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Sample records for anterior pituitary gland

  1. Genetic disorders of the anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, W M

    1985-01-01

    This survey deals with disorders caused by genetically disturbed function of the anterior pituitary gland. Genetic Dwarfism may be caused by isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) or panpituitary diseases, such as congenital absence of the pituitary or familial panhypopituitarism. Genetic disturbances of isolated pituitary hormone secretion without dwarfism may occur as isolated gonadotropin deficiency (IGD), isolated luteinizing hormone deficiency ("fertile eunuch"), Kallmann syndrome (olfactogenital dysplasia), isolated thyrotropin deficiency (ITD) and isolated corticotropin deficiency (ICD). Pituitary dysfunction may also be associated with other genetic disease entities.

  2. Separation of cells from the rat anterior pituitary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Hatfield, J. Michael

    1984-01-01

    Data concerned with analyzing the cellular organization of the rat anterior pituitary gland are examined. The preparation of the cell suspensions and the methods used to separate pituitary cell types are described. Particular emphasis is given to velocity sedimentation at unit gravity, density gradient centrifugation, affinity methods, fluorescence activated cell sorting, and density gradient and continuous-flow electrophoresis. The difficulties encountered when attempting to compare data from different pituitary cell separation studies are discussed, and results from various experiments are presented. The functional capabilities of the separated cell populations can be tested in various culture systems.

  3. MR imaging in children with ectopic pituitary gland and anterior hypopituitarism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patkar D

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Posterior pituitary ectopia refers to an absent normal posterior pituitary bright spot within the sella with ectopic bright signal at another site (such as the median eminence on a weighted magnetic resonance. We describe two children with idiopathic anterior hypopituitarism who showed an ectopic posterior pituitary and absent pituitary stalk on imaging. We emphasize the association of the absent pituitary stalk in ectopic pituitary gland and low growth hormone levels.

  4. MR imaging in children with ectopic pituitary gland and anterior hypopituitarism.

    OpenAIRE

    Patkar D; Patankar T; Krishnan A; Prasad S; Shah J; Limdi J

    1999-01-01

    Posterior pituitary ectopia refers to an absent normal posterior pituitary bright spot within the sella with ectopic bright signal at another site (such as the median eminence) on a weighted magnetic resonance. We describe two children with idiopathic anterior hypopituitarism who showed an ectopic posterior pituitary and absent pituitary stalk on imaging. We emphasize the association of the absent pituitary stalk in ectopic pituitary gland and low growth hormone levels.

  5. Chromium VI administration induces oxidative stress in hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland from male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudler, Silvana I; Quinteros, Fernanda A; Miler, Eliana A; Cabilla, Jimena P; Ronchetti, Sonia A; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2009-03-28

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr VI)-containing compounds are known carcinogens which are present in industrial settings and in the environment. The major route of chromium exposure for the general population is oral intake. Previously we have observed that Cr VI affects anterior pituitary secretion and causes oxidative stress in vitro. The aim of the present work was to investigate if in vivo Cr VI treatment (100 ppm of Cr VI in drinking water for up 30 days) causes oxidative stress in hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland from male rats. This treatment produced a 4-fold increase of chromium content in hypothalamus and 10-fold increase in anterior pituitary gland. Lipid peroxidation showed a significant increase in hypothalamus and anterior pituitary. Cr VI augmented superoxide dismutase activity in anterior pituitary gland and glutathione reductase activity in hypothalamus, but glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities remained unchanged in both tissues. Heme oxygenase-1 mRNA expression significantly rose in both tissues. Metallothionein 1 mRNA content increased in anterior pituitary and metallothionein 3 mRNA increased in hypothalamus. These results show, for the first time, that oral chronic administration of Cr VI produces oxidative stress on the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland which may affect normal endocrine function.

  6. Cell life and death in the anterior pituitary gland: role of oestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilicovich, A

    2010-07-01

    Apoptotic processes play an important role in the maintenance of cell numbers in the anterior pituitary gland during physiological endocrine events. In this review, we summarise the regulation of apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells, particularly lactotrophs, somatotrophs and gonadotrophs, and analyse the possible mechanisms involved in oestrogen-induced apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells. Oestrogens exert apoptotic actions in several cell types and act as modulators of pituitary cell renewal, sensitising cells to both mitogenic and apoptotic signals. Local synthesis of growth factors and cytokines induced by oestradiol as well as changes in phenotypic features that enhance the responsiveness of anterior pituitary cells to pro-apoptotic factors may account for cyclical apoptotic activity in anterior pituitary cells during the oestrous cycle. Considering that tissue homeostasis results from a balance between cell proliferation and death and that mechanisms involved in apoptosis are tightly regulated, defects in cell death processes could have a considerable physiopathological impact.

