more important as it is a live process with new and changeable threats. For this reason it is very interesting for the scientists to study the development of this kind of countries. Ambition of these countries to establish themselves in the field of tourism is very important for us and that is why it is necessary to follow the process in dynamics, analyze and evaluate their development in this respect.

  13. Role of peripheral phenanthroline groups in the self-assembly of self-assembled molecular triangles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mili C Naranthatta; V Ramkumar; Dillip Kumar Chand

    2015-02-01

    Self-assembled molecular triangles [Pd3(phen)3(imidazolate)3](NO3)3, 1a and [Pd3(phen)3 (imidazolate)3](PF6)3, 1b are prepared by the combination of imidazole with Pd(phen)(NO3)2 and Pd(phen) (PF6)2, respectively. Imidazole was deprotonated during the complexation reactions and the imidazolate so formed acted as a bis-monodentate bridging ligand to form the bowl-shaped trinuclear architectures of 1a/b. Relative orientation of the imidazolate moieties can be best described as syn,anti,anti as observed in the crystal structure of 1b. However, in solution state, slow conformational changes are assumed on the basis of 1HNMR spectral data. The molecular triangles are crafted with three peripheral phen units capable of − stacking interactions. Well-fashioned intermolecular − interactions are observed in the solid-state, wherein further self-assembly of already self-assembled triangle is observed.

  14. Pose Self-Measurement of Noncooperative Spacecraft Based on Solar Panel Triangle Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhou Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the recognition and location of noncooperative spacecraft, this paper presents a monocular vision pose measurement method based on solar triangle structure. First of all, an autonomous recognition algorithm of feature structure based on sliding window Hough transformation (SWHT and inscribed circle of a triangle is proposed, and the image coordinates of feature points on the triangle can be obtained relying on this algorithm, combined with the P4P algorithm and the structure of spacecraft, calculating the relative pose of target expressed by rotation and translation matrix. The whole algorithm can be loaded into the prewritten onboard program, which will get the autocomplete feature structure extraction and relative pose measurement without human intervention, and this method does not need to mount any markers on the target. Then compare the measured values with the accurate value of the laser tracker, so that a conclusion can be drawn that the maximum position error is lower than 5% and the rotation error is lower than 4%, which meets the requirements of noncooperative spacecraft’s pose measurement for observations, tracking, and docking in the final rendezvous phase.

  15. [Selection of back-ground electrolyte in capillary zone electrophoresis by triangle and tetrahedron optimization methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guoxiang; Song, Wenjing; Lin, Ting

    2008-03-01

    The triangle and tetrahedron optimization methods were developed for the selection of back-ground electrolyte (BGE) in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Chromatographic fingerprint index F and chromatographic fingerprint relative index F(r) were used as the objective functions for the evaluation, and the extract of Saussurea involucrate by water was used as the sample. The BGE was composed of borax, boric acid, dibasic sodium phosphate and sodium dihydrogen phosphate solution with different concentrations using triangle and tetrahedron optimization methods. Re-optimization was carried out by adding organic modifier to the BGE and adjusting the pH value. In triangle method, when 50 mmol/L borax-150 mmol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate (containing 3% acetonitrile) (1 : 1, v/v) was used as BGE, the isolation was considered to be satisfactory. In tetrahedron method, the best BGE was 50 mmol/L borax-150 mmol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate-200 mmol/L boric acid (1 : 1 : 2, v/v/v; adjusting the pH value to 8.55 by 0.1 mol/L sodium hydroxide). There were 28 peaks and 25 peaks under the different conditions respectively. The results showed that the methods could be applied to the selection of BGE in CZE of the extract of traditional Chinese medicine by water or ethanol.

  16. Triangles in ROC space: History and theory of "nonparametric" measures of sensitivity and response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, N A; Creelman, C D

    1996-06-01

    Can accuracy and response bias in two-stimulus, two-response recognition or detection experiments be measured nonparametrically? Pollack and Norman (1964) answered this question affirmatively for sensitivity, Hodos (1970) for bias: Both proposed measures based on triangular areas in receiver-operating characteristic space. Their papers, and especially a paper by Grier (1971) that provided computing formulas for the measures, continue to be heavily cited in a wide range of content areas. In our sample of articles, most authors described triangle-based measures as making fewer assumptions than measures associated with detection theory. However, we show that statistics based on products or ratios of right triangle areas, including a recently proposed bias index and a not-yetproposed but apparently plausible sensitivity index, are consistent with a decision process based on logistic distributions. Even the Pollack and Norman measure, which is based on non-right triangles, is approximately logistic for low values of sensitivity. Simple geometric models for sensitivity and bias are not nonparametric, even if their implications are not acknowledged in the defining publications.

  17. Buoy observations of the influence of swell on wind waves in the open ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violante-Carvalho, N.; Robinson, I.S. [University of Southampton (United Kingdom). Oceanography Centre; Ocampo-Torres, F.J. [CICESE, Ensenada (Mexico). Dpto. de Oceanografia Fisica

    2004-04-01

    The influence of longer (swell) on shorter, wind sea waves is examined using an extensive database of directional buoy measurements obtained from a heave-pitch-roll buoy moored in deep water in the South Atlantic. This data set is unique for such an investigation due to the ubiquitous presence of a young swell component propagating closely in direction and frequency with the wind sea, as well as a longer, opposing swell. Our results show, within the statistical limits of the regressions obtained from our analysis when compared to measurements in swell free environments, that there is no obvious influence of swell on wind sea growth. For operational purposes in ocean engineering this means that power-laws from fetch limited situations describing the wind sea growth can be applied in more realistic situations in the open sea when swell is present. (author)

  18. Characterization of rat model of acute anterior uveitis using optical coherence tomography angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-03-01

    Uveitis, or ocular inflammation, is a cause of severe visual impairment. Rodent models of uveitis are powerful tools used to investigate the pathological mechanisms of ocular inflammation and to study the efficacy of new therapies prior to human testing. In this paper, we report the utility of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) angiography in characterizing the inflammatory changes induced in the anterior segment of a rat model of uveitis. Acute anterior uveitis (AAU) was induced in two rats by intravitreal injection of a killed mycobacterial extract. One of them received a concurrent periocular injection of steroids to model a treatment effect. OCT imaging was performed prior to inflammation induction on day 0 (baseline), and 2 days post-injection (peak inflammation). Baseline and inflamed images were compared. OCT angiography identified swelling of the cornea, inflammatory cells in the anterior and posterior chambers, a fibrinous papillary membrane, and dilation of iris vessels in the inflamed eyes when compared to baseline images. Steroid treatment was shown to prevent the changes associated with inflammation. This is a novel application of anterior OCT imaging in animal models of uveitis, and provides a high resolution, in vivo assay for detecting and quantifying ocular inflammation and the response to new therapies.

  19. Specimen Machining for the Study of the Effect of Swelling on CGR in PWR Environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teysseyre, Sebastien Paul [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report describes the preparation of ten specimens to be used for the study of the effect of swelling on the propagation of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking cracks. Four compact tension specimens, four microscopy plates and two tensile specimens were machined from a AISI 304 material that was irradiated up to 33 dpa. The specimens had been machined such as to represent the behavior of materials with 3.7%swelling and <2% swelling.

  20. Effects of titanium additions to austenitic ternary alloys on microstructural evolution and void swelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, T; Wolfer, W G; Garner, F A; Sekimura, N

    2003-12-01

    Ternary austenitic model alloys were modified with 0.25 wt.% titanium and irradiated in FFTF reactor at dose rates ranging over more than two orders in magnitude. While lowering of dose rate strongly increases swelling by shortening the incubation dose, the steady state swelling rate is not affected by dose rate. Although titanium addition strongly alters the void microstructure, swelling at {approx} 420 C does not change with titanium additions, but the sensitivity to dose rate is preserved.

  1. Co-administration of the flavanol (−)-epicatechin with doxycycline synergistically reduces infarct size in a model of ischemia reperfusion injury by inhibition of mitochondrial swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Vilchis, Pilar; Yamazaki, Katrina Go; Rubio-Gayosso, Ivan; Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; Calzada, Claudia; Romero-Perez, Diego; Ortiz, Alicia; Meaney, Eduardo; Taub, Pam; Villarreal, Francisco; Ceballos, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    (−)-Epicatechin (EPI) is cardioprotective in the setting of ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and doxycycline (DOX) is known to preserve cardiac structure/function after myocardial infarction (MI). The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of EPI and DOX co-administration on MI size after IR injury and to determine if cardioprotection may involve the mitigation of mitochondrial swelling. For this purpose, a rat model of IR was used. Animals were subjected to a temporary 45 min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Treatment consisted of a single or double dose of EPI (10 mg/kg) combined with DOX (5 mg/kg). The first dose was given 15 min prior to reperfusion and the second 12 h post-MI. The effects of EPI +/− DOX on mitochondrial swelling (i.e. mPTP opening) were determined using isolated mitochondria exposed to calcium overload and data examined using isobolographic analysis. To ascertain for the specificity of EPI effects on mitochondrial swelling other flavonoids were also evaluated. Single dose treatment reduced MI size by ~46% at 48 h and 44% at three weeks. Double dosing evidenced a synergistic, 82% reduction at 3 weeks. EPI plus DOX also inhibited mitochondrial swelling in a synergic manner thus, possibly accounting for the cardioprotective effects whereas limited efficacy was observed with the other flavonoids. Given the apparent lack of toxicity in humans, the combination of EPI and DOX may have clinical potential for the treatment of myocardial IR injury. PMID:25281837

  2. Swelling behaviour of isora/natural rubber composites in oils used in automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lovely Mathew; K U Joseph; Rani Joseph

    2006-02-01

    Natural rubber/isora fibre composites were cured at various temperatures. The solvent swelling characteristics of natural rubber composites containing both untreated and alkali treated fibres were investigated in aromatic and aliphatic solvents like toluene, and -hexane. The diffusion experiments were conducted by the sorption gravimetric method. The restrictions on elastomer swelling exerted by isora fibre as well as the anisotropy of swelling of the composite have been confirmed by this study. Composite cured at 100°C shows the lowest percentage swelling. The uptake of aromatic solvent is higher than that of aliphatic solvent for the composites cured at all temperatures. The effect of fibre loading on the swelling behaviour of the composite was also investigated in oils like petrol, diesel, lubricating oil etc. The % swelling index and swelling coefficient of the composite were found to decrease with increase in fibre loading. This is due to the increased hindrance exerted by the fibres at higher fibre loadings and also due to the good fibre–rubber interactions. Maximum uptake of solvent was observed with petrol followed by diesel and then lubricating oil. The presence of bonding agent in the composites restrict the swelling considerably due to the strong interfacial adhesion. At a fixed fibre loading, the alkali treated fibre composite showed lower percentage swelling compared to the untreated one.

  3. SUSPENSION-SWELLING GRAFT COPOLYMERIZATION——SYNTHESIS OF ACS RESINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Zhixue; LOU Jianfeng; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren

    1993-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN)-chlorinated polyethylene (CPE)-styrene (St) (ACS) terpolymer was synthesized by suspen sion-swelling graft copolymerization method, in which two key factors such as dispersing system and swelling time were studied. Highly effective complex dispersing system was chosen and determine, and two-layer protection modelwas put forward to clarify the stable effect mechanism. Varying the swelling time of CPE in AN and St monomer mixture, some results such as grafting effect, particle characteristics, rubber particle morphology and its size distribution, and properties of ACS resins were investigated , thus the optimum swelling time was proposed.

  4. Modeling and Stress Analysis of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator during Grid Voltage Swell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Song, Yipeng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    The Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind turbine system is presently dominant in the wind turbine market. Due to heavy load switch-off and faults in the power grid, voltage swells may occur and this phenomenon is currently given sufficient insights. This paper starts to describe...... the transient voltage swell and its recovery. It is concluded that although both higher swell level and higher rotor speed cause higher rotor electromotive force, the doubly-fed induction generator can successfully ride through the grid fault due to the relatively small swell level required by the modern grid...

  5. Effect of crosslinker on the swelling and adsorption properties of cationic superabsorbent

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TARUN SHARMA; GIRIDHAR MADRAS

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, superabsorbents (SAPs) of cationicmonomer [2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride have been prepared by free radical solution polymerization with different crosslinkers. They were subjected to repeated cycles of swelling and de-swelling in deionized water and NaCl solution. The conductivity of the swelling medium was measured and related to the swelling/de-swelling characteristics of the SAPs. The swelling capacity was also determined in saline solution. The swelling and de-swelling processes were described by first-order kinetics. The SAPs exhibited varied swelling capacity for crosslinkers of the same functionality as well as different functionality. The SAPs were used to adsorb the dye Orange G at different initial concentrations of the dye. The equilibrium adsorption data followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The SAPs were also used to adsorb three other dyes, namely, Congo red, Amido black and Alizarin cyanine green. They exhibited different adsorption capacities for different dyes. The adsorption phenomenon was found to follow first-order kinetics.

  6. Swelling Studies of Chitosan-Gelatin Films Cross-Linked by Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Ling; Yu Zu-yu; Yang Chao; Zhu Hua-yue; Du Yu-min

    2004-01-01

    Swelling properties of chitosan-gelatin films cross-linked by sulfate were investigated. Sulfate cross-linked chitosan-gelatin films (SCG) were prepared simply by dipping chitosan-gelatin films into sodium sulfate solution. The swelling behavior of SCG was investigated as a function of pH and ionic strength. Under acidic conditions pH less than 4, SCG swelled less than 120%, while under the conditions pH larger than 7.4, SCG swelled very significantly, the swelling ratio was over 350%. Sodium chloride weakened the electrostatic interaction between sulfate and amine ions of chitosan and gelatin, therefore facilitated the film swelling. The swelling ratio increased with increasing sodium chloride concentration, the SCG dissociated in the sodium chloride concentration of 0.20 mol·L-1. The parameters of film preparation such as sulfate concentration, dipping time, sulfate solution pH, influenced the film swelling behavior. The lower concentration and the higher pH of sulfate solution resulted in a larger swelling ratio.

  7. Swelling of Clay-Sulfate Rocks: A Review of Processes and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butscher, Christoph; Mutschler, Thomas; Blum, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    The swelling of clay-sulfate rocks is a major threat in tunnel engineering, causing serious damage to tunnels and producing high additional costs during tunnel construction and operation. The swelling problem is also known from other geotechnical fields, such as road and bridge construction, and in conjunction with geothermal drillings. The planning of counter measures that would stop or minimize the swelling is extremely difficult, and it is currently impossible to predict the swelling behavior of an actual geotechnical project. One of the reasons is our limited knowledge of the processes involved in the swelling of clay-sulfate rocks, and of the geological, mineralogical, chemical, hydraulic and mechanical controls of the swelling. This article presents a literature review of processes in swelling clay-sulfate rocks and associated controls. Numerical models that aim at simulating the processes and controls are also included in this review, and some of the remaining open questions are pointed out. By focusing on process-related work in this review, the article intends to stimulate further research across disciplines in the field of swelling clay-sulfate rocks to finally get a step further in managing the swelling problem in geotechnical projects.

