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Sample records for anterior pituitary

  1. Plurihormonal cells of normal anterior pituitary: Facts and conclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrofanova, Lubov B.; Konovalov, Petr V.; Krylova, Julia S.; Polyakova, Victoria O.; Kvetnoy, Igor M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction plurihormonality of pituitary adenomas is an ability of adenoma cells to produce more than one hormone. After the immunohistochemical analysis had become a routine part of the morphological study, a great number of adenomas appeared to be multihormonal in actual practice. We hypothesize that the same cells of a normal pituitary gland releases several hormones simultaneously. Objective To analyse a possible co-expression of hormones by the cells of the normal anterior pituitary of...

  2. Morphologic changes in the anterior pituitary gland of male wistar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mixed Palm oil diets have been reported to alter the morphology of testes, which is related to the pituitary-testicular axis. Aims: To determine the morphologic changes of the anterior pituitary gland following high consumption of mixed palm oil diets. Methods: Twelve (12) albino wistar rats were divided into three ...

  3. Effects of irradiation on the anterior pituitary of young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriishi, Reijiro; Tsunoda, Shigeru; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Ohishi, Hajime; Okamoto, Shingo; Tsujii, Tadasu

    1994-01-01

    We examined irradiation-induced damage to the anterior pituitary of young rats, particularly to the folliculo-stellate (F-S) cells. The whole brain of 3-week-old Wistar rats (n=24), was irradiated once with a linear accelerator (Linac). The pituitary gland was removed after sacrifice and fixed in formalin. Pituitary specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E), or immunostained for S-100 protein, growth hormone (GH), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by the ABC technique. Angiogenesis in the chronic stage after irradiation was related to an increase of F-S cells in the subacute stage. The decrease in GH cells and ACTH cells after irradiation was dose-dependent, with more severe irradiation-induced damage being in GH cells than in ACTH cells. (author)

  4. Sellar plasmacytoma presenting with symptoms of anterior pituitary dysfunction

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    Ana G Ferreira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sellar plasmacytomas are rare and the differential diagnosis with non-functioning pituitary adenomas might be difficult because of clinical and radiological resemblance. They usually present with neurological signs and intact anterior pituitary function. Some may already have or eventually progress to multiple myeloma. We describe a case associated with extensive anterior pituitary involvement, which is a rare form of presentation. A 68-year-old man was referred to our Endocrinology outpatient clinic due to gynecomastia, reduced libido and sexual impotence. Physical examination, breast ultrasound and mammography confirmed bilateral gynecomastia. Blood tests revealed slight hyperprolactinemia, low testosterone levels, low cortisol levels and central hypothyroidism. Sellar MRI showed a heterogeneous sellar mass (56 × 60 × 61 mm, initially suspected as an invasive macroadenoma. After correcting the pituitary deficits with hydrocortisone and levothyroxine, the patient underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Histological examination revealed a plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma was ruled out. The patient was unsuccessfully treated with radiation therapy (no tumor shrinkage. Myeloma ultimately developed, with several other similar lesions in different locations. The patient was started on chemotherapy, had a bone marrow transplant and is now stable (progression free on lenalidomide and dexamethasone. The presenting symptoms and panhypopituitarism persisted, requiring chronic replacement treatment with levothyroxine, hydrocortisone and testosterone.

  5. Continuous perifusion of dispersed anterior pituitary cells: technical aspects.

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    Evans, W S; Cronin, M J; Thorner, M O

    1983-01-01

    Continuous perifusion of dispersed anterior pituitary cells is a powerful dynamic in vitro technique that complements the static incubation technique of primary culture. The major advantages of perifusion include the ability to challenge cells with test substance in a pulsatile manner and to monitor the immediate response. Furthermore, the accumulation of hormonal product and proteolytic enzymes, with their potential effects on cell function, is essentially eliminated as a concern. Finally, although methods using static techniques are available, experiments using continuously perifused dispersed cells can be initiated soon after removal of the gland from the donor animal. We and others have found this system to be useful in the study of hormone secretion by the anterior pituitary. We expect that the system will lend itself equally well to investigations of other cellular processes involving the export of organic and inorganic substances.

  6. Plurihormonal cells of normal anterior pituitary: Facts and conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanova, Lubov B; Konovalov, Petr V; Krylova, Julia S; Polyakova, Victoria O; Kvetnoy, Igor M

    2017-04-25

    plurihormonality of pituitary adenomas is an ability of adenoma cells to produce more than one hormone. After the immunohistochemical analysis had become a routine part of the morphological study, a great number of adenomas appeared to be multihormonal in actual practice. We hypothesize that the same cells of a normal pituitary gland releases several hormones simultaneously. To analyse a possible co-expression of hormones by the cells of the normal anterior pituitary of adult humans in autopsy material. We studied 10 pituitary glands of 4 women and 6 men with cardiovascular and oncological diseases. Double staining immunohistochemistry using 11 hormone combinations was performed in all the cases. These combinations were: prolactin/thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin/luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin/adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH)/TSH, GH/LH, GH/FSH, GH/ACTH, TSH/LH, TSH/FSH, TSH/ACTH. Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy with a mixture of primary antibodies was performed in 2 cases. These mixtures were ACTH/prolactin, FSH/prolactin, TSH/prolactin, ACTH/GH, and FSH/GH. We found that the same cells of the normal adenohypophysis can co-express prolactin with ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH; GH with ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH, and TSH with ACTH, FSH, LH. The comparison of the average co-expression coefficients of prolactin, GH and TSH with other hormones showed that the TSH co-expression coefficient was significantly the least (9,5±6,9%; 9,6±7,8%; 1,0±1,3% correspondingly). Plurihormonality of normal adenohypophysis is an actually existing phenomenon. Identification of different hormones in pituitary adenomas enables to find new ways to improve both diagnostic process and targeted treatment.

  7. Estradiol receptors in the pituitary and anterior hypothalamus of the rat: measurement by agar gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, I J; Naftolin, F; Ryan, K J; Siu, J

    1975-05-01

    The reliability of agar gel electrophoresis in the measurement of high-affinity saturable estrogen-binding component in the cytosol of the rat pituitary gland and anterior hypothalamus was assessed. The available binding sites were determined in small samples with good precision and accuracy. Incubation with 100-fold competitor was more satisfactory than heat-treatment for measuring nonspecific binding. There was substantial, but incomplete, dissociation of albumin-estradiol complexes. The total number of estrogen binding sites in the anterior hypothalamus was approximately 15% greater in 28-day-old females than males (p .02). However, differences in the number of binding sites in the pituitary was not significant (p .02). The pituitary was found to contain twice as many binding sites as the anterior hypothalamus in both sexes. The latter finding is consistent with the importance of the direct action of estrogen on the pituitary in mediating pituitary function.

  8. Changes in the abundance of cells in the anterior pituitary gland and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in the abundance of cells in the anterior pituitary gland and the possible roles of luteinizing hormone, prolactin and progesterone in the control of delayed implantation in the straw-coloured fruit bat ( Eidolon helvum )

  9. Evaluation of anterior pituitary gland volume in childhood using three-dimensional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marziali, Simone; Gaudiello, Fabrizio; Ferone, Ernesto; Colangelo, Vittorio; Floris, Roberto; Simonetti, Giovanni; Bozzao, Alessandro; Scire, Giuseppe; Simonetti, Alessandra; Boscherini, Brunetto

    2004-01-01

    Background: Three-dimensional MRI (3D-MRI) is a reliable tool for the evaluation of anatomical volumes. Volumetric measurement of the normal anterior pituitary gland in childhood has been performed in the past by 2D-MRI calculations, but has inherent inaccuracies. Objective: To obtain accurate normal anterior pituitary gland volume in childhood using 3D-MRI coronal sections. Materials and methods: The anterior pituitary gland was measured using coronal T1-weighted 3D-gradient-echo sequences (section thickness 0.75 mm). The study group was composed of 95 prepubertal children (age range 2 months-10 years) with clinically normal pituitary function and no pituitary or brain abnormalities. Results: A measurement error of 0.2-0.4% was assessed by using a phantom study. Volumetric evaluation of the anterior pituitary gland showed progressive growth of the gland from a mean 131±24 mm 3 at 2-12 months, to 249±25 mm 3 at 1-4 years and 271±29 mm 3 at 5-10 years. Conclusions: These data may be useful for paediatricians in the evaluation of patients with neuroendocrine diseases, in particular growth hormone deficiency. (orig.)

  10. Excitatory and inhibitory effects of prolactin release activated by nerve stimulation in rat anterior pituitary

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    Gao Li-Zhi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A series of studies showed the presence of substantial amount of nerve fibers and their close relationship with the anterior pituitary gland cells. Our previous studies have suggested that aside from the classical theory of humoral regulation, the rat anterior pituitary has direct neural regulation on adrenocorticotropic hormone release. In rat anterior pituitary, typical synapses are found on every type of the hormone-secreting cells, many on lactotrophs. The present study was aimed at investigating the physiological significance of this synaptic relationship on prolactin release. Methods The anterior pituitary of rat was sliced and stimulated with electrical field in a self-designed perfusion chamber. The perfusate was continuously collected in aliquots and measured by radioimmunoassay for prolactin levels. After statistic analysis, differences of prolactin concentrations within and between groups were outlined. Results The results showed that stimulation at frequency of 2 Hz caused a quick enhancement of prolactin release, when stimulated at 10 Hz, prolactin release was found to be inhibited which came slower and lasted longer. The effect of nerve stimulation on prolactin release is diphasic and frequency dependent. Conclusions The present in vitro study offers the first physiological evidence that stimulation of nerve fibers can affect prolactin release in rat anterior pituitary. Low frequency stimulation enhances prolactin release and high frequency mainly inhibits it.

  11. Specific in vitro uptake of serotonin by cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, M.A.; Azmitia, E.C.; Krieger, D.T.

    1982-03-01

    In vivo studies have suggested that serotonin (5HT) influences anterior pituitary function at the hypothalamic level. The present in vitro study investigated the possibility that 5HT may act directly on the anterior pituitary. The high affinity uptake of (3H)5HT into adult rat anterior pituitary tissue was examined in two types of experiments. 1) To test the specificity and saturability of uptake of 5HT in the anterior pituitary, pituitary tissue was incubated (37 C) with (3H)5HT (10(-8)-10(-6) M) in the presence and absence of excess (10(-5) M) unlabeled 5HT, norepinephrine, fluoxetine (FLUOX), metergoline, or cyproheptadine. A Hofstee analysis of the specific uptake of (3H)5HT gave an apparent Km value of 4.23 x 10(-7) M and a Vmax of 1576 pmol/g/10 min (3H)5HT. The total uptake of (3H)5HT was not altered by norepinephrine or metergoline, but was significantly reduced (P less than 0.01-0.001) by FLUOX and cyproheptadine. Uptake was shown to be temperature and sodium dependent and not directly dependent on energy derived from glycolysis or aerobic metabolism. 2) To study the site of uptake of 5 HT in the anterior pituitary, in concomitant radioautographic experiments, tissue was incubated with (3H)5HT with and without excess 5HT or FLUOX. Three patterns of silver grain distribution were observed: 1) nonrandom concentrations over select anterior pituitary cells near blood vessels, 2) heavy aggregates of silver grains usually associated with blood vessels, and 3) a seemingly random dispersal of grains over pituitary tissue. Tissue incubated with (3H)5HT alone contained 10% heavily labeled cells, 32% moderately labeled cells, and 58% weakly labeled cells. In contrast, no heavily labeled cells were seen when tissue was incubated with either excess 5HT or FLUOX in addition to (3H)5HT. Our findings of saturable and specific high affinity uptake of (3H)5HT into a subgroup of anterior pituitary cells suggest a direct pituitary action of 5HT.

  12. Anterior pituitary lobe atrophy as late complication of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

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    Jovanović Dragan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is acute infective multisystemic disease followed by febrility, hemorrhages and acute renal insufficiency. Bleeding in the anterior pituitary lobe leading to tissue necrosis occurs in acute stage of severe clinical forms of HFRS, while atrophy of the anterior pituitary lobe with diminution of the gland function occurs after recovery stage. Case report. We presented a patient with the development of chronic renal insufficiency and hypopituitarism as complication that had been diagnosed six years after Hantavirus infection. Magnetic resonance of the pituitary gland revealed atrophy and empty sella turcica. Conclusion. Regarding frequency of this viral infection and its endemic character in some parts of our country partial and/or complete loss of pituitary function should be considered during the late stage of HFRS.

  13. Ets-1 is a target of MAPK signaling in the embryonic anterior pituitary gland during glucocorticoid initiation of pituitary growth hormone expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucocorticoids play a critical role in functional differentiation of somatotrophs, the growth hormone (GH)-producing cells within the anterior pituitary gland. In chicken embryonic day 11 (e11) pituitary cells, premature induction of growth hormone (GH) resulting from corticosterone (CORT) treatmen...

  14. Folliculostellate Cells Are Required for Laminin Release from Gonadotrophs in Rat Anterior Pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Takehiro; Fujiwara, Ken; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Azuma, Morio; Ramadhani, Dini; Tofrizal, Alimuddin; Batchuluun, Khongorzul; Maliza, Rita; Syaidah, Rahimi; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The anterior pituitary gland is organized tissue comprising hormone-producing cells and folliculostellate (FS) cells. FS cells interconnect to form a meshwork, and their cytoplasmic processes are anchored by a basement membrane containing laminin. Recently, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture that reproduces this FS cell architecture. In this study of the novel function of FS cells, we used transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein in FS cells for the 3D culture. Anterior pituitary cells were cultured with different proportions of FS cells (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20%). Anterior pituitary cells containing 5–20% FS cells formed round/oval cell aggregates, whereas amorphous cell aggregates were formed in the absence of FS cells. Interestingly, immunohistochemistry showed laminin-immunopositive cells instead of extracellular laminin deposition in FS cell-deficient cell aggregates. Double-immunostaining revealed that these laminin-immunopositive cells were gonadotrophs. Laminin mRNA expression did not differ in relation to the presence or absence of FS cells. When anterior pituitary cells with no FS cells were cultured with FS cell-conditioned medium, the proportion of laminin-immunopositive cells was lower than in control. These results suggest that a humoral factor from FS cells is required for laminin release from gonadotrophs

  15. Neurotransmitter receptors as signaling platforms in anterior pituitary cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, Hana; Stojilkovic, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 463, C (2018), s. 49-64 ISSN 0303-7207 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12695S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : pituitary * ligand-gated receptor channels * G protein-coupled receptors * neurotransmitters * action potentials * calcium signaling * hormone secretion Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 3.754, year: 2016

  16. Somatotrophic, thyrotrophic and adrenocorticotrophic functions of the anterior pituitary in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavnov, V N; Epshtein, E V

    1977-01-01

    The basal plasma level of GH, TSH and ACTH and the reserve capacities of the adenohypophysis in the secretion of these hormones was investigated radioimmunologically in 80 patients with excessive weight (from 15.3% to 180.0%) and a group of healthy subjects. It is shown that obesity is accompanied by diverse changes of the anterior pituitary GH, TSH and ACTH functions, which may be explained by their varied participation in the fatty metabolism. The pituitary somatotrophic function is weakened in obese subjects and its disorders advance with increase of the grade of obesity. Reduced pituitary thyrotrophic function in obesity causes weakening of thyroid function; disorders of the thyroid regulation occur at the hypothalamic level. The increased blood plasma concentration of ACTH in obese subjects has a compensatory character. The reserve capacities of the adrenocorticotrophic function of the pituitary are diminished in obestiy. Disturbances of the anterior pituitary GH, TSH and ACTH functions show a single-direction character both in alimentary-constitutional and in hypothalamic obesity.

  17. High-Cholesterol Diet Disrupts the Levels of Hormones Derived from Anterior Pituitary Basophilic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Zhang, X; Liu, Z; Yuan, Z; Song, Y; Shao, S; Zhou, X; Yan, H; Guan, Q; Gao, L; Zhang, H; Zhao, J

    2016-03-01

    Emerging evidence shows that elevated cholesterol levels are detrimental to health. However, it is unclear whether there is an association between cholesterol and the pituitary. We investigated the effects of a high-cholesterol diet on pituitary hormones using in vivo animal studies and an epidemiological study. In the animal experiments, rats were fed a high-cholesterol or control diet for 28 weeks. In rats fed the high-cholesterol diet, serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; also known as thyrotrophin), luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) produced by the basophilic cells of the anterior pituitary were elevated in a time-dependent manner. Among these hormones, TSH was the first to undergo a significant change, whereas adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), another hormone produced by basophilic cells, was not changed significantly. As the duration of cholesterol feeding increased, cholesterol deposition increased gradually in the pituitary. Histologically, basophilic cells, and especially thyrotrophs and gonadotrophs, showed an obvious increase in cell area, as well as a potential increase in their proportion of total pituitary cells. Expression of the β-subunit of TSH, FSH and LH, which controls hormone specificity and activity, exhibited a corresponding increase. In the epidemiological study, we found a similar elevation of serum TSH, LH and FSH and a decrease in ACTH in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Significant positive correlations existed between serum total cholesterol and TSH, FSH or LH, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that the high-cholesterol diet affected the levels of hormones derived from anterior pituitary basophilic cells. This phenomenon might contribute to the pituitary functional disturbances described in hypercholesterolaemia. © 2016 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  18. Anterior Pituitary Transcriptome Suggests Differences in ACTH Release in Tame and Aggressive Foxes

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    Jessica P. Hekman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated species exhibit a suite of behavioral, endocrinological, and morphological changes referred to as “domestication syndrome.” These changes may include a reduction in reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and specifically reduced adrenocorticotropic hormone release from the anterior pituitary. To investigate the biological mechanisms targeted during domestication, we investigated gene expression in the pituitaries of experimentally domesticated foxes (Vulpes vulpes. RNA was sequenced from the anterior pituitary of six foxes selectively bred for tameness (“tame foxes” and six foxes selectively bred for aggression (“aggressive foxes”. Expression, splicing, and network differences identified between the two lines indicated the importance of genes related to regulation of exocytosis, specifically mediated by cAMP, organization of pseudopodia, and cell motility. These findings provide new insights into biological mechanisms that may have been targeted when these lines of foxes were selected for behavior and suggest new directions for research into HPA axis regulation and the biological underpinnings of domestication.

  19. Anterior Pituitary Transcriptome Suggests Differences in ACTH Release in Tame and Aggressive Foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekman, Jessica P; Johnson, Jennifer L; Edwards, Whitney; Vladimirova, Anastasiya V; Gulevich, Rimma G; Ford, Alexandra L; Kharlamova, Anastasiya V; Herbeck, Yury; Acland, Gregory M; Raetzman, Lori T; Trut, Lyudmila N; Kukekova, Anna V

    2018-03-02

    Domesticated species exhibit a suite of behavioral, endocrinological, and morphological changes referred to as "domestication syndrome." These changes may include a reduction in reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and specifically reduced adrenocorticotropic hormone release from the anterior pituitary. To investigate the biological mechanisms targeted during domestication, we investigated gene expression in the pituitaries of experimentally domesticated foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ). RNA was sequenced from the anterior pituitary of six foxes selectively bred for tameness ("tame foxes") and six foxes selectively bred for aggression ("aggressive foxes"). Expression, splicing, and network differences identified between the two lines indicated the importance of genes related to regulation of exocytosis, specifically mediated by cAMP, organization of pseudopodia, and cell motility. These findings provide new insights into biological mechanisms that may have been targeted when these lines of foxes were selected for behavior and suggest new directions for research into HPA axis regulation and the biological underpinnings of domestication. Copyright © 2018 Hekman et al.

  20. Cadmium induces apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells that can be reversed by treatment with antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poliandri, Ariel H.B.; Cabilla, Jimena P.; Velardez, Miguel O.; Bodo, Cristian C.A.; Duvilanski, Beatriz H.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd 2+ ) is an ubiquitous toxic metal that is involved in a variety of pathological conditions. Several reports indicate that Cd 2+ alters normal pituitary hormone secretion; however, little is known about the mechanisms that induce this misregulation. This paper reports the effect of Cd 2+ on anterior pituitary cell viability and its relation to prolactin secretion. Cd 2+ concentrations above 10 μM were found to be cytotoxic for pituitary cells. Morphological studies as well as DNA ladder fragmentation and caspase activation showed that Cd 2+ -treated cells undergo apoptosis. Even though several hours were needed to detect Cd 2+ -induced cytotoxicity, the effect of the metal became irreversible very quickly, requiring only 3 h of treatment. Prolactin release (measured at 48 h) was inhibited when the cells were exposed to Cd 2+ for 1 h, before any change in cell viability was observed. The antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine and Trolox (a hydrosoluble derivative of vitamin E), but not ascorbic acid, reversed both Cd 2+ -mediated cytotoxicity and the inhibition of prolactin release, supporting the involvement of oxidative stress in the mechanism of Cd 2+ action. In summary, the present work demonstrates that Cd 2+ is cytotoxic for anterior pituitary cells, that this effect is due to an induction of apoptosis, and that it can be reversed by antioxidants

  1. Distribution of epidermal growth factor binding sites in the adult rat anterior pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabot, J.G.; Walker, P.; Pelletier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of epidermal growth (EGF) binding sites was studied in the pituitary gland using light and electron microscope autoradiography which was performed at different time intervals (2 to 60 min) after intravenous (IV) injection of (/sup 125/I)EGF into adult rats. At the light microscopic level, the labeling was found over cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The time-course study performed by light microscope autoradiography showed that the maximal values were reached at the 2 min time interval. At this time interval, most silver grains were found at the periphery of the target cells. After, the number of silver grains decreased progressively and the localization of silver grains in the cytoplasm indicated the internalization of (/sup 125/I)EGF. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that labeling was mostly restricted to mammotrophs and somatotrophs. Control experiments indicated that the autoradiographic labeling was due specific interaction of (/sup 125/I)EGF with its binding site. These results indicate that EGF binding sites are present in at least two anterior pituitary cell types and suggest that EGF can exert a physiological role in the pituitary gland.

  2. Combined use of vasopressin and synthetic hypothalamic releasing factors as a new test of anterior pituitary function.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandler, L M; Burrin, J M; Joplin, G F; Bloom, S R

    1986-01-01

    Nine normal volunteers and 15 patients with pituitary disorders were given a combined test of anterior pituitary function using four hypothalamic releasing factors and arginine vasopressin. Rapid sequential intravenous infusions of human corticotrophin releasing factor 100 micrograms, growth hormone releasing factor 100 micrograms, luteinising hormone releasing hormone 100 micrograms, and thyrotrophin releasing hormone 200 micrograms were administered. Arginine vasopressin (10 pressor units) ...

  3. Regulation of pro-adrenocorticotropin-endorphin synthesis and secretion in cultured neonatal rat anterior pituitary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S.M.; Mains, R.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Previous work demonstrated that newborn rat anterior pituitary corticotropes display processing patterns for pro-ACTH/endorphin that are different from the adult. The synthesis and release of beta-endorphin-related peptides was examined in dispersed cell and explant cultures of newborn anterior pituitary to investigate corticotrope development further. The temporal pattern of pro-ACTH/endorphin processing differed significantly from adult rat melanotropes and AtT-20 cells. While pro-ACTH/endorphin processing begins within 30 min of synthesis in adult melanotropes and AtT-20 cells, pulse-labeling of newborn corticotropes in culture indicated that pro-ACTH/endorphin remained uncleaved for at least 90 min after synthesis. With further incubation, there was a decrease in radioactivity associated with the precursor and an equivalent rise in the radioactivity associated with beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin. However, unprocessed precursor still remained in the cultured newborn anterior pituitary cells after a 25-h chase. Although intact pro-ACTH/endorphin from newborn corticotropes was very long-lived, the precursor did undergo oligosaccharide maturation and became endoglycosidase H resistant within 1 h after synthesis. Similar to the adult, pro-ACTH/endorphin synthesis was doubled in cultures of newborn anterior pituitary chronically treated with 10 nM CRF resulting in a 3- to 4-fold stimulation of secretion over the basal rate. However, unlike the AtT-20 cell or adult rat corticotrope, the proteolytic processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the newborn corticotrope was altered by chronic secretagogue treatment; less pro-ACTH/endorphin was converted to beta-endorphin in secretagogue-treated corticotropes than in controls. Thus processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the corticotrope is not mature by birth and can be regulated by chronic CRF treatment.

  4. Dopaminergic Neurons Controlling Anterior Pituitary Functions: Anatomy and Ontogenesis in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Romain; Affaticati, Pierre; Bureau, Charlotte; Colin, Ingrid; Demarque, Michaël; Dufour, Sylvie; Vernier, Philippe; Yamamoto, Kei; Pasqualini, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons located in the preoptico-hypothalamic region of the brain exert a major neuroendocrine control on reproduction, growth, and homeostasis by regulating the secretion of anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) hormones. Here, using a retrograde tract tracing experiment, we identified the neurons playing this role in the zebrafish. The DA cells projecting directly to the anterior pituitary are localized in the most anteroventral part of the preoptic area, and we named them preoptico-hypophyseal DA (POHDA) neurons. During development, these neurons do not appear before 72 hours postfertilization (hpf) and are the last dopaminergic cell group to differentiate. We found that the number of neurons in this cell population continues to increase throughout life proportionally to the growth of the fish. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation analysis suggested that this increase is due to continuous neurogenesis and not due to a phenotypic change in already-existing neurons. Finally, expression profiles of several genes (foxg1a, dlx2a, and nr4a2a/b) were different in the POHDA compared with the adjacent suprachiasmatic DA neurons, suggesting that POHDA neurons develop as a distinct DA cell population in the preoptic area. This study offers some insights into the regional identity of the preoptic area and provides the first bases for future functional genetic studies on the development of DA neurons controlling anterior pituitary functions.

  5. Tracing of Zinc Nanocrystals in the Anterior Pituitary of Zinc-Deficient Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, Anjana; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, Ranveer Singh

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to trace zinc nanocrystals in the anterior pituitary of zinc-deficient Wistar rats by using autometallographic technique. Male Wistar rats (30-40 days of age, pre-pubertal period) of 40-50 g body weight were divided into the following: the ZC (zinc control) group-fed with 100 ppm zinc in diet, the ZD (zinc-deficient) group-fed with zinc-deficient (1.00 ppm) diet and the PF (pair-fed) group-received 100 ppm zinc in diet. The experiments were set for 2 and 4 weeks. Pituitary was removed and processed for the autometallographic technique. The control and pair-fed groups retained their normal morphological features. However, male Wistar rats fed on zinc-deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks displayed a wide range of symptoms such as significant (P zinc nanocrystals in the nuclei. The present findings suggest that the dietary zinc deficiency causes decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals localization and their distribution in the pituitary thereby contributing to the dysfunction of the pituitary of the male Wistar rats. The severity of zinc deficiency symptoms progressed after the second week of the experiment. Decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals attenuates the pituitary function which would exert its affect on other endocrine organs impairing their functions indicating that the metabolic regulation of pituitary is mediated to a certain extent by zinc and/or hypothalamus-hypophysial system which also reflects its essentiality during the period of growth.

  6. Ras-dva is a novel Pit-1- and glucocorticoid-regulated gene in the embryonic anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellestad, Laura E; Porter, Tom E

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids play a role in functional differentiation of pituitary somatotrophs and lactotrophs during embryogenesis. Ras-dva was identified as a gene regulated by anterior neural fold protein-1/homeobox expressed in embryonic stem cells-1, a transcription factor known to be critical in pituitary development, and has an expression profile in the chicken embryonic pituitary gland that is consistent with in vivo regulation by glucocorticoids. The objective of this study was to characterize expression and regulation of ras-dva mRNA in the developing chicken anterior pituitary. Pituitary ras-dva mRNA levels increased during embryogenesis to a maximum on embryonic day (e) 18 and then decreased and remained low or undetectable after hatch. Ras-dva expression was highly enriched in the pituitary gland on e18 relative to other tissues examined. Glucocorticoid treatment of pituitary cells from mid- and late-stage embryos rapidly increased ras-dva mRNA, suggesting it may be a direct transcriptional target of glucocorticoids. A reporter construct driven by 4 kb of the chicken ras-dva 5'-flanking region, containing six putative pituitary-specific transcription factor-1 (Pit-1) binding sites and two potential glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding sites, was highly activated in embryonic pituitary cells and up-regulated by corticosterone. Mutagenesis of the most proximal Pit-1 site decreased promoter activity in chicken e11 pituitary cells, indicating regulation of ras-dva by Pit-1. However, mutating putative GR binding sites did not substantially reduce induction of ras-dva promoter activity by corticosterone, suggesting additional DNA elements within the 5'-flanking region are responsible for glucocorticoid regulation. We have identified ras-dva as a glucocorticoid-regulated gene that is likely expressed in cells of the Pit-1 lineage within the developing anterior pituitary gland.

  7. Laminin in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat. Laminin in the gonadotrophic cells correlates with their functional state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Albrechtsen, R; Wewer, U M

    1987-01-01

    The distribution pattern of laminin in the rat anterior pituitary gland under physiological and hormonally altered conditions was studied immunohistochemically. Intense immunoreactivity of the capillaries and of the basement membranes surrounding parenchymal cells was found. Five to 10% of the pa...

  8. Blood plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones of rabbits after apricot seed exposure in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína MICHALCOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes possible changes in plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones induced by bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. seeds in young female rabbits in vivo. Prunus armeniaca L. is an important medicinal edible plant species commonly known as “apricot”. The apricot is a member of the Rosaceae and subfamily Prunoideae. It is one of the most delicious and commercially traded fruits in the world. Apricot kernel is the inner part of the seed of the apricot fruit. The kernel is used to produce oil and other chemicals used for medicinal purposes. The seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and for treatment several diseases especially cancer. In the present study apricot seeds were mixed with feed at different doses 0, 60, 300, 420 mg*kg-1 of body weight. ELISA was used to determine the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and prolactin (PRL. 58-days application of apricot seeds did not affect the concentration (P≥0.05 of PRL, LH in blood plasma. Significant (P≤0.01 inhibition of FSH levels induced by the seeds was found at the dose of 420 mg*kg-1 but not at 60 and 300 mg*kg-1 of body weight. These results are suggesting that the natural substances present in apricot seeds may be involved in mechanisms of ovarian folliculogenesis.

  9. Identification of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) target cells and effects of dexamethasone on binding in anterior pituitary using a fluorescent analog of CRF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, J; Billestrup, Nils; Perrin, M

    1986-01-01

    A fluorescein-conjugated bioactive analog of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was synthesized and used to label cells that have high affinity CRF-binding sites. Of cultured bovine anterior pituitary cells, 6.1 +/- 0.6% were visible by fluorescence microscopy after incubation with the analog. ......-binding sites and suggest that binding of CRF to anterior pituitary cells is altered by glucocorticoids....

  10. Expression of Slug in S100β-protein-positive cells of postnatal developing rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Yako, Hideji; Tateno, Kozue; Hasegawa, Rumi; Takigami, Shu; Ohsako, Shunji; Yashiro, Takashi; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    Among heterogeneous S100β-protein-positive (S100β-positive) cells, star-like cells with extended cytoplasmic processes, the so-called folliculo-stellate cells, envelop hormone-producing cells or interconnect homophilically in the anterior pituitary. S100β-positive cells are known, from immunohistochemistry, to emerge from postnatal day (P) 10 and to proliferate and migrate in the parenchyma of the anterior pituitary with growth. Recent establishment of S100β-GFP transgenic rats expressing specifically green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the S100β-promoter has allowed us to observe living S100β-positive cells. In the present study, we first confirmed that living S100β-positive cells in tissue cultures of S100β-GFP rat pituitary at P5 were present prior to P10 by means of confocal laser microscopy and that they proliferated and extended their cytoplasmic processes. Second, we examined the expression of the Snail-family zinc-finger transcription factors, Snail and Slug, to investigate the mechanism behind the morphological changes and the proliferation of S100β-positive cells. Interestingly, we detected Slug expression in S100β-positive cells and its increase together with development in the anterior pituitary. To analyze downstream of SLUG in S100β-positive cells, we utilized specific small interfering RNA for Slug mRNAs and observed that the expression of matrix metalloprotease (Mmp) 9, Mmp14 and chemokine Cxcl12 was down-regulated and that morphological changes and proliferation were decreased. Thus, our findings suggest that S100β-positive cells express Slug and that its expression is important for subsequent migration and proliferation.

  11. Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbôa P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID, an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P<0.05, while the EB-treated OVX group showed activity similar to that of the normal group. Thyroid 5'-ID-I showed the same pattern of changes, but these changes were not statistically significant. Pituitary and hepatic 5'-ID-II did not show major alterations. The treatment with the higher EB dose (14 µg, contrary to the results obtained with the lower dose, had no effect on the reduced pituitary 5'-ID-I of OVX rats. However, it induced an important increment of 5'-ID-I in the thyroid gland (0.8 times higher than that of the normal group: control = 131.9 ± 23.7 vs ovx + EB 14 µg = 248.0 ± 31.2; P<0.05, which is associated with increased serum TSH (0.6-fold vs OVX, P<0.05 but normal serum free T3 and free T4. The data suggest that estrogen is a physiological stimulator of anterior pituitary 5'-ID-I and a potent stimulator of the thyroid enzyme when employed at high doses

  12. Changes in growth hormone (GH) messenger RNA (GH mRNA) expression in the rat anterior pituitary after single interferon (IFN) alpha administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowski, W.; Braczkowski, R.; Nowakowska-Zajdel, E.; Muc-Wierzgon, M.; Zubelewicz-Szkodzinska, B.; Kosiewicz, J.; Korzonek, I.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Interferon a (IFN-a) is a cytokine with pleiotropic effects which, via different pathways, influences the secretion of certain cytokines and hormones. Growth hormone (GH) secreted from the pituitary has physiological effects on various target tissues. The question is how IFN-a administered in various types of disease influences GH secretion. This study investigated the acute effect of IFN-a on GH mRNA expression in the rat anterior pituitary. Objective: The aim of the study was to measure the cellular expression of GH mRNA by in situ hybridisation in the anterior pituitary after a single administration of IFN-a. Material and methods: Rats were administered an intraperitoneal injection of IFN-a or saline. The rat pituitaries were taken 2 and 4 hours after IFN/saline administration and kept frozen until in situ hybridisation histochemistry. A 31 - base 35S -labelled oligonucleotide probe complementary to part of the exonic mRNA sequence coding for GH mRNA was used. All control and experimental sections were hybridised in the same hybridisation reaction. Results: Acute administration of interferon a increased GH mRNA expression in the anterior pituitary in the 4-hour group in comparison with the control group, and there was no difference between the control group and the 2-hour rats. Conclusion: A single IFN-a administration was found to exert an influence on anterior pituitary GH mRNA expression. These observations may pave the way for presenting a possible new action of IFN-a. (author) GH mRNA, anterior pituitary, interferon

  13. Influence of apricot kernels on blood plasma levels of selected anterior pituitary hormones in male and female rabbits in vivo

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    Katarína Michalcová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is represented in the family Rosacea more precisely in an apricot kernels and an almonds. There are a lot of components such as trace elements, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, esters, phenols, terpenoids, except cyanogenic glycoside in the seeds. It is known that bioregulators can modulate the activity of specific enzymes and hormones very exactly at low levels and in a short time. The aim of our study was examine the effects of selected doses (0, 60, 300, 420 mg/kg b.w. of apricot kernels in feed on the plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones in young male and female rabbits in vivo. A sensitive, biochemical method, ELISA was used to determine the hormones prolactin (PRL, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. 28-day application of apricot kernels did not affect the concentration of PRL, LH, FSH in blood plasma of males. No significant (P≤0.05 differences in case of PRL and LH levels in the blood plasma of females were found. On the other hand a significant (P≤0.05 inhibition of FSH release induced by kernels at the doses 300, 420 mg/kg was found. Our results indicate that apricot kernels could affect secretion of anterior pituitary hormone FSH in female rabbits.

  14. Characterization of purinergic P2X4 receptor channels expressed in anterior pituitary cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, Hana; Kučka, M.; Li, S.; Gonzales-Iglesias, A. E.; Tomic, M.; Stojilkovic, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 298, č. 3 (2010), E664-E651 ISSN 0193-1849 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/07/0681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : P2X4 receptor * ATP * pituitary Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.686, year: 2010

  15. Chronic subordination stress phase advances adrenal and anterior pituitary clock gene rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzoli, Maria; Karsten, Carley; Yoder, J Marina; Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Engeland, William C

    2014-07-15

    Circadian rhythms in glucocorticoids are the product of interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the mammalian clock gene system. The adrenal clock can generate the glucocorticoid rhythm that in turn synchronizes other peripheral clocks to maintain homeostasis. Stress acutely activates and chronically upregulates the HPA axis, suggesting that the adrenal clock could be modulated by stress. However, there is no direct evidence that stress affects the adrenal clock rhythm. We tested the hypothesis that a model of chronic subordination stress (CSS) that has a major impact on HPA axis regulation, metabolism, and emotional behavior alters adrenal and pituitary clock gene rhythms. Clock gene rhythms were assessed using mPER2::Luciferase (PER2Luc) knockin mice in which in vitro bioluminescence rhythms reflect the Per2 clock gene expression. PER2Luc mice that experienced CSS for 2 wk showed positive energy balance reflected by increased body weight and food intake. Additionally, CSS phase advanced the adrenal (∼2 h) and the pituitary (∼1 h) PER2Luc rhythm compared with control mice. The activity rhythm was not affected. The adrenal clock phase shift was associated with increased feed conversion efficiency, suggesting that the metabolic phenotype in CSS mice may be related to altered adrenal clock rhythmicity. Interestingly, a single subordination experience followed by 8 h sensory housing also phase advanced the adrenal, but not the pituitary, PER2Luc rhythm. Overall, these data demonstrate a stress-induced phase shift in a peripheral clock gene rhythm and differential stress sensitivity of two peripheral clocks within the HPA axis, suggesting a link between clock desynchrony and individual vulnerability to stress. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Orexin A and B in vitro modify orexins receptors expression and gonadotropins secretion of anterior pituitary cells of proestrous rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, N I; Lux Lantos, V A R; Libertun, C

    2014-01-10

    Orexin A and orexin B (hypocretins) are neuropeptides synthesized mainly by neurons located in the lateral hypothalamus and projections throughout the brain. They are agonists at both the orexin 1 and orexin 2G protein-coupled receptors. They have been related to arousal, sleep and feeding, autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. Their role in the brain control of gonadotropins secretion was postulated in rodents and humans. Previously, we demonstrated the participation of the orexinergic system in attaining successful reproduction in in vivo studies. We studied in vitro the effects of both neuropeptides, in the presence or absence of selective antagonists, on the mRNA expression of orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors in anterior pituitary cells of proestrous rats, as well as the direct effects on FSH and LH secretion. Both orexin A and orexin B increased FSH and LH secretion; these effects were suppressed by the orexin 1 receptor blocking agent SB-334867 and the orexin 2 receptor antagonists JNJ-10397049. Orexin A and orexin B decreased OX1 receptor mRNA expression and this effect was modified only when both blocking agents were present. Neither orexin A nor the blocking drugs by themselves modified OX2 receptor mRNA expression. Orexin B treatment increased the mRNA expression of OX2 receptor. The effect was abolished only by the OX2 receptor antagonist. In an in vitro model, we demonstrated a direct effect of orexins on gonadotropins release and orexins receptors expression, underlining the hypothesis that orexins participate in the brain control of pituitary functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of THIP and SL 76002, two clinically experimented GABA-mimetic compounds, on anterior pituitary GABA receptors and prolactin secretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apud, J.A.; Masotto, C.; Racagni, G.

    1987-01-01

    In the present study, the ability of three direct GABA agonists, muscimol, THIP and SL 76002 to displace 3 H-GABA binding from anterior pituitary and medio-basal hypothalamus membranes was evaluated. Further, the effect of both THIP and SL 76002 on baseline prolactin levels or after stimulation of hormone release with haloperidol has been also studied. Either muscimol, THIP or SL 76002 have shown to posses 7-, 7- and 3-fold higher affinity, respectively, for the central nervous system than for the anterior pituitary 3 H-GABA binding sites. Moreover, THIP and SL 76002 have demonstrated to be respectively, 25- and 1000- fold less potent than muscimol in inhibiting 3 H- GABA binding at the level of the anterior pituitary and about 25- and 2700-fold less potent at the level of the medio-basal hypothalamus. Under basal conditions, either THIP or SL 76002 were ineffective to reduce prolactin release. However, after stimulation of prolactin secretion through blockade of the dopaminergic neurotransmission with haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), both THIP (10 mg/kg) and SL 76002 (200 mg/kg) significantly counteracted the neuroleptic-induced prolactin rise with a potency which is in line with their ability to inhibit 3 H-GABA binding in the anterior pituitary. The present results indicate that both compounds inhibit prolactin release under specific experimental situations probably through a GABAergic mechanism. In view of the endocrine effects of these GABA-mimetic compounds, the possibility arises for an application of these type of drugs in clinical neuroendocrinology. 35 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  18. Differential regulation of proopiomelanocortin (POMC mRNA expression in hypothalamus and anterior pituitary following repeated cyanamide with ethanol administration

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    Kinoshita Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. We have investigated proopiomelanocortin (POMC mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC and the anterior lobe of the pituitary (AL following repeated cyanamide-ethanol reaction (CER. Methods. Adult male Sprague -Dawley rats (250 −290 gr were housed in a temperature and humidity controlled environment with free access to food and water. Four experimental groups were used as follows: saline (as control, cyanamide alone, ethanol alone and ethanol with cyanamide. The animals received daily intraperitoneal injections (i.p. of cyanamide (10mg/kg, 60 min before ethanol dosing with or without ethanol (1g/kg for 5 consecutive days, and were sacrificed 60 min after the last dosing of ethanol. The results were presented as the mean ± SEM for each group. All groups within each data set were compared by one-way ANOVA followed by Fisher PLSD test for multiple comparisons. A value of p<0.05 was considered significant. Results. The POMC mRNA levels in ARC were significantly decreased with cyanamide compared to the control and ethanol alone (p<0.05 and p<0.05 respectively, but increased in AL following repeated CER. Conclusion. We speculate that this differential regulation of POMC mRNA expression may be partially involved in the preventive effects on alcohol intake in response to CER.

  19. Live Staining and Isolation of Specific Hormone-Producing Cells from Rat Anterior Pituitary by Cytochemistry with Lectins and Cholera Toxin B Subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Motoshi; Kusumoto, Kenji; Fujiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Kozue; Tando, Yukiko; Yashiro, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Anterior pituitary glands contain five types of hormone-producing cells. Distinguishing and isolating specific types of living cells are essential for studying their function. Although many such attempts have been made, the results have been disappointing. In the present study, we labeled specific types of living hormone-producing cells by using potential differences in sugar chains on the cell surfaces. Cytochemical analysis with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit revealed that PNA, S-WGA, and cholera toxin B subunit recognized sugar chains specific to prolactin cells, ACTH cells, and GH cells, respectively, and that UEA-I recognized most of prolactin cells and GH cells. Next, fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to isolate GH cells labeled by fluoresceinated cholera toxin B. The purity of the GH cell fraction estimated by immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR for cell type-specific genes was more than 98%, which was higher than that reported in earlier studies, including those using transgenic animals. We conclude that cytochemistry with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit is a straightforward, acceptable method of isolating specific types of anterior pituitary cells and that the cells isolated by this method can serve as useful materials in the study of anterior pituitary cells

  20. Differential effect of adrenocorticosteroids on 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase bioactivity at the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, R B; Mohamad, N B; Morat, P B; Saim, A; Abdul Kadir, K B

    1996-08-01

    11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-OHSD) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of cortisol (F) to cortisone (E) in man and corticosterone (B) to 11-dehydrocorticosterone (A) in rats. 11 beta-OHSD has been identified in a wide variety of tissues. The differential distribution of 11 beta-OHSD suggests that this enzyme has locally defined functions that vary from region to region. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the glucocorticoids B and dexamethasone (DM), the mineralocorticoid deoxycorticosterone (DOC), and the inhibitors of 11 beta-OHSD glycyrrhizic acid (Gl) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GE) on 11 beta-OHSD bioactivity at the hypothalamus (HT) and anterior pituitary (AP). Male Wistar rats were treated with GI or were adrenalectomized (ADX) and treated with either B, DM, or DOC for 7 days. All treatments were in vivo except GE, which was used in vitro. At the end of treatment, homogenates of HT and AP were assayed for 11 beta-OHSD bioactivity, expressed as the percentage conversion of B to A in the presence of NADP, 11 beta-OHSD bioactivity is significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in the AP compared with the HT. Adrenalectomy significantly increased the enzyme activity in the AP (P < 0.05), an effect reversed by B or DM. ADX rats treated with DOC showed decreased enzyme activity in the AP (P < 0.001) but increased the activity in the HT (P < 0.0001). Gl increased activity in both HT and AP, whereas GE decreased activity significantly. We conclude that the modulation of 11 beta-OHSD is both steroid specific and tissue specific.

  1. Effects of grafts of single anterior pituitary glands on the incidence and type of mammary neoplasm in neutron- or γ-irradiated Fischer female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.; Douple, E.B.; Sridharan, B.N.

    1976-01-01

    Three batches comprised of 48 young adult Fischer female rats each were subjected to total-body irradiation with 50 rads modified fission neutrons, or were given 600 rads 137 Cs γ-rays, or served as unirradiated controls. On the day following exposure, one-half of each batch was grafted with a single anterior pituitary gland beneath the left kidney capsule. The animals were observed for mammary neoplasia and all those that died during the experiment were autopsied. The experiment was terminated 538 +- 13 days after irradiation when all neutron-irradiated, pituitary-grafted animals had one or more mammary tumors. Only 2 of the 23 untreated rats that survived until termination of the experiment developed mammary fibroadenomas, and none had mammary carcinomas. The incidence of fibroadenomas was increased, and a single carcinoma was found in unirradiated rats with pituitary grafts. Irradiation alone caused an increase in the incidence of mammary fibroadenomas and the appearance of carcinomas. Fibroadenomas were markedly increased by the addition of pituitary grafts to irradiation. Carcinoma incidence was less markedly affected. The neutron dose of 50 rads was slightly more effective in inducing mammary neoplasms than the 600-rad dose of γ-rays

  2. Evaluation of diffusivity in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland: 3D turbo field echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwatashi, A; Yoshiura, T; Togao, O; Yamashita, K; Kikuchi, K; Kobayashi, K; Ohga, M; Sonoda, S; Honda, H; Obara, M

    2014-01-01

    3D turbo field echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation is a non-echo-planar technique for DWI, which enables high-resolution DWI without field inhomogeneity-related image distortion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium turbo field echo in evaluating diffusivity in the normal pituitary gland. First, validation of diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium turbo field echo was attempted by comparing it with echo-planar DWI. Five healthy volunteers were imaged by using diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium turbo field echo and echo-planar DWI. The imaging voxel size was 1.5 × 1.5 × 1.5 mm(3) for diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium turbo field echo and 1.5 × 1.9 × 3.0 mm(3) for echo-planar DWI. ADCs measured by the 2 methods in 15 regions of interests (6 in gray matter and 9 in white matter) were compared by using the Pearson correlation coefficient. The ADC in the pituitary anterior lobe was then measured in 10 volunteers by using diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium turbo field echo, and the results were compared with those in the pons and vermis by using a paired t test. The ADCs from the 2 methods showed a strong correlation (r = 0.79; P equilibrium sequence. The ADCs in the normal pituitary gland were 1.37 ± 0.13 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, which were significantly higher than those in the pons (1.01 ± 0.24 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) and the vermis (0.89 ± 0.25 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, P equilibrium turbo field echo is feasible in assessing ADC in the pituitary gland.

  3. Estradiol potentiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone responsiveness in the anterior pituitary is mediated by an increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.; Peegel, H.; Katta, V.

    1985-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism by which 17 beta-estradiol potentiates the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on the anterior pituitary in vitro, cultured pituitary cells from immature female rats were used as the model system. Cultures exposed to estradiol at concentrations ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/L exhibited a significant augmentation of luteinizing hormone release in response to a 4-hour gonadotropin-releasing hormone (10 mumol/L) challenge at a dose of 10(-9) mol/L compared to that of control cultures. The estradiol augmentation of luteinizing hormone release was also dependent on the duration of estradiol exposure. When these cultures were incubated with tritium-labeled L-leucine, an increase in incorporation of radiolabeled amino acid into total proteins greater than that in controls was observed. A parallel stimulatory effect of estradiol on iodine 125-labeled D-Ala6 gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding was observed. Cultures incubated with estradiol at different concentrations and various lengths of time showed a significant increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding capacity and this increase was abrogated by cycloheximide. Analysis of the binding data showed that the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding activity was due to a change in the number of gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding sites rather than a change in the affinity. These results suggest that (1) estradiol treatment increases the number of pituitary receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone, (2) the augmentary effect of estradiol on luteinizing hormone release at the pituitary level might be mediated, at least in part, by the increase in the number of binding sites of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and (3) new protein synthesis may be involved in estradiol-mediated gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor induction

  4. Regulation of intestinal immune response by selective removal of the anterior, posterior, or entire pituitary gland in Trichinella spiralis infected golden hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Hernández-Cervantes

    Full Text Available The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been previously reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, and reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, as well as increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. However, to our knowledge, no findings have been published concerning the immune response following HYPOX during worm infection, particularly that which is caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of total or partial HYPOX on colonization of T. spiralis in the intestinal lumen, together with duodenal and splenic cytokine expression. Our results indicate that 5 days post infection, only neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL reduces the number of intestinally recovered T. spiralis larvae. Using semiquantitative inmunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of all tested Th1 cytokines was markedly diminished, even in the duodenum of infected controls. In contrast, a high level of expression of these cytokines was noted in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Th2 cytokines (with the exception of IL-4 was apparent in the duodenum of control and sham infected hamsters, compared to animals with NIL surgeries, which showed an increase in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13. Histology of duodenal mucosa from NIL hamsters showed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria, which was related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the gastrointestinal immune responses to T. spiralis through various mechanisms.

  5. The nonsteroidal mycoestrogen zearalenone and its five metabolites suppress LH secretion from the bovine anterior pituitary cells via the estradiol receptor GPR30 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Urara; Kadokawa, Hiroya

    2015-11-01

    Picomolar concentrations of estradiol produce nongenomic suppression of GnRH-induced LH secretion from the anterior pituitary (AP) of cattle via G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30). Zearalenone (ZEN) is the nonsteroidal mycoestrogen produced by Fusarium fungi and has been detected in cereal grains, animal feed, and ruminant urine worldwide. Zearalenone has a prolonged blood half-life that results from enterohepatic cycling. There are five metabolites of ZEN: α-zearalanol (α-ZAL), β-zearalanol (β-ZAL), α-zearalenol (α-ZOL), β-zearalenol (β-ZOL), and zearalanone, which may persist for long periods in animals and humans after consumption of ZEN-contaminated feed. We recently reported that GPR30 bound with α-ZAL decreases cytoplasmic cAMP but not gene expression of LHα and LHβ subunits, and GPR30 bound with α-ZAL suppresses GnRH-induced LH release in bovine AP cells in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that GPR30 bound with ZEN or one of the four previously untested metabolites suppresses GnRH-induced LH release from the bovine AP cells in vitro. Anterior pituitary cells were cultured for 3 days under steroid-free conditions and were then incubated with various concentrations (0.001-10 nM) of estradiol or one of the ZEN analogs for 5 minutes before GnRH stimulation. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated LH secretion from AP cells was inhibited by all of the test concentrations of ZEN, 0.001 to 1 nM of α-ZAL, and 0.001 to 0.1 nM of the remaining four analogs. Pretreatment for 5 minutes with a GPR30-specific antagonist, G36, inhibited estradiol- and the ZEN analog-induced suppression of LH secretion from cultured AP cells. G36 alone had no significant effect on LH secretion. The estimated order of the nongenomic inhibiting effect was ZEN, α-ZAL, zearalanone, α-ZOL, β-ZOL, and β-ZAL, which is quite different from the reported order for their genomic effects. Therefore, ZEN and all of its metabolites suppress LH secretion from the bovine AP

  6. Effects of arachidonic acid and 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine on prolactin secretion from anterior pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camoratto, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The role of two lipids, arachidonic acid and 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, as modulators or prolactin secretion has been examined. Stimulators of phospholipase A 2 activity, melittin and mastoparan, were found to increase prolactin release. Melittin also caused release of previously incorporated 3 H-arachidonic acid and this effect was associated with loss of radiolabel from the phospholipid fraction. Exogenous arachidonic acid also stimulated prolactin secretion. Conversely, inhibitors of phospholipase A 2 activity, dibromoacetophenone and U10029A, decreased basal and stimulated prolactin release. Prolactin release could also be lowered by ETYA, BW755C and NDGA, inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism. In the second series of experiments the effects of the biologically active phospholipid 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (platelet activating factor, PAF) on prolactin release were examined. PAF is an ether-linked phospholipid known to stimulate granule release in a variety of cell types including both inflammatory and noninflammatory cells. PAF increased release of prolactin from dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells; stimulation was not due to cell lysis. PAF-induced prolactin release could be blocked by the dopaminergic agonists apomorphine and bromocriptine as well as by two PAF receptor antagonists, SRI 63-072 and L-652-731

  7. Predictor Variables of Developing Anterior Pituitary Deficiencies in a Group of Paediatric Patients with Central Diabetes Insipidus and Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiani, Elisa; Malossetti, Carmen; Vega, Lina Margarita; Zubizarreta, Pedro; Braier, Jorge; Belgorosky, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare histiocytic disorder of unknown etiopathogenesis. Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is the most frequent endocrine manifestation and is a known risk factor for the development of further anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies (APD). However, not all CDI patients develop APD, as observed during prolonged periods of follow-up. To find predictors of developing APD in LCH children with CDI followed in our institution. We retrospectively analysed 44 patients over a median period (quartiles) of 12.3 years (8.79-14.24). Patients were subdivided into group 1 and group 2, according to absence or presence of APD, respectively. The main variables studied were: (1) chronological age (CA) at LCH diagnosis, (2) the primary site of LCH at diagnosis: low risk (LR) and multisystemic risk organs, and (3) the presence of reactivation. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that APD was positively associated with CA at LCH diagnosis [relative risk (RR) 1.14, p < 0.01], the LR clinical form (RR 8.6, p < 0.03), and negatively associated with the presence of reactivations (RR 0.3, p < 0.01). Patients with older CA at LCH diagnosis, LR clinical forms, and fewer reactivation episodes might represent a subgroup of paediatric LCH CDI patients with a higher risk of developing APD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Adenosine A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of in vitro prolactin secretion from the rat anterior pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L.W. Picanço-Diniz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, we demonstrated biphasic purinergic effects on prolactin (PRL secretion stimulated by an adenosine A2 agonist. In the present study, we investigated the role of the activation of adenosine A1 receptors by (R-N6-(2-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA at the pituitary level in in vitro PRL secretion. Hemipituitaries (one per cuvette in five replicates from adult male rats were incubated. Administration of R-PIA (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 µM induced a reduction of PRL secretion into the medium in a U-shaped dose-response curve. The maximal reduction was obtained with 0.1 µM R-PIA (mean ± SEM, 36.01 ± 5.53 ng/mg tissue weight (t.w. treatment compared to control (264.56 ± 15.46 ng/mg t.w.. R-PIA inhibition (0.01 µM = 141.97 ± 15.79 vs control = 244.77 ± 13.79 ng/mg t.w. of PRL release was blocked by 1 µM cyclopentyltheophylline, a specific A1 receptor antagonist (1 µM = 212.360 ± 26.560 ng/mg t.w., whereas cyclopentyltheophylline alone (0.01, 0.1, 1 µM had no effect. R-PIA (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 µM produced inhibition of PRL secretion stimulated by both phospholipase C (0.5 IU/mL; 977.44 ± 76.17 ng/mg t.w. and dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM; 415.93 ± 37.66 ng/mg t.w. with nadir established at the dose of 0.1 µM (225.55 ± 71.42 and 201.9 ± 19.08 ng/mg t.w., respectively. Similarly, R-PIA (0.01 µM decreased (242.00 ± 24.00 ng/mg t.w. the PRL secretion stimulated by cholera toxin (0.5 mg/mL; 1050.00 ± 70.00 ng/mg t.w.. In contrast, R-PIA had no effect (468.00 ± 34.00 ng/mg t.w. on PRL secretion stimulation by pertussis toxin (0.5 mg/mL; 430.00 ± 26.00 ng/mg t.w.. These results suggest that inhibition of PRL secretion after A1 receptor activation by R-PIA is mediated by a Gi protein-dependent mechanism.

  9. Pertussis toxin modifies the characteristics of both the inhibitory GTP binding proteins and the somatostatin receptor in anterior pituitary tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahy, N.; Woolkalis, M.; Thermos, K.; Carlson, K.; Manning, D.; Reisine, T.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of pertussis toxin treatment on the characteristics of somatostatin receptors in the anterior pituitary tumor cell line AtT-20 were examined. Pertussis toxin selectively catalyzed the ADP ribosylation of the alpha subunits of the inhibitory GTP binding proteins in AtT-20 cells. Toxin treatment abolished somatostatin inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity and somatostatin stimulation of GTPase activity. To examine the effects of pertussis toxin treatment on the characteristics of the somatostatin receptor, the receptor was labeled by the somatostatin analog [125I]CGP 23996. [125I]CGP 23996 binding to AtT-20 cell membranes was saturable and within a limited concentration range was to a single high affinity site. Pertussis toxin treatment reduced the apparent density of the high affinity [125I]CGP 23996 binding sites in AtT-20 cell membranes. Inhibition of [125I]CGP 23996 binding by a wide concentration range of CGP 23996 revealed the presence of two binding sites. GTP predominantly reduced the level of high affinity sites in control membranes. Pertussis toxin treatment also diminished the amount of high affinity sites. GTP did not affect [125I]CGP 23996 binding in the pertussis toxin-treated membranes. The high affinity somatostatin receptors were covalently labeled with [125I] CGP 23996 and the photoactivated crosslinking agent n-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azidobenzoate. No high affinity somatostatin receptors, covalently bound to [125I]CGP 23996, were detected in the pertussis toxin-treated membranes. These results are most consistent with pertussis toxin uncoupling the inhibitory G proteins from the somatostatin receptor thereby converting the receptor from a mixed population of high and low affinity sites to only low affinity receptors

  10. Alteration of the miRNA expression profile in male porcine anterior pituitary cells in response to GHRH and CST and analysis of the potential roles for miRNAs in regulating GH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qi-En; Xi, Qian-Yun; Ye, Rui-Song; Chen, Ting; Cheng, Xiao; Li, Chao-Yun; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Shu, Gang; Wang, Li-Na; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Yong-Liang

    2015-04-01

    Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) is a major positive regulator of growth hormone (GH) in the anterior pituitary gland, while cortistatin's (CST) role is negative. miRNAs (microRNAs or miRs) are small RNA molecules modulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. However, little is known about the function of miRNAs in the regulation of GH synthesis and/or secretion. This study investigated potential functional miRNAs involved in GH secretion in the normal porcine pituitary. Primary porcine anterior pituitary cells were cultivated and then treated with 10 nmol/L GHRH and 100 nmol/L CST, respectively. The effects of GHRH and CST on GH secretion were determined using RIA. miRNA microarrays were employed to analyze miRNA expression after treatment and then differentially expressed miRNAs were screened. Bioinformatics analysis was used to analyze the potential targets in growth hormone regulation of altered miRNAs. Furthermore, functional experiments were conducted to study the function of ssc-let-7c. GHRH significantly promoted GH secretion, while CST suppressed GH secretion. 19 and 35 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in response to GHRH and CST treatments respectively. Verification of 5 randomly selected miRNAs by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed similar changes with microarray analysis. Target analysis showed that some miRNAs may be involved in GH secretion-related pathways. Importantly, ssc-let-7c was predicted to target GH1 and GHRHR mRNA 3'untranslated regions (3'UTRs), which was supported by luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, functional experimental results showed that ssc-let-7c was involved in GH secretion regulation, and overexpression of ssc-let-7c inhibited GH secretion in porcine anterior pituitary cells. GHRH and CST modulated porcine pituitary cell miRNA expression. Bioinformatics analysis revealed a complicated network among differentially expressed miRNAs, GH regulation-related genes and hormones. More

  11. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nursing, or cause a man to lose his sex drive or lower his sperm count. Pituitary tumors often go undiagnosed because their symptoms resemble those of so many other more common diseases. × Definition The pituitary is a small, bean-sized gland ...

  12. Identification of a single nucleotide polymorphism of the pituitary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit-1 is a pituitary-specific transcriptional factor that has been shown to play a critical role both in cell differentiation during organogenesis of the anterior pituitary and as a transcriptional activator for pituitary gene transcription. This study was designed to investigate the associations of Pit-1 gene polymorphism on chicken ...

  13. Identification of a single nucleotide polymorphism of the pituitary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... Pit-1 is a pituitary-specific transcriptional factor that has been shown to play a critical role both in cell differentiation during organogenesis of the anterior pituitary and as a transcriptional activator for pituitary gene transcription. This study was designed to investigate the associations of Pit-1 gene.

  14. Pituitary tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones that directly affect body tissues, such as bones and the breast milk glands. The pituitary hormones include: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Growth hormone (GH) Prolactin Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Luteinizing ...

  15. The ectopic posterior pituitary gland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-04

    Nov 4, 2013 ... Case report. An 8-year-old boy presented to paediatric endo- crinology with short stature, delayed bone age and biochemical features suggestive of hypo pituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated a flattened anterior pituitary gland within the sella, associated with absence of.

  16. Light bodies in human pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1987-01-01

    Light bodies are large cytoplasmic granules originally described in the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland. In order to determine whether similar bodies occur in the human anterior pituitary gland, 89 pituitary adenomas and periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases were examined...... cells in periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases. These results show that some human pituitary adenomas may contain light bodies identical to those seen in gonadotrophs of rat pituitary....... by transmission electron microscopy. Double membrane bound bodies with filamentous internal structure identical to rodent light bodies were identified in 10 hormone-producing adenomas: 5 PRL, 1 PRL-GH, 2 GH, and 2 ACTH-producing tumours. No light bodies were found in the remaining 79 tumours nor in the pituitary...

  17. Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Rafaela A.; Vaisman, Mario

    2004-01-01

    Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients. (author)

  18. Butyrate increases intracellular calcium levels and enhances growth hormone release from rat anterior pituitary cells via the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and 43.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Consolata Miletta

    Full Text Available Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB, which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous agonist for the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR, GPR41 and 43, on non-stimulated and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH-stimulated hGH secretion. Furthermore, we investigated the potential role of GPR41 and 43 on the generation of butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ signal and its ultimate impact on hGH secretion. To study this, wt-hGH was transfected into a rat pituitary tumour cell line stably expressing the human GHRH receptor. Treatment with butyrate promoted hGH synthesis and improved basal and GHRH-induced hGH-secretion. By acting through GPR41 and 43, butyrate enhanced intracellular free cytosolic Ca2+. Gene-specific silencing of these receptors led to a partial inhibition of the butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ rise resulting in a decrease of hGH secretion. This study suggests that butyrate is a metabolic intermediary, which contributes to the secretion and, therefore, to the metabolic actions of GH during fasting.