  8. Anterior chest wall examination reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior chest wall involvement is not infrequently observed within inflammatory arthropaties, particularly if one considers seronegative spondiloarthritides and SAPHO syndrome. Physical examination is unreliable and conventional X-rays analysis is an unsatisfactory tool during diagnostic work-up of this region. Scintigraphic techniques yield informations both on the activity and on the anatomical extent of the disease while computerized tomography visualize the elementary lesions, such as erosions, which characterize the process. Moreover, when available, magnetic resonance imaging couple the ability to finely visualize such lesions with the possibility to show early alterations and to characterize the “activity” of the disease, presenting itself as a powerful tool both for diagnosis and follow-up. This review briefly shows the applications of imaging techniques for the evaluation of the anterior chest wall focusing on what has been done in the SAPHO syndrome which can be considered prototypical for this regional involvement since it is the osteo-articular target mainly affected by the disease.

  9. Positioning of anterior teeth in removable dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strajnić Ljiljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this paper was to present methods of placement of artificial anterior teeth in edentulous individuals. The following review takes account of the majority of papers published during the last 100 years. The review has been divided into sections regarding the method used to determine the position of artificial anterior teeth. Geometric aspect Gysi (1895-1920 produced the first scientific theory about the position of artificial anterior teeth. Physiognomic theory The aim of this theory is to find the most natural position for artificial anterior teeth for each individual. Camper's "face angle" as a physiognomic criterion, has been introduced in papers of Wehrli (1961, Marxhors (1966, Tanzer (1968, Lombardi (1973. Esthetic aspect Important names in the field of dental esthetics are: Schön and Singer (1961, Arnheim (1965, Krajiček (1969, Tanzer (1968, Lombardi (1973, Goldstein (1976. They have introduced principles of visual aspects for selection of contours, dimension and position of artificial anterior teeth. Constitution aspect Flagg (1880, Williams (1913 and Hrauf (1957, 1958, have considered body constitution and individual characteristics regarding position of artificial anterior teeth. Physiological theory In 1971, Marxhors pointed to the fact that the position of artificial teeth corresponds with the function of the surrounding soft tissue and from the aspect of physiognomy as well. Phonetic aspect According to Silverman (1962 artificial anterior teeth are nearest when we pronounce the sound "S". Cephalometrical research Rayson (1970, Watson (1989, Strajnić Lj. (1999, Bassi F. (2001 have presented cephalometric radiographic analyses of natural anterior teeth compared with cephalometric radiographic analyses of artificial anterior teeth. A review of dental literature shows several factors suggesting modalities which should determine the position of artificial anterior teeth. Numerous methods have been designed for

  10. Incidental Anterior Cruciate Ligament Calcification: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hisami; Fischer, Hans

    2016-03-01

    The calcification of knee ligaments is a finding noted only in a handful of case reports. The finding of an anterior cruciate ligament calcification has been reported once in the literature. Comparable studies involving the posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and an ossicle within the anterior cruciate ligament are likewise discussed in reports of symptomatic patients. We report a case of incidentally discovered anterior cruciate ligament calcification. We discuss the likely etiology and clinical implications of this finding.

  11. Corticosteroids use in controlling pain, swelling and trismus after lower third molar surgery use in controlling pain, swelling and trismus after lower third molar surgery

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: A study is made of corticosteroid use in controlling pain, swelling and trismus after lower third molar surgical removal. Material and methods: A Medline search and review was made of all randomized and controlled clinical trials on the effects of corticosteroids upon pain, swelling and trismus after lower third molar surgery. The review was limited to those studies published in the last 10 years. Of the 20 initially considered articles, 6 were finally excluded....

  12. Stress-strain relations for swelling anhydritic clay rocks – A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Simon; Blum, Philipp; Butscher, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    The swelling of clay-sulfate rocks is a major threat in tunnel engineering, causing serious damage to tunnels and producing high additional costs during tunnel construction and operation. The swelling leads to geomechanical processes that may result in heave of the tunnel invert, destruction of the lining or uplift of the entire tunnel section. Heave-pressure-time relations are needed when predictions should be made about the mechanical behavior of swelling rock. For pure clay rocks, there is a linear relation between the swelling heave (strain) and the logarithm of pressure (Grob 1972). A generally accepted relation for clay-sulfate rocks, however, is still lacking to date. Therefore, finding appropriate and sustainable counter measures for an actual tunneling project affected by swelling remains extremely difficult. Grob (1972) proposed the linear relation between heave and the logarithm of pressure ("semi-logarithmic swelling law") not only for clay rocks, but also for clay-sulfate rocks. Pimentel (2007), however, presented laboratory experiments indicating that the semi-logarithmic swelling law may be inadequate for describing the swelling of clay-sulfate rocks. The laboratory tests revealed three different stages in the swelling process, including minimal deformation and prevented gypsum crystallization at high pressures (> 6 MPa); large deformation and gypsum crystallization at medium pressures; and only small deformation, possibly along with gypsum dissolution, at low pressures (water inflow into the rock, which cannot be reflected by general strain-stress relations. The present study critically reviews stress-strain relations for swelling anhydritic clay rocks proposed by various authors. Subsequently, published laboratory data from oedometric swelling tests are presented that may confirm the proposed stress-strain relationships. Finally, these data are re-examined by comparing each of the proposed relations with the same data set. Based on these results, a

  13. Study on Swell Pressure Stress of Bentonite in Geosynthetic Clay Liners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Junfeng; LI Shengrong; HE Shaohui; ZHANG Guangshan; TONG Jinggui; YAN Bokun

    2006-01-01

    The geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) is a kind of waterproofing material used widely in engineering. The waterproof mechanism is understood in terms of bentonite particles becoming water-obstruct colloid layers after they sorb water and swell. The swell pressure stress, however, has not been determined directly till now. In our experiment, swell pressure stress of the GCL under saturated water-sorbing condition was measured directly using a custom-made instrument. The results show that (1) the instrument designed by the authors performs satisfactorily and the test results are reproducible;and (2) the trend line of swell pressure stress variation with time can be divided into three segments.The first segment is characterized by a quick increase of the swell force in the first 0-50 hours. The swell pressure stress increases by 7.00×10-4-1.00×10-3 MPa/h. The second segment shows a slow increase of the swell pressure stress from the 50th to 1730th hour. The swell force increases by 7.54×10-6-2.02×10-5 MPa/h. The third segment is characterized by a little variation in swell pressure stress after 1730 hours. In this segment, the average value of the swell pressure stress measurements is 0.0719 MPa and the maximum value is 0.0729 MPa. It is suggested that the swell pressure stress is mainly raised by water entering pores among montmorillonite particles and interstitial layers in individual montmorillonite crystals, leading to an increase of volume.

  14. Investigating swelling characteristics of mixtures for buffer materials by an improved arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning-chien, Tung; Yi-lin, Jane [Ching Yun Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Taiwan (China)

    2005-07-01

    The existence of Swelling Clay usually increases the difficulties in engineer base construction and safety, which gives a big challenge to civil engineers. The resulting problems include: effect of road surface obstruction and base structure destruction. Nevertheless, in some aspects, the swelling potential of the clay is still needed in order to utilize certain water absorption and retraction characteristics, so that the base structure has the ability to self-heal and to avoid expansion of structure gaps. Therefore, during the choice of materials, there is a requirement to evaluate the magnitude of the swelling force, in order to determine the needs for the engineering. Based on the sketch of swelling-force measurement suggested in International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science, Madsen (1999), a new set of equipment is designed to measure two characteristics of soil, swelling potential and swelling force, simultaneously. Meantime, the integration of a user friendly computer program equipped with multi-functions such as data retrieving, data analyzing and graphic plotting makes this equipment a completely automatic and precise measuring system. In the experiment, the swelling characteristics of various composite ratios of bentonite/ laterite/quartz sand mixtures were investigated to measure both swelling potential and force. The swelling force decrease by adding laterite and quartz sand to bentonite. And, this mixture could also satisfy the needs of the physical and chemical characteristics for buffer materials. Whereas this experiment is able to measure the swelling stress and strain directly, it could save time for 50 percent in comparison with the method mentioned in USBR-5707-89. The application of this equipment can decrease the usage of labor and man-made errors in a considerable amount, which will be a great help to research as well as practical purposes. In the fields of environmental and civil engineering, such invention also offers the

  15. Preparation and Swelling Behaviors of Rapid Responsive Semi-IPN NaCMC/PNIPAm Hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Guobin; HUANG Yunwei; XIONG Fuhua; LIAO Bing; YANG Jin; CHEN Xudong

    2011-01-01

    Semi-interpenetrating network(semi-IPN) hydrogels composed of sodium carboxylmethyl cellulose(NaCMC) and poly N-isopropylacrylamide(PNIPAm) were prepared by free radical polymerization of N-isopropyl acrylamide(NIPAm) in dimethylsulfoxide(DMSO) in the presence of NaCMC.The structures of hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR),scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC).SEM images show that the hydrogels present porous network structures.Most water in the hydrogels were free water and freezing water.The equilibrium swelling ratio(ESR) and swelling rate(SR) were quite different at various swelling temperature.ESR of the hydrogels ranged abruptly from 15.2 g/g to 1.56 g/g and the hydrogels changed from transparent into opaque with swelling temperature changing from 33 ℃ to 34 ℃,that is to say,the hydrogels exhibited the good temperature sensitivity at about 33 C similar to low critical solution temperature(LCST) of pure PNIPAm,swelling rate were very different at below and above LCST due to hydrogel swelling with different swelling mechanism.Moreover,the semi-IPN hydrogels swelled much rapidly than pure PNIPAm hydrogels did at room temperature,the equillibrium swelling ratio(ESR) and swelling rate of the hydrogels increased with increasing of NaCMC content,i e.It is suggested that NaCMC could be potential for preparation of porous and rapid swelling hydrogels

  16. Can fertility signals lead to quality signals? Insights from the evolution of primate sexual swellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchard, Elise; Courtiol, Alexandre; Benavides, Julio A; Knapp, Leslie A; Raymond, Michel; Cowlishaw, Guy

    2009-05-22

    The sexual swellings of female primates have generated a great deal of interest in evolutionary biology. Two hypotheses recently proposed to elucidate their functional significance argue that maximal swelling size advertises either female fertility within a cycle or female quality across cycles. Published evidence favours the first hypothesis, and further indicates that larger swellings advertise higher fertility between cycles. If so, a male preference for large swellings might evolve, driving females to use swellings as quality indicators, as proposed by the second hypothesis. In this paper, we explore this possibility using a combination of empirical field data and mathematical modelling. We first test and find support for three key predictions of the female-quality hypothesis in wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus): (i) inter-individual differences in swelling size are maintained across consecutive cycles, (ii) females in better condition have larger swellings and higher reproductive success, and (iii) males preferentially choose females with large swellings. We then develop an individual-based simulation model that indicates that females producing larger swellings can achieve higher mating success even when female-female competition is low and within-female variance in the trait is high. Taken together, our findings show that once sexual swellings have evolved as fertility signals, they might, in certain socio-sexual systems, be further selected to act as quality signals. These results, by reconciling two hypotheses, help to clarify the processes underlying sexual swelling evolution. More generally, our findings suggest that mate choice for direct benefits (fertility) can lead to indirect benefits (good genes).

  17. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome (TASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Öner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is a sterile intraocular inflammation caused by noninfectious substances, resulting in extensive toxic damage to the intraocular tissues. Possible etiologic factors of TASS include surgical trauma, bacterial endotoxin, intraocular solutions with inappropriate pH and osmolality, preservatives, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVD, inadequate sterilization, cleaning and rinsing of surgical devices, intraocular lenses, polishing and sterilizing compounds which are related to intraocular lenses. The characteristic signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, corneal edema, hypopyon and nonreactive pupil usually occur 24 hours after the cataract surgery. The differential diagnosis of TASS from infectious endophthalmitis is important. The main treatment for TASS formation is prevention. TASS is a cataract surgery complication that is more commonly seen nowadays. In this article, the possible underlying causes as well as treatment and prevention methods of TASS are summarized. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2011; 41: 407-13

  18. Simulation of PVT and swelling experimental data: a systematic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Paulo S.M.V. [PETROBRAS S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bahia]. E-mail: psrocha@petrobras.com.br; Alves, Danilo C.R.; Sacramento, Vinicio S.; Costa, Gloria M.N. [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Petroleo e Gas Natural (CEPGN)]. E-mail: gloria.costa@unifacs.br

    2004-07-01

    Accurate data of the phase behavior of oil and gas mixtures are needed, for example, for the design of process plants and reservoir simulation studies. Often, experimental PVT data are available, but in practice a few PVT measurements are carried out for a given mixture. Therefore, it is necessary to use a thermodynamic model when planning production strategies for a given petroleum reservoir. This raises the question of what accuracy can be obtained using a cubic equation of state for phase equilibrium calculations, for example at conditions in which oil and gas are being produced. The only way to improve the agreement between measured and calculated results is to adjust the equation of state parameters. Currently, there is not a clear methodology to make these modifications. The objective of this study is to investigate the best tuning to describe the PVT experimental data: differential liberation, constant composition expansion and swelling test. The following programs were used: SPECS and MI-PVT (Technical University of Denmark) and WinProp (windows version of CMGPROP). The Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of sate was also used. Experimental data for 06 oil samples from Reconcavo Basin (Bahia- Brazil) were obtained in the CEPGN (Study Center on Oil and Natural Gas at UNIFACS) and used in the tuning (author)

  19. Increased Hydrogel Swelling Induced by Absorption of Small Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Changwoo; Zimudzi, Tawanda J; Geise, Geoffrey M; Hickner, Michael A

    2016-06-08

    The water and small molecule uptake behavior of amphiphilic diacrylate terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMSDA)/poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate) (PEGDA) cross-linked hydrogels were studied using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. These hydrogel networks absorbed more water as the PEGDA content of the network increased. In contrast to typical osmotic deswelling behavior that occurs when liquid water equilibrated hydrogels are immersed in small molecule solutions with water activities less than unity, water-swollen gels immersed in 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS-H) solutions rapidly regained their water content within 4 min following an initial deswelling response. In situ ATR-FTIR analysis of the hydrogel film during the dynamic swelling experiment indicated that small molecule absorption into the gel played an important role in inducing gel reswelling in low water activity solutions. This aspect of polymer gel water uptake and interaction with small molecules is important for optimizing hydrogel coatings and hydrophilic polymer applications where there is an interaction between the internal chemical structure of the gel and electrolytes or other molecules in solution.