  19. Butyrate increases intracellular calcium levels and enhances growth hormone release from rat anterior pituitary cells via the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletta, Maria Consolata; Petkovic, Vibor; Eblé, Andrée; Ammann, Roland A; Flück, Christa E; Mullis, Primus-E

    2014-01-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH) rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous agonist for the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), GPR41 and 43, on non-stimulated and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-stimulated hGH secretion. Furthermore, we investigated the potential role of GPR41 and 43 on the generation of butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ signal and its ultimate impact on hGH secretion. To study this, wt-hGH was transfected into a rat pituitary tumour cell line stably expressing the human GHRH receptor. Treatment with butyrate promoted hGH synthesis and improved basal and GHRH-induced hGH-secretion. By acting through GPR41 and 43, butyrate enhanced intracellular free cytosolic Ca2+. Gene-specific silencing of these receptors led to a partial inhibition of the butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ rise resulting in a decrease of hGH secretion. This study suggests that butyrate is a metabolic intermediary, which contributes to the secretion and, therefore, to the metabolic actions of GH during fasting.

  20. Pituitary apoplexy within a macroprolactinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Alastair; Pobereskin, Louis; Vaidya, Bijay

    2008-11-01

    A 61-year-old lady was admitted to hospital with sepsis due to a urinary tract infection. Three days after admission, she suddenly started to have severe headache with visual disturbance and right third nerve palsy. Urgent magnetic resonance angiography excluded internal carotid artery aneurysm but showed a large lesion extending superiorly from the clivus towards the right cerebral peduncle, which was confirmed by a CT scan of the brain. The lesion was initially thought to be a primary or a metastatic brain tumor. CT scans of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis showed no evidence of metastatic disease. MRI scan revealed a huge pituitary adenoma containing hemorrhage. Subsequent pituitary function tests indicated a grossly elevated serum prolactin level and hypopituitarism. Magnetic resonance angiography of the head; CT scans of the brain, thorax, abdomen and pelvis; MRI scan of the pituitary gland; and baseline and dynamic anterior pituitary function testing. Pituitary apoplexy within a macroprolactinoma. Steroid replacement, careful control of fluid and electrolyte balance and conservative nonsurgical management with the dopamine agonist cabergoline resulted in resolution of the patient's headache, improvement of the third nerve palsy and subsequent normalization of the prolactin level, with reduction in size of the prolactinoma on MRI scan.

  1. Dosimetric factors associated with pituitary function after Gamma Knife Surgery (GKS) of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicignano, Gianluisa; Losa, Marco; Vecchio, Antonella del; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Picozzi, Piero; Bolognesi, Angelo; Mortini, Pietro; Calandrino, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Gamma Knife Surgery (GKS) can be an adjunctive option to surgery in the case of pituitary adenomas. The effect of dosimetric variables on the incidence of new anterior pituitary deficits after GKS requires better definition. Materials and methods: This retrospective study considered 130 patients with a follow up after GKS >6 months. The diagnosis was nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) in 68 patients and secreting pituitary adenoma (SPA) in 62 patients. Median margin dose was 15/25 Gy for NFPA and SPA, respectively. The endocrinological median follow-up was 60 months. Hypopituitarism was defined as a new pituitary deficit in (at least) one of the three hormonal axes (hypogonadism, hypothyroidism and hypoadrenalism). The predictive value of clinical/dosimetric parameters was tested by univariate/multivariate analyses. Results: Sixteen patients (12.3%) showed a new pituitary deficit in one or more axes. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the mean dose to the stalk/pituitary and the amount of healthy tissue within the high dose region were strong independent predictors of pituitary dysfunction; their best cut-off values were around 15.7 Gy, 7.3 Gy and 1.4 cm 3 , respectively. Conclusions: Our data showed a dose-dependent incidence of new hormonal deficits after GKS for pituitary adenoma. During planning definition, the risk of hypopituitarism could be reduced using the outlined safe dose–volume values.

  2. Dosimetric factors associated with pituitary function after Gamma Knife Surgery (GKS) of pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicignano, Gianluisa; Losa, Marco; del Vecchio, Antonella; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Picozzi, Piero; Bolognesi, Angelo; Mortini, Pietro; Calandrino, Riccardo

    2012-07-01

    Gamma Knife Surgery (GKS) can be an adjunctive option to surgery in the case of pituitary adenomas. The effect of dosimetric variables on the incidence of new anterior pituitary deficits after GKS requires better definition. This retrospective study considered 130 patients with a follow up after GKS >6 months. The diagnosis was nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) in 68 patients and secreting pituitary adenoma (SPA) in 62 patients. Median margin dose was 15/25 Gy for NFPA and SPA, respectively. The endocrinological median follow-up was 60 months. Hypopituitarism was defined as a new pituitary deficit in (at least) one of the three hormonal axes (hypogonadism, hypothyroidism and hypoadrenalism). The predictive value of clinical/dosimetric parameters was tested by univariate/multivariate analyses. Sixteen patients (12.3%) showed a new pituitary deficit in one or more axes. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the mean dose to the stalk/pituitary and the amount of healthy tissue within the high dose region were strong independent predictors of pituitary dysfunction; their best cut-off values were around 15.7 Gy, 7.3 Gy and 1.4 cm(3), respectively. Our data showed a dose-dependent incidence of new hormonal deficits after GKS for pituitary adenoma. During planning definition, the risk of hypopituitarism could be reduced using the outlined safe dose-volume values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. MRI in haemochromatosis: pituitary versus testicular iron deposition in five patients with hypogonadism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miaux, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 Paris (France); Daurelle, P. [Dept. of Endocrinology, Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 Paris (France); Zagdanski, A.M. [Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 Paris (France); Passa, P. [Dept. of Endocrinology, Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 Paris (France); Bourrier, P. [Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 Paris (France); Frija, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 Paris (France)

    1995-08-01

    Haemochromatosis is a disease characterised by iron deposition in the liver and other organs. Hypogonadism is a commonly associated condition and may be either primary due to testicular lesions or secondary due to pituitary dysfunction. Hypogonadism secondary to pituitary dysfunction is more frequent and is thought to be related to iron deposition in the anterior pituitary. Increased iron content decreases signal intensity of spin-echo MRI images because T2 values are significantly shortened. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate by MRI iron deposition in the liver, testis and pituitary of 6 patients with haemochromatosis and severe hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Six subjects served as controls. There was a significant T2 shortening of the liver and pituitary in patients with haemochromatosis compared with control patients. Therefore MRI detected iron overload in the pituitary and no iron in the testis, supporting the hypothesis of hypogonadotrophic pituitary insufficiency due to cellular damage induced by iron overload in the anterior pituitary gland. (orig.)

  4. Pituitary transcription factors in the aetiology of combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfäffle, R; Klammt, J

    2011-02-01

    The somatotropic axis is the central postnatal regulator of longitudinal growth. One of its major components--growth hormone--is produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary, which also expresses and secretes five additional hormones (prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone). Proper development of the pituitary assures the regulation of critical processes such as metabolic control, puberty and reproduction, stress response and lactation. Ontogeny of the adenohypophysis is orchestrated by inputs from neighbouring tissues, cellular signalling molecules and transcription factors. Perturbation of expression or function of these factors has been implicated in the aetiology of combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). Mutations within the genes encoding for the transcription factors LHX3, LHX4, PROP1, and POU1F1 (PIT1) that act at different stages of pituitary development result in unique patterns of hormonal deficiencies reflecting their differential expression during organogenesis. In the case of LHX3 and LHX4 the phenotype may include extra-pituitary manifestations due to the function of these genes/proteins outside the pituitary gland. The remarkable variability in the clinical presentation of affected patients indicates the influence of the genetic background, environmental factors and possibly stochastic events. However, in the majority of CPHD cases the aetiology of this heterogeneous disease remains unexplained, which further suggests the involvement of additional genes. Identification of these factors might also help to close the gaps in our understanding of pituitary development, maintenance and function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Beatty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s. Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should immediately start empiric antibiotics and request a neurosurgical consult when pituitary abscess is suspected. Escherichia coli (E. coli causing intracranial infections are not well understood and are uncommon in adults. We present an interesting case of an immunocompetent male with a history of hypogonadism presenting with worsening headache and acute right eye vision loss. He was found to have a polymicrobial pituitary abscess predominantly involving E.   coli in addition to Actinomyces odontolyticus and Prevotella melaninogenica in the setting of an apoplectic pituitary prolactinoma. The definitive etiology of this infection was not determined but an odontogenic process was suspected. A chronic third molar eruption and impaction in close proximity to the pituitary gland likely led to contiguous spread of opportunistic oral microorganisms allowing for a polymicrobial pituitary abscess formation.

  6. MRI of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios Nikiforos [University of Ioannina, Department of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2005-11-01

    In childhood, the MR characteristics of the normal pituitary gland are well established. During the first 2 months of life the adenohypophysis demonstrates high signal. Pituitary gland height (PGH) decreases during the 1st year of life and then increases, reaching a plateau after puberty. The magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) increases in both sexes up to the age of 20 years. On dynamic contrast-enhanced studies, the posterior pituitary lobe enhances simultaneously with the straight sinus, and the adenohypophysis later, but within 30 s. In genetically determined dysfunctional states, the adenohypophysis may be normal, hypoplastic, or enlarged. Pituitary enlargement, observed in Prop 1 gene mutations, is characterized by a mass interposed between the anterior and posterior lobes. An ectopic posterior lobe (EPP), associated with a hypoplastic or absent pituitary stalk, may be observed in patients with hypopituitarism. Tumors of the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) axis may be the origin of adenohypophyseal deficiencies. A small hypointense adenohypophysis is found in iron overload states and is often associated with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Absence of the posterior lobe bright signal, with or without a thick pituitary stalk or a mass at any site from the median eminence to the posterior pituitary lobe, may be found in diabetes insipidus. Hydrocephalus, suprasellar arachnoid cysts, hypothalamic hamartomas and craniopharyngiomas may result in central precocious puberty (CPP). Increased PGH in girls with idiopathic CPP is useful for its differential diagnosis from premature thelarche (PT). Pituitary adenomas, observed mainly in adolescents, present the same MR characteristics as those in adults. (orig.)

  7. How effective is external pituitary irradiation for growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feek, C.M.; McLelland, J.; Seth, J.; Toft, A.D.; Irvine, W.J.; Padfield, P.L.; Edwards, C.R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Forty-six patients with GH-secreting pituitary tumours were treated with external pituitary irradiation through two opposed fields to a total dose of 3750 cGy over 15 fractions. Thirty-patients received external radiotherapy as primary treatment; 16 received radiotherapy combined with pituitary surgery. The mean (+- SD) serum GH in the former group was 74.3 +- 74.8 mU/l before treatment, falling by 28% per year over 0-5 years and by 16% per year over 0-20 years. The mean (+- SD) serum GH in the latter group was 265.4 +- 209.3 mU/l before treatment, falling by 76% in the first year-a direct result of surgery-then by 30% per year over 1-5 years and 16% per year over 1-20 years. Progressive failure of normal anterior pituitary function developed by 10 years, with variable loss of gonadotrophin, corticotrophin and thyrotrophin function. The respective figures for patients treated with radiotherapy alone were 47.4, 29.6 and 16.0% and for the combined group 70.2, 53.9 and 38.1%. Whilst external pituitary irradiation appears to reduce serum GH concentrations in patients with GH-secreting pituitary tumours the major disadvantages are the time taken to achieve a cure and the high incidence of hypopituitarism. (author)

  8. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained...... increased amounts of cholecystokinin, the concentrations being extremely high in two: 8281 and 13,453 pmol per gram as compared with less than 30 pmol per gram in normal pituitary glands. The cholecystokinin concentrations were moderately increased in adenomas from another 12 patients, of whom 5 had Cushing......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  9. MRI findings and endocrinological dysfunction of apoplexy and silent hemorrhage in pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannuki, Seiji; Bando, Kazuhiko; Shirakawa, Norihito; Matsumoto, Keizo; Bando, Hiroshi; Saito, Shiro; Kusaka, Kazumasa.

    1993-01-01

    The study was designed to examine pathophysiology of endocrinological disturbance associated with diminished pituitary function by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The subjects were 13 patients with hemorrhagic pituitary adenoma. According to clinical severity, the patients were classified as having (I) classical pituitary apoplexy (PA, n=2), (II) subacute PA (n=4), or (III) asymptomatic hemorrhagic pituitary adenoma (n=7). MR imaging and intraoperative findings revealed hemorrhagic PA in 7 patients and necrotic cyst formation in 5 patients. The cyst contents, either hemorrhagic or xanthochromic, were more accurately predicted by intensities on MR images than CT fidnings. Niveau formation was seen in 2 patients in Group I on MR images; however, MR imaging intensities differed in the two patients. In the first patient who developed classical PA during pregnancy, the upper and lower parts of the pituitary gland were seen as high intensity and iso-intensity, respectively. In the other patient, the upper and lower parts were seen as water-like and methemoglobin-like intensities, respectively. These findings have implications for the different etiology of niveau formation. In conclusion, diminished hypothalamic and pituitary function in pituitary hemorrhage seemed to be associated with disturbance of the connection between hypothalamus-anterior pituitary gland, or stalk of the pituitary gland. Hemorrhagic pituitary apoplexy manifested by various clinical features seemed to be attributed to venous hemorrhagic infarction due to pituitary portal compression. Pituitary apoplexy itself seemed to compress the portal system, leading to venous hemorrhage. (N.K.)

  10. Guanine nucleotide regulation of dopamine receptor agonist affinity states in rat estradiol-induced pituitary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Paolo, T.; Falardeau, P.

    1987-08-31

    The authors have investigated dopamine (DA) receptor agonist high- and low-affinity states in female rate estradiol-induced prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary tumors and intact pituitary tissue. Estradiol treatment increased the anterior pituitary weight 9-fold and plasma prolactin levels 74-fold and these measures are correlated (R = 0.745, n = 73, p < 0.001). Competition for (/sup 3/H)-spiperone binding to the DA receptor by apomorphine was compared in normal and adenomatous pituitary tissue. The inhibition constants (Ki) and the proportions of the two apomorphine sites are unchanged in tumors compared to intact pituitary tissue. Guanosine 5'-(..beta..-..gamma..-imino)triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) causes complete conversion of the high into low affinity dopaminergic agonist site in normal pituitary and in tumors. These results suggest that rats with primary estradiol-induced pituitary tumors have normal and functional DA receptors. 9 references, 2 tables.

  11. Guanine nucleotide regulation of dopamine receptor agonist affinity states in rat estradiol-induced pituitary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Paolo, T.; Falardeau, P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have investigated dopamine (DA) receptor agonist high- and low-affinity states in female rate estradiol-induced prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary tumors and intact pituitary tissue. Estradiol treatment increased the anterior pituitary weight 9-fold and plasma prolactin levels 74-fold and these measures are correlated (R = 0.745, n = 73, p 3 H]-spiperone binding to the DA receptor by apomorphine was compared in normal and adenomatous pituitary tissue. The inhibition constants (Ki) and the proportions of the two apomorphine sites are unchanged in tumors compared to intact pituitary tissue. Guanosine 5'-[β-γ-imino]triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) causes complete conversion of the high into low affinity dopaminergic agonist site in normal pituitary and in tumors. These results suggest that rats with primary estradiol-induced pituitary tumors have normal and functional DA receptors. 9 references, 2 tables

  12. Giant necrotic pituitary apoplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanous, Andrew A; Quigley, Edward P; Chin, Steven S; Couldwell, William T

    2013-10-01

    Apoplexy of the pituitary gland is a rare complication of pituitary adenomas, involving hemorrhage with or without necrosis within the tumor. This condition may be either asymptomatic or may present with severe headache, visual impairment, ophthalmoplegia, and pituitary failure. Transsphenoidal surgery is the treatment of choice, and early intervention is usually required to ensure reversal of visual impairment. Reports of pituitary apoplectic lesions exceeding 60.0mm in diameter are very rare. A 39-year-old man with long-standing history of nasal congestion, decreased libido and infertility presented with a sudden onset of severe headache and diplopia. MRI of the head demonstrated a massive skull base lesion of 70.0 × 60.0 × 25.0mm, compatible with a giant pituitary macroadenoma. The lesion failed to enhance after administration of a contrast agent, suggesting complete necrotic apoplexy. Urgent surgical decompression was performed, and the lesion was resected via a transnasal transsphenoidal approach. Pathological analysis revealed evidence of necrotic pituitary apoplexy. At the 2 month follow-up, the patient had near-complete to complete resolution of his visual impairment. To the authors' knowledge, this report is unique as the patient demonstrated complete necrotic apoplexy and it underlines the diagnostic dilemma in such a case. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A tridimensional view of pituitary development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Patrice; Hodson, David J; Lafont, Chrystel; Rizzoti, Karine; Drouin, Jacques

    2012-06-01

    Recent advances in tridimensional (3D) tissue imaging have considerably enriched our view of the pituitary gland and its development. Whereas traditional histology of the pituitary anterior lobe portrayed this tissue as a patchwork of cells, 3D imaging revealed that cells of each lineage form extensive and structured homotypic networks. In the adult gland these networks contribute to the robustness and coordination of the cell response to secretagogs. In addition, the network organization adapts to changes in endocrine environment, as revealed by the sexually dimorphic growth hormone (GH) cell network. Further work is required to establish better the molecular basis for homotypic and heterotypic interactions in the pituitary as well as the implications of these interactions for pituitary function and dysfunction in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 3H-spiroperidol labels dopamine receptors in pituitary and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creese, Ian; Schneider, R.; Snijder, S.H.

    1977-01-01

    3 H-Spiroperidol of high specific radioactivity labels dopamine receptors in membranes of bovine caudate nucleus and anterior pituitary. The saturation and kinetic properties of 3 H-spiroperidol binding are similar in the two tissues. In both caudate and pituitary 3 H-spiroperidol displays very high affinity with a dissocation constant of 0.2 - 0.3 nM. The relative potencies of numerous dopamine agonists and antagonists in competing for 3 H-spiroperidol binding are closely similar in anterior pituitary and caudate

  15. Antiapoptotic factor humanin is expressed in normal and tumoral pituitary cells and protects them from TNF-α-induced apoptosis.

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    María Florencia Gottardo

    Full Text Available Humanin (HN is a 24-amino acid peptide with cytoprotective action in several cell types such as neurons and testicular germ cells. Rattin (HNr, a homologous peptide of HN expressed in several adult rat tissues, also has antiapoptotic action. In the present work, we demonstrated by immunocytochemical analysis and flow cytometry the expression of HNr in the anterior pituitary of female and male adult rats as well as in pituitary tumor GH3 cells. HNr was localized in lactotropes and somatotropes. The expression of HNr was lower in females than in males, and was inhibited by estrogens in pituitary cells from both ovariectomized female and orquidectomized male rats. However, the expression of HNr in pituitary tumor cells was not regulated by estrogens. We also evaluated HN action on the proapoptotic effect of TNF-α in anterior pituitary cells assessed by the TUNEL method. HN (0.5 µM per se did not modify basal apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells but completely blocked the proapoptotic effect of TNF-α in total anterior pituitary cells, lactotropes and somatotropes from both female and male rats [corrected]. Also, HN inhibited the apoptotic effect of TNF-α on pituitary tumor cells. In summary, our results demonstrate that HNr is present in the anterior pituitary gland, its expression showing sexual dimorphism, which suggests that gonadal steroids may be involved in the regulation of HNr expression in this gland. Antiapoptotic action of HN in anterior pituitary cells suggests that this peptide could be involved in the homeostasis of this gland. HNr is present and functional in GH3 cells, but it lacks regulation by estrogens, suggesting that HN could participate in the pathogenesis of pituitary tumors.

  16. Antiapoptotic factor humanin is expressed in normal and tumoral pituitary cells and protects them from TNF-α-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardo, María Florencia; Jaita, Gabriela; Magri, María Laura; Zárate, Sandra; Moreno Ayala, Mariela; Ferraris, Jimena; Eijo, Guadalupe; Pisera, Daniel; Candolfi, Marianela; Seilicovich, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Humanin (HN) is a 24-amino acid peptide with cytoprotective action in several cell types such as neurons and testicular germ cells. Rattin (HNr), a homologous peptide of HN expressed in several adult rat tissues, also has antiapoptotic action. In the present work, we demonstrated by immunocytochemical analysis and flow cytometry the expression of HNr in the anterior pituitary of female and male adult rats as well as in pituitary tumor GH3 cells. HNr was localized in lactotropes and somatotropes. The expression of HNr was lower in females than in males, and was inhibited by estrogens in pituitary cells from both ovariectomized female and orquidectomized male rats. However, the expression of HNr in pituitary tumor cells was not regulated by estrogens. We also evaluated HN action on the proapoptotic effect of TNF-α in anterior pituitary cells assessed by the TUNEL method. HN (0.5 µM) per se did not modify basal apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells but completely blocked the proapoptotic effect of TNF-α in total anterior pituitary cells, lactotropes and somatotropes from both female and male rats [corrected]. Also, HN inhibited the apoptotic effect of TNF-α on pituitary tumor cells. In summary, our results demonstrate that HNr is present in the anterior pituitary gland, its expression showing sexual dimorphism, which suggests that gonadal steroids may be involved in the regulation of HNr expression in this gland. Antiapoptotic action of HN in anterior pituitary cells suggests that this peptide could be involved in the homeostasis of this gland. HNr is present and functional in GH3 cells, but it lacks regulation by estrogens, suggesting that HN could participate in the pathogenesis of pituitary tumors.

  17. The clinical study on the relationship between growth hormone secretion and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging findings in children with short stature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Ryuji

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between pituitary size evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pituitary function was studied in 104 boys and 81 girls with short stature. Eighteen boys and 10 girls had normal secretion of growth hormone (GH) based on growth hormone provocative tests. Their height and volume of pituitary gland with normal anatomy were significantly correlated with their age. The pituitary height of girls was higher than that of boys. Sixty boys and 29 girls had growth hormone deficiency (GHD), and 3 boys of them had multiple pituitary deficiencies (MPHD) with pituitary interruption syndrome (transected pituitary stalk, severe small anterior lobe, ectopic posterior lobe). Pituitary height of the groups with GHD were almost less than normal groups. Thirteen girls with Turner syndrome out of 81 girls with short stature showed no difference in pituitary height compared to normal girls. (author)

  18. Outcome After Pituitary Radiosurgery for Thalamic Pain Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Motohiro; Chernov, Mikhail F.; Taira, Takaomi; Ochiai, Taku; Nakaya, Kotaro; Tamura, Noriko; Goto, Shinichi; Yomo, Shoji; Kouyama, Nobuo; Katayama, Yoko; Kawakami, Yoriko; Izawa, Masahiro; Muragaki, Yoshihiro

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes after pituitary radiosurgery in patients with post-stroke thalamic pain syndrome. Methods and Materials: From 2002 to 2006, 24 patients with thalamic pain syndrome underwent pituitary radiosurgery at Tokyo Women's Medical University and were followed at least 12 months thereafter. The radiosurgical target was defined as the pituitary gland and its connection with the pituitary stalk. The maximum dose varied from 140 to 180 Gy. Mean follow-up after treatment was 35 months (range, 12-48 months). Results: Initial pain reduction, usually within 48 h after radiosurgery, was marked in 17 patients (71%). However, in the majority of cases the pain recurred within 6 months after treatment, and at the time of the last follow-up examination durable pain control was marked in only 5 patients (21%). Ten patients (42%) had treatment-associated side effects. Anterior pituitary abnormalities were marked in 8 cases and required hormonal replacement therapy in 3; transient diabetes insipidus was observed in 2 cases, transient hyponatremia in 1, and clinical deterioration due to increase of the numbness severity despite significant reduction of pain was seen once. Conclusions: Pituitary radiosurgery for thalamic pain results in a high rate of initial efficacy and is accompanied by acceptable morbidity. It can be used as a primary minimally invasive management option for patients with post-stroke thalamic pain resistant to medical therapy. However, in the majority of cases pain recurrence occurs within 1 year after treatment

  19. Differential expression of cyclin Dl in human pituitary tumors: relation to MIB-1 and p27/Kipl labeling indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewedi, I.H.; Osman, W.M.; El Mahdy, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are a common form of endocrine neoplasia. However few studies assessed the expression of the principal cyclin regulating checkpoint exit, cyclin Dl. Cyclin Dl expression in pituitary tumors and its possible relation to MIB-1 and p27/K.ipl labeling indices (Us) was explored. Design: We studied a total of 199 pituitaries, including normal pituitaries (n = 7), pituitary adenomas (n = 187), and pituitary carcinoma (n = 5). All tissues were tested as cores of archived tissue microarrays that were immuno stained for cyclin Dl, MIB-1 and p27 using a standard technique. Tissue cores were subjected to automated analysis to evaluate the staining LIs, Results: No cyclin Dl positive cells in the normal anterior pituitary gland was found. Sparse nuclear staining was noted in pituitary tumors. Higher expression of cyclin Dl was noted in pituitary carcinomas compared to adenomas (p < 0.001), in non-functioning adenomas compared to functioning ones (p < 0.001) in macroadenomas versus micro adenomas (p — 0.017) and in recurrent non recurrent adenomas (p < 0.001). Cyclin Dl LI and MIB-1 LI were related among adenomas (p < 0.001) and carcinomas (p = 0.041). p27 LI was neither related to pituitary adenoma recurrence nor invasion. Conclusions: Expression of cyclin Dl in pituitary tumors is related to cell proliferation, recurrence, and metastatic potential. Nuclear cyclin Dl expression is a good marker of aggressive behavior in pituitary tumors

  20. IMAGING IN PITUITARY APOPLEXY

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    Madhukar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is an acute clinical condition characterized by sudden onset of headache, vomiting, visual disturbance, ophthalmoplegia and altered sensorium occurring due to infarction or haemorrhage of pituitary gland and often involving the pituita ry adenoma. Predominantly seen in non - functional adenomas and in functioning adenomas with prolactinomas having the highest risk. Patients usually present with headache, vomiting, altered sensorium, visual defect and/or endocrine dysfunction. Hemodynamic i nstability may result from adrenocorticotrophic hormone deficiency. Imaging with either CT scan or MRI is performed in suspected cases. On CT, a recent hemorrhage appears as a single or multiple hyperdense lesions with no or little contrast enhancement. MR I is useful in estimating the onset of bleeding and to show the relationship between the tumor and the surrounding structures. CT or MR Angiography is done to rule out aneurysm. Treatment is conservative and surgery is reserved for those cases with deterio rating level of consciousness or increasing visual defect. Here we present a 47 year old male who presented with history of headache and visual disturbances for 6 weeks and was evaluated with radiograph, CT and MRI. A 47 year old male patient presented to the Neurosurgical Department of Vydehi Medical College and Research Centre with history of gradual blurring of vision in the left eye for 2 months. History of diabetes or hypertension was present. The man was hemodynamically stable. Radiograph of the skull showed widening of sella with erosion of the floor. He was advised CT. CT showed widening of sella and a pituitary lesion with fluid level. MRI was advocated for further evaluation. MRI axial and coronal showed sellar and suprasellar mass with figure of e ight appearance mass suggesting pituitary mass. Hyper intense fluid level was seen suggesting bleed within the mass. Contrast MRI showed peripheral enhancement. Diagnosis of

  1. Headache in Patients With Pituitary Lesions: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, Paul; Iuliano, Sherry; Weizenbaum, Emma; Laws, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Headache is a presenting feature in 37% to 70% of patients with pituitary tumor. Other pituitary lesions may also present with headache, and together these lesions account for about 20% of all primary brain lesions. Although pituitary lesions have been associated with headache, the exact nature of the relationship remains undefined. It is not always clear whether the presenting headache is an unrelated primary headache, a lesion-induced aggravation of a preexisting primary headache, or a separate secondary headache related to the lesion. To characterize headache in patients referred to a multidisciplinary neuroendocrine clinic with suspected pituitary lesions and to assess changes in headache in those who underwent surgery. We used a self-administered survey of headache characteristics completed by patients upon presentation and after any pituitary surgical procedure. One hundred thirty-three participants completed the preoperative questionnaire (response rate of 99%). The overall prevalence of headache was 63%. Compared to patients without headache, the group with headache was more likely to be female (P = .001), younger (P = .001), and to have had a prior headache diagnosis (P headache localized to the anterior region of the head. Fifty-one patients with headache underwent transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Headache was not associated with increased odds of having surgery (odds ratio, 0.90). At 3 months, 81% of surgically treated patients with headache who completed the postoperative questionnaire (21/26) reported improvement or resolution of headaches. No patient who completed the postoperative questionnaire (44/84) reported new or worsened headache. Frequent, disabling headaches are common in patients with pituitary lesions referred for neuroendocrine consultation, especially in younger females with a preexisting headache disorder. Surgery in this group was associated with headache improvement or resolution in the majority and was not found to cause or worsen

  2. Non-pituitary origin sellar tumours mimicking pituitary macroadenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abele, T.A., E-mail: travaus@gmail.com [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States); Yetkin, Z.F.; Raisanen, J.M.; Mickey, B.E.; Mendelsohn, D.B. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Although the large majority of sellar tumours are pituitary adenomas, several other pituitary and non-pituitary origin tumours arise in the sellar and parasellar regions. Given their location, non-adenomatous lesions frequently mimic pituitary macroadenomas and can pose a diagnostic challenge for the radiologist. Distinguishing rare sellar lesions from the common macroadenoma helps to direct the correct surgical approach and reduce the risk of incomplete resection and/or complications such as cerebrospinal fluid leak with the potential for meningitis. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging features of non-pituitary-origin sellar tumours, focusing on characteristics that may distinguish them from pituitary macroadenomas. Lesions include meningioma, metastatic disease, epidermoid cyst, germinoma, chondrosarcoma, giant cell tumour, and giant aneurysm.

  3. Hedgehog signaling activation induces stem cell proliferation and hormone release in the adult pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyczek, Joanna; Buslei, Rolf; Schult, David; Hölsken, Annett; Buchfelder, Michael; Heß, Ina; Hahn, Heidi; Uhmann, Anja

    2016-04-25

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling is known to be essential during the embryonal development of the pituitary gland but the knowledge about its role in the adult pituitary and in associated tumors is sparse. In this report we investigated the effect of excess Hh signaling activation in murine pituitary explants and analyzed the HH signaling status of human adenopituitary lobes and a large cohort of pituitary adenomas. Our data show that excess Hh signaling led to increased proliferation of Sox2(+) and Sox9(+) adult pituitary stem cells and to elevated expression levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (Acth), growth hormone (Gh) and prolactin (Prl) in the adult gland. Inhibition of the pathway by cyclopamine reversed these effects indicating that active Hh signaling positively regulates proliferative processes of adult pituitary stem cells and hormone production in the anterior pituitary. Since hormone producing cells of the adenohypophysis as well as ACTH-, GH- and PRL-immunopositive adenomas express SHH and its target GLI1, we furthermore propose that excess HH signaling is involved in the development/maintenance of hormone-producing pituitary adenomas. These findings advance the understanding of physiological hormone regulation and may open new treatment options for pituitary tumors.

  4. Pituitary Disorders and Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bolanowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various hormonal disorders can influence bone metabolism and cause secondary osteoporosis. The consequence of this is a significant increase of fracture risk. Among pituitary disorders such effects are observed in patients with Cushing’s disease, hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly, and hypopituitarism. Severe osteoporosis is the result of the coexistence of some of these disorders and hypogonadism at the same time, which is quite often.

  5. Multidisciplinary Management of Pituitary Apoplexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Albani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is a rare clinical syndrome due to ischemic or haemorrhagic necrosis of the pituitary gland which complicates 2–12% of pituitary tumours, especially nonfunctioning adenomas. In many cases, it results in severe neurological, ophthalmological, and endocrinological consequences and may require prompt surgical decompression. Pituitary apoplexy represents a rare medical emergency that necessitates a multidisciplinary approach. Modalities of treatment and times of intervention are still largely debated. Therefore, the management of patients with pituitary apoplexy is often empirically individualized and clinical outcome is inevitably related to the multidisciplinary team’s skills and experience. This review aims to highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the management of pituitary apoplexy and to discuss modalities of presentation, treatment, and times of intervention.

  6. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

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    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  7. Hyperprolactinemia in nonpregnant women due to pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoi, L G

    1986-06-02

    The human prolactin molecule has been isolated and its structure characterized. This anterior pituitary hormone plays an important function in the induction and maintenance of lactation in the post-partum nursing mother. Prolactin-producing tumors cause inappropriate lactation in the nonpregnant woman. Bromocriptine, an ergot derivative, mimics the action of dopamine in the anterior pituitary gland and does not cure the underlying pathology. Prior to the development of bromocriptine, there was no effective treatment for the symptoms of amenorrhea and galactorrhea. Although the methods of therapy are more sophisticated today, there remain a number of unanswered questions. The unknown long-term risks of bromocriptine therapy must be balanced against the potential risk of osteopenia.

  8. Pituitary diseases and sleep disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with pituitary diseases have decreased quality of life. Sleep disorders are prevalent among patients with pituitary diseases and contribute to decreased quality of life. Patients previously treated for compression of the optic chiasm by surgery, and in some cases postoperative radiotherapy,

  9. A retrospective review of pituitary MRI findings in children on growth hormone therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Sarah L.; Lawrence, Sarah; Laffan, Eoghan

    2012-01-01

    Patients with congenital hypopituitarism might have the classic triad of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, which consists of: (1) an interrupted or thin pituitary stalk, (2) an absent or ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP), and (3) anterior pituitary hypoplasia or aplasia. To examine the relationship between pituitary anatomy and the degree of hormonal dysfunction. This study involved a retrospective review of MRI findings in all children diagnosed with congenital growth hormone deficiency from 1988 to 2010 at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital. Of the 52 MRIs reviewed in 52 children, 26 children had normal pituitary anatomy and 26 had one or more elements of the classic triad. Fourteen of fifteen children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies had structural anomalies on MRI. Twelve of 37 children with isolated growth hormone deficiency had an abnormal MRI. Children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were more likely to have the classic triad than children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. A normal MRI was the most common finding in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. (orig.)

  10. GH and Pituitary Hormone Alterations After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Züleyha; Tanrıverdi, Fatih; Ünlühızarcı, Kürşad; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a crucially important public health problem around the world, which gives rise to increased mortality and is the leading cause of physical and psychological disability in young adults, in particular. Pituitary dysfunction due to TBI was first described 95 years ago. However, until recently, only a few papers have been published in the literature and for this reason, TBI-induced hypopituitarism has been neglected for a long time. Recent studies have revealed that TBI is one of the leading causes of hypopituitarism. TBI which causes hypopituitarism may be characterized by a single head injury such as from a traffic accident or by chronic repetitive head trauma as seen in combative sports including boxing, kickboxing, and football. Vascular damage, hypoxic insult, direct trauma, genetic predisposition, autoimmunity, and neuroinflammatory changes may have a role in the development of hypopituitarism after TBI. Because of the exceptional structure of the hypothalamo-pituitary vasculature and the special anatomic location of anterior pituitary cells, GH is the most commonly lost hormone after TBI, and the frequency of isolated GHD is considerably high. TBI-induced pituitary dysfunction remains undiagnosed and therefore untreated in most patients because of the nonspecific and subtle clinical manifestations of hypopituitarism. Treatment of TBI-induced hypopituitarism depends on the deficient anterior pituitary hormones. GH replacement therapy has some beneficial effects on metabolic parameters and neurocognitive dysfunction. Patients with TBI without neuroendocrine changes and those with TBI-induced hypopituitarism share the same clinical manifestations, such as attention deficits, impulsion impairment, depression, sleep abnormalities, and cognitive disorders. For this reason, TBI-induced hypopituitarism may be neglected in TBI victims and it would be expected that underlying hypopituitarism would aggravate the clinical picture of TBI

  11. Ascorbic acid transport into cultured pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, E.I.; May, V.; Eipper, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    An amidating enzyme designated peptidyl-glycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) has been studied in a variety of tissues and is dependent on molecular oxygen and stimulated by copper and ascorbic acid. To continue investigating the relationship among cellular ascorbic acid concentrations, amidating ability, and PAM activity, the authors studied ascorbic acid transport in three cell preparations that contain PAM and produce amidated peptides: primary cultures of rat anterior and intermediate pituitary and mouse AtT-20 tumor cells. When incubated in 50 μM [ 14 C]ascorbic acid all three cell preparations concentrated ascorbic acid 20- to 40-fold, producing intracellular ascorbate concentrations of 1 to 2 mM, based on experimentally determined cell volumes. All three cell preparations displayed saturable ascorbic acid uptake with half-maximal initial rates occurring between 9 and 18 μM ascorbate. Replacing NaCl in the uptake buffer with choline chloride significantly diminished ascorbate uptake in all three preparations. Ascorbic acid efflux from these cells was slow, displaying half-lives of 7 hours. Unlike systems that transport dehydroascorbic acid, the transport system for ascorbic acid in these cells was not inhibited by glucose. Thus, ascorbate is transported into pituitary cells by a sodium-dependent, active transport system

  12. High-resolution heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic neurohypophysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanharawi, Imane El; Tzarouchi, Loukia [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Cardoen, Liesbeth [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Martinerie, Laetitia; Leger, Juliane; Carel, Jean-Claude [Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France); Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service d' Endocrinologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Elmaleh-Berges, Monique [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France); Alison, Marianne [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France)

    2017-05-15

    In anterior pituitary deficiency, patients with non visible pituitary stalk have more often multiple deficiencies and persistent deficiency than patients with visible pituitary stalk. To compare the diagnostic value of a high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence to 1.5-mm-thick unenhanced and contrast-enhanced sagittal T1-weighted sequences to assess the presence of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland. We retrospectively evaluated the MRI data of 14 children diagnosed with ectopic posterior pituitary gland between 2010 and 2014. We evaluated the presence of a pituitary stalk using a sagittal high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence and a 1.5-mm sagittal T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence before and after contrast medium administration. A pituitary stalk was present on at least one of the sequences in 10 of the 14 children (71%). T2-weighted sequence depicted the pituitary stalk in all 10 children, whereas the 1.5-mm-thick T1-weighted sequence depicted 2/10 (20%) before contrast injection and 8/10 (80%) after contrast injection (P=0.007). Compared with 1.5-mm-thick contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence demonstrates better sensitivity in detecting the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland, suggesting that contrast injection is unnecessary to assess the presence of a pituitary stalk in this setting. (orig.)

  13. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome in Chinese people: clinical characteristic analysis of 55 cases.

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    Qinghua Guo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS is characterized by the absence of pituitary stalk, pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic posterior pituitary. Due to the rarity of PSIS, clinical data are limited, especially in Chinese people. Herein, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with PSIS from our center over 10 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical manifestations and laboratory and MRI findings in 55 patients with PSIS. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients with PSIS, 48 (87.3% were male. The average age was 19.7±6.7 years and there was no familial case. A history of breech delivery was documented in 40 of 45 patients (88.9% and 19 of 55 patients (34.5% had a history of dystocia. Short stature was found in 47 of 55 patients (85.5% and bone age delayed 7.26±5.37 years. Secondary sex characteristics were poor or undeveloped in most patients. The prevalence of deficiencies in growth hormone, gonadotropins, corticotropin, and thyrotropin were 100%, 95.8%, 81.8%, 76.3%, respectively. Hyperprolactinemia was found in 36.4% of patients. Three or more pituitary hormone deficiencies were found in 92.7% of the patients. All patients had normal posterior pituitary function and absent pituitary stalk on imaging. The average height of anterior pituitary was 28 mm, documented anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Midline abnormalities were presented in 9.1% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features of our Chinese PSIS patients seem to be different from other reported patients in regarding to the higher degree of hypopituitarism and lower prevalence of midline defects. In addition, our patients were older at the time of case detection and the bone age was markedly delayed. We also had no cases of familial PSIS.

  14. A STUDY ON OPHTHALMIC MANIFESTATIONS IN PITUITARY GLAND TUMOURS

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    Chitra Munusamy Rajendran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pituitary adenoma is a benign tumour that originates from the adenohypophyseal cells of the anterior lobe of pituitary gland. It accounts for 12% to 15% of all intracranial tumours. A spectrum of ocular manifestations are seen with these tumours ranging from the absence of any visual symptoms to severe visual field defects and loss of vision. The aim of the study is to study the various ocular features and its effect on vision, visual fields and ocular motility in cases of pituitary adenoma diagnosed on CT or MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study for a period of 1 year and 8 months conducted in Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Madras Medical College. 25 patients aged between 25 to 65 years diagnosed as pituitary adenomas on radiological imaging who presented to squint clinic were evaluated after detailed history with visual acuity, pupillary reaction, colour vision, extraocular movements, slit lamp and fundus examination. Visual field examination was done with Octopus field analyser. RESULTS In our study, 25 patients of pituitary adenoma diagnosed on radio imaging were enrolled and evaluated. Most patients were above 50 years, 15 patients of the 25 were above 50 yrs. (60%. Females were predominantly affected (76%. Visual acquity of the patient was between 6/12-6/6 (62% on presentation. Headache was the commonest mode of presentation (80%. 76% showed field defects of which bitemporal hemianopia was the commonest in 52.9%. Pituitary macroadenoma 96% was the commonest type. Optic atrophy was seen only in 4 cases. Others had normal fundus. CONCLUSION Neuro-ophthalmic evaluation plays a major role not only in early detection, planning of treatment and further follow up, but also prevents visual loss if intervened early.

  15. The forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is necessary for pituitary luteinizing hormone expression in mice.

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    Jason H Gumbel

    Full Text Available The pituitary gland regulates numerous physiological functions including growth, reproduction, temperature and metabolic homeostasis, lactation, and response to stress. Pituitary organogenesis is dependent on signaling factors that are produced in and around the developing pituitary. The studies described in this report reveal that the forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is not expressed in the developing mouse pituitary gland, but rather in the mesenchyme surrounding the pituitary gland, which is an essential source of signaling factors that regulate pituitary organogenesis. Loss of Foxd1 causes a morphological defect in which the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland protrudes through the cartilage plate that is developing ventral to the pituitary at embryonic days (e14.5, e16.5, and e18.5. The number of proliferating pituitary cells is increased at e14.5 and e16.5. Loss of Foxd1 also results in significantly decreased levels of Lhb expression at e18.5. This decrease in Lhb expression does not appear to be due to a change in the number of gonadotrope cells in the pituitary gland. Previous studies have shown that loss of the LIM homeodomain factor, Lhx3, which is activated by the FGF signaling pathway, results in loss of LH production. Although there is a difference in Lhb expression in Foxd1 null mice, the expression pattern of LHX3 is not altered in Foxd1 null mice. These studies suggest that Foxd1 is indirectly required for normal Lhb expression and cartilage formation.

  16. Animal models of pituitary neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, K.E.; Stevenson, M.; Thakker, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary neoplasias can occur as part of a complex inherited disorder, or more commonly as sporadic (non-familial) disease. Studies of the molecular and genetic mechanisms causing such pituitary tumours have identified dysregulation of >35 genes, with many revealed by studies in mice, rats and zebrafish. Strategies used to generate these animal models have included gene knockout, gene knockin and transgenic over-expression, as well as chemical mutagenesis and drug induction. These animal models provide an important resource for investigation of tissue-specific tumourigenic mechanisms, and evaluations of novel therapies, illustrated by studies into multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), a hereditary syndrome in which ∼30% of patients develop pituitary adenomas. This review describes animal models of pituitary neoplasia that have been generated, together with some recent advances in gene editing technologies, and an illustration of the use of the Men1 mouse as a pre clinical model for evaluating novel therapies. PMID:26320859

  17. Cognitive functioning in patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma and the effects of pituitary radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelman, Pauline; Elderson, Martin F.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; van den Bergh, Alfons C. M.; Timmer, Cees A.; van den Berg, Gerrit; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; van Beek, Andre P.

    Context and objective Cognitive deterioration is reported in patients with a nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFA) and after pituitary radiotherapy. However, reported results are inconsistent and are potentially confounded by different underlying pituitary disorders. The aim of this study was

  18. Animal models of pituitary neoplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Lines, K.E.; Stevenson, M.; Thakker, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary neoplasias can occur as part of a complex inherited disorder, or more commonly as sporadic (non-familial) disease. Studies of the molecular and genetic mechanisms causing such pituitary tumours have identified dysregulation of >35 genes, with many revealed by studies in mice, rats and zebrafish. Strategies used to generate these animal models have included gene knockout, gene knockin and transgenic over-expression, as well as chemical mutagenesis and drug induction. These animal mod...

  19. Establishment and culture optimization of a new type of pituitary immortalized cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokubu, Yuko [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Asashima, Makoto [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Life Science Center of TARA, The University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken 305-8577 (Japan); Kurisaki, Akira, E-mail: akikuri@hotmail.com [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Biotechnology Research Institute for Drug Discovery, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    The pituitary gland is a center of the endocrine system that controls homeostasis in an organism by secreting various hormones. The glandular anterior pituitary consists of five different cell types, each expressing specific hormones. However, their regulation and the appropriate conditions for their in vitro culture are not well defined. Here, we report the immortalization of mouse pituitary cells by introducing TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes. The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed a thyrotroph-specific thyroid stimulating hormone beta (Tshb). After optimization of the culture conditions, these immortalized cells proliferated and maintained morphological characteristics similar to those of primary pituitary cells under sphere culture conditions in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with N2, B27, basic FGF, and EGF. These cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators and induced the expression of Tshb mRNA. Moreover, transplantation of the immortalized cell line into subcutaneous regions and kidney capsules of mice further increased Tshb expression. These results suggest that immortalization of pituitary cells with TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes is a useful method for generating proliferating cells for the in vitro analysis of pituitary regulatory mechanisms. - Highlights: • Mouse pituitary cell lines were immortalized by introducing TERT, E6, and E7. • The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed thyroid stimulating hormone beta. • The cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators, and induced Tshb.

  20. Anatomy of melancholia: focus on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis overactivity and the role of vasopressin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dinan, Timothy G

    2012-02-03

    Overactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis characterized by hypercortisolism, adrenal hyperplasia and abnormalities in negative feedback is the most consistently described biological abnormality in melancholic depression. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are the main secretagogues of the HPA\\/stress system. Produced in the parvicellular division of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus the release of these peptides is influenced by inputs from monoaminergic neurones. In depression, anterior pituitary CRH1 receptors are down-regulated and response to CRH infusion is blunted. By contrast, vasopressin V3 receptors on the anterior pituitary show enhanced response to AVP stimulation and this enhancement plays a key role in maintaining HPA overactivity.

  1. Molecular Morphology of Pituitary Cells, from Conventional Immunohistochemistry to Fluorescein Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yoshiyuki Osamura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In situ hybridization (ISH at the electron microscopic (EM level is essential for elucidating the intracellular distribution and role of mRNA in protein synthesis. EM-ISH is considered to be an important tool for clarifying the intracellular localization of mRNA and the exact site of pituitary hormone synthesis on the rough endoplasmic reticulum. A combined ISH and immunohistochemistry (IHC under EM (EM-ISH&IHC approach has sufficient ultrastructural resolution, and provides two-dimensional images of the subcellular localization of pituitary hormone and its mRNA in a pituitary cell. The advantages of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots, Qdots and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM enable us to obtain three-dimensional images of the subcellular localization of pituitary hormone and its mRNA. Both EM-ISH&IHC and ISH & IHC using Qdots and CLSM are useful for understanding the relationships between protein and mRNA simultaneously in two or three dimensions. CLSM observation of rab3B and SNARE proteins such as SNAP-25 and syntaxin has revealed that both rab3B and SNARE system proteins play important roles and work together as the exocytotic machinery in anterior pituitary cells. Another important issue is the intracellular transport and secretion of pituitary hormone. We have developed an experimental pituitary cell line, GH3 cell, which has growth hormone (GH linked to enhanced yellow fluorescein protein (EYFP. This stable GH3 cell secretes GH linked to EYFP upon stimulation by Ca2+ influx or Ca2+ release from storage. This GH3 cell line is useful for the real-time visualization of the intracellular transport and secretion of GH. These three methods from conventional immunohistochemistry and fluorescein imaging allow us to consecutively visualize the process of transcription, translation, transport and secretion of anterior pituitary hormone.

  2. Changes in Laminin Chain Expression in Pre- and Postnatal Rat Pituitary Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadhani, Dini; Tsukada, Takehiro; Fujiwara, Ken; Azuma, Morio; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Cell–matrix interaction is required for tissue development. Laminin, a major constituent of the basement membrane, is important for structural support and as a ligand in tissue development. Laminin has 19 isoforms, which are determined by combinational assembly of five α, three β, and three γ chains (eg, laminin 121 is α1, β2, and γ1). However, no report has identified the laminin isoforms expressed during pituitary development. We used in situ hybridization to investigate all laminin chains expressed during rat anterior pituitary development. The α5 chain was expressed during early pituitary development (embryonic day 12.5–15.5). Expression of α1 and α4 chains was noted in vasculature cells at embryonic day 19.5, but later diminished. The α1 chain was re-expressed in parenchymal cells of anterior lobe from postnatal day 10 (P10), while the α4 chain was present in vasculature cells from P30. The α2 and α3 chains were transiently expressed in vasculature cells and anterior lobe, respectively, only at P30. Widespread distribution of β and γ chains was also observed during development. These findings suggest that numerous laminin isoforms are involved in anterior pituitary gland development and that alteration of the expression pattern is required for proper development of the gland

  3. Radiosurgery of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Yoshihisa

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy and role of gamma knife (GK) in the treatment of various pituitary adenomas are described on author's experience and discussed with literature. GK subjects are 328 patients (M 126/F 202, av. age of 47.8 y) in author's hospital, and satisfactory follow-up (32-44 mo) for evaluation has been possible in 253 cases, who had tumors non-functional (129 cases), producing ACTH (23), HGH (70) and PRL (31). Stereotactic GK radiosurgery is done with navigation by Gamma Plan based on enhanced MRI images at various doses, and evaluation in the follow-up period is performed by hormonal levels and MRI which give efficacy of complete response (CR), partial response (PR), MR and standard deviation (SD)/ progressive disease (PD) on the tumor size. The overall tumor control rate is found to be 95-100%. Effectiveness (CR and PR) is found as high as 77.4% in PRL-producing tumor (marginal dose 14-32 Gy), 65% in non-functioning (15-25 Gy), 61% in ACTH (19-30 Gy) and 60% in GH (19-31 Gy), of which tendency is similar to that in literature. Even in ACTH-producing tumor, low ACTH and cortisol levels persisted with tendency of improved obese and hypertensive symptoms. GK radiosurgery has limitations in the tissue size and distance between the tumor and optic nerve/chiasm, but for the enough small tumor, it gives satisfactorily long term efficacy. (R.T.)

  4. Humanin inhibits apoptosis in pituitary tumor cells through several signaling pathways including NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardo, María Florencia; Moreno Ayala, Mariela; Ferraris, Jimena; Zárate, Sandra; Pisera, Daniel; Candolfi, Marianela; Jaita, Gabriela; Seilicovich, Adriana

    2017-12-01

    Humanin (HN) and Rattin (HNr), its homologous in the rat, are peptides with cytoprotective action in several cell types such as neurons, lymphocytes and testicular germ cells. Previously, we have shown that HNr is expressed in pituitary cells and that HN inhibited the apoptotic effect of TNF-α in both normal and tumor pituitary cells. The aim of the present study was to identify signaling pathways that mediate the antiapoptotic effect of HN in anterior pituitary cells from ovariectomized rats and in GH3 cells, a somatolactotrope cell line. We assessed the role of STAT3, JNK, Akt and MAPKs as well as proteins of the Bcl-2 family, previously implicated in the antiapoptotic effect of HN. We also evaluated the participation of NF-κB in the antiapoptotic action of HN. STAT3 inhibition reversed the inhibitory effect of HN on TNF-α-induced apoptosis in normal and pituitary tumor cells, indicating that STAT3 signaling pathway mediates the antiapoptotic effect of HN on pituitary cells. Inhibition of NF-κB pathway did not affect action of HN on normal anterior pituitary cells but blocked the cytoprotective effect of HN on TNF-α-induced apoptosis of GH3 cells, suggesting that the NF-κB pathway is involved in HN action in tumor pituitary cells. HN also induced NF-κB-p65 nuclear translocation in these cells. In pituitary tumor cells, JNK and MEK inhibitors also impaired HN cytoprotective action. In addition, HN increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased Bax mitochondrial translocation. Since HN expression in GH3 cells is higher than in normal pituitary cells, we may suggest that through multiple pathways HN could be involved in pituitary tumorigenesis.

  5. Effects of Carbenoxolone on the Canine Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Teshima

    Full Text Available Cushing's disease caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma is a common endocrine disease in dogs. A characteristic biochemical feature of corticotroph adenomas is their relative resistance to suppressive negative feedback by glucocorticoids. The abnormal expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD, which is a cortisol metabolic enzyme, is found in human and murine corticotroph adenomas. Our recent studies demonstrated that canine corticotroph adenomas also have abnormal expression of 11HSD. 11HSD has two isoforms in dogs, 11HSD type1 (HSD11B1, which converts cortisone into active cortisol, and 11HSD type2 (HSD11B2, which converts cortisol into inactive cortisone. It has been suggested that glucocorticoid resistance in corticotroph tumors is related to the overexpression of HSD11B2. Therefore it was our aim to investigate the effects of carbenoxolone (CBX, an 11HSD inhibitor, on the healthy dog's pituitary-adrenal axis. Dogs were administered 50 mg/kg of CBX twice each day for 15 days. During CBX administration, no adverse effects were observed in any dogs. The plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, and serum cortisol and cortisone concentrations were significantly lower at day 7 and 15 following corticotropin releasing hormone stimulation. After completion of CBX administration, the HSD11B1 mRNA expression was higher, and HSD11B2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the pituitaries. Moreover, proopiomelanocortin mRNA expression was lower, and the ratio of ACTH-positive cells in the anterior pituitary was also significantly lower after CBX treatment. In adrenal glands treated with CBX, HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 mRNA expression were both lower compared to normal canine adrenal glands. The results of this study suggested that CBX inhibits ACTH secretion from pituitary due to altered 11HSD expressions, and is potentially useful for the treatment of canine Cushing's disease.

  6. Role of MRI T2-DRIVE in the Assessment of Pituitary Stalk Abnormalities without Gadolinium in Pituitary Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godano, Elisabetta; Morana, Giovanni; Di Iorgi, Natascia; Pistorio, Angela; Allegri, Anna Elsa Maria; Napoli, Flavia; Gastaldi, Roberto; Calcagno, Annalisa; Patti, Giuseppa; Gallizia, Annalisa; Notarnicola, Sara; Giaccardi, Marta; Noli, Serena; Severino, Mariasavina; Tortora, Domenico; Rossi, Andrea; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2018-04-12

    To investigate the role of T2-DRIVE MRI sequence in the accurate measurement of pituitary stalk (PS) size and the identification of PS abnormalities in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders without the use of gadolinium. This was a retrospective study conducted on 242 patients who underwent MRI due to pituitary dysfunction between 2006 - 2015. Among 135 eligible patients, 102 showed eutopic posterior pituitary (PP) gland and 33 showed "ectopic" PP (EPP). Two readers independently measured the size of PS in patients with eutopic PP at the proximal, midpoint and distal levels on pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted as well as T2-DRIVE images; PS visibility was assessed on pre-contrast T1 and T2-DRIVE sequences in those with EPP. The length, height, width and volume of the anterior pituitary (AP), PP height and length, and PP area were analyzed. Significant agreement between the two readers was obtained for T2-DRIVE PS measurements in patients with "eutopic" PP; a significant difference was demonstrated between the Intraclass correlation coefficient calculated on the T2-DRIVE and the T1-pre- and post-contrast sequences. The percentage of PS identified by T2-DRIVE in EPP patients was 72.7% compared to 30.3% of T1 pre-contrast sequences. A significant association was found between the visibility of PS on T2-DRIVE and the height of AP. T2-DRIVE sequence is extremely precise and reliable for the evaluation of PS size and the recognition of PS abnormalities; the use of gadolinium-based contrast media does not add significant information and may thus be avoided.

  7. Radioimmunoassay of pituitary LH in fetal rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veyssiere, Georges; Berger, Michel; Jean-Faucher, Christiane; Turckheim, Marc de; Jean, Claude

    1981-01-01

    LH was measured by radioimmunology from the 18th day of gestation to birth in 318 male and female pituitary glands. LH was first detectable in the pituitary of 19 day old fetuses of both sexes. In both sexes pituitary LH levels increased from the 18th to the 31st day of gestation with a marked acceleration from the 24th day. LH pituitary levels were not sex-dependent [fr

  8. MR of the pituitary in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome: size determination and imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.; Angulo, M.; Price, D.; Taneja, S.

    1996-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is an unusual genetic disorder characterized by short stature, obesity, hypogonadism, hypotonia, cognitive impairment, and dysmorphic facies. There is an interstitial deletion of the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 in about 70% of patients. Some of these clinical features suggest a central hypothalamic/pituitary dysfunction, and recent investigations have demonstrated a marked impairment in spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion. We studied 15 GH-deficient PWS patients by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether there was a diminution in the gross morphological size of the anterior pituitary gland, the site of GH synthesis. We also set out to catalog the pertinent imaging findings in this patient population. Our results indicate that this is the first report documenting pituitary size by MRI in PWS patients. No statistically significant difference was found in the height of the anterior pituitary gland in PWS patients compared with either normal children or children with isolated GH deficiency. An interesting imaging finding is that three of 15 patients (20%) demonstrated complete absence of the posterior pituitary bright spot (PPBS), and a fourth patient demonstrated a small PPBS. These observations reflect an objective physiologic disturbance in the hypothalamus. The clinical and radiologic implications of these findings are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  10. Visual outcome after fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy of benign anterior skull base tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astradsson, Arnar; Wiencke, Anne Katrine; Munck af Rosenschold, Per

    2014-01-01

    To determine visual outcome including the occurrence of radiation induced optic neuropathy (RION) as well as tumor control after fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) of benign anterior skull base meningiomas or pituitary adenomas. Thirty-nine patients treated with FSRT for anterior...... skull base meningiomas and 55 patients treated with FSRT for pituitary adenomas between January 1999 and December 2009 with at least 2 years follow-up were included. Patients were followed up prospectively with magnetic resonance imaging scans, visual acuity and visual field examinations. RION was found...... in four (10%) patients with anterior skull base meningiomas and seven patients (13%) with pituitary adenomas. The five-year actuarial freedom from 25% RION visual field loss was 94% following FSRT. Actuarial 2-, 5- and 10-year tumor control rates were 100, 88.4 and 64.5% for anterior skull base...

  11. Eurycoma longifolia extract increases intracellular production activity of luteinizing hormone (LH) in pituitary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratomo, H.

    2017-07-01

    Administration of the boiled water (extract) of Eurycoma longifolia (E. Longifolia) 18 mg/200 g body weight (bw) actually increases basophil cells in the anterior pituitary. Meanwhile, it is observed that basophil cells in anterior pituitary are producer cells of LH and FSH. Cell activity rate producing intracellular FSH does not increase in the amount significantly after administration of the E. longifolia onto the third day. The research attempts to prove the performance of E. longifolia to producer cells of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the anterior pituitary. Applied approach by a technical method of immunohistochemistry staining uses an antibody anti-LH. Observation is established to the treatment group of the E longifolia in a dose of 18 mg/200 g a bw on the 1st day and 3rd day, compared to control group of 1 ml distilled water on the 1st day and 3rd day. Research results that administration of the extract of E longifolia onto the third day has increased the activity of producer cells of LH in the pituitary, the synthesizing intracellular LH obviously. It can be concluded that E longifolia constitutes strong trigger in producer cells of LH to synthesize LH hormone.

  12. Prenatal expression of interleukin 1beta and interleukin 6 in the rat pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, J A; Carretero, J; Alonso, M I; Martín, C; Gato, A; Mano, A de la

    2008-12-01

    It is known that interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are expressed post-natally in normal and tumoral cells in the anterior pituitary, and that they play a role in both the liberation of different hormones and in the growth, proliferation and tumor formation of the pituitary gland. However, their expression and role during embryonic and fetal development remain unknown. We have performed an immunocytochemistry study of prenatal expression and distribution of IL-1beta and IL-6 in isolated embryonic rat Rathke's pouch prior to birth, more specifically between 13.5 and 19.5 days p.c. Western-blot analysis carried out on 19.5-day p.c. embryos showed positive immunolabelling for IL-1beta and IL-6. These interleukins were initially expressed simultaneously in the rostral and ventral portions of Rathke's pouch in 15.5-day p.c. embryos, and this expression progressed caudodorsally in later developmental stages, extending to most of the hypophysis before birth. The number of cells expressing these interleukins increased throughout this period: 48.22% of anterior pituitary cells expressed IL-6 in 19.5-day embryos, whilst IL-1beta was positive in 39.8% of the cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that some adenohypophyseal cells co-express both interleukins. Such findings represent the first step towards an understanding of the physiological role of these interleukins in anterior pituitary development.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal pituitary gland using ultrashort TE (UTE) pulse sequences (REV 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portman, Olivia; Flemming, Stephen; Cox, Jeremy P.D.; Johnston, Desmond G. [Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, St Mary' s Hospital, Endocrinology and Metabolic Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Bydder, Graeme M. [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the normal pituitary gland in male subjects with ultrashort echo time (TE) pulse sequences, describe its appearance and measure its signal intensity before and after contrast enhancement. Eleven male volunteers (mean age 57.1 years; range 36-81 years) were examined with a fat-suppressed ultrashort TE (= 0.08 ms) pulse sequence. The studies were repeated after the administration of intravenous gadodiamide. The MR scans were examined for gland morphology and signal intensity before and after enhancement. Endocrinological evaluation included baseline pituitary function tests and a glucagon stimulatory test to assess pituitary cortisol and growth hormone reserve. High signal intensity was observed in the anterior pituitary relative to the brain in nine of the 11 subjects. These regions involved the whole of the anterior pituitary in three subjects, were localised to one side in two examples and were seen inferiorly in three subjects. Signal intensities relative to the brain increased with age, with a peak around the sixth or seventh decade and decreasing thereafter. Overall, the pituitary function tests were considered to be within normal limits and did not correlate with pituitary gland signal intensity. The anterior pituitary shows increased signal intensity in normal subjects when examined with T{sub 1}-weighted ultrashort TE pulse sequences. The cause of this increased intensity is unknown, but fibrosis and iron deposition are possible candidates. The variation in signal intensity with age followed the temporal pattern of iron content observed at post mortem. No relationship with endocrine status was observed. (orig.)

  14. Presenting Symptoms of Pituitary Apoplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrgelis, Efstratios-Stylianos; Mavridis, Ioannis; Meliou, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The classical term "pituitary apoplexy" (PA) describes a clinical syndrome usually characterized by abrupt onset of headache accompanied by neurologic and/or endocrinologic deterioration due to sudden expansion of a mass within the sella turcica as a result of hemorrhage or infarction within a pituitary tumor and adjacent pituitary gland. PA is a medical emergency and a difficult diagnosis to establish. Thus this article reviews the presenting symptoms of PA patients to help clinicians recognize or at least suspect this critical condition early on. PA commonly occurs in the setting of a preexisting adenoma, and several patients are unaware of its existence prior to the onset of apoplexy symptoms, which are mainly of a neurologic, ophthalmologic, and endocrinologic nature. Neurologic symptoms include sudden-onset severe headache and other symptoms of subarachnoid hemorrhage, symptoms from compression of the cavernous sinus contents, nausea/vomiting, impaired consciousness, and symptoms of meningeal irritation. Ophthalmologic symptoms include visual field defects, visual loss, diplopia, and ophthalmoplegia. Endocrinologic disturbances include pituitary adenoma symptoms, cortisol deficiency, panhypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus, and syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice to aid the PA diagnosis. Its differential diagnoses include cerebrovascular accidents, infectious diseases, and other causes of endocrinologic imbalance. Transsphenoidal surgery is the treatment of choice, especially if there are associated visual abnormalities and ophthalmoplegia. Clinicians should be aware of the presenting symptoms because early diagnosis may reduce the morbidity and mortality of this neurosurgical emergency. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Pituitary apoplexy masquerading as meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pituitary apoplexy masquerading as meningitis. BJ Merwitzab*, JM Zamparinib and FJ Raalab. aCarbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. bCharlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  16. Computed tomography in pituitary abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, W.; Scharphuis, T.; Distelmaier, P.