  20. Cationic Organic/Inorganic Hybrids and Their Swelling Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. S. Dragan; L. Ghimici; M. Cazacu

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Specific properties of poly(dimethylsiloxanes), such as low glass transition temperature, low surface energy, good insulating properties, biological and chemical inertness, high diffusion coefficient of gases, make them very attractive for practical applications in the daily life. However, there is a great interest last time in the preparation of ionic organic/inorganic materials with new properties for new applications. Quaternary ammonium salt(QAS) groups included in siloxane copolymers could induce new interesting properties such as:permanent fungicidal and bactericidal properties, which make them very attractive as materials for sanitary applications, improved selectivity coefficients of the gas-separation membranes, ion-exchange properties and so forth. So far, QAS groups have been located in the side chain[1,2]. Our interest was focused on the preparation of some novel cationic polysiloxane copolymers containing QAS groups of both integral type and pendent type[3,4]. Our objectives for the present study concern the synthesis of some cationic organic/siloxane hybrid materials with swelling properties controlled by both the nature of cationic organic component and the ratio between the organic and inorganic counterparts. Such cationic hybrid materials could be of interest for the preparation of new stimuli-responsive hydrogels[5,6].

  1. A rare cause of calf swelling: the Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moriarty, J M

    2011-03-01

    Calf swelling is a common clinical presentation with a wide and varied differential diagnosis. The Morel-Lavallee is a rare cause of subcutaneous swelling, caused by post-traumatic shearing of the hypodermis from the underlying fascia. The potential space so created fills with blood, lymph and necrotic fat giving specific findings on MR evaluation.

  2. Swelling characterization of gamma-radiation induced crosslinked acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogels in urea solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadag, Erdener [Department of Chemistry, Fen-Edebiyat Faculty, Adnan Menderes University, TR09010 Aydin (Turkey)]. E-mail: ekaradag@adu.edu.tr; Uzuem, Omer Baris [Department of Chemistry, Fen-Edebiyat Faculty, Adnan Menderes University, TR09010 Aydin (Turkey); Saraydin, Dursun [Department of Chemistry, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Gueven, Olgun [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, 06532 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-07-01

    Swelling behaviors of crosslinked acrylamide/maleic acid (CAMA) hydrogels synthesized by gamma-radiation crosslinking of acrylamide and maleic acid in aqueous urea solutions were investigated. CAMA hydrogels containing different amounts of maleic acid were obtained in the form of rods via a radiation technique. Swelling experiments were performed in two different urea concentrations at 25 {sup o}C, gravimetrically. The hydrogels showed enormous swelling in aqueous medium and displayed swelling characteristics that were highly dependent on the chemical composition of the hydrogels and irradiation dose. Diffusion behavior and some swelling kinetics parameters were investigated. The values of the swelling percent of CAMA hydrogels were between 935% and 5212%, while the values of the swelling percent of acrylamide hydrogels were between 669% and 923%. The difference of the concentrations of urea solutions was not affected by the swelling properties of the hydrogel systems. Urea/water diffusion into hydrogels was found to be non-Fickian in character. Equilibrium urea/water contents of the hydrogel systems were changed between 0.8699 and 0.9812.

  3. Green tea polyphenols attenuate glial swelling and mitochondrial dysfunction following oxygen-glucose deprivation in cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrocyte swelling is a major component of cytotoxic brain edema in ischemia. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been hypothesized to contribute to such swelling in cultures. We investigated the protective effects of polyphenol-rich green tea extract (GTE) on key features of ischemi...

  4. Calcium-alginate hydrogel swelling models are not pH-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent article by Koc et al. (2008) reports predictive models for the swelling behavior of calcium-alginate hydrogels in response to changes in pH and temperature. We submit that the reported effect of “pH” on hydrogel swelling is unsupported by the data and is more properly interpreted as the ...

  5. Methane adsorption-induced coal swelling measured with an optical method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Shuheng; Wan Yi; Duan Lijiang; Xia Zhaohui; Zhang Songhang

    2015-01-01

    In order to quantify the effect of matrix shrinkage on reservoir permeability during coalbed methane production, coal samples from Huozhou, Changzhi and Jincheng areas in Shanxi province (classified as high-volatile bituminous coal, low-volatile bituminous coal and anthracite, respectively) were collected, and adsorption-induced coal swelling in methane were determined by an optical method at 40 ?C and pressure up to 12 MPa. All three coals showed similar behavior-that swelling increased as a function of pressure up to about 10 MPa but thereafter no further increase in swelling was observed. Swelling in the direction perpendicular to the bedding plane is greater than that parallel to the bedding plane, and the differences are about 7.77–8.33%. The maximum volumetric swelling ranges from 2.73% to 3.21%-increasing with increasing coal rank. The swelling data can be described by a modified DR model. In addition, swelling increases with the amount of adsorption. However, the increase shows a relatively slower stage followed by a relatively faster stage instead of a linear increase. Based on the assumption that sorption-induced swelling/shrinkage of coal in methane is reversible, the permeability increases induced by coal shrinkage during methane desorption was analyzed, and the results indicate that the permeability change is larger for higher rank coal in the same unit of pressure depletion.

  6. A mechanism of swelling suppression in phosphorous-modified Fe-Ni-Cr alloys*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. H.; Mansur, L. K.

    1986-11-01

    Five simple alloys were ion irradiated at 948 K in an experiment designed to investigate the mechanism of swelling suppression associated wtih phosphorous additions. One of the alloys was the simple ternary Fe-15Ni-13Cr, another had 0.05% P added and the other three had further additions of the phosphide precipitate-forming elements Ti and/or Si. Ion irradiations were carried out with heavy ions only (Ni or Fe) or with heavy ions followed by dual heavy ions and helium. The ternary with and without P swelled readily early in dose with or without helium. The other three alloys only showed swelling in the presence of helium and exhibited a long delay in dose prior to the onset of swelling. These displayed fine distributions of Fe 2P type phosphide precipitates enhanced by irradiation. The phosphide particles gave rise to very high concentrations of stable helium filled cavities at the precipitate matrix interfaces. The results were analyzed in terms of the theory of cavity swelling. The accumulation of the critical number of gas atoms in an individual cavity is required in the theory for point defect driven swelling to begin. It is concluded that the primary mechanism leading to swelling suppression is therefore the dilution of injected helium over a very large number of cavities. It is suggested that this mechanism may offer a key for alloy design for swelling resistance in high helium environments.

  7. Loss of knee-extension strength is related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kristensen, Morten T; Bencke, Jesper;

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether changes in knee-extension strength and functional performance are related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).......To examine whether changes in knee-extension strength and functional performance are related to knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty (TKA)....

  8. Swelling of whey and egg white protein hydrogels with stranded and particulate microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Xiao Dong; Mercadé-Prieto, Ruben

    2016-02-01

    Swelling of protein hydrogels in alkaline conditions strongly depends on the gel microstructure. Stranded transparent gels swell as predicted using a modified Flory-Rehner model with the net protein charge. Particulate opaque gels swell very differently, with a sudden increase at a narrow pH range. Its swelling is not controlled by the protein charge, but by the destruction of the non-covalent interactions. Comparable dissolution thresholds, one with pH and another with the degree of swelling, are observed in both types of microstructures. These conclusions are valid for both whey protein isolate (WPI) gels and egg white gels, suggesting that they are universal for all globular proteins that can form such microscructures. Differences are observed, however, from the prevalent chemical crosslinks in each protein system. Non-covalent interactions dominate WPI gels; when such interactions are destroyed at pH≥11.5 the gels swell extensively and eventually dissolve. In egg white gels, the higher degree of disulphide crosslinking allows extensive swelling when non-covalent interactions are destroyed, but dissolution only occurs at pH≥13 when covalent crosslinks are cleaved. The current study highlights that the microstructure of protein hydrogels, a unique particularity of protein systems compared to other synthetic hydrogels, defines swelling.

  9. Maxillary Swelling as the First Evidence of Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kasamatsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a malignant neoplasm of plasma cells characterized by proliferation of a single clone of abnormal immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells. Since the amount of hemopoietic bone marrow is decreased in the maxilla, oral manifestations of multiple myeloma are less common in the maxilla than in the mandible. We report the case of 33-year-old Japanese man who presented with a mass in the right maxillary alveolar region. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images showed a soft tissue mass in the right maxilla eroding the anterior and lateral walls of the maxillary sinus and extending into the buccal space. The biopsy results, imaging, and laboratory investigations led to the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. This case report suggests that oral surgeons and dentists should properly address oral manifestations as first indications of multiple myeloma.

  10. Maxillary Swelling as the First Evidence of Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Kimura, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Hideki; Kanazawa, Harusachi; Koide, Nao; Miyamoto, Isao; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant neoplasm of plasma cells characterized by proliferation of a single clone of abnormal immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells. Since the amount of hemopoietic bone marrow is decreased in the maxilla, oral manifestations of multiple myeloma are less common in the maxilla than in the mandible. We report the case of 33-year-old Japanese man who presented with a mass in the right maxillary alveolar region. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images showed a soft tissue mass in the right maxilla eroding the anterior and lateral walls of the maxillary sinus and extending into the buccal space. The biopsy results, imaging, and laboratory investigations led to the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. This case report suggests that oral surgeons and dentists should properly address oral manifestations as first indications of multiple myeloma. PMID:26640721

  11. Swelling of Erectile Nasal Tissue Induced by Human Sexual Pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzatenta, Andrea; De Luca, C; Di Tano, A; Cacchio, M; Di Giulio, C; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw

    2016-01-01

    Most chemically mediated sexual communication in humans remains uncharacterized. Yet the study of sexual communication is decisive for understanding sexual behavior and evolutive mechanisms in our species. Here we provide the evidence to consider 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) as a man's sexual pheromone. Our experiment provides support for the physiological effect of AND on nasal airway resistance (Rna) in women, as assessed by anterior rhinomanometry. We found that AND administration increased the area of turbinate during the ovulatory phase, resulting in an increase of Rna. Thus, we discovered that minute amounts of AND, acting through neuroendocrine brain control, regulate Rna and consequently affect the sexual physiology and behavior. Fascinatingly, this finding provides the evidence of the preservation of chemosexual communication in humans, which it has been largely neglected due to its unconscious perception and concealed nature. Therefore, chemical communication is a plesiomorphic evolutive phenomenon in humans.

  12. Mild toxic anterior segment syndrome mimicking delayed onset toxic anterior segment syndrome after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Na Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is an acute sterile postoperative anterior segment inflammation that may occur after anterior segment surgery. I report herein a case that developed mild TASS in one eye after bilateral uneventful cataract surgery, which was masked during early postoperative period under steroid eye drop and mimicking delayed onset TASS after switching to weaker steroid eye drop.

  13. Optical scatter imaging of cellular and mitochondrial swelling in brain tissue models of stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee James

    2001-08-01

    The severity of brain edema resulting from a stroke can determine a patient's survival and the extent of their recovery. Cellular swelling is the microscopic source of a significant part of brain edema. Mitochondrial swelling also appears to be a determining event in the death or survival of the cells that are injured during a stroke. Therapies for reducing brain edema are not effective in many cases and current treatments of stroke do not address mitochondrial swelling at all. This dissertation is motivated by the lack of a complete understanding of cellular swelling resulting from stroke and the lack of a good method to begin to study mitochondrial swelling resulting from stroke in living brain tissue. In this dissertation, a novel method of detecting mitochondrial and cellular swelling in living hippocampal slices is developed and validated. The system is used to obtain spatial and temporal information about cellular and mitochondrial swelling resulting from various models of stroke. The effect of changes in water content on light scatter and absorption are examined in two models of brain edema. The results of this study demonstrate that optical techniques can be used to detect changes in water content. Mie scatter theory, the theoretical basis of the dual- angle scatter ratio imaging system, is presented. Computer simulations based on Mie scatter theory are used to determine the optimal angles for imaging. A detailed account of the early systems is presented to explain the motivations for the system design, especially polarization, wavelength and light path. Mitochondrial sized latex particles are used to determine the system response to changes in scattering particle size and concentration. The dual-angle scatter ratio imaging system is used to distinguish between osmotic and excitotoxic models of stroke injury. Such distinction cannot be achieved using the current techniques to study cellular swelling in hippocampal slices. The change in the scatter ratio is

  14. Timing of surgery in anterior cruciate ligament-injured knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelbourne, K D; Patel, D V

    1995-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the surgical techniques of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the past two decades, there is no consensus of opinion as to the ideal timing for ACL surgery. Based on the evolution of management of patients with ACL injuries over the period 1982-1994, we have found that various factors need to be considered in order to provide the best possible long-term result to the patient with minimal or no complications. In this review, we discuss the perioperative factors that one must consider to determine optimum timing for ACL surgery. Factors such as mental preparation of the patient; school, work, family, and social schedules; preoperative condition of the knee [i.e., minimal or no swelling, good strength, good leg control, and full range of motion (ROM) including full hyperextension]; and associated ligamentous and/or meniscal injuries must be considered before undertaking ACL surgery. With careful consideration of the above-mentioned factors and with our preoperative and postoperative rehabilitation program, we have been able to obtain predictable, successful, long-term results following ACL reconstruction in our athletic population. We emphasize that every patient should be treated on his or her own merit, and treatment decisions must be individualized.

  15. Numerical Modelling of Insulin and Amyloglucosidase Release from Swelling Ca-Alginate Beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Snabe, T.; Pedersen, Lars Haastrup

    2003-01-01

    The release of insulin hexamer (39 kD) and amyloglucosidase (AMG, 97 kD), entrapped in spherical Ca–alginate beads, was investigated. While the release of insulin could be described solely by diffusion this was not the case for the 1.6 (r m /r m) larger AMG protein, where rm is the Stokes......–Einstein effective molecular radius. Because the alginate bead size was not constant during the release experiments, it was hypothesised that in addition to the diffusional mass transfer, a non-negligible convective flow of liquid in or out of the beads was present due to swelling or shrinkage, respectively...... convective flow in the numerical model, release could be described more accurately. The numerical model was able to describe the release  characteristics from both shrinking, swelling, and non-swelling alginate beads. To evaluate the effect of bead swelling on the protein release rate, a swelling modulus...

  16. The Influence of Temperature on Swelling Characteristics of Compacted Bentonite for Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Moniruzzaman Shirazi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiment was conducted to find out the temperature effect on swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite. The expansion of partly saturated bentonite affects the volume change of air in the specimen respect to initial dry density. Swelling pressure reaches nearly maximum when degree of saturation of specimen is about 95% for all initial dry densities (1.29 ~ 1.95 g/cm3 in swelling pressure test using temperature 20 ~80°C. Initial dry density and temperature are the governing parameter to control the swelling pressure and deformation of compacted bentonite. To predict the swelling pressure an equation has been proposed in relation to content of montmorillonite, temperature and initial dry density of bentonite. The maximum difference between the experimental values and the fitting of this equation is 15% on an average.

  17. Influence of layer charge and charge location on the swelling pressure of dioctahedral smectites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Linlin; Ling, Chian Ye; Lavikainen, Lasse P.; Hirvi, Janne T.; Kasa, Seppo; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2016-07-01

    Swelling pressure of dioctahedral smectites in the montmorillonite - beidellite series was investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The pressure was found to correlate inversely with the magnitude of the layer charge in the range of -0.5 to -1.0 per unit cell. The beidellite type smectites were found to have lower swelling pressure than the montmorillonite type smectites. A clear effect of the type of interlayer cations on the swelling pressure was found. The sodium smectites sustained significant pressure even at longer interlayer distances, while in calcium smectites the pressure decreased soon after the initial swelling. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental observations and provide a tool for predicting macroscopic swelling behavior in smectites.