    1986-06-01

    This is a report on a rare case of a recurring abscess in the pituitary gland. Diagnosis was extremely difficult to establish preoperatively. This is demonstrated via various radiological methods. Anamnesis and clinical disease pattern are important assisting factors in diagnosis.

  17. MR imaging of hemorrhagic pituitary apoplexy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, C.M.; Rabin, D.; Ramsey, R.G.; Johnson, C.E.; Maltezos, S.; Gryfinski, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy (stroke) may be ischemic or hemorrhagic. The authors studied three patients with hemorrhagic pituitary apoplexy. MR imaging is an accurate and noninvasive method that easily identifies areas of pituitary hemorrhage more than 48 hours old. Surgical planning based on MR imaging findings has been less successful than diagnosis based on MR imaging. In two patients a subfrontal approach was chosen because MR imaging suggested suprasellar extension, although none was found at operation. They hypothesize that pituitary hemmorrhage may act as a mass, creating alterations in cerebrospinal fluid or blood flow in the pituitary stalk and hypothamlamus that may exaggerate the suprasellar extension

  18. Hypothalamic, pituitary and thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy to the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaan, N.A.; Vieto, R.; Schultz, P.N.; Maor, M.; Meoz, R.T.; Sampiere, V.A.; Cangir, A.; Ried, H.L.; Jesse, R.H. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred-ten patients who had nasopharyngeal cancer and paranasal sinus tumors and were free of the primary disease were studied one to 26 years following radiotherapy. There were 70 males and 40 females ranging in age from 4 to 75 years, with a mean age of 36.5 years. During therapy both the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland were in the field of irradiation. The radiation dose to the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland was estimated to be 400 to 7500 rad with a median dose of 5618 rad to the anterior pituitary gland and a median dose of 5000 rad to the hypothalamus. We found evidence of endocrine deficiencies in 91 of the 110 patients studied. Seventy-six patients showed evidence of one or more hypothalamic lesions and 43 patients showed evidence of primary pituitary deficiency. Forty of the 66 patients who received radiotherapy to the neck for treatment or prevention of lymph node metastasis showed evidence of primary hypothyroidism. The range of the dose to the thyroid area was 3000 to 8800 rad with a median of 5000 rad. One young adult woman who developed galactorrhea and amenorrhea 2 years following radiotherapy showed a high serum prolactin level, but had normal anterior pituitary function and sella turcica. She regained her menses and had a normal pregnancy and delivery following bromocriptine therapy. These results indicate that endocrine deficiencies after radiotherapy for tumors of the head and neck are common and should be detected early and treated. Long-term follow-up of these patients is indicated since complications may appear after the completion of radiotherapy

  19. Hypothalamic, pituitary and thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy to the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samaan, N.A.; Vieto, R.; Schultz, P.N.; Maor, M.; Meoz, R.T.; Sampiere, V.A.; Cangir, A.; Ried, H.L.; Jesse, R.H. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    One hundred-ten patients who had nasopharyngeal cancer and paranasal sinus tumors and were free of the primary disease were studied one to 26 years following radiotherapy. There were 70 males and 40 females ranging in age from 4 to 75 years, with a mean age of 36.5 years. During therapy both the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland were in the field of irradiation. The radiation dose to the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland was estimated to be 400 to 7500 rad with a median dose of 5618 rad to the anterior pituitary gland and a median dose of 5000 rad to the hypothalamus. We found evidence of endocrine deficiencies in 91 of the 110 patients studied. Seventy-six patients showed evidence of one or more hypothalamic lesions and 43 patients showed evidence of primary pituitary deficiency. Forty of the 66 patients who received radiotherapy to the neck for treatment or prevention of lymph node metastasis showed evidence of primary hypothyroidism. The range of the dose to the thyroid area was 3000 to 8800 rad with a median of 5000 rad. One young adult woman who developed galactorrhea and amenorrhea 2 years following radiotherapy showed a high serum prolactin level, but had normal anterior pituitary function and sella turcica. She regained her menses and had a normal pregnancy and delivery following bromocriptine therapy. These results indicate that endocrine deficiencies after radiotherapy for tumors of the head and neck are common and should be detected early and treated. Long-term follow-up of these patients is indicated since complications may appear after the completion of radiotherapy.

  20. Feeding Frequency Affects Cultured Rat Pituitary Cells in Low Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Salada, T.; Cenci, R.; Krishnan, K.; Mukai, C.; Nagaoka, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this report, we describe the results of a rat pituitary cell culture experiment done on STS-65 in which the effect of cell feeding on the release of the six anterior pituitary hormones was studied. We found complex microgravity related interactions between the frequency of cell feeding and the quantity and quality (i.e. biological activity) of some of the six hormones released in flight. Analyses of growth hormone (GH) released from cells into culture media on different mission days using gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography yielded qualitatively similar results between ground and flight samples. Lack of cell feeding resulted in extensive cell clumping in flight (but not ground) cultures. Vigorous fibroblast growth occurred in both ground and flight cultures fed 4 times. These results are interpreted within the context of autocrine and or paracrine feedback interactions. Finally the payload specialist successfully prepared a fresh trypsin solution in microgravity, detached the cells from their surface and reinserted them back into the culture chamber. These cells reattached and continued to release hormone in microgravity. In summary, this experiment shows that pituitary cells are microgravity sensitive and that coupled operations routinely associated with laboratory cel1 culture can also be accomplished in low gravity.

  1. Gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced and digitally subtracted magnetic resonance imaging of estrogen-induced pituitary lesions in rats: correlation with pituitary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nesselrooij, J H; Szeverenyi, N M; Tillapaugh-Fay, G M; Hendriksen, F G

    1990-01-01

    Pituitary hypertrophy and tumors were induced in male Sprague Dawley rats using estradiol-17 beta. This tumor model generates a variety of pituitary lesions which are relevant to human pituitary disease. In order to characterize these lesions, gadolinium DTPA was injected intravenously into the tail vein of estrogen treated and control rats. High resolution T1-weighted MR images, pre- and postenhancement, were obtained at 8 different time points spanning 300 days following the subcutaneous implantation of the estrogen pellets. Images with 2-mm slice thickness were made with a 2 Telsa small-bore MR imaging system. Both normal and tumorous pituitaries were found to enhance with contrast agent, but contrast uptake was not uniform. Gd-DTPA distribution was sensitive to the different types of lesions generated in the course of this study. Digital subtraction of congruent images, pre- and postcontrast, provided difference images reflecting contrast concentration and allowed identification of subtle enhancement effects. Hypertrophic pituitaries displayed uptake of contrast, but the distribution of contrast agent was nonuniform and appeared mottled. A bright rim enhancement was often seen anterior to the pituitary gland, most likely arising from the oculomotor nerves and arachnoid. Histological slices in the same anatomical plane as the MR images were obtained on the animals allowing identification of individual lesions. Cystic areas within tumors were found to give strong contrast enhancement in less than five min postinjection. Solid and hemorrhagic areas of the pituitary tumor were hypo- to isointense relative to surrounding brain and did not take up contrast agent. Significant perfusion in these areas apparently does not occur.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Establishment of a protocol to extend the lifespan of human hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Aurora; Cassarino, Maria Francesca; Nanni, Simona; Sesta, Antonella; Ferraú, Francesco; Grassi, Claudio; Losa, Marco; Trimarchi, Francesco; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Cannavò, Salvatore; Pecori Giraldi, Francesca; Farsetti, Antonella

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate immortalized human anterior pituitary adenoma cells. Reliable cell models for the study of human pituitary adenomas are as yet lacking and studies performed so far used repeated passaging of freshly excised adenomas, with the attendant limitations due to limited survival in culture, early senescence, and poor reproducibility. We devised a technique based upon repeated co-transfections of two retroviral vectors, one carrying the catalytic subunit of human telomerase, hTERT, the other SV40 large T antigen. This approach extended the lifespan of cells derived from a human growth hormone-secreting adenoma up to 18 months while retaining morphology of primary cells, growth hormone synthesis and growth hormone secretion. Our attempt represents the first demonstration of successful lifespan extension of human growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma cells via co-transfection of hTERT and SV40T and paves the way to future attempts to obtain stable cell lines.

  3. Treatment of Chushing's disease in childhood and adolescence by stereotactic pituitary irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoren, M.; Raehn, T.; Ritzen, M.; Hallengren, B.; Nilsson, K.O.; Kaad, P.H.; Ravn, H.; Petersen, K.E.; Aarskog, D.

    1986-01-01

    Eight children with Cushing's disease aged 6-18 years were treated with external radiation to the pituitary gland using /sup60/Co gamma radiation given with stereotactic technique. The dose given varied between 50 and 70 Gy. The observation time was 2.6 to 6.75 years. Seven children had a clinical remission with normal urinary cortisol excretion. One child had insufficent effect of two irriadiations and underwent bilateral adrenalectomy. In the patients in remission the growth velocity increased during the first year after treatment but growth retardation occurred again during the second year. Insufficient growth hormone secretion was demonstrated in all subjects. Two patients were given thyroxine substitution and three showed evidence for secondary hypogonadism. In conclusion, stereotactic pituitary irradiation was effective in normalizing the excessive glucocorticoid production in children with Cushing's disease. However, with the doses used, it was not possible to maintain a normal anterior pituitary function

  4. Treatment of Chushing's disease in childhood and adolescence by stereotactic pituitary irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoren, M.; Raehn, T.; Ritzen, M.; Hallengren, B.; Nilsson, K.O.; Kaad, P.H.; Ravn, H.; Petersen, K.E.; Aarskog, D.

    1986-01-01

    Eight children with Cushing's disease aged 6-18 years were treated with external radiation to the pituitary gland using /sup60/Co gamma radiation given with stereotactic technique. The dose given varied between 50 and 70 Gy. The observation time was 2.6 to 6.75 years. Seven children had a clinical remission with normal urinary cortisol excretion. One child had insufficent effect of two irriadiations and underwent bilateral adrenalectomy. In the patients in remission the growth velocity increased during the first year after treatment but growth retardation occurred again during the second year. Insufficient growth hormone secretion was demonstrated in all subjects. Two patients were given thyroxine substitution and three showed evidence for secondary hypogonadism. In conclusion, stereotactic pituitary irradiation was effective in normalizing the excessive glucocorticoid production in children with Cushing's disease. However, with the doses used, it was not possible to maintain a normal anterior pituitary function.

  5. CT scan of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakoda, K.; Mukada, K.; Yonezawa, M.; Matsumura, S.; Yoshimoto, H.; Mori, S.; Uozumi, T.

    1981-01-01

    CT scan is an extremely useful, almost harmless means of diagnosing pituitary adenomas. Growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas tend to have higher absorption coefficent in plain CT than the nonfunctioning and prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenomas. The absorption coefficent on contrast-enhanced CT does not identify the specific type of adenoma. Ring-like enhancement was observed in five nonfunctioning and four PRL-secreting adenomas with suprasellar extension, while cystic components were observed in four nonfunctioning and four PRL-secreting adenomas. In three of ten cases of PRL-secreting microadenomas, the site corresponding to the adenoma was not enhanced, whereas the normal pituitary was. A correlation exists between the size of PRL-secreting adenoma and the serum PRL level, but not between the size of GH-secreting adenomas and the serum GH level. (orig.)

  6. Central diabetes insipidus in a dog with a pro-opiomelanocortin-producing pituitary tumor not causing hyperadrenocorticism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goossens, M.M.C.; Rijnberk, A.; Mol, J.A.; Wolfswinkel, J.; Voorhout, G.

    1995-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus was diagnosed by vasopressin measurements during hypertonic stimulation in a 9-year-old male giant Schnauzer with polyuria and polydipsia. The impaired release of vasopressin was believed to be caused by a large pituitary tumor, which was visualized by computed tomography. Studies of the function of the anterior lobe and the pars intermedia of the pituitary gland were conducted, and high concentrations of ACTH and alpha-melanotrophic hormone (alpha-MSH) were found without concomitant hyperadrenocorticism. Studies of the molecular size of the immunoreactive ACTH in plasma by gel filtration revealed that most of the circulating immunoreactivity was not ACTH but its precursor pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and low-molecular-weight POMC-derived peptides. The pituitary tumor of this dog probably originated from melanotrophic cells of the pars intermedia. The sensitivity of the pituitary-adrenocortical system for the suppressive effect of dexamethasone was unaffected

  7. Pituitary stalk transection syndrome: Comparison of clinico-radiological features in adults and children with review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Chinmay; Moorthy, Srikanth; Pullara, Sreekumar K; Rajeshkannan, R; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G

    2012-01-01

    Hypo-pituitarism results from impaired production of one or more of anterior pituitary trophic hormones. A rare cause of hypo-pituitarism is pituitary stalk transection syndrome. The MRI features of this condition in children and its association with hormonal deficiencies have been reported earlier. Reports on adults with this disorder are scarce, with only one small case series published in the recent literature. We studied the hormonal deficiency pattern and MRI findings of 12 patients with pituitary stalk transection syndrome who presented to our department between 2004 and 2011. Six patients were children and six were adults (≥18 years). This article compares the adult clinico-radiological phenotype of pituitary transection syndrome with the pediatric group of patients with same condition

  8. Displacement of the normal pituitary gland by sellar and juxtasellar tumours: surgical-MRI correlation and use in differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumida, M.; Uozumi, T.; Yamanaka, M.; Mukada, K.; Arita, K.; Kurisu, K.; Satoh, H.; Ikawa, F.

    1994-01-01

    We compared the position of the normal pituitary gland as estimated by gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA-enhanced MRI, with its position at surgery in 40 patients with intra- and juxtasellar tumours: 22 pituitary adenomas, 4 craniopharyngiomas, 7 meningiomas, 2 germinomas, and 5 Rathke cleft cysts. In 37 of these, the normal gland showed more intense contrast enhancement than the adjacent tumour, from which it could be differentiated by Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI, especially in the sagittal plane. The direction of displacement of the normal pituitary gland correlated well with tumour type, so that its position proved helpful in the differential diagnosis. The normal gland was typically displaced superiorly by pituitary adenomas, inferiorly by craniopharyngiomas, and anteriorly by germinomas. It showed variable displacement by Rathke cleft cysts, and was not usually displaced by meningiomas. (orig.)

  9. An acute adrenal insufficiency revealing pituitary metastases of lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An acute adrenal insufficiency revealing pituitary metastases of lung cancer in an elderly patient. ... The hypothalamic-pituitary MRI showed a pituitary hypertrophy, a nodular thickening of the pituitary stalk. The chest X Rays ... Hence we concluded to a lung cancer with multiple pituitary and adrenal gland metastases.

  10. Evolving radiological features of hypothalamo-pituitary lesions in adult patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makras, P. [Athens General Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Athens (Greece); Athens General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Samara, C.; Antoniou, M.; Nikolakopoulou, Z. [Athens Hospital, 9. Pulmonary Department, Athens (Greece); Zetos, A. [General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Athens (Greece); Papadogias, D.; Piaditis, G.; Kaltsas, G.A. [Athens General Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Athens (Greece); Toloumis, G. [Athens General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Andreakos, E.; Kontogeorgos, G.

    2006-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare, systemic disease caused by monoclonal expansion of dendritic cells that shows a particular predilection for the hypothalamic-pituitary system (HPS). We studied the function (anterior and posterior pituitary hormonal secretion) and morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the HPS in 17 adult patients (seven males, median age 35 years, range 18-59 years) with multisystem LCH. We also evaluated the evolution of structural HPS abnormalities in relation to pituitary function and response to treatment in 12 of these patients during a median follow-up period of 3.75 years (range 1.5-10 years). Of the 17 patients, 14 (82%) had abnormal HPS imaging, and 12 (70%) had more than one area involved. Lack of the bright spot of the posterior pituitary lobe was typically found in all patients with the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus (DI). Eight patients (47%) had infundibular enlargement, six (35%) pituitary infiltration, four (24%) partially or completely empty sella, three (18%) hypothalamic involvement, and two (12%) infundibular atrophy. DI was found in 16 patients (94%) and anterior pituitary hormonal deficiency (APHD) in 10 patients (59%); two patients had single (12%) and 8 (47%) multiple APHD. During the follow-up period there was improvement of the initially demonstrated HPS pathology in seven (47%) patients, and five (33%) of them had received at least one form of treatment. APHD and DI persisted in all patients except in one in whom established gonadotrophin deficiency recovered. In summary, DI and APHD are very common in patients with multisystem LCH and are almost always associated with abnormal HPS imaging. (orig.)

  11. Pre-operative assessment of patients undergoing endoscopic, transnasal, transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbe, D; Semple, P

    2008-06-01

    To demonstrate the importance of pre-operative ear, nose and throat assessment in patients undergoing endoscopic, transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumours. Literature pertaining to the pre-operative otorhinolaryngological assessment and management of patients undergoing endoscopic anterior skull base surgery is sparse. We describe two cases from our series of 59 patients undergoing endoscopic pituitary surgery. The first case involved a young male patient with a large pituitary macroadenoma. His main complaint was visual impairment. He had no previous history of sinonasal pathology and did not complain of any nasal symptoms during the pre-operative neurosurgical assessment. At the time of surgery, a purulent nasal discharge was seen emanating from both middle meati. Surgery was abandoned due to the risk of post-operative meningitis, and postponed until the patient's chronic rhinosinusitis was optimally managed. The second patient was a 47-year-old woman with a large pituitary macroadenoma, who presented to the neurosurgical department with a main complaint of diplopia. She too gave no history of previous nasal problems, and she underwent uneventful surgery using the endoscopic, transnasal approach. Two weeks after surgery, she presented to the emergency unit with severe epistaxis. A previous diagnosis of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia was discovered, and further surgical and medical intervention was required before the epistaxis was finally controlled. Pre-operative otorhinolaryngological assessment is essential prior to endoscopic pituitary or anterior skull base surgery. A thorough otorhinolaryngological history will determine whether any co-morbid diseases exist which could affect the surgical field. Nasal anatomy can be assessed via nasal endoscopy and sinusitis excluded. Computed tomography imaging is a valuable aid to decisions regarding additional procedures needed to optimise access to the pituitary fossa.

  12. Identification and characterization of a pituitary corticotropin-releasing factor binding protein by chemical cross-linking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishimura, E; Billestrup, Nils; Perrin, M

    1987-01-01

    A corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) binding protein has been identified based on the chemical cross-linking of ovine [Nle21,m-125I-Tyr32]CRF (125I-oCRF) to bovine anterior pituitary membranes using disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS). The apparent molecular weight of the cross-linked complex...

  13. Visual pathway impairment by pituitary adenomas: quantitative diagnostics by diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, Ylva; Gustafsson, Oscar; Ljungberg, Maria; Starck, Göran; Lindblom, Bertil; Skoglund, Thomas; Bergquist, Henrik; Jakobsson, Karl-Erik; Nilsson, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite ample experience in surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas, little is known about objective indices that may reveal risk of visual impairment caused by tumor growth that leads to compression of the anterior visual pathways. This study aimed to explore diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a means for objective assessment of injury to the anterior visual pathways caused by pituitary adenomas. METHODS Twenty-three patients with pituitary adenomas, scheduled for transsphenoidal tumor resection, and 20 healthy control subjects were included in the study. A minimum suprasellar tumor extension of Grade 2-4, according to the SIPAP (suprasellar, infrasellar, parasellar, anterior, and posterior) scale, was required for inclusion. Neuroophthalmological examinations, conventional MRI, and DTI were completed in all subjects and were repeated 6 months after surgery. Quantitative assessment of chiasmal lift, visual field defect (VFD), and DTI parameters from the optic tracts was performed. Linear correlations, group comparisons, and prediction models were done in controls and patients. RESULTS Both the degree of VFD and chiasmal lift were significantly correlated with the radial diffusivity (r = 0.55, p visual pathways that were compressed by pituitary adenomas. The correlation between radial diffusivity and visual impairment may reflect a gradual demyelination in the visual pathways caused by an increased tumor effect. The low level of axial diffusivity found in the patient group may represent early atrophy in the visual pathways, detectable on DTI but not by conventional methods. DTI may provide objective data, detect early signs of injury, and be an additional diagnostic tool for determining indication for surgery in cases of pituitary adenomas.

  14. Anterior Hypopituitarism is Rare and Autoimmune Disease is Common in Adults with Idiopathic Central Diabetes Insipidus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Objective: Central diabetes insipidus is a rare clinical condition with a heterogenous aetiology. Up to 40% of cases are classified as idiopathic, though many of these are thought to have an autoimmune basis. Published data has suggested that anterior hypopituitarism is common in childhood onset idiopathic diabetes insipidus. We aimed to assess the incidence of anterior hypopituitarism in a cohort of adult patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Design and Patients: We performed a retrospective review of the databases of two pituitary investigation units. This identified 39 patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. All had undergone MRI scanning and dynamic pituitary testing (either insulin tolerance testing or GHRH\\/arginine and short synacthen testing) to assess anterior pituitary function. Results: One patient had partial growth hormone deficiency; no other anterior pituitary hormonal deficits were found. 33% had at least one autoimmune disease in addition to central diabetes insipidus. Conclusions: Our data suggest that anterior hypopituitarism is rare in adult idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Routine screening of these patients for anterior hypopituitarism may not therefore be indicated. The significant prevalence of autoimmune disease in this cohort supports the hypothesis that idiopathic diabetes insipidus may have an autoimmune aetiology.

  15. Temozolomide treatment of a pituitary carcinoma and two pituitary macroadenomas resistant to conventional therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, C; Schroeder, H D; Hansen, S

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aggressive pituitary tumours may be difficult to treat. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating cytostaticum. In a small number of cases, TMZ therapy has been reported to reduce pituitary tumour size and hormone hypersecretion. DESIGN: We present three patients with pituitary tumours treated...

  16. Endocrinological and MRI features of pituitary adenomas with marked xanthogranulomatous reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, Hiroshi; Haraoka, Jo [Tokyo Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo (Japan); Shibuya, Makoto [Tokyo Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Ibaraki Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Ohtsuka, Kuninori; Ikeda, Yukio [Tokyo Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Hachioji Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The study aims to describe the endocrinological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the rarely reported xanthogranulomas associated with pituitary adenoma. Of 231 consecutive pituitary adenomas treated surgically, those with xanthogranulomatous reaction on histology were reviewed. Five patients (2.2%) had an adenoma with marked xanthogranulomatous reaction. They were all nonfunctioning macroadenomas and presented with anterior pituitary insufficiencies. On MRI, all adenomas showed mixed signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images with heterogeneous gadolinium enhancement, reflecting their complex histological features: Cholesterol clefts typically showed T1 high- and T2 low-signal intensities. Preoperative diagnosis was difficult in a case predominantly featuring xanthogranuloma. Although none of them had episodes of pituitary apoplexy, hemosiderin deposits and cysts with xanthochromic-like fluid were observed in five and four cases, respectively. Xanthogranulomatous reaction may develop in macroadenomas, probably triggered by hemorrhagic processes despite no apoplectic episodes. They typically exhibit complex mixed signal intensity on MRI, particularly T1 high- and T2 low-signal intensities, and patients present with pituitary dysfunction. (orig.)

  17. Colloid cyst of the pituitary gland: Case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladowska, J.; Biel, A.; Bednarek-Tupikowska, G.; Sasiadek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The sellar and parasellar region is an area where many heterogenous neoplastic, inflammatory, developmental and vascular pathologies can occur. Differentiation among various diseases may be not easy, because many of these lesions could mimic the clinical, endocrinologic and radiologic features of pituitary adenomas, which can be the cause of possible misdiagnosis. Case Report: We report a case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a persistent headache for the last 5 - 6 years and visual disturbances. Endocrine system examinations disclosed only insignificant hyperprolactinaemia. The MRI revealed an hypointense area - its presentation was similar to that of pituitary adenoma. The correct diagnosis, i.e. a colloid cyst of the pituitary gland, was made intraoperatively. Conclusions: Colloid cyst of the pituitary gland is a very rare pathology but it must be considered if there is an hypointense area between the anterior and posterior pituitary lobe in MR imaging without contrast enhancement and if the patient presents with headaches, hypopituitarism and hyperprolactinaemia. (authors)

  18. Pathobiology and oncogenesis of pituitary corticotroph adenomas in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanson, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) or Cushing's disease is a common endocrinopathy in the elderly dog caused by a pituitary adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) producing tumor (corticotroph adenoma) of unknown pathogenesis. Surgical removal of the pituitary tumor is applied as routine

  19. MRI for the determination of pituitary iron overload in children and young adults with {beta}-thalassaemia major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoforidis, Athanasios [Thalassaemia Unit, ' Hippokration' Hospital, 49 Konstantinoupoleos str., 54642 Thessaloniki (Greece)]. E-mail: christoforidis@doctors.org.uk; Haritandi, Afroditi [Radiology Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA Hospital, 54636 Thessaloniki (Greece); Perifanis, Vassilios [Thalassaemia Unit, ' Hippokration' Hospital, 49 Konstantinoupoleos str., 54642 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsatra, Ioanna [Thalassaemia Unit, ' Hippokration' Hospital, 49 Konstantinoupoleos str., 54642 Thessaloniki (Greece); Athanassiou-Metaxa, Miranda [Thalassaemia Unit, ' Hippokration' Hospital, 49 Konstantinoupoleos str., 54642 Thessaloniki (Greece); Dimitriadis, Athanasios S. [Radiology Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA Hospital, 54636 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2007-04-15

    Hypogonadism, resulting from iron-induced pituitary dysfunction, is the most frequently reported complication in patients with {beta}-thalassaemia major. The aim of this study was to evaluate pituitary Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) signal intensity reduction, on T2*-weighted images, as a marker of pituitary iron overload. Thirty patients (13 females and 17 males, mean age: 16.6 {+-} 4.1) with {beta}-thalassaemia major on conventional treatment and 13 healthy volunteers (7 females and 6 males, mean age: 11 {+-} 4.51 years) were studied with T2*-weighted images of the anterior pituitary using a 1.5 T unit. Four thalassaemic patients (2 females and 2 males) had clinical hypogonadism and required hormonal replacement treatment. Results revealed a statistically significant reduction of pituitary signal intensity in the thalassaemia group compared to controls (p < 0.001). Moreover, hypogonadal patients had significantly decreased MRI values compared to thalassaemic patients without hypogonadism (p = 0.017). Relatively decreased adeno-hypophyseal MRI signal intensity was recorded in pubertal thalassaemic patients. A significant negative correlation was observed between pituitary MRI values and age (r = -0.67, r {sup 2} = 0.443, p = 0.001), whereas ferritin levels and pituitary MRI values were moderately correlated (r = -0.56, r {sup 2} = 0.32, p = 0.08) in adult thalassaemic patients. In conclusion, pituitary MRI indices as measured on T2*-weighted images seem to reflect pituitary iron overload and could, therefore, be used for a preclinical detection of patients who are in greater danger of developing hypogonadism.

  20. Pituitary disorders and their extra-pituitary implications : observations in patients with nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma and the IGSF1 deficiency syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joustra, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we explored pituitary functioning and extra-pituitary implications of two pituitary disorders in humans. In part A, we focused on the long-term consequences of the diagnosis and treatment of nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFMA) on hypothalamic regulation of circadian

  1. Pituitary Gigantism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present a rare case of gigantism. Case Report: A 25-year-old lady presented with increased statural growth and enlarged body parts noticed since the age of 14 years, primary amenorrhea, and frontal headache for the last 2 years.She has also been suffering from non-inflammatory low back pain with progressive kyphosis and pain in the knees, ankles, and elbows for the last 5 years. There was no history of visual disturbance, vomiting, galactorrhoea, cold intolerance. She had no siblings. Family history was non-contributory.Blood pressure was normal. Height 221 cm, weight 138 kg,body mass index (BMI28. There was coarsening of facial features along with frontal bossing and prognathism, large hands and feet, and small goitre. Patient had severe kyphosis and osteoarthritis of knees. Confrontation perimetry suggested bitemporal hemianopia. Breast and pubic hair were of Tanner stage 1. Serum insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF1 was 703 ng/ml with all glucose suppressedgrowth hormone (GHvalues of >40 ng/ml. Prolactin was 174 ng/ml. Basal serum Lutenising Hormone (LH, follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH was low. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, liver and renal function tests, basal cortisol and thyroid profile, Calcium, phosphorus and Intact Parathyroid hormone (iPTH were normal.Computed tomographyscan of brain showed large pituitary macroadenoma. Automated perimetry confirmed bitemporal hemianopia. A diagnosis of gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary macroadenoma with hypogonadotrophichypogonadism was made. Debulking pituitary surgery followed by somatostatin analogue therapy with gonadal steroid replacement had been planned, but the patient refused further treatment.

  2. Microsurgical therapy of pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortini, Pietro; Barzaghi, Lina Raffaella; Albano, Luigi; Panni, Pietro; Losa, Marco

    2018-01-01

    We report the efficacy and safety of transsphenoidal microsurgery in a large and homogeneous cohort of patients with pituitary adenomas (PAs) treated at a single Institute by a single neurosurgeon. A total of 2145 consecutive patients undergoing first surgery for a PA were included: 795 (37.1%) had a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA), 595 (27.7%) acromegaly, 496 (23.1%) Cushing's disease, 208 (9.7%) a PRL-secreting adenoma, and 51 patients (2.4%) a TSH-secreting adenoma. Remission was achieved when strict hormonal and radiological criteria were met. Early surgical remission was achieved in 66% of acromegalic patients, 79.6% of patients with Cushing's disease, 64.4% of prolactinomas, 74.5% of patients with a TSH-secreting adenoma, and 66.9% of NFPAs. The mean (±SE) follow-up was 60.1 ± 1.3 months. The recurrence-free survival at 10 years was 78.2% in acromegalic patients, 68.1% in prolactinomas, 74.3% in Cushing's disease, 70.3% in TSH-secreting adenomas, and 75.3% in NFPAs. Preoperative hypoadrenalism recovered in 35.3%, hypogonadism in 43.3% and hypothyroidism in 37.4% of patients with impaired function before surgery. The mortality rate was 0.2% and major morbidity 2.1%. New onset hypoadrenalism occurred after surgery in 2.5% of patients at risk, hypogonadism in 4.1%, and hypothyroidism in 1.8%. Permanent diabetes insipidus (DI) occurred in 0.9% of patients. In experienced hands, transsphenoidal microsurgery for PAs achieves remission in most patients with a low complication rate. Pituitary function is preserved in most cases and can recover in more than one-third of patients with preoperative hypopituitarism.

  3. Anatomy, Physiology, and Laboratory Evaluation of the Pituitary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gregory K; Payne, Spencer C; Jane, John A

    2016-02-01

    The pituitary gland functions prominently in the control of most endocrine systems in the body. Diverse processes such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, and water balance are tightly regulated by the pituitary in conjunction with the hypothalamus and various downstream endocrine organs. Benign tumors of the pituitary gland are the primary cause of pituitary pathology and can result in inappropriate secretion of pituitary hormones or loss of pituitary function. First-line management of clinically significant tumors often involves surgical resection. Understanding of normal pituitary physiology and basic testing strategies to assess for pituitary dysfunction should be familiar to any skull base surgeon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. NMR characterization of pituitary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osbakken, M.; Gonzales, J.; Page, R.

    1984-01-01

    Twelve patients (5 male, 7 female, mean age 37.9 +- 20) with pituitary tumors were extensively evaluated with NMR imaging using a 1.5K gauss resistive magnet. Saturation recovery (SR), inversion recovery (IR) and spin echo (SE) pulse sequences were used for qualitative characterization of the lesions. T/sub 1/ calculations were also performed for brain and pituitary. Tumor histology and endocrine status were correlated with NMR data. All tumors were large with suprasellar extension (6 with prolactin secretion, 6 without). Pituitary T/sub 1/'s ranged from .2 to .64, the mean T/sub 1/ being longer than that of brain (Brain = .4 +- .04; Pit = .48 +- .14). 3 patients with histological evidence of homogeneous adenomas had long T/sub 1/'s (0.58 +- .05). 3 patients with evidence of recent or old hemorhage into the pituitary had much shorter T/sub 1/'s (0.29 +- .12). There was no relationship between prolactin secretion and T/sub 1/. Qualitative T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ information can be obtained by using a combination of SR, IR, and SE images. Using this method in the patients, homogeneous adenomas had similar T/sub 1/'s and longer T/sub 2/'s compared to the brain, while patients with bleeds had shorter T/sub 1/'s and T/sub 2/'s. Image T/sub 1/ characteristics correlated well with the calculated T/sub 1/ values. The range of T/sub 1/ (and potentially T/sub 2/) values which occur in apparently similar lesions are most likely due to anatomical and pathophysiological variations in these lesions. It may be ultimately possible to separate different types of pathological processes based on NMR image T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ characteristics after careful comparative studies of NMR and histological data are completed. The combination of calculated T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ with image T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ information may also be useful in further characterization of lesions

  5. Radiation Therapy of Pituitary Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Moon Baik; Hong, Seong Eong [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Radiation treatment results were analyzed in a retrospective analysis of 47 patients with pituitary adenoma treated with radiation alone or combined with surgery from 1974 through 1987 at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology of Kyung Hee University. The 5-year overall survival rates for all patients was 80.4%. Radiation therapy was effective for improving visual symptoms and headache, but could not normalize amenorrhea and galactorrhoea. There was no difference of survival rate between radiation alone and combination with surgery. Prognostic factors such as age, sex, disease type, visual field, headache and surgical treatment were statistically no significant in survival rates of these patients.

  6. Radiation Therapy of Pituitary Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Moon Baik; Hong, Seong Eong

    1989-01-01

    Radiation treatment results were analyzed in a retrospective analysis of 47 patients with pituitary adenoma treated with radiation alone or combined with surgery from 1974 through 1987 at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology of Kyung Hee University. The 5-year overall survival rates for all patients was 80.4%. Radiation therapy was effective for improving visual symptoms and headache, but could not normalize amenorrhea and galactorrhoea. There was no difference of survival rate between radiation alone and combination with surgery. Prognostic factors such as age, sex, disease type, visual field, headache and surgical treatment were statistically no significant in survival rates of these patients

  7. Clinical characterization of familial isolated pituitary adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Daly (Adrian); M-L. Jaffrain-Rea (Marie-Lise); E. Ciccarelli (Enrica); H. Valdes-Socin (H.); V. Rohmer (Vincent); G. Tamburrano (Guido); F. Borson-Chazot (Francoise); B. Estour (Bruno); E. Ciccarelli (Enrica); T. Brue (Thierry); P. Ferolla (Piero); P. Emy (Philippe); A. Colao (Annamaria); E. de Menis (Ernesto); P. Lecomte (Pierre); A. Penfornis (Alfred); B. Delemer (B.); J. Bertherat (Jerome); J.L. Wémeau; W.W. de Herder (Wouter); F. Archambeaud (Françoise); A. Stevenaert (A.); A. Calender (Alain); A. Murat (Arnaud); F. Cavagnini (Francesco); A. Beckers (Albert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractContext: Familial pituitary adenomas occur rarely in the absence of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1(MEN1)and Carney complex (CNC). Objective: Our objective was to characterize the clinical and genealogical features of non-MEN1/CNC familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). Design

  8. Reversible suprasellar pituitary mass secondary to hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchison, J.A.; Lee, P.A.; Albright, A.L. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA) Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1989-12-08

    Sellar enlargement and suprasellar extension of a pituitary mass, demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic scanning in three children with primary hypothyroidism, resolved after treatment with levothyroxine sodium. This condition, a logical consequence of the pathogenesis of primary hypothyroidism, must be considered in patients with pituitary and suprasellar masses.

  9. Pituitary apoplexy initially mistaken for bacterial meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Sui Hsien; Das, Kumar; Javadpour, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    We presented a case of a 62-year-old man whose initial clinical picture was suggestive of bacterial meningitis, but instead had pituitary apoplexy. We highlighted how pituitary apoplexy can mimic bacterial meningitis, learning points on how clinical assessment can aid earlier diagnosis and the importance of considering this differential diagnosis, particularly with the associated morbidity and mortality if missed.

  10. The Enigma behind Pituitary and Sella Turcica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umarevathi Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pituitary gland’s role as a functional matrix for sella turcica has not been suggested in orthodontic literature. This paper is an attempt to correlate the role of pituitary gland in the development of sella turcica. A case report of dwarfism associated with hypopituitarism is presented to highlight the above hypothesis.

  11. Pituitary aspergillosis abscess in an immunocompetent black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis of aspergillus was confirmed by histopathology. The postoperative course was good with the administration of antifungal chemotherapy. Conclusion Pituitary Aspergellosis is not only rare, but also bears clinical, biological and radiological resemblance to pituitary adenoma; it should therefore be regarded as a ...

  12. Shedding light on canine pituitary dwarfism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, A.M.W.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary dwarfism, associated with growth hormone deficiency, is an autosomal, recessively inherited disorder in shepherd dogs. Due to the serious nature of pituitary dwarfism and lack of efficient treatment, it is preferable to prevent dwarfs from being born by applying a correct breeding policy.

  13. Pituitary Involvement in Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Parisot, Audrey; Puéchal, Xavier; Langrand, Corinne; Raverot, Gerald; Gil, Helder; Perard, Laurent; Le Guenno, Guillaume; Berthier, Sabine; Tschirret, Olivier; Eschard, Jean Paul; Vinzio, Stephane; Guillevin, Loïc; Sève, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pituitary dysfunction is a rare manifestation of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (Wegener). The main aim of this multicenter retrospective study was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of pituitary manifestations in patients with GPA included in the French Vasculitis Study Group database. Among the 819 GPA patients included in the database, 9 (1.1%) had pituitary involvement. The median age at diagnosis of GPA and pituitary involvement was 46 and 50.8 years, respectively. Pituitary involvement was present at onset of GPA in 1 case and occurred later in 8 patients after a median follow up of 58.5 months. When pituitary dysfunction occurred, 8 patients had active disease at other sites including ENT (n = 6), eye (n = 4), or central nervous system (n = 3) involvement. The most common hormonal dysfunctions were diabetes insipidus (n = 7) and hypogonadism (n = 7). Magnetic resonance imaging was abnormal in 7 patients. The most common lesions were an enlargement of the pituitary gland, thickening of the pituitary stalk, and loss of posterior hypersignal on T1-weighed images. All patients were treated with corticosteroid therapy and 8 patients received immunosuppressive agents for the pituitary involvement, including cyclophosphamide (n = 3), rituximab (n = 2), and methotrexate (n = 3). After a median follow-up of 9.2 years, GPA was in complete remission in 7 patients, but 8 patients were still under hormone replacement therapy. Among the 5 patients who had a subsequent MRI, 2 had complete resolution of pituitary lesions.By combining our study and the literature review, the frequency of hypogonadism and diabetes insipidus, among the patients with pituitary dysfunction, can be estimated at 78% and 71% respectively. Despite a high rate of systemic disease remission on maintenance therapy, 86% of the patients had persistent pituitary dysfunction. The patients who recovered from pituitary dysfunction had all been

  14. Pituitary radiotherapy for Cushing's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa, Marco; Picozzi, Piero; Redaelli, Maria Grazia; Laurenzi, Andrea; Mortini, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of choice for Cushing's disease is pituitary surgery. Second-line treatments include repeat pituitary surgery, radiation therapy, medical therapy, and bilateral adrenalectomy. The most used modalities to irradiate patients with Cushing's disease include fractionated radiotherapy and single-dose Gamma Knife. We aim to review the efficacy and safety of radiotherapy in patients with persistent or recurring Cushing's disease. Remission of Cushing's disease after radiotherapy ranges from 42 to 83%. There seems to be no clear difference according to the technique of radiation used. Most patients experience remission of disease within 3 years from treatment, with only few cases reaching normal cortisol secretion after a longer follow-up. Control of tumor growth varies from 93 to 100%. Severe side effects of radiotherapy, such as optic neuropathy and radionecrosis, are uncommon. New-onset hypopituitarism is the most frequent side effect of radiation, occurring in 30-50% of patients treated by fractionated radiotherapy while it has been reported in 11-22% of patients after Gamma Knife. Radiotherapy is an effective second-line treatment in patients with Cushing's disease not cured by surgery. Consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of radiotherapy in comparison with other therapeutic options should always be carried out in the single patient before deciding the second-line therapeutic strategy for persisting or recurring Cushing's disease. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Fat-suppressed dynamic MR imaging for the postoperative evaluation of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akada, Kiyohiro

    2000-01-01

    The usefulness of the early post operative evaluation of pituitary adenomas with fat-suppressed MR imaging was studied. Thirty patients with pituitary adenoma, who underwent trans-sphenoidal surgery were analyzed. These include 22 with macroadenoma (3 recurrent cases) and 8 with microadenoma (2 recurrent cases). In all cases after adenoma resection, fat tissue was placed into the sella turcica to prevent postoperative cerebro-spinal fluid leakage and infections. T1-weighted and Gd DTPA-enhanced MR images were obtained using a 1.5-T superconductive MRI system (Shimadzu Co., Ltd.) by a standard technique and also by a fat suppression technique (chemical shift selective presaturation: CHESS) after surgery. It was difficult to discriminate between hematoma, fat tissue and pituitary posterior lobe on T1-weighted images within 1 month after surgery because of high-signal intensity. However, these regions could be distinguished one another by the CHESS technique. Normal pituitary anterior lobe could be identified in 86% of macroadenoma cases using Gd CHESS dynamic study, whereas it was identified only in 23% by standard technique. Normal anterior lobe was identified in 100% of microadenoma cases using Gd CHESS dynamic study. The residual tumors were found to invade into the supra sella or cavernous sinus, and these lesions could be distinguished from the surrounding tissue by the CHESS dynamic study in 83%, whereas only 33% could be distinguished by the standard technique. Although the fat tissue showed a time-sequence decrease in volume, high-signal intensity sometimes lasted long in association with degenerative granulation. In conclusion, CHESS dynamic MR Imaging study is useful for detection of the normal pituitary lobe and residual adenomas after trans-sphenoidal surgery. (author)

  16. Identification of spectrin as a calmodulin-binding component in the pituitary gonadotrope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooge, C.H.

    1989-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is a hypothalamic decapeptide which stimulates the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary. Ca 2+ fulfills the requirements of a second messenger for this system. Inhibition of calmodulin will inhibit GnRH stimulated LH release. The aim of the present studies has been to identify the locus of action of calmodulin within the pituitary. By use of an 125 I-calmodulin gel overlayer assay, five major Ca 2+ -dependent 125 I-calmodulin labelled components of subunit M r > 205,000; 200,000; 135,000; 60,000; and 52,000 have been identified. This labeling was found to be phenothiazine-sensitive. Ca 2+ -independent binding that was observed appears to be due to hydrophobic interactions of calmodulin with acid-soluble proteins, principally histones. Subcellular fractionation revealed that the Ca 2+ -dependent calmodulin-binding components are localized primarily in the cytosolic fraction. Separation of dispersed anterior pituitary cells through a linear Metrizamide gradient yielded gonadotrope-enriched fractions, which were found to contain all five 125 I-calmodulin binding components corresponding to the major bands in the pituitary homogenate. The calmodulin-binding component levels do not appear to be differentially regulated by steroids. The calmodulin binding component with a M r > 205,000 has been identified as spectrin. Spectrin-like immunoreactivity and 125 I-calmodulin-binding activity in pituitary tissue homogenates co-migrated in various percentage acrylamide gels with avian erythrocyte spectrin. Spectrin was detected in a gonadotrope-enriched fraction by immunoblotting, and confirmed in gonadotropes by indirect immunofluorescence of cultured pituitary cells in which spectrin- and LH-immunoreactivity co-localized

  17. Electrotonic Coupling in the Pituitary Supports the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in a Sex Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Göngrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gap junctions are present in many cell types throughout the animal kingdom and allow fast intercellular electrical and chemical communication between neighboring cells. Connexin-36 (Cx36, the major neuronal gap junction protein, synchronizes cellular activity in the brain, but also in other organs. Here we identify a sex-specific role for Cx36 within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis at the level of the anterior pituitary gland (AP. We show that Cx36 is expressed in gonadotropes of the AP sustaining their synchronous activity. Cx36 ablation affects the entire downstream HPG axis in females, but not in males. We demonstrate that Cx36-mediated coupling between gonadotropes in the AP supports gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced secretion of luteinizing hormone. Furthermore, we provide evidence for negative feedback regulation of Cx36 expression in the AP by estradiol. We thus conclude that hormonally-controlled plasticity of gap junction communication at the level of the AP constitutes an additional mechanism affecting female reproduction.

  18. Pituitary hyperplasia secondary to hypothyroidism in an adolescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capiel, Carlos A. h; Bouzas, Carlos A.; Mondino, Ana

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of a 14 years old patient with growth arrest and laboratory evidence of hypothyroidism. MR revealed pituitary enlargement simulating macro adenoma. Thyroid replacement therapy resulted in regression of the pituitary size. Awareness of MR appearance of pituitary hyperplasia in children and juvenile patients with laboratory evidence of hypothyroidism might avoid misdiagnosis for pituitary tumor. (author)

  19. Anterior Horn Cell Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Firinciogullari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The anterior horn cells control all voluntary movement. Motor activity, respiratory, speech, and swallowing functions are dependent upon signals from the anterior horn cells. Diseases that damage the anterior horn cells, therefore, have a profound impact. Symptoms of anterior horn cell loss (weakness, falling, choking lead patients to seek medical attention. In this article, anterior horn diseases were reviewed, diagnostic criteria and management were discussed in detail. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(3.000: 269-303

  20. Comparative analysis of the pituitary and ovarian GnRH systems in the leopard gecko: signaling crosstalk between multiple receptor subtypes in ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemoto, Tadahiro; Park, Min Kyun

    2007-02-01

    GnRH regulates reproductive functions through interaction with its pituitary receptor in vertebrates. The present study demonstrated that the leopard gecko possessed two and three genes for GnRH ligands and receptors, respectively, though one of the three receptor subtypes had long been thought not to exist in reptiles. Each receptor subtype showed a distinct pharmacology. All types of ligands and receptors showed different expression patterns, and were widely expressed both inside and outside the brain. This report also shows a comparison of the pituitary and ovarian GnRH systems in the leopard gecko during and after the egg-laying season. All three receptor subtypes were expressed in both the whole pituitary and ovary; however, only one receptor subtype could be detected in the anterior pituitary gland. In situ hybridization showed spatial expression patterns of ovarian receptors, and suggested co-expression of multiple receptor subtypes in granulosa cells of larger follicles. Co-transfection of receptor subtypes showed a distinct pharmacology in COS-7 cells compared with those of single transfections. These results suggest that distinct signaling mechanisms are involved in the pituitary and ovarian GnRH systems. Seasonal and developmental variations in receptor expression in the anterior pituitary gland and ovarian follicles may contribute to the seasonal breeding of this animal.

  1. Effects of HPM irradiation on expression of GR in hypothalamus and pituitary gland of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Li; Peng Ruiyun; Gao Yabing; Ma Junjie; Wang Shuiming; Hu Wenhua; Wang Dewen; Su Zhentao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the expression and significance of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in hypothalamus and pituitary gland of rats after high power microwave (HPM) exposure. Methods: A total of 130 male Wistar rats were sacrificed at 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, 14 d, 28 d and 3 m after whole body irradiation by 2-90 mW/cm 2 HPM and their hypothalamus and pituitary gland were collected. The changes of GR in the two tissues after HPM exposure were investigated by means of immunohistochemical staining and image analysis. Results: The expression of GR in hypothalamus was decreased after HPM exposure. The level of GR in the group of 10 mW/cm 2 was significantly lower (P 2 group was significantly lower (P 2 group was significantly higher (P 2 group was significantly higher (P<0.01) on 1 d and 3 d after HPM exposure. Conclusion: The expression of GR in hypothalamus was decreased while that in the anterior pituitary was increased after HPM exposure. The refore, the negative feedback of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was upset and the changes of GR is involved in the pathophysiological course of HPA. (authors)

  2. Patient reported outcome in posttraumatic pituitary deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Marianne; Stochholm, Kirstine; Janukonyté, Jurgita

    2015-01-01

    . RESULTS: Patients with TBI had significant detriments in QoL. Impairment (mainly physical scales) related to pituitary deficiency, although only partially confirmed after adjustment for demographic differences. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism related to several QoL scores. Increasing impairments were...

  3. Diagnostic criteria in invasive pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldovan Ioana-Maria

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas are benign pituitary primary tumors, the most frequent type of tumor in the pituitary fossa. An important part, around 1/3 of the pituitary adenomas manifests an aggressive behavior, growing faster and invading into parasellar areas (cavernous sinus, neural tissues and bones. Objectives: the first aim of this paper is to review the last findings about invasiveness diagnostic criteria, imagistic and biomarkers, which can be used in the classification of pituitary tumors and also to predict the probability of invasiveness, tumor recurrence and suspicion of malignancy. The second aim is to highlight the morphological and clinic types of invasive pituitary adenomas. Materials and methods: we performed a systematic review and analysis of the published articles, searching PubMed between January 1985 and December 2015. There were selected articles published in English, reviews and abstracts. During the advanced search type in PubMed, combinations of the following keywords were used: “pituitary adenoma”, “invasive”, “aggressive”, “biomarkers”, “classification”, “histological subtypes”, ‘”immunohistochemical markers”. Results: 215 articles were selected, regarding diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic aspects. There were some histological subtypes of pituitary adenomas known as having an aggressive clinical behavior. Several biomarkers were identified as being associated with the invasive feature: proliferation markers (Ki-67 index, number of mitoses, p53 & p27 expression, microvascularization density, telomerase, topoisomerase 2 Alpha, matrix metalloproteinases, protein kinase C, cyclooxygenase-2, E-cadherin, transcription Factors, genetic alterations (PTTG gene, Galectin-3 protein/ LGALS3 gene, apoptosis markers. Based on their invasion and proliferation characteristics, pituitary tumors are proposed to be classified into five grades (1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3, the grade 2b tumor with high risk of recurrence

  4. Hypothalamic, pituitary and thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy to the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaan, N.A.; Vieto, R.; Schultz, P.N.; Maor, M.; Meoz, R.T.; Sampiere, V.A.; Cangir, A.; Ried, H.L.; Jesse, R.H. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred-ten patients who had nasopharyngeal cancer and paranasal sinus tumors and were free of the primary disease were studied one to 26 years following radiotherapy. There were 70 males and 40 females ranging in age from 4 to 75 years, with a mean age of 36.5 years. During therapy both the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland was estimated to be 400 to 7500 rad with a median dose of 5618 rad to the anterior pituitary gland and a median dose of 5000 rad to the hypothalamus. Seventy-six patients showed evidence of one or more hypothalamic lesions and 43 patients showed evidence of primary pituitary deficiency. Forty of the 66 patients who received radiotherapy to the neck for treatment or prevention of lymph node metastasis showed evidence of primary hypothyroidism. The range of the dose to the thyroid area was 3000 to 8800 rad with a median of 5000 rad. These results indicate that endocrine deficiencies after radiotherapy for tumors of the head and neck are common and should be detected early and treated. Long-term follow-up of these patients is indicated since complications may appear after the completion of radiotherapy

  5. Long-Term Effect of Cranial Radiotherapy on Pituitary-Hypothalamus Area in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follin, Cecilia; Erfurth, Eva Marie

    2016-09-01

    Survival rates of childhood cancer have improved markedly, and today more than 80 % of those diagnosed with a pediatric malignancy will become 5-year survivors. Nevertheless, survivors exposed to cranial radiotherapy (CRT) are at particularly high risk for long-term morbidity, such as endocrine insufficiencies, metabolic complications, and cardiovascular morbidity. Deficiencies of one or more anterior pituitary hormones have been described following therapeutic CRT for primary brain tumors, nasopharyngeal tumors, and following prophylactic CRT for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Studies have consistently shown a strong correlation between the total radiation dose and the development of pituitary deficits. Further, age at treatment and also time since treatment has strong implications on pituitary hormone deficiencies. There is evidence that the hypothalamus is more radiosensitive than the pituitary and is damaged by lower doses of CRT. With doses of CRT hypothalamus and this usually causes isolated GH deficiency (GHD). Higher doses (>50 Gy) may produce direct anterior pituitary damage, which contributes to multiple pituitary deficiencies. The large group of ALL survivors treated with CRT in the 70-80-ties has now reached adulthood, and these survivors were treated mainly with 24 Gy, and the vast majority of these patients suffer from GHD. Further, after long-term follow-up, insufficiencies in prolactin (PRL) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been reported and a proportion of these patients were also adrenocoticotrophic hormone (ACTH) deficient. CRT to the hypothalamus causes neuroendocrine dysfunction, which means that the choice of GH test is crucial for the diagnosis of GHD.

  6. Stem cells in the canine pituitary gland and in pituitary adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Sarah J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/392860163; Tryfonidou, Marianna A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/24306599X; Hanson, Jeanette M; Penning, Louis C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110369181; Meij, Björn P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164045805

    2013-01-01

    Cushing's disease (CD) or pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs, with an estimated prevalence of 1 or 2 in 1000 dogs per year. It is caused by an adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting adenoma in the pars distalis or pars intermedia of the pituitary gland. The

  7. Receptors for corticotropin-releasing hormone in human pituitary: Binding characteristics and autoradiographic localization to immunocytochemically defined proopiomelanocortin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smets, G.; Vauquelin, G.; Moons, L.; Smitz, J.; Kloeppel, G. (Department of Experimental Pathology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium))

    1991-08-01

    Using autoradiography combined with immunocytochemistry, the authors demonstrated that the target cells of CRH in the human pituitary were proopiomelanocortin cells. Scatchard analysis of (125I)Tyr0-oCRH saturation binding revealed the presence of one class of saturable, high affinity sites on pituitary tissue homogenate. The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for (125I)Tyr0-oCRH ranged from 1.1-1.6 nM, and the receptor density was between 200-350 fmol/mg protein. Fixation of cryostat sections with 4% paraformaldehyde before tracer incubation improved both tissue preservation and localization of the CRH receptor at the cellular level. Additional postfixation with 1% glutaraldehyde inhibited tracer diffusion during subsequent immunocytochemistry and autoradiography. (125I)Tyr0-oCRH was found in cytoplasmic inclusions or at the cell periphery of ACTH/beta-endorphin cells in the anterior pituitary. Single cells of the posterior pituitary were also CRH receptor positive. Cells staining for PRL or GH were CRH receptor negative. They conclude that CRH binds only to high affinity receptors on ACTH/{beta}-endorphin cells in the human pituitary.

  8. Progesterone metabolism by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of the rat during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrone, B.L.; Karavolas, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Metabolites of [ 3 H]progesterone were quantitated from incubations of hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of rats during different stages of pregnancy. The hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and a section of uterus from five rats on Days 1, 8, 15, and 21 of pregnancy were incubated individually with [3H]progesterone and analyzed for metabolite formation by reverse isotopic dilution analysis. The radioactive metabolites present were 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (5 alpha-DHP), 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one, 20 alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 20 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3-one, and 5 alpha-pregnane-3 alpha, 20 alpha-diol. The major metabolite formed by the hypothalamus and pituitary was 5 alpha-DHP. In the pituitary samples, formation of 5 alpha-DHP was decreased on Days 15 and 21 of pregnancy compared to Day 1, and formation of 20 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3-one was decreased on Day 21 compared to Day 1. In the uterine samples, 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one was the major metabolite formed at all stages of pregnancy. The formation of all metabolic products of progesterone by the uterus was increased on Day 21 compared to Days 1, 8, and 15 of pregnancy. No changes in the formation of progesterone metabolites were observed in the hypothalamic samples during pregnancy. It is concluded that there are different profiles in the in vitro metabolism of [3H]progesterone by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of the rat during the course of pregnancy

  9. Mortality in patients with pituitary disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sherlock, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Pituitary disease is associated with increased mortality predominantly due to vascular disease. Control of cortisol secretion and GH hypersecretion (and cardiovascular risk factor reduction) is key in the reduction of mortality in patients with Cushing\\'s disease and acromegaly, retrospectively. For patients with acromegaly, the role of IGF-I is less clear-cut. Confounding pituitary hormone deficiencies such as gonadotropins and particularly ACTH deficiency (with higher doses of hydrocortisone replacement) may have a detrimental effect on outcome in patients with pituitary disease. Pituitary radiotherapy is a further factor that has been associated with increased mortality (particularly cerebrovascular). Although standardized mortality ratios in pituitary disease are falling due to improved treatment, mortality for many conditions are still elevated above that of the general population, and therefore further measures are needed. Craniopharyngioma patients have a particularly increased risk of mortality as a result of the tumor itself and treatment to control tumor growth; this is a key area for future research in order to optimize the outcome for these patients.

  10. Radiation and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littley, M.D.; Shalet, S.M.; Beardwell, C.G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on radiation therapy which is an essential treatment in the management of many conditions. It is important to appreciate the high incidence of subsequent endocrine morbidity, however, if the hypothalamic pituitary region is within the radiation fields. This is very much more common with external radiation therapy than with other forms of radiation treatment. The dose and fractional of administered radiation are important determinants of the endocrine deficits, their time on onset, and severity. Irradiation of large volumes of brain and hypothalamus may increase the risk of hormonal abnormalities as may preceding surgery in the treatment of pituitary disease. The phenomena observed in children and adults illustrate that there may be damage to pituitary, hypothalamus, and higher centers. In patients who have received a significant radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region, regular follow-up is mandatory. In adults, surveillance will include pituitary function testing on an annual basis for at least 10 years. In children careful monitoring of growth and pubertal development and early treatment of radiation-induced GH deficiency are vital

  11. A case of pituitary abscess presenting without a source of infection or prior pituitary pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derick Adams

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary abscess is a relatively uncommon cause of pituitary hormone deficiencies and/or a suprasellar mass. Risk factors for pituitary abscess include prior surgery, irradiation and/or pathology of the suprasellar region as well as underlying infections. We present the case of a 22-year-old female presenting with a spontaneous pituitary abscess in the absence of risk factors described previously. Her initial presentation included headache, bitemporal hemianopia, polyuria, polydipsia and amenorrhoea. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of her pituitary showed a suprasellar mass. As the patient did not have any risk factors for pituitary abscess or symptoms of infection, the diagnosis was not suspected preoperatively. She underwent transsphenoidal resection and purulent material was seen intraoperatively. Culture of the surgical specimen showed two species of alpha hemolytic Streptococcus, Staphylococcus capitis and Prevotella melaninogenica. Urine and blood cultures, dental radiographs and transthoracic echocardiogram failed to show any source of infection that could have caused the pituitary abscess. The patient was treated with 6 weeks of oral metronidazole and intravenous vancomycin. After 6 weeks of transsphenoidal resection and just after completion of antibiotic therapy, her headache and bitemporal hemianopsia resolved. However, nocturia and polydipsia from central diabetes insipidus and amenorrhoea from hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism persisted.

  12. High dose radiotherapy for pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    The results of treatment of 120 pituitary tumours are presented. Based on this experience operable chromophobe adenomas are now treated with 5,000 rads in 4 weeks and inoperable ones receive an additional central dose to 7,500 rads. Pituitary Cushing's tumours are given 10,000 rads in 5 weeks using small fields and acromegalics 5,000 rads to the whole sella and 7,500 to its lower half. The absence of complications at these dose levels is attributed to the use of small fields and the precise application of treatment

  13. [Cushing's disease caused by pituitary macroadenoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubatino, Antônio C; Pereira, Rodrigo Ferreira; Benchimol, Isaac; Laun, Ingeborg Christa

    2004-12-01

    Cushing's syndrome comprises the symptoms and signs associated with prolonged exposure to inappropriately elevated levels of free plasma glucocorticoids. When iatrogenic causes are excluded, the commonest cause of Cushing's syndrome is Cushing's disease, accounting for approximately 70% of cases. We present the case of a 20-year-old male patient with central obesity, moon face and purple-red striae, whose diagnostic investigation shows a pituitary macroadenoma. The patient was submitted to transsphenoidal hypophysectomy, but developed early recurrence. He was submitted to a second transsphenoidal intervention followed by pituitary radiation. Presently, the patient is in clinical and laboratory remission.

  14. Clinical experience and outcome of pituitary surgery in Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Surgical extirpation of pituitary lesions and can be perfomed by craniotomy or trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomy. This could be for pituitary ablation, excision of pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, suprasellar meningiomas and other types of tumors of the sellar region. Despite this being a common ...

  15. Clinical characteristics of pituitary adenomas with radiological calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Toshihiro; Nagm, Alhusain; Yamamoto, Yasunaga; Hasegawa, Takatoshi; Nishikawa, Akihiro; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2017-11-01

    Radiographic detection of calcification in pituitary adenoma is relatively rare, and the clinical characteristics of pituitary adenoma with calcification remain unclear. Herein, the clinical characteristics of pituitary adenoma with radiological calcification were investigated. A total of 160 patients who underwent surgical resection of pituitary adenomas between February 2004 and December 2016 were reviewed. Eighty-one patients had hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas, and 79 patients had nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma. Among these 160 patients, cases with radiological calcifications on preoperative neuroimaging were included in this study, and clinical characteristics with intraoperative findings were analyzed, retrospectively. Pituitary adenoma with calcification on preoperative neuroimaging was observed in only nine cases (5.6%). The study population consisted of these nine patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (n = 5), mixed growth hormone and prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas (n = 3), and a prolactinoma (n = 1). In 89% of cases (n = 8), calcified pituitary adenoma was soft enough for suction despite the presence of a granular gritty texture intraoperatively. Besides, in a single patient (11%), evidence of hard thick capsular calcification was seen surrounding a soft tumor component; however, it did not interfere with adequate removal of the soft part, and tumor resection was possible in all cases without any complications. Pituitary adenoma presenting with calcification is relatively rare, but should be kept in mind to avoid making a wrong preoperative diagnosis. As not all pituitary adenomas with calcification are hard tumors, preoperative radiological calcification should not affect decision-making regarding surgical indications.

  16. CONGENITAL ANTERIOR TIBIOFEMURAL SUBLUXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahla

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anterior tibiofemoral subluxation is an extremely rare disorder. All reported cases accompanied by other abnormalities and syndromes. A 16-year-old high school girl referred to us with bilateral anterior tibiofemoral subluxation as the knees were extended and reduced at more than 30 degrees flexion. Deformities were due to tightness of the iliotibial band and biceps femuris muscles and corrected by surgical release. Associated disorders included bilateral anterior shoulders dislocation, short metacarpals and metatarsals, and right calcaneuvalgus deformity.

  17. Cryptococcal meningitis after transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang; Feng, Ming; Yao, Yong; Deng, Kan; Bao, Xinjie; Liu, Xiaohai; Wang, Renzhi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Microbial infection should be regarded in the differential diagnosis of neurosurgical complications after transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery, albeit cryptococcal meningitis is rare. This article will discuss the risk factors of cryptococcal meningitis in patients underwent transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery, and summary the potential origins of infection. Patient concerns and diagnosis: Here, we report a case of 37-year-old male who had crypto...

  18. P53 gene mutations in pituitary carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Yoshinori; Jin, Long; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Kovacs, Kalman; Roncaroli, Federico; Lloyd, Ricard V

    2007-01-01

    Although p53 overexpression detected by immunohistochemistry has been reported in pituitary adenomas and carcinomas, genetic mutations in the p53 gene have not been previously detected in these tumors. We analyzed a series of eight pituitary adenomas and six pituitary carcinomas by immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction amplification, and sequencing of p53 exon 5 through exon 8 for genetic mutations. Three carcinomas showed more than 20% expression of p53 protein in the tumor cells. One of these tumors with 60% overexpression of p53 protein had a mutation in codon 248, a common "hot spot" for p53 mutation, while the other carcinoma with 90% overexpression of p53 protein had a mutation in codon 135. All adenomas were negative for p53 mutations and had 15% of the cells expressing the p53 protein. Analysis of control tumors including four lung carcinomas with proven p53 mutations also had greater than 85% of the tumor cells overexpressing p53 protein. Two breast carcinoma cell lines with known p53 mutations, MBA-MD 231 and MBA-MD-486, also showed greater than 85% of the tumor cells overexpressing p53. These results show that p53 mutations are present in a subset of pituitary carcinomas and are usually associated with a high percentage of tumor cells overexpressing the p53 protein.

  19. Molecular genetics of pituitary development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogoda, Hans-Martin; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

    2007-08-01

    The pituitary gland of vertebrates consists of two major parts, the neurohypophysis (NH) and the adenohypophysis (AH). As a central part of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system (HHS), it constitutes a functional link between the nervous and the endocrine system to regulate basic body functions, such as growth, metabolism and reproduction. The development of the AH has been intensively studied in mouse, serving as a model for organogenesis and differential cell specification. However, given that the AH is a relatively recent evolutionary advance of the chordate phylum, it is also interesting to understand its development in lower chordate systems. In recent years, the zebrafish has emerged as a powerful lower vertebrate system for developmental studies, being amenable for large-scale genetic approaches, embryological manipulations, and in vivo imaging. Here, we present an overview of current knowledge of the mechanisms and genetic control of pituitary formation during zebrafish development. First, we describe the components of the zebrafish HHS, and the different pituitary cell types and hormones, followed by a description of the different steps of normal pituitary development. The central part of the review deals with the genes found to be essential for zebrafish AH development, accompanied by a description of the corresponding mutant phenotypes. Finally, we discuss future directions, with particular focus on evolutionary aspects, and some novel functional aspects with growing medical and social relevance.

  20. Pituitary and mammary growth hormone in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatti, Sofie Fatima Mareyam

    2006-01-01

    Several pathological (e.g. obesity and chronic hypercortisolism) and non-pathological (e.g. ageing) states in humans are characterized by a reduction in pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion. Chronic hypercortisolism in humans is also associated with an impaired GH response to various stimuli.

  1. Pituitary gland imaging in Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville, J.F.; Cattin, F.; Bonneville, F.; Schillo, F.; Jacquet, G.

    2003-01-01

    Specific MR techniques are r-required for optimal detection of adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting adenomas responsible for Cushing's disease. Adequate MR sequences, high resolution coronal T1 and T2 - weighted images, dynamic MR imaging, post-gadolinium delayed images, dose of gadolinium adjusted for each sequence can routinely demonstrate pituitary adenomas less than 3 mm in Cushing's disease. (authors)

  2. Pituitary diseases : long-term psychological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, pituitary adenomas can be appropriately treated, but patients continue to report impaired quality of life (QoL) despite long-term remission or cure. In patients with Cushing’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome or acromegaly, doctors should be aware of subtle cognitive impairments and the

  3. pituitary tumours, epidemiology, pathogenesis and management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conference proceedings of a group monitoring the long-term efficacy and safety of growth hormone replacement therapy, therefore appears at an opportune moment. The work is a veritable pituitary pot pourri, with contributions from many recognised experts in the field. Much discussion centres on the syndrome of adult GH ...

  4. Importance of pituitary hormones in aetiology of diabetic ketoacidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, A.J.; Kohner, E.M.; Bloom, S.R.; Johnston, D.G.; Alberti, K.G.M.M.; Smythe, P.

    1978-01-01

    The role of pituitary hormones in the aetiology of diabetic ketoacidosis was examined by withdrawing insulin from five pituitary-ablated diabetics for a 12-hour period. The rise in blood glucose and ketone-body concentrations was markedly retarded in these patients when compared with five matched juvenile-type diabetic controls with normal pituitary function. When cortisol replacement in the pituitary-ablated patients was increased to reproduce the high plasma concentrations found in severe ketoacidosis, blood ketones and glucose were increased but were still significantly lower than in the control diabetics. It is concluded that pituitary hormones may be important in the development of diabetic ketoacidosis. (author)

  5. GFAP-Cre-mediated transgenic activation of Bmi1 results in pituitary tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart A Westerman

    Full Text Available Bmi1 is a member of the polycomb repressive complex 1 and plays different roles during embryonic development, depending on the developmental context. Bmi1 over expression is observed in many types of cancer, including tumors of astroglial and neural origin. Although genetic depletion of Bmi1 has been described to result in tumor inhibitory effects partly through INK4A/Arf mediated senescence and apoptosis and also through INK4A/Arf independent effects, it has not been proven that Bmi1 can be causally involved in the formation of these tumors. To see whether this is the case, we developed two conditional Bmi1 transgenic models that were crossed with GFAP-Cre mice to activate transgenic expression in neural and glial lineages. We show here that these mice generate intermediate and anterior lobe pituitary tumors that are positive for ACTH and beta-endorphin. Combined transgenic expression of Bmi1 together with conditional loss of Rb resulted in pituitary tumors but was insufficient to induce medulloblastoma therefore indicating that the oncogenic function of Bmi1 depends on regulation of p16(INK4A/Rb rather than on regulation of p19(ARF/p53. Human pituitary adenomas show Bmi1 overexpression in over 50% of the cases, which indicates that Bmi1 could be causally involved in formation of these tumors similarly as in our mouse model.

  6. GFAP-Cre-mediated transgenic activation of Bmi1 results in pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Bart A; Blom, Marleen; Tanger, Ellen; van der Valk, Martin; Song, Ji-Ying; van Santen, Marije; Gadiot, Jules; Cornelissen-Steijger, Paulien; Zevenhoven, John; Prosser, Haydn M; Uren, Anthony; Aronica, Eleonora; van Lohuizen, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Bmi1 is a member of the polycomb repressive complex 1 and plays different roles during embryonic development, depending on the developmental context. Bmi1 over expression is observed in many types of cancer, including tumors of astroglial and neural origin. Although genetic depletion of Bmi1 has been described to result in tumor inhibitory effects partly through INK4A/Arf mediated senescence and apoptosis and also through INK4A/Arf independent effects, it has not been proven that Bmi1 can be causally involved in the formation of these tumors. To see whether this is the case, we developed two conditional Bmi1 transgenic models that were crossed with GFAP-Cre mice to activate transgenic expression in neural and glial lineages. We show here that these mice generate intermediate and anterior lobe pituitary tumors that are positive for ACTH and beta-endorphin. Combined transgenic expression of Bmi1 together with conditional loss of Rb resulted in pituitary tumors but was insufficient to induce medulloblastoma therefore indicating that the oncogenic function of Bmi1 depends on regulation of p16(INK4A)/Rb rather than on regulation of p19(ARF)/p53. Human pituitary adenomas show Bmi1 overexpression in over 50% of the cases, which indicates that Bmi1 could be causally involved in formation of these tumors similarly as in our mouse model.

  7. Neurocysticercosis, Meningioma, and Silent Corticotroph Pituitary Adenoma in a 61-Year-Old Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with hydrocephalus and cystic and solid lesions in sella turcica, suprasellar areas, and third ventricle. After ventriculoperitoneal shunt she developed cognitive changes and the cystic lesions enlarged. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated multiple cysts and a solid lesion in the sella and around the anterior clinoid process. With diagnosis of neurocysticercosis she underwent craniotomy. Pathologic examination documented two different lesions: viable and dead cysticerci with inflaming infiltration and a left anterior clinoidal meningioma. At the second surgery, six weeks later via transnasal transsphenoidal approach a silent corticotroph pituitary adenoma was removed which was studied by histology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. To our knowledge, the occurrence of these three different lesions in the sellar area was not described before.

  8. Pituitary dysfunction in granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Daniela; Trimpou, Penelope; Giugliano, Dario; Dehlin, Mats; Ragnarsson, Oskar

    2017-10-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a multisystem disease, characterized by necrotizing small-vessel vasculitis, which mainly affects the respiratory tract and the kidneys. Pituitary involvement in GPA is rare, present in about 1% of all cases of GPA. To date, only case reports or small case series have been published. Herein we report clinical features, imaging findings, treatment and outcomes in three patients with GPA-related pituitary dysfunction (PD). A retrospective analysis of three cases of GPA-related PD was conducted, followed by systematic review of the English medical literature using PubMed. The three cases include three women aged between 32 and 37 years. PD was the presenting feature in one and two developed PD in the course of the disease. All patients had a pituitary lesion on MRI. Conventional treatment with high doses of glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide led to resolution or improvement of the MRI abnormalities, whereas it was not effective in restoring PD. A systematic review identified 51 additional patients, showing that GPA can lead to partial or global PD, either at onset or, during the course of the disease. Secondary hypogonadism is the predominant manifestation, followed by diabetes insipidus (DI). Sellar mass with central cystic lesion is the most frequent radiological finding. GPA should be carefully considered in patients with a sellar mass and unusual clinical presentation with DI and systemic disease. Although conventional induction-remission treatment improves systemic symptoms and radiological pituitary abnormalities, hormonal deficiencies persist in most of the patients. Therefore, follow-up should include both imaging and pituitary function assessment.

  9. Pituitary hypoplasia and growth hormone deficiency in a woman with glycogen storage disease type Ia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagdelen Selcuk

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Growth retardation is one of the cardinal manifestations of glycogen storage disease type Ia. It is unclear which component of the growth hormone and/or insulin-like growth factor axis is primarily disrupted, and management of growth impairment in these patients remains controversial. Here we report the first case in the literature where glycogen storage disease type Ia is associated with pituitary hypoplasia and growth hormone deficiency. Case presentation A 20-year-old woman with glycogen storage disease type Ia was admitted to our endocrinology department because of growth retardation. Basal and overnight growth hormone sampling at 2-hour intervals demonstrated low levels; however, provocative testing revealed a relatively normal growth hormone response. A hypoplastic anterior pituitary with preserved growth hormone response to provocative testing suggested the possibility of growth hormone neurosecretory dysfunction and/or primary pituitary involvement. Conclusion Pituitary hypoplasia may result from growth hormone-releasing hormone deficiency, a condition generally known as growth hormone neurosecretory dysfunction. It is an abnormality with a spontaneous and pulsatile secretion pattern, characterized by short stature, growth retardation and normal serum growth hormone response to provocative testing. However, in the case described in this report, a normal although relatively low growth hormone response during insulin tolerance testing and pituitary hypoplasia suggested that primary pituitary involvement or growth hormone neurosecretory dysfunction may occur in glycogen storage disease type Ia. This is a potential cause of growth failure associated with a lower somatotroph mass, and may explain the variable responsiveness to growth hormone replacement therapy in people with glycogen storage disease.

  10. Anterior ankle impingement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Johannes L.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2006-01-01

    The anterior ankle impingement syndrome is a clinical pain syndrome that is characterized by anterior ankle pain on (hyper) dorsiflexion. The plain radiographs often are negative in patients who have anteromedial impingement. An oblique view is recommended in these patients. Arthroscopic excision of

  11. MRI evaluation of pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chunjing; Shu Jin'er; Li Huimin; Sheng Sanlan; Lu Jinhua

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the MRI manifestations of the pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism and to improve the differential diagnosis of secondary pituitary hyperplasia and pituitary tumors. Methods: The MRI findings of pituitary hyperplasia in 10 documented primary hypothyroidism patients (male 3, female 7; age range: 9-15 years) were reviewed. The pulse sequences using a 1.0T MR scanner included coronal and sagittal T 1 W, coronal T 2 W and coronal contrast-enhanced T 1 W in all patients. Results: The pituitary gland was markedly enlarged with mean height of 15.5 mm (11-23 mm). Central bulging of pituitary gland was seen in all 10 patients with mild displacement of the infundibulum in 3 and sellar enlargement in 5. All glands had homogeneous MR signal intensities and contrast enhancement. Conclusion: Pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism has characteristic MR features of central bulging with homogeneous signal intensities and contrast enhancement. (authors)

  12. Somatotrophs and lactotrophs: an immunohistochemical study of Gallus domesticus pituitary gland at different stages of induced moult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sandhu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of somatotrophs and lactotrophs and conduct a morphometrical analysis of immunoreactive somatotrophs and lactotrophs in the pituitary glands of White Leghorn Hens (Gallus domesticus during the period of induced moult. We divided the periods of induced moulting into three phases viz. 7, 14 and 21 days. The labeled alkaline-phsphatase method with anti-GH (growth hormone and anti-PRL (prolactin as a primary antibody was used to detect somatotrophs and lactotrophs, in the midsagital sections of chicken adenohypophysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that somatotrophs are not only confined to the cephalo-caudal axis but can also be found in the caudal lobe; while lactotrophs were distributed in both lobes of the anterior pituitary gland at all stages of moulting (7, 14 and 21 days. Lactotrophs were of different shapes but somatotrophs were oval to round in morphology. At the given stages of induced moulting, some hypertrophied lactotrophs were also present after 7 days of induced moult in the anterior pituitary gland. However, there were moulting-related changes: from 7 to 21 days of induced moulting the immunoreactive-PRL cell population decreased, while the mean lactotroph size was more than that of somatotrophs. Basic quantitative and morphological information relating to somatotrophs and lactotrophs during the period of induced moult in laying hens is reported here and the changes brought about by induced moulting are restricted to PRL positive cells rather than GH positive cells.

  13. Trophic and neurotrophic factors in human pituitary adenomas (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoletini, Marialuisa; Taurone, Samanta; Tombolini, Mario; Minni, Antonio; Altissimi, Giancarlo; Wierzbicki, Venceslao; Giangaspero, Felice; Parnigotto, Pier Paolo; Artico, Marco; Bardella, Lia; Agostinelli, Enzo; Pastore, Francesco Saverio

    2017-10-01

    The pituitary gland is an organ that functionally connects the hypothalamus with the peripheral organs. The pituitary gland is an important regulator of body homeostasis during development, stress, and other processes. Pituitary adenomas are a group of tumors arising from the pituitary gland: they may be subdivided in functional or non-functional, depending on their hormonal activity. Some trophic and neurotrophic factors seem to play a key role in the development and maintenance of the pituitary function and in the regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity. Several lines of evidence suggest that trophic and neurotrophic factors may be involved in pituitary function, thus suggesting a possible role of the trophic and neurotrophic factors in the normal development of pituitary gland and in the progression of pituitary adenomas. Additional studies might be necessary to better explain the biological role of these molecules in the development and progression of this type of tumor. In this review, in light of the available literature, data on the following neurotrophic factors are discussed: ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), transforming growth factors β (TGF‑β), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) which influence the proliferation and growth of pituitary adenomas.

  14. Cryptococcal meningitis after transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Feng, Ming; Yao, Yong; Deng, Kan; Bao, Xinjie; Liu, Xiaohai; Wang, Renzhi

    2017-07-01

    Microbial infection should be regarded in the differential diagnosis of neurosurgical complications after transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery, albeit cryptococcal meningitis is rare. This article will discuss the risk factors of cryptococcal meningitis in patients underwent transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery, and summary the potential origins of infection. Here, we report a case of 37-year-old male who had cryptococcal meningitis after transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery of a relapsing ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Standard therapy for Cryptococcus neoformans (fluconazole [400 mg per day] and flucytosine) was administered and followed by maintenance dose. The patient had been on treatment for one and a half years during follow-up and reported neurologically well with repeated negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture until sudden death of heart arrest. C neoformans can be a possible cause of meningitis in immunocompetent patients after transnasal transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery. Risk factors, such as pre-existed pulmonary infection and Cushing-associated hypercortisolemia, should be stressed. Promising preventive measures may include preoperative routine sputum smear and India-ink stain for screening, preoperative treatment of cryptococcal pneumonia, postoperative antibiotic management, and a more secure skull base reconstruction. Radiation and pharmaceutical treatment may be alternative for recurrent Cushing disease.

  15. Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Sub; Chung, Young Sun; Suh, Chee Jang; Won, Jong Jin

    1985-01-01

    Two cases of congenital anterior urethral diverticular which have occurred in a 4 year old and one month old boy are presented. Etiology, diagnostic procedures, and its clinical results are briefly reviewed

  16. Anterior knee pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thighbone where the kneecap normally rests is too shallow. You have flat feet. Anterior knee pain is ... the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should ...

  17. Identifying anterior segment crystals.

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, I W; Brooks, A M; Reinehr, D P; Grant, G B; Gillies, W E

    1991-01-01

    A series of 22 patients with crystals in the anterior segment of the eye was examined by specular microscopy. Of 10 patients with hypermature cataract and hyperrefringent bodies in the anterior chamber cholesterol crystals were identified in four patients and in six of the 10 in whom aspirate was obtained cholesterol crystals were demonstrated in three, two of these having shown crystals on specular microscopy. In 10 patients with intracorneal crystalline deposits, cholesterol crystals were f...

  18. Somatotrope Pituitary Function in Professional Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Pia; Wehrhahn, Tatiana; Krogmann, Henry; Riedel, Nina; Marshall, Robert Percy; Gille, Justus; Flitsch, Jörg; Aberle, Jens

    2017-11-17

    Background and objective Soccer is associated with repetitive head trauma, which, as it is known from sports like football and boxing, can result in hypopituitarism. Gonadotropins and GH are the most common pituitary hormones to become deficient. GH deficiency is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and has negative influence on body mass index, visceral fat mass, insulin resistance and sensitivity, bone mineral density and inflammatory markers. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the somatotrope pituitary function in professional soccer players. Research design and methods This clinical study included 15 male, professional soccer players with at least 10 years of professional training. Basal hormonal parameters of the pituitary axis were obtained from the participants. To assess GH-IGF-I axis, glucagon stimulation tests were used. Rise in growth hormone during glucagon test was analyzed and the prevalence of newly diagnosed hormone deficiencies was evaluated. Results Mean age of all participants was 31±10 years. None of the 15 soccer players had GH deficiency. Mean rising factor of GH after stimulation with glucagon was 100 in all participants. We did not find signs of ACTH, TSH or LH/FSH deficiency in any player. Conclusions In this small collective of soccer players we did not find playing soccer to be a risk factor for the development of GH-deficiency. According to our data screening for somatotrope deficiency is not necessary. Further investigations in larger cohorts are needed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Serotonin, ATRX, and DAXX Expression in Pituitary Adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casar-Borota, Olivera; Botling, Johan; Granberg, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Differential diagnosis based on morphology and immunohistochemistry between a clinically nonfunctioning pituitary neuroendocrine tumor (NET)/pituitary adenoma and a primary or secondary NET of nonpituitary origin in the sellar region may be difficult. Serotonin, a frequently expressed marker...... case of an invasive serotonin and adrenocorticotroph hormone immunoreactive NET in the sellar region, we explored the immunohistochemical expression of serotonin, ATRX, and DAXX in a large series of pituitary endocrine tumors of different types from 246 patients and in 2 corticotroph carcinomas. None...... of the pituitary tumors expressed serotonin, suggesting that serotonin immunoreactive sellar tumors represent primary or secondary NETs of nonpituitary origin. Normal expression of ATRX and DAXX in pituitary tumors suggests that ATRX and DAXX do not play a role in the pathogenesis of pituitary endocrine tumors...

  20. Effects of short- and long-duration hypothyroidism on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in rats: in vitro and in situ studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth O; Calogero, Aldo E; Konstandi, Mary; Kamilaris, Themis C; La Vignera, Sandro; Chrousos, George P

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of hypothyroidism on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; the functional integrity of each component of the HPA axis was examined in short-term and long-term hypothyroidism. Neuropeptide synthesis, release, and content were evaluated in vitro both in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary, and corticosterone release was assessed in primary adrenal cell cultures at 7 (short-term) and 60 days (long-term hypothyroidism) after thyroidectomy in male rats. Hypothyroid rats showed adrenal insufficiency in several parameters, which were associated with the duration of hypothyroidism. Cerebrospinal (CSF) ACTH was decreased in all hypothyroid animals, while CSF corticosterone levels were significantly decreased only in long-term hypothyroidism. Long-term hypothyroid animals showed decreased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus under both basal and stress conditions, decreased CRH release from hypothalamic organ cultures after KCL and arginine vasopressin stimulation, as well as an increased number of anterior pituitary CRH receptors. In contrast, short-term hypothyroid rats showed changes in anterior pituitary function with an increased responsiveness to CRH that was associated with an increase in CRH receptors. Although both short- and long-term hypothyroidism was associated with significant decreases in adrenal weights, only long-term hypothyroid rats showed changes in adrenal function with a significant decrease of ACTH-induced corticosterone release from cultured adrenal cells. The data suggest that long-term hypothyroidism is associated with adrenal insufficiency with abnormalities in all three components of the HPA axis. Short-term hypothyroidism, on the other hand, is associated with increased pituitary corticotroph responsiveness to CRH.

  1. Epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm embedded within pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zesheng; Tian, Daofeng; Wang, Hongliu; Kong, Derek Kai; Zhang, Shenqi; Liu, Baohui; Deng, Gang; Xu, Zhou; Wu, Liquan; Ji, Baowei; Wang, Long; Cai, Qiang; Li, Mingchang; Wang, Junmin; Zhang, Aimin; Chen, Qianxue

    2015-01-01

    Epistaxis due to ruptured internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm embedded within a pituitary adenoma (PA) has seldom been reported in the literature. Here we want to elaborate the incidence, mechanisms, clinical manifestations, and treatment strategy for this condition. The first survived case of a patient with epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured aneurysm embedded within PA was reported and the literature was reviewed. A 53-year-old male patient presented to our institution with sudden onset epistaxis and progressive vision loss. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis and dilated unresponsive pupils. A CT scan showed a large mass in the pituitary fossa with bony erosion. MRI revealed a large pituitary tumor and abnormal signal intensity in the tumor. No aneurysm was noted during the pre-operative MR angiography. Abundant arterial bleeding suddenly occurred during urgent transsphenoidal surgery. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed the presence of a 14 mm unexpected saccular aneurysm of right ICA in the cavernous sinus with the dome protruding into the sella turcica. Balloon test occlusion of the right ICA was undertaken and permanent occlusion was performed. The patient recovered well and received bromocriptine and thyroid hormone replacement therapy during the follow-up period. At 14-month followup, the patient had no neurological deficits, no features of ischaemia relating to the right ICA therapeutic occlusion. Our case indicated that epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy could be due to the rupture of an ICA aneurysm embedded in a PA. Clinical suspicion should remain high when evaluating any case of epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy. Optimal treatment should take into consideration individual features of the tumor, aneurysm, and patient. Making the correct diagnosis as well as identifying an appropriate management strategy is critical in the care of such patients.

  2. Pituitary oncocytoma presenting as Cushing′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Garg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old girl presented with classical features of Cushing′s syndrome. Endocrinal evaluation was consistent with pituitary source of ACTH; but imaging showed normal pituitary. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling confirmed the diagnosis. A successful remission was achieved after adenomectomy by transphenoidal route. Histopathological examination was consistent with pituitary oncocytoma and immunohistochemistry was positive for synaptophysin, chromogranin, neuron specific enolase, S-100, ACTH, prolactin, and GH.

  3. Aspergillosis of the sphenoid sinus simulating a pituitary tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larranaga, J.; Fandino, J.; Gomez-Bueno, J.; Botana, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Gonzalez-Carrero, J.

    1989-09-01

    Sphenoidal aspergillosis is an unusual cause of sella turcica enlargement. Pituitary abscess secondary to Aspergillus had been reported. In the present case, a woman with sphenoid sinus aspergillosis mimiced a pituitary tumor. This patient survived her infection with intact pituitary function following a transsphenoidal approach. No postoperative amphotericine-B and 5-fluorocytosine were necessary. CT scan revealed a mass occupying the sphenoid sinus extending to the sella turcica. Factors that should alert the clinican to the presence of a sphenoidal and pituitary abscess in a patient with sella turcica enlargement are prior episodes of sinusitis, meningitis and immunosuppression and, as in the present case, hyperglycemia. (orig.).

  4. Rathke's cleft cyst associated with pituitary granulomatosis with polyangiitis: An unusual combination of hypothalamus-pituitary region pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Draghi, MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors present an unusual case of a patient suffering from visual deficit due to pituitary granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA associated with Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC. The patient was referred to our Neurosurgery Department presenting right eye amaurosis, third cranial nerve palsy, and left temporal hemianopsia. Magnetic resonance imaging documented a sellar or suprasellar lesion with solid and cystic components. The dura mater of the skull base was also strongly enhanced. The patient underwent surgery. Histologic examination revealed RCC associated with pituitary GPA. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of concomitant pituitary GPA and RCC. Pituitary involvement in GPA is rare, usually diagnosed in hormonal dysfunctions. The patient in case first presented optic chiasm compression, probably due to inflammation of both the pituitary gland and the previously asymptomatic RCC. We focus on the symptoms that led us to diagnose GPA pituitary involvement and on the peculiar and unusual Magnetic resonance imaging of the case presented.

  5. The HMG-box transcription factor Sox4b is required for pituitary expression of gata2a and specification of thyrotrope and gonadotrope cells in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Yobhana; Lopez, Mauricio; Mavropoulos, Anastasia; Motte, Patrick; Martial, Joseph A; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Muller, Marc

    2012-06-01

    The pituitary is a complex gland comprising different cell types each secreting specific hormones. The extensive network of signaling molecules and transcription factors required for determination and terminal differentiation of specific cell types is still not fully understood. The SRY-like HMG-box (SOX) transcription factor Sox4 plays important roles in many developmental processes and has two homologs in zebrafish, Sox4a and Sox4b. We show that the sox4b gene is expressed in the pituitary anlagen starting at 24 h after fertilization (hpf) and later in the entire head region including the pituitary. At 48 hpf, sox4b mRNA colocalizes with that for TSH (tshβ), glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα), and the Zn finger transcription factor Gata2a. Loss of Sox4b function, using morpholino knockdown or expression of a dominant-negative Sox4 mutant, leads to a drastic decrease in tshβ and gsuα expression and reduced levels of gh, whereas other anterior pituitary gland markers including prl, slβ, pomc, and lim3 are not affected. Sox4b is also required for expression of gata2a in the pituitary. Knockdown of gata2a leads to decreased tshβ and gsuα expression at 48 hpf, similar to sox4b morphants. Injection of gata2a mRNA into sox4b morphants rescued tshβ and gsuα expression in thyrotrope cells. Finally, sox4b or gata2a knockdown causes a significant decrease of gonadotropin expression (lhβ and fshβ) at 4 d after fertilization. In summary, our results indicate that Sox4b is expressed in zebrafish during pituitary development and plays a crucial role in the differentiation of thyrotrope and gonadotrope cells through induction of gata2a expression in the developing pituitary.

  6. Immunocytochemical localization of secretory phospholipase A(2)-like protein in the pituitary gland and surrounding tissue of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Y; Kikuyama, S; Hayashi, H; Hanaoka, Y; Sakai, M; Tanaka, S

    2001-05-01

    Previously, we obtained a protein that has considerable amino acid sequence homology with secretory phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) from a bullfrog pituitary fraction obtained during the purification of thyrotropin (TSH). Subsequently, partial amino acid sequence (N-terminal 45 amino acid residues) analysis revealed this protein to be identical to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of otoconin-22, the major protein of aragonitic otoconia in the Xenopus saccule. In this study we developed an antibody against the N-terminal peptide of the bullfrog protein and applied it for immunocytochemical study of the pituitary and its surrounding tissue. Western blotting analysis showed that this antibody recognizes a 20.4-kD protein that has a molecular mass close to that of otoconin-22. Immunohistochemical reaction with the antibody was not found in any anterior pituitary cells but was intense in the monolayer epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac surrounding the pituitary gland, which is a major storage site of calcium carbonate in amphibians. An electron microscopic study revealed that the cuboidal cells in the endolymphatic sac contained large, polymorphic secretory granules in their apical cytoplasm. Immunogold particles indicating the presence of a PLA(2)-like protein were observed predominately in these secretory granules. These findings support the view that this PLA(2)-like protein obtained during purification of TSH was derived from the endolymphatic sac adhering to the pituitary and that this protein is a bullfrog otoconin. (J Histochem Cytochem 49:631-637, 2001)

  7. Adjuvant or radical fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for patients with pituitary functional and nonfunctional macroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Damien C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy (SFRT for patients with pituitary macroadenoma (PMA. Methods and Materials Between March 2000 and March 2009, 27 patients (male to female ratio, 1.25 with PMA underwent SFRT (median dose, 50.4 Gy. Mean age of the patients was 56.5 years (range, 20.3 - 77.4. In all but one patient, SFRT was administered for salvage treatment after surgical resection (transphenoidal resection in 23, transphenoidal resection followed by craniotomy in 2 and multiple transphenoidal resections in another patient. In 10 (37% patients, the PMAs were functional (3 ACTH-secreting, 3 prolactinomas, 2 growth hormone-secreting and 2 multiple hormone-secretion. Three (11.1% and 9 (33.3% patients had PMA abutting and compressing the optic chiasm, respectively. Mean tumor volume was 2.9 ± 4.6 cm3. Eighteen (66.7% patients had hypopituitarism prior to SFRT. The mean follow-up period after SFRT was 72.4 ± 37.2 months. Results Tumor size decreased for 6 (22.2% patients and remained unchanged for 19 (70.4% other patients. Two (7.4% patients had tumor growth inside the prescribed treatment volume. The estimated 5-year tumor growth control was 95.5% after SFRT. Biochemical remission occurred in 3 (30% patients with functional PMA. Two patients with normal anterior pituitary function before SFRT developed new deficits 25 and 65 months after treatment. The 5-year survival without new anterior pituitary deficit was thus 95.8%. Five patients with visual field defect had improved visual function and 1 patient with no visual defect prior to SFRT, but an optic chiasm abutting tumor, had a decline in visual function. The estimated 5-year vision and pituitary function preservation rates were 93.2% and 95.8%, respectively. Conclusions SFRT is a safe and effective treatment for patients with PMA, although longer follow-up is needed to evaluate long-term outcomes. In this study, approximately 1

  8. Social stress alters expression of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel subunits in mouse adrenal medulla and pituitary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, O; Taylor, L A; Ahmed, S; Nagaraj, S; Hall, J J; Finckbeiner, S M; Chan, P S; Suda, N; King, J T; Zeeman, M L; McCobb, D P

    2009-03-01

    Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels are very prominently expressed in adrenal chromaffin and many anterior pituitary cells, where they shape intrinsic excitability complexly. Stress- and sex-steroids regulate alternative splicing of Slo-alpha, the pore-forming subunit of BK channels, and chronic behavioural stress has been shown to alter Slo splicing in tree shrew adrenals. In the present study, we focus on mice, measuring the effects of chronic behavioural stress on total mRNA expression of the Slo-alpha gene, two key BK channel beta subunit genes (beta2 and beta4), and the 'STREX' splice variant of Slo-alpha. As a chronic stressor, males of the relatively aggressive SJL strain were housed with a different unfamiliar SJL male every 24 h for 19 days. This 'social-instability' paradigm stressed all individuals, as demonstrated by reduced weight gain and elevated corticosterone levels. Five quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain assays were performed in parallel, including beta-actin, each calibrated against a dilution series of its corresponding cDNA template. Stress-related changes in BK expression were larger in mice tested at 6 weeks than 9 weeks. In younger animals, Slo-alpha mRNA levels were elevated 44% and 116% in the adrenal medulla and pituitary, respectively, compared to individually-housed controls. beta2 and beta4 mRNAs were elevated 162% and 194% in the pituitary, but slightly reduced in the adrenals of stressed animals. In the pituitary, dominance scores of stressed animals correlated negatively with alpha and beta subunit expression, with more subordinate individuals exhibiting levels that were three- to four-fold higher than controls or dominant individuals. STREX variant representation was lower in the subordinate subset. Thus, the combination of subunits responding to stress differs markedly between adrenal and pituitary glands. These data suggest that early stress will differentially affect neuroendocrine cell

  9. A case series of closed head trauma with pituitary stalk disruption resulting in hypopituitarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Khan

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in young trauma patients with resultant multi-organ effects. Hypopituitarism following TBI can be debilitating and life threatening. TBI which causes hypopituitarism may be characterized by a single head injury, such as from a motor vehicle accident, or by chronic repetitive head trauma, as seen in combative supports including boxing, kick-boxing, and football. In the majority of cases, a diagnosis of hypopituitarism can be entirely missed resulting in severe neuro-endocrine dysfunction. We present a case series of two patients diagnosed with hypopituitarism after TBI and treated appropriately with favorable outcome. Case presentations: The first case is a 34 year-old male, who presented to the emergency department with blunt head trauma after a motor vehicle accident while riding his bicycle. He suffered from severe cranio-facial injuries, resulting in multifocal hemorrhagic contusions, epidural hematoma, and extensive cranio-facial fractures involving the sinuses. The patient developed persistent hypotension with a blood pressure as low as 60/40 mmHg on hospital day three.The second case is a 56 year-old male with a history of schizophrenia, who suffered traumatic brain injury after he was hit by a train. The patient sustained multiple facial fractures, pneumocephalus and C2/7 transverse processes fractures. He also had persistent hypotension, unresponsive to standard treatment. Investigation revealed a deficiency of anterior pituitary hormones resulting from pituitary axis disruption. Discussion: Hypopituitarism is becoming an increasingly recognized complication following TBI, ranging from total to isolated deficiencies. Traumatic Brain Injury is a major public health problem and is one of the leading causes of disability. Understanding and recognizing pituitary dysfunction after TBI can lead to better outcomes and improved quality of life

  10. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagami, Alessandro S; Edvinsson, Lars; Goadsby, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) is found in human trigeminocervical complex and can trigger migraine. PACAP levels were measured using a sensitive radioimmunoassay. Stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) in cat elevated PACAP levels in cranial blood. Patients...... with moderate or severe migraine headache had elevated PACAP in the external jugular vein during headache (n = 15), that was reduced 1 h after treatment with sumatriptan 6 mg (n = 11), and further reduced interictally (n = 9). The data suggest PACAP, or its receptors, are a promising target for migraine...

  11. Post-Operative Evaluation of Anterior Pituitary Function in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basal values of glucose, cortisol, T3, T4, TSH, LH, FSH, and prolactin were measured following which a triple function test was conducted by intravenous administration of a bolus consisting of 250ug of ACTH, 200ug TRH and 100ug GnRH. Basal values demonstrated normoglycaemia and euthyroidism while responses to ...

  12. Gene expression patterns in anterior pituitary associated with quantitative measure of oestrous behaviour in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommadath, A.; Mulder, H.A.; Wit, de A.A.C.; Woelders, H.; Smits, M.A.; Beerda, B.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Frijters, A.C.J.; Pas, te M.F.W.

    2010-01-01

    Intensive selection for high milk yield in dairy cows has raised production levels substantially but at the cost of reduced fertility, which manifests in different ways including reduced expression of oestrous behaviour. The genomic regulation of oestrous behaviour in bovines remains largely

  13. Molecular, pharmacological and functional properties of GABAA receptors in anterior pituitary cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, H.W.; Bjelobaba, I.; Tomič, M.; Zemková, Hana; Stojilkovic, S. S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 586, č. 13 (2008), s. 3097-3111 ISSN 0022-3751 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/07/0681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : gonadotrophs * lactotrophs * GABA Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.605, year: 2008

  14. Modeling the diversity of spontaneous and agonist-induced electrical activity in anterior pituitary corticotrophs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fletcher, P. A.; Zemková, Hana; Stojilkovic, S. S.; Sherman, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 6 (2017), s. 2298-2311 ISSN 0022-3077 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12695S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : corticotrophs * corticotropin-releasing hormone * vasopressin * action potentials * ion channels Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 2.396, year: 2016

  15. Case Report: The ectopic posterior pituitary gland | Mahomed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ectopic posterior pituitary gland is a rare condition and may present with an empty pituitary fossa, hypoplasia or absence of the infundibular stalk and resultant short stature due to growth hormone deficiency. The location of the ectopic lobe can vary, but it is most commonly situated along the median eminence in the floor ...

  16. Mechanism of neuroadenolysis of the pituitary for cancer pain control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouwborst, A.; Yanagida, H.; Erdmann, W.; Kok, A.

    1984-01-01

    Studied whether neuronal activity of the pituitary gland, as related to the primary somatosensory cortex, may be involved in the pain perception pathway influenced by neuroadenolysis of the pituitary. EEG and tooth-pulp EPs (TPEPs) were examined in 3 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Findings

  17. Hyperprolactinemia associated to calcification of the pituitary stalk: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA MIRIAM DA COSTA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the authors report the case of a female patient with 24 years of age with hyperprolactinemia, who presented a pituitary stalk calcification as seen by CT scan. Once other possible etiologies were excluded, we concluded that the calcification was probably related to hyperprolactinemia caused by interruption of the input of dopamine to the pituitary gland.

  18. Heterogeneity of secretory granules of silent pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1988-01-01

    Silent pituitary adenomas were compared with hormonally active tumors taking into account the size, number, and ultrastructural characteristics of secretory granules (SG). The study group (a total of 79 primary pituitary adenomas) comprised 27 silent, 21 growth hormone (GH)-producing-, 16 prolactin...

  19. Effects of endocrine disrupting heavy metals on pituitary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of hypogonadism and visceral obesity (VO) was recently demonstrated in male auto-mechanics occupationally exposed to endocrine disruptors (ED)-lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic, known to alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. The effects of exposure to these EDs on pituitary and gonadal ...

  20. Proliferaton index in pituitary adenomas from a black African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The WHO has recognized a variant of pituitary adenomas with potential aggressive behaviour which have been termed atypical pituitary adenomas. This group of tumours are recognized by their mitotic rate of more than >3%, p53 expression and invasion of surrounding structures. There has however been no ...

  1. EFFECTS OF CAGING DENSITY ON PITUITARY AND TESTICLE RELATED RESPONSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of caging density on pituitary and testicle related responses A significant negative correlation between the incidence of testicular interstitial cell tumors (ICT) and of pituitary tumors (PT) in control male F344 rats is reported associated with the number of ani...

  2. Cushing's Syndrome From Pituitary Microadenoma and Pulmonary Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tating, Dan Louie Renz P; Montevirgen, Natasha Denise S; Cajucom, Loyda

    2016-03-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a state of cortisol excess, possibly from a tumor in the pituitary gland, the adrenal gland, or an ectopic nonpituitary ACTH-secreting source. The first form, pituitary in origin, was originally described by Harvey Cushing, MD, and was labeled as Cushing's disease. Long-term therapy with glucocorticoids also can lead to iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome.

  3. MRI study of normal pituitary glands in stage of puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Guangwu; Zhang Tao; Yang Ning; Cai Feng; Shi Yifan; Deng Jieying; Zhang Luodong; Jiang Yayun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of shape, size and signal intensity of normal pituitary glands in adolescents and to correlate the size and shape of normal pituitary glands with the age, height and weight in stage of puberty. Methods: One hundred and fifty-five cases of MRI data of pituitary glands in normal adolescents range from 6.0 year to 18.9 year were used. Using high-field 1.5T MR scanner, the appearances of pituitary glands in 152 normal adolescents were analyzed on T 1 WI in standard median sagittal and coronal plane. Results: Three groups quantitative data of size, shape and single intensity changes of normal pituitary glands were obtained, which were divided into 6- m =0.74, t=3.624, P=0.004; r f =0.94, t=9.562, P=0.000), however, it was not markedly correlated with the height and weight (P>0.05). Conclusion: Obvious changes of the size and shape of pituitary glands were found in health adolescents. The pituitary glands manifest physiologic hypertrophy with more convex of upper border when age increased in stage of puberty. The spherical appearance of the pituitary glands is a normal developmental feature and should not warrant clinical investigation for the presence of an underlying micro-adenoma in teenage females. (authors)

  4. anterior hyaloidal fibrovascular proliferation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okonkwo

    It most commonly occurs after phakic vitrectomy and scleral buckling for diabetic traction retinal detachment. It usually manifests with haemorrhage into the vitreous cavity or anterior hyaloid 3 to 12 weeks after vitrectomy and is the result of fibrovascular proliferation from the peripheral retina extending toward the equator of ...

  5. Pituitary apoplexy in a teenager--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chen-Cheng; Lin, Chun-Ju

    2014-06-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is a rare clinical emergency which results from hemorrhage or infarction in the pituitary gland. We present a 14-year-old girl with pituitary apoplexy and review the literature. Our patient experienced blurred vision, nausea, and headache. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/200 and 20/20. Confrontation test visual field testing revealed bitemporal hemianopsia. Brain imaging demonstrated a suprasellar mass. The microscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach only found 5-10 mL brownish fluid-like material. Pathology confirmed no malignancy. Pituitary apoplexy was diagnosed. Her nausea and headache gradually improved. Six months after operation, her best-corrected visual acuity had improved to 20/30 and 20/20. Although pituitary apoplexy is rare in pediatric patients, prompt evaluation including detailed ophthalmic examination, biochemical evaluation, endocrine workup, and image study are very important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies...... on the adrenal or pituitary glands or hypothalamus volume in unipolar depressive disorder published in PubMed 1966 to December 2009. We identified three studies that investigated the volume of the adrenal glands and eight studies that examined the volume of the pituitary gland, but no studies on hypothalamus...... were found. Two out of three studies found a statistically significant increase in adrenal volume in patients compared to controls. Four out of eight studies found a statistically significant increase in pituitary volume in patients compared to controls. Different methodological problems were...

  7. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    on the adrenal or pituitary glands or hypothalamus volume in unipolar depressive disorder published in PubMed 1966 to December 2009. We identified three studies that investigated the volume of the adrenal glands and eight studies that examined the volume of the pituitary gland, but no studies on hypothalamus......Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies...... in enlarged adrenal and pituitary glands and it is suggested that prospective studies should be conducted with scanning during successive depressive episodes and periods of remission....

  8. Estrogen receptor β regulates the tumoral suppressor PTEN to modulate pituitary cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Pablo A; Petiti, Juan P; Picech, Florencia; Guido, Carolina B; dV Sosa, Liliana; Grondona, Ezequiel; Mukdsi, Jorge H; De Paul, Ana L; Torres, Alicia I; Gutierrez, Silvina

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we focused on ERβ regulation in the adenohypophysis under different estrogenic milieu, by analyzing whether ER modulates the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expression and its subcellular localization on anterior pituitary glands from Wistar rats and GH3 lactosomatotroph cells that over-expressed ERβ. ERβ was regulated in a cyclic manner, and underwent dynamic changes throughout the estrous cycle, with decreased ERβ+ cells in estrus and under E2 treatment, but increased in ovariectomized rats. In addition, the ERα/β ratio increased in estrus and under E2 stimulation, but decreased in ovariectomized rats. Double immunofluorescence revealed that lactotroph and somatotroph ERβ+ were significantly decreased in estrus. Also, variations in the PTEN expression was observed, which was diminished with high E2 conditions but augmented with low E2 milieu. The subcellular localization of this phosphatase was cell cycle-dependent, with remarkable changes in the immunostaining pattern: nuclear in arrested pituitary cells but cytoplasmic in stimulated cells, and responding differently to ER agonists, with only DPN being able to increase PTEN expression and retaining it in the nucleus. Finally, ERβ over-expression increased PTEN with a noticeable subcellular redistribution, and with a significant nuclear signal increase in correlation with an increase of cells in G0/G1 phase. These results showed that E2 is able to inhibit ERβ expression and suggests that the tumoral suppressor PTEN might be one of the signaling proteins by which E2, through ERβ, acts to modulate pituitary cell proliferation, thereby adapting endocrine populations in relation with hormonal necessities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The morpho-functional parameters of rat pituitary hormone producing cells after genistein treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trifunović

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens are a diverse group of steroid–like compounds that occur naturally in many plants. There are various types of phytoestrogens, including the best-researched isoflavones which are commonly found in soy. The consumption of soy products has many health benefits, including protection against breast cancer, prostate cancer, menopausal symptoms, heart disease and osteoporosis. In contrast, use of hormonally active compounds-isoflavones may unfortunately interfere with the endocrine system and can have far-reaching consequences. Genistein, the most abundant soy-bean derived isoflavone, possesses a ring system similar to estrogens and acts through an estrogen receptor (ER-mediated mechanism, by increasing or decreasing the transcription of ER-dependent target genes. Also, genistein can act on cells through ER non-dependent mechanisms, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The neuroendocrine systems are responsible for the control of homeostatic processes in the body, including reproduction, growth, metabolism and energy balance, and stress responsiveness. It is well known, that estrogen is important for development of the neuroendocrine system in both sexes. At the pituitary level, estrogen is known to affect the regulation of all hormone producing (HP cells, by direct and/or indirect mechanisms. Due to structural and functional resemblance to estrogen, the question may arise of whether and how genistein affects the morphofunctional features of pituitary HP cells. This review deals with the consequences of genistein’s effects on morphological, stereological and hormonal features of HP cells within the anterior pituitary gland. Transparency on this issue is needed because isoflavones are presently highly consumed. Inter alia, genistein as well as other isoflavones, are present in various dietary supplements and generally promoted as an accepted alternative to estrogen replacement therapy. Potential isoflavone biomedical exploitation is not

  10. Anterior cruciate ligament repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100230.htm Anterior cruciate ligament repair - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a ligament in the center of ...

  11. Multidisciplinary management of anterior diastemata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Herkrath, Fernando José; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino

    2007-01-01

    Anterior diastemata may compromise the harmony of a patient's smile. Consideration of etiologic factors, previous gingival conditioning, and individual treatment planning are essential in the proper management of anterior diastemata. An integrated orthodontic-restorative approach may enhance...

  12. Experimental Modification of Rat Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function During and After Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Salada, T.; Nye, P.; Grossman, E. J.; Lane, P. K.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Space-flown rats show a number of flight-induced changes in the structure and function of pituitary Growth Hormone (GH) cells after in vitro postflight testing. To evaluate the possible effects of microgravity on GH cells themselves, freshly dispersed rat anterior pituitary gland cells were seeded into vials containing serum +/- 1 micron HydroCortisone (HC) before flight. Five different cell preparations were used: the entire mixed-cell population of various hormone-producing cell types, cells of density less than 1.071 g/sq cm (band 1), cells of density greater than 1.071 g/sq cm (band 2), and cells prepared from either the dorsal or ventral part of the gland. Relative to ground control samples, bioactive GH released from dense cells during flight was reduced in HC-free medium but was increased in HC-containing medium. Band I and mixed cells usually showed opposite HC-dependent responses. Release of bioactive GH from ventral flight cells was lower; postflight responses to GH-releasing hormone challenge were reduced, and the cytoplasmic area occupied by GH in the dense cells was greater. Collectively, the data show that the chemistry and cellular makeup of the culture system modifies the response of GH cells to microgravity. As such, these cells offer a system to identify gravisensing mechanisms in secretory cells in future microgravity research.

  13. Changes in pituitary growth hormone cells prepared from rats flown on Spacelab 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grindeland, R.; Hymer, W.C.; Farrington, M.; Fast, T.; Hayes, C.; Motter, K.; Patil, L.; Vasques, M.

    1987-01-01

    Anterior pituitaries from small (250 g) and large (400 g) rats flown on the 7-day Spacelab 3 mission were pooled and trypsinized into two single-cell suspensions. Compared with ground-based controls, flight cells appeared to contain more intracellular growth hormone (GH) but release less GH over a 6-day culture period, measured by radioimmunoassay. After implantation into hypophysectomized rats, both sets of flight cells released only 50% of the GH compared with the control cells. Glands from large flight rats contained 44% somatotrophs compared with 37% for controls; small animals showed no difference. There were no striking differences in somatotroph ultrastructure between cells in the four groups. Western blot analysis indicate that there were no major differences in immunoactive GH variants. High-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of culture media indicated that small flight cells released much less of a high-molecular weight variant rich in GH bioactivity. The results suggest that GH cells from rats exposed to microgravity may experience secretory dysfunction. The possibility that this occurs directly at the pituitary cell level is discussed

  14. Effects of alcohol feeding on androgen receptors in the rat pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    Specific binding of testosterone-1β,2β- 3 H by cytosol from anterior pituitary gland of ethanol-fed, isocaloric control, and castrated control and ethanol-fed rats with or without testosterone treatment has been investigated by charcoal assay. The number of androgen binding sites was significantly reduced in alcohol-fed rats when compared to the isocaloric control value, with no significant change in Kd. Castration significantly increased the number of receptor sites in control rats and when castrated control animals were treated with testosterone the binding sites were decreased to the intact control level. In contrast, castration or testosterone given to castrated alcohol-fed rats did not alter alcohol-induced reduction of the receptor sites. The binding affinity (Kd) is identical in all groups. The concentration of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) was significantly lower in alcohol-fed rats when compared to that of normal controls. An increased serum LH level with a decreased testosterone level was noted in castrated control rats. However, castration of alcohol-fed rats had little or no effects on the concentrations of LH and testosterone. Administration of testosterone suppressed castration-induced high LH in control rats but alcohol induced reduction of LH level was not altered by this treatment. These findings indicate that alcohol exerts a suppressive effect on the content of androgen receptors and secretory functions of gonadotropins in the pituitary gland. 23 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  15. Clinical and genetic aspects of familial isolated pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vasilev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas represent a group of functionally diverse neoplasms with relatively high prevalence in the general population. Most occur sporadically, but inherited genetic predisposing factors are increasingly recognized. Familial isolated pituitary adenoma is a recently defined clinical entity, and is characterized by hereditary presentation of pituitary adenomas in the absence of clinical and genetic features of syndromic disease such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Carney complex. Familial isolated pituitary adenoma is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and accounted for approximately 2-3% of pituitary tumors in some series. Germline mutations in the aryl-hydrocarbon interacting protein gene are identified in around 25% of familial isolated pituitary adenoma kindreds. Pituitary adenomas with mutations of the aryl-hydrocarbon interacting protein gene are predominantly somatotropinomas and prolactinomas, but non-functioning adenomas, Cushing disease, and thyrotropinoma may also occur. These tumors may present as macroadenomas in young patients and are often relatively difficult to control. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that aryl-hydrocarbon interacting protein gene mutations occur in >10% of patients with sporadic macroadenomas that occur before 30 years of age, and in >20% of children with macroadenomas. Genetic screening for aryl-hydrocarbon interacting protein gene mutations is warranted in selected high-risk patients who may benefit from early recognition and follow-up.

  16. Cushing-type ectopic pituitary adenoma with unusual pathologic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher T. Kimmell, MD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pituitary adenomas comprise, by varying reports, approximately 1-2% of all pituitary adenomas. They are often located in the nasopharyngeal region associated with the pharyngeal pituitary. The location and pathologic features of these masses make them atypical when compared with intrasellar pituitary adenomas. A 54-year-old man presented with vertebral compression fracture and physical stigmata of Cushing’s disease. Biochemical testing confirmed hypercortisolemia responsive to high dose dexamethasone suppression. MRI of the head demonstrated an enhancing mass in the posterior aspect of the sphenoid sinus not involving the sella turcica. Endoscopic biopsy followed by resection confirmed this mass to be a pituitary adenoma with unusual pathologic features. Most notably, the tumor cells demonstrated large, eosinophilic, vacuolated cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical profile of the tumor was typical of an ACTH secreting tumor, notably with positivity for ACTH. The patient did well from his surgery. Post-operatively his serum cortisol level normalized and he remains in chemical remission one year after surgery. Ectopic pituitary adenomas are an unusual manifestation of hormonally active pituitary neoplastic disease. Their atypical clinical presentations, location, and pathologic features can make them a diagnostic challenge. Clinicians should be aware of these entities, especially when considering differential diagnosis for a mass in the sphenoid sinus and nasopharyngeal region.

  17. Recent Progress in the Medical Therapy of Pituitary Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Langlois

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of pituitary tumors is multidisciplinary, with medical therapy playing an increasingly important role. With the exception of prolactin-secreting tumors, surgery is still considered the first-line treatment for the majority of pituitary adenomas. However, medical/pharmacological therapy plays an important role in controlling hormone-producing pituitary adenomas, especially for patients with acromegaly and Cushing disease (CD. In the case of non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs, pharmacological therapy plays a minor role, the main objective of which is to reduce tumor growth, but this role requires further studies. For pituitary carcinomas and atypical adenomas, medical therapy, including chemotherapy, acts as an adjuvant to surgery and radiation therapy, which is often required to control these aggressive tumors. In the last decade, knowledge about the pathophysiological mechanisms of various pituitary adenomas has increased, thus novel medical therapies that target specific pathways implicated in tumor synthesis and hormonal over secretion are now available. Advancement in patient selection and determination of prognostic factors has also helped to individualize therapy for patients with pituitary tumors. Improvements in biochemical and “tumor mass” disease control can positively affect patient quality of life, comorbidities and overall survival. In this review, the medical armamentarium for treating CD, acromegaly, prolactinomas, NFA, and carcinomas/aggressive atypical adenomas will be presented. Pharmacological therapies, including doses, mode of administration, efficacy, adverse effects, and use in special circumstances are provided. Medical therapies currently under clinical investigation are also briefly discussed.

  18. Pituitary volumes are changed in patients with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad; Baykara, Sema; Mermi, Osman; Yildirim, Hanefi; Akaslan, Unsal

    2016-03-01

    Our study group previously measured pituitary volumes and found a relationship between somatoform disoders and pituitary volumes. Therefore, in conversion disorder, another somatoform disorder, we hypothesized that pituitary gland volumes would be reduced. Twenty female patients and healthy controls were recruited to the present investigation. The volumes of the pituitary gland were determined by using a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. We found that the pituitary gland volumes of the patients with conversion disorder were significantly smaller than those of healthy control subjects. In the patients with conversion disorder but not in the healthy control group, a significant negative correlation between the duration of illness and pituitary gland volume was determined. In summary, in the present study, we suggest that the patients with conversion disorder have smaller pituitary volumes compared to those of healthy control subjects. Further studies should confirm our data and ascertain whether volumetric alterations determined in the patients with conversion disorder can be changed with treatment or if they change over time.

  19. Anterior Urethral Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar P. Mali

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied the clinical presentation and management of four patients with anterior urethral valves; a rare cause of urethral obstruction in male children. One patient presented antenatally with oligohydramnios, bilateral hydronephrosis and bladder thickening suggestive of an infravesical obstruction. Two other patients presented postnatally at 1 and 2 years of age, respectively, with poor stream of urine since birth. The fourth patient presented at 9 years with frequency and dysuria. Diagnosis was established on either micturating cystourethrogram (MCU (in 2 or on cystoscopy (in 2. All patients had cystoscopic ablation of the valves. One patient developed a postablation stricture that was resected with an end-to-end urethroplasty. He had an associated bilateral vesicoureteric junction (VUJ obstruction for which a bilateral ureteric reimplantation was done at the same time. On long-term follow-up, all patients demonstrated a good stream of urine. The renal function is normal. Patients are continent and free of urinary infections. Anterior urethral valves are rare obstructive lesions in male children. The degree of obstruction is variable, and so they may present with mild micturition difficulty or severe obstruction with hydroureteronephrosis and renal impairment. Hence, it is important to evaluate the anterior urethra in any male child with suspected infravesical obstruction. The diagnosis is established by MCU or cystoscopy and the treatment is always surgical, either a transurethral ablation or an open resection. The long-term prognosis is good.

  20. Primary hypothyroidism mimicking a pituitary macroadenoma: regression after thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Ki Seong; Kim, Jong Moon; Kim, Tae Young; See-Sung, Choi; Kim, Jong Duck

    2009-01-01

    We report a 9-year-old girl with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. She presented with growth arrest, abnormal thyroid function studies, and a pituitary mass on MRI. With thyroxine therapy, the pituitary mass regressed and her symptoms resolved. Primary hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid mass lesions of the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  1. Primary hypothyroidism mimicking a pituitary macroadenoma: regression after thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Ki Seong; Kim, Jong Moon; Kim, Tae Young [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Iksan (Korea); See-Sung, Choi [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Iksan (Korea); Kim, Jong Duck [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Iksan (Korea)

    2009-02-15

    We report a 9-year-old girl with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. She presented with growth arrest, abnormal thyroid function studies, and a pituitary mass on MRI. With thyroxine therapy, the pituitary mass regressed and her symptoms resolved. Primary hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid mass lesions of the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  2. Estradiol partially recapitulates murine pituitary cell cycle response to pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, Yoel; Zonis, Svetlana; Ren, Song-Guang; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Chesnokova, Vera; Melmed, Shlomo

    2012-10-01

    Because pregnancy and estrogens both induce pituitary lactotroph hyperplasia, we assessed the expression of pituitary cell cycle regulators in two models of murine pituitary hyperplasia. Female mice were assessed during nonpregnancy, pregnancy, day of delivery, and postpartum. We also implanted estradiol (E(2)) pellets in female mice and studied them for 2.5 months. Pituitary weight in female mice increased 2-fold after E(2) administration and 1.4-fold at day of delivery, compared with placebo-treated or nonpregnant females. Pituitary proliferation, as assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen and/or Ki-67 staining, increased dramatically during both mid-late pregnancy and E(2) administration, and lactotroph hyperplasia was also observed. Pregnancy induced pituitary cell cycle proliferative and inhibitory responses at the G(1)/S checkpoint. Differential cell cycle regulator expression included cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21(Cip1), p27(Kip1), and cyclin D1. Pituitary cell cycle responses to E(2) administration partially recapitulated those effects observed at mid-late pregnancy, coincident with elevated circulating mouse E(2), including increased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Ki-67, p15(INK4b), and p21(Cip1). Nuclear localization of pituitary p21(Cip1) was demonstrated at mid-late pregnancy but not during E(2) administration, suggesting a cell cycle inhibitory role for p21(Cip1) in pregnancy, yet a possible proproliferative role during E(2) administration. Most observed cell cycle protein alterations were reversed postpartum. Murine pituitary meets the demand for prolactin during lactation associated with induction of both cell proliferative and inhibitory pathways, mediated, at least partially, by estradiol.

  3. Cerebral hemorrhagic infarction after radiation for pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogaki, Satoko; Suzuki, Masatsune; Shimano, Hitoshi; Toyoshima, Hideo; Sone, Hirohito; Okuda, Yukichi; Yamada, Nobuhiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Suzuki, Seiji; Suzuki, Hiroaki [National Hospital Tokyo Disaster Medical Center, Tachikawa (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    We report a case of cerebral hemorrhagic infarction after radiation for pituitary adenoma. A 55-year-old woman was hospitalized to check for aldosteronism, post-operative pituitary function, and recurrence of thyroid cancer. She had short-term memory disturbance beginning two months prior to admission. Brain MRI showed a T1 and T2 high intensity lesion of her left anterolateral thalamus. Brain MRA revealed a narrowing in her left middle cerebral artery. The abnormal brain lesion was diagnosed as cerebral hemorrhagic infarction. She had received radiation therapy for pituitary adenoma 20 years earlier. It was considered that her cerebral hemorrhagic infarction was caused by radiation therapy. (author)

  4. Cerebral hemorrhagic infarction after radiation for pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogaki, Satoko; Suzuki, Masatsune; Shimano, Hitoshi; Toyoshima, Hideo; Sone, Hirohito; Okuda, Yukichi; Yamada, Nobuhiro

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of cerebral hemorrhagic infarction after radiation for pituitary adenoma. A 55-year-old woman was hospitalized to check for aldosteronism, post-operative pituitary function, and recurrence of thyroid cancer. She had short-term memory disturbance beginning two months prior to admission. Brain MRI showed a T1 and T2 high intensity lesion of her left anterolateral thalamus. Brain MRA revealed a narrowing in her left middle cerebral artery. The abnormal brain lesion was diagnosed as cerebral hemorrhagic infarction. She had received radiation therapy for pituitary adenoma 20 years earlier. It was considered that her cerebral hemorrhagic infarction was caused by radiation therapy. (author)

  5. Painful vertical diplopia as a presentation of a pituitary mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Kaveri

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pituitary tumours may present with a variety of neurological and endocrinological signs and symptoms. It is very rare however for them to present with sudden onset painful diplopia. The current literature and possible mechanisms for this are discussed. Case presentation We describe a case of a pituitary mass which presented with sudden onset painful diplopia with an associated restricted pattern on Lees Chart testing. This led to an initial working diagnosis of orbital myositis. Conclusion Awareness of different modes of presentation of pituitary lesions is important so that appropriate imaging may be requested and delay in diagnosis prevented.

  6. Pituitary autoantibodies in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Damien T; McElduff, Patrick; Peterson, Pärt; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Crock, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is an autosomal recessive disease due to mutations in the AIRE (AutoImmune REgulator) gene. The role of pituitary autoimmunity in APECED is not known. We determined the prevalence of pituitary autoantibodies in a cohort of 67 Finnish patients with APECED from 217 serum samples collected over 26 years by one investigator. Overall, autoantibodies to the 49 kDa cytosolic autoantigen, human pituitary enolase were detected in 39 of the 67 patients (58%). On their first sample, 25 patients had autoantibodies compared to 5 of 68 controls (chi-square, 1df=17.11, pAPECED patients.

  7. Pituitary macroadenoma and diaphragma sellae meningioma: differential diagnosis on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappabianca, P.; Alfieri, A.; Maiuri, F.; Mariniello, G.; De Divitiis, E. [Istituto di Neurochirurgia, Universita` ``Federico II``, Naples (Italy); Cirillo, S.; D`Amico, A.; Caranci, F. [Department of Neuroradiology, ``Federico II`` University School of Medicine, Naples (Italy)

    1999-01-01

    Diaphragma sellae meningiomas are unusual tumours often not distinguished from pituitary macroadenomas. Preoperative differentiation is essential, because the trans-sphenoidal approach is used for surgical removal of adenomas, while meningiomas are approached via a craniotomy. We reviewed five patients in whom a diaphragma sellae meningioma was initially diagnosed as a nonsecreting pituitary macroadenoma. MRI criteria for differential diagnosis are discussed. The main findings considered are visibility of the pituitary gland, contrast enhancement, the centre of the lesion and sellar enlargement. These criteria, applied to a blind review, allow correct identification of the tumours. (orig.) (orig.) With 3 figs., 24 refs.

  8. Persistent expression of activated notch in the developing hypothalamus affects survival of pituitary progenitors and alters pituitary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aujla, Paven K; Bogdanovic, Vedran; Naratadam, George T; Raetzman, Lori T

    2015-08-01

    As the pituitary gland develops, signals from the hypothalamus are necessary for pituitary induction and expansion. Little is known about the control of cues that regulate early signaling between the two structures. Ligands and receptors of the Notch signaling pathway are found in both the hypothalamus and Rathke's pouch. The downstream Notch effector gene Hes1 is required for proper pituitary formation; however, these effects could be due to the action of Hes1 in the hypothalamus, Rathke's pouch, or both. To determine the contribution of hypothalamic Notch signaling to pituitary organogenesis, we used mice with loss and gain of Notch function within the developing hypothalamus. We demonstrate that loss of Notch signaling by conditional deletion of Rbpj in the hypothalamus does not affect expression of Hes1 within the posterior hypothalamus or expression of Hes5. In contrast, expression of activated Notch within the hypothalamus results in ectopic Hes5 expression and increased Hes1 expression, which is sufficient to disrupt pituitary development and postnatal expansion. Taken together, our results indicate that Rbpj-dependent Notch signaling within the developing hypothalamus is not necessary for pituitary development, but persistent Notch signaling and ectopic Hes5 expression in hypothalamic progenitors affects pituitary induction and expansion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-12-01

    In transfusion-dependent {beta}-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with {beta}-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  10. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with β-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C.; Kiortsis, D.N.; Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A.