  18. The Measurement of Polymer Swelling Processes by an Interferometric Method and Evaluation of Diffusion Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Mráček

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The amorphous polymer film swelling in a liquid solvent below the glass transition temperature was characterized by a few kinetic parameters (especially the mutual diffusion coefficient of swelling and its mean value obtained by interference of monochromatic light in the wedge arrangement. This interferometric method allows one to determine the concentration field in the swollen surface layer and consequently to compute the concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient. A software system developed at the Department of Physics and Material Engineering at TBU in Zlin has been used for the evaluation of the main kinetic parameters of the swelling process. The software can be used for the on-line analyses of interferograms during the swelling process. The main application outputs are the computation of the concentration profile, the concentration gradient, the mutual diffusion coefficient of the swelling by the solvent and its mean value.

  19. Dynamic Validation of Envisat ASAR Derived Ocean Swell Against Directional Buoy Measurements in Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Mouche, Alexis; Husson, Romain; Chapron, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) in wave mode aboard Envisat satellite from ESA provides the unique 10-years swell spectra dataset on a continuous and global basis for scientific community. In this paper, a method of a dynamical validation approach for SAR swell spectra is developed, in which the in situ buoy spectra are reconstructed, partitioned, and retro- propagated to the vicinity of satellite observation along the great circle based upon the linear wave theory. More than 40,000 ASAR-buoy swell partitions are dynamically collocated for the full mission of Envisat, making this study the first to provide detailed quality assessment for ASAR derived ocean swell spectra. Comparison results show a general statistics of 0.40 m, 44.99 m and 16.89 ̊ for swell height, peak wavelength and direction RMSE, indicating a good agreement with buoy in-situ in Pacific Ocean.

  20. Physical modeling of the soil swelling curve vs. the shrinkage curve

    CERN Document Server

    Chertkov, V Y

    2014-01-01

    Physical understanding of the links between soil swelling, texture, structure, cracking, and sample size is of great interest for the physical understanding of many processes in the soil-air-water system and for applications in civil, agricultural, and environmental engineering. The background of this work is an available chain of interconnected physical shrinkage curve models for clay, intra-aggregate matrix, aggregated soil without cracks, and soil with cracks. The objective of the work is to generalize these models to the case of swelling, and to construct the physical-swelling-model chain with a step-by-step transition from clay to aggregated soil with cracks. The generalization is based on thorough accounting for the analogies and differences between shrinkage and swelling and the corresponding use, modification, or replacement of the soil shrinkage features. Two specific soil swelling features to be used are: (i) air entrapping in pores of the contributing clay; and (ii) aggregate destruction with the f...

  1. Study of swelling-shrinkage regularity of montmorillonite crystal and its relation with matric suction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭罗荣; 孔令伟

    2001-01-01

    The swell-shrinking mineral of saturated and unsaturated expansive soil has important effect on engineering mechanical behavior. Based on the swelling-shrinkage change regularity of montmorillonite crystal in this paper, the actions between various interlayers of montmorillonite crystal are generally summarized as two kinds of action potentials-shrinkage potential and swelling potential. Moreover, through the experimental research and analysis, the expression formula for variations of the swelling potential and shrinkage potential with interlayer distance is presented, and the regularity of matric suction variations with interlayer distance is also obtained for unsaturated expansive soil. It may provide a new theoretical basis and research path for further research on the swelling-shrinkage mechanism of expansive soil and matric suction potential of unsaturated soil.

  2. Anterior urethral diverticulum: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annavarupu Gopalkrishna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies of the urogenital tract are the most common anomalies found in the foetus, neonates and infants, but anterior urethral valves and diverticula are rare. Here, we present a case with congenital anterior urethral diverticulum associated with patent ductus arteriosus and polydactyly.

  3. Totally thrombosed giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Roopesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant anterior communicating artery aneurysmsarerare. Apatient presented with visual dysfunction, gait ataxia and urinary incontinence. MRI showed a giant suprasellar mass.At surgery, the lesion was identified as being an aneurysm arising from the anterior communicating artery.The difficulty in preoperative diagnosis and relevant literature are reviewed.

  4. Anterior segment complications of retinal photocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1975-03-01

    Seven patients had anterior segment complications following xenon arc retinal photocoagulation. Irreversible keratopathy was induced in two cases; all patients showed evidence of iris injury. The absorption of radiation by the iris was considered the main factor in producing overheating of the anterior segment.

  5. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis: a sporadic case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Sezen; Yaşar, Şirin; Serdar, Zehra Aşiran; Gizlenti, Sevda

    2016-03-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis is a very rare form of primary localized hypertrichosis. It consists of a tuft of terminal hair on the anterior neck just above the laryngeal prominence. The etiology is still unknown. In this article, we reported a 15-year-old female patient who presented to our clinic with a complaint of hypertrichosis on the anterior aspect of the neck for the last five years. Her past medical history revealed no pathology except for vesicoureteral reflux. On the basis of clinical presentation, our patient was diagnosed with anterior cervical hypertrichosis and she was considered to be a sporadic case due to lack of other similar cases in familial history. To date, 33 patients with anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis can be associated with other abnormalities, but it frequently presents as an isolated defect (70%). The association of vesicoureteral reflux and anterior cervical hypertrichosis which was observed in our patient might be coincidental. So far, no case of anterior cervical hypertrichosis associated with vesicoureteral reflux has been reported in the literature.

  6. The Information Quality Triangle: a methodology to assess clinical information quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquet, Rémy; Qouiyd, Samiha; Ouagne, David; Pasche, Emilie; Daniel, Christel; Boussaïd, Omar; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2010-01-01

    Building qualitative clinical decision support or monitoring based on information stored in clinical information (or EHR) systems cannot be done without assessing and controlling information quality. Numerous works have introduced methods and measures to qualify and enhance data, information models and terminologies quality. This paper introduces an approach based on an Information Quality Triangle that aims at providing a generic framework to help in characterizing quality measures and methods in the context of the integration of EHR data in a clinical datawarehouse. We have successfully experimented the proposed approach at the HEGP hospital in France, as part of the DebugIT EU FP7 project.

  7. Morphological and electrophysiological properties of single myocardial cells from Koch triangle of rabbit heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Fu-xian; NIU Xiao-lin; OU Yan; HAN Zhen-hua; LING Feng-dong; ZHOU Shi-sheng; LI Ya-jie

    2006-01-01

    Background The morphological and electrophysiological characteristics of cardiac cells in Koch triangle are still disputed. We studied the appearance and electrical properties of these diverse myocytes to elucidate their complex electrophysiological phenomena.Methods Experiments were conducted using cooled charge coupling device (CCD) system and whole cell,patch clamp technique to determine the morphology, action potential and sodium current density of single viable myocytes enzymatically isolated from the Koch triangle of rabbit hearts.Results Morphologically, cardiac cells in shape of spider, tiny spindle, slender spindle, rod and strip were observed in percentage of 3.0±0.3, 35.0±5.0, 15.0±2.0, 40.0±5.0 and 6.0±0.7 respectively. The cellular dimensions and capacitance gradually increased in the above order (all P<0.05). Electrophysiologically, action potential configurations recorded from them were similar respectively to nodal (N), atrial nodal (AN), nodal Hisian (NH), atrial (A) and Hisian like potentials obtained from the intact atrioventricular nodal preparations.Diastolic depolarization appeared in all myocytes except for rod cells. Sodium current density increased in the order of tiny spindle, strip, rod, slender spindle cell (all P<0.05), but could not be detected in spider-shaped cells.Linear regression analysis revealed that membrane capacitance was correlated negatively to the rate of diastolic depolarization r=-0.70, P<0.001, but positively to maximum depolarization potential, amplitude of action potential, upstroke velocity and maximum peak value of sodium current density r=-0.84, 0.80, 0.87 and 0.75,respectively; all P<0.001.Conclusions The results demonstrated that spider-shaped, spindle, rod and strip cells in Koch triangle might correspond to pacemaking, transitional, atrial and Purkinje like cells, respectively. Furthermore, tiny spindle and slender spindle cells were referred to transitional cell α (TCα) and β (TCβ) accordingly

  8. Solving the strong CP problem with discrete symmetries and the right unitarity triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.antusch@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Holthausen, Martin, E-mail: martin.holthausen@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schmidt, Michael A., E-mail: michael.schmidt@unimelb.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Spinrath, Martin, E-mail: spinrath@sissa.it [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2013-12-21

    We present a solution to the strong CP problem based on spontaneous CP violation and discrete family symmetries. The model predicts in a natural way the almost right-angled quark unitarity triangle angle (α≃90°) by making the entries of the quark mass matrices either real or imaginary. By this choice the determinants of the mass matrices are rendered real and hence the strong CP phase vanishes. We present a toy model for the quark sector that demonstrates the viability of our approach.

  9. An efficient rotation-free triangle and its application in cloth simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yexin.; 周晔欣.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, an efficient rotation-free (RF) triangle is proposed and applied to drape/cloth simulations in which the cloth often under large displacements and rotations. The RF model is a class of thin plate/shell computational models possessing only 3 translational degrees of freedom per director whilst their domains of influence are larger than their domains of integration. An important advantage of RF models is that they do not use rotational degrees of freedom and, thus, are not plag...

  10. Sobolev regularity of the $\\bar{\\partial}$-equation on the Hartogs triangle

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Debraj

    2011-01-01

    The regularity of the $\\bar{\\partial}$-problem on the domain $\\{|{z_1}|<|{z_2}|<1\\}$ in $\\mathbb{C}^2$ is studied using $L^2$ methods. Estimates are obtained for the canonical solution in weighted $L^2$-Sobolev spaces with a weight that is singular at the point $(0,0)$. The canonical solution for $\\dbar$ with weights is exact regular in the weighted Sobolev spaces away from the singularity $(0,0)$. In particular, the singularity of the Bergman projection for the Hartogs triangle is contained at the singular point and it does not propagate.

  11. Synthesis of Vertically Standing MoS2 Triangles on SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Feifei; Lai, Zhanping; Xu, Yongkuan; Cheng, Hongjuan; Wang, Zaien; Qi, Chengjun; Chen, Jianli; Zhang, Song

    2016-08-01

    Layered material MoS2 has been attracting much attention due to its excellent electronical properties and catalytic property. Here we report the synthesis of vertically standing MoS2 triangles on silicon carbon(SiC), through a rapid sulfidation process. Such edge-terminated films are metastable structures of MoS2, which may find applications in FinFETs and catalytic reactions. We have confirmed the catalytic property in a hydrogen evolution reaction(HER). The Tafel slope is about 54mV/decade.

  12. Control of beam halo-chaos by Gauss function in the triangle periodic-focusing channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Hai-Jun; Bai Long; Weng Jia-Qiang; Luo Xiao-Shu; Fang Jin-Qing

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the Kapchinsky-Vladimirsky (K-V) beam through a triangle periodic-focusing magnetic field by using the particle-core model. The beam halo-chaos is found, and an idea of Gauss function controller is proposed based on the strategy of controlling the halo-chaos. It performs multiparticle simulation to control the halo by using the Gauss function control method. The numerical results show that the halo-chaos and its regeneration can be eliminated effectively, and that the radial particle density is uniform at the centre of the beam as long as the control method and appropriate parameter are chosen.

  13. Top-Higgs and top-pion phenomenology in the top triangle moose model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; Coleppa, Baradhwaj; Logan, Heather E.; Martin, Adam

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the deconstructed version of a topcolor-assisted technicolor model wherein the mechanism of top quark mass generation is separated from the rest of electroweak symmetry breaking. The minimal deconstructed version of this scenario is a “triangle moose” model, where the top quark gets its mass from coupling to a top-Higgs field, while the gauge boson masses are generated from a Higgsless sector. The spectrum of the model includes scalar (top-Higgs) and pseudoscalar (top-pion) states. In this paper, we study the properties of these particles, discuss their production mechanisms and decay modes, and suggest how best to search for them at the LHC.

  14. A spectral Finite Difference Analysis of Natural Convection in a Rectangular Equilateral Triangle Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshihiromochimaru

    2000-01-01

    A steady-state two-dimensional natural convection in a rectangular equlateral triangle cavity is analyzed numercally,using a spectral finite difference scheme,where a conformal mapping coordinate system is adopted with a unit circle for the boundary.Vorticity-stream function formulation is used in conjunction with an energy equation.Time marching algorithm in a diagonal dominant form under a Fourier series decomposition is used to give a steady-state field for a mixed(Neumann and Dirichlet) thermal boundary condition even at a Grashof number of 106.

  15. Cross-sensitivity of Fiber Grating Solved by FFP Triangle Notch Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Xian-feng; WANG Chang-song; CHEN Sheng-ping; LI Jia-fang

    2004-01-01

    Employing a fiber Fabry-Perot (FFP) interferometer has been considered as a triangle notch filter to demodulate the wavelength of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor.The single parameter of strain has been demodulated,and the cross-sensitivity influence of temperature has been eliminated.The principle of this method is simple and easy to be implemented,and has been used to design a 30 t fiber grating weightbridge successfully.The maximal temperature drift error of the weightbridge is 4 με,which means that the full scale error is 8‰. The result reveals that the accuracy is high enough to be used in measurement.

  16. Top-Higgs and Top-pion phenomenology in the Top Triangle Moose model

    CERN Document Server

    Chivukula, R Sekhar; Logan, Heather E; Martin, Adam; Simmons, Elizabeth H

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the deconstructed version of a topcolor-assisted technicolor model wherein the mechanism of top quark mass generation is separated from the rest of electroweak symmetry breaking. The minimal deconstructed version of this scenario is a "triangle moose" model, where the top quark gets its mass from coupling to a top-Higgs field, while the gauge boson masses are generated from a Higgsless sector. The spectrum of the model includes scalar (top-Higgs) and pseudoscalar (top-pion) states. In this paper, we study the properties of these particles, discuss their production mechanisms and decay modes, and suggest how best to search for them at the LHC.

  17. Connecting Leptonic Unitarity Triangle to Neutrino Oscillation with CP Violation in Vacuum and in Matter

    CERN Document Server

    He, Hong-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Leptonic unitarity triangle (LUT) provides fundamental means to geometrically describe CP violation in neutrino oscillation. In this work, we use LUT to present a new geometrical interpretation of the vacuum oscillation probability, and derive a compact new oscillation formula in terms of only 3 independent parameters of the corresponding LUT. Then, we systematically study matter effects for the geometrical formulation of neutrino oscillation with CP violation. Including matter effects, we derive a very compact new oscillation formula by using the LUT formulation. We further demonstrate that this geometrical formula holds well for practical applications to neutrino oscillations in matter, including T2K, MINOS, and NOvA experiments.

  18. Monitoring austral and cyclonic swells in the "Iles Eparses" (Mozambique channel) from microseismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barruol, Guilhem; Davy, Céline; Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Schlindwein, V.; Sigloch, K.

    2016-04-01

    We deployed five broadband three-components seismic stations in the Iles Eparses in the south-west Indian Ocean and on Mayotte Island, between April 2011 and January 2014. These small and remote oceanic islands suffer the effects of strong ocean swells that affect their coastal environments but most islands are not instrumented by wave gauges to characterize the swells. However, wave action on the coast causes high levels of ground vibrations in the solid earth, so-called microseismic noise. We use this link between the solid earth and ocean wave activity to quantify the swells locally. Spectral analyses of the continuous seismic data show clear peaks in the 0.05-0.10 Hz frequency band (periods between 10 and 20 s), corresponding to the ocean wave periods of the local swells. We analyze an example of austral swell occurring in August 2013 and a cyclonic event (Felleng) that developed in January 2013, and quantify the ground motion at each station induced by these events. In both cases, we find a linear polarization in the horizontal plane with microseismic amplitude directly correlated to the swell height (as predicted by the global swell model WaveWatchIII), and a direction of polarization close to the predicted swell propagation direction. Although this analysis has not been performed in real time, it demonstrates that terrestrial seismic stations can be efficiently used as wave gauges, and are particularly well suited for quantifying extreme swell events. This approach may therefore provide useful and cheaper alternatives to wave buoys for monitoring swells and the related environmental processes such as beach erosion or coral reef damages.

  19. Cell swelling and ion redistribution assessed with intrinsic optical signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WITTE OTTO W.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell volume changes are associated with alterations of intrinsic optical signals (IOS. In submerged brain slices in vitro, afferent stimulation induces an increase in light transmission. As assessed by measurement of the largely membrane impermeant ion tetramethylammonium (TMA in the extracellular space, these IOS correlate with the extent and time course of the change of the extracellular space size. They have a high signal to noise ratio and allow measurements of IOS changes in the order of a few percent. Under conditions of reduced net KCl uptake (low Cl solution a directed spatial buffer mechanism (K syphoning can be demonstrated in the neocortex with widening of the extracellular space in superficial layers associated with a reduced light transmission and an increase of extracellular K concentration. The nature of the IOS under pathophysiological conditions is less clear. Spreading depressions first cause an increase of light transmission, then a decrease. Such a decrease has also been observed following application of NMDA where it was associated with structural damage. Pharmacological analyses suggest that under physiological conditions changes of extracellular space size are mainly caused by astrocytic volume changes while with strong stimuli and under pathophysiological conditions also neuronal swelling occurs. With reflected light usually signals opposite to those observed with transmitted light are seen. Recording of IOS from interface slices gives very complex signals since under these conditions an increase of light transmission has been reported to be superimposed by a decrease of the signal due to mechanical lensing effects of the slice surface. Depending on the method of measurement and the exact conditions, several mechanisms may contribute to IOS. Under well defined conditions IOS are a useful supplementary tool to monitor changes of extracellular volume both in space and time.

  20. Assessment of void swelling in austenitic stainless steel PWR core internals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H. M.; Energy Technology

    2006-01-31

    As many pressurized water reactors (PWRs) age and life extension of the aged plants is considered, void swelling behavior of austenitic stainless steel (SS) core internals has become the subject of increasing attention. In this report, the available database on void swelling and density change of austenitic SSs was critically reviewed. Irradiation conditions, test procedures, and microstructural characteristics were carefully examined, and key factors that are important to determine the relevance of the database to PWR conditions were evaluated. Most swelling data were obtained from steels irradiated in fast breeder reactors at temperatures >385 C and at dose rates that are orders of magnitude higher than PWR dose rates. Even for a given irradiation temperature and given steel, the integral effects of dose and dose rate on void swelling should not be separated. It is incorrect to extrapolate swelling data on the basis of 'progressive compounded multiplication' of separate effects of factors such as dose, dose rate, temperature, steel composition, and fabrication procedure. Therefore, the fast reactor data should not be extrapolated to determine credible void swelling behavior for PWR end-of-life (EOL) or life-extension conditions. Although the void swelling data extracted from fast reactor studies is extensive and conclusive, only limited amounts of swelling data and information have been obtained on microstructural characteristics from discharged PWR internals or steels irradiated at temperatures and at dose rates comparable to those of a PWR. Based on this relatively small amount of information, swelling in thin-walled tubes and baffle bolts in a PWR is not considered a concern. As additional data and relevant research becomes available, the newer results should be integrated with existing data, and the worthiness of this conclusion should continue to be scrutinized. PWR baffle reentrant corners are the most likely location to experience high swelling

  1. Disruption of the 'disease triangle' by chemical and physical environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelka, A H; Grulke, N E

    2016-01-01

    The physical and chemical environment of the Earth has changed rapidly over the last 100 years and is predicted to continue to change into the foreseeable future. One of the main concerns with potential alterations in climate is the propensity for increases in the magnitude and frequency of extremes to occur. Even though precipitation is predicted to increase in some locations, in others precipitation is expected to decrease and evapotranspiration increase with air temperature, resulting in exacerbated drought in the future. Chemical [ozone (O3 ) and other air contaminants] and subsequent physical alterations in the environment will have a profound effect on the 'disease triangle' (a favourable environment, a susceptible host and a virulent pathogen) and should be included in any analysis of biological response to climate change. The chemical and physical environment affects plant health and alters plant susceptibility to insect and pathogen attack through increased frequency, duration and severity of drought and reduction in host vigour. The potential effects of climate change and O3 on tree diseases with emphasis on the western United States are discussed. We describe a generalised modelling approach to incorporate the complexities of the 'disease triangle' into dynamic vegetation models.

  2. S-duality, triangle groups and modular anomalies in N=2 SQCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ashok, S K; Lerda, A; Raman, M

    2016-01-01

    We study N = 2 superconformal theories with gauge group SU(N) and 2N fundamental flavours in a locus of the Coulomb branch with a Z_N symmetry. In this special vacuum, we calculate the prepotential, the dual periods and the period matrix using equivariant localization. In the conformal limit, we find that the period matrix is completely specified by [N/2] effective couplings. On each of these, we show that the S-duality group acts as a generalized triangle group and that its hauptmodul can be used to write a non-perturbatively exact relation between each effective coupling and the bare one. For N = 2, 3, 4 and 6, the generalized triangle group is an arithmetic Hecke group which contains a subgroup that is also a congruence subgroup of the modular group PSL(2,Z). For these cases, we introduce mass deformations that respect the symmetries of the special vacuum and show that the constraints arising from S-duality make it possible to resum the instanton contributions to the period matrix in terms of meromorphic m...

  3. Right unitarity triangles and tri-bimaximal mixing from discrete symmetries and unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, S., E-mail: antusch@mppmu.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); King, Stephen F., E-mail: king@soton.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Luhn, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.luhn@soton.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Spinrath, M., E-mail: spinrath@sissa.it [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2011-09-21

    We propose new classes of models which predict both tri-bimaximal lepton mixing and a right-angled Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) unitarity triangle, {alpha}{approx}90{sup o}. The ingredients of the models include a supersymmetric (SUSY) unified gauge group such as SU(5), a discrete family symmetry such as A{sub 4} or S{sub 4}, a shaping symmetry including products of Z{sub 2} and Z{sub 4} groups as well as spontaneous CP violation. We show how the vacuum alignment in such models allows a simple explanation of {alpha}{approx}90{sup o} by a combination of purely real or purely imaginary vacuum expectation values (vevs) of the flavons responsible for family symmetry breaking. This leads to quark mass matrices with 1-3 texture zeros that satisfy the 'phase sum rule' and lepton mass matrices that satisfy the 'lepton mixing sum rule' together with a new prediction that the leptonic CP violating oscillation phase is close to either 0{sup o}, 90{sup o}, 180{sup o}, or 270{sup o} depending on the model, with neutrino masses being purely real (no complex Majorana phases). This leads to the possibility of having right-angled unitarity triangles in both the quark and lepton sectors.

  4. Fuchsian triangle groups and Grothendieck dessins. Variations on a theme of Belyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paula Beazley; Itzykson, Claude; Wolfart, Jürgen

    1994-07-01

    According to a theorem of Belyi, a smooth projective algebraic curve is defined over a number field if and only if there exists a non-constant element of its function field ramified only over 0, 1 and . The existence of such a Belyi function is equivalent to that of a representation of the curve as a possibly compactified quotient space of the Poincaré upper half plane by a subgroup of finite index in a Fuchsian triangle group. On the other hand, Fuchsian triangle groups arise in many contexts, such as in the theory of hypergeometric functions and certain triangular billiard problems, which would appear at first sight to have no relation to the Galois problems that motivated the above discovery of Belyi. In this note we review several results related to Belyi's theorem and we develop certain aspects giving examples. For preliminary accounts, see the preprint [Wo1], the conference proceedings article [BauItz] and the Comptes Rendus note [CoWo2].

  5. The semiosis of the Anthropocene geological era. Reflections between geoethics and semiotics starting from Peirce's triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Francesco; Dattilo, Valeria

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the first formulation of a theoretical proposal which aims to reconcile, or better, to work together, two different approaches: geoethics and the semiotic tradition of Peirce, on the basis of some important affinities. We will refer to geoethics, discipline that deals with the ethical, social and cultural implications of geological and geographical practice, at the intersection of Geoscience, Geography, Philosophy, Sociology and Economy. The proposal of this work is to try to explain the new processes of the Anthropocene era through geoethics and semiotics, using as a "translator mechanism" one of the key notions of Peirce semiotics: the semiotic triangle. On the one hand, we employ the geoethical paradigm as a possible interpretative framework for such processes (in other words, we identify in the geoethical paradigm a significant exemplification of hippocratic type, according to some scientists); on the other hand, we use the triangle "geology / geography - planet illness - society", as a metaphor of the principles and the processes inherent Anthropocene era, able to return them in a particularly random way through the semiotic triangulation of Peirce.

  6. Deformation mechanisms in a coal mine roadway in extremely swelling soft rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghai; Shi, Weiping; Yang, Renshu

    2016-01-01

    The problem of roadway support in swelling soft rock was one of the challenging problems during mining. For most geological conditions, combinations of two or more supporting approaches could meet the requirements of most roadways; however, in extremely swelling soft rock, combined approaches even could not control large deformations. The purpose of this work was to probe the roadway deformation mechanisms in extremely swelling soft rock. Based on the main return air-way in a coal mine, deformation monitoring and geomechanical analysis were conducted, as well as plastic zone mechanical model was analysed. Results indicated that this soft rock was potentially very swelling. When the ground stress acted alone, the support strength needed in situ was not too large and combined supporting approaches could meet this requirement; however, when this potential released, the roadway would undergo permanent deformation. When the loose zone reached 3 m within surrounding rock, remote stress p ∞ and supporting stress P presented a linear relationship. Namely, the greater the swelling stress, the more difficult it would be in roadway supporting. So in this extremely swelling soft rock, a better way to control roadway deformation was to control the releasing of surrounding rock's swelling potential.

  7. Swelling of Collagen-Hyaluronic Acid Co-Gels: An In Vitro Residual Stress Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Victor K; Nedrelow, David S; Lake, Spencer P; Kim, Bumjun; Weiss, Emily M; Tranquillo, Robert T; Barocas, Victor H

    2016-10-01

    Tissue-equivalents (TEs), simple model tissues with tunable properties, have been used to explore many features of biological soft tissues. Absent in most formulations however, is the residual stress that arises due to interactions among components with different unloaded levels of stress, which has an important functional role in many biological tissues. To create a pre-stressed model system, co-gels were fabricated from a combination of hyaluronic acid (HA) and reconstituted Type-I collagen (Col). When placed in solutions of varying osmolarity, HA-Col co-gels swell as the HA imbibes water, which in turn stretches (and stresses) the collagen network. In this way, co-gels with residual stress (i.e., collagen fibers in tension and HA in compression) were fabricated. When the three gel types tested here were immersed in hypotonic solutions, pure HA gels swelled the most, followed by HA-Col co-gels; no swelling was observed in pure collagen gels. The greatest swelling rates and swelling ratios occurred in the lowest salt concentration solutions. Tension on the collagen component of HA-Col co-gels was calculated from a stress balance and increased nonlinearly as swelling increased. The swelling experiment results were in good agreement with the stress predicted by a fibril network + non-fibrillar interstitial matrix computational model.

  8. Modeling the complex and long term swelling behavior of argillaceous rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doostmohammadi R.; Mutschler Th.; Osan C.

    2011-01-01

    The swelling behavior of argillaceous rocks is a complex phenomenon and has been determined using a lot of indexes in the literature.Determining the required modeling indexes that need to be performed requires expensive tests and extensive time in different laboratories.In some of the cases,it is too difficult to find a relation between the effective variables and swelling potential.This paper suggests a method for modeling the time dependent swelling pressure of argillaceous rocks.The trend of short term swelling potential during the first 3 days of the swelling pressure testing is used for modeling the long term swelling pressure of mudstone that is recorded during months.The artificial neural network (ANN) as a power tool is used for modeling this nonlinear and complex behavior.This method enables predicting the swelling potential of argillaceous rocks when the required indexes and also correlation between them is unattainable.This method facilitates the model of all studied samples under a unique formulation.

  9. Effect of helium production on swelling of F82H irradiated in HFIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakai, E. E-mail: wakai@realab01.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Hashimoto, N.; Miwa, Y.; Robertson, J.P.; Klueh, R.L.; Shiba, K.; Jistukawa, S

    2000-12-01

    The effects of helium production and heat treatment on the swelling of F82H steel irradiated in the HFIR to 51 dpa have been investigated using {sup 10}B, {sup 58}Ni and {sup 60}Ni-doped specimens. The swelling of tempered F82H-std and F82H doped with {sup 10}B irradiated at 400 deg. C ranged from 0.52% to 1.2%, while the swelling of the non-tempered F82H doped with {sup 58}Ni or {sup 60}Ni was less than 0.02%. At 300 deg. C the swelling in all steels was insignificant. In the F82H + Ni, a high number of density carbides formed in the matrix at these temperatures. The production of helium atoms enhanced the swelling of the F82H steel. However, the non-tempered treatment for the F82H + Ni suppressed remarkably the swelling. The cause of low swelling in the F82H + Ni may be due to the occurrence of the high density of carbides acting as sinks or the decrease of mobility of vacancies interacting with carbon atoms in matrix.

  10. Episodic swell growth inferred from variable uplift of the Cape Verde hotspot islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, R.; Helffrich, G.; Cosca, M.; Vance, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Schmidt, D.N.