    2001-01-01

    In transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with β-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  11. A case series of closed head trauma with pituitary stalk disruption resulting in hypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Khuram; Saeed, Saqib; Ramcharan, Alexius; Gray, Sanjiv

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in young trauma patients with resultant multi-organ effects. Hypopituitarism following TBI can be debilitating and life threatening. TBI which causes hypopituitarism may be characterized by a single head injury, such as from a motor vehicle accident, or by chronic repetitive head trauma, as seen in combative supports including boxing, kick-boxing, and football. In the majority of cases, a diagnosis of hypopituitarism can be entirely missed resulting in severe neuro-endocrine dysfunction. We present a case series of two patients diagnosed with hypopituitarism after TBI and treated appropriately with favorable outcome. The first case is a 34 year-old male, who presented to the emergency department with blunt head trauma after a motor vehicle accident while riding his bicycle. He suffered from severe cranio-facial injuries, resulting in multifocal hemorrhagic contusions, epidural hematoma, and extensive cranio-facial fractures involving the sinuses. The patient developed persistent hypotension with a blood pressure as low as 60/40 mmHg on hospital day three. The second case is a 56 year-old male with a history of schizophrenia, who suffered traumatic brain injury after he was hit by a train. The patient sustained multiple facial fractures, pneumocephalus and C2/7 transverse processes fractures. He also had persistent hypotension, unresponsive to standard treatment. Investigation revealed a deficiency of anterior pituitary hormones resulting from pituitary axis disruption. Hypopituitarism is becoming an increasingly recognized complication following TBI, ranging from total to isolated deficiencies. Traumatic Brain Injury is a major public health problem and is one of the leading causes of disability. Understanding and recognizing pituitary dysfunction after TBI can lead to better outcomes and improved quality of life. Patients with major head injury and, in particular, those with

  12. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigitan Terbuka Anterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniar Zen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior telah lama dianggap sebagai tantangan bagi ortodontis. Prevalensi gigitan terbuka anterior antara 3,5% hingga 11% terdapat pada berbagai usia dan kelompok etnis, serta ada sekitar 17% pasien ortodonti memiliki gigitan terbuka. Stabilitas hasil perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior sangat sulit, karena adanya kombinasi diskrepansi anteroposterior dengan gigitan terbuka skeletal sehingga dibutuhkan tingkat keterampilan diagnosis dan klinis yang tinggi. Etiologi gigitan terbuka anterior sangat kompleks karena dapat melibatkan skeletal, dental, dan faktor-faktor habitual. Eliminasi faktor etiologi merupakan hal yang penting dalam perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior. Berbagai cara perawatan untuk koreksi gigitan terbuka anterior diantaranya bedah ortognatik dan perawatan ortodontik kamuflase, seperti high-pull headgear, chincup, bite blocks, alatfungsional, pencabutan gigi, multi-loop edgewise archwires dan mini implan. Stabilitas hasil perawatan adalah kriteria yang paling penting dalam menentukan cara perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior. Orthodontic Treatment of Anterior Open Bite. An anterior open bite therapy has long been considered a challenge to orthodontist. The prevalence of anterior openbite range from 3,5 % to 11% among various age and ethnic groups and it has been shown that approximately 17% of orthodontic patients have open bite. Stability of treatment result of anterior open bite with well-maintained results is difficult, because the combination of anteroposteriorly discrepancy with skeletal open bite requires the highest degree of diagnostic and clinical skill. The etiology is complex, potentially involving skeletal, dental and habitual factors. The importance of an anterior open bite therapy is to eliminate the cause of the open bite. Various treatment modalities for the correction of an anterior open bite have been proposed, orthognatic surgery and orthodontic camouflage treatment such as high

  13. Reversible pituitary hyperplasia at birth in a macrosomic full-term baby boy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipoff, Jennifer; Wilson, Thomas A. [State University of New York, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Peyster, Robert [Stony Brook University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Pituitary hyperplasia is generally associated with end-organ failure such as primary hypothyroidism, physiological changes such as puberty and pregnancy, or neoplasms secreting releasing factors. We present a full-term infant with an enlarged pituitary height of 8 mm at age 3 days despite a normal endocrinological evaluation. Repeat imaging at 5 months of age revealed a normal-size pituitary gland. To our knowledge, pituitary hyperplasia has not been described in a neonate with normal pituitary function. (orig.)

  14. Development of the hypothalamus and pituitary in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2012-01-01

    The living monotremes (platypus and echidnas) are distinguished by the development of their young in a leathery-shelled egg, a low and variable body temperature and a primitive teat-less mammary gland. Their young are hatched in an immature state and must deal with the external environment, with all its challenges of hypothermia and stress, as well as sourcing nutrients from the maternal mammary gland. The Hill and Hubrecht embryological collections have been used to follow the structural development of the monotreme hypothalamus and its connections with the pituitary gland both in the period leading up to hatching and during the lactational phase of development, and to relate this structural maturation to behavioural development. In the incubation phase, development of the hypothalamus proceeds from closure of the anterior neuropore to formation of the lateral hypothalamic zone and putative medial forebrain bundle. Some medial zone hypothalamic nuclei are emerging at the time of hatching, but these are poorly differentiated and periventricular zone nuclei do not appear until the first week of post-hatching life. Differentiation of the pituitary is also incomplete at hatching, epithelial cords do not develop in the pars anterior until the first week, and the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract does not appear until the second week of post-hatching life. In many respects, the structure of the hypothalamus and pituitary of the newly hatched monotreme is similar to that seen in newborn marsupials, suggesting that both groups rely solely on lateral hypothalamic zone nuclei for whatever homeostatic mechanisms they are capable of at birth/hatching. PMID:22512474

  15. Development of the hypothalamus and pituitary in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2012-07-01

    The living monotremes (platypus and echidnas) are distinguished by the development of their young in a leathery-shelled egg, a low and variable body temperature and a primitive teat-less mammary gland. Their young are hatched in an immature state and must deal with the external environment, with all its challenges of hypothermia and stress, as well as sourcing nutrients from the maternal mammary gland. The Hill and Hubrecht embryological collections have been used to follow the structural development of the monotreme hypothalamus and its connections with the pituitary gland both in the period leading up to hatching and during the lactational phase of development, and to relate this structural maturation to behavioural development. In the incubation phase, development of the hypothalamus proceeds from closure of the anterior neuropore to formation of the lateral hypothalamic zone and putative medial forebrain bundle. Some medial zone hypothalamic nuclei are emerging at the time of hatching, but these are poorly differentiated and periventricular zone nuclei do not appear until the first week of post-hatching life. Differentiation of the pituitary is also incomplete at hatching, epithelial cords do not develop in the pars anterior until the first week, and the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract does not appear until the second week of post-hatching life. In many respects, the structure of the hypothalamus and pituitary of the newly hatched monotreme is similar to that seen in newborn marsupials, suggesting that both groups rely solely on lateral hypothalamic zone nuclei for whatever homeostatic mechanisms they are capable of at birth/hatching. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  16. Anterior knee pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLopis, Eva [Hospital de la Ribera, Alzira, Valencia (Spain) and Carretera de Corbera km 1, 46600 Alzira Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: ellopis@hospital-ribera.com; Padron, Mario [Clinica Cemtro, Ventisquero de la Condesa no. 42, 28035 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: mario.padron@clinicacemtro.com

    2007-04-15

    Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries.

  17. Forkhead Box O1 is present in quiescent pituitary cells during development and is increased in the absence of p27 Kip1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeparna Majumdar

    Full Text Available Congenital pituitary hormone deficiencies have been reported in approximately one in 4,000 live births, however studies reporting mutations in some widely studied transcription factors account for only a fraction of congenital hormone deficiencies in humans. Anterior pituitary hormones are required for development and function of several glands including gonads, adrenals, and thyroid. In order to identify additional factors that contribute to human congenital hormone deficiencies, we are investigating the forkhead transcription factor, FOXO1, which has been implicated in development of several organs including ovary, testis, and brain. We find that FOXO1 is present in the nuclei of non-dividing pituitary cells during embryonic development, consistent with a role in limiting proliferation and/or promoting differentiation. FOXO1 is present in a subset of differentiated cells at e18.5 and in adult with highest level of expression in somatotrope cells. We detected FOXO1 in p27(Kip1-positive cells at e14.5. In the absence of p27(Kip1 the number of pituitary cells containing FOXO1 is significantly increased at e14.5 suggesting that a feedback loop regulates the interplay between FOXO1 and p27(Kip1.

  18. Pregnancy and pituitary disorders: Challenges in diagnosis and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laway, Bashir A.; Mir, Shahnaz A.

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with normal physiological changes in endocrine system that assists fetal survival as well as preparation of labor. The pituitary gland is one of the most affected organs in which major changes in anatomy and physiology take place. Due to overlapping clinical and biochemical features of pregnancy, sometimes the diagnosis of pituitary disorders may be challenging. It is important to know what normal parameters of changes occur in endocrine system in order to diagnose and manage complex endocrine problems in pregnancy. In our present review, we will focus on pituitary disorders that occur exclusively during pregnancy like Sheehan's syndrome and lymphocytic hypophysitis and pre-existing pituitary disorders (like prolactinoma, Cushing's disease and acromegaly), which poses significant challenge to endocrinologists. PMID:24381874

  19. MRI diagnosis of pituitary abscess and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuang; Qian Ruiling; Tang Zhiwei; Liu Ke; Huang Yong; Li Xi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the MR features of pituitary abscess. Methods: The MR features of 14 eases of pituitary abscess proved by surgical pathology and clinical treatments were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Pre-contrast MR showed hypointense heterogeneous intensity on T 1 WI in 12 cases and iso-hyperintense on T 1 WI in 2 cases, hyperintense on T 2 WI in all cases. Post-gadolinium MR showed the ring-like enhancement around the uneven edge of abscess and the surrounding enhanced meninges connecting to the focus. The normal pituitary could not be identified in all 14 cases. The MR specific findings include the fluid-fluid level, nodule on the edge and the enhanced patchy shadow. Conclusions: The pituitary abscess has specific findings on MR examination, which can be used to combine with clinical symptoms to achieve the diagnosis before operation, so that the cases could be treated with antibiotic without operation. (authors)

  20. Pregnancy and pituitary disorders: Challenges in diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir A Laway

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is associated with normal physiological changes in endocrine system that assists fetal survival as well as preparation of labor. The pituitary gland is one of the most affected organs in which major changes in anatomy and physiology take place. Due to overlapping clinical and biochemical features of pregnancy, sometimes the diagnosis of pituitary disorders may be challenging. It is important to know what normal parameters of changes occur in endocrine system in order to diagnose and manage complex endocrine problems in pregnancy. In our present review, we will focus on pituitary disorders that occur exclusively during pregnancy like Sheehan′s syndrome and lymphocytic hypophysitis and pre-existing pituitary disorders (like prolactinoma, Cushing′s disease and acromegaly, which poses significant challenge to endocrinologists.

  1. Immediate postoperative complications in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumul Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the important role of pituitary gland in regulating various endocrine axes and its unique anatomical location, various postoperative complications can be anticipated resulting from surgery on pituitary tumors. We examined and categorized the immediate postoperative complications according to various tumor pathologies. Materials and Methods: We carried out a prospective study in 152 consecutive patients and noted various postoperative complications during neurosurgical intensive care unit stay (within 48 hrs of hospital stay in patients undergoing transsphenoidal removal of pituitary tumors. Results: In our series, various groups showed different postoperative complications out of which, cerebrospinal fluid leak was the commonest followed by diabetes insipidus, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and hematoma at operation site. Conclusion: Various immediate postoperative complications can be anticipated in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery even though, it is considered to be relatively safe.

  2. Ectopic pituitary adenoma presenting as midline nasopharyngeal mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, R

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ectopic pituitary adenomas are extremely rare. We report a case of ectopic pituitary adenoma in the midline of the nasopharynx. This adenoma probably arose from the pharyngeal remnant of Rathke\\'s pouch. METHODS: We discuss a case of a lady who presented to our unit with 2 months history of dryness and sensation of lump in her throat and a long standing history of hypothyroidism. Examination of nasopharynx revealed a smooth and fluctuant midline mass. CT scan of nose and paranasal sinuses confirmed the midline mass with small defect communicating with the sphenoid sinus. An initial diagnosis of Thornwaldt\\'s cyst was made and she underwent upper aerodigestive tract endoscopy and marsupialization of the mass. Histopathological examination revealed ectopic pituitary adenoma. CONCLUSION: Ectopic pituitary adenoma is an important differential diagnosis for a midline nasopharyngeal mass. It is recommended that prior to surgical resection of midline nasopharyngeal mass biopsy is taken and MRI is performed.

  3. Evaluating anterior knee pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Engene; Kraft, Michael C

    2014-07-01

    Musculoskeletal complaints account for about 20% to 30% of all primary care office visits; of these visits, discomfort in the knee, shoulder, and back are the most prevalent musculoskeletal symptoms. Having pain or dysfunction in the front part of the knee is a common presentation and reason for a patient to see a health care provider. There are a number of pathophysiological etiologies to anterior knee pain. This article describes some of the common and less common causes, and includes sections on diagnosis and treatment for each condition as well as key points. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The anterior cingulate cortex

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    Pavlović D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  5. Acromegaly with sleep disturbances relieved by yttrium-90 pituitary implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstock, J.; Doyle, F.H.; Joplin, G.F.; Jung, R.T.; Mashiter, K.

    1982-01-01

    A brief case history is presented of a patient, who, after yttrium-90 implantation, showed a complete clinical and hormonal remission of her acromegaly, maintaining normal pituitary function. The remarkable feature was the rapid disappearance of her attacks of somnolence within 96 hours of pituitary implantation, despite persistence of nocturnal snoring and well before any remodelling of soft tissues could have occurred. This response suggests that her daytime somnolence had a narcoleptic component. (author)

  6. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma

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    Noorisaem Rhee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings.

  7. Acromegaly with sleep disturbances relieved by yttrium-90 pituitary implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenstock, J.; Doyle, F.H.; Joplin, G.F.; Jung, R.T.; Mashiter, K. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK). Postgraduate Medical School)

    1982-03-01

    A brief case history is presented of a patient, who, after yttrium-90 implantation, showed a complete clinical and hormonal remission of her acromegaly, maintaining normal pituitary function. The remarkable feature was the rapid disappearance of her attacks of somnolence within 96 hours of pituitary implantation, despite persistence of nocturnal snoring and well before any remodelling of soft tissues could have occurred. This response suggests that her daytime somnolence had a narcoleptic component.

  8. Long-Term Outcome and MGMT as a Predictive Marker in 24 Patients With Atypical Pituitary Adenomas and Pituitary Carcinomas Given Treatment With Temozolomide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Daniel; Schrøder, Henrik Daa; Andersen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Locally aggressive pituitary tumors (LAPT) and pituitary carcinomas respond poorly to conventional therapy and cytotoxic drugs. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral alkylating drug with good tolerability, approved for treatment of malignant gliomas. The experience of its use in pituit......CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Locally aggressive pituitary tumors (LAPT) and pituitary carcinomas respond poorly to conventional therapy and cytotoxic drugs. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral alkylating drug with good tolerability, approved for treatment of malignant gliomas. The experience of its use...

  9. Surgical Outcomes of Cavernous Sinus Syndrome in Pituitary Adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weilun; Duan, Lian; Geng, Sumin

    2017-11-01

    The type of pituitary adenoma with a manifestation that includes cavernous sinus syndrome is rare. Based on the clinical data of 70 patients, this study investigated the pathogenesis, imaging characteristics, and prognostic factors of pituitary adenoma with cavernous sinus syndrome. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the characteristics of patients with pituitary adenoma with cavernous sinus syndrome who received surgical treatment. The patients were classified into different prognosis groups according to the time required for them to recover from the cavernous sinus syndrome. Univariate analyses were conducted for the correlations between the prognosis and factors. Of the 3598 cases of pituitary adenomas, 70 (1.95%) presented cavernous sinus syndrome. Of the patients, 55.7% recovered within 2 weeks of surgery, 24.3% recovered from 2 weeks to 1 year after surgery, and 20% had not returned to normal after more than 1 year after surgery. Univariate analyses showed that shorter disease duration (P syndrome differs depending on the mechanism of the syndrome. There was no significant difference in the prognosis between patients with total pituitary adenoma resection and subtotal resection. Timely surgery within 100 days of symptom occurrence, Knosp grade 0-2, and associated pituitary apoplexy are predictive factors of good prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypothalamic–Pituitary Alterations in Patients With Neurosarcoidosis

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    ulie Martin-Grace

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a non-caseating, granulomatous inflammatory disorder that can affect the central nervous system (CNS, including the hypothalamic–pituitary region, although rarely. The clinical manifestations of hypothalamic–pituitary neurosarcoidosis are heterogeneous and require a prompt diagnosis to ensure the most appropriate treatment. We have reviewed the cases of neurosarcoidosis affecting the hypothalamic–pituitary axis published since 2002 and compared them with the cases reported in the literature up to 2002, which were previously meta-analysed by our research group. Since 2002, 64 cases were identified in the literature: 37 cases presented with diabetes insipidus, 36 were found to have secondary amenorrhoea, 30 with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, 17 with hyperprolactinaemia, 15 with thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency, and 8 cases of panhypopituitarism. Uncommon manifestations included hyperphagia, sudden death, and thermodysregulation. We confirm that neurosarcoidosis affecting the hypothalamic–pituitary axis is an uncommon manifestation of sarcoidosis. Neither changes in the clinical manifestations and diagnosis nor significantly novel management options have appeared in the last decade. While it is a rare disorder, the involvement of the CNS is an indication to treat sarcoidosis and as the symptoms of CNS involvement, including hypothalamic–pituitary alterations, may precede the diagnosis of sarcoidosis, it is important to include neurosarcoidosis in the differential diagnosis of hypothalamic–pituitary axis dysfunction in order to facilitate prompt and appropriate treatment.

  11. Valuation of dynamic MR imaging for diagnosis of pituitary microadenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Wu; Zhou Shengli; Liu Yusheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the use of keyhole dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in evaluation of pituitary microadenomas. Methods: Fifty-three patients with pituitary microadenomas proved by operation or clinical findings such as headache, amenorrhea, lactating, fat or acromegaly were retrospectively studied on dynamic MR, conventional contrast enhanced MR, and unenhanced MR. Then the image data were analyzed by two experienced doctors who didn't know the details and three degrees were made as follows: grade 0, no evidence of the tumor; grade I, asymmetry signals in the pituitary; and grade II, nodulated or sheets signals in the pituitary. The grading data were compared with statistical methods. Results: In dynamic MR grading system: grade 0 was revealed in 1 patient, grade I in 29 patients and grade II in 23 patients. In conventional enhanced MR: grade 0 in 26 patients, grade I in 17 patients and grade II in 10 patients. In conventional unenhanced MR: grade 0 in 39 patients, grade I in 10 patients and grade II in 4 patients. The diagnostic rate of dynamic MR, conventional enhanced MR, and unenhanced MR was 98.1%, 51.9%, and 26.4%, respectively. (P < 0.005). Dynamic MR can increase the grade of tumor compared to the other two, which is significant statistically. Conclusion: Keyhole dynamic MR can increase the diagnostic accuracy of pituitary microadenomas while decreasing the uncertainty. So dynamic MR should become a routine examination for pituitary microadenoma when suspected by clinical findings but negative in conventional MR

  12. Pituitary disease in childhood: utility of magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vela, A. C.; Oleaga, L.; Ibanez, A. M.; Campo, M.; Grande, D.

    2000-01-01

    To assess the utility of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the study of pediatric patients with clinical suspicion of pituitary disease. We studied 18 patients aged 7 to 18 years.Fifteen had hormonal disturbances, two presented amenorrhea and 1 complained of headache, fever and symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia. All the patients were examined using a Siemens SP 42 1-Tesla MRI scanner. Sagittal and coronal T1-weighted spin-echo images were obtained; in addition T2-weighted spin-echo or fast spin-echo imaging was performed in ten cases and intravenous gadolinium was administered in nine. We found 9 patients with hypothalamic-pituitary dysgenesis, 2 with germinoma, 2 cases of pituitary hemosiderosis in patients with thalassemia, 2 cases of microadenoma, one abscess, one case of idiopathic central diabetes insipidus and one of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. MR enabled us to assess pituitary structural alterations in children with hypothalamic-pituitary hormone deficiencies. In our series of patients, hypothalamic-pituitary dysgenesiss was the most frequent cause of adenohypophyseal deficiencies, and most cases of central diabetes insipidus were secondary to masses in the sellar and suprasellar region. In patients with thalassemia, T2-weighted MR images showed the amount of iron deposited in adenophypophysis. Gadolinium-enhanced studies were useful in the study of masses and when the presence of microadenoma was suspected. (Author) 26 refs

  13. The Influence of Pituitary Size on Outcome After Transsphenoidal Hypophysectomy in a Large Cohort of Dogs with Pituitary-Dependent Hypercortisolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Sarah|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/392860163; Galac, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830860; Tryfonidou, M. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/24306599X; Hesselink, J. W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11509573X; Penning, L. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110369181; Kooistra, H. S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/205285864; Meij, B. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164045805

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy is one of the treatment strategies in the comprehensive management of dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (PDH). OBJECTIVES To describe the influence of pituitary size at time of pituitary gland surgery on long-term outcome. ANIMALS

  14. [Anterior guidance in complete dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, J; Trevelo, A

    1990-01-01

    Although the anterior guidance in complete dentures is not really a guide, the arrangement of the anterior maxillary and mandibular prosthetic teeth, defines a propulsive line called the virtual anterior guidance, a part from the cinematic criterias. The influence of this guide on cuspal movement is superior, in all mandibular points, to the influence of the condylar pathway. If this line is not respected, the practitioner may have to do excessive grindings during occlusal adjustments.

  15. Multidisciplinary management of anterior diastemata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Herkrath, Fernando José; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino

    2007-01-01

    Anterior diastemata may compromise the harmony of a patient's smile. Consideration of etiologic factors, previous gingival conditioning, and individual treatment planning are essential in the proper management of anterior diastemata. An integrated orthodontic-restorative approach may enhance...... the aesthetic results when orthodontic therapy itself is not feasible. This article presents integrated orthodonticrestorative solutions of anterior diastemata, associated with the conditioning of the gingival tissue with composite resin, and discusses the most relevant aspects related to their etiology...

  16. Corticotroph Pituitary Carcinoma in a Patient With Lynch Syndrome (LS) and Pituitary Tumors in a Nationwide LS Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Daniel; Joost, Patrick; Aravidis, Christos; Askmalm Stenmark, Marie; Backman, Ann-Sofie; Melin, Beatrice; von Salomé, Jenny; Zagoras, Theofanis; Gebre-Medhin, Samuel; Burman, Pia

    2017-11-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is a cancer-predisposing syndrome caused by germline mutations in genes involved in DNA mismatch repair (MMR). Patients are at high risk for several types of cancer, but pituitary tumors have not previously been reported. A 51-year-old man with LS (MSH2 mutation) and a history of colon carcinoma presented with severe Cushing disease and a locally aggressive pituitary tumor. The tumor harbored a mutation consistent with the patient's germline mutation and displayed defect MMR function. Sixteen months later, the tumor had developed into a carcinoma with widespread liver metastases. The patient prompted us to perform a nationwide study in LS. A diagnosis consistent with a pituitary tumor was sought for in the Swedish National Patient Registry. In 910 patients with LS, representing all known cases in Sweden, another two clinically relevant pituitary tumors were found: an invasive nonsecreting macroadenoma and a microprolactinoma (i.e., in total three tumors vs. one expected). Germline mutations in MMR genes may contribute to the development and/or the clinical course of pituitary tumors. Because tumors with MMR mutations are susceptible to treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, we suggest to actively ask for a family history of LS in the workup of patients with aggressive pituitary tumors. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  17. Bioengineered anterior cruciate ligament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Gregory (Inventor); Kaplan, David (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor); Martin, Ivan (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament ex vivo. The method comprises seeding pluripotent stem cells in a three dimensional matrix, anchoring the seeded matrix by attachment to two anchors, and culturing the cells within the matrix under conditions appropriate for cell growth and regeneration, while subjecting the matrix to one or more mechanical forces via movement of one or both of the attached anchors. Bone marrow stromal cells are preferably used as the pluripotent cells in the method. Suitable matrix materials are materials to which cells can adhere, such as a gel made from collagen type I. Suitable anchor materials are materials to which the matrix can attach, such as Goinopra coral and also demineralized bone. Optimally, the mechanical forces to which the matrix is subjected mimic mechanical stimuli experienced by an anterior cruciate ligament in vivo. This is accomplished by delivering the appropriate combination of tension, compression, torsion, and shear, to the matrix. The bioengineered ligament which is produced by this method is characterized by a cellular orientation and/or matrix crimp pattern in the direction of the applied mechanical forces, and also by the production of collagen type I, collagen type III, and fibronectin proteins along the axis of mechanical load produced by the mechanical forces. Optimally, the ligament produced has fiber bundles which are arranged into a helical organization. The method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament can be adapted to produce a wide range of tissue types ex vivo by adapting the anchor size and attachment sites to reflect the size of the specific type of tissue to be produced, and also adapting the specific combination of forces applied, to mimic the mechanical stimuli experienced in vivo by the specific type of tissue to be produced. The methods of the present invention can be further modified to incorporate other stimuli experienced in vivo by the

  18. Growth without growth hormone in combined pituitary hormone deficiency caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Soo Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is an essential element for normal growth. However, reports of normal growth without GH have been made in patients who have undergone brain surgery for craniopharyngioma. Normal growth without GH can be explained by hyperinsulinemia, hyperprolactinemia, elevated leptin levels, and GH variants; however, its exact mechanism has not been elucidated yet. We diagnosed a female patient aged 13 with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS. The patient has experienced recurrent hypoglycemic seizures since birth, but reached the height of 160 cm at the age of 13, showing normal growth. She grew another 8 cm for 3 years after the diagnosis, and she reached her final adult height of 168 cm which was greater than the midparental height, at the age of 16. The patient's blood GH and insulin-like growth factor-I levels were consistently subnormal, although her insulin levels were normal. Her physical examination conducted at the age of 15 showed truncal obesity, dyslipidemia, and osteoporosis, which are metabolic features of GH deficiency (GHD. Herein, we report a case in which a PSIS-induced CPHD patient attained her final height above mid parental height despite a severe GHD.

  19. MRI of the liver and the pituitary gland in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: Does hepatic siderosis predict pituitary iron deposition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Efremidis, Stavros C. [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios N. [Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to study, in thalassemic patients, if hepatic siderosis evaluated by MRI could predict the pituitary iron overload. In 36 thalassemic patients (age range 6-44 years, mean age 21.7 years) the liver/fat ratio (L/F), the pituitary/fat ratio (P/F), the liver and pituitary T2 relaxation times were evaluated, by using a multiecho spin-echo sequence. Serum ferritin levels were measured and an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed. The L/F, the P/F and pituitary T2 showed a good correlation with serum ferritin (r=-0.55, r=-0.55 and r=-0.53, respectively; p<0.01). Liver T2 did not show significant correlation with serum ferritin. The variability of L/F explained only the 10.8% of the variability of pituitary T2 and of the P/F. When ferritin was added to the model it predicted only the 26.85% and the 30.8% of the variability of pituitary T2 and of the P/F, respectively. The P/F and pituitary T2 were lower in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (group 1) compared with those without pituitary dysfunction (group 2). No significant differences of L/F were found between the two groups. Hepatic iron overload evaluated by MR is a poor predictor of pituitary siderosis. The MR studies of the pituitary gland might be necessary to evaluate the pituitary iron overload. (orig.)

  20. Signaling pathway networks mined from human pituitary adenoma proteomics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Xianquan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We obtained a series of pituitary adenoma proteomic expression data, including protein-mapping data (111 proteins, comparative proteomic data (56 differentially expressed proteins, and nitroproteomic data (17 nitroproteins. There is a pressing need to clarify the significant signaling pathway networks that derive from those proteins in order to clarify and to better understand the molecular basis of pituitary adenoma pathogenesis and to discover biomarkers. Here, we describe the significant signaling pathway networks that were mined from human pituitary adenoma proteomic data with the Ingenuity pathway analysis system. Methods The Ingenuity pathway analysis system was used to analyze signal pathway networks and canonical pathways from protein-mapping data, comparative proteomic data, adenoma nitroproteomic data, and control nitroproteomic data. A Fisher's exact test was used to test the statistical significance with a significance level of 0.05. Statistical significant results were rationalized within the pituitary adenoma biological system with literature-based bioinformatics analyses. Results For the protein-mapping data, the top pathway networks were related to cancer, cell death, and lipid metabolism; the top canonical toxicity pathways included acute-phase response, oxidative-stress response, oxidative stress, and cell-cycle G2/M transition regulation. For the comparative proteomic data, top pathway networks were related to cancer, endocrine system development and function, and lipid metabolism; the top canonical toxicity pathways included mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative-stress response, and ERK/MAPK signaling. The nitroproteomic data from a pituitary adenoma were related to cancer, cell death, lipid metabolism, and reproductive system disease, and the top canonical toxicity pathways mainly related to p38 MAPK signaling and cell-cycle G2/M transition regulation. Nitroproteins from a

  1. Pituitary size alteration and adverse effects of radiation therapy performed in 9 dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Harumi; Mori, Akihiro; Lee, Peter; Sugihara, Shiho; Oda, Hitomi; Sako, Toshinori

    2018-01-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine the therapeutic and/or adverse effects of radiation therapy (RT) against pituitary tumors in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism, as monitored by frequent post-RT detailed MRI examinations, clinical signs, and changes in hormone concentrations. Nine dogs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary mass diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) underwent RT for 4weeks (total of 48Gy in 4-Gy fractions). Pituitary height/brain area (P/B) value, clinical signs, basal plasma ACTH concentrations, serum cortisol concentrations (pre- and post-ACTH stimulation test) and adverse effects of RT were evaluated before and post-RT. The P/B value was significantly lower in all nine dogs post-RT. One dog lacking any neurological signs demonstrated no change in clinical signs pre and post-RT. Out of 8 dogs which exhibited neurological signs pre-RT, half of them demonstrated complete resolution of their signs, whereas the other half showed transient resolution. In all animals with recurrence of neurological signs, pituitary tumor regrowth was not observed; however, MRI revealed moderate to severe pituitary hemorrhage. Late adverse effect (bilateral otitis media) was observed in three of nine dogs post-RT. RT did not induce any significant changes in the dogs' basal plasma ACTH concentration and pre- and post-ACTH serum cortisol concentrations. In conclusion, RT is effective to reduce pituitary size and the mass effect, but does not appear to affect blood hormone concentrations, necessitating additional medical treatment against hypercortisolism. Periodic MRI imaging post-RT enables early detection of adverse effects of RT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Outcomes following Purely Endoscopic Endonasal Resection of Pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaul Amin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of endoscope for the management of pituitary adenoma is not new. The better magnification and illumination provided by the endoscope gives better outcome than microscopic pituitary surgery. Objective: To find out the benefits of endoscope in relation to microscopic surgery. Materials and Methods: We performed 45 cases of pituitary adenoma surgery by endoscopic endonasal approach from July 2008 to July 2010. Results: Forty five cases underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal approach. Gross total removal was done in 35 cases and subtotal removal was done in 10 cases. Residual tumours were seen in 10 cases (22% in postoperative follow-up MRI scan. Visual improvement was satisfactory, and hormonal improvement of functional adenoma was nice. Postoperative visual acuity and visual field were improved in 75% cases. There were 37% cases of temporary diabetes insipidus and about 4.5% cases of permanent diabetes insipidus. The average duration of follow-up was 20 months. One patient required reexploration to correct visual deterioration in the immediate postoperative period. There were 4.5% cases of CSF leak and 6.6% mortality. Mortality was due to electrolyte imbalance and improper management of infection and hydrocephalus. Conclusion: Endoscopic endonasal pituitary surgery now has become a gold standard surgery for most of the pituitary adenomas because of its better advantages in relation to microscopic surgery and less complications and less hospital stay.

  3. Treatment of Cushing's disease in juveniles with intestinal pituitary irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassar, J.; Doyle, F.H.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    Nine juvenile patients (five boys and four girls aged 10-18) with Cushing's disease were treated with pituitary implantation of 198 Au and/or 90 Y. No patient had any surgical complication from this procedure. At the latest assessment. 3 months to 17 years after operation, Cushing's disease was in remission in all the patients; the response time following operation was a few days to 3 months. Radiology of the pituitary fossa at time of pituitary implantation was normal in all patients and remains so. The final height in six patients is 149-172 cm (59-67.5 inches) and three patients who continue to grow have increased by 13.6 and 3 cm since implantation. Only one patient required full pituitary hormone replacement therapy, and he had been previously treated by external irradiation, and one other patient failed to complete puberty. In all the other seven sexual maturation is normal and one has fathered two children. It is concluded that pituitary implantation with interstitial irradiation is a satisfactory form of treatment for Cushing's disease in juveniles. (author)

  4. Reformatted CT diagnosis of pituitary microadenomas in hyperprolactinemic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kowada, Masayoshi; Hariu, Mineko; Miyauchi, Koji

    1983-01-01

    The CT diagnosis of pituitary microadenomas was made in 13 among 20 female sterile patients with hyperprolactinemia, utilizing sagittal- and coronal-sectioned reformation on the basis of 1.5 mm-sliced high-resolution axial CT scanning. The pituitary stalk was found to have been shifted in 10 patients, and in all of them adenomas were verified. This was in contrast to the findings that, among another 10 patients with no definite evidence of the stalk shifting, only 3 patients had adenomas. Pituitary adenomas were present in 11 of the 12 patients demonstrating the pituitary suface in a ''convex'' fashion. In contrast, 2 among 6 patients with a ''flat'' surface demonstrated the presence of pituitary adenomas. Enhancement patterns in the sella could be classified as of four types: homogeneous, diffuse-low, punched-out, and nodular types. The adenomas tended to occur in either the nodular or diffuse-low type; they were less frequently seen in the punched-out or homogeneous type. With regard to the correlation between the patterns of contrast enhancement and the serum concentrations of prolactin, it may be of note that the nodular type corresponded well to the higher prolactin serum level, and the homogeneous type to the lower level. (author)

  5. The Hypothalamic–Pituitary Axis and Autoantibody Related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cocco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This review summarized different studies reporting the presence of autoantibodies reacting against cells of the pituitary (APAs and/or hypothalamus (AHAs. Both APAs and AHAs have been revealed through immunofluorescence using different kinds of substrates. Autoantibodies against gonadotropic cells were mainly found in patients affected by cryptorchidism and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism while those against prolactin cells were found in different kinds of patients, the majority without pituitary abnormalities. APAs to growth hormone (GH cells have been associated with GH deficiency while those against the adrenocorticotropic cells have distinguished central Cushing’s disease patients at risk of incomplete cure after surgical adenoma removal. AHAs to vasopressin cells have identified patients at risk of developing diabetes insipidus. APAs have been also found together with AHAs in patients affected by idiopathic hypopituitarism, but both were also present in different kinds of patients without abnormalities of the hypothalamic–pituitary axis. Despite some data being promising, the clinical use of pituitary and hypothalamus autoantibodies is still limited by the low diagnostic sensitivity, irreproducibility of the results, and the absence of autoantigen/s able to discriminate the autoimmune reaction involving the pituitary or the hypothalamus from the other autoimmune states.

  6. Dose-dependent effects of 17-ß-estradiol on pituitary thyrotropin content and secretion in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the basal and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH (50 nM induced thyrotropin (TSH release in isolated hemipituitaries of ovariectomized rats treated with near-physiological or high doses of 17-ß-estradiol benzoate (EB; sc, daily for 10 days or with vehicle (untreated control rats, OVX. One group was sham-operated (normal control. The anterior pituitary glands were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate medium, pH 7.4, at 37oC in an atmosphere of 95% O2/5% CO2. Medium and pituitary TSH was measured by specific RIA (NIDDK-RP-3. Ovariectomy induced a decrease (P<0.05 in basal TSH release (normal control = 44.1 ± 7.2; OVX = 14.7 ± 3.0 ng/ml and tended to reduce TRH-stimulated TSH release (normal control = 33.0 ± 8.1; OVX = 16.6 ± 2.4 ng/ml. The lowest dose of EB (0.7 µg/100 g body weight did not reverse this alteration, but markedly increased the pituitary TSH content (0.6 ± 0.06 µg/hemipituitary; P<0.05 above that of OVX (0.4 ± 0.03 µg/hemipituitary and normal rats (0.46 ± 0.03 µg/hemipituitary. The intermediate EB dose (1.4 µg/100 g body weight induced a nonsignificant tendency to a higher TSH response to TRH compared to OVX and a lower response compared to normal rats. Conversely, in the rats treated with the highest dose (14 µg/100 g body weight, serum 17-ß-estradiol was 17 times higher than normal, and the basal and TRH-stimulated TSH release, as well as the pituitary TSH content, was significantly (P<0.05 reduced compared to normal rats and tended to be even lower than the values observed for the vehicle-treated OVX group, suggesting an inhibitory effect of hyperestrogenism. In conclusion, while reinforcing the concept of a positive physiological regulatory role of estradiol on the TSH response to TRH and on the pituitary stores of the hormone, the present results suggest an inhibitory effect of high levels of estrogen on these responses

  7. Inestabilidad Anterior de Hombro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo David Flint Kuran

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ción La luxación recidivante de hombro es una patología frecuente en pacientes jóvenes, laboralmente activos. Existen numerosas técnicas quirúrgicas para la inestabilidad glenohumeral. La técnica de Bristow, discutida por no ser anatómica y por sus complicaciones, continúa vigente debido al bajo índice de reluxaciones. Los objetivos fueron determinar el índice de recidiva, alteraciones funcionales e índice de consolidación del injerto. Materiales­ y­ Métodos Se evaluaron 24 pacientes del sexo masculino, de entre 19 y 40 años, operados por luxación anterior recidivante de hombro según la técnica de Bristow, entre enero de 2003 y agosto de 2011. Se evaluó la tasa de reluxación, la función articular según el puntaje de Constant y el posicionamiento del injerto con respecto a la superficie articular con tomografía y radiografías para evaluar la consolidación del injerto. Se registraron las complicaciones quirúrgicas. Resultados ­Todos los pacientes eran hombres, con rango de edad de 19 a 40 años. La causa fue traumática en 24 pacientes. Dieciséis pacientes presentaron más de 3 episodios de luxación prequirúrgicos. Según la escala de Constant, 21 obtuvieron entre 96 y 100 puntos, y los restantes, entre 90 y 95 puntos. No hubo nuevos episodios de luxaciones. La tomografía mostró la consolidación en todos los casos. Un paciente tuvo una imagen osteolítica alrededor del tornillo, sin compromiso funcional del hombro. Conclusión La técnica de Bristow para tratar la luxación anterior recidivante de hombro provocó un bajo índice de complicaciones, con resultados funcionales entre excelentes y buenos. No hubo episodios de reluxación y se logró la consolidación del injerto óseo en todos los casos.

  8. Anterior ankle arthrodesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Gordon L; Sayres, Stephanie C; O’Malley, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Ankle arthrodesis is a common procedure that resolves many conditions of the foot and ankle; however, complications following this procedure are often reported and vary depending on the fixation technique. Various techniques have been described in the attempt to achieve ankle arthrodesis and there is much debate as to the efficiency of each one. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of anterior plating in ankle arthrodesis using customised and Synthes TomoFix plates. We present the outcomes of 28 ankle arthrodeses between 2005 and 2012, specifically examining rate of union, patient-reported outcomes scores, and complications. All 28 patients achieved radiographic union at an average of 36 wk; the majority of patients (92.86%) at or before 16 wk, the exceptions being two patients with Charcot joints who were noted to have bony union at a three year review. Patient-reported outcomes scores significantly increased (P plate offers added compression and provides a rigid fixation for arthrodesis stabilization. PMID:24649408

  9. Female orgasm but not male ejaculation activates the pituitary. A PET-neuro-imaging study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh, Hieu Kim; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; Holstege, Gert

    2013-01-01

    The pituitary gland plays an important role in basic survival mechanisms by releasing fluctuating amounts of hormones into the bloodstream, depending on the circumstances the individual finds itself. However, despite these changes in pituitary hormonal production, neuroimaging studies have never

  10. A thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma as a cause of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alings, A. M.; Fliers, E.; de Herder, W. W.; Hofland, L. J.; Sluiter, H. E.; Links, T. P.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a patient with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) caused by a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma. The diagnosis TPP was based on the combination of episodes of reversible hypokalaemic paralysis, hyperthyroidism and electrophysiological findings. A thyrotropin-secreting pituitary

  11. Localization and Expression of the Proto-Oncoprotein BRX in the Mouse Brain and Pituitary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eddington, David

    2003-01-01

    .... Results indicated that Brx is expressed in specific regions of the brain and pituitary. Furthermore, the results indicate that differences exist in both brain and pituitary tissue of male and female mice with greater expression in the female...

  12. HPG-axis hormones during puberty : A study on the association with hypothalamic and pituitary volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peper, Jiska S.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Schnack, Hugo G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Kahn, Rene S.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff

    Objective: During puberty, the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is activated, leading to increases in luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex steroids (testosterone and estradiol) levels. We aimed to study the association between hypothalamic and pituitary

  13. Quality of life and cognitive function in patients with pituitary insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burman, P.; Deijen, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This review is concerned with the psychosocial functioning and the quality of life in patients with pituitary insufficiency who are receiving conventional hormone replacement therapy. The possible negative effects of pituitary surgery, treatment with irradiation, and suboptimal replacement regimens

  14. Size, shape, and appearance of the normal female pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolpert, S.M.; Molitch, M.E.; Goldman, J.A.; Wood, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred seven women 18-65 years old were studied who were referred for suspected central nervous system disease not related to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus. High-resolution, direct, coronal, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) was used to examine the size; shape, and density of the normal pituitary gland. There were three major conclusions: (1) the height of the normal gland can be as much as 9 mm; (2) the superior margin of the gland may bulge in normal patients; and (3) both large size and convex contour appear to be associated with younger age. It was also found that serum prolactin levels do not appear to correlate with the CT appearances. Noise artifacts inherent in high-detail, thin-section, soft-tissue scanning may be a limiting factor in defining reproducible patterns in different parts of the normal pituitary gland

  15. Growth hormone receptor expression and function in pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lene R; Kristiansen, Mikkel T; Rasmussen, Lars M

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Hypopituitarism, in particular GH deficiency, is prevalent in patients with clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) both before and after surgery. The factors regulating the growth of pituitary adenomas in general and residual tumour tissue in particular...... are not fully characterized, and the effect of GH and IGF-I on human pituitary cell proliferation has not previously been reported. In NFPA tissue from 14 patients we evaluated GH receptor (GHR) expression and signal transduction, and the effect of GH and IGF-I exposure on cell proliferation and hormone...... of transcription 5) phosphorylation was measured by Western blot analysis as an index of GHR signalling; cell proliferation was evaluated by [H3]-thymidine incorporation and glycoprotein hormone production analysed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). RESULTS: All adenomas investigated expressed the GHR...

  16. CT findings of growth hormone secreting pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Tatsuhito; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Kojima, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Masatsune; Handa, Hajime

    1986-01-01

    The value of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma has recently been stressed, especially of the coronal view with contrast enhancement. Analysis of the CT scans of 33 growth hormone (GH) secreting pituitary adenomas was done (11 cases of microadenomas, 7 cases of intrasellar adenomas and 15 cases of macroadenomas with suprasellar extension). In macroadenomas, the density was high in five cases, high with isodense portion in two cases, mixed in four cases, isodense in three cases, and isodense and low dense in one case. Six adenomas showed homogeneous density and nine were heterogeneous. After contrast enhancement, two cases showed marked enhancement, ten cases mild and three cases ring enhancement. Margin of adenoma was smooth in nine cases and irregular in six. Among seven cases of intrasellar adenoma one accompanied primary empty sella. In microadenomas ten of eleven cases had hypodense mass inside the normally enhanced pituitary gland. The margin was ill-defined in seven cases and well-defined in three. Eight cases had pituitary height 7 mm or more. Upper surface of the pituitary gland was convex upward in five cases, flat in four and concave in two. Deviation of pituitary stalk was found in seven cases. Bony changes of sellar floor were recognized in three cases. There was a tendency that serum GH level increased with the increment of the size of adenoma. Serum GH levels in adenomas with ring enhancement were lower than those in the homogeneously enhanced adenomas of similar size. One case with marked enhancement showed the highest GH level among all adenomas of the presented series. There was a positive correlation between the size of GH secreting adenoma and the length of clinical history, especially during the early four years in the course of the disease. Some microadenomas with long clinical histories indicate that there are some adenomas which do not grow in size for a long time. (J.P.N.)

  17. Endoscopic endonasal surgery for giant pituitary adenomas: advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutourousiou, Maria; Gardner, Paul A; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Paluzzi, Alessandro; Wang, Eric W; Snyderman, Carl H

    2013-03-01

    Giant pituitary adenomas (> 4 cm in maximum diameter) represent a significant surgical challenge. Endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) has recently been introduced as a treatment option for these tumors. The authors present the results of EES for giant adenomas and analyze the advantages and limitations of this technique. The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical files and imaging studies of 54 patients with giant pituitary adenomas who underwent EES and studied the factors affecting surgical outcome. Preoperative visual impairment was present in 45 patients (83%) and partial or complete pituitary deficiency in 28 cases (52%), and 7 patients (13%) presented with apoplexy. Near-total resection (> 90%) was achieved in 36 patients (66.7%). Vision was improved or normalized in 36 cases (80%) and worsened in 2 cases due to apoplexy of residual tumor. Significant factors that limited the degree of resection were a multilobular configuration of the adenoma (p = 0.002) and extension to the middle fossa (p = 0.045). Cavernous sinus invasion, tumor size, and intraventricular or posterior fossa extension did not influence the surgical outcome. Complications included apoplexy of residual adenoma (3.7%), permanent diabetes insipidus (9.6%), new pituitary insufficiency (16.7%), and CSF leak (16.7%, which was reduced to 7.4% in recent years). Fourteen patients underwent radiation therapy after EES for residual mass or, in a later stage, for recurrence, and 10 with functional pituitary adenomas received medical treatment. During a mean follow-up of 37.9 months (range 1-114 months), 7 patients were reoperated on for tumor recurrence. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Endoscopic endonasal surgery provides effective initial management of giant pituitary adenomas with favorable results compared with traditional microscopic transsphenoidal and transcranial approaches.

  18. Evaluation of pituitary function after infectious meningitis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavoli, Claudia; Tagliabue, Claudia; Profka, Eriselda; Senatore, Laura; Bergamaschi, Silvia; Rodari, Giulia; Spada, Anna; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Esposito, Susanna

    2014-10-06

    A number of studies of adults have shown that pituitary deficiencies can develop in a considerable proportion of subjects during the acute phase of meningitis or years after the infection has disappeared. The results of the very few studies of the impact of pediatric meningitis on hypothalamic-pituitary function are conflicting. In order to determine the incidence of pituitary dysfunction in children with central nervous system infection, we evaluated pituitary function and anthropometric parameters in 19 children with meningitis of different etiologies (15 males; mean age ± standard deviation [SD] at pituitary evaluation, 5.9 ± 4.0 years; mean time from the acute event ± SD, 18 ± 10 months). All of the subjects had a normal stature and growth velocity for their age and gender, and none of them was obese. On the basis of Tanner's reference charts, 17 subjects (13 boys and all four girls) were pre-pubertal; two boys were in Tanner stage 2. None of the subjects had central hypothyroidism. All of the patients had normal serum of insulin growth factor (IGF)-I and prolactin. Their sex steroid and gonadotropin levels were concordant with their age and pubertal status. Early morning urine osmolality and serum electrolyte levels showed no signs of diabetes insipidus. All of the patients had normal plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels. Peak cortisol responses to the standard dose Synacthen test (SDST) were normal in all cases. The results showed that hypopituitarism following infectious meningitis appears to be infrequent in childhood and children's pituitary glands seem to be less vulnerable to damage than those of adults.

  19. Hedgehog signaling activation induces stem cell proliferation and hormone release in the adult pituitary gland

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Pyczek; Rolf Buslei; David Schult; Annett Hölsken; Michael Buchfelder; Ina Heß; Heidi Hahn; Anja Uhmann

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling is known to be essential during the embryonal development of the pituitary gland but the knowledge about its role in the adult pituitary and in associated tumors is sparse. In this report we investigated the effect of excess Hh signaling activation in murine pituitary explants and analyzed the HH signaling status of human adenopituitary lobes and a large cohort of pituitary adenomas. Our data show that excess Hh signaling led to increased proliferation of Sox2(+) and S...

  20. Angiogenesis in Pituitary Adenomas: Human Studies and New Mutant Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina, Carolina; Luque, Guillermina María; Demarchi, Gianina; Lopez Vicchi, Felicitas; Zubeldia-Brenner, Lautaro; Perez Millan, Maria Ines; Perrone, Sofia; Ornstein, Ana Maria; Lacau-Mengido, Isabel M.; Berner, Silvia Inés; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia

    2014-01-01

    The role of angiogenesis in pituitary tumor development has been questioned, as pituitary tumors have been usually found to be less vascularized than the normal pituitary tissue. Nevertheless, a significantly higher degree of vasculature has been shown in invasive or macropituitary prolactinomas when compared to noninvasive and microprolactinomas. Many growth factors and their receptors are involved in pituitary tumor development. For example, VEGF, FGF-2, FGFR1, and PTTG, which give a partic...

  1. Artery of Percheron infarction after endoscopic pituitary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Saritha; Thakar, Sumit; Hegde, A S

    2016-10-01

    Infarction in the artery of Percheron territory is a rare phenomenon in which occlusion of an unpaired perforating artery arising from the P1 segment on one side results in infarcts in the bilateral paramedian thalami with or without midbrain infarcts. We describe the case of a 40-year-old male who developed this complication following re-exploratory trans-sphenoidal surgery for a pituitary adenoma. In this first report of its kind in endoscopic pituitary surgery, the pathogenesis and clinico-radiological features of this rare vascular event are discussed.

  2. The influences of GnRH, oxytocin and vasoactive intestinal peptide on LH and PRL secretion by porcine pituitary cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacka, I; Siawrys, G; Okrasa, S; Kaminski, T; Przala, J

    2002-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible direct effects of GnRH, oxytocin (OT) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the release of LH and PRL by dispersed porcine anterior pituitary cells. Pituitary glands were obtained from mature gilts, which were ovariectomized (OVX) one month before slaughter. Gilts randomly assigned to one of the four groups were treated: in Group 1 (n = 8) with 1 ml/100 kg b.w. corn oil (placebo); in Group 2 (n = 8) and Group 3 (n = 8) with estradiol benzoate (EB) at the dose 2.5 mg/100 kg b.w., respectively, 30-36 h and 60-66 h before slaughter; and in Group 4 (n = 9) with progesterone (P4) at the dose 120 mg/ 100 kg b.w. for five consecutive days before slaughter. In gilts of Group 2 and Group 3 treatments with EB have induced the negative and positive feedback in LH secretion, respectively. Isolated anterior pituitary cells (10(6)/well) were cultured in McCoy's 5a medium with horse serum and fetal calf serum for 3 days at 37 degrees C under the atmosphere of 95% air and 5% CO2. Subsequently, the culture plates were rinsed with fresh McCoy's 5A medium and the cells were incubated for 3.5 h at 37 degrees C in the same medium containing one of the following agents: GnRH (100 ng/ml), OT (10-1000 nM) or VIP (1-100 nM). The addition of GnRH to cultured pituitary cells resulted in marked increases in LH release (p gilts representing the positive feedback phase (Group 3). In contrast, OT and VIP were without any effect on LH release in Group 1 (placebo) and Group 2 (the negative feedback). Pituitary cells obtained from OVX gilts primed with P4 produced significantly higher amounts (p gilts of all experimental groups. Oxytocin also failed to alter PRL secretion in Group 1 and Group 2. However, pituitary cells from animals primed with EB 60-66 h before slaughter and P4 produced markedly increased amounts of PRL in the presence of OT. Neuropeptide VIP stimulated PRL release from pituitary cells of OVX gilts primed with EB

  3. Anterior segment indocyanine green angiography in anterior scleritis and episcleritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex-Crosier, Yan; Durig, Jacques

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the pattern of anterior segment indocyanine green (ICG) angiography in episcleritis and scleritis. Prospective comparative (paired-eye) observational case series. Twenty subjects presenting clinical diseases compatible with episcleritis or scleritis. Anterior segment ICG angiography was performed according to a standard protocol in subjects presenting either episcleritis or scleritis. Photographs of the anterior segment were taken in the early phase (up to 3 minutes after dye injection), intermediate phase (10-12 minutes) and late phase (30-45 minutes). The inflamed zones were compared with the same regions of the controlateral eye. The amount of protein ICG exudation was scored by a masked observer as follows: zero for no exudation, one for slight exudation, two for moderate exudation, and three for severe exudation. Evaluation of dye leakage, which reflects protein exudation, with anterior segment ICG angiography in episcleritis and scleritis. Twenty subjects with a mean age of 43 +/- 15 years (7 male, 13 female) were enrolled in the study. Thirteen subjects had anterior scleritis (7 nodular, 5 diffuse, and 1 scleromalacia perforans), and 7 subjects had episcleritis. Only 1 out of 7 subjects with episcleritis showed a slight ICG leakage (a score of one), whereas all subjects with scleritis had ICG leakage scores of one or more (P = 0.0005, Fisher exact test). ICG angiography of the anterior segment of the eye is a good clinical test to differentiate episcleritis from scleritis.

  4. Meningeal dissemination of a pituitary carcinoma to the cauda equina in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Nora K; Rylander, Helena; Christensen, Neil; Nafe, Laura A

    2017-08-01

    An 8-year-old spayed female border collie dog was diagnosed with an invasive pituitary macrotumor. Five months after radiation therapy, the patient developed paraparesis and lumbosacral pain. Necropsy revealed a pituitary carcinoma with cauda equina drop metastasis. In cases of pituitary masses, meningeal dissemination should be considered if neurologic status declines.

  5. Complete surgical removal of a very enlarged pituitary corticotroph adenoma in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fracassi, F.; Mandrioli, L.; Shehdula, D.; Diana, A.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Meij, B.P.

    A 13 yr old castrated male vizsla was referred to the authors’ institute because of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and weight loss. Pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (PDH) was diagnosed by hormone testing and adrenal and pituitary imaging. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a pituitary mass

  6. Long-term consequences of growth hormone replacement and cranial radiation on pituitary function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelman-Dijkstra, Natasha Mireille

    2015-01-01

    This thesis covers the consequences of cranial irradiation of non-pituitary tumors, eg nasopharyngeal carcinoma, on pituitary function. In chapter 2 we have performed a meta-analysis of available data reported in literature on pituitary function after cranial radiotherapy for head and neck and

  7. Anterior Knee Pain (Chondromalacia Patellae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, James G.

    1989-01-01

    This article presents a pragmatic approach to the definition, diagnosis, and management of anterior knee pain. Symptoms and treatment are described. Emphasis is on active involvement of the patient in the rehabilitation exercise program. (IAH)

  8. Anterior approach for knee arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurlo, J.V.; Towers, J.D.; Golla, S.

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To develop a new method of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) of the knee using an anterior approach analogous to the portals used for knee arthroscopy.Design. An anterior approach to the knee joint was devised mimicking anterior portals used for knee arthroscopy. Seven patients scheduled for routine knee MRA were placed in a decubitus position and under fluoroscopic guidance a needle was advanced from a position adjacent to the patellar tendon into the knee joint. After confirmation of the needle tip location, a dilute gadolinium solution was injected.Results and conclusion. All the arthrograms were technically successful. The anterior approach to knee MRA has greater technical ease than the traditional approach with little patient discomfort. (orig.)

  9. Dysregulated estrogen receptor signaling in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis leads to ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary J Laws

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of ovarian epithelial cancer is poorly understood, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate experimental model for studying the onset and progression of this disease. We have created a mutant mouse model in which aberrant estrogen receptor alpha (ERα signaling in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis leads to ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis. In these mice, termed ERαd/d, the ERα gene was conditionally deleted in the anterior pituitary, but remained intact in the hypothalamus and the ovary. The loss of negative-feedback regulation by estrogen (E at the level of the pituitary led to increased production of luteinizing hormone (LH by this tissue. Hyperstimulation of the ovarian cells by LH resulted in elevated steroidogenesis, producing high circulating levels of steroid hormones, including E. The ERαd/d mice exhibited formation of palpable ovarian epithelial tumors starting at 5 months of age with 100% penetrance. By 15 months of age, 80% of ERαd/d mice die. Besides proliferating epithelial cells, these tumors also contained an expanded population of luteinized stromal cells, which acquire the ability to express P450 aromatase and synthesize E locally. In response to the elevated levels of E, the ERα signaling was accentuated in the ovarian epithelial cells of ERαd/d mice, triggering increased ERα-dependent gene expression, abnormal cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Consistent with these findings, treatment of ERαd/d mice with letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, markedly reduced circulating E and ovarian tumor volume. We have, therefore, developed a unique animal model, which serves as a useful tool for exploring the involvement of E-dependent signaling pathways in ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis.

  10. Hypothalamic sonic hedgehog is required for cell specification and proliferation of LHX3/LHX4 pituitary embryonic precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, Emily J.; Panousopoulos, Leonidas; Haston, Scott; Gonzalez-Meljem, Jose Mario; Hahn, Heidi; Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is an essential morphogenetic signal that dictates cell fate decisions in several developing organs in mammals. In vitro data suggest that SHH is required to specify LHX3+/LHX4+ Rathke's pouch (RP) progenitor identity. However, in vivo studies have failed to reveal such a function, supporting instead a crucial role for SHH in promoting proliferation of these RP progenitors and for differentiation of pituitary cell types. Here, we have used a genetic approach to demonstrate that activation of the SHH pathway is necessary to induce LHX3+/LHX4+ RP identity in mouse embryos. First, we show that conditional deletion of Shh in the anterior hypothalamus results in a fully penetrant phenotype characterised by a complete arrest of RP development, with lack of Lhx3/Lhx4 expression in RP epithelium at 9.0 days post coitum (dpc) and total loss of pituitary tissue by 12.5 dpc. Conversely, overactivation of the SHH pathway by conditional deletion of Ptch1 in RP progenitors leads to severe hyperplasia and enlargement of the Sox2+ stem cell compartment by the end of gestation. PMID:28807898

  11. Deficiência progressiva dos hormônios adeno-hipofisários após radioterapia em adultos Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela A. Loureiro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A radioterapia é um dos fatores desencadeantes do hipopituitarismo, mesmo quando não direcionada diretamente para o eixo hipotálamo-hipofisário, podendo resultar em redução de hormônios adeno-hipofisários, principalmente por lesão hipotalâmica. A perda da função da hipófise anterior é progressiva e geralmente na seguinte ordem: hormônio do crescimento, gonadotrofinas, adrenocorticotrofina e o hormônio estimulante da tireóide. Vários testes estão disponíveis para a confirmação das deficiências, sendo discutidos, neste artigo, os melhores testes para pacientes submetidos à irradiação. Enfatizamos que o desenvolvimento do hipopituitarismo após a radioterapia é dose e tempo dependente de irradiação, com algumas diferenças entre os eixos hipofisários. Portanto, a conscientização da necessidade de terapia em conjunto de endocrinologistas e oncologistas otimizará o tratamento e a qualidade de vida do paciente.Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients.

  12. Hypopituitarism in the elderly: a narrative review on clinical management of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtò, L; Trimarchi, F

    2016-10-01

    Hypopituitarism is an uncommon and under-investigated endocrine disorder in old age since signs and symptoms are unspecific and, at least in part, can be attributed to the physiological effects of aging and related co-morbidities. Clinical presentation is often insidious being characterized by non-specific manifestations, such as weight gain, fatigue, low muscle strength, bradipsychism, hypotension or intolerance to cold. In these circumstances, hypopituitarism is a rarely life-threatening condition, but evolution may be more dramatic as a result of pituitary apoplexy, or when a serious condition of adrenal insufficiency suddenly occurs. Clinical presentation depends on the effects that each pituitary deficit can cause, and on their mutual relationship, but also, inevitably, it depends on the severity and duration of the deficit itself, as well as on the general condition of the patient. Indeed, indications and methods of hormone replacement therapy must include the need to normalize the endocrine profile without contributing to the worsening of intercurrent diseases, such as those of glucose and bone metabolism, and the cardiovascular system, or to the increasing cancer risk. Hormonal requirements of elderly patients are reduced compared to young adults, but a prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of pituitary deficiencies are strongly recommended, also in this age range.

  13. Proliferaton index in pituitary adenomas from a black African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ayodeji Salami

    2016-12-31

    Dec 31, 2016 ... composed of adenohypophyseal cells, some of which secrete hor- monal substances.3,4 Most of the tumours ... tumours show invasion of surrounding structures with increase in proliferation.4 The WHO classification ..... index in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 ...

  14. Pure intrasellar meningioma located under the pituitary gland: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Choong Ki; Pyo, Ju Yeon [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Jun; Lee, SAeung Ro [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Most intrasellar meningiomas are located in the subdiaphragmatic and supraglandular region because they originate from the diaphragma sellae. Subglandular meningiomas located under the pituitary gland are extremely rare. Intrasellar meningiomas in the subdiaphragmatic and subglandular region probably originate from the dura in the sellar floor. We report a case of a subglandular meningioma along with a review of the literature.

  15. Postoperative Copeptin Concentration Predicts Diabetes Insipidus After Pituitary Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzeler, Bettina; Zweifel, Christian; Nigro, Nicole; Arici, Birsen; Bally, Martina; Schuetz, Philipp; Blum, Claudine Angela; Kelly, Christopher; Berkmann, Sven; Huber, Andreas; Gentili, Fred; Zadeh, Gelareh; Landolt, Hans; Mariani, Luigi; Müller, Beat; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2015-06-01

    Copeptin is a stable surrogate marker of vasopressin release; the peptides are stoichiometrically secreted from the neurohypophysis due to elevated plasma osmolality or nonosmotic stress. We hypothesized that following stress from pituitary surgery, patients with neurohypophyseal damage and eventual diabetes insipidus (DI) would not exhibit the expected pronounced copeptin elevation. The objective was to evaluate copeptin's accuracy to predict DI following pituitary surgery. This was a prospective multicenter observational cohort study. Three Swiss or Canadian referral centers were used. Consecutive pituitary surgery patients were included. Copeptin was measured postoperatively daily until discharge. Logistic regression models and diagnostic performance measures were calculated to assess relationships of postoperative copeptin levels and DI. Of 205 patients, 50 (24.4%) developed postoperative DI. Post-surgically, median [25th-75th percentile] copeptin levels were significantly lower in patients developing DI vs those not showing this complication: 2.9 [1.9-7.9] pmol/L vs 10.8 [5.2-30.4] pmol/L; P 30 pmol/L (negative predictive value, 95%; sensitivity, 94%) on postoperative day 1. Lack of standardized DI diagnostic criteria; postoperative blood samples for copeptin obtained during everyday care vs at fixed time points. In patients undergoing pituitary procedures, low copeptin levels despite surgical stress reflect postoperative DI, whereas high levels virtually exclude it. Copeptin therefore may become a novel tool for early goal-directed management of postoperative DI.