    2010-01-01

    On the Beagle voyage, Charles Darwin first noted the creation and subsidence of ocean islands, establishing in geology's infancy that island freeboard changes with time. Hotspot ocean islands have an obvious mechanism for freeboard change through the growth of the bathymetric anomaly, or swell, on which the islands rest. Models for swell development indicate that flexural, thermal or dynamic pressure contributions, as well as spreading of melt residue from the hotspot, can all contribute to island uplift. Here we test various models for swell development using the uplift histories for the islands of the Cape Verde hotspot, derived from isotopic dating of marine terraces and subaerial to submarine lava-flow morphologies. The island uplift histories, in conjunction with inter-island spacing, uplift rate and timing differences, rule out flexural, thermal or dynamic pressure contributions. We also find that uplift cannot be reconciled with models that advocate the spreading of melt residue in swell development unless swell growth is episodic. Instead, we infer from the uplift histories that two processes have acted to raise the islands during the past 6 Myr. During an initial phase, mantle processes acted to build the swell. Subsequently, magmatic intrusions at the island edifice caused 350 m of local uplift at the scale of individual islands. Finally, swell-wide uplift contributed a further 100 m of surface rise.

  11. Subtask 12F1: Effect of neutron irradiation on swelling of vanadium-base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the density change, void distribution, and microstructural evolution of vanadium-base alloys. Swelling behavior and microstructural evolution of V-Ti, V-Cr-Ti, and V-Ti-Si alloys were investigated after irradiation at 420-600{degrees}C up to 114 dpa. The alloys exhibited swelling maxima between 30 and 80 dpa and swelling decreased on irradiation to higher dpa. This is in contrast to the monotonically increasing swelling of binary alloys that contain Fe, Ni, Cr, Mo, W, and Si. Precipitation of dense Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} promotes good resistance to swelling of the Ti-containing alloys, and it was concluded that Ti of >3 wt.% and 400-1000 wppm Si are necessary to effectively suppress swelling. Swelling was minimal in V-4Cr-4Ti, identified as the most promising alloy based on good mechanical properties and superior resistance to irradiation embrittlement. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Phenomenological force and swelling models for rechargeable lithium-ion battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.; Siegel, Jason B.; Stefanopoulou, Anna G.

    2016-04-01

    Three phenomenological force and swelling models are developed to predict mechanical phenomena caused by Li-ion intercalation: a 1-D force model, a 1st order relaxation model, and a 3-D swelling model. The 1-D force model can estimate the Li-ion intercalation induced force for actual pack conditions with preloads. The model incorporates a nonlinear elastic stiffness to capture the mechanical consequences of Li-ion intercalation swelling. The model also separates the entire state of charge range into three regions considering phase transitions. The 1st order relaxation model predicts dynamic swelling during relaxation periods. A coefficient of relaxation is estimated from dynamic and quasi-static swelling at operational conditions. The 3-D swelling model predicts the swelling shape on the battery surface for all states of charge. This model introduces an equivalent modulus of elasticity, which is dependent on the state of charge, to capture material transformations of the electrodes, and the orthotropic expansion of the jellyroll in a direction perpendicular to the electrode surfaces. Considering the simplicity of the measurements and direct physical correlations between stress and strain, the proposed models can enhance battery management systems and power management strategies.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON PREMIX COMBUSTION AT ISOSCELES TRIANGLE TYPE RATE OF HEAT RELEASE FOR SQUISH TYPE COMBUSTION CHAMBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a theory on premix fuel combustion at nearisosceles triangle type rate of heat release,describes the measures taken for the combustion system,points out its many theoretical advantages,and that it can solve effectively the problems of rough running,fuel consumption and exhaust emission.Two squish lip type combustion chambers are designed to match separately with multiple holes injector and conical spray type injector in order to achieve premix combustion at near isosceles triangle type rate of heat release.Experimental studies on two single cylinder diesel engines showed that premix combustion at isosceles triangle type rate of heat release resulted in longer ignition delay period,larger amount of fuel injected into cylinder during the ignition delay period,lower maximum pressure,better fuel economy,and better exhaust emission.

  14. Anesthetic concerns in a huge congenital sublingual swelling obscuring airway access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of intraoral pathology poses a great challenge during management of pediatric airway. We report management of big intraoral cystic swelling physically occupying the entire oral cavity restricting access to airway. Preintubation aspiration of swelling was done to decrease its size and make room for airway manipulation, followed by laryngoscopy and intubation in lateral position. Airway patency is at risk in postoperative period also, in this case, though the swelling decreased in size postoperatively but presence of significant edema required placement of tongue stitch and modified nasopharyngeal airway. Case report highlights simple maneuvers to manage a difficult case.

  15. OPTICAL INTERFERENCE METHOD FOR THE STUDY OF MOISTURE SWELLING IN PET FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Changjiang; GAO Junying

    1987-01-01

    A method for measuring moisture swelling of amorphous PET films by using Rayleigh interferometer is reported. Plots of the optical path of light transmission in the polymer vs. soaking time were obtained, and from the same curves, the dependence of time on the moisture swelling, saturated water absorption and diffusion coefficient of PET films were estimated. These results are in agreement with those obtained by weighing method. It is shown that optical interference method is a simple but sensitive method for the study of water absorption and swelling in transparent polymer films.

  16. Mini-open anterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhoke, Gurpreet S; Ricks, Christian; Tempel, Zachary; Zuckerbraun, Brian; Hamilton, D Kojo; Okonkwo, David O; Kanter, Adam S

    2016-07-01

    In deformity surgery, anterior lumbar interbody fusion provides excellent biomechanical support, creates a broad surface area for arthrodesis, and induces lordosis in the lower lumbar spine. Preoperative MRI, plain radiographs, and, when available, CT scan should be carefully assessed for sacral slope as it relates to pubic symphysis, position of the great vessels (especially at L4/5), disc space height, or contraindication to an anterior approach. This video demonstrates the steps in an anterior surgical procedure with minimal open exposure. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/r3bC4_vu1hQ .

  17. How I do it: Anterior pull-through tympanoplasty for anterior eardrum perforations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey P; Wong, Yu-Tung; Yang, Tzong-Hann; Miller, Mia

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions This technique is offered as a convenient and reliable method for cases with anterior TM perforation and inadequate anterior remnant. Objectives Chronic otitis media surgery is one of the most common procedures in otology. Anterior tympanic membrane (TM) perforation with inadequate anterior remnant is associated with higher rates of graft failure. It was the goal of this series to evaluate the anatomical and functional outcomes of a modified underlay myringoplasty technique-the anterior pull-through method. Materials and methods In a retrospective clinical study, 13 patients with anterior TM perforations with inadequate anterior remnants underwent tympanoplasty with anterior pull-through technique. The anterior tip of the temporalis fascia was pulled through and secured in a short incision lateral to the anterior part of the annulus. Data on graft take rate, pre-operative, and post-operative hearing status were analyzed. Results A graft success rate of 84.6% (11 out of 13) was achieved, without lateralization, blunting, atelectasia, or epithelial pearls. The air-bone gap was 21.5 ± 6.8 dB before intervention and 11.75 ± 5.7 dB after surgery (p = 0.003).

  18. Quadriceps muscle contraction protects the anterior cruciate ligament during anterior tibial translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, A K; Cawley, P W; Ekeland, A

    1997-01-01

    The proposed skiing injury mechanism that suggests a quadriceps muscle contraction can contribute to anterior cruciate ligament rupture was biomechanically investigated. The effect of quadriceps muscle force on a knee specimen loaded to anterior cruciate ligament failure during anterior tibial translation was studied in a human cadaveric model. In both knees from six donors, average age 41 years (range, 31 to 65), the joint capsule and ligaments, except the anterior cruciate ligament, were cut. The quadriceps tendon, patella, patellar tendon, and menisci were left intact. One knee from each pair was randomly selected to undergo destructive testing of the anterior cruciate ligament by anterior tibial translation at a displacement rate of 30 mm/sec with a simultaneously applied 889 N quadriceps muscle force. The knee flexion during testing was 30 degrees. As a control, the contralateral knee was loaded correspondingly, but only 5 N of quadriceps muscle force was applied. The ultimate load for the knee to anterior cruciate ligament failure when tested with 889 N quadriceps muscle force was 22% +/- 18% higher than that of knees tested with 5 N of force. The linear stiffness increased by 43% +/- 30%. These results did not support the speculation that a quadriceps muscle contraction contributes to anterior cruciate ligament failure. In this model, the quadriceps muscle force protected the anterior cruciate ligament from injury during anterior tibial translation.

  19. Effects of Swelling Processes on the Particle Morphology of Porous P(MMA-EGDMA) Particles via Seeded Two-step Swelling Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Porous functional polymer particles have been drawing great interest for their applications in many fields such as ion exchange,polymeric carrier,biomedicine,biochemistry,cosmetics,plastic pigments,and were first prepared by suspension polymerization in 1 950 s.Since 1990's,some approaches such as seeded emulsion polymerization method,dynamic monomer swelling method,activated swelling method and multi-step seeded method[1-4] have been used by many researchers to synthesize this kind of polymer...

  20. Median nerve neuropathy in the forearm due to recurrence of anterior wrist ganglion that originates from the scaphotrapezial joint: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Median nerve neuropathy caused by compression from a tumor in the forearm is rare. Cases with anterior wrist ganglion have high recurrence rates despite surgical treatment. Here, we report the recurrence of an anterior wrist ganglion that originated from the Scaphotrapezial joint due to incomplete resection and that caused median nerve neuropathy in the distal forearm. Case presentation A 47-year-old right-handed housewife noted the appearance of soft swelling on the volar aspect of her left distal forearm, and local resection surgery was performed twice at another hospital. One year after the last surgery, the swelling reappeared and was associated with numbness and pain in the radial volar aspect of the hand. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the multicystic lesion originated from the Scaphotrapezial joint and had expanded beyond the wrist. Exploration of the left median nerve showed that it was compressed by a large ovoid cystic lesion at the distal forearm near the proximal end of the carpal tunnel. We resected the cystic lesion to the Scaphotrapezial joint. Her symptoms disappeared 1 week after surgery, and complications or recurrent symptoms were absent 13 months after surgery. Conclusions A typical median nerve compression was caused by incomplete resection of an anterior wrist ganglion, which may have induced widening of the cyst. Cases with anterior wrist ganglion have high recurrence rates and require extra attention in their treatment.

  1. Guideline on anterior cruciate ligament injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Meuffels (Duncan); M.T. Poldervaart (Michelle T.); R.L. Diercks (Ron L.); A.W.F.M. Fievez (Alex W.F.M.); T.W. Patt (Thomas W.); C.P. van der Hart (Cor P.); E.R. Hammacher (Eric); F. van der Meer (Fred); E.A. Goedhart (Edwin A.); A.F. Lenssen (Anton F); S.B. Muller-Ploeger (Sabrina B); M.A. Pols (Margreet); D.B.F. Saris (Daniel)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Dutch Orthopaedic Association has a long tradition of development of practical clinical guidelines. Here we present the recommendations from the multidisciplinary clinical guideline working group for anterior cruciate ligament injury. The following 8 clinical questions were formulate

  2. Care of children with anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1981-09-01

    The clinical features of 290 children with anterior uveitis are presented. The vast majority suffered from chronic uveitis. Specific uveitis entities in children include the syndrome of 'chronic iridocyclitis' in girls, heterochromic cyclitis, and pars planitis. Systemic associations include sarcoidosis, the Vogt-Harada-Koyanagi syndrome, and the seronegative arthritides (juvenile chronic arthritis, juvenile ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and rarely Reiter's and Beçet's syndromes). Children with a pauciarticular onset of juvenile chronic arthritis, especially when combined with positive findings for antinuclear antibody, are at particular risk of developing chronic anterior uveitis. Most cases of chronic anterior uveitis can be controlled with topical corticosteroids. Those that are resistant to both topical and systemic corticosteroids may have to be treated with chlorambucil. The operation of lensectomy is a great advance in the management of complicated cataract. Secondary glaucoma is the most devastating complication of chronic anterior uveitis in children and responds poorly to therapy.

  3. Head positioning for anterior circulation aneurysms microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feres Chaddad-Neto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the ideal patient's head positioning for the anterior circulation aneurysms microsurgery. Method We divided the study in two parts. Firstly, 10 fresh cadaveric heads were positioned and dissected in order to ideally expose the anterior circulation aneurysm sites. Afterwards, 110 patients were submitted to anterior circulation aneurysms microsurgery. During the surgery, the patient's head was positioned accordingly to the aneurysm location and the results from the cadaveric study. The effectiveness of the position was noted. Results We could determine mainly two patterns for head positioning for the anterior circulation aneurysms. Conclusion The best surgical exposure is related to specific head positions. The proper angle of microscopic view may minimize neurovascular injury and brain retraction.

  4. Miocene reef-coral diversity of Indonesia: unlocking the murky origins of the Coral Triangle (Utrecht Studies in Earth Sciences 063)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santodomingo Aguilar, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Reefs in the Coral Triangle host the richest marine diversity today. While the biodiversity gradients associated with the Coral Triangle are progressively better documented, the mechanisms responsible for the origins and maintenance of this pattern still remain obscure. Until recently, palaeontologi

  5. The CKM matrix and the unitarity triangle. Proceedings, workshop, Geneva, Switzerland, February 13-16, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Battaglia et al.

    2004-04-02

    This report contains the results of the Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle that was held at CERN on 13-16 February 2002. There had been several Workshops on B physics that concentrated on studies at e{sup +}e{sup -} machines, at the Tevatron, or at LHC separately. Here we brought together experts of different fields, both theorists and experimentalists, to study the determination of the CKM matrix from all the available data of K, D, and B physics. The analysis of LEP data for B physics is reaching its end, and one of the goals of the Workshop was to underline the results that have been achieved at LEP, SLC, and CESR. Another goal was to prepare for the transfer of responsibility for averaging B physics properties, that has developed within the LEP community, to the present main actors of these studies, from the B factory and the Tevatron experiments. The optimal way to combine the various experimental and theoretical inputs and to fit for the apex of the Unitarity Triangle has been a contentious issue. A further goal of the Workshop was to bring together the proponents of different fitting strategies, and to compare their approaches when applied to the same inputs. Since lattice QCD plays a very important role in the determination of the non-perturbative parameters needed to constrain the CKM unitarity triangle, the first Workshop was seen as an excellent opportunity to bring together lattice theorists with the aim of establishing a working group to compile averages for phenomenologically relevant quantities. Representatives from lattice collaborations around the world were invited to attend a meeting during the Workshop. A consensus was reached to set up three test working groups, collectively known as the ''CKM Lattice Working Group'', to review a number of well-studied quantities: quark masses, the kaon B-parameter, and the matrix elements relevant for neutral B-meson mixing. This report is organized as a coherent document with chapters

  6. Gelation and Swelling Behavior of Oxidized Konjac Glucomannan/Chitosan Hydrogel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The gelating and swelling mechanisms of the hydrogel formed from oxidized konjac glucomannan (OKGM) and chitosan (CS) were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry. FT-IR spectra illustrate that the interaction of polysaccharides forms the hydrogen bonds and interchain salt bonds and the dissociation of which dominates the swelling behavior in buffer solutions of different pH. The concentration of salt ion has effect on swelling behavior through the difference of salt ion concentration between in solution and in network of hydrogel, which causes penetrating pressure. Moreover, the Swelling degree and hydrogel strength could be modulated by varying conditions. It is indicated that the hydrogel has pH-sensitive and salt ion sensitive properties. The prepared optimum condition selected by varying conditions is that r = 0.2; t =30 min; Tp=343 K and I =1.6.