  16. Plasma ACTH concentration and pituitary gland histo-pathology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tail blood samples were collected weekly for the determination of plasma concentration of ACTH. The pituitary gland and coronal section of brain were processed histologically and observed microscopically. Results: There was a significant difference (p = 0.0190) in plasma ACTH concentration between the control and ...

  17. Immunohistochemical analysis of pituitary adenomas in a West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tissue sections were stained with antibodies for Prolactin, Growth hormone, ACTH, TSH, FSH and LH using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. The tumors were classified using the 2004 WHO classification of pituitary adenomas. Results were tabulated and analyzed using the SPSS statistical software package.

  18. Be careful….. She has a pituitary gland in her nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabelink, N.M.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Castelijns, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this case report we describe a 38 year-old-female with galactorrhea several months after the birth of an anencephalic child. She had hyperpolactemia and imaging of the pituitary gland revealed a midline defect and a nasopharyngeal mass compatible with a meningo-(hypophyso-) encephalocele and

  19. alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating-hormone precursors in the pig pituitary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1986-01-01

    The occurrence of intermediates from the processing of ACTH-(1-39) [adrenocorticotropic hormone-(1-39)] to alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone was investigated in normal pig pituitaries by the use of sensitive and specific radioimmunoassays for ACTH-(1-13), ACTH-(1-14), ACTH-(1-13)-NH2 and ACTH-(1...

  20. effect of continous light and darkness exposures on the pituitary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The effects of constant light and dark exposure of pubertal male rats on the pituitary-gonadal axis and thyroid activity were studied. ... In the rats exposed to continuous light, the weight of the thyroid gland increased significantly (P<0.02) and the serum level of T4 also ... 3minutes) per day when food in the cages was being.

  1. Investigation of the growth patterns of non-functioning pituitary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Benign non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFMA) often cause mass effect on the optic chiasm necessitating transsphenoidal surgery to prevent blindness. However, surgery is complicated and there is a high tumour recurrence rate. Currently, very little is known about the natural (and residual ...

  2. Spontaneous regression of nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki Kameno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A case involving a 13-year-old girl with nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma is discussed. The patient visited the hospital for checkup after experiencing a head injury secondary to syncope. A computed tomography (CT scan revealed a pituitary mass with mildly higher density. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with contrast enhancement showed that the mass contained a hyperintense area and it elevated the optic chiasm. The patient had blurred vision in her right eye. No endocrinological abnormalities were found. When the patient was admitted for surgical removal of the mass 1 month later, her visual acuity had improved. A repeat MRI showed that the size of the pituitary mass had dramatically reduced. During the following 2 years, the mass showed further reduction in size and did not re-grow. Since symptoms of pituitary apoplexy were not observed, we believe that asymptomatic apoplexy occurring at the time of the first visit may have caused regression of the tumor.

  3. Implications of MGMT methylation status in pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Sneha; Majaid, M A; Shwetha, S D; Sravani, K; Arivazhagan, A; Sampath, S; Santosh, V

    2014-07-01

    Very little literature exists on frequency of MGMT methylation status in pituitary adenoma. We assessed the frequency of MGMT methylation and protein expression in pituitary adenoma and correlated with patients' age group and prognosis. Tumor tissues from 30 patients with pituitary adenoma were evaluated for MGMT promoter methylation status by methylation specific PCR method. All tumors were also immunostained with MIB-1, anti-p53 and anti-MGMT antibodies. MGMT methylation status was noted in 40% of cases (7/20 non-functioning adenomas and 5/10 functioning adenomas). MGMT protein expression on IHC was noted in 72.2% of unmethylated tumors, while only 41.6% of methylated tumors demonstrated protein expression. The mean labeling index of MGMT protein was higher in unmethylated tumors as compared to the methylated group, though the difference was not statistically significant (18.6% vs 8.8%; p=0.131). Tumor regrowth occurred in four unmethylated tumors as compared to none in methylated group. Even though there was no correlation between patient age and MGMT methylation status (p=0.823), we noted that the frequency of methylation in middle age patients (between 30 and 59 yrs) was 64.7%, which was higher compared to other age groups. This is the first study from India showing MGMT promoter methylation status with protein expression in pituitary adenoma. We noted that tumor regrowth was higher in unmethylated tumors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic stress and pituitary-adrenal function in female pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, C.J.J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Introduction

    The main purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to gain more insight in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticaI (HPA) system and the mechanisms underlying adaptation to chronic stress in female pigs. The function of the HPA axis, which

  5. Juvenile hypothyroidism presenting with hypertrichosis, multicystic ovaries, and pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutusi Raychaudhuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hypothyroidism may present with atypical features in children. Here we report a 6-year-old female child with primary hypothyroidism presenting with a combination of several atypical features in the form of hypertrichosis, bilateral cystic ovaries, and feedback pituitary adenoma.

  6. Histological structure and hormonal profile of pituitary and thyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of castration and iodine supplementaion on the histological structure of pituitary and thyroid glands and their related hormones in NZW male rabbits. Animals were randomly divided into two groups. The first group was supplemented with iodine as potassium iodide at a level of 400 ppm ...

  7. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome: cause, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutetakis, Antonis; Sertedaki, Amalia; Dacou-Voutetakis, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is characterized by a thin or absent pituitary stalk, hypoplasia of the adenohypophysis, and ectopic neurohypophysis. PSIS manifestations include a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes and pituitary hormone deficiencies of variable degree and timing of onset. In this review, recent advances with respect to the cause of PSIS, clinical characteristics leading to earlier diagnosis, and management are outlined. Diagnosis of PSIS is often delayed probably because clinical findings such as neonatal hypoglycemia, cholestasis, and/or micropenis as well as decreasing growth velocity are not appropriately and timely validated. Recently, molecular defects in various genes have been associated with PSIS albeit in a small number of cases. These findings suggest that PSIS belongs to the spectrum of holoprosencephaly-related defects. Phenotype-genotype discordance and the existence of asymptomatic carriers of a given molecular aberration indicate that penetrance may be modified favorably or unfavorably by the presence of other genetic and/or environmental factors. PSIS constitutes an antenatal anatomical defect. Neonatal hypoglycemia, cholestasis, and/or micropenis with or without growth deficit should raise the possibility of combined pituitary hormone deficiency, a life-threatening condition in cases of coexisting cortisol deficiency. It is important to search for molecular defects in all PSIS cases, as precise identification of the cause is a prerequisite for genetic counseling.

  8. The effect of training on responses of beta-endorphin and other pituitary hormones to insulin-induced hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikines, K J; Kjær, Michael; Hagen, C

    1985-01-01

    We studied whether the previously reported intensified beta-endorphin response to exercise after training might result from a training-induced general increase in anterior pituitary secretory capacity. Identical hypoglycemia was induced by insulin infusion in 7 untrained (VO2max 49 +/- 4 ml X (kg X...... min)-1, mean and SE) and 8 physically trained (VO2max 65 +/- 4 ml X (kg X min)-1) subjects. In response to hypoglycemia, levels of beta-endorphin and prolactin immunoreactivity in serum increased similarly in trained (from 41 +/- 2 pg X ml-1 and 6 +/- 1 pg X ml-1 before hypoglycemia to 103 +/- 11 pg X...... to hypoglycemia neither in trained nor in untrained subjects. Finally, differences in beta-endorphin responses to exercise between trained and untrained subjects cannot be ascribed to differences in responsiveness to hypoglycemia....

  9. Effects of RHC 80267, a diglyceride lipase inhibitor, on prolactin secretion and calcium uptake in GH3 pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camoratto, A.M.; Grandison, L.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the diglyceride lipase inhibitor RHC 80267 on the prolactin secretory process was examined in clonal anterior pituitary GH 3 cells. This compound reduced basal prolactin secretion as well as secretion induced by TRH and phospholipase C but not that induced by phorbol myristate acetate. Although exogenous phospholipase C increased diglyceride, no increase in the products of diglyceride lipase was detected. Moreover, low doses of RHC 80267 were observed to effectively block potassium-stimulated 45 calcium influx. It is unlikely that RHC 80267 inhibits prolactin release solely by inhibiting diglyceride lipase. These data suggest blockage of plasma membrane calcium channels as an alternate mechanism for the inhibitory actions of RHC 80267 on intact GH 3 cells. These observations may have implications for RHC 80267 action in other cell types

  10. Pituitary apoplexy presenting as an intraventricular hemorrhage: An infrequent neurovascular emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Torrealba-Acosta, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary macroadenomas may present with a pituitary apoplexy, commonly with associated hemorrhage, but rarely large enough to show an intraventricular bleeding. This is a case report of a 66-year-old woman with a 3-month history of headache, hyporexia, asthenia and altered consciousness. First evaluations showed a large intraventricular hemorrhage on CT scan that was initially misdiagnosed for an aneurysmal rupture etiology but later confirmed to be a pituitary apoplexy from a large pituitary adenoma. Intraventricular hemorrhage due to a pituitary apoplexy could be mistaken for an aneurysmal origin thus warranting for a careful evaluation of the sellar region.

  11. Unusual mixed gangliocytoma-pituitary adenoma in sellar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-tian JIN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The presence of ganglion cells within an endocrine pituitary adenoma in sellar region is rare, and is usually diagnosed as "mixed gangliocytoma-pituitary adenoma". Due to lack of radiological characteristics, it is very difficult to make an accurate diagnosis preoperatively. Herein we describe one case of unusual mixed gangliocytoma - growth hormone (GH secreting pituitary adenoma in sellar region and review related literatures, so as to summarize the clinicopathological characteristics and improve the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this tumor. Methods and Results A 28 - year - old female presented with headache and blurred vision for 8 months. She also complained of acromegaly and amenorrhea. Head CT and MRI examinations showed a sellar and suprasellar mass with clear boundary compressing the optic chiasm and buttom of the third ventricle. The mass exhibited isointense signal or mild hypointensity on T1WI and mild hyperintensity on T2WI with heterogeneous enhancement on the contrast MRI. The tumor was removed totally. The histological sections demonstrated two parts of intermixed areas. One part of areas was marked by a proliferation of scattered gangliocyte - like cells arranged in a fibrillary background. Other areas were marked by a sheet - like or locally papillary proliferation of round and oval cells. Immunohistochemically, cytoplasm of gangliocyte-cells were diffusely positive for synaptophysin (Syn, and negative for adenohypophysial hormones; cytoplasm of round and oval cells were diffusely positive for Syn, and almost 30% cells were positive for GH, and negative for other neurohypophysial hormones. A final diagnosis of mixed gangliocytoma-GH secreting pituitary adenoma in sellar region (WHO grade Ⅰ was made. The patient did not receive postoperatively adjuvant therapy and was followed-up for one year, without any neurological deficit or signs of recurrence. Conclusions Mixed gangliocytoma - pituitary

  12. Toxic anterior segment syndrome following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Sevimli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We present the case of a 31-year-old patient with toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS that developed after undergoing deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK. She had keratoconus, and despite wearing hard contact lenses for many years in the left eye, her vision had deteriorated; therefore, DALK was performed on this eye. The preoperative visual acuity (VA was finger counting at 3 m. Routine DALK was performed using the "big-bubble" technique. The corneal entry incision was hydrated at the end of the surgery, which was terminated by air injection into the anterior chamber. On postoperative day 1, VA was at the level of hand movements, and the cornea was edematous. Topical high-dose dexamethasone and oral steroids were initiated considering the diagnosis of TASS. Subsequently, the patient's VA increased, and the corneal edema decreased. We believe that the use of re-sterilized cannulas may have been the likely cause of TASS. Although DALK can be performed without interfering with the anterior chamber, one should keep in mind that TASS may occur in response to the solution used to hydrate the incision site and the air injected into the anterior chamber.

  13. Temozolomide therapy in patients with aggressive pituitary adenomas or carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa, Marco; Bogazzi, Fausto; Cannavo, Salvo; Ceccato, Filippo; Curtò, Lorenzo; De Marinis, Laura; Iacovazzo, Donato; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Mantovani, Giovanna; Mazza, Elena; Minniti, Giuseppe; Nizzoli, Maurizio; Reni, Michele; Scaroni, Carla

    2016-02-01

    Temozolomide is effective in some patients with progressive pituitary adenoma or carcinoma. We report a survey study of Italian patients treated with Temozolomide because of aggressive pituitary adenoma or carcinoma resistant to standard therapies. Italian endocrinologists were surveyed and asked to participate into the study. A questionnaire was sent to all those who agreed and had used Temozolomide in at least one patient with pituitary tumor. Database was closed in December 2013. A literature review was also performed. Thirty-one patients were included into the analysis. Mean age at start of Temozolomide treatment was 58.3 ± 1.9 years (± standard error). Six of the 31 (19.4%) Italian patients had a pituitary carcinoma. Twenty-five patients (80.6%) had disease control during Temozolomide treatment, while 6 patients (19.4%) had disease progression. Median follow-up after beginning Temozolomide was 43 months. Thirteen patients had tumor growth after stopping Temozolomide. The 2-year progression-free survival was 47.7% (95% CI 29.5-65.9%), while the 2-year disease control duration was 59.1% (95% CI 39.1-79.1%). Eleven patients died of progressive disease and other two patients of unrelated causes. The 2-year and 4-year overall survival rates were 83.9% (95% CI 70.7-97.1%) and 59.6% (95% CI 40.0-79.2%), respectively. Temozolomide is an additional effective therapeutic option for the treatment of aggressive pituitary tumors. The drug is well tolerated and causes few severe adverse effects. Recurrence of the tumor can occur after an initial positive response and usually portends a grim outcome.

  14. Three cases of ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Jan Bobeff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma is a rare tumour originating from embryologic remnants of Rathke’s pouch. Although it is considered a clinically benign neoplasm, necrosis is encountered in 25% of cases and it can invade adjacent bone structures. Aims : To establish clinical, radiological and histopathological features of ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma. Material and methods: Analysis of three cases: two females and one man, aged 61-70. Results : One patient presented with a unilateral hearing loss, the other two with headache and vertigo. They all suffered from type 2 diabetes mellitus. Neurological examination revealed no abnormality. Radiological imaging showed a sphenoid sinus space-occupying soft-tissue lesion with bone erosion in 2 cases and empty sella in 2 patients whereas one had a normal pituitary gland. All were operated on via the transnasal approach. Total resection was achieved in one patient and subtotal in two; in two cases we observed intact sellar dura and in one intact sellar floor. Histopathology showed immunoreactivity for synaptophysin in all cases and cytokeratin in two. The Ki-67 index was less than 2%. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated growth hormone cells in all cases whereas prolactin and adrenocorticotropin in two. The patients were discharged home in good condition with no neurological deficits. Conclusions : Ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma should always be considered in differential diagnosis of sphenoid sinus lesion in the elderly, especially in coexistence with empty sella or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Since ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma is a benign lesion, surgical removal is an effective treatment.

  15. Three cases of ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeff, Ernest Jan; Wiśniewski, Karol; Papierz, Wielisław; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Jaskólski, Dariusz Jan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma is a rare tumour originating from embryologic remnants of Rathke's pouch. Although it is considered a clinically benign neoplasm, necrosis is encountered in 25% of cases and it can invade adjacent bone structures. Aims: To establish clinical, radiological and histopathological features of ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma. Material and methods: Analysis of three cases: two females and one man, aged 61-70. Results: One patient presented with a unilateral hearing loss, the other two with headache and vertigo. They all suffered from type 2 diabetes mellitus. Neurological examination revealed no abnormality. Radiological imaging showed a sphenoid sinus space-occupying soft-tissue lesion with bone erosion in 2 cases and empty sella in 2 patients whereas one had a normal pituitary gland. All were operated on via the transnasal approach. Total resection was achieved in one patient and subtotal in two; in two cases we observed intact sellar dura and in one intact sellar floor. Histopathology showed immunoreactivity for synaptophysin in all cases and cytokeratin in two. The Ki-67 index was less than 2%. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated growth hormone cells in all cases whereas prolactin and adrenocorticotropin in two. The patients were discharged home in good condition with no neurological deficits. Conclusions: Ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma should always be considered in differential diagnosis of sphenoid sinus lesion in the elderly, especially in coexistence with empty sella or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Since ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma is a benign lesion, surgical removal is an effective treatment. .

  16. Primary hypothyroidism presenting as pituitary hyperplasia with hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ling YAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the histological characteristics, immunohistochemical phenotypes, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of one case of primary hypothyroidism presenting as pituitary hyperplasia concurrent with hyperprolactinemia.  Methods and Results A 29-year-old female presented menoxenia for one year, galactorrhea for 3 months, and headache for one week. Head MRI demonstrated a sellar space-occcupying lesion and a pituitary adenoma was suspected. Therefore, the patient underwent an exploratory surgery via transnasal-sphenoidal approach under general anesthesia. During the surgery the lesion was located in the right side of sella turcica. It was hard, tough and gray with poor blood supply. Under optical microscopy, the acinar cells showed a diffuse hyperplasia, with focal nodular expansion. The boundary between hyperplastic and normal acinus was ill-defined. By using immunohistochemical staining, the hyperplastic cells were diffusely positive for synaptophysin (Syn and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, partially positive for prolactin (PRL, and negative for thyoid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1. Lymphocytes were scatteredly positive for leukocyte common antigen (LCA. Ki-67 labeling index was less than 1%. Pathological diagnosis was pituitary hyperplasia. The final clinical diagnosis was hypothyroidism. The patient took levothyroxine sodium (Euthyrox 100 μg/d continously, and was well during the 13-month follow-up.  Conclusions Preopertive diagnosis of pituitary hyperplasia is difficult.Definite diagnosis could be made by clinical history, typical histopathological characteristics and immunohistochemical phenotypes. Differential diagnosis from pituitary adenoma, especially microadenoma, should be paid attention. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.04.009

  17. Pituitary-gonadal function in adolescent males born appropriate or small for gestational age with or without intrauterine growth restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Vielwerth, Signe; Larsen, Torben Kjeldgaard

    2007-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is suggested to influence female pituitary-gonadal axis, but only a few studies have focused on male pituitary-gonadal function.......Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is suggested to influence female pituitary-gonadal axis, but only a few studies have focused on male pituitary-gonadal function....

  18. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, P.A.J.; Golanó, P.; Clavero, J.A.; van Dijk, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly

  19. Dopamine D2-like receptors (DRD2 and DRD4) in chickens: Tissue distribution, functional analysis, and their involvement in dopamine inhibition of pituitary prolactin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Can; Mo, Chunheng; Liu, Haikun; Wu, Chao; Li, Zhengyang; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2018-04-20

    Dopamine (DA) D2-like (and D1-like) receptors are suggested to mediate the dopamine actions in the anterior pituitary and/or CNS of birds. However, the information regarding the structure, functionality, and expression of avian D2-like receptors have not been fully characterized. In this study, we cloned two D2-like receptors (cDRD2, cDRD4) from chicken brain using RACE PCR. The cloned cDRD4 is a 378-amino acid receptor, which shows 57% amino acid (a.a.) identity with mouse DRD4. As in mammals, two cDRD2 isoforms, cDRD2L (long isoform, 437 a.a.) and cDRD2S (short isoform, 408 a.a.), which differ in their third intracellular loop, were identified in chickens. Using cell-based luciferase reporter assays or Western blot, we demonstrated that cDRD4, cDRD2L and cDRD2S could be activated by dopamine and quinpirole (a D2-like receptor agonist) dose-dependently, and their activation inhibits cAMP signaling pathway and stimulates MAPK/ERK signaling cascade, indicating that they are functional receptors capable of mediating dopamine actions. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that cDRD2 and cDRD4 are widely expressed in chicken tissues with abundant expression noted in anterior pituitary, and their expressions are likely controlled by their promoters near exon 1, as demonstrated by dual-luciferase reporter assays in DF-1 cells. In accordance with cDRD2/cDRD4 expression in the pituitary, DA or quinpirole could partially inhibit vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced prolactin expression in cultured chick pituitary cells. Together, our data proves the functionality of DRD2 and DRD4 in birds and aids to uncover the conserved roles of DA/D2-like receptor system in vertebrates, such as its action on the pituitary. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. TU-CD-304-02: Planning and Delivery of Fully Dynamic Trajectory Modulated Arc Therapy On Pituitary Adenoma: Dosimetric Advantages Over Conventional Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, J; Kim, S [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Virginia (United States); Hristov, D [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, CA (United States); Otto, K [Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the potential benefit of trajectory modulated arc therapy (TMAT) for treatments of small benign intracranial tumor, pituitary adenoma. Methods: A TMAT planning platform that incorporates complex source motion trajectory involving synchronized gantry rotation with translational and rotational couch movement was used for the study. The platform couples an interactive trajectory generation tool with a VMAT algorithm that performs multi-resolution, progressive sampling MLC optimization on a user-designed trajectory. A continuous couch rotation of 160° angular span with ±20° mini gantry arcs was used to emulate a non-coplanar horizontal arc-like trajectory. Compared to conventional non-coplanar gantry arcs (60°-100° gantry rotation with couch kicks), TMAT limited the unnecessary low to medium dose spread in the anterior and posterior directions, where primary OARs (e.g., brainstem, optic chiasm, optic nerves, and lens) are in close proximity to the targeted pituitary tumor volume. For 5 standard fractionation pituitary adenoma cases (50.4Gy/28fractions), TMAT and non-coplanar VMAT plans were generated and compared under equivalent objectives/constraints. TMAT delivery was implemented and demonstrated on Varian TrueBeam via XML scripts. Results: Both techniques showed good target coverage while OARs were able to meet the constraints on QUANTEC guidelines. Notably, TMAT decreased the dose deposition in the anterior-to-posterior direction surrounding PTV. TMAT significantly reduced the mean doses on brainstem, optic nerves, eyes and lens by 47.29%±13.17%, 28.51%±8.68%, 80.82%±8.71% and 65.38%±19.99% compared with VMAT, all p≤0.01. Percentage reductions of maximum point dose in eyes and lens were 75.68%±10.30% and 70.72%±18.62% respectively for TMAT versus VMAT, all p≤0.01. A representative isocentric TMAT pituitary plan was delivered via an XML script with 200 control points and 282 MUs. Conclusion: Deliverable TMAT plans were achieved in

  1. Pituitary tumor secondary to primary hypothyroidism. A case with disappeared pituitary tumor on CT findings by levothyroxine treatment against hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Kenichi; Machida, Koji; Ochiai, Shigeru; Kosaka, Shiro (Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan))

    1984-06-01

    A 20-year-old female patient had primary hypothyroidism with a chief complaint of hypermenorrhea. She was found to have sellar dilation on cranial plain x-rays and was suspected of having pituitary tumor on cranial CT. When she was given levothyroxine, the thyroid function returned to normal and CT revealed disappearance of the tumor.

  2. Effect of estradiol on hypothalamic GnRH and pituitary and serum LH and FSH in ovariectomized pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N M; Britt, J H

    1982-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to measure pituitary gonadotropins, hypothalamic-gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and pituitary response to GnRH during periods when serum luteinizing hormone (LH) was suppressed by estradiol-17 beta (e2) in ovariectomized pigs. In the first experiment, 10 ovariectomized gilts were assigned to two groups of five each according to time of slaughter (24 or 36 h after injection). Within each group, gilts were given corn oil (n = 2) or 400 micrograms E2 (n = 3). Neither serum nor anterior pituitary (AP) concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were affected by E2. Serum LH was suppressed from 12 to 26 h after E2. Concentrations of LH in AP were unchanged at 24 h, but increased at 36 h after E2 injection. Concentrations of GnRH in medial basal hypothalamus (MBH), stalk-median eminence (SME) and hypophyseal portal area (HPA) were lower at 24 h after E2 than in oil-treated gilts. At 36 h after E2, suppressive effects of E2 on LH in serum had subsided and concentrations of LH in AP and GnRH in MBH and SME were greater than in oil-treated controls. The observation that E2 suppressed LH in serum without a detectable suppression of LH in AP led to the hypothesis that E2 had caused the suppression of serum LH by suppression of GnRH release. In a second experiment, 12 ovariectomized gilts were assigned to receive corn oil (n = 4), 400 micrograms E2 (n = 4) or 400 micrograms E2 plus GnRH (1.5 micrograms/h; n = 4). Patterns of LH in sera of E2-treated animals were similar to those in the first experiment, with serum LH in E2-treated gilts suppressed from 4 to 32 h after treatment. However, in gilts receiving GnRH in addition to E2, serum LH concentrations during 20 to 32 h after treatment were intermediate between gilts receiving E2 alone and controls. Thus the pituitary of the pig is capable of responding to GnRH when LH is normally suppressed by E2. These experiments provide two lines of evidence that suppression of serum LH by E2

  3. The Polymorphism of Pituitary Factor 1 (POU1F1 in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Crina Carsai

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The development and function of mammary gland is mainly controlled by growth hormone and prolactin, twoprotein hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Their synthesis is under regulatory influence of pituitaryfactor 1 (PIT1 or POU1F1, a protein factor produced in hypothalamic nuclei. In cattle, it was shown that a HinfIpolymorphism located in exon 6 of PIT1 gene may have significant influence on milk quantity. In particular A allelewas associated with a higher milk yield and could be a valuable genetic marker for improving milk quantity in cattle.In an effort to better understand the possible influence of this polymorphism on mammary gland development andfunction in cattle, we have studied the frequency this polymorphism in Romanian Black and White breed, a highmilk production cattle breed versus Romanian Grey Steppe breed, a primitive breed with very low milk production.In both breeds the frequency of B allele is much higher as compared with the frequency of A allele. The study ofPIT1 polymorphism in Romanian cattle breeds is a part of a more complex study targeting several key genesinvolved in mammary gland function.

  4. Anterior ethmoid anatomy facilitates dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, W K; Moore, C A; Linberg, J V

    1990-12-01

    The ethmoid air cell labyrinth lies adjacent to the medial orbital wall, extending even beyond the sutures of the ethmoid bone. Its anatomic relationship to the lacrimal sac fossa is important in lacrimal surgery. We evaluated computed tomographic scans of 190 orbits with normal ethmoid anatomy to define the anatomic relationship of anterior ethmoid air cells to the lacrimal sac fossa. In 93% of the orbits, the cells extended anterior to the posterior lacrimal crest, with 40% entering the frontal process of the maxilla. This anatomic relationship may be used to facilitate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. During a 10-year period (310 cases), one of us routinely entered the anterior ethmoid air cells to initiate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. This technique has helped to avoid lacerations of the nasal mucosa.

  5. Clinical presentation and outcome of children with central diabetes insipidus associated with a self-limited or transient pituitary stalk thickening, diagnosed as infundibuloneurohypophysitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefers, J; Cools, M; De Waele, K; Gies, I; Beauloye, V; Lysy, P; Francois, I; Beckers, D; De Schepper, J

    2017-08-01

    Despite lymphocytic or autoimmune infundibuloneurohypophysitis (INH) is an increasingly recognized aetiology in children with central diabetes insipidus (CDI); clinical data on epidemiology (clinical evolution, predisposing factors, complications), diagnosis and management of this entity are limited and mostly based on published case reports. The aim of this study was to gain a broader insight in the natural history of this disease by analysing the clinical presentation, radiological pituitary stalk changes, associated autoimmunity and hormonal deficiencies in children with CDI and a self-limiting or transient stalk thickening (ST), diagnosed as autoimmune infundibuloneurohypophysitis, during the last 15 years in four Belgian university hospitals. The medical files of nine CDI patients with a ST at initial presentation and no signs of Langerhans cell histiocytosis or germinoma at presentation and/or during follow-up of more than 1.5 years were reviewed. Age at presentation ranged from 3 to 14 years. Two patients had a positive family history of autoimmunity. Three children presented with associated growth failure, two with nausea and one with long-standing headache. Median maximal diameter of the stalk was 4.6 mm (2.7-10 mm). Four patients had extra-pituitary brain anomalies, such as cysts. One patient had central hypothyroidism, and another had a partial growth hormone deficiency at diagnosis. Within a mean follow-up of 5.4 (1.5-15) years, stalk thickening remained unchanged in two patients, regressed in one and normalized in six children. CDI remained in all, while additional pituitary hormone deficiencies developed in only one patient. In this series of children INH with CDI as initial presentation, CDI was permanent and infrequently associated with anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, despite a frequent association with nonstalk cerebral lesions. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Endocrinology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Insulin-like growth factor-I feedback regulation of growth hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion in the pig: evidence for a pituitary site of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barb, C R; Hausman, G J

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments (EXP) were conducted to determine the role of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in the control of growth hormone (GH) and LH secretion. In EXP I, prepuberal gilts, 65 ± 6 kg body weight and 140 days of age received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of saline (n = 4), 25 μg (n = 4) or 75 μg (n = 4) IGF-I and jugular blood samples were collected. In EXP II, anterior pituitary cells in culture collected from 150-day-old prepuberal gilts (n = 6) were challenged with 0.1, 10 or 1000 nM [Ala15]-h growth hormone-releasing hormone-(1-29)NH2 (GHRH), or 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 30 nM IGF-I individually or in combinations with 1000 nM GHRH. Secreted GH was measured at 4 and 24 h after treatment. In EXP III, anterior pituitary cells in culture collected from 150-day-old barrows (n = 5) were challenged with 10, 100 or 1000 nM gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 30 nM IGF-I individually or in combinations with 100 nM GnRH. Secreted LH was measured at 4 h after treatment. In EXP I, serum GH and LH concentrations were unaffected by ICV IGF-I treatment. In EXP II, relative to control all doses of GHRH increased (P 0.1). In conclusion, under these experimental conditions the results suggest that the pituitary is the putative site for IGF-I modulation of GH and LH secretion. Further examination of the role of IGF-I on GH and LH secretion is needed to understand the inhibitory and stimulatory action of IGF-I on GH and LH secretion.

  7. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: reducing anterior tibial subluxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Bart; Duerr, Eric R. H.; van Dijk, C. Niek; Fu, Freddie H.

    2016-01-01

    To measure and compare the amount of anterior tibial subluxation (ATS) after anatomic ACL reconstruction for both acute and chronic ACL-deficient patients. Fifty-two patients were clinically and radiographically evaluated after primary, unilateral, anatomic ACL reconstruction. Post-operative true

  8. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in Pituitary Adenomas by Integrating Analysis of Microarray Data

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    Peng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas, monoclonal in origin, are the most common intracranial neoplasms. Altered gene expression as well as somatic mutations is detected frequently in pituitary adenomas. The purpose of this study was to detect differentially expressed genes (DEGs and biological processes during tumor formation of pituitary adenomas. We performed an integrated analysis of publicly available GEO datasets of pituitary adenomas to identify DEGs between pituitary adenomas and normal control (NC tissues. Gene function analysis including Gene Ontology (GO, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, and protein-protein interaction (PPI networks analysis was conducted to interpret the biological role of those DEGs. In this study we detected 3994 DEGs (2043 upregulated and 1951 downregulated in pituitary adenoma through an integrated analysis of 5 different microarray datasets. Gene function analysis revealed that the functions of those DEGs were highly correlated with the development of pituitary adenoma. This integrated analysis of microarray data identified some genes and pathways associated with pituitary adenoma, which may help to understand the pathology underlying pituitary adenoma and contribute to the successful identification of therapeutic targets for pituitary adenoma.

  9. Pituitary dysfunction in adult patients after cranial irradiation for head and nasopharyngeal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelman-Dijkstra, Natasha M.; Malgo, Frank; Neelis, Karen J.; Coremans, Ida; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Pereira, Alberto M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pituitary insufficiency after radiotherapy in the hypothalamic pituitary region is a well-known complication. However, endocrine assessments are not incorporated in the follow-up after cranial irradiation for head and neck tumours. Aim of the study: To evaluate pituitary function in patients cranially irradiated for non-pituitary tumours. Patients and methods: Evaluation of pituitary function in all available patients treated at our centre with cranial radiotherapy for head and neck tumours. Results: We included 80 patients. Forty patients were treated for cerebral tumours, 15 for nasopharyngeal tumours, and 25 for different tumours like meningioma or cerebral metastasis. Mean age was 47.5 (18.6–89.7) years. Mean radiation dose delivered at the pituitary region was 56.27 Gy (40.0–70.0). Pituitary insufficiency was present in 16 patients within 2 years after irradiation 23/49 patients (47%) after 5 years and 27/45 (60%) after 10 years and 31/35 patients (89%) after 15 years. Conclusion: Pituitary insufficiency is highly prevalent in adult patients treated with cranial radiotherapy for head and nasopharyngeal tumours. These prevalence rates are comparable to those observed after radiotherapy for pituitary tumours. Because hormone replacement of endocrine deficits improves quality of life and prevents potential severe complications, such as Addisonian crises, periodical evaluation of pituitary function is advocated

  10. Effects of trilostane treatment on the pituitary-adrenocortical and renin-aldosterone axis in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galac, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830860; Buijtels, J.J.C.W.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830844; Mol, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070918775; Kooistra, H.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/205285864

    2010-01-01

    Vet J. 2010 Jan;183(1):75-80. Epub 2008 Nov 29. Effects of trilostane on the pituitary-adrenocortical and renin-aldosterone axis in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism. Galac S, Buijtels JJ, Mol JA, Kooistra HS. Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary

  11. Progress in the Diagnosis and Classification of Pituitary Adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syro, Luis V.; Rotondo, Fabio; Ramirez, Alex; Di Ieva, Antonio; Sav, Murat Aydin; Restrepo, Lina M.; Serna, Carlos A.; Kovacs, Kalman

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are common neoplasms. Their classification is based upon size, invasion of adjacent structures, sporadic or familial cases, biochemical activity, clinical manifestations, morphological characteristics, response to treatment and recurrence. Although they are considered benign tumors, some of them are difficult to treat due to their tendency to recur despite standardized treatment. Functional tumors present other challenges for normalizing their biochemical activity. Novel approaches for early diagnosis, as well as different perspectives on classification, may help to identify subgroups of patients with similar characteristics, creating opportunities to match each patient with the best personalized treatment option. In this paper, we present the progress in the diagnosis and classification of different subgroups of patients with pituitary tumors that may be managed with specific considerations according to their tumor subtype. PMID:26124750

  12. Sustained remission of Cushing's disease with mitotane and pituitary irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schteingart, D.E.; Tsao, H.S.; Taylor, C.I.; McKenzie, A.; Victoria, R.; Therrien, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    Low doses of mitotane were given orally to 36 patients with Cushing's disease, concurrently with or after pituitary cobalt irradiation. Clinical and biochemical remission occurred in 29. The response to treatment occurred early in 17 patients and late in 12. The different pattern of response to mitotane was not related to the dose given or to its serum level. Early biochemical indicators of adrenal suppression with mitotane were a sharp decrease in adrenal response to the infusion of ACTH and in plasma levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Although mitotane was given together with pituitary irradiation, initial remission was due mainly to the adrenal effect of mitotane. Plasma ACTH levels were still elevated when cortisol had returned to normal. In seventeen of the 29 patients who responded to treatment drug therapy has been discontinued, and they remain in remission of Cushing's syndrome. Side-effects have been dose dependent, with anorexia, nausea, decreased memory, and gynecomastia in men being the commonest

  13. Heterogeneity of secretory granules of silent pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1988-01-01

    Silent pituitary adenomas were compared with hormonally active tumors taking into account the size, number, and ultrastructural characteristics of secretory granules (SG). The study group (a total of 79 primary pituitary adenomas) comprised 27 silent, 21 growth hormone (GH)-producing-, 16 prolactin...... (PRL)-producing-, 5 GH-PRL-producing- and 10 adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing adenomas. The SG of silent adenomas were significantly smaller than SG in endocrine active adenomas. All hormonally inactive tumors also contained small (mean, 94 nm) specific cytoplasmic granules, designated...... "silent adenoma granules" (SIG). The fine structural features of the SIG included: a flocculent, granular material occupying an eccentric position in a larger vesicle limited by a double membrane. In the silent adenomas this particular granule was present in up to 90% of the adenoma cells and constituted...

  14. Pituitary Adenoma and Hyperprolactinemia Accompanied by Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahattin Destek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast, and its etiology remains not fully elucidated. IGM is observed more often in patients with autoimmune disease. Hyperprolactinemia is observed during pregnancy, lactation, and a history of oral contraceptive use. A 39-year-old patient with no history of oral contraceptive use presented with complaints such as redness, pain, and swelling in her left breast. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a suspicious inflamed mass lesion. Core biopsy was performed to exclude breast cancer and to further diagnose. The breast abscess was drained and steroids were given for treatment. In order to monitor any progression during the three months of treatment, hormone levels were routinely examined. Prolactin level was above the reference range, and pituitary MRI revealed a pituitary prolactinoma. After treatment with prolactin inhibitors, IGM also improved with hyperprolactinemia. This report emphasizes attention to hyperprolactinemia in cases of IGM diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Fracture of the anterior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skie, M C; Ebraheim, N A; Woldenberg, L; Randall, K

    1995-04-01

    The authors retrospectively reviewed 33 cases of fracture involving the anterior colliculus of the medial malleolus to examine clinical results of operative treatment for these fractures. Although this injury appears innocuous, it can be difficult to obtain stable fixation of the fragment intraoperatively, and painful nonunion can result. A simple reduction maneuver and method of tension band fixation are described.

  16. Metastatic pituitary carcinoma: a case report and review of literature

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    ZHANG Shang-fu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background As a kind of rare tumor, metastatic pituitary carcinoma is very difficult to diagnose clinically and is easy to be misdiagnosed. This article aims to discuss the clinical manifestations and histopathological features of this tumor. Methods The clinical presentations, histopathological features and immunophenotype were studied in one case of poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinoma metastatic to pituitary gland, and related literature was reviewed. Results A 47-year-old woman mainly presented with faint, headache and blurred vision. CT scan demonstrated abnormal signals in suprasellar cistern. During the resection, the tumor could be seen locating in sellar region, the size of which was about 2 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm. Histopathological examination revealed that the structure of pituitary gland was damaged and the tumor was composed of atypical round or oval cells arranged in nest or glandular patterns, in which a number of enlarged plump tumor cells contained abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with eccentrical caryogenesis. The immunohistochemistry showed that epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, pan cytokeratin (PCK, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1 and cytokeratin 7 (CK7 were positive in tumor cells with Ki-67 labeling index being 15%, but chromogranin (CgA, cancer embryo antigen (CEA, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP, CD117, leukocyte common antigen (LCA, CD30, anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1 (ALK-1 were negative in tumor cells. After operation the patient received treatment with levothyroxine sodium and γ knife, but died 4 months later. Conclusion Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry can confirm the diagnosis of metastatic pituitary carcinoma and locate the primary lesion. Postoperative comprehensive therapy is necessary.

  17. Prothymosin-alpha and Ki-67 expression in pituitary adenomas

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    Iga Wierzbicka-Tutka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prothymosin alpha (PTMA, a nuclear oncoprotein involved in cell cycle regulation, is used as a prognostic marker in many cancers. The histopathology of pituitary carcinomas and locally invasive adenomas is indistinguishable from that of benign tumors. A new marker is needed to differentiate these lesions. We evaluated PTMA in pituitary adenomas to determine its usefulness as a prognostic factor of tumor proliferation.Material/Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a group of 27 patients, including 15 females (56% and 12 males (44% with a mean age of 58.6±12 years, who underwent pituitary tumor surgery between 2003 and 2012. The Ki-67 and PTMA-nuclear (PTMA-n and PTMA-cytoplasmic (PTMA-c indices were determined by immunohistochemical staining. We studied histopathological features, clinical symptoms, and magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography performed before surgery and one year following surgery to evaluate tumor size and progression.Results: The expression of Ki-67 was revealed in 77.8% of adenomas, PTMA-n in 81.5% and PTMA-c in 92.6%. The mean value of the Ki-67 index was 1.8%, PTMA-n was 1.84%, and PTMA-c was 35.6%. There was a significant positive correlation between Ki-67 and PTMA-n (p=0.009. We did not find any correlation between Ki-67, PTMA-c, and tumor progression. PTMA-n was found to be correlated with tumor size (p=0.045 and was higher in the case of gonadotropinomas (p=0.026.Conclusions: The positive nuclear expression of Ki-67 and PTMA was observed in the majority of pituitary adenomas. Neither the expression of Ki-67 nor that of PTMA-c was related to tumor recurrence or local invasion.

  18. Carbenoxolone Disodium Treatment for Canine Pituitary-Dependent Hyperadrenocorticism.

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    Takahiro Teshima

    Full Text Available Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH is mainly caused by pituitary corticotroph tumors in dogs. A characteristic feature of corticotroph tumors is their resistance to negative feedback by glucocorticoids. In some animal species, including dogs, the aberrant expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD, a cortisol metabolic enzyme, is observed in corticotroph tumors. We previously reported that carbenoxolone (CBX, an inhibitor of 11HSD, suppressed ACTH secretion from the pituitary gland, and decreased cortisol concentrations in healthy dogs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of CBX on dogs with PDH. Six dogs with PDH were treated with 60 to 80 mg/kg/day of CBX for 6 weeks, followed by trilostane, which is a commonly used agent for canine PDH. CBX treatment led to a gradual decrease in both basal and in corticotropic releasing hormone (CRH-stimulated plasma ACTH concentrations and CRH-stimulated serum cortisol concentrations, without side effects. However, basal and stimulated ACTH and cortisol concentrations remained higher than those of healthy dogs, and clinical symptoms such as polydipsia and polyuria were not ameliorated. After a 2-week wash-out interval, trilostane was administered for 2 weeks. Although basal plasma ACTH concentrations were higher after trilostane treatment than CBX treatment, polydipsia and polyuria resolved in all six dogs. The reason for the lack of improvement in polydipsia and polyuria with CBX treatment is unclear. Other mechanisms, in addition to a partial decrease in ACTH secretion, are likely to be involved. In conclusion, this is the first study to report the in vivo effects of CBX in dogs with PDH. The findings suggest that CBX inhibits ACTH secretion from canine pituitary tumors, resulting in lower cortisol concentrations.

  19. Chronic stress and pituitary-adrenal function in female pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, C.J.J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Introduction

    The main purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to gain more insight in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocorticaI (HPA) system and the mechanisms underlying adaptation to chronic stress in female pigs. The function of the HPA axis, which coordinates multiple neuroendocrine and metabolic responses to stressors, has been subject of extensive basic and clinical research. HPA-activation by stressful stimuli results in an increase in circulating ...

  20. The value of radiation therapy for pituitary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watari, Tsutomu

    1995-01-01

    Following points are discussed in this review. 1) Historical review of our previous therapeutic management. 2) Classification of pituitary adenomas. 3) Clinical analysis of my recent 58 cases. 4) Verification of usefulness of postoperative irradiation which achieved to increase in local control rate. 5) Authoritativeness of radiotherapy. In general, 3 to 4 portal technique or arc therapy were employed. The lateral opposing field technique was avoid to use. The recommended doses using linear accelerator x-ray technique is approximately 5000 cGy in 5 weeks. To prevent radiation hazard; (1) examiner should not use technique of two opposed fields, (2) total doses should not exceed 5000 cGy in 5 to 6 weeks and the use of daily fractions should not exceed 200 cGy. 6) Correlation of hormone secreting tumors and radiation therapy. 7) Problem of radiosurgery and heavy particle. 8) Countermeasure for recurrence cases. 9) Problem of side effects of radiotherapy and its precaution. Complication of radiation for pituitary adenoma found that the significant side effects are negligibly small in recent years. 10) Pituitary tumor are originally slow growing and benign tumor, therefore the response to irradiation takes long time to elapse for final evaluation. For instance, over 80 to 90% of acromegaly patients respond HGH successfully, but this may require from one to several years. 11) Conclusion. (author)

  1. Demonstration of specific dopamine receptors on human pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Masafumi; Nakao, Haruyoshi; Arao, Masayo; Sato, Bunzo; Noma, Keizo; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Kishimoto, Susumu; Mori, Shintaro; Uozumi, Toru

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine receptors on human pituitary adenoma membranes were characterized using [ 3 H]spiperone as the radioligand. The specific [ 3 H]spiperone binding sites on prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenoma membranes were recognized as a dopamine receptor, based upon the data showing high affinity binding, saturability, specificity, temperature dependence, and reversibility. All of 14 PRL-secreting adenomas had high affinity dopamine receptors, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.85±0.11 nmol/l (mean±SEM) and a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 428±48.6 fmol/mg protein. Among 14 growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas examined, 8 (57%) had dopamine receptors with a Kd of 1.90±0.47 nmol/l and a Bmax of 131±36.9 fmol/mg protein. Furthermore, 15 of 24 (58%) nonsecreting pituitary adenomas also had dopamine receptors with a Kd of 1.86±0.37 nmol/l and a Bmax of 162±26.0 fmol/mg protein. These results indicate that some GH-secreting adenomas as well as some nonsecreting pituitary adenomas contain dopamine receptors. But their affinity and number of binding sites are significantly lower (P<0.05) and fewer (P<0.001) respectively, than those in PRL-secreting adenomas. (author)

  2. Electrophoretic separation of kidney and pituitary cells on STS-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. R.; Nachtwey, D. S.; Barlow, G. H.; Cleveland, C.; Lanham, J. W.; Farrington, M. A.; Hatfield, J. M.; Hymer, W. C.; Todd, P.; Wilfinger, W.; Grindeland, R.; Lewis, M. L.

    A Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES) was used on Space Shuttle flight STS-8 to separate specific secretory cells from suspensions of cultured primary human embryonic kidney cells and rat pituitary cells. The objectives were to isolate the subfractions of kidney cells that produce the largest amounts of urokinase (plasminogen activator), and to isolate the subfractions of rat pituitary cells that secrete growth hormone, prolactin, and other hormones. Kidney cells were separated into more than 32 fractions in each of two electrophoretic runs. Electrophoretic mobility distributions in flight experiments were spread more than the ground controls. Multiple assay methods confirmed that all cultured kidney cell fractions produced some urokinase, and five to six fractions produced significantly more urokinase than the other fractions. Several fractions also produced tissue plasminogen activator. The pituitary cells were separated into 48 fractions in each of the two electrophoretic runs, and the amounts of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) released into the medium for each cell fraction were determined. Cell fractions were grouped into eight mobility classes and immunocytochemically assayed for the presence of GH, PRL, ACTH, LH, TSH, and FSH. The patterns of hormone distribution indicate that the specialized cells producing GH and PRL are isolatable due to the differences in electrophoretic mobilities.

  3. Simple numerical chromosome aberrations in two pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, C U; Pandis, N; Bjerre, P

    1993-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of short-term cultures of one non-secreting and one prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma revealed simple clonal numerical abnormalities in both tumors. The karyotype of the non-secreting adenoma was 48,XX, +4, +9[42]/49,XX, +4, +9, +20[2]/46,XX[6]. In the prolactin-secreting...... chromosomal anomaly.......-secreting adenoma, three aberrant clones were detected, giving the karyotype 45,X, -Y[20]/47,XY, +Y[6]/45,XY, -21[3]/46,XY[21]. One cell had the chromosome complement 46,X, -Y, +9; no other nonclonal aberrations were detected. The only hitherto published case of pituitary adenoma analyzed by banding techniques (Rey...... et al. [1986]: Cancer Genet Cytogenet 23:171-174) also had only numerical clonal changes that included extra copies of chromosome 9. We conclude that pituitary adenomas may be karyotypically characterized by numerical aberrations and that trisomy 9 seems to be the best candidate for a primary...

  4. Hypothalamo-pituitary function after therapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauner, R.

    1995-01-01

    Cranial irradiation may result in altered hypothalamo-pituitary function in patients treated for cancer distant from this area. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is the most frequent complication. The frequency, delay of occurrence and severity of GH deficiency depend on the irradiation dose delivered to this area. The other factors influencing the frequency are the age at irradiations and the fractionation schedule. The frequency of other hypothalamo-pituitary changes is also dose-dependent: thyrotropin and gonadotropin deficiencies occur in 50-60% of cases after 50 Gray, and corticotrophin deficiency in 30%. Low dose cranial irradiations may also induce precocious puberty (onset < 8 yr in girls and < 10 yr in boys). The radiation-induced lesions seem to occur in the hypothalamus rather than in the pituitary. There is generally a good correlation between the GH peak and the growth velocity, but there may be normal growth in spite of GH deficiency after low dose or due to precocious puberty, decreased growth velocity in spite of normal GH peak, due to bone irradiation. Results on final height have been optimized by a better indication of GH therapy and by its association with treatment of precocious puberty. (author). 19 refs

  5. Anaplastic astrocytoma 14 years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Masaru; Misumi, Syuuzou; Kurosaki, Syuuhei; Shibasaki, Takashi; Ohye, Chihiro (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    A case of anaplastic astrocytoma following radiotherapy for growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma is presented with a review of the literature. A 43 year old female was admitted with signs of acromegaly and hypertension. An eosinophilic pituitary adenoma was subtotally removed by transsphenoidal approach, followed by 60 Gy irradiation using a 2x2 cm lateral field. Fourteen years later at the age of 57, she suffered from headache, recent-memory disturbance and uncinate fits. CT scan and MRI disclosed ring-like enhanced mass lesion in the left temporal lobe, corresponding to the previous irradiated field. {sup 18}F-FDG PET showed hypermetabolism at the lesion. Left frontotemporal craniotomy was performed, and a reddish gray gelatinous tumor containing necrotic center and cyst was partially removed. Histologically, the tumor consisted of hypercellular astrocytic cells with perivascular pseudorosette. Coagulation necrosis at the center of the tumor, and hyalinosis and fibrosis of the blood vessels in and around the tumor, which might have been caused by the antecedent radiotherapy, were recognized. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were given, however, she expired 13 months after the operation. Seven cases, including ours, of malignant glioma following radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma were reported in the literature. A total dose of irradiation varies from 45 to 95 Gy with a mean of 50 Gy. The period of latency before tumor occurrence ranges from 5 to 22 years with a mean of 10 years. The differentiation of radiation-induced gliomas from radionecrosis of the brain is also discussed. (author).

  6. Válvula de uretra anterior Anterior urethral valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Tucci Jr.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: apresentar os aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos de pacientes portadores de válvula da uretra anterior. Descrição: em dois neonatos, o diagnóstico presuntivo de patologia obstrutiva do trato urinário foi sugerido pela ultra-sonografia realizada no período pré-natal, confirmando-se o diagnóstico de válvula de uretra anterior pela avaliação pós-natal. Os pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico paliativo, com vesicostomia temporária e, posteriormente, definitivo, pela fulguração endoscópica das válvulas. Ambos evoluíram com função renal normal. Comentários: a válvula da uretra anterior é anomalia rara que deve ser considerada em meninos com quadro radiológico pré-natal sugestivo de obstrução infravesical, secundariamente à hipótese mais comum de válvula da uretra posterior. Ressaltamos a utilização da vesicostomia como derivação urinária temporária nestes casos, prevenindo potenciais complicações pela manipulação da uretra do recém-nascido.Objective: to discuss clinical signs, diagnostic tools and therapeutics of anterior urethral valves, an obstructive anomaly of the urinary system in males. Description: signs of urinary tract obstruction were identified on pre-natal ultrasound in two male fetuses and the diagnosis of anterior urethral valves was made through post-natal evaluation. As an initial treatment, vesicostomy was performed in both patients. Later, the valves were fulgurated using an endoscopic procedure. During the follow-up period both patients presented normal renal function. Comments: anterior urethral valves are a rare form of urethral anomaly that must be ruled out in boys with pre-natal ultrasound indicating infravesical obstruction. Vesicostomy used as an initial treatment rather than transurethral fulguration may prevent potential complications that can occur due to the small size of the neonatal urethra.

  7. [Apoplectic macroadenomas: the outcome of the residual pituitary gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouf, R; Mohr, G; Assimakopoulos, P; Glikstein, R

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the MRI aspects and the function of the residual pituitary gland (RPG) after surgical decompression of an apoplectic pituitary macroadenoma, and to attempt to answer the question of whether an intra-adenomatous apoplexy necessarily leads to hypophyseal apoplexy. Between 1992 and 2008, 150 pituitary macroadenomas were surgically treated via the trans-sphenoidal approach, 19 of which presented an apoplectic feature (13%). They were subdivided into three groups: pure hemorrhage, hemorrhagic infarction, and ischemic infarction. The imaging was studied after surgery to identify the RPG and establish a correlation with the endocrine status. After surgery five of 19 patients had normal adenohypophyseal function (27%), eight (42%) had panhypopituitarism, and six (31%) complete or partial corticotropic hypopituitarism. The RPG was identified on MRI in 13 patients (69%), four of them (31%) with normal adenohypophyseal function. The RPG was clearly identified intraoperatively in nine patients (47%), four of whom (44%) had normal adenohypophyseal function. One patient presented preoperative diabetes insipidus, which disappeared immediately after surgery, and two other patients developed postoperative diabetes insipidus: in one patient it quickly declined and in the other one it persisted, requiring replacement. According to the radiological classification of Hardy and Vezina modified by the Mohr (Mohr et Hardy, 1982) grade, the patients were subdivided up as follows: one grade II-0, four grade II-A, 11 grade II-B, two grade C, and one grade IV-B+D. The repercussions of adenomatous apoplexy on the RPG is significant: only 27% of the patients retained normal pituitary function. Furthermore, although the RPG was identified on the MRI in more than two-thirds of the cases, more than half had adenohypophyseal failure: therefore, the visualization of a RPG does not mean that its functions are preserved. The involvement of the

  8. A Role for Glucocorticoids in Stress-Impaired Reproduction: Beyond the Hypothalamus and Pituitary

    OpenAIRE

    Whirledge, Shannon; Cidlowski, John A.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the well-characterized role of the sex steroid receptors in regulating fertility and reproduction, reproductive events are also mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to an individual's environment. Glucocorticoid secretion in response to stress contributes to the well-characterized suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis through central actions in the hypothalamus and pituitary. However, both animal and in vitro studies indicate that oth...

  9. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury -- aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000681.htm Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury - aftercare To use the sharing features ... that connects a bone to another bone. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is located inside your knee joint and ...

  10. Anterior spinal cord syndrome of unknown etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Klakeel, Merrine; Thompson, Justin; Srinivasan, Rajashree; McDonald, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A spinal cord injury encompasses a physical insult to the spinal cord. In the case of anterior spinal cord syndrome, the insult is a vascular lesion at the anterior spinal artery. We present the cases of two 13-year-old boys with anterior spinal cord syndrome, along with a review of the anatomy and vasculature of the spinal cord and an explanation of how a lesion in the cord corresponds to anterior spinal cord syndrome.

  11. Pituitary Apoplexy due to the Diagnostic Test in a Cushing"s Disease Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, Fatih; Unal, Mustafa; Gul, Sanser; Bayraktaroglu, Taner

    2018-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is a medical condition that needs urgent diagnosis and treatment. It may occur spontaneously or may be precipitated by a variety of reasons including dynamic endocrine tests. Although pituitary apoplexy is usually seen in nonfunctional pituitary adenoma, it can also be seen in ACTH secreting macroadenomas. ACTH secreting adenomas present usually as microadenomas and in these patients apoplexy is rarely seen. In this paper we present a 30-year-old male patient with a history of Cushing"s disease who suffered from pituitary apoplexy after the 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test. He underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery and his symptoms and signs were significantly improved.

  12. Angiogenesis in Pituitary Adenomas: Human Studies and New Mutant Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of angiogenesis in pituitary tumor development has been questioned, as pituitary tumors have been usually found to be less vascularized than the normal pituitary tissue. Nevertheless, a significantly higher degree of vasculature has been shown in invasive or macropituitary prolactinomas when compared to noninvasive and microprolactinomas. Many growth factors and their receptors are involved in pituitary tumor development. For example, VEGF, FGF-2, FGFR1, and PTTG, which give a particular vascular phenotype, are modified in human and experimental pituitary adenomas of different histotypes. In particular, vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF, the central mediator of angiogenesis in endocrine glands, was encountered in experimental and human pituitary tumors at different levels of expression and, in particular, was higher in dopamine agonist resistant prolactinomas. Furthermore, several anti-VEGF techniques lowered tumor burden in human and experimental pituitary adenomas. Therefore, even though the role of angiogenesis in pituitary adenomas is contentious, VEGF, making permeable pituitary endothelia, might contribute to adequate temporal vascular supply and mechanisms other than endothelial cell proliferation. The study of angiogenic factor expression in aggressive prolactinomas with resistance to dopamine agonists will yield important data in the search of therapeutical alternatives.

  13. Angiogenesis in pituitary adenomas: human studies and new mutant mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristina, Carolina; Luque, Guillermina María; Demarchi, Gianina; Lopez Vicchi, Felicitas; Zubeldia-Brenner, Lautaro; Perez Millan, Maria Ines; Perrone, Sofia; Ornstein, Ana Maria; Lacau-Mengido, Isabel M; Berner, Silvia Inés; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia

    2014-01-01

    The role of angiogenesis in pituitary tumor development has been questioned, as pituitary tumors have been usually found to be less vascularized than the normal pituitary tissue. Nevertheless, a significantly higher degree of vasculature has been shown in invasive or macropituitary prolactinomas when compared to noninvasive and microprolactinomas. Many growth factors and their receptors are involved in pituitary tumor development. For example, VEGF, FGF-2, FGFR1, and PTTG, which give a particular vascular phenotype, are modified in human and experimental pituitary adenomas of different histotypes. In particular, vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF, the central mediator of angiogenesis in endocrine glands, was encountered in experimental and human pituitary tumors at different levels of expression and, in particular, was higher in dopamine agonist resistant prolactinomas. Furthermore, several anti-VEGF techniques lowered tumor burden in human and experimental pituitary adenomas. Therefore, even though the role of angiogenesis in pituitary adenomas is contentious, VEGF, making permeable pituitary endothelia, might contribute to adequate temporal vascular supply and mechanisms other than endothelial cell proliferation. The study of angiogenic factor expression in aggressive prolactinomas with resistance to dopamine agonists will yield important data in the search of therapeutical alternatives.

  14. FSH and TSH in the Regulation of Bone Mass: The Pituitary/Immune/Bone Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziana Colaianni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidences have highlighted that the pituitary hormones have profound effects on bone, so that the pituitary-bone axis is now becoming an important issue in the skeletal biology. Here, we discuss the topical evidence about the dysfunction of the pituitary-bone axis that leads to osteoporotic bone loss. We will explore the context of FSH and TSH hormones arguing their direct or indirect role in bone loss. In addition, we will focus on the knowledge that both FSH and TSH have influence on proinflammatory and proosteoclastogenic cytokine expression, such as TNFα and IL-1, underlining the correlation of pituitary-bone axis to the immune system.

  15. Two unusual causes of pituitary stalk thickening in children without clinical features of diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Furlan, Gisella; Fieggen, Anthony G.; Wilmshurst, Jo [Department of Paediatric Neuroradiology, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, 7700, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, 7700, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, 7700, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2003-07-01

    Pituitary stalk thickening has a wide differential diagnosis, but almost all infundibular diseases present with diabetes insipidus (DI). We present a child with metastatic involvement of the pituitary stalk from a primary pontine tumour and a child with tuberculous infiltration of the pituitary stalk and associated meningeal inflammation. Neither child presented with DI. Even though both metastatic disease and tuberculous infiltration of the stalk have been reported in adults, these are the first reports with accompanying cross-sectional images of pituitary stalk involvement by these diseases in children. (orig.)

  16. Regulation of pituitary hormones and cell proliferation by components of the extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paez-Pereda

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix is a three-dimensional network of proteins, glycosaminoglycans and other macromolecules. It has a structural support function as well as a role in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The extracellular matrix conveys signals through membrane receptors called integrins and plays an important role in pituitary physiology and tumorigenesis. There is a differential expression of extracellular matrix components and integrins during the pituitary development in the embryo and during tumorigenesis in the adult. Different extracellular matrix components regulate adrenocorticotropin at the level of the proopiomelanocortin gene transcription. The extracellular matrix also controls the proliferation of adrenocorticotropin-secreting tumor cells. On the other hand, laminin regulates the production of prolactin. Laminin has a dynamic pattern of expression during prolactinoma development with lower levels in the early pituitary hyperplasia and a strong reduction in fully grown prolactinomas. Therefore, the expression of extracellular matrix components plays a role in pituitary tumorigenesis. On the other hand, the remodeling of the extracellular matrix affects pituitary cell proliferation. Matrix metalloproteinase activity is very high in all types of human pituitary adenomas. Matrix metalloproteinase secreted by pituitary cells can release growth factors from the extracellular matrix that, in turn, control pituitary cell proliferation and hormone secretion. In summary, the differential expression of extracellular matrix components, integrins and matrix metalloproteinase contributes to the control of pituitary hormone production and cell proliferation during tumorigenesis.

  17. D-2 dopamine receptor activation reduces free [3H]arachidonate release induced by hypophysiotropic peptides in anterior pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    Dopamine reduces the stimulation of intracellular [ 3 H]arachidonate release produced by the two PRL-stimulating peptides angiotensin-II and TRH. This effect is concentration dependent and is mediated by stimulation of D-2 dopamine receptors. D-2 receptor agonists (bromocriptine, dihydroergocryptine, and dihydroergocristine) inhibit the release of fatty acid induced by angiotensin-II with a potency that parallels their ability to inhibit PRL release in vitro. Conversely, the selective D-2 receptor antagonist L-sulpiride completely prevents dopamine's effect, whereas SCH 23390 (a D-1 receptor antagonist) is ineffective. The inhibitory action of dopamine does not seem to be consequent to an action on the adenylate cyclase-cAMP system, as 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM) does not affect either basal or dopamine-inhibited [ 3 H]arachidonate release. However, a 24-h pertussis toxin pretreatment significantly reduces the action of dopamine on fatty acid release. Collectively, these results suggest that D-2 dopamine receptor-mediated inhibition of intracellular [ 3 H]arachidonate release requires the action of a GTP-binding protein, but is not a consequence of an inhibitory action on cAMP levels

  18. 38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3... Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a veteran within 35 days of termination of active military service, it is...

  19. Epidermoid cyst in Anterior, Middle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankane Vivek Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are benign slow growing more often extra-axial tumors that insinuate between brain structures, we present the clinical, imaging, and pathological findings in 35 years old female patients with atypical epidermoid cysts which was situated anterior, middle & posterior cranial fossa. NCCT head revealed hypodense lesion over right temporal and perisylvian region with extension in prepontine cistern with mass effect & midline shift and MRI findings revealed a non-enhancing heterogeneous signal intensity cystic lesion in right frontal & temporal region extending into prepontine cistern with restricted diffusion. Patient was detoriated in night of same day of admission, emergency Fronto-temporal craniotomy with anterior peterousectomy and subtotal resection was done. The histological examination confirms the epidermoid cyst. The timing of ectodermal tissue sequestration during fetal development may account for the occurrence of atypical epidermoid cysts.

  20. [Anterior chest wall examination reviewed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Monaco, A; Santilli, D; Trotta, F

    2002-01-01

    Anterior chest wall involvement is not infrequently observed within inflammatory arthropaties, particularly if one considers seronegative spondyloarthritides and SAPHO syndrome. Physical examination is unreliable and conventional X-rays analysis is an unsatisfactory tool during diagnostic work-up of this region. Scintigraphic techniques yield informations both on the activity and on the anatomical extent of the disease while computerized tomography visualize the elementary lesions, such as erosions, which characterize the process. Moreover, when available, magnetic resonance imaging couple the ability to finely visualize such lesions with the possibility to show early alterations and to characterize the "activity" of the disease, presenting itself as a powerful tool both for diagnosis and follow-up. This review briefly shows the applications of imaging techniques for the evaluation of the anterior chest wall focusing on what has been done in the SAPHO syndrome which can be considered prototypical for this regional involvement since it is the osteo-articular target mainly affected by the disease.

  1. Chronic Anterior Uveitis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Cristóbal; Frick, Mercedes M; LaMattina, Kara; Schlaen, Ariel; Khoury, Marina; Lopez, Matilde María; Hurtado, Erika; Espada, Graciela

    2016-08-01

    To describe the visual prognosis and remission rate of chronic anterior uveitis in pediatric patients. A retrospective case series of children with chronic anterior uveitis treated in the University of Buenos Aires. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis was defined according to the International League of Associations for Rheumatology criteria. Uveitis remission was defined according to SUN criteria. There were 35 pediatric patients (61 eyes), mean age of uveitis onset was 7.69 ± 3 years, 60% were females and 74% had bilateral disease, median follow-up was 60 months (range: 12-192 months). JIA was more frequent in females (80.95 vs 21.43; pgood Received 30 August 2015; revised 6 March 2016; accepted 14 March 2016; published online 18 May 2016.

  2. Abnormal expression of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in human pituitary adenomas: a prereceptor determinant of pituitary cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, E H; Ayuk, J; Boelaert, K; Sheppard, M C; Hewison, M; Stewart, P M; Gittoes, N J L

    2003-03-20

    The physiological effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) are, at least in part, mediated by inhibition of cell proliferation. Two isozymes of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD) interconvert cortisol (F) and inactive cortisone (E), and are thus able to modulate GC action at an autocrine level. Previously, we have demonstrated absent expression of 11 beta-HSD2 in normal pituitaries; however, in a small number of pituitary tumors analysed, 11 beta-HSD2 was readily demonstrable. Here we have used real-time RT-PCR to quantify expression of mRNA for 11 beta-HSD1 and 2 in 105 human pituitary tumors and have performed enzyme expression and activity studies in primary pituitary cultures. Overall, pituitary tumors expressed lower levels of 11 beta-HSDl mRNA compared with normals (0.2-fold, Pprotein (mean+/-s.d.)) but no detectable 11 beta-HSDl activity. Proliferation assays showed that addition of glycyrrhetinic acid (an 11 beta-HSD2 inhibitor) resulted in a 30.3+/-7.7% inhibition of cell proliferation. In summary, we describe a switch in expression from 11 beta-HSDl to 11 beta-HSD2 in neoplastic pituitary tissue. We propose that abnormal expression of 11 beta-HSD2 acts as a proproliferative prereceptor determinant of pituitary cell growth, and may provide a novel target for future tumor therapy.

  3. Anterior cingulotomy for intractable pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Agarwal, MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservative therapy is often the first-line treatment for many symptoms of various disease processes, including pain. Nevertheless, if pharmacological or medical management fails for those patients with severe and chronic pain, a surgical strategy may be a reasonable option. First performed for psychiatric disorders, cingulotomy now has been recognized as a viable option for the management of pain. The authors review the literature on anterior cingulotomy for intractable pain to provide guidelines for management and expected outcomes.

  4. Anterior shoulder dislocations in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronen, J G

    1986-01-01

    Anterior shoulder dislocations, primary and recurrent, are among the most disabling injuries to the shoulder that can plague the athlete. The diagnosis is easily made by the following: the physical appearance of the shoulder; loss of capability by the athlete to internally and externally rotate the shoulder with the elbow at his side; by evaluating the mechanism of injury; and x-rays. Anterior shoulder dislocations should be reduced as soon as possible after diagnosis, to minimise the stretching effect on the neurovascular structures while the humeral head is dislocated. The reduction is not done to allow the athlete to return immediately to sport. Use of a simple traction method in the first 10 to 15 minutes following the injury will result in a successful reduction in the vast majority of dislocations. Reduction of the humeral head can be confirmed by the athlete regaining the capability to internally and externally rotate his shoulder with his elbow at his side. Following reduction, the athlete should begin a treatment regimen which includes a restrengthening programme emphasising the muscles of internal rotation and adduction plus rigid restrictions of activities until the goals of the rehabilitation programme are satisfied. The author's experience with this treatment regimen with athletes at the United States Naval Academy, has shown a decrease of the recurrence rate of primary anterior shoulder dislocations to 25% versus the 80% recurrence rate we have become familiar with from studies done which did not stress specific rehabilitation programmes. The athlete should also be instructed in a self-performed traction method for reduction should a redislocation occur, to minimise the stretching effect on the neurovascular structures and allow relief from discomfort. Surgery for primary and recurrent anterior dislocations should only be considered when the athlete fails to achieve the desired goals after participating in a specific, progressive, adequate

  5. Anterior chest wall examination reviewed

    OpenAIRE

    F. Trotta; D. Santilli; A. Lo Monaco

    2011-01-01

    Anterior chest wall involvement is not infrequently observed within inflammatory arthropaties, particularly if one considers seronegative spondiloarthritides and SAPHO syndrome. Physical examination is unreliable and conventional X-rays analysis is an unsatisfactory tool during diagnostic work-up of this region. Scintigraphic techniques yield informations both on the activity and on the anatomical extent of the disease while computerized tomography visualize the elementary lesions, such as er...

  6. BIM-23A760 influences key functional endpoints in pituitary adenomas and normal pituitaries: molecular mechanisms underlying the differential response in adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; López-Sánchez, Laura M; Gahete, Manuel D; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Vázquez-Borrego, Mari C; Gálvez, María A; de la Riva, Andrés; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Jiménez-Reina, Luis; Moreno-Carazo, Alberto; Tinahones, Francisco J; Maraver-Selfa, Silvia; Japón, Miguel A; García-Arnés, Juan A; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Webb, Susan M; Kineman, Rhonda D; Culler, Michael D; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raúl M

    2017-02-09

    Chimeric somatostatin/dopamine compounds such as BIM-23A760, an sst2/sst5/D 2 receptors-agonist, have emerged as promising new approaches to treat pituitary adenomas. However, information on direct in vitro effects of BIM-23A760 in normal and tumoral pituitaries remains incomplete. The objective of this study was to analyze BIM-23A760 effects on functional parameters (Ca 2+ signaling, hormone expression/secretion, cell viability and apoptosis) in pituitary adenomas (n = 74), and to compare with the responses of normal primate and human pituitaries (n = 3-5). Primate and human normal pituitaries exhibited similar sst2/sst5/D2 expression patterns, wherein BIM-23A760 inhibited the expression/secretion of several pituitary hormones (specially GH/PRL), which was accompanied by increased sst2/sst5/D2 expression in primates and decreased Ca 2+ concentration in human cells. In tumoral pituitaries, BIM-23A760 also inhibited Ca 2+ concentration, hormone secretion/expression and proliferation. However, BIM-23A760 elicited stimulatory effects in a subset of GHomas, ACTHomas and NFPAs in terms of Ca 2+ signaling and/or hormone secretion, which was associated with the relative somatostatin/dopamine-receptors levels, especially sst5 and sst5TMD4. The chimeric sst2/sst5/D 2 compound BIM-23A760 affects multiple, clinically relevant parameters on pituitary adenomas and may represent a valuable therapeutic tool. The relative ssts/D 2 expression profile, particularly sst5 and/or sst5TMD4 levels, might represent useful molecular markers to predict the ultimate response of pituitary adenomas to BIM-23A760.

  7. Brain-Pituitary Axis Development In The CEBAS Minimodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreibman, Martin P.; Magliulo-Cepriano, Lucia

    2001-01-01

    The CEBAS minimodule system is a man-made aquatic ecological system that incorporates animals, plants, snails, and microorganisms. It has been proposed that CEBAS will lead to a multigenerational experimental facility for utilization in a space station as well as for the development of an aquatic CELSS to produce animal and plant biomass for human nutrition. In this context, research on the reproductive biology of the organisms within the system should receive the highest priority. 1bus, the goals of our proposal were to provide information on space-flight-induced changes in the brain-pituitary axis and in the organs that receive information from the environment in the vertebrate selected for the CEBAS Minimodule program, the freshwater teleost Xiphophorus helleri (the swordtail). We studied the development of the brain- pituitary axis in neonates, immature and mature swordtails using histology, cytology, immunohistochemistry, morphometry, and in situ histochemistry to evaluate the synthesis, storage, and release of neurotransmitters, neuroregulatory peptides, neurohormones, and pituitary hormones as well as the structure of the organs and cells that produce, store, or are the target organs for these substances. We flew experiments in the CEBAS-minimodule on two shuttle missions, STS-89 and STS-90. In both flights four gravid females and about 200 juvenile (7 days old) swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri) constituted the aquatic vertebrates to be studied, in addition to the plants and snails that were studied by other team members. In a sample sharing agreement developed with Dr. Volker Bluem, organizer of the CEBAS research program, we received a small number of the juveniles and shared the brains of two adult females.

  8. Lectin Histochemical Study of Vasculogenesis During Rat Pituitary Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s The aim of this study was to investigate glycoconjugates distribution patterns as well as their changes during the course of pituitary portal vasculogenesis and angiogenesis.Materials and MethodsFormalin fixed paraffin sections of 10 to 20 days of Sprague Dawly rat fetuses were processed for histochemical studies using four different horseradish peroxidase (HRP conjugated lectins. Orange peel fungus (OFA, Vicica villosa (VVA, Glycine max (SBA and Wistaria floribunda (WFA specific for α-L-Fucose, D-Gal, α, ß-D-GalNAc and D- GalNAc terminal sugars of glycoconjugates respectively.ResultsOur finding indicated that adenohypophysal cells reacted with OFA on gestational day 10 (E10 and increased progressively to E14. Staining intensity did not change from days 14 to17, then after increased following days to E20 significantly (P< 0.05. A few cells around Rathke’s pouch reacted with VVA on E13, increased to E14 and decreased significantly afterward (P< 0.05. Reaction of some cells around Rathke’s pouch reacted with SBA on E14. This visible reaction was the same as E18 and decreased later (P< 0.05. Many cells around Rathke’s pouch reacted with WFA on E13 and increased on E 14 and E15 and decreased thereafter (P< 0.05.ConclusionReactions of OFA and other tested lectins with endothelial cells around Rathke’s pouch and developing pars distalis were different. These results suggest that embryonic origin of hypophiseal pituitary portal (HPP system endothelial cells are not the same and our finding also indicated that glycoconjugates with terminal sugars α-L-Fucose, D-Gal, α, ß-D-GalNAc may play critical role(s in cell interactions and tissue differentiations such as vasculogensis and angiogenesis as well as other developmental precursors in formation of the pituitary gland.

  9. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression in asthmatic school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöllner, Ekkehard Werner; Lombard, Carl J; Galal, Ushma; Hough, F Stephen; Irusen, Elvis M; Weinberg, Eugene

    2012-12-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression (HPAS) when treating children with corticosteroids is thought to be rare. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of and predictive factors for various degrees of HPAS. Clinical features of HPAS, doses, adherence, asthma score, and lung functions were recorded in 143 asthmatic children. The overnight metyrapone test was performed if morning cortisol was >83 nmol/L. Spearman correlations coefficients (r) were calculated between 3 postmetyrapone outcomes and each continuous variable. A multiple linear regression model of √postmetyrapone adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and a logistic regression model for HPAS were developed. Hypocortisolemia was seen in 6.1% (1.8-10.5), hypothalamic-pituitary suppression (HPS) in 22.2% (14.5-29.9), adrenal suppression in 32.3% (23.7-40.9), HPAS in 16.3% (9.3-23.3), and any hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in 65.1% (56.5-72.9). Log daily nasal steroid (NS) dose/m(2) was associated with HPAS in the logistic regression model (odds ratio = 3.7 [95% confidence interval: 1.1-13.6]). Daily inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) + NS dose/m(2) predicted HPAS in the univariate logistic regression model (P = .038). Forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity HPAS (odds ratio = 4.1 [95% confidence interval: 1.0-14.8]). Daily ICS + NS/m(2) dose was correlated with the postmetyrapone ACTH (r = -0.29, P HPAS are NS use, BMI, and adherence to ICS and NS.

  10. Endocannabinoid Signaling and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, Cecilia J; Beatka, Margaret; Sarvaideo, Jenna

    2016-12-06

    The elucidation of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol as the active principal of Cannabis sativa in 1963 initiated a fruitful half-century of scientific discovery, culminating in the identification of the endocannabinoid signaling system, a previously unknown neuromodulatory system. A primary function of the endocannabinoid signaling system is to maintain or recover homeostasis following psychological and physiological threats. We provide a brief introduction to the endocannabinoid signaling system and its role in synaptic plasticity. The majority of the article is devoted to a summary of current knowledge regarding the role of endocannabinoid signaling as both a regulator of endocrine responses to stress and as an effector of glucocorticoid and corticotrophin-releasing hormone signaling in the brain. We summarize data demonstrating that cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) signaling can both inhibit and potentiate the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by stress. We present a hypothesis that the inhibitory arm has high endocannabinoid tone and also serves to enhance recovery to baseline following stress, while the potentiating arm is not tonically active but can be activated by exogenous agonists. We discuss recent findings that corticotropin-releasing hormone in the amygdala enables hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation via an increase in the catabolism of the endocannabinoid N-arachidonylethanolamine. We review data supporting the hypotheses that CB1R activation is required for many glucocorticoid effects, particularly feedback inhibition of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, and that glucocorticoids mobilize the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol. These features of endocannabinoid signaling make it a tantalizing therapeutic target for treatment of stress-related disorders but to date, this promise is largely unrealized. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:1-15, 2017. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Evaluation of the pituitary gland in idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasundar, R.; Raghunathan, P. [All India Inst. of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India). Dept. of NMR; Ammini, A.C. [All India Inst. of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Endocrinology and Metabolism; Gupta, R. [All India Inst. of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Radiodiagnosis

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the pituitary gland has been carried out in idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) to test the potential of MR imaging in differentiating IHH patients from normals. Material and Methods: Thirty-seven patients (aged 18-30 years), and 20 volunteers (aged 20-30 years) were studied by T1-weighted MR imaging. Length (L{sub A} and L{sub P}), height (H), width (W), area (A{sub A} and A{sub P}), and volume (V{sub 1A}, V{sub 1P}, V{sub 2A}, V{sub 2P}) of the pituitary gland were determined. (Subscripts P and A refer to measurements made with and without the posterior lobe, respectively.) V{sub 1} and V{sub 2} were estimated using two different methods. Results: in the control group, L{sub P}, W and V{sub 2A} exhibited significant differences between female and male volunteers. While W was the only parameter that did not show significant difference between normals and patients (in both men and women), all other parameters except L{sub P}, H and A{sub P} showed statistically significant differences between normals and IHH patients in both males and females. While L{sub P} was significantly different between normals and patients (men), H and A{sub P} were significantly different between normals and patients only in the female group. Conclusion: Correlation analysis between various parameters has shown that L{sub A} can be used for evaluating the pituitary in both the male and female IHH patients. (orig.)

  12. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels in patients with suppressed pituitary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasavada, P.; Chen, I.; Maxon, H.; Barnes, E.; Sperling, M.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of borderline hyperthyroidism is difficult. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting subnormal levels of serum TSH may be of value in confirming this diagnosis because of the suppressed pituitary function in this disease state. This sensitive assay may also be useful in monitoring the suppression of pituitary function in thyroid cancer patients receiving thyroid hormone therapy. A sensitive radioimmunoassay capable of detecting serum TSH levels as low as 0.25 μU/m1 with coefficients of variation less than 17.2% was used to measure serum TSH levels in 80 healthy subjects, 44 hyperthyroid patients, and 25 athyrotic thyroid cancer patients on daily suppressive doses of thyroxine. All healthy subjects had detectable TSH levels with a mean value of 1.17 and two standard deviation ranges of 0.41 - 2.70 μU/m1 (lognormal distribution). Although the mean +-1 SEM value of 0.63 +- 0.003 μUm1 for hyperthyroid patients and 0.76 +- 0.08 μU/ml for thyroid cancer patients were significantly lower than that of healthy subjects (t-test, p<0.05), subnormal levels of serum TSH were found in only 28.6% (12/42) and 24% (6/25) of hyperthyroid and thyroid cancer patients, respectively. TSH stimulation tests performed in 6 of the cancer patients all gave suppressed responses. Because of considerable overlap, serum TSH levels alone cannot distinguish hyperthyroidsm from euthyroidism. However, a sensitive TSH radioimmunoassay such as the one described here may be of value in evaluating the extent of pituitary suppression in thyroid cancer therapy

  13. Baseline characteristics and effects of ten years of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in adults previously treated with pituitary irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbornsson, Mariam; Götherström, Galina; Bengtsson, Bengt-Åke; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Svensson, Johan

    2013-12-01

    Little is known of the importance of previous irradiation therapy for baseline characteristics and responsiveness to GH replacement in GH deficient (GHD) adults. In this prospective, single-centre, open-label study, the effects of 10-year GH replacement were determined in 18 GHD adults that had previously received conventional external fractionated pituitary irradiation therapy (IRR group) and 18 non-irradiated GHD patients (non-IRR group). All patients had adult onset disease and complete deficiency of anterior pituitary hormones and both groups were comparable in terms of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and waist:hip ratio. At baseline, IRR patients had higher serum triglyceride (TG) and insulin levels and lower high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (HDL-C) level than non-IRR patients (all pGH replacement improved body composition, bone mass and serum lipid profile without any between-group differences, except for a marginally more beneficial response in serum TG level in the IRR patients. After 10 years, there was no between-group difference in any variable after correction for a higher replacement dose of glucocorticoids in the IRR patients at study end using an analysis of covariance. During the 10-year GH replacement, 5 IRR patients suffered from vascular events (2 fatal) whereas only one non-fatal vascular event occurred in the non-IRR patients. IRR patients with GHD display a more severely impaired cardiovascular risk profile at baseline, which was reversed by the 10-year GH replacement after correction for the higher glucocorticoid dose at study end. However, vascular events occurred more frequently in the IRR patients. © 2013.

  14. Building a Successful Endoscopic Skull Base and Pituitary Surgery Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindwani, Raj; Woodard, Troy D; Recinos, Pablo F

    2016-02-01

    Building an endoscopic cranial base practice can be challenging and is predicated on the right team. Successful outcomes stem from an efficient and talented team that improves its skills experientially in a supportive environment. As with most new endeavors that are beyond the traditional approach, there is a great deal of up-front effort and investment required. This article explores some of the key building blocks necessary for a successful endoscopic cranial base and pituitary program and highlights some of the lessons learned during the authors' journey at the Cleveland Clinic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Methamphetamine and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Gabriel Zuloaga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants such as methamphetamine (MA induce significant alterations in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. These changes in HPA axis function are associated with altered stress-related behaviors and might contribute to addictive processes such as relapse. In this mini-review we discuss acute and chronic effects of MA (adult and developmental exposure on the HPA axis, including effects on HPA axis associated genes/proteins, brain regions, and behaviors such as anxiety and depression. A better understanding of the mechanisms through which MA affects the HPA axis may lead to more effective treatment strategies for MA addiction.

  16. Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Carcinoma with Dural Metastasis: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Justin; Carmichael, John D; Commins, Deborah; Liu, Chia-Shang Jason; Omura, Emily; Chang, Eric; Zada, Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    Pituitary carcinoma is extremely rare, representing approximately 0.2% of all surgically resected pituitary neoplasms. It is thought to arise from World Health Organization grade II (atypical) pituitary adenomas. Pituitary carcinoma is defined by metastasis; it is otherwise indistinguishable from atypical pituitary adenomas, which can be considered carcinoma in situ. Pituitary carcinoma is difficult to diagnose and treat and is associated with poor long-term outcomes. A 75-year-old man presented with a highly aggressive and treatment-refractory atypical prolactinoma that transformed into a prolactin carcinoma. Although the patient experienced early hormonal and surgical remission and local tumor control after tumor resection and fractionated radiation, isolated dural-based metastases were subsequently noted following gradual elevation in serum prolactin despite ongoing dopamine agonist therapy. En bloc resection was performed of the pathology-confirmed, prolactin-staining dural metastases. At 1-year follow-up, there was no further evidence of metastatic disease, and normalization of serum prolactin was observed. Long-term surveillance using serum prolactin as a tumor biomarker and correlation to imaging studies were critical for the diagnosis and interval screening for recurrence. This technique can be applied to all secretory atypical pituitary adenomas to improve early detection of potential metastasis. Further research, especially of genetic and epigenetic characteristics, could readily improve the diagnosis and treatment of pituitary carcinomas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lack of Ubiquitin Specific Protease 8 (USP8) Mutations in Canine Corticotroph Pituitary Adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbiera, Silviu; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Weigand, Isabel; Grinwis, Guy C M; Broeckx, Bart; Herterich, Sabine; Allolio, Bruno; Deutschbein, Timo; Fassnacht, Martin; Meij, Björn P

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cushing's disease (CD), also known as pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, is caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary tumours. Affected humans and dogs have similar clinical manifestations, however, the incidence of the canine disease is thousand-fold higher.

  18. Pituitary dwarfism in Saarloos and Czechoslovakian wolfdogs is associated with a mutation in LHX3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, AMWY; Leegwater, Peter; Kooistra, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Background Pituitary dwarfism in German Shepherd Dogs is associated with autosomal recessive inheritance and a mutation in LHX3, resulting in combined pituitary hormone deficiency. Congenital dwarfism also is encountered in breeds related to German Shepherd Dogs, such as Saarloos and Czechoslovakian

  19. Effect of crude canine pituitary extract (cCPE) on the in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined the effect of crude canine pituitary extract (cCPE) on the in vitro nuclear maturation of canine oocytes and production of progesterone by cumulus cells. cCPE was extracted from canine pituitaries and the concentrations of canine follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were ...

  20. A FSH-Secreting Pituitary Macroadenoma Causing A Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available FSH-secreting pituitary adenomas can affect sexual and reproductive function. In this article, we have reported the case of a 32-year-old male with secondary infertility. The patient had sexual and reproductive disturbances. The test results of the blood samples indicated obviously decreased testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 levels. Based on previous hormonal results, the patient received pituitary stimulation and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG tests. Both follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH showed low response during the pituitary stimulation test. The results of the hCG test indicated that T/E2 could recover to a normal level. In addition, this patient was diagnosed with pituitary macroadenoma, which was supported by the pituitary MRI. The man’s sexual and reproductive functions recovered following surgery. The pathological results confirmed that the tumor tissue was an FSH-secreting pituitary adenoma by immunohistochemical staining. The purpose of this report was to review the relative literature and discuss the influence of FSH-secreting pituitary adenomas on hormones through the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis.

  1. Spontaneous remission of acromegaly and Cushing’s disease following pituitary apoplexy: Two case reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerink, S.H.P.P.; Lindert, E.J. van; Ven, A.C. van de

    2015-01-01

    In this double case report, we present two special cases of pituitary apoplexy. First, we describe a patient with growth hormone deficiency despite clinical suspicion of acromegaly. Imaging showed evidence of a recent pituitary apoplexy, which might have caused spontaneous remission of the

  2. Transformation of a Silent Adrencorticotrophic Pituitary Tumor Into Central Nervous System Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon A. Miller MD, PhD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Silent adrenocorticotrophic pituitary adenomas are nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas that express adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH but do not cause the clinical or laboratory features of hypercortisolemia. Primary central nervous system (CNS melanoma is well documented, but rarely originates in the sellar region or pituitary gland. Here we report transformation of an aggressive silent adrenocorticotrophic pituitary adenoma that transformed into CNS melanoma and review other presentations of pituitary melanoma. A 37-year-old woman initially presented with apoplexy and an invasive nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma for which she underwent transphenoidal surgery. The patient underwent 3 subsequent surgeries as the tumor continued to progress. Pathology from the first 3 operations showed pituitary adenoma or carcinoma. Pathology from the final surgery showed melanoma and the magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of the tumor had changed to become consistent with CNS melanoma. Dermatologic and ophthalmologic examinations did not identify cutaneous or ocular melanoma. The patient’s disease progressed despite aggressive surgical, medical and radiologic treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating transformation of a primary pituitary tumor into melanoma. The mechanism of tumor transformation is unclear, but it is possible that a mutation in the original ACTH-producing tumor lead to increased cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin or ACTH into α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, which in turn stimulated the expression of microopthalmia transcription factor, leading to melanocytic phenotype transformation.

  3. Metastatic pituitary carcinoma in a patient with acromegaly: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sreenan, Seamus

    2012-01-01

    Asymptomatic pituitary abnormalities occur in about 10% of cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans, but metastatic carcinoma of the pituitary gland is rare: 133 cases have been reported. Two thirds secreted either prolactin or adrenocorticotropic hormone, and another 24% were non-secreting.

  4. Prognostic factors for outcome of pituitary surgery in dogs with corticotroph adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, S.J. van

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (PDH) is a common endocrinopathy in dogs, caused by an ACTH secreting adenoma in the pituitary gland. Dogs with PDH can be treated with medication, radiation therapy or surgery. Although postoperative results are good, long-term recurrences do occur in around 25%

  5. Radioimmunological study of the gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland in women during menstrual cycle recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemodanov, V.I.; Likhacheva, T.M.; Sel'verova, N.B.

    1985-01-01

    The gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland in women atan early stage of pregnancy and a month after abortion has been studied. The results of the investigation testify to the fact that radioimmunoassay of horiones in blood plasma is rather a precise criterion for estimat+on of the gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland at an earby stage of pregnancy and after abortion

  6. Pituitary adenomas in mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L

    1992-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human GH-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs, lactotrophs, and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both GH and PRL, by 8 months of age. We now report that GRH transgenic mice 10-24 months of age develop pituitary...

  7. Direct sagittal CT scanning in the diagnosis of pituitary fossa tumours and posterior fossa pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podlas, H.

    1981-01-01

    Two independent methods are presented for multidirectional CT scanning of the brain using the Philips Tomoscan 300. The advantages in scanning pituitary fossa tumours and pathology of the posterior fossa are discussed. No additional software or modifications are required. Direct sagittal scanning is particularly advantageous for accurate assessment of the size of pituitary tumours and intrasellar lesions requiring surgical intervention or radiation therapy. (Auth.)

  8. Leptin stimulates pituitary prolactin release through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian K; Strom, Christina N; Bailey, Sean T

    2008-01-01

    pituitary model system. This advantageous system allows isolation of a nearly pure population of lactotropes in their natural, in situ aggregated state. The rostral pars distalis were dissected from tilapia pituitaries and exposed to varying concentrations of leptin (0, 1, 10, 100 nM) for 1 h. Release...

  9. In1-ghrelin splicing variant is overexpressed in pituitary adenomas and increases their aggressive features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Gahete, Manuel D.; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Rincón-Fernández, David; Nelson, Richard; Beltrán, Manuel; de la Riva, Andrés; Japón, Miguel A.; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Gálvez, Ma Ángeles; García-Arnés, Juan A.; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Morgan, Jennifer; Tsomaia, Natia; Culler, Michael D.; Dieguez, Carlos; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raúl M.

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise a heterogeneous subset of pathologies causing serious comorbidities, which would benefit from identification of novel, common molecular/cellular biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The ghrelin system has been linked to development of certain endocrine-related cancers. Systematic analysis of the presence and functional implications of some components of the ghrelin system, including native ghrelin, receptors and the recently discovered splicing variant In1-ghrelin, in human normal pituitaries (n = 11) and pituitary adenomas (n = 169) revealed that expression pattern of ghrelin system suffers a clear alteration in pituitary adenomasas comparedwith normal pituitary, where In1-ghrelin is markedly overexpressed. Interestingly, in cultured pituitary adenoma cells In1-ghrelin treatment (acylated peptides at 100 nM; 24–72 h) increased GH and ACTH secretion, Ca2+ and ERK1/2 signaling and cell viability, whereas In1-ghrelin silencing (using a specific siRNA; 100 nM) reduced cell viability. These results indicate that an alteration of the ghrelin system, specially its In1-ghrelin variant, could contribute to pathogenesis of different pituitary adenomas types, and suggest that this variant and its related ghrelin system could provide new tools to identify novel, more general diagnostic, prognostic and potential therapeutic targets in pituitary tumors. PMID:25737012

  10. Aggressive pituitary tumours and carcinomas: two sides of the same coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouillas, Jacqueline; Burman, Pia; McCormack, Ann I; Petersenn, Stephan; Popovic, Vera; Dekkers, Olaf; Raverot, Gerald

    2018-03-27

    The European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) survey reported on the largest cohort of 125 aggressive pituitary tumours (APT) and 40 pituitary carcinomas (PC). Whilst the survey focused on treatment effectiveness, all pathological data were not explored in detail. Here we comment on some interesting pathological findings, notably the difference between APT and PC.

  11. Gnathostomiasis of the anterior chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barua P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular involvement with Gnathostoma spinigerum occurs years after the initial infection that is acquired by ingestion of poorly cooked, pickled seafood or water contaminated with third stage larvae. Here we report a case of gnathostomiasis of the left eye of a 32-year-old lady hailing from Meghalaya, India. Her vision had deteriorated to hand movement. Slit lamp examination revealed a live, actively motile worm in the anterior chamber, which was extracted by supra temporal limbal incision and visual acuity was restored.

  12. Clinical biochemistry and MRI follow up study in postpartum pituitary enlargement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weipeng; Huang Shaoqiang; Lu Xiaofan; Cai Baimang; Liu Xuguang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between enlargement of pituitary in postpartum females and the clinical biochemistry. Methods: In total 6 postpartum women were studied by MRI of pituitary and clinical biochemistry assessment, the data was collected especially in puerperium period. Results: Enlargement of pituitary gland was most remarkable in the first week of puerperium period, while endocrine changes including HCG, Progesterone, E 2 also reached considerable high peak in the same time especially the first and second day after labor. Prolactin also increased. βHCG, Progesterone, and E 2 rapidly decreased after the first week of puerperium period and the size of pituitary gland recovered to normal size. Conclusion: Postpartum enlargement of pituitary gland is physiological and related with internal environment change in gravitation, which is not to be misdiagnosed as a lesion

  13. Electrophoretic separation of cells and particles from rat pituitary and rat spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Wesley C.

    1993-01-01

    There are 3 parts to the IML-2 TX-101 experiment. Part 1 is a pituitary cell culture experiment. Part 2 is a pituitary cell separation experiment using the Japanese free flow electrophoresis unit (FFEU). Part 3 is a pituitary secretory granule separation experiment using the FFEU. The objectives of this three part experiment are: (1) to determine the kinetics of production of biologically active growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) in rat pituitary GH and PRL cells in microgravity (micro-g); (2) to investigate three mechanisms by which a micro-g-induced lesion in hormone production may occur; and (3) to determine the quality of separations of pituitary cells and organelles by continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE) in micro-g under conditions where buoyancy-induced convection is eliminated.

  14. Post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy: Case presentation and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Billeci, M.D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is a dramatic condition that can occur spontaneously or triggered by various precipitating factors. Head trauma is a rare but well-recognized cause of apoplectics events. We present the case of an 81-year-old woman, with negative past medical history and under antiplatelet agents, who experienced an isolated VI cranial nerve palsy 24 h after a mild head trauma. Early brain CT revealed an unknown pituitary lesion without signs of intralesional bleeding. Only late brain MRI imaging revealed pituitary apoplexy together with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. After aggravation of neurological condition the patient, undergo endoscopic transsphenoidal decompression of cranial nerves with rapid deficits improvement. Our aim is to share our experience and to propose the first critical review of all cases of post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy described in literature. We also try to suggest some management advice for post traumatic pituitary apoplexy.

  15. Modeling the brain-pituitary-gonad axis in salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jonghan; Hayton, William L.; Schultz, Irv R.

    2006-08-24

    To better understand the complexity of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis (BPG) in fish, we developed a biologically based pharmacodynamic model capable of accurately predicting the normal functioning of the BPG axis in salmon. This first-generation model consisted of a set of 13 equations whose formulation was guided by published values for plasma concentrations of pituitary- (FSH, LH) and ovary- (estradiol, 17a,20b-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one) derived hormones measured in Coho salmon over an annual spawning period. In addition, the model incorporated pertinent features of previously published mammalian models and indirect response pharmacodynamic models. Model-based equations include a description of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) synthesis and release from the hypothalamus, which is controlled by environmental variables such as photoperiod and water temperature. GnRH stimulated the biosynthesis of mRNA for FSH and LH, which were also influenced by estradiol concentration in plasma. The level of estradiol in the plasma was regulated by the oocytes, which moved along a maturation progression. Estradiol was synthesized at a basal rate and as oocytes matured, stimulation of its biosynthesis occurred. The BPG model can be integrated with toxico-genomic, -proteomic data, allowing linkage between molecular based biomarkers and reproduction in fish.

  16. Primary intravascular large B-cell lymphoma of pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K R Anila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old retired nurse, who was a known hypertensive on medication, presented with prolonged fever of 2-month duration without any clinical evidence of infection. On examination she had altered mental status. She also had other nonspecific complaints such as sleep disturbances, loss of weight, etc. On investigation, she was found to have anemia, thrombocytopenia, raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH values. She also had electrolyte imbalance. Radiological evaluation of brain showed mass lesion in the sella turcica, suggestive of pituitary adenoma. Biochemical evaluation showed hypopituitarism. Trans-sphenoidal biopsy was done. Based on histopathological and immunohistochemical findings a diagnosis of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL of pituitary was made. Our patient′s condition deteriorated rapidly and she succumbed to her illness before therapy could be initiated. We are reporting this case because of the rare subtype of large B-cell lymphoma presenting at an extremely unusual primary site.

  17. [Endoscopic treatment of 140 pituitary tumors, results and complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Sofia; Toscano, Maximiliano; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Garategui, Lucas; Campero, Alvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio; Carrizo, Antonio; Ajler, Pablo

    To present the clinical and radiographic outcomes of 140 patients with pituitary adenomas treated by an endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) over a period of 4 years. A retrospective analysis was performed between 2011 and 2014. Pre and post operative MRI, ophtalmological assessment, endocrinological laboratory evaluation and surgical morbidity and mortality were assessed. 57,9% of the patients had functional tumors (n=81), acromegaly being the most frequent sub-type (29.3%). 78.6% of the lesions were macroadenomas (n=110) of which 56.4% (n=62) involved the cavernous sinus, 61 patients presented with visual field defects (44%) of which 50.8% of patients showed improvement after surgery. Gross total removal was achieved in 60% of the cases. Hormonal remission was achieved in the 75% of the patients with functional tumors. The morbidity rate was 15% and one patient died after surgery (mortality 0.7%). EEA is a safe and effective tool to treat pituitary adenomas. The main limitation for complete surgical resection is the cavernous sinus invasion. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Paraganglioma, pituitary adenoma, and osteosarcoma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robat, Cecilia; Houseright, Ruth; Murphey, Joanne; Sample, Saundra; Pinkerton, Marie

    2016-09-01

    An 11-year-old neutered male Alaskan Malamute mixed-breed dog was presented with a complaint of polyuria/polydipsia (PU/PD), weight loss, tachypnea, regurgitation, and a previous history of nontreated osteosarcoma of the right distal radius, diagnosed 21 months prior. On physical examination, an abdominal mass was palpated. The abdominal mass was aspirated and cytologically diagnosed as a neuroendocrine tumor, suspected to be a pheochromocytoma. Laboratory examination revealed a mild anemia and thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated ATP and ALP activities, and moderate hypercalcemia. A low-dose dexamethasone suppression test and endogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentration were compatible with pituitary hyperadrenocorticism. On urinalysis, proteinuria was noted as well as a high urine metanephrine/creatinine ratio, consistent with a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. The dog was treated with supportive care and euthanized 6 months later due to decreasing quality of life. On necropsy, an extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma (paraganglioma) was diagnosed in the caudal abdomen, and a pituitary adenoma and an osteosarcoma of the right distal radius were confirmed. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  19. CT follow-up after radiation therapy for pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, S.C.; Newall, J.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1985, 105 patients received radiation therapy as all or part of their treatment for pituitary tumor at the New York University Medical Center. Of these, 48 patients underwent computed tomography (CT) at a minimum of 2 years following treatment, with detailed reports available for analysis of tumor regression. There were 28 men with a median age of 46 years (range, 18-71 years) and 20 women with a median age of 53 years (range, 28-80 years). Tumors were classified as secretory in 23 patients, nonsecretory in 21, and undetermined in four. Sixteen patients were treated with radiation therapy alone, 23 patients with surgery and radiation therapy, and the other with bromocriptine and radiation therapy, with or without surgery. With a median follow-up of 5 years (range, 2-14 years), 16 patients developed an empty sella, 25 patients had residual sellar mass, and seven patients had persistent extrasellar components or no change in their intrasellar mass. Among patients who did not have hypopituitarism at the inception of radiation therapy, five of 13 with empty sellas and 12 of 22 with residual mass subsequently required therapy. The authors conclude that residual mass is commonly found in long-term follow-up after radiation therapy, that isolated imaging studies revealing such findings after treatment in no way herald a diagnosis of recurrence, and that hypopituitarism following pituitary radiation therapy does not correlate with the ablation or persistence of tissue within the sella

  20. Сatamnesis of organic hallucinosis case at pituitary macroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yur’yeva L.N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a one-year follow-up study of the clinical case of organic hallucinosis that we have described in the previous article in the patient with pituitary macroadenoma. At primary admission to the hospital (one year earlier the likelihood of permanent or recurrent nature of hallucinosis and absolutely poor prognosis for recovery and life without removal of the tumor was pointed out to the patient and his family. However, the patient and his relatives flatly refused to undergo neurosurgical intervention. The article describes the dynamics of psychopathological and somatic statuses of the patient during his readmission to a psychiatric hospital. The exciting cause of death on the 25th day of hospital stay was phenomenon of cerebral edema. By results of post-mortem studies the underlying cause of death was small cell chromophobe pituitary adenoma. There was a complete accuracy between clinical and post-mortem diagnosis. Absolutely unfavorable prognosis made before has been confirmed. The conclusion about the need of psychoeducational interventions with this contingent of patients and their relatives for prevention of an adverse disease outcome is made.

  1. Living with a pituitary tumour: a narrative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jane; Heath, James; Wall, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to synthesise the illness narratives of individuals living with a pituitary tumour. Eight adults with a pituitary tumour were recruited from an endocrinology service in the north-west of England. A narrative methodology was adopted which investigated elements of the individual narratives such as metaphor and structure but which also aimed to produce a joint account of experience in this particular illness context by extracting themes across the stories; these are presented as part of a chronological narrative. However, the resulting group story was also analysed in terms of different types of narrative plots. The group narrative started from the recognition of symptoms and then diagnosis though treatment to post-treatment and future plans. In terms of narrative plots, one notable element of the joint narrative was the flow between the culturally dominant restitution narrative, where participants focused on treatment and recovery and the chaos narrative when recovery did not seem possible. The findings contain many elements consistent with previous research; however, the use of a celebrity figure to communicate about the illness experience and a perception that objects or individuals should not be taken at face value emerged as more novel findings.

  2. Further studies on phosphorylated pituitary somatotropin (growth hormone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornberg, L.J.; Liberti, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    This laboratory made the original observation that naturally-occurring ovine growth hormone (GH) is phosphorylated and that slices of pituitary glands from male rats synthesize and secrete 32 P-GH. This observation has been extended to explore the generality of this process. After incubation in PO 4 -free Ham's F-10 medium (PFH) or in saline/Hepes (SH) containing 300μCi 32 Pi/mL, tissue and medium were separated and a cell extract was prepared. GH in the medium and extract was recovered by immunoprecipitation using rat GH antiserum. The samples were electrophoresed under denaturating conditions and processed for autoradiography. 32 P-GH was characterized by the presence of a protein-staining band and radioactive area which migrated the same as authentic GH and 125 I-GH. Slices of glands from male rats incubated for 2h in PFH secreted 32 P-GH. Similar results were found upon incubation of slices from female rats in the presence of SH. Short-term incubations of acutely dispersed pituitary cells obtained from young and old male rats also synthesized and secreted 32 P-GH. Thus, the production of 32 P-GH occurs (a) in simple and complex incubaton media, (b) in slices and cells from glands from older and younger rats and (c) in female as well as male rats. Therefore, phosphorylation of GH appears to be a general phenomenon. The physiological action(s) of phosphorylated GH in growth and development is under study

  3. Melatonin and cortisol profiles in patients with pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Daniel; Sowiński, Jerzy; Nowak, Stanisław; Ciesielska, Anna; Moskal, Jakub; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T

    2015-01-01

    The optic tract section at the optic chiasm is expected to disturb the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) rhythm, circadian rhythm and melatonin secretion rhythms in humans, although detailed studies have never been conducted. The aim of this paper was to describe melatonin and cortisol profiles in patients with a pituitary tumor exerting optic chiasm compression. Six patients with pituitary tumors of different size, four of whom had significant optic chiasm compression, were examined. In each brain, MRI, an ophthalmological examination including the vision field and laboratory tests were performed. Melatonin and cortisol concentrations were measured at 22:00 h, 02:00 h, 06:00 h, and 10:00 h in patients lying in a dark, isolated room. One of the four cases with significant optic chiasm compression presented a flattened melatonin rhythm. The melatonin rhythm was also disturbed in one patient without optic chiasm compression. Larger tumors may play a role in the destruction of neurons connecting the retina with the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and breaking of basic way for inhibiting effect to the SCN from the retina. Copyright © 2014 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Pituitary gland volume in patients with schizophrenia, subjects at ultra high-risk of developing psychosis and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Dorte; Krogh, Jesper; Mondelli, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    A larger pituitary size is thought to reflect a greater activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may be related to an increase in the number and size of corticotroph cells. Some studies, but not all, indicate that pituitary volume increases before or at the onset...

  5. Anterior chest wall examination reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior chest wall involvement is not infrequently observed within inflammatory arthropaties, particularly if one considers seronegative spondiloarthritides and SAPHO syndrome. Physical examination is unreliable and conventional X-rays analysis is an unsatisfactory tool during diagnostic work-up of this region. Scintigraphic techniques yield informations both on the activity and on the anatomical extent of the disease while computerized tomography visualize the elementary lesions, such as erosions, which characterize the process. Moreover, when available, magnetic resonance imaging couple the ability to finely visualize such lesions with the possibility to show early alterations and to characterize the “activity” of the disease, presenting itself as a powerful tool both for diagnosis and follow-up. This review briefly shows the applications of imaging techniques for the evaluation of the anterior chest wall focusing on what has been done in the SAPHO syndrome which can be considered prototypical for this regional involvement since it is the osteo-articular target mainly affected by the disease.

  6. [Anterior skull-base schwannoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Miranda, Miguel; De la O Ríos, Elier; Vargas-Valenciano, Emmanuelle; Moreno-Medina, Eva

    Schwannomas are nerve sheath tumours that originate in Schwann cells. They are usually solitary and sporadic and manifest on peripheral, spinal or cranial nerves. Intracranial schwannomas tend to manifest on the eighth cranial nerve, particularly in patients with neurofibromatosis type2. Anterior skull-base schwannomas represent less than 1% of all intracranial schwannomas. They are more frequent in young people and are typically benign. These tumours represent a diagnostic challenge due to their rarity and difficult differential diagnosis, and numerous theories have been postulated concerning their origin and development. In this article, we present the case of a 13-year-old male with a single anterior cranial-base tumour not associated with neurofibromatosis who presented with headache, papilloedema, eye pain and loss of visual acuity. Complete resection of the tumour was performed, which was histopathologically diagnosed as a schwannoma. The patient made a complete clinical recovery with abatement of all symptoms. We conducted a review of the literature and found 66 cases worldwide with this diagnosis. We describe the most relevant epidemiological and clinical characteristics of this kind of tumour and its relation with the recently discovered and similar olfactory schwannoma. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. GnRH-induced Ca2+ signaling patterns and gonadotropin secretion in pituitary gonadotrophs. Functional adaptations to both ordinary and extraordinary physiological demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa eDurán-Pastén

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary gonadotrophs are a small fraction of the anterior pituitary population, yet they synthesize gonadotropins: luteinizing (LH and follicle stimulating (FSH, essential for gametogenesis and steroidogenesis. LH is secreted via a regulated pathway while FSH release is mostly constitutive and controlled by synthesis. Although gonadotrophs fire action potentials spontaneously, the intracellular Ca2+ rises produced do not influence secretion, which is mainly driven by Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH, a decapeptide synthesized in the hypothalamus and released in a pulsatile manner into the hypophyseal portal circulation. GnRH binding to G protein coupled receptors triggers Ca2+ mobilization from InsP3-sensitive intracellular pools, generating the global Ca2+ elevations necessary for secretion. Ca2+ signaling responses to increasing [GnRH] vary in stereotyped fashion from subthreshold to baseline spiking (oscillatory, to biphasic (spike-oscillatory or spike-plateau. This progression varies somewhat in gonadotrophs from different species and biological preparations. Both baseline spiking and biphasic GnRH-induced Ca2+ signals control LH/FSH synthesis and exocytosis. Estradiol and testosterone regulate gonadotropin secretion through feedback mechanisms, while FSH synthesis and release are influenced by activin, inhibin and follistatin. Adaptation to physiological events like the estrous cycle, involves changes in GnRH sensitivity and LH/FSH synthesis: in proestrus, estradiol feedback regulation abruptly changes from negative to positive, causing the pre-ovulatory LH surge. Similarly, when testosterone levels drop after orquiectomy the lack of negative feedback on pituitary and hypothalamus boosts both GnRH and LH secretion, gonadotrophs GnRH sensitivity increases and Ca2+ signaling patterns change. In addition, gonadotrophs proliferate and grow. These plastic changes denote a more vigorous functional adaptation in response to an extraordinary

  8. Cirurgia da hipófise por via trans-esfenoidal sob controle radiofluoroscópico e microdissecção novo tratamento da retinopatia diabética, tumores selares e neoplasias endocrinodependentes The surgery of the pituitary gland using a transphenoidal approach under radiofluoroscopic control and microdisection: a new treatment for diabetic retinopathy, pituitary tumors and endocrinodependent growths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Hardy

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentada nova técnica para a ablação total ou seletiva da hipófise utilizando via de acesso trans-esfenoidal, controle radiofluoroscópico e microdissecção, com traumatismo desprezível às estruturas circunvizinhas. Os autores comentam as aplicações do método à prática neurocirúrgica, relatando parte de uma série de mais 140 casos já operados. São discutidos os resultados obtidos no tratamento de 17 casos de retinopatia diabética, em 11 dos quais apenas o lobo anterior da hipófise foi removido, assim como aqueles obtidos na exérese de 20 casos de tumores selares. As indicações da hipofisectomia por via trans-esfenoidal no controle da sintomatologia das neoplasias endòcrinodependentes é estudada à luz dos resultados obtidos em 17 casos, sendo os resultados comparados com casos nos quais foi feita a implantação selar de ítrio90. As complicações operatorias em relação às três entidades nosológicas acima estudadas são também analisadas. Os autores salientam que a técnica descrita constitui, no presente estado das técnicas neurocirúrgicas utilizadas para a produção de uma insuficiência hipofisária duradoura, a intervenção de escolha.A new neurosurgical technique for the partial or total exéresis of the pituitary gland, using a transphenoidal approach under radiofluoroscopic control and microdisection is described. Part of a series of more than 140 cases operated upon by this method is reported. Results obtained in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy in 17 cases, 11 of which had only the pars anterior removed, are discussed. The applications of the transphenoidal route in 20 cases of pituitary fossa tumors are analysed. The indications of this type of operation in the management of endocrinodependent cancer is studied in 17 cases and compared with the results of 36 cases submitted to implant of Yttrium90 in the sella turcica. The operative complications following transphenoidal exéresis of the

  9. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome: a rare and severe cause of pituitary deficiency Laboratory diagnosis of a newborn case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boueilh, Thomas; Bassi, Corentin; Rouleau, Stéphanie; Le Crugel, Sébastien; Moal, Valérie; Boux de Casson, Florence; Coutant, Régis; Mirebeau-Prunier, Delphine; Reynier, Pascal; Homedan, Chadi

    2017-04-01

    We report the case of a newborn with neonatal hypotonia associated to a micropenis and a bilateral cryptorchidia. The discovery of severe hypoglycemia at 0.22 mmol/L led to further biological investigations that revealed sharply decreased levels of several hypophyseal hormones. Altered corticotropic, somatotropic, thyreotropic, and gonadotropic axes finally suggested congenital hypophyseal insufficiency. This diagnostic was confirmed by a brain MRI (magnectic resonance imaging), which revealed a total interruption of the pituitary stalk. Immediate substitutive hormonal treatment allowed a clinical improvement of the condition and limited the risk of further episodes of hypoglycemia. The pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS), a very rare congenital disorder, has an estimated incidence of about 1:200.000. This developmental anomaly of the hypophysis calls for urgent diagnosis since prognosis depends on the rapid implementation of substitutive hormonal therapy. The hormonal deficit in the newborn affected by PSIS is often of a multiple nature with a constant somatotropic deficit, thus requiring the exploration of the different antehypophyseal axes. Despite the fact that PSIS is a rare disorder, it should always be kept in the differential diagnosis of newborn presenting with hypoglycemia. Since the interpretation of hormonal assays is particularly delicate at birth, close clinico-biological cooperation is essential for rapid diagnosis of PSIS and appropriate adaptation of the short- and long-term therapeutic management of the newborn.

  10. Imaging findings of anterior hip dislocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, Kyle [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Department of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Leslie, Michael [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, New Haven, CT (United States); Menn, Kirsten; Haims, Andrew [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Anterior hip dislocations are rare orthopedic emergencies resulting from high-energy trauma and have unique imaging characteristics on radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Imaging findings on CT and MRI allow for the prompt recognition and classification of anterior hip dislocations, which guides patient management and reduces complications. The purpose of this article is to review imaging findings of anterior hip dislocations, specifically focusing on CT and MRI. (orig.)

  11. Imaging findings of anterior hip dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, Kyle; Leslie, Michael; Menn, Kirsten; Haims, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Anterior hip dislocations are rare orthopedic emergencies resulting from high-energy trauma and have unique imaging characteristics on radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Imaging findings on CT and MRI allow for the prompt recognition and classification of anterior hip dislocations, which guides patient management and reduces complications. The purpose of this article is to review imaging findings of anterior hip dislocations, specifically focusing on CT and MRI. (orig.)

  12. Incidental Anterior Cruciate Ligament Calcification: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hisami; Fischer, Hans

    2016-03-01

    The calcification of knee ligaments is a finding noted only in a handful of case reports. The finding of an anterior cruciate ligament calcification has been reported once in the literature. Comparable studies involving the posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and an ossicle within the anterior cruciate ligament are likewise discussed in reports of symptomatic patients. We report a case of incidentally discovered anterior cruciate ligament calcification. We discuss the likely etiology and clinical implications of this finding.

  13. Elevated plasma levels of the pituitary hormone Cthrc1 in individuals with red hair but not in patients with solid tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine W Duarte

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies report that Cthrc1 is expressed in various cancer cells. The present study sought to identify which cells in tumors and remodeling tissues express Cthrc1 and investigate the range of circulating human Cthrc1 levels in health and disease.Highly specific monoclonal antibodies were generated to detect Cthrc1 by ELISA in plasma and in tissues by immunohistochemistry. In human colon, gastric, breast, endometrial, pancreatic, kidney, lung and skin cancer, Cthrc1 was expressed by activated stromal cells and not the cancer cells themselves. Similarly, conditions evoking tissue remodeling, such as wound repair or angiotensin II-mediated hypertension, induced Cthrc1 expression in interstitial and adventitial fibroblasts and perivascular stromal cells. Levels of Cthrc1 in plasma from healthy subjects were near the lower detection limit except for individuals with red hair, who had up to several hundred fold higher levels. Elevated Cthrc1 was also found in patients with diabetes, inflammatory conditions, and infections, but not solid tumors. Transgenic mouse studies suggested that Cthrc1 expression by stromal cells does not contribute to circulating levels. In human pituitaries, Cthrc1 was expressed in the anterior and intermediate lobes with unencapsulated Cthrc1 accumulations typically surrounded by chromophobe cells.We identify Cthrc1 as a marker for activated stromal cells. Cthrc1 is a pituitary hormone with significantly elevated levels in subjects carrying variant alleles of the melanocortin-1 receptor as wells as in patients with inflammatory conditions.

  14. Elevated plasma levels of the pituitary hormone Cthrc1 in individuals with red hair but not in patients with solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Christine W; Stohn, J Patrizia; Wang, Qiaozeng; Emery, Ivette F; Prueser, Andrew; Lindner, Volkhard

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of studies report that Cthrc1 is expressed in various cancer cells. The present study sought to identify which cells in tumors and remodeling tissues express Cthrc1 and investigate the range of circulating human Cthrc1 levels in health and disease. Highly specific monoclonal antibodies were generated to detect Cthrc1 by ELISA in plasma and in tissues by immunohistochemistry. In human colon, gastric, breast, endometrial, pancreatic, kidney, lung and skin cancer, Cthrc1 was expressed by activated stromal cells and not the cancer cells themselves. Similarly, conditions evoking tissue remodeling, such as wound repair or angiotensin II-mediated hypertension, induced Cthrc1 expression in interstitial and adventitial fibroblasts and perivascular stromal cells. Levels of Cthrc1 in plasma from healthy subjects were near the lower detection limit except for individuals with red hair, who had up to several hundred fold higher levels. Elevated Cthrc1 was also found in patients with diabetes, inflammatory conditions, and infections, but not solid tumors. Transgenic mouse studies suggested that Cthrc1 expression by stromal cells does not contribute to circulating levels. In human pituitaries, Cthrc1 was expressed in the anterior and intermediate lobes with unencapsulated Cthrc1 accumulations typically surrounded by chromophobe cells. We identify Cthrc1 as a marker for activated stromal cells. Cthrc1 is a pituitary hormone with significantly elevated levels in subjects carrying variant alleles of the melanocortin-1 receptor as wells as in patients with inflammatory conditions.

  15. Pineal and pituitary involvement in the photoperiodic regulation of body weight, coat color and testicular size of the Djungarian hamster, Phodopus sungorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklowitz, P; Hoffmann, K

    1988-09-01

    Hypophysectomy of 40-day-old male hamsters kept under long photoperiods resulted in a change in coat color from the brownish summer coat to the whitish winter coat, within 5 wk of the surgery, cessation of growth, and, most frequently, an additional loss in body weight. The testes of the hypophysectomized animals were involuted within 14 days after surgery. Continuous substitution of prolactin by implantation of two anterior pituitaries under the kidney capsule was able to reverse partly or totally the inhibitory effects of hypophysectomy on coat color and body weight, although there was no influence on testicular volume. The same effects could be achieved by daily s.c. injections of prolactin (100 micrograms ovine-PRL/day) into hypophysectomized hamsters, whereas the injection of adrenocorticopropic hormone (5 IU porcine-ACTH/day) or melanocyte-stimulating hormone (35 micrograms synthetic alpha-MSH/day) was ineffective. Additional pinealectomy influenced neither the inhibitory effects of hypophysectomy on coat pigmentation and body weight nor the stimulatory effects of prolactin substitution in hypophysectomized animals. Thus, the study provides evidence that the effects of the pineal gland on annual changes in body weight and coat color are mediated via the pituitary.

  16. Physico-chemical characterization of human recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH) and its subunits by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography ( RP-HPLC): comparison with pituitary hFSH reference preparation from 'National Hormone and Pituitary Program' from USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Renan Fernandes

    2006-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of intact human folliclestimulating hormone (hFSH) was established and validated for accuracy, precision and sensitivity. Human FSH is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone widely used as a diagnostic analyte and as therapeutic product in reproductive medicine. The technique developed preserves the protein integrity, allowing the analysis of the intact heterodimeric form rather than just of its subunits, as it is the case for the majority of the conditions currently employed. This methodology has also been employed for comparing the relative hydrophobicity of pituitary, urinary and two Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-derived hFSH preparations, as well as of two other related glycoprotein hormones of the anterior pituitary: human thyroid-stimulating hormone (hTSH) and human luteinizing hormone (hLH). The least hydrophobic of the three glycohormones analyzed was hFSH, followed by hTSH and hLH. A significant difference (p R between the pituitary and recombinant hFSH preparations, reflecting structural differences in their carbohydrate moieties. Two main isoforms were detected in urinary hFSH, including a form which was significantly different (p<0.005) for the pituitary and recombinant preparations. The linearity of the dose-response curve (r = 0.9965, n = 15) for this RP-HPLC methodology, as well as an inter-assay precision with relative standard deviation less than 4% for the quantification of different hFSH preparations and a sensitivity of the order of 40 ng, were demonstrated. The chromatographic behavior and relative hydrophobicity of the individual subunits of the pituitary and recombinant preparations were also analyzed. Furthermore, the accurate molecular mass of the individual hFSH subunits and of the heterodimer were simultaneously determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectral analysis (MALDI-TOF-MS). The

  17. Radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma: long-term outcome and sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCord, Mark W.; Buatti, John M.; Fennell, Eileen M.; Mendenhall, William M.; Marcus, Robert B.; Rhoton, Albert L.; Grant, Maria B.; Friedman, William A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To review outcome and treatment sequelae in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas. Methods and Materials: One hundred forty-one patients with pituitary adenomas received radiotherapy at the University of Florida and had 2-year minimum potential follow-up. One hundred twenty-one had newly diagnosed adenomas, and 20 had recurrent tumors. Newly diagnosed tumors were treated with surgery and radiotherapy (n = 98) or radiotherapy alone (n = 23). Patients with recurrent tumors received salvage treatment with surgery and radiotherapy (n = 10) or radiotherapy alone (n = 10). The impact of age, sex, presenting symptoms, tumor extent, surgery type, degree of resection, hormonal activity, primary or salvage therapy, and radiotherapy dose on tumor control was analyzed. Tumor control is defined by the absence of radiographic progression and stable or decreased hormone level (in hormonally active tumors) after treatment. Effect of therapy on vision, hormonal function, neurocognitive function, life satisfaction, and affective symptoms were examined. A Likert categorical scale survey was used for assessment of neurocognitive, life satisfaction, and affective symptom status. Survey results from the radiotherapy patients were compared with a control group treated with transsphenoidal surgery alone. Multivariate analysis used the forward step-wise sequence of chi squares for the log rank test. Results: At 10 years, tumor control for the surgery and radiotherapy group (S + RT) was 95% and not statistically different (p = 0.58) than for patients treated with radiotherapy alone (RT) (90%). Patients with prolactin- and ACTH-secreting tumors had significantly worse tumor control, as did patients treated for recurrent tumors. Multivariate analysis for tumor control revealed that only young age was predictive of worse outcome (p = 0.0354). Visual function was either unaffected or improved in most patients, although four patients developed visual

  18. Radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma: long-term outcome and sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCord, Mark W.; Buatti, John M.; Fennel, Eileen M.; Mendenhall, William M.; Marcus, Robert B.; Friedman, William A.; Rhoton, Albert L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To review outcome and treatment sequelae in patients treated with external-beam radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas. Materials and Methods: One hundred forty-one patients with pituitary adenomas received radiotherapy and had 2-year minimum follow-up. One hundred twenty-one patients had newly diagnosed adenomas and 20 patients had recurrent tumors. Newly diagnosed tumors were treated with surgery and radiotherapy (S + RT; n=98) or radiotherapy alone (RT; n=23). Patients with recurrent tumors received salvage treatment with S+RT (n=10) or RT (n=10). The impact of age, sex, presenting symptoms, tumor extent, surgery type, degree of resection, hormonal activity, primary or salvage therapy, and radiotherapy dose on local control and cause-specific survival was analyzed. Effect of therapy on vision, hormonal function, life satisfaction, neurocognitive function, and affective symptoms was examined. A Likert scale survey was used for assessment of life satisfaction, neurocognitive status, and affective symptoms after therapy. Survey results from the RT patients were compared to a control group treated with transsphenoidal surgery alone (S). Survival analysis employed the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis used the forward step-wise sequence of chi-squares for the log-rank test. Results: At 10 years, local control for the S+RT group (S + RT) was 95% and not statistically different (p=.58) than for patients in the RT group (90%). Cause-specific survival rates were also similar (p=.88) between the S+RT (97%) and RT (99%) groups. Patients with prolactin- and ACTH-secreting tumors had significantly worse local control, as did patients treated for recurrent tumors. Cause-specific survival was not decreased in any patient group. Multivariate analysis for local control and cause-specific survival revealed only young age to be predictive of worse outcome (p=.0354 and p=.0355 respectively). Visual function was either unaffected or improved in most patients

  19. Long-term visual changes following pituitary irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movsas, Benjamin; Movsas, Tammy Z.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Okunieff, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze possible long-term effects of pituitary irradiation on visual fields and acuity. Methods and Materials: Eighty-six patients were treated with radiotherapy for pituitary tumors at the National Cancer Institute between 1980 and 1991. Twenty-one patients had baseline preradiation and long-term follow-up visual fields. Eyes were followed with serial Goldmann or Humphrey visual field testing. Neuroradiologic correlation was made with the available brain scans. There were 12 females and 9 males with an median age of 44. Eighteen patients had hormone-secreting tumors and three had chromophobe adenomas. All but one patient with an inoperable invasive macroadenoma were irradiated after one or more transphenoidal resections or a craniotomy. The indications for radiation in the operable patients were: nine patients, partial tumor resection; nine patients, tumor recurrence; and two patients, persistent hormonal elevation after surgery. The median dose delivered was 50 Gy (45-59.4 Gy). The average field size was 6 x 6 cm (5 x 5 cm to 10 x 12.5 cm). Results: With a median follow-up of 48 months (14-128) after radiotherapy, 1 out of 21 patients has recurred (at 8 months) and all patients are alive. Of the 38 sighted eyes, 27 had normal visual fields before and after radiation, 7 eyes showed improvement, and 4 eyes had a stable defect, mostly in the superior temporal region. There were no cases of radiation-induced visual field or acuity deterioration. Six out of 21 patients (29%) had neurologic symptoms in follow-up, most of which appeared vascular in nature. Four patients complained of atypical migranous-like headaches that first began 1.5-3 years following treatment. One patient complained of recurrent vertical diplopia and one patient had a cerebral vascular accident 7 years following therapy. A dose-related association with these neurovascular symptoms approached statistical significance. Only 1 out of 11 (9%) patients who received doses less than or equal

  20. MRI of anterior knee pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samim, Mohammad; Smitaman, Edward; Lawrence, David; Moukaddam, Hicham

    2014-07-01

    Anterior knee pain is the most common knee complaint. It may be due to a variety of soft tissue or osseous abnormalities. Knowledge of the radiologic appearance of the abnormalities allows more accurate diagnosis of the cause of the pain including chondral abnormalities, patellar instability and dislocation, femoral trochlear dysplasia, abnormal patellar location, bipartite patella, various tendinopathies, bursal inflammation, traction apophysitis in pediatric and adolescent patients, and miscellaneous diseases including mediopatellar plica syndrome and Hoffa's disease. Radiographs are often obtained to exclude acute osseous abnormalities, such as fractures. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers superior soft tissue contrast resolution and allows for more accurate evaluation of the underlying etiology and therefore may improve treatment and possible surgical planning.