  7. Network Modelling of the Influence of Swelling on the Transport Behaviour of Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatios Athanasiadis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetting of bentonite is a complex hydro-mechanical process that involves swelling and, if confined, significant structural changes in its void structure. A coupled structural transport network model is proposed to investigate the effect of wetting of bentonite on retention conductivity and swelling pressure response. The transport network of spheres and pipes, representing voids and throats, respectively, relies on Laplace–Young’s equation to model the wetting process. The structural network uses a simple elasto-plastic approach without hardening to model the rearrangement of the fabric. Swelling is introduced in the form of an eigenstrain in the structural elements, which are adjacent to water filled spheres. For a constrained cell, swelling is shown to produce plastic strains, which result in a reduction of pipe and sphere spaces and, therefore, influence the conductivity and retention behaviour.

  8. Influence of nickel and beryllium content on swelling behavior of copper irradiated with fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.N.; Garner, F.A.; Edwards, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Evans, J.H.

    1996-10-01

    In the 1970`s, the effects of nickel content on the evolution of dislocation microstructures and the formation and growth of voids in Cu-Ni alloys were studied using 1 MeV electrons in a high voltage electron microscope. The swelling rate was found to decrease rapidly with increasing nickel content. The decrease in the swelling rate was associated with a decreasing void growth rate with increasing nickel content at irradiation temperatures up to 450{degrees}C. At 500{degrees}C, both void size and swelling rate were found to peak at 1 and 2% Ni, respectively, and then to decrease rapidly with increasing nickel content. However, recent work has demonstrated that the swelling behavior of Cu-5%Ni irradiated with fission neutrons is very similar for that of pure copper. The present experiments were designed to investigate this apparent discrepancy.

  9. Parotid swelling due to Hoshino strain following MMR vac-cination in iranian immunization program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Avijgan; Mandana Moghni; Seyyed Kamyar Mostafavi Zadeh; Masoud Hafizi

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports two seronegative cases of parotid swelling following MMR vaccination,which contains Hoshino strain of mumps virus.This study showed a high,(5%)potential reactogenicity induced by Hoshino strain of current MMR vaccine administered in Iranian EPI.The rate of complication of parotid swelling follow-ing national immunization against mumps is more than natural infection.Based on the results of this report, there is the first report of occurrence of parotid swelling 31 days following MMR vaccination.This reaction or complication may not be dependent on the vaccine dose,because one of cases presented parotid swelling fol-lowing taking one fifth of conventional dose of vaccine.It must be considered this strain may be with high rate of complication and be the subject of change of mumps strain of this vaccine in national immunization program of Iran.

  10. Coupling behavior of the pH/temperature sensitive hydrogels for the inhomogeneous and homogeneous swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, H.; Baghani, M.; Naghdabadi, R.; Sohrabpour, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a model is developed to continuously predict homogeneous and inhomogeneous swelling behavior of pH/temperature sensitive PNIPAM hydrogels. Employing the model, homogeneous swelling of the pH/temperature sensitive hydrogel is investigated for free and biaxial constrained swelling cases. Comparing the model results with the experimental data available in the literature, the validity of the model is confirmed. The model is then employed to investigate inhomogeneous swelling of a spherical shell on a hard core both analytically and numerically for pH or temperature variations. In this regard, numerical tools are developed via preparing a user defined subroutine in ABAQUS software. Then, the complicated problem of contact between the hydrogel shell and a micro-channel with rigid walls is also investigated. Considering the results, we can say that the model is applicable for solving engineering boundary value problem of pH/temperature sensitive hydrogels.

  11. Effect of compression therapy on knee swelling and pain after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Stig; Jensen, Niels J. F.; Andersen, Ida Bøgh;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Knee swelling after total knee arthroplasty may impair postoperative mobilisation and training, and as medical elastic compression stockings are well tolerated and effective to prevent oedema, haematoma and postoperative pain after venous surgery, we wanted to study whether this effect...... could be transferred to total knee arthroplasty surgery reducing postoperative swelling and pain and thereby facilitating mobilisation and improving patient-reported knee function. METHODS: In a randomised controlled study, 88 patients were randomised to use either a medical elastic compression stocking...... or no stocking from the first postoperative day and the following 4 weeks after total knee arthroplasty. Outcome measures were knee, calf and ankle swelling, knee flexion, pain and patient-reported knee function. RESULTS: Seventy per cent of the swelling had occurred before application of the stocking the day...

  12. Upper anterior zone restoration with composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lamas Lara, César; CD, Docente del Área de Operatoria Dental y Endodoncia de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Angulo de la Vega, Giselle; CD, Alumna de la Especialidad de Rehabilitación Oral de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    The anterior sector problems are very common in our professional practice and became vital importance to make a suitable rehabilitation in these cases; we can not do a good rehabilitation if we do not know the basic characteristics, both aesthetic and functional. Today the composites are a valid alternative for the restoration of the anterior sector, since they offer to us a conservative and aesthetic possibility, but independently of the material to use we have to based on certain rules or p...

  13. Erlotinib-related bilateral anterior uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kashif; Kumar, Indu; Usman-Saeed, Muniba; Usman Saeed, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 68-year-old woman with secondary adenocarcinoma of the lungs from an unknown primary. Erlotinib was started which produced symptoms suggestive of uveitis. Erlotinib was stopped and restarted a month later at a lower dose, which resulted in severe bilateral anterior uveitis. The uveitis settled after stopping erlotinib and treatment with topical steroids and cycloplegics. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of erlotinib-related anterior uveitis. PMID:22694887

  14. Risk factors for lower limb swelling after primary total knee arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Fu-qiang; LI Zi-jian; ZHANG Ke; David Huang; LIU Zhong-jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful surgical technique for patients with advanced knee osteoarthritis; however,some peri-operative complications can not be predicted or avoided completely.This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting limb swelling after primary total knee arthroplasty,to guide and improve patient rehabilitation.Methods Using a hospital database,we retroactively analyzed the mean changes in limb circumferences of 286 consecutive patients who underwent primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty between October 2007 and August 2009.The lower limb circumference change was calculated and analyzed statistically.The influence of age,gender,body mass index,the presence of deep vein thrombosis,methods of anti-coagulation,operation time,hidden blood loss,and type of prosthesis on post-operative lower limb swelling was studied.Results Swelling was most pronounced from the third to the fifth post-operative day and usually occurred in both lower limbs.Swelling was significantly more pronounced in the operated limb than in the non-operated limb.The swelling above the knee was also significantly greater than that below the knee.The change in limb circumference at 10 cm above the knee was significantly different between the patients with body mass index <25 kg/m2 and those with body mass index >25 kg/m2.However,the change in limb circumference at 10 cm below the knee was not significantly different between the two groups.There was no statistically significant difference in limb swelling between different age groups (P >0.05).Similarly,gender,methods of anti-coagulation,the presence of deep vein thrombosis,the type of prosthesis,and operation time did not significantly affect post-operative limb swelling.Multivariate linear regression showed that the factors affecting post-operative limb swelling were body mass index and hidden blood loss.Conclusions Lower limb swelling after total knee arthroplasty is related to early post

  15. Anterior Eye Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong

    The development of corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology has advanced rapidly in recently years. The scan geometry and imaging wavelength are both important choices to make in designing anterior segment OCT systems. Rectangular scan geometry offers the least image distortion and is now used in most anterior OCT systems. The wavelength of OCT light source affects resolution and penetration. An optimal choice of the OCT imaging wavelength (840, 1,050, or 1,310 nm) depends on the application of interest. Newer generation Fourier-domain OCT technology can provide scan speed 100-1000 times faster than the time-domain technology. Various commercial anterior OCT systems are available on the market. A wide spectrum of diagnostic and surgical applications using anterior segment OCT had been investigated, including mapping of corneal and epithelial thicknesses, keratoconus screening, measuring corneal refractive power, corneal surgery planning and evaluation in LASIK, intracorneal ring implantation, assessment of angle closure glaucoma, anterior chamber biometry and intraocular lens implants, intraocular lens power calculation, and eye bank donor cornea screening.

  16. A Simple Optical Model for the Swelling Evaluation in Polymer Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna De Girolamo Del Mauro

    2009-01-01

    In particular, the behavior of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA and of carbon black/PHEMA nanocomposite layers, used for volatile organic compounds (VOCs detection, was investigated and measured under ethanol vapors exposure (max 1%. The method is very sensitive and the swelling in the range of only few nanometers can be measured. Interestingly, we have found that the nanocomposite undergoes a more pronounced swelling process with respect to pristine polymer. Ethanol diffusion coefficients in the nanocomposite were evaluated.

  17. Pinch and swell structures: evidence for brittle-viscous behaviour in the middle crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gardner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The flow properties of middle to lower crustal rocks are commonly represented by viscous flow. However, examples of pinch and swell structures found in a mid-crustal high strain zone at St. Anne Point (Fiordland, New Zealand suggest pinch and swell structures are initiated by brittle failure of the more competent layer in conjunction with material softening. On this basis we develop a flexible numerical model using brittle-viscous flow where Mohr–Coulomb failure is utilised to initiate pinch and swell structure development. Results show that pinch and swell structures develop in a competent layer in both Newtonian and non-Newtonian flow provided the competent layer has enough viscosity contrast and initially fails brittlely. The degree of material softening after initial failure is shown to impact pinch and swell characteristics with high rates of material softening causing the formation of thick necks between swells by limiting the successful localisation of strain. The flow regime and yielding characteristics of the matrix do not impact pinch and swell structure formation itself, so long as the matrix is less competent. To aid analysis of the structures and help derive the flow properties of rocks in the field, we define three stages of pinch and swell development and offer suggestions for measurements to be made in the field. Our study suggests that Mohr–Coulomb behaviour combined with viscous flow is an appropriate way to represent the heterogeneous rocks of the middle to lower crust. This type of mid-crustal rheological behaviour has significant influence on the localization of strain at all scales. For example, inclusion of Mohr–Coulomb brittle failure with viscous flow in just some mid-crustal layers within a crustal scale model will result in strain localisation throughout the whole crustal section allowing the development of through-going high strain structures from the upper crust into the middle and lower crust. This

  18. Network Modelling of the Influence of Swelling on the Transport Behaviour of Bentonite

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatios Athanasiadis; Simon Wheeler; Peter Grassl

    2016-01-01

    Wetting of bentonite is a complex hydro-mechanical process that involves swelling and, if confined, significant structural changes in its void structure. A coupled structural transport network model is proposed to investigate the effect of wetting of bentonite on retention conductivity and swelling pressure response. The transport network of spheres and pipes, representing voids and throats, respectively, relies on Laplace–Young’s equation to model the wetting process. The structural network ...

  19. Swelling and Creep of Isocyanate-Bonded Oriented-Particle Board

    OpenAIRE

    SEKINO, Noboru; Suzuki, Masaharu

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports swelling, bending strength, and creep of Isocyanate(ls)bonded oriented-particleboard(face: orlented, core: random), which is compared with Phenol-formaldehyde(PF) bonded and Urea-formaldehyde(UF) bonded oriented-particleboards.Test results are summarized as follows:1) The orientation of flakes greatly reduces linear expansion along the oriented dlreCtion, but the thickness swelling of oriented board is almost equal to that of random-orientedboard.2) ls-bonded particleboard...

  20. Neck swelling from a retropharyngeal abscess caused by penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background In small children, retropharyngeal abscesses usually occur after upper respiratory tract infections. Unlike in adults, these abscesses are difficult to diagnose in small children, and can rapidly develop into deep neck or mediastinal abscesses. Case presentation A 2-year-old Japanese boy recently presented to our department with a chief complaint of neck swelling. Physical examination revealed bilateral tonsillitis and swelling of the left posterior pharyngeal wall. Emergency neck ...

  1. Enhanced transduction of photonic crystal dye lasers for gas sensing via swelling polymer film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Cameron; Lind, Johan Ulrik; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner;

    2011-01-01

    We present the enhanced transduction of a photonic crystal dye laser for gas sensing via deposition of an additional swelling polymer film. Device operation involves swelling of the polymer film during exposure to specific gases, leading to a change in total effective refractive index. Experimental...... in its application to other intracavity-based detection schemes to enable gas sensing. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  2. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis manifested as painful clavicular swelling: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bleckwenn, Markus; Sommer, Bernd; Weckbecker, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis is a form of non-bacterial osteomyelitis which occurs primarily in childhood. In some cases painful bone swelling occurs. After a malignancy has been ruled out, antibiotic therapy is often started to treat the osteomyelitis. The course of this benign disease is self-limiting and is not positively affected by the antibiotic therapy. Case presentation A 14-year-old German girl from South Africa came to the surgery with painful swelling in th...

  3. How Much Do Ultrathin Polymers with Intrinsic Microporosity Swell in Liquids?

    KAUST Repository

    Ogieglo, Wojciech

    2016-09-13

    As synthetic membrane materials, polymers with intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) have demonstrated unprecedented permeation and molecular-separation properties. Here, we report the swelling characteristics of submicron-thick supported films of spirobisindane-based PIMs, PIM-1 and PIM-6FDA-OH, for six organic solvents and water using in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. Surprisingly, PIMs swell significantly in most organic solvents, with swelling factors (SF = h/h) as high as 2.5. This leads to the loss of the ultrarigid character of the polymer and produces equilibrated liquid-like swollen films. Filling of the excess frozen-in fractional free volume with liquid was discovered next to swelling-induced polymer matrix dilation. Water hardly swells the polymer matrix, but it penetrates into the intrinsic microporous structure. This study is the first to provide fundamental swelling data for PIMs, leading to better comprehension of their permeation properties. Such an understanding is indispensable for applications such as solvent filtration, natural-gas separation, and ion retention in flow batteries.

  4. Does low-level laser therapy decrease swelling and pain resulting from orthognathic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, G; Rodrigues de Siqueira, I C; Rezende Costa, L

    2014-07-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) could be an alternative for the treatment of swelling and pain after orthognathic surgery, but there is a paucity of data in the literature on the effects of its use. This study verified the efficacy of an LLLT protocol to reduce swelling and pain after orthognathic surgery. Ten healthy patients who underwent a bilateral sagittal split with Le Fort I osteotomy were randomly selected for this study. The LLLT protocol consisted of intraoral and extraoral application to one side of the face after surgery (irradiated side); application to the other side was simulated (non-irradiated side). The irradiated and non-irradiated sides were compared regarding the swelling coefficient and were assessed for pain using a visual analogue scale. There were no significant differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated sides regarding swelling and pain in the immediate postoperative assessment. Swelling decreased significantly on the irradiated side in the postoperative assessments on days 3, 7, 15, and 30. Self-reported pain was less intense on the irradiated side at the 24-h (1.2 vs. 3.4) and 3-day (0.6 vs. 2.1) assessments, but at 7 days after surgery neither side showed pain. This LLLT protocol can improve the tissue response and reduce the pain and swelling resulting from orthognathic surgery.