  1. RUNX1 and RUNX2 upregulate Galectin-3 expression in human pituitary tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He-Yu; Jin, Long; Stilling, Gail A.; Ruebel, Katharina H.; Coonse, Kendra; Tanizaki, Yoshinori; Raz, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    Galectin-3 is expressed in a cell-type specific manner in human pituitary tumors and may have a role in pituitary tumor development. In this study, we hypothesized that Galectin-3 is regulated by RUNX proteins in pituitary tumors. Transcription factor prediction programs revealed several putative binding sites in the LGALS3 (Galectin-3 gene) promoter region. A human pituitary cell line HP75 was used as a model to study LGALS3 and RUNX interactions using Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and electrophoresis mobility shift assay. Two binding sites for RUNX1 and one binding site for RUNX2 were identified in the LGALS3 promoter region. LGALS3 promoter was further cloned into a luciferase reporter, and the experiments showed that both RUNX1 and RUNX2 upregulated LGALS3. Knock-down of either RUNX1 or RUNX2 by siRNA resulted in a significant downregulation of Galectin-3 expression and decreased cell proliferation in the HP 75 cell line. Immunohistochemistry showed a close correlation between Galectin-3 expression and RUNX1/RUNX2 level in pituitary tumors. These results demonstrate a novel binding target for RUNX1 and RUNX2 proteins and suggest that Galectin-3 is regulated by RUNX1 and RUNX2 in human pituitary tumor cells by direct binding to the promoter region of LGALS3 and thus may contribute to pituitary tumor progression. PMID:19020999

  2. Salvage therapy with temozolomide in patients with aggressive or metastatic pituitary adenomas: experience in six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa, Marco; Mazza, Elena; Terreni, Maria Rosa; McCormack, Ann; Gill, Anthony J; Motta, Micaela; Cangi, Maria Giulia; Talarico, Anna; Mortini, Pietro; Reni, Michele

    2010-12-01

    The prognosis of either pituitary carcinoma or aggressive pituitary adenoma resistant to standard therapies is poor. We assessed the efficacy of treatment with temozolomide, an oral second-generation alkylating agent, in a consecutive series of six patients with aggressive pituitary adenomas. This was a 1-year prospective study of temozolomide therapy in six consecutive patients with pituitary carcinoma (one case) or atypical pituitary adenoma (five cases) resistant to standard therapies. There were three males and three females. Age at enrollment ranged between 52 and 64 years. Temozolomide was given orally at a dose of 150-200 mg/m(2) per day for 5 days every 4 weeks for a maximum of 12 cycles. Response assessment was based on measurable change in tumor size, as assessed on magnetic resonance imaging, and hormone levels. Response was defined as reduction of at least 50% of tumor size and hormone levels. Four patients completed the 12 cycles of temozolomide treatment, as planned. Two patients stopped the drug after 3 and 6 months respectively because of the progression of disease. Two patients responded to temozolomide, while the remaining two patients had stable disease. Immunohistochemistry for O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in tumor sample showed a partial association with treatment response. Temozolomide treatment has a wide range of efficacy in patients with pituitary carcinoma or locally aggressive pituitary adenoma. Positive staining for MGMT seems likely to predict a lower chance of response.

  3. Transcriptome-wide identification of preferentially expressed genes in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny eSt-Amand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify preferentially expressed genes in the central endocrine organs of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, we generated transcriptome-wide mRNA profiles of the mouse hypothalamus, pituitary gland and parietal cortex using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE. Total counts of SAGE tags for the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and parietal cortex were 165824, 126688 and 161045 tags, respectively. This represented 59244, 45151 and 55131 distinct tags, respectively. Comparison of these mRNA profiles revealed that 22 mRNA species, including three potential novel transcripts, were preferentially expressed in the hypothalamus. In addition to well-known hypothalamic transcripts, such as hypocretin, several genes involved in hormone function, intracellular transduction, metabolism, protein transport, steroidogenesis, extracellular matrix and brain disease were identified as preferentially expressed hypothalamic transcripts. In the pituitary gland, 106 mRNA species, including 60 potential novel transcripts, were preferentially expressed. In addition to well-known pituitary genes, such as growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone beta, a number of genes classified to function in transport, amino acid metabolism, intracellular transduction, cell adhesion, disulfide bond formation, stress response, transcription, protein synthesis and turnover, cell differentiation, the cell cycle and in the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix were also preferentially expressed. In conclusion, the current study identified not only well-known hypothalamic and pituitary transcripts but also a number of new candidates likely to be involved in endocrine homeostatic systems regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

  4. STUDY OF CLINICAL AND ENDOCRINE PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH PITUITARY TUMOURS ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy Kumar Mohanty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pituitary tumours are relatively common endocrine tumours. They can present with symptoms related to hormone excess or hormone deficiency. They can also present with compressive symptoms like visual problems and headache. OBJECTIVE To study the various clinical presentations and endocrine profile of patients presenting with pituitary tumours to a tertiary care hospital. DESIGN Cross sectional study. MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected and analysed the clinical data including hormonal status of 33 consecutive patients who presented to our department from March 2014 to February 2016 for evaluation of pituitary tumours. RESULTS Majority of the subjects studied belonged to 40-50 years group (33.34%.The most common type of pituitary tumour in our population was non-functioning pituitary tumours (45.45%. The next common cause was somatotroph adenoma (27.27% followed by prolactinoma (15.15% and corticotroph adenomas (12.13%. There was significant male predominance (60.60% among total cases. Among all patients, headache (54.54% was most common presentation followed by features related to hormone excess (51.51%. CONCLUSIONS Pituitary tumours can present with variety of symptoms. A detailed endocrine workup is essential in each case to reach at correct diagnosis. In our cohort, non-functioning pituitary tumour was the most common tumour subtype.

  5. Fenestrated A1 segment of right anterior cerebral artery associated to duplicated anterior communicating artery

    OpenAIRE

    Sonda, Ildo; Basso, Luciano Silveira

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of fenestrated anterior cerebral artery associated to duplicated anterior communicating artery found duringa routine dissection of the brain in a male human body. Fenestrations of the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery are rare,especially if associated to a duplicated anterior communicating artery. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case in theliterature. We also present a brief review of the surgical importance of this anomaly

  6. Mild toxic anterior segment syndrome mimicking delayed onset toxic anterior segment syndrome after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Na Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is an acute sterile postoperative anterior segment inflammation that may occur after anterior segment surgery. I report herein a case that developed mild TASS in one eye after bilateral uneventful cataract surgery, which was masked during early postoperative period under steroid eye drop and mimicking delayed onset TASS after switching to weaker steroid eye drop.

  7. Age modifies the pituitary TSH response to thyroid failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Laurberg, Peter; Pedersen, Inge B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between serum TSH, total T4 and various patient characteristics when hypothyroidism is diagnosed in a population, and to study how age, sex and serum T4 levels influenced pituitary TSH response. Design: A computer-based register linked to laboratory...... patients with spontaneous autoimmune hypothyroidism (n = 578). Main outcome: In untreated primary, spontaneous autoimmune hypothyroidism, we observed a four fold difference in average serum TSH levels between the youngest (0-20 years: TSH = 100 mU/l) and the oldest (80+ years: TSH = 24.4 mU/l) group...... of patients. No age dependent variation was observed in serum total T4. Log TSH showed an inverse linear correlation with age. An inverse linear correlation was present between log TSH and total T4 in both young and old patients, but for all total T4 values we observed lower median serum TSH values in elderly...

  8. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in major affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M V; Kessing, L V

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity in patients with affective disorders. It is concluded that, despite methodological drawbacks in most studies, dysregulation of the HPA axis seems to be a consistent finding in a proportion of patients with affective...... disorder. The HPA axis is a complex neuroendocrine network with multiple integrated levels of control, and it is likely that the dysregulation involves abnormalities at several sites within the axis. At present, it is not clear whether the abnormalities are related to the affective episodes only...... or to the disorder itself. There is a need for prospective studies of larger samples of patients to be followed during successive affective episodes with a combination of measurements of the HPA-axis activity and brain imaging....

  9. Factors predicting pituitary adenoma invasiveness in acromegalic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, A; Rainov, N G; Ebel, H; Sanchin, L; Shibib, K; Helfrich, C; Hoffmann, O; Burkert, W

    1997-01-01

    Forty-four adult acromegalic patients carrying growth hormone-producing pituitary macroadenomas were investigated with neuroradiological and endocrinological techniques. Plasma growth hormone and somatomedin-C levels were repeatedly measured before surgical removal of tumors and during the follow-up period. Twenty-five patients presented preoperatively with an invasive adenoma that involved the cavernous sinus (CS). Diagnosis of tumor invasivity was made according to distinct neuroradiological criteria and was confirmed or rejected during surgery Significantly higher basal growth hormone levels were found in patients with CS invasion than in cases without tumor growth in the CS. Evidence is presented that plasma growth hormone level in acromegalics is a more sensitive indicator for predicting tumor invasiveness than somatomedin-C. Growth hormone basal values before surgery and the extent of their decrease after removal of tumor correlate with adenoma growth in the parasellar compartments and should be used as a prognostic factor to aid in planing adjuvant tumor treatment.

  10. Myopathy in horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (Cushing's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, M; Watson, J L; Williams, D C; LeCouteur, R A; Nieto, J E; Shelton, G D

    2006-11-01

    Fifteen horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction were studied. The horses were of various breeds and between 15 and 28 years of age. Control horses matched for breed and age were studied for comparison. Evaluations included complete blood cell count and serum biochemical analysis, electromyography, and gluteus medius muscle biopsies for histochemical, morphometric, and ultrastructural analysis. No differences were found between groups of horses on routine laboratory analysis or electromyography. We demonstrated that muscle wasting in diseased horses was the result of atrophy of types 2A and 2B muscle fibers and loss of type 2B myofibers. Mild non-specific non-inflammatory myopathic alterations such as myofiber size variation, internal nuclei, perimysial, endomysial and sarcoplasmic fat accumulation were observed. At the ultrastructural level, subsarcolemmal mitochondrial accumulation and increased lipid droplets were evident. Similar to other species, this study confirmed atrophy of type 2 fibers as the cause of muscle mass loss in horses with Cushing's disease.

  11. Tachykinins and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasaga, Mercedes; Debeljuk, Luciano

    2011-09-01

    Tachykinins play a critical role in neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction. The best known members of the family are substance P (SP), neurokinin A and neurokinin B. Tachykinins mediate their biological actions through three G protein-coupled receptors, named NK1, NK2, and NK3. SP was suggested to play an important role in the ovulatory process in mammals and humans. Recent findings suggest a role of tachykinins in the aging of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. A high presence of SP was found in the sheep pars tuberalis and evidence indicates that it may have some role in the control of prolactin secretion. The presence of SP was confirmed in Leydig cells of the rat testes of animals submitted to constant light or treated with estrogens. Tachykinins were found to increase the motility of human spermatozoa. Tachykinins were also found to be present in the mouse ovary and more specifically, in the granulose cells. It is possible that tachykinins may play an important role in the ovarian function. NKB has been implicated in the steroid feedback control of GnRH release. Human mutations in the gene encoding this peptide or its receptor (TACR3) lead to a defect in the control of GnRH. A specific subset of neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, colocalized three neuropeptides, kisspeptin, NKB and dynorphin. This subpopulation of neurons mediates the gonadal hormone feedback control of GnRH secretion. NKB/NK3 signaling plays a role in puberty onset and fertility in humans. This minireview summarizes the recent data about the action of tachykinins on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognition and brain abnormalities on MRI in pituitary patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brummelman, Pauline; Sattler, Margriet G.A.; Meiners, Linda C.; Berg, Gerrit van den; Klauw, Melanie M. van der; Elderson, Martin F.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.; Koerts, Janneke; Werumeus Buning, Jorien; Tucha, Oliver; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den; Beek, André P. van

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cognitive impairments are frequently observed in treated NFA patients. • NFA patients with cognitive impairments do not show brain abnormalities on MRI more frequently than patients without cognitive impairments. • The absence of brain abnormalities on brain MRI does not exclude impairments of cognition. - Abstract: Purpose: The extent to which cognitive dysfunction is related to specific brain abnormalities in patients treated for pituitary macroadenoma is unclear. Therefore, we compared brain abnormalities seen on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFA) with or without impairments in cognitive functioning. Methods: In this cross-sectional design, a cohort of 43 NFA patients was studied at the University Medical Center Groningen. White matter lesions (WMLs), cerebral atrophy, (silent) brain infarcts and abnormalities of the temporal lobes and hippocampi were assessed on pre-treatment and post-treatment MRI scans. Post-treatment cognitive examinations were performed using a verbal memory and executive functioning test. We compared our patient cohort with large reference populations representative of the Dutch population. Results: One or more impairments on both cognitive tests were frequently observed in treated NFA patients. No treatment effects were found with regard to the comparison between patients with and without impairments in executive functioning. Interestingly, in patients with one or more impairments on verbal memory function, treatment with radiotherapy had been given more frequently (74% in the impaired group versus 40% in the unimpaired group, P = 0.025). Patients with or without any brain abnormality on MRI did not differ in verbal memory or executive functioning. Conclusions: Brain abnormalities on MRI are not observed more frequently in treated NFA patients with impairments compared to NFA patients without impairments in verbal memory or executive functioning

  13. Cognition and brain abnormalities on MRI in pituitary patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brummelman, Pauline [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Sattler, Margriet G.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meiners, Linda C. [Department of Radiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Berg, Gerrit van den; Klauw, Melanie M. van der [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Elderson, Martin F. [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); LifeLines Cohort Study and Biobank, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Dullaart, Robin P.F. [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Koerts, Janneke [Department of Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Werumeus Buning, Jorien, E-mail: j.werumeus.buning@umcg.nl [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Tucha, Oliver [Department of Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R. [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); LifeLines Cohort Study and Biobank, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Beek, André P. van, E-mail: a.p.van.beek@umcg.nl [Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Cognitive impairments are frequently observed in treated NFA patients. • NFA patients with cognitive impairments do not show brain abnormalities on MRI more frequently than patients without cognitive impairments. • The absence of brain abnormalities on brain MRI does not exclude impairments of cognition. - Abstract: Purpose: The extent to which cognitive dysfunction is related to specific brain abnormalities in patients treated for pituitary macroadenoma is unclear. Therefore, we compared brain abnormalities seen on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFA) with or without impairments in cognitive functioning. Methods: In this cross-sectional design, a cohort of 43 NFA patients was studied at the University Medical Center Groningen. White matter lesions (WMLs), cerebral atrophy, (silent) brain infarcts and abnormalities of the temporal lobes and hippocampi were assessed on pre-treatment and post-treatment MRI scans. Post-treatment cognitive examinations were performed using a verbal memory and executive functioning test. We compared our patient cohort with large reference populations representative of the Dutch population. Results: One or more impairments on both cognitive tests were frequently observed in treated NFA patients. No treatment effects were found with regard to the comparison between patients with and without impairments in executive functioning. Interestingly, in patients with one or more impairments on verbal memory function, treatment with radiotherapy had been given more frequently (74% in the impaired group versus 40% in the unimpaired group, P = 0.025). Patients with or without any brain abnormality on MRI did not differ in verbal memory or executive functioning. Conclusions: Brain abnormalities on MRI are not observed more frequently in treated NFA patients with impairments compared to NFA patients without impairments in verbal memory or executive functioning

  14. A rare case of pituitary chromophobe carcinoma in a dog: clinical, tomographic and histopathological findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Longo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 9 year old male mixed-breed dog was presented for progressive aggressiveness towards the owner. The neurological evaluation was consistent with a forebrain syndrome. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the brain revealed enlargement of the third ventricle and presence of a large spheroidal neoplasm in the sellar/parasellar region suggestive of a pituitary macroadenoma. On the owner request, the dog was euthanized. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of a pituitary chromophobe carcinoma. To the author’s knowledge, pituitary carcinomas have been rarely described in dogs, especially the chromophobe subtype.

  15. Effects from postoperative radiotherapy of parasellar ademonas of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchfelder, M.

    1984-01-01

    In this study, the effects from postoperative radiotherapy of parasellar or suprasellar adenomas of the pituitary were analysed to provide more detailed information about the value of radiation treatment, when used as a secondary measure after surgery or even in the primary treatment of pituitary adenomas. The analysis was based on 75 patients showing parasellar or suprasellar tumours of the pituitary. Radiation was in most cases preceded by surgery and carried out in the Radiological Department of Munich's University Hospital after the year 1975, when computed tomography had been made available to the Neurosurgical Department of this clinic. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Totally thrombosed giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Roopesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant anterior communicating artery aneurysmsarerare. Apatient presented with visual dysfunction, gait ataxia and urinary incontinence. MRI showed a giant suprasellar mass.At surgery, the lesion was identified as being an aneurysm arising from the anterior communicating artery.The difficulty in preoperative diagnosis and relevant literature are reviewed.

  17. Atraumatic Anterior Dislocation of the Hip Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiko Ohtsuru

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dislocation of the hip joint in adults is usually caused by high-energy trauma such as road traffic accidents or falls from heights. Posterior dislocation is observed in most cases. However, atraumatic anterior dislocation of the hip joint is extremely rare. We present a case of atraumatic anterior dislocation of the hip joint that was induced by an activity of daily living. The possible causes of this dislocation were anterior capsule insufficiency due to developmental dysplasia of the hip, posterior pelvic tilt following thoracolumbar kyphosis due to vertebral fracture, and acetabular anterior coverage changes by postural factor. Acetabular anterior coverage changes in the sagittal plane were measured using a tomosynthesis imaging system. This system was useful for elucidation of the dislocation mechanism in the present case.

  18. Non-functioning pituitary adenoma database: a useful resource to improve the clinical management of pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Emanuele; Ferraroni, Monica; Castrignanò, Tristana; Menicatti, Laura; Anagni, Mascia; Reimondo, Giuseppe; Del Monte, Patrizia; Bernasconi, Donatella; Loli, Paola; Faustini-Fustini, Marco; Borretta, Giorgio; Terzolo, Massimo; Losa, Marco; Morabito, Alberto; Spada, Anna; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Lania, Andrea G

    2006-12-01

    The long-term outcome of non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) patients is not clearly established, probably due to the low annual incidence and prolonged natural history of these rare tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical data at presentation and long-term post-surgery and radiotherapy outcome in a cohort of patients with NFPA. A computerized database was developed using Access 2000 software (Microsoft Corporation, 1999). Retrospective registration of 295 NFPA patients was performed in seven Endocrinological Centers of North West Italy. Data were analyzed by STATA software. The main presenting symptoms were visual defects (67.8%) and headache (41.4%) and the most frequent pituitary deficit was hypogonadism (43.3%), since almost all tumors were macroadenomas (96.5%). Surgery was the first choice treatment (98% of patients) and total debulking was achieved in 35.5%. Radiotherapy was performed as adjuvant therapy after surgery in 41% of patients. At the follow-up, recurrence occurred in 19.2% of patients without post-surgical residual tumor after 7.5 +/- 2.6 years, regrowth in 58.4% of patients with post-surgical remnant after 5.3 +/- 4.0 years and residue enlargement in 18.4% of patients post-surgically treated with radiotherapy after 8.1 +/- 7.3 years. Our database indicates that the goal of a definitive surgical cure has been achieved during the last decade in a low percentage of patients with NFPA. This tumor database may help to reduce the delay between symptom onset and diagnosis, to assess prognostic parameters for the follow-up of patients with different risk of recurrence and to define the efficacy and safety of different treatments and their association with mortality/morbidity.

  19. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes: sex differences in regulation of stress responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola, Mario G; Handa, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    Gonadal hormones play a key role in the establishment, activation, and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. By influencing the response and sensitivity to releasing factors, neurotransmitters, and hormones, gonadal steroids help orchestrate the gain of the HPA axis to fine-tune the levels of stress hormones in the general circulation. From early life to adulthood, gonadal steroids can differentially affect the HPA axis, resulting in sex differences in the responsivity of this axis. The HPA axis influences many physiological functions making an organism's response to changes in the environment appropriate for its reproductive status. Although the acute HPA response to stressors is a beneficial response, constant activation of this circuitry by chronic or traumatic stressful episodes may lead to a dysregulation of the HPA axis and cause pathology. Compared to males, female mice and rats show a more robust HPA axis response, as a result of circulating estradiol levels which elevate stress hormone levels during non-threatening situations, and during and after stressors. Fluctuating levels of gonadal steroids in females across the estrous cycle are a major factor contributing to sex differences in the robustness of HPA activity in females compared to males. Moreover, gonadal steroids may also contribute to epigenetic and organizational influences on the HPA axis even before puberty. Correspondingly, crosstalk between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and HPA axes could lead to abnormalities of stress responses. In humans, a dysregulated stress response is one of the most common symptoms seen across many neuropsychiatric disorders, and as a result, such interactions may exacerbate peripheral pathologies. In this review, we discuss the HPA and HPG axes and review how gonadal steroids interact with the HPA axis to regulate the stress circuitry during all stages in life.

  20. [Effect of oral contraceptive on the pituitary and plasma L.H. levels and on the hypothalamic LH-RH level (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, N; Yanaihara, T; Kanazawa, M; Okinaga, S; Arai, K

    1976-08-20

    the site of action of the drugs furnished only indirect evidences. The possibility of a direct inhibitary effect of these steroids on the anterior pituitary cannot be ruled out. Administration of 2mg of Norethindrone and 0.1mg of Mestranol significantly depressed both the pituitary content and the plasma level of LH. On the other hand, they significantly increased the hypothalamic LH-RH level. Those findings strongly suggested the direct action of this drug on the anterior pituitary in the female adult rabbits. Detailed mechanisms on how the hypothalamic LH-RH was increased were not known in this experiment, further investigations are now in progress.

  1. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rick W.; Haas, Amanda K.; Anderson, Joy; Calabrese, Gary; Cavanaugh, John; Hewett, Timothy E.; Lorring, Dawn; McKenzie, Christopher; Preston, Emily; Williams, Glenn; Amendola, Annunziato

    2015-01-01

    Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction rehabilitation has evolved over the past 20 years. This evolution has been driven by a variety of level 1 and level 2 studies. Evidence Acquisition: The MOON Group is a collection of orthopaedic surgeons who have developed a prospective longitudinal cohort of the ACL reconstruction patients. To standardize the management of these patients, we developed, in conjunction with our physical therapy committee, an evidence-based rehabilitation guideline. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Results: This review was based on 2 systematic reviews of level 1 and level 2 studies. Recently, the guideline was updated by a new review. Continuous passive motion did not improve ultimate motion. Early weightbearing decreases patellofemoral pain. Postoperative rehabilitative bracing did not improve swelling, pain range of motion, or safety. Open chain quadriceps activity can begin at 6 weeks. Conclusion: High-level evidence exists to determine appropriate ACL rehabilitation guidelines. Utilizing this protocol follows the best available evidence. PMID:26131301

  2. METHOXYCHLOR-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN THE HISTOLOGICAL EXPRESSION OF ANGIOGENIC FACTORS IN PITUITARY AND UTERUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the reproductive system, estrogenic stimulation of uterine and pituitary tissue typically causes a proliferative response accompanied by an angiogenic induction of new blood vessels from existing ones, thereby providing nutrients and oxygen to the growing tissue. The proes...

  3. Pituitary apoplexy presenting with light-near dissociation of the pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, B D; Romanchuk, K G

    1987-09-01

    We describe a patient with pituitary apoplexy causing sudden visual loss and light-near dissociation of the pupils but minimal ophthalmoplegia. Good visual recovery occurred despite an 8-day delay in neurosurgical treatment.

  4. Pituitary macroadenomas: reviews of 60 cases; Revisao de 60 casos de macroadenomas hipofisarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Alair Augusto S.M.D. dos; Fontes, Cristina Asvolinsque P.; Magnago, Marcelo [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia; Moreira, Denise Madeira [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia; Andreiuolo, Pedro Angelo [Hospital Santa Cruz/Beneficencia Portuguesa, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia; Oliveira, Fernando Barros de; Teixeira, Ricardo Tostes D.; Correa, Saul Orlando C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Curso de Pos-graduacao Medica

    2000-12-01

    We reviewed 60 cases of patients with pituitary macroadenomas who were submitted to magnetic resonance imaging evaluations at private institutions in Niteroi and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the advantages of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. Macroprolactinomas were the most prevalent tumors. We also observed four growth-hormone (GH) secreting macroadenomas with clinical signs of acromegaly, and one GH- and prolactin-secreting macroadenoma. Seven patients presented pituitary apoplexy and hyperintense signal on T1-W images before contrast medium (gadolinium) administration suggestive of intratumoral bleeding. The follow-up of 15 cases demonstrated a reduction in the size of the tumor after surgery, clinical treatment or radiotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging is important for the study of pituitary macroadenomas, particularly before surgery, as it shows the involvement of adjacent structures, specially the cavernous sinus, optic chiasm and pituitary stalk compression. (author)

  5. Pituitary apoplexy with optic tract oedema and haemorrhage in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenthall, R.; Jaspan, T. [Univ. Hospital Nottingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology; Gonugunta, V. [Department of Neurosurgery, Univ. Hospital Nottingham, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    Bilateral optic tract oedema, left optic tract haemorrhage and subarachnoid haemorrhage occurred in a 70-year-old man with pituitary apoplexy associated with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Left optic tract haemorrhage was confirmed on MRI. (orig.)

  6. Pituitary adenoma and vestibular schwannoma: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Y

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The concurrence of the intracranial multiple primary tumors (MPTs consisting of acoustic neuroma (AN and pituitary adenoma is very rare. Here, we report a 42-year-old female who presented with left AN associated with pituitary adenoma. A total of three such cases have been reported before and which also presented with left AN with pituitary adenoma. Recently, a new "field cancerization" model has been proposed, which could explain MPTs and is consistent with the pathogenesis of such cases. The model also indicates that when a pituitary tumor or AN is detected separately, we might consider the development of "expanding field" after oncological treatment especially after radiotherapy in order to prevent the second field tumor occurring.

  7. Stubborn hiccups as a sign of massive apoplexy in a naive acromegaly patient with pituitary macroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Simsek Bagir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy (PA may very rarely present with hiccups. A 32-year-old man with classical acromegaloid features was admitted with headache, nausea, vomiting and stubborn hiccups. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated apoplexy of a macroadenoma with suprasellar extension abutting the optic chiasm. Plasma growth hormone (GH levels exhibited suppression (below <1 ng/mL at all time points during GH suppression test with 75 g oral glucose. After treatment with corticosteroid agents, he underwent transsphenoidal pituitary surgery and hiccups disappeared postoperatively. The GH secretion potential of the tumor was clearly demonstrated immunohistochemically. We conclude that stubborn hiccups in a patient with a pituitary macroadenoma may be a sign of massive apoplexy that may result in hormonal remission.

  8. Ependymoma of the pituitary fossa. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhida, Karim; Asa, Sylvia; Gentili, Fred; Shannon, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    The authors describe a case of pituitary fossa ependymoma and discuss its immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characteristics. A 43-year-old man presented with decreased libido and panhypopituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a well-demarcated enhancing lesion of the pituitary fossa that was completely resected via a transsphenoidal approach. Ependymomas rarely occur in the pituitary fossa, and have been reported in this location only three times in humans and once in a horse. This is the first study in which investigators examined the appearance of a pituitary ependymoma by using electron microscopy. Theories of the origin and treatment of these rare tumors are discussed as they relate to other articles on intracranial ependymomas.

  9. Pituitary carcinoma diagnosed on fine needle aspiration: Report of a case and review of pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoushina Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary carcinoma (PC is a very rare entity (0.2% of all pituitary tumors, with only about 140 cases reported in English literature. There are no reliable histological, immunohistochemical or ultrastructural features distinguishing pituitary adenoma (PA from PC. By definition, a diagnosis of PC is made after a patient with PA develops non-contiguous central nervous system (CNS or systemic metastases. To date, only three cases of PC have been reportedly diagnosed on fine needle aspiration (FNA. Two of the reported cases were diagnosed on FNA of the cervical lymph nodes and one on FNA of the vertebral bone lesion. Herein, we present a case of PC, diagnosed on FNA of the liver lesion. In this case, we describe cytologic features of PC and compare them to histologic features of the tumor in the pituitary. Clinical behavior of tumor, pathogenesis of metastasis and immunochemical and prognostic markers will also be described.

  10. ACTH-producing pituitary cancer: experience at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M; Kanaan, I; Alarifi, A; Ba-Essa, E; Saleem, M; Tulbah, A; McArthur, P; Hessler, R

    2000-10-01

    Pituitary gland is an uncommon site of a primary cancer. Of more than 600 cases of pituitary tumors seen at the KFSH&RC between 1975 to 1998 only 3 patients had primary pituitary cancer. We have previously reported a case of pituitary fibrosarcoma arising as a rare complication of external radiotherapy (ERT) for GH-secreting pituitary adenoma (PA) [1]. We report now 2 cases of ACTH-producing primary pituitary carcinoma (ACTH-PPC); their follow-up data provide information on the natural history of this cancer. Patient #1; a 46 year old lady with Cushing's disease (CD) presented with an enlarged right cervical lymph node (LN) 2 years after having undergone a partial hypophysectomy through transsphenoidal surgery (PHYPX/TSS) and ERT for an invasive pituitary tumor. Patient #2; a 26 year old man presented with CD and underwent bilateral adrenalectomy (ADx) and pituitary ERT. Thirty-nine months later he developed Nelson's syndrome and a PHYPX/TSS was performed. Incidentally discovered hepatic metastases in this patient and an excisional biopsy of the LN in patient #1 showed histological features very similar to the pituitary tumor, and they stained strongly positive for ACTH. Perinuclear spherical hyalinized cytoplasmic inclusions were seen in the LN biopsy that corresponded to bundles of type 1 microfilaments (specific for pituitary ACTH-producing cells) seen by electron microscopy. A whole body 18-Fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-Glucose positron emission (FDG-PET) scanning, showed an intense uptake in the neck mass. A trial of octreotide did not change the exceedingly high levels of ACTH in patient #2, further supporting the diagnosis of ACTH-PPC. The clinical course of 102 months prior to his demise showed continued progression of the primary and the metastatic tumor. Patient #1, is alive at 15 months follow-up; hypercortisolemia is controlled using ketoconazole. ACTH-PPC should be entertained in a patient with CD presenting with persistent cervical lymphadenopathy. The clinical

  11. Serotonin, ATRX, and DAXX Expression in Pituitary Adenomas: Markers in the Differential Diagnosis of Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Sellar Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casar-Borota, Olivera; Botling, Johan; Granberg, Dan; Stigare, Jerker; Wikström, Johan; Boldt, Henning Bünsow; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Pontén, Fredrik; Trouillas, Jacqueline

    2017-09-01

    Differential diagnosis based on morphology and immunohistochemistry between a clinically nonfunctioning pituitary neuroendocrine tumor (NET)/pituitary adenoma and a primary or secondary NET of nonpituitary origin in the sellar region may be difficult. Serotonin, a frequently expressed marker in the NETs, has not been systematically evaluated in pituitary NETs. Although mutations in ATRX or DAXX have been reported in a significant proportion of pancreatic NETs, the mutational status of ATRX and DAXX and their possible pathogenetic role in pituitary NETs are unknown. Facing a difficult diagnostic case of an invasive serotonin and adrenocorticotroph hormone immunoreactive NET in the sellar region, we explored the immunohistochemical expression of serotonin, ATRX, and DAXX in a large series of pituitary endocrine tumors of different types from 246 patients and in 2 corticotroph carcinomas. None of the pituitary tumors expressed serotonin, suggesting that serotonin immunoreactive sellar tumors represent primary or secondary NETs of nonpituitary origin. Normal expression of ATRX and DAXX in pituitary tumors suggests that ATRX and DAXX do not play a role in the pathogenesis of pituitary endocrine tumors that remain localized to the sellar and perisellar region. A lack of ATRX or DAXX in a sellar NET suggests a nonpituitary NET, probably of pancreatic origin. One of the 2 examined corticotroph carcinomas, however, demonstrated negative ATRX immunolabeling due to an ATRX gene mutation. Further studies on a larger cohort of pituitary carcinomas are needed to clarify whether ATRX mutations may contribute to the metastatic potential in a subset of pituitary NETs.

  12. The pituitary gland of the European eel reveals massive expression of genes involved in the melanocortin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirill Ager-Wick

    Full Text Available Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland regulate important processes such as development, growth and metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and body pigmentation. Synthesis and secretion of pituitary hormones are regulated by different factors from the hypothalamus, but also through feedback mechanisms from peripheral organs, and from the pituitary itself. In the European eel extensive attention has been directed towards understanding the different components of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis, but little is known about the regulation of upstream processes in the pituitary gland. In order to gain a broader mechanistic understanding of the eel pituitary gland, we have performed RNA-seq transcriptome profiling of the pituitary of prepubertal female silver eels. RNA-seq reads generated on the Illumina platform were mapped to the recently assembled European eel genome. The most abundant transcript in the eel pituitary codes for pro-opiomelanocortin, the precursor for hormones of the melanocortin system. Several genes putatively involved in downstream processing of pro-opiomelanocortin were manually annotated, and were found to be highly expressed, both by RNA-seq and by qPCR. The melanocortin system, which affects skin color, energy homeostasis and in other teleosts interacts with the reproductive system, has so far received limited attention in eels. However, since up to one third of the silver eel pituitary's mRNA pool encodes pro-opiomelanocortin, our results indicate that control of the melanocortin system is a major function of the eel pituitary.

  13. Pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas develop in old mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both growth hormone and prolactin, by 8 months of age. We now report for the first time that old GRH......-transgenic mice, 16 to 24 months of age, develop pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas. These findings provide conclusive evidence that protracted stimulation of secretory activity can cause proliferation, hyperplasia and adenoma of adenohypophysial cells....

  14. Diurnal variation of. beta. -endorphin like immunoreactivity in rat brain, pituitary gland, and plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, I.A.; Perry, M.L.S.; Carrasco, M.A.; Dias, R.D. (Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias); Orsingher, O.A. (Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina))

    1984-09-01

    ..beta..-endorphin like immunoreactivity was measured in the brain, pituitary gland and plasma of rats at 2 A.M, 8 A.M, 2 P.M and 8 P.M. Values were higher in the brain and pituitary gland at 8 P.M and in the plasma at 8 A.M and 2 P.M. The findings suggest a circadian rhythm in the production and release of ..beta..-endorphin immunoreactive material.

  15. MicroRNA Expression Profiling of the Porcine Developing Hypothalamus and Pituitary Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifan; Cai, Zhaowei; Wei, Shengjuan; Zhou, Huiyun; Zhou, Hongmei; Jiang, Xiaoling; Xu, Ningying

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNA molecules, play important roles in gene expressions at transcriptional and post-transcriptional stages in mammalian brain. So far, a growing number of porcine miRNAs and their function have been identified, but little is known regarding the porcine developing hypothalamus and pituitary. In the present study, Solexa sequencing analysis showed 14,129,397 yielded reads, 6,680,678 of which were related to 674 unique miRNAs. After a microarray assay, we detected 175 unique miRNAs in the hypothalamus, including 136 previously known miRNAs and 39 novel candidates, while a total of 140 miRNAs, including 104 known and 36 new candidate miRNAs, were discovered in pituitary. More importantly, 37 and 30 differentially expressed miRNAs from several developmental stages of hypothalamus and pituitary were revealed, respectively. The 37 differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamus represented 6 different expression patterns, while the 30 differentially expressed miRNAs in pituitary represented 7 different expression patterns. To clarify potential target genes and specific functions of these differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamus and pituitary, TargetScan and Gorilla prediction tools were then applied. The current functional analysis showed that the differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamus and pituitary shared many biological processes, with the main differences being found in tissue-specific processes including: CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthetic/metabolic process; phosphatidic acid biosynthetic/metabolic process; energy reserve metabolic process for hypothalamus; adult behavior; sterol transport/homeostasis; and cholesterol/reverse cholesterol transport for pituitary. Overall, this study identified miRNA profiles and differentially expressed miRNAs among various developmental stages in hypothalamus and pituitary and indicated miRNA profiles change with age and brain location, enhancing our knowledge about spatial

  16. The Role of Pituitary Beta-Endorphin in the Attenuation of Nociception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-28

    and M. Babbini. Behavioral evidence for an opiate pituitary mechanism subserving conditioned analgesia . Pain 17: 83-89, 1983. Galligan, J., H...Segmental Pain Suppression Systems .........•............... 31 5. Proposed Mechanisms of Action for Analgesic Properties of Pituitary B-END...arise in the spinal cord. Opiate receptors are located at all known levels of the endogenous pain suppression systems. This fact underlies the

  17. Advancing Treatment of Pituitary Adenomas through Targeted Molecular Therapies: The Acromegaly & Cushing Disease Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Anthony Mooney

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current treatment of pituitary adenomas requires a balance of conservative management, surgical resection, and in select tumor types, molecular therapy. Acromegaly treatment is an evolving field where our understanding of molecular targets and drug therapies has improved treatment options for patients with excess growth hormone levels. We highlight the use of molecular therapies in this disease process and advances in this field, which may represent a paradigm shift for the future of pituitary adenoma treatment.

  18. Advancing Treatment of Pituitary Adenomas through Targeted Molecular Therapies: The Acromegaly and Cushing Disease Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Michael A; Simon, Elias D; Little, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    The current treatment of pituitary adenomas requires a balance of conservative management, surgical resection, and in select tumor types, molecular therapy. Acromegaly treatment is an evolving field where our understanding of molecular targets and drug therapies has improved treatment options for patients with excess growth hormone levels. We highlight the use of molecular therapies in this disease process and advances in this field, which may represent a paradigm shift for the future of pituitary adenoma treatment.

  19. Comparison of pituitary and recombinant human thyrotropin standards in an immunoradiometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanca Fernandez, Silvia; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Julio Cesar; Nisembaum Alas, Amaparo; Sevy Gonzalez, O.

    1998-01-01

    Results of two standards of human thyrotropin of pituitaries (B) and recombinant (C) origen supplied by the Instituto of pesquisas Energeticas y Nucleares, Brazil, were compared in our immunoradiometric reference system that use an human thyrotropin pituitary standard of local production (A). This work was supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency for an inter-regional comparison and set up of a reference standard

  20. MicroRNA Expression Profiling of the Porcine Developing Hypothalamus and Pituitary Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNA molecules, play important roles in gene expressions at transcriptional and post-transcriptional stages in mammalian brain. So far, a growing number of porcine miRNAs and their function have been identified, but little is known regarding the porcine developing hypothalamus and pituitary. In the present study, Solexa sequencing analysis showed 14,129,397 yielded reads, 6,680,678 of which were related to 674 unique miRNAs. After a microarray assay, we detected 175 unique miRNAs in the hypothalamus, including 136 previously known miRNAs and 39 novel candidates, while a total of 140 miRNAs, including 104 known and 36 new candidate miRNAs, were discovered in pituitary. More importantly, 37 and 30 differentially expressed miRNAs from several developmental stages of hypothalamus and pituitary were revealed, respectively. The 37 differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamus represented 6 different expression patterns, while the 30 differentially expressed miRNAs in pituitary represented 7 different expression patterns. To clarify potential target genes and specific functions of these differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamus and pituitary, TargetScan and Gorilla prediction tools were then applied. The current functional analysis showed that the differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamus and pituitary shared many biological processes, with the main differences being found in tissue-specific processes including: CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthetic/metabolic process; phosphatidic acid biosynthetic/metabolic process; energy reserve metabolic process for hypothalamus; adult behavior; sterol transport/homeostasis; and cholesterol/reverse cholesterol transport for pituitary. Overall, this study identified miRNA profiles and differentially expressed miRNAs among various developmental stages in hypothalamus and pituitary and indicated miRNA profiles change with age and brain location, enhancing our

  1. Contrast-enhanced MRI of intrasellar arachnoid cysts: relationship between the pituitary gland and cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, M.; Kanazawa Univ. School of Medicine; Tachibana, O.; Hasegawa, M.; Kohda, Y.; Nakada, M.; Yamashima, T.; Yamashita, J.; Suzuki, M.

    1996-01-01

    We recently encountered two large intrasellar arachnoid cysts extending to the suprasellar region. The intensity of the cyst contents was identical to that of the cerebrospinal fluid on both T1- and T2-weighted MRI. On contrast-enhanced MRI, the pituitary gland was compressed posteroinferiorly and flattened in the sella turcica. In this report of rare intrasellar arachnoid cysts the discussion is focused on dislocation of the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  2. RT-02COMPARISON OF 3DCRT, IMRT AND VMAT FOR POST SURGERY RADIOTHERAPY FOR PITUITARY MACROADENOMAS

    OpenAIRE

    Arauz, Rafael; Rodriguez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is usually used in postoperative setting of pituitary macroadenomas. Neurocognitive disorders have been associated to the radiation dose received by temporal lobes (TL). In this work we compare dose to PTV and critical organs produced by three different radiotherapy techniques, namely Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT), Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Three Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy (3DRT). METHODS: Two patients with pituitary macro aden...

  3. Uptake of (3H)progesterone and (3H)5alpha-dihydroprogesterone by rat tissues in vivo and analysis of accumulated radioactivity: accumulation of 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone by pituitary and hypothalamic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavolas, H J; Hodges, D; O'Brien, D

    1976-01-01

    These in vivo studies explored the possibility that the metabolism of progesterone to 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone (5alpha-DHP) and 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one in hypothalamus and pituitary may influence gonadotropin release. [3H]progesterone or [3H]5alpha-DHP was injected iv into ovariectomized or ovariectomized-adrenalectomized rats for 10 0r 30 min. 3H content was determined for plasma, anterior pituitary, medial basal hypothalamus (MBH), cerebral cortex, muscle and uterus. Isotopic dilution analyses of the accumulated 3H were made for progesterone, 5alpha-DHP, 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one, 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone, 20alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-3-one, and 5alpha-pregnane-3alpha, 20alpha-diol on samples from the 10 min groups. With progesterone injections, most of the tissue 3H was distributed among progesterone, 5alpha-DHP, and 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one. Progesterone was the predominant 3H-steroid in uterus, MBH, cerebral cortex and muscle. [3H]5alpha-DHP was the other major 3H-steroid in MBH and the predominant one in pituitary. In terms of tissue/plasma concentration comparisons, no tissue concentration of [3H]progesterone was greater than that in plasma except for MBH in the ovariectomized-adrenalectomized group. In contrast, [3H]5alpha-DHP levels in pituitary, MBH and cerebral cortex were many fold greater than those in plasma and muscle. MBH and pituitary levels were significantly greater than that in cerebral cortex. With 5alpha-DHP injections, most tissue 3H was associated with 5alpha-DHP and/or 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one. No [3H]progesterone was detected. [3H]5alpha-DHP predominated in pituitary and MBH, while 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one predominated in the others. In terms of tissue and plasma concentration comparisons, MBH, pituitary and cerebral cortical concentrations of [3H]5alpha-DHP were markedly higher than plasma, muscle, and uterine levels. Pituitary and MBH concentrations were also greater than

  4. A transseptal approach in transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary (hypophyseal) tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierek, T.; Galuszko-Ignasiak, B.; Krauze, J.; Rudnik, A.

    1994-01-01

    The authors described the direct transseptal approach in transsphenoidal surgery for hypophyseal tumors. This route gives a good insight into the area of the sella. The above mentioned method is also less destructive to nasal structures in the nasal cavity, because preserves the anterior nasal septum. It is uniformity of actually views of rhinological school. 20 patients were operated using this method and none of them noticed the changes of nasal airway and the sense of smell. (author)

  5. Radiation therapy in the multimodal treatment approach of pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G. [Klinik am Eichert, Goeppingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology and Radiation Therapy; Radiooncologic Univ. Clinic, Tuebingen (Germany); Kocher, M.; Mueller, R.P. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Clinic of Radiation Therapy; Kortmann, R.D.; Paulsen, F.; Jeremic, B.; Bamberg, M. [Radiooncologic Univ. Clinic, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, literature will be reviewed to assess the role of modern radiotherapy and radiosurgery in the management of pituitary adenomas. Material and Methods: Nowadays, magnetic resonance imaging for the definition of the target volume and a real three-dimensional (3-D) treatment planning with field conformation and the possibility for non-coplanar irradiation has to be recommended. Most groups irradiate these benign tumors with single doses of 1.8-2.0 Gy up to a total dose of 45 Gy or 50.4 Gy in extensive parasellar adenomas. Adenomas are mostly small, well circumscribed lesions, and have, therefore, attracted the use of stereotactically guided high-precision irradiation techniques which allow extreme focussing and provide steep dose gradients with selective treatment of the target and optimal protection of the surrounding brain tissue. Results: Radiation therapy controls tumor growth in 80-98% of patients with non-secreting adenomas and 67-89% for endocrine active tumors. Reviewing the recent literature including endocrine active and non-secreting adenomas, irradiated postoperatively or in case of recurrence the 5-, 10- and 15-year local control rates amount 92%, 89% and 79%. In cases of microprolactinoma primary therapy consists of dopamine agonists. Irradiation should be preferred in patients with macroprolactinomas, when drug therapy and/or surgery failed or for patients medically unsuitable for surgery. Reduction and control of prolactin secretion can be achieved in 44-70% of patients. After radiotherapy in acromegaly patients somatomedin-C and growth hormone concentrations decrease to normal levels in 70-90%, with a decrease rate of 10-30% per year. Hypercortisolism is controlled in 50-83% of adults and 80% of children with Cushing's disease, generally in less than 9 months. Hypopituitarism is the most common side effect of pituitary irradiation with an incidence of 13-56%. Long-term overall risk for brain necrosis in a total of 1,388 analyzed

  6. Derivation of Diverse Hormone-Releasing Pituitary Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Zimmer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs provide an unlimited cell source for regenerative medicine. Hormone-producing cells are particularly suitable for cell therapy, and hypopituitarism, a defect in pituitary gland function, represents a promising therapeutic target. Previous studies have derived pituitary lineages from mouse and human ESCs using 3D organoid cultures that mimic the complex events underlying pituitary gland development in vivo. Instead of relying on unknown cellular signals, we present a simple and efficient strategy to derive human pituitary lineages from hPSCs using monolayer culture conditions suitable for cell manufacturing. We demonstrate that purified placode cells can be directed into pituitary fates using defined signals. hPSC-derived pituitary cells show basal and stimulus-induced hormone release in vitro and engraftment and hormone release in vivo after transplantation into a murine model of hypopituitarism. This work lays the foundation for future cell therapy applications in patients with hypopituitarism.

  7. Pituitary gland development and disease: from stem cell to hormone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shannon W; Ellsworth, Buffy S; Peréz Millan, María Inés; Gergics, Peter; Schade, Vanessa; Foyouzi, Nastaran; Brinkmeier, Michelle L; Mortensen, Amanda H; Camper, Sally A

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of pituitary development have become better understood in the past two decades. The signaling pathways regulating pituitary growth and shape have emerged, and the balancing interactions between the pathways are now appreciated. Markers for multipotent progenitor cells are being identified, and signature transcription factors have been discovered for most hormone-producing cell types. We now realize that pulsatile hormone secretion involves a 3D integration of cellular networks. About a dozen genes are known to cause pituitary hypoplasia when mutated due to their essential roles in pituitary development. Similarly, a few genes are known that predispose to familial endocrine neoplasia, and several genes mutated in sporadic pituitary adenomas are documented. In the next decade, we anticipate gleaning a deeper appreciation of these processes at the molecular level, insight into the development of the hypophyseal portal blood system, and evolution of better therapeutics for congenital and acquired hormone deficiencies and for common craniopharyngiomas and pituitary adenomas. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the prolactin-secreting pituitary microadenomas by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facci, P.; Luca, V. de; Vaisman, M.; Tendrich, M.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluation of the prolactin-secreting pituitary microadenomas by computed tomography. A group of four patients was studied by direct coronal contrasted high resolution computed tomography. The aim of the study was to analyse the sensitivity and contribution of the method for the diagnosis of prolactin secreting pituitary microadenomas. As an example of the normal radiologic pattern of the hypothalamic-hypophisial region, one patient with headache, without any endocrinological complain and normal prolactin levels was studied. Three patients with galactorrea and amenorrea, had prolactin levels above 100 ng/ml, which correlated with abnormalities in computed tomography. Five parameters were important in analising the pituitary region: density, height and upper margin of the pituitary, position of the infundibulum, and the floor of the sella. In three patients there were an abnormal focal pituitary density (two hypodensities and one hiperdensity). Two patients had abnormal pituitary height, and three had convexity of the upper margin of the gland. The infundibulum was deviated to the contralateral side of the tumor and thinning and depression of the floor of the sella were seen in all cases. (author) [pt

  9. Neurotrophins, their receptors and KI-67 in human GH-secreting pituitary adenomas: an immunohistochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, M; Bianchi, E; Magliulo, G; De Vincentiis, M; De Santis, E; Orlandi, A; Santoro, A; Pastore, F S; Giangaspero, F; Caruso, R; Re, M; Fumagalli, L

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are a diverse group of tumors arising from the pituitary gland. Typically, they are small, slow-growing, hormonally inactive lesions that come to light as incidental findings on radiologic or postmortem examinations, although some small, slow-growing lesions with excessive hormonal activity may manifest with a clinical syndrome. The family of neurotrophins plays a key role in the development and maintenance of the pituitary endocrine cell function and in the regulation of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity. The objective of our experimental study is to investigate the localization of the neurotrophins, their relative receptors and to detect the expression level of Ki-67 to determine whether all these factors participate in the transformation and development of human pituitary adenomas. A very strong expression of Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and its receptor TrKC was observed in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and vessel endothelium, together with a clear/marked presence of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and its receptor TrKB, thus confirming their direct involvement in the progression of pituitary adenomas. On the contrary, NGF (Nerve growth factor) and its receptor TrKA and p75NTR were weakly expressed in the epithelial gland cells and the ECM.

  10. Management dilemmas in a rare case of pituitary apoplexy in the setting of dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaparameswara Rao, S J; Savardekar, Amey R; Nandeesh, B N; Arivazhagan, A

    2017-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy occurs due to infarction or hemorrhage, within a pituitary adenoma or a nontumorous pituitary gland and can have catastrophic consequences. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a severe manifestation of the spectrum of dengue virus infection and is characterized by high-grade fever, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhagic tendencies, and increased vascular permeability. Cases of incidentalomas complicated by DHF and presenting with apoplexy are extremely rare. We describe the case of a 45-year-old gentleman who suffered an attack of pituitary apoplexy while being treated for DHF. The issues pertaining to the management of hydrocephalus, timing of surgical intervention, and treatment of electrolyte imbalances encountered in the dual setting of DHF and pituitary apoplexy are discussed with reference to the outcome in our case. Although patients suffering from DHF harbor multiple factors, which may be precipitants of pituitary apoplexy, the association between these two conditions is rare and only few case reports document their coexistence. We review the pertinent literature and discuss the management dilemmas faced by us while dealing with these dual pathological states.

  11. Feasibility of high-resolution pituitary MRI at 7.0 tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotte, Alexandra A.J. de; Kolk, Anja G. van der; Rutgers, Dik; Luijten, Peter R.; Hendrikse, Jeroen [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, Postbox 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zelissen, Pierre M.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Internal Medicine (Section of Endocrinology), Utrecht (Netherlands); Visser, Fredy [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, Postbox 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands)

    2014-08-15

    Since the pituitary gland measures 3-8 mm, imaging with the highest possible spatial resolution is important for the detection of even smaller lesions such as those seen in Cushing's disease. In the current feasibility study, we tested a multi-sequence MRI protocol to visualize the pituitary gland in high resolution at 7.0 Tesla (7.0 T). Ten healthy volunteers were examined with a 7.0 T pituitary gland protocol. The protocol consisted of a T1-weighted magnetization-prepared inversion recovery (MPIR) turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence and a T2-weighted TSE sequence. Additionally, this protocol was tested in five patients with clinical and biochemical suspicion of a microadenoma. The dedicated protocol was successful in visualizing normal pituitary anatomy. At 7.0 T compared to 1.5 T, four times as many slices covered the pituitary gland in sagittal and coronal direction. In three patients, a lesion was diagnosed at 7.0 T, and was confirmed by histopathology to be a microadenoma. Head-to-head comparisons of 7.0 T with 1.5 T and 3.0 T are needed with larger samples of patients and with imaging times feasible for clinical settings. However, the current study suggests that high-resolution 7.0 T MRI of the pituitary gland may provide new perspectives when used as a second-line diagnostic examination in the specific context of Cushing's disease. (orig.)

  12. Inhibition of rat pituitary growth hormone (GH) release by subclinical levels of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camoratto, A.M.; White, L.M.; Lau, Y.S.; Moriarty, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Lead toxicity has been associated with short stature in children. Since growth hormone is a major regulator of growth, the effects of chronic exposure to subclinical lead levels on pituitary function were assessed. Timed pregnant rats were given 125 ppm lead (as lead nitrate) in their drinking water beginning on day 5 of gestation. After weaning, pups were continued on lead until sacrifice at 7 weeks of age. The average blood lead level at this time was 18.9 ug/dl (range 13.7-27.8). On the day of sacrifice the pituitary was removed, hemisected and incubated with vehicle or 40 nM hGRH (human growth hormone releasing hormone). Pituitaries from chronically lead-treated pups were 64% less responsive to GRH than controls. In contrast, no difference in responsiveness was observed in pituitaries from the dams. The specific binding of GRH was also examined. Control animals showed a dose-dependent displacement of 125I-GRH by unlabeled ligand (10-1000 nM). In the pituitaries of lead-treated pups binding of labeled ligand was markedly reduced by unlabeled GRH (less than 100 nM). Chronic exposure to lead had no effect on serum GH or prolactin levels or on pituitary content of GH. These data suggest that one mechanism by which lead can affect growth is by inhibition of GH release

  13. The Neuro Imaging Description of Giant Pituitary Adenomas Depending on Mechanical Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Urmanova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research aim is to analyze of magnetically-resonance tomography data depending on the mechanical factor of giant pituitary adenomas. Materials and methods. Twenty-two adult patients with giant pituitary adenomas were observed during the period from 2015 to 2016 (men 50 %, aged 48.5 years old. The duration of disease varied from 2 months to 25 years. Results. Patients with endo-suprasellar growth of pituitary tumour had signs of chiasmal syndrome with bitemporal hemianopsia, initial or complete homonym hemianopsia, scotomas and others. Such variant of pituitary tumour growth was observed in 7 cases (31.8 %. 4.5 % patients with retro-sellar growth of pituitary tumour typically had violations caused by the growth of tumour into brainstem, that stipulated both the lesion of craniocerebral nerves and vegetative disorders, and also pyramid symptomatology (pathological reflexes, symptoms of oral automatism. Patients with the endo-laterosellar growth of tumour suffered from decline of sharpness of sight on one eye, one-sided headaches, lesion of oculomotorius. For 4.5 % patients with the endo-infrasellar growth of tumour violations of the nasal breathing and swallowing (odynophagia were typical. Conclusions. The most expressed neuroendocrine, ophthalmology and pillar disorders were observed in patients with the total growth of tumor. The giant pituitary adenomas are often accompanied by an invasion growth into surrounding anatomic structures (69.2 % that is a basic factor limiting radical operative intervention and increasing the number of relapses.

  14. Conservative treatment of excessive anterior pelvic tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    , DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark ABSTRACT (1795 anslag) Background: Excessive anterior pelvic tilt has been linked to pain and dysfunction of the hip and pelvic region. Conservative treatment (e.g. manual therapy and physical training) is suggested in correcting the tilt and eventually related symptoms....... However, the effectiveness in reducing excessive anterior pelvic tilt in adults is unknown. Purpose: To systematically review studies investigating the effectiveness of conservative treatment in reducing anterior pelvic tilt in adults and evaluate the quality of evidence. Materials and methods: MEDLINE...

  15. CT findings in malignant anterior mediastinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narimatsu, Akiko; Higuchi, Mutsuo; Shigeta, Akiko

    1992-01-01

    Materials were 26 malignant anterior mediastinal tumors: 7 thymic carcinomas, 6 invasive thymomas, 7 malignant lymphomas (ML) and 6 malignant germ cell tumors (GCT). Egg shell calcification in the tumor was indicative of the invasive thymoma. Presence of conglomerated mass in the anterior mediastinum strongly suggested the diagnosis of ML. Although differentiation between thymic carcinoma and ML was difficult, punctate calcification and pleural implants were frequently found in the former. GCT showed no significant findings on CT. However, another clinical information was helpful to make correct diagnosis. CT guided biopsy is necessary to diagnose the malignant anterior mediastinal tumors. (author)

  16. CT findings in malignant anterior mediastinal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narimatsu, Akiko; Higuchi, Mutsuo; Shigeta, Akiko (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-07-01

    Materials were 26 malignant anterior mediastinal tumors: 7 thymic carcinomas, 6 invasive thymomas, 7 malignant lymphomas (ML) and 6 malignant germ cell tumors (GCT). Egg shell calcification in the tumor was indicative of the invasive thymoma. Presence of conglomerated mass in the anterior mediastinum strongly suggested the diagnosis of ML. Although differentiation between thymic carcinoma and ML was difficult, punctate calcification and pleural implants were frequently found in the former. GCT showed no significant findings on CT. However, another clinical information was helpful to make correct diagnosis. CT guided biopsy is necessary to diagnose the malignant anterior mediastinal tumors. (author).

  17. Changes of anterior and posterior corneal curvature and anterior chamber depth after SMILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the changes of anterior and posterior corneal curvature and anterior chamber depth after small incision lenticule extraction(SMILEfor low and high myopic astigmatism. METHODS: Sixty-three cases(88 eyesundergone SMILE in our hospital were included. The patients were divided into two groups based on astigmatism degree: the Group A: -2.00D to -4.00D astigmatism, the Group B: -0.25D to -1.00D astigmatism. Patients were examined at 1wk, 1 and 3mo after operations. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, refraction, corneal curvature and anterior chamber depth were recorded. The change of anterior and posterior corneal curvature and anterior chamber depth was compared. Spearman correlation analysis and independent t test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Surgery was done well in all patients without complications. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in posterior corneal curvature and anterior chamber depth preoperatively, postoperatively 7d,1 and 3mo(P>0.05. One week postoperatively, the anterior corneal curvature was statistically significant from that of preoperative in both groups(PP>0.05. CONCLUSION: No significant change of anterior and posterior corneal curvature and anterior chamber depth was found after SMILE for correcting low and high myopic astigmatism. One week after SMILE the anterior corneal curvature become stable.

  18. Review: Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone action in the brain and pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi eUbuka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH was first identified in the Japanese quail as a hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion. Subsequent studies have shown that GnIH is present in the brains of birds including songbirds, and mammals including humans. The identified avian and mammalian GnIH peptides universally possess an LPXRFamide (X = L or Q motif at their C-termini. Mammalian GnIH peptides are also designated as RFamide-related peptides from their structures. The receptor for GnIH is the G protein-coupled receptor 147 (GPR147, which is thought to be coupled to Gαi protein. Cell bodies of GnIH neurons are located in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN in birds and the dorsomedial hypothalamic area (DMH in mammals. GnIH neurons in the PVN or DMH project to the median eminence to control anterior pituitary function. GPR147 is expressed in the gonadotropes and GnIH suppresses synthesis and release of gonadotropins. It was further shown in immortalized mouse gonadotrope cell line (LT2 cells that GnIH inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH induced gonadotropin subunit gene transcriptions by inhibiting adenylate cyclase/cAMP/PKA dependent ERK pathway. GnIH neurons also project to GnRH neurons in the preoptic area, and GnRH neurons express GPR147 in birds and mammals. Accordingly, GnIH may inhibit gonadotropin synthesis and release by decreasing the activity of GnRH neurons as well as directly acting on the gonadotropes. GnIH also inhibits reproductive behavior possibly by acting within the brain. GnIH expression is regulated by a nocturnal hormone melatonin and stress in birds and mammals. Accordingly, GnIH may play a role in translating environmental information to inhibit reproductive physiology and behavior of birds and mammals. Finally, GnIH has therapeutic potential in the treatment of reproductive cycle and hormone-dependent diseases, such as precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and prostatic and

  19. Operative Strategies to Minimize Complications Following Resection of Pituitary Macroadenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawani, Jayesh P; Ramayya, Ashwin G; Pisapia, Jared M; Abdullah, Kalil G; Lee, John Y-K; Grady, M Sean

    2017-04-01

    Introduction  We sought to identify factors associated with increased length of stay (LOS) and morbidity in patients undergoing resection of pituitary macroadenomas. Methods  We reviewed records of 203 consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal resection of a pituitary macroadenoma (mean age = 55.7 [16-88]) years, volume = 11.3 (1.0-134.3) cm 3 . Complete resection was possible in 60/29.6% patients. Mean follow-up was 575 days. Multivariate logistic regression was performed using MATLAB. Results  Mean LOS was 4.67 (1-66) days and was associated with CSF leak ( p  = 0.025), lumbar drain placement ( p  = 0.041; n  = 8/3.9% intraoperative, n  = 20/9.9% postoperative), and any infection ( p  = 0.066). Age, diabetes insipidus ( n  = 17/8.37%), and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion ( n  = 12/5.9%) were not associated with increased LOS ( p  > 0.2). Postoperative CSF leak in the hospital ( n  = 21/10.3%) was associated with intraoperative CSF leak ( p  = 0.002; n  = 82/40.4%) and complete resection ( p  = 0.012). There was no significant association ( p  > 0.1) between postoperative CSF leak in the hospital following surgery and the use of a fat graft ( n  = 61/30.1%), nasoseptal flap (155/76.4%), or perioperative lumbar drain placement ( n  = 8/3.94%). Conclusion  Complete resection is associated with increased risk of CSF leak and LOS. Operative strategies including placement of fat graft, nasoseptal flap, or intraoperative lumbar drain placement may have limited value in reducing the risk of postoperative CSF leak.

  20. Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas: long-term outcome and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, Chai Hong; Yang, Dae Sik; Park, Young Je; Yoon, Won Sup; Lee, Jung AE; Kim, Chul Yong [Korea University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    To evaluate long-term local control rate and toxicity in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for pituitary adenomas. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 60 patients treated with EBRT for pituitary adenoma at Korea University Medical Center from 1996 and 2006. Thirty-fi ve patients had hormone secreting tumors, 25 patients had non-secreting tumors. Fifty-seven patients had received postoperative radiotherapy (RT), and 3 had received RT alone. Median total dose was 54 Gy (range, 36 to 61.2 Gy). The definition of tumor progression were as follows: evidence of tumor progression on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, worsening of clinical sign requiring additional operation or others, rising serum hormone level against a previously stable or falling value, and failure of controlling serum hormone level so that the hormone level had been far from optimal range until last follow-up. Age, sex, hormone secretion, tumor extension, tumor size, and radiation dose were analyzed for prognostic significance in tumor control. Median follow-up was 5.7 years (range, 2 to 14.4 years). The 10-year actuarial local control rates for non-secreting and secreting adenomas were 96% and 66%, respectively. In univariate analysis, hormone secretion was significant prognostic factor (p = 0.042) and cavernous sinus extension was marginally significant factor (p = 0.054) for adverse local control. All other factors were not significant. In multivariate analysis, hormone secretion and gender were significant. Fifty-three patients had mass-effect symptoms (headache, dizziness, visual disturbance, hypopituitarism, loss of consciousness, and cranial nerve palsy). A total of 17 of 23 patients with headache and 27 of 34 patients with visual impairment were improved. Twenty-seven patients experienced symptoms of endocrine hypersecretion (galactorrhea, amenorrhea, irregular menstruation, decreased libido, gynecomastia, acromegaly, and Cushing