  5. SWELLING BEHAVIOR OF ACRYLAMIDE HYDROGEL IN DIFFERENT SOLVENTS AND pHs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. F. Mina; M. M. Alam

    2005-01-01

    Swelling property of acrylamide hydrogels, prepared from aqueous solutions of acrylamide monomer having concentrations in the range of 10-60 wt% by γ-ray irradiation method using a Co-60 gamma radiation source at doses ranging 1-30.0 kGy, has been investigated under various swelling media. These swelling media were basically solvents (solutions), produced by dissolving methanol, ethanol, glucose, sucrose, sodium chloride and sodium persulfate individually with distilled water, and solutions prepared with phs = 3, 7 and 10. The investigation was performed in order to observe the effect of these solvents and phs as well as the influence of monomer concentrations, radiation doses and times on swelling behavior of hydrogels. Swelling values were found higher for hydrogels prepared with lower monomer concentrations (ca.20 wt%) and radiation doses (ca. 5 kGy) and showed a leveling off tendency within 24 h. The glucose solvent and the buffer solution of pH = 10 revealed significant increase of swelling of hydrogels as compared to other solutions. Results are explained based on crosslinking density in hydrogel, polymer-solvent/polymer-polymer interactions in solutions,permeability of molecules in solutions and ionization capacity of hydrogel in pH.

  6. Extracellular acidification elicits a chloride current that shares characteristics with ICl(swell).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Muriel; Higgins, Christopher F; Sardini, Alessandro

    2004-11-01

    A Cl- current activated by extracellular acidification, ICl(pHac), has been characterized in various mammalian cell types. Many of the properties of ICl(pHac) are similar to those of the cell swelling-activated Cl- current ICl(swell): ion selectivity (I- > Br- > Cl- > F-), pharmacology [ICl(pHac) is inhibited by 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), 1,9-dideoxyforskolin (DDFSK), diphenylamine-2-carboxylic acid (DPC), and niflumic acid], lack of dependence on intra- or extracellular Ca2+, and presence in all cell types tested. ICl(pHac) differs from ICl(swell) in three aspects: 1) its rate of activation and inactivation is very much more rapid, currents reaching a maximum in seconds rather than minutes; 2) it exhibits a slow voltage-dependent activation in contrast to the fast voltage-dependent activation and time- and voltage-dependent inactivation observed for ICl(swell); and 3) it shows a more pronounced outward rectification. Despite these differences, study of the transition between the two currents strongly suggests that ICl(swell) and ICl(pHac) are related and that extracellular acidification reflects a novel stimulus for activating ICl(swell) that, additionally, alters the biophysical properties of the channel.

  7. Modeling and Investigation of the Swelling Kinetics of Acrylamide-Sodium Acrylate Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Seyhun Kipcak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acrylamide-sodium acrylate hydrogel was synthesized by free radical polymerization of the method of solution polymerization. Dynamic swelling tests were conducted at 25, 40, and 60°C temperatures, in order to investigate the swelling properties of the synthesized hydrogel. The results have shown that swelling content and swelling rate of the hydrogel increase with increasing the swelling water temperature. The diffusivity values changed from 1.81×10-7 to 2.97×10-7 m2 s−1 over the temperature range. The activation energies were found as 3.56, 3.71, and 3.86 kJ mol−1 at 25, 40, and 60°C, respectively. The experimental drying curves obtained were fitted to a three different models, namely, Peleg’s, first-order absorption kinetic, and exponential association equation models. All the models applied provided a good agreement with the experimental data with high values of the coefficient of determination (R2, the least values of the reduced chi-square (χ2, and root mean square error (RMSE. Comparing the determination of coefficient, reduced chi-square, and root mean square error values of three models, it was concluded that the exponential association equation model represents swelling characteristics better than the others.

  8. Synthesis, Characterization and Swelling Characteristics of Graft Copolymerized Isotactic Polypropylene Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teena Sehgal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Grafted membranes were prepared through chemical graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA onto isotactic polypropylene film (IPP. The IPP films were grafted with MMA molecules resulting in IPP-g-MMA grafts using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator in an inert nitrogen atmosphere. Using this method, the degree of grafting and morphology could be controlled through the variation of reaction parameters such as initiator concentration, monomer concentration, reaction time, and the reaction temperature. Optimum conditions pertaining to maximum percentage of grafting (%G were evaluated as a function of these parameters. Maximum percentage of grafting (50% was obtained at [BPO]=0.03 M, [MMA]=10% V/V, and [Reaction Temperature] = 70∘C in a [Reaction time] of 120 minutes. IPP-g-MMA films were investigated for their swelling behavior. Water-swelling analysis of IPP-g-MMA was carried out as a function of different percentage of grafting, temperatures, and time. Maximum swelling percentage of IPP-g-MMA (92% was observed in 8 hours at 60∘C. The evidence of grafting was carried out by Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM before and after grafting, respectively. The swelling pattern was characterized by two distinct stages, an initial diffusion-controlled fast swelling, followed by a subsequent slower process controlled by the relaxation of polymer fragments. Swelling chrematistics of IPP-g-MMA make it a potentially useful material.

  9. A Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control for a Ball and Rigid Triangle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguilar-Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of linear flatness control along with active disturbance rejection control (ADRC for the local stabilization and trajectory tracking problems in the underactuated ball and rigid triangle system. To this end, an observer-based linear controller of the ADRC type is designed based on the flat tangent linearization of the system around its corresponding unstable equilibrium rest position. It was accomplished through two decoupled linear extended observers and a single linear output feedback controller, with disturbance cancelation features. The controller guarantees locally exponentially asymptotic stability for the stabilization problem and practical local stability in the solution of the tracking error. An advantage of combining the flatness and the ADRC methods is that it possible to perform online estimates and cancels the undesirable effects of the higher-order nonlinearities discarded by the linearization approximation. Simulation indicates that the proposed controller behaves remarkably well, having an acceptable domain of attraction.

  10. Wide range tuning of resonant frequency for a vortex core in a regular triangle magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakata, Satoshi; Tanaka, Terumitsu; Kiseki, Kohei; Matsuyama, Kimihide; Kimura, Takashi

    2013-12-20

    A magnetic vortex structure stabilized in a micron or nano-sized ferromagnetic disk has a strong potential as a unit cell for spin-based nano-electronic devices because of negligible magnetostatic interaction and superior thermal stability. Moreover, various intriguing fundamental physics such as bloch point reversal and symmetry breaking can be induced in the dynamical behaviors in the magnetic vortex. The static and dynamic properties of the magnetic vortex can be tuned by the disk dimension and/or the separation distance between the disks. However, to realize these modifications, the preparations of other devices with different sample geometries are required. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that, in a regular-triangle Permalloy dot, the dynamic properties of a magnetic vortex are greatly modified by the application of the in-plane magnetic field. The obtained wide range tunability based on the asymmetric position dependence of the core potential provides attractive performances in the microwave spintronic devices.

  11. The star-triangle relation, lens partition function, and hypergeometric sum/integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Gahramanov, Ilmar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to consider the hyperbolic limit of an elliptic hypergeometric sum/integral identity, and associated lattice model of statistical mechanics previously obtained by the second author. The hyperbolic sum/integral identity obtained from this limit, has two important physical applications in the context of the so-called gauge/YBE correspondence. For statistical mechanics, this identity is equivalent to a new solution of the star-triangle relation form of the Yang-Baxter equation, that directly generalises the Faddeev-Volkov models to the case of discrete and continuous spin variables. On the gauge theory side, this identity represents the duality of lens ($S_b^3/\\mathbb{Z}_r$) partition functions, for certain three-dimensional $\\mathcal N = 2$ supersymmetric gauge theories.

  12. The star-triangle relation, lens partition function, and hypergeometric sum/integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahramanov, Ilmar; Kels, Andrew P.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present paper is to consider the hyperbolic limit of an elliptic hypergeometric sum/integral identity, and associated lattice model of statistical mechanics previously obtained by the second author. The hyperbolic sum/integral identity obtained from this limit, has two important physical applications in the context of the so-called gauge/YBE correspondence. For statistical mechanics, this identity is equivalent to a new solution of the star-triangle relation form of the Yang-Baxter equation, that directly generalises the Faddeev-Volkov models to the case of discrete and continuous spin variables. On the gauge theory side, this identity represents the duality of lens ({S}_b^3/{Z}_r) partition functions, for certain three-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories.

  13. Linear Characteristic Spatial Quadrature for Discrete Ordinates Neutral Particle Transport on Arbitrary Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    1•) + ) •,(v)(•,L) = ()(Q)+ sEXT (F). (4) The scalar flux, 0, is related to the angular flux, W, by (F)= f (dQ Vh) (5) and the particle current, J...J," v,p’) u +at(U, v) w(u, U, p’)= as(u, v) O(u, v) + SEXT (uv)] (92) 0 Ul,(V) I Assuming the area of the triangle is sufficiently small that cross...M + SEXT () (98) Wvn and WoUT are angular flux averages along the input and output edges, respectively, and are defined by WD Iv = f- ds. V(s.v) (99

  14. MILITARYPOLITICAL RELATIONS IN THE TRIANGLE US — TURKEY — FRANCE: 2009–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Avatkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores interaction in the U.S.-Turkey-France triangle on military and political issues related to the rejoining of NATO military organization by France in 2009. This analysis is important to clarify the level of NATO coherence, speed of the emergence of polycentric world and to forecast behavior of these three partners. The article studies differences in doctrines and approaches of the three countries to the Iranian, Syrian, Libyan and Afghan crises. In regards to each of the crises interests of three countries are identified, which define their poitions. The authors come to the conclusion that existing differences are not deep and reflect divergent rather than antagonistic interests.

  15. Three-dimensional object recognition using similar triangles and decision trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly

    1993-01-01

    A system, TRIDEC, that is capable of distinguishing between a set of objects despite changes in the objects' positions in the input field, their size, or their rotational orientation in 3D space is described. TRIDEC combines very simple yet effective features with the classification capabilities of inductive decision tree methods. The feature vector is a list of all similar triangles defined by connecting all combinations of three pixels in a coarse coded 127 x 127 pixel input field. The classification is accomplished by building a decision tree using the information provided from a limited number of translated, scaled, and rotated samples. Simulation results are presented which show that TRIDEC achieves 94 percent recognition accuracy in the 2D invariant object recognition domain and 98 percent recognition accuracy in the 3D invariant object recognition domain after training on only a small sample of transformed views of the objects.

  16. Analytic solutions for links and triangles distributions in finite Barabási-Albert networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ricardo M.; de Almeida, Rita M. C.; Brunnet, Leonardo G.

    2017-01-01

    Barabási-Albert model describes many different natural networks, often yielding sensible explanations to the subjacent dynamics. However, finite size effects may prevent from discerning among different underlying physical mechanisms and from determining whether a particular finite system is driven by Barabási-Albert dynamics. Here we propose master equations for the evolution of the degrees, links and triangles distributions, solve them both analytically and by numerical iteration, and compare with numerical simulations. The analytic solutions for all these distributions predict the network evolution for systems as small as 100 nodes. The analytic method we developed is applicable for other classes of networks, representing a powerful tool to investigate the evolution of natural networks.

  17. Analysis of Mode Quality Factors for Equilateral Triangle Semiconductor Microlasers with Rough Sidewalls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永箴; 国伟华; 于丽娟

    2002-01-01

    The eigenmode characteristics for equilateral triangle resonator (ETR) semiconductor microlasers are analysed by the finite-difference time-domain technique and the Pade approximation. The random Gaussian correlation function and sinusoidal function are used to model the side roughness of the ETR. The numerical results show that the roughness can cause the split of the degenerative modes, but the confiJned modes can still have a high quality factor. For the ETR with a 3 μm side length and the sinusoidal fluctuation, we can have a quality factor of 800 for the fundamental mode in the wavelength of 1500nm, as the amplitude of roughness is 7.5 nm.

  18. Pharyngoesophageal Obstruction on the Killian-Laimer Triangle by Zenker's Diverticulum: Case Report and Clinical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Tulio F; Chagas, Carlos A A; Pires, Lucas A S; Cisne, Rafael; Babinski, Marcio A

    2015-12-01

    Zenker's diverticulum is a form of esophageal and pharyngeal obstruction located at the Killian-Laimer triangle. It is relatively common in elderly man (seventh or eighth decade of life), and its pathophysiology is not completely understood, albeit theories regarding dysfunction of the upper esophageal sphincter were reported. The main symptoms are dysphagia and odynophagia, but it can complicate to aspiration and perforation of the pharyngeal pouch; also, it can be asymptomatic. Diagnosis is provided through a barium esophagogram. Treatment can be performed through endoscopic surgery, diverticulopexy and myotomy of the cricopharyngeus muscle, although there is no consensus among surgeons regarding the treatment of choice. We report a case of pharyngeal obstruction due to Zenker's diverticulum which caused massive weight loss in a 76-year-old male.

  19. 2000 CKM-triangle analysis a critical review with updated experimental inputs and theoretical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roudeau, P.; Stocchi, A. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Ciuchini, M.; Lubicz, V. [Rome Univ., INFN (Italy); D' Agostini, G.; Franco, E.; Martinelli, G. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza and Sezione INFN, (Italy); Parodi, F. [Universita di Genova and INFN, Dipt. di Fisica (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    Within the Standard Model, a review of the current determination of the sides and angles of the CKM unitarity triangle is presented, using experimental constraints from the measurements of |{epsilon}{sub K}|, |V{sub ub}/V{sub cb}|, {delta}m{sub d} and from the limit on {delta}m{sub s}, available in September 2000. Results from the experimental search for B{sup 0}{sub s}-B-bar{sup 0}{sub s} oscillations are introduced in the present analysis using the likelihood. Special attention is devoted to the determination of the theoretical uncertainties. The purpose of the analysis is to infer regions where the parameters of interest lie with given probabilities. The BaBar '95% C.L. scanning' method is also commented. (authors)

  20. The role of a triangle singularity in the $\\gamma p\\rightarrow K^+ \\Lambda(1405)$ reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, En; Liang, Wei-Hong; Guo, Feng-Kun; Oset, Eulogio

    2016-01-01

    We show the effects of a triangle singularity mechanism for the $\\gamma p \\to K^+\\Lambda(1405)$ reaction. The mechanism has a $N^*$ resonance around 2030~MeV, which decays into $K^* \\Sigma$. The $K^*$ decays to $K^+ \\pi$, and the $\\pi \\Sigma$ merge to form the $\\Lambda(1405)$. This mechanism produces a peak around $\\sqrt{s} = 2110$~MeV, and has its largest contribution around cos$\\theta=0$. The addition of this mechanism to other conventional ones, leads to a good reproduction of ${\\rm d}\\sigma/{\\rm dcos}\\theta$ and the integrated cross section around this energy, providing a solution to a problem encountered in previous theoretical models.