  7. Opposite effects of dihydrotestosterone and estradiol on apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland from male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, María Laura; Gottardo, María Florencia; Zárate, Sandra; Eijo, Guadalupe; Ferraris, Jimena; Jaita, Gabriela; Ayala, Mariela Moreno; Candolfi, Marianela; Pisera, Daniel; Seilicovich, Adriana

    2016-03-01

    Hormones locally synthesized in the anterior pituitary gland are involved in regulation of pituitary cell renewal. In the pituitary, testosterone (T) may exert its actions per se or by conversion to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or 17β-estradiol (E2) by 5α-reductase and aromatase activity, which are expressed in this gland. Previous reports from our laboratory showed that estrogens modulate apoptosis of lactotropes and somatotropes from female rats. Now, we examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of gonadal steroids on apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells from adult male rats. T in vitro did not modify apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells from gonadectomized (GNX) male rats. DHT, a non-aromatizable androgen, exerted direct antiapoptotic action on total anterior pituitary cells and folliculo-stellate cells, but not on lactotropes, somatotropes, or gonadotropes. On the contrary, E2 exerted a rapid apoptotic effect on total cells as well as on lactotropes and somatotropes. Incubation of anterior pituitary cells with T in presence of Finasteride, an inhibitor of 5α-reductase, increased the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells. In vivo administration of DHT to GNX rats reduced apoptosis in the anterior pituitary whereas E2 exerted proapoptotic action and reduced cells in G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. In summary, our results indicate that DHT and E2 have opposite effects on apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland suggesting that local metabolization of T to these steroids could be involved in pituitary cell turnover in males. Changes in expression and/or activity of 5α-reductase and aromatase may play a role in the development of anterior pituitary tumors.

  8. Evaluation of anterior pituitary gland volume in childhood using three-dimensional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marziali, Simone; Gaudiello, Fabrizio; Ferone, Ernesto; Colangelo, Vittorio; Floris, Roberto; Simonetti, Giovanni; Bozzao, Alessandro; Scire, Giuseppe; Simonetti, Alessandra; Boscherini, Brunetto

    2004-01-01

    Background: Three-dimensional MRI (3D-MRI) is a reliable tool for the evaluation of anatomical volumes. Volumetric measurement of the normal anterior pituitary gland in childhood has been performed in the past by 2D-MRI calculations, but has inherent inaccuracies. Objective: To obtain accurate normal anterior pituitary gland volume in childhood using 3D-MRI coronal sections. Materials and methods: The anterior pituitary gland was measured using coronal T1-weighted 3D-gradient-echo sequences (section thickness 0.75 mm). The study group was composed of 95 prepubertal children (age range 2 months-10 years) with clinically normal pituitary function and no pituitary or brain abnormalities. Results: A measurement error of 0.2-0.4% was assessed by using a phantom study. Volumetric evaluation of the anterior pituitary gland showed progressive growth of the gland from a mean 131±24 mm 3 at 2-12 months, to 249±25 mm 3 at 1-4 years and 271±29 mm 3 at 5-10 years. Conclusions: These data may be useful for paediatricians in the evaluation of patients with neuroendocrine diseases, in particular growth hormone deficiency. (orig.)

  9. Role of estrogens in anterior pituitary gland remodeling during the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, S; Zaldivar, V; Jaita, G; Magri, L; Radl, D; Pisera, D; Seilicovich, A

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we analyze the action of estrogens leading to the remodeling of the anterior pituitary gland, especially during the estrous cycle. Proliferation and death of anterior pituitary cells and especially lactotropes is regulated by estrogens, which act by sensitizing these cells to both mitotic and apoptotic stimuli such as TNF-alpha, FasL and dopamine. During the estrous cycle, the changing pattern of gonadal steroids is thought to modulate both cell proliferation and death in the anterior pituitary gland, estrogens being key players in cell turnover. The mechanisms involved in estrogen-modulated cell renewal in the anterior pituitary gland during the estrous cycle could include an increase in the expression of proapoptotic cytokines as well as the increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio at proestrus, when estrogen levels are highest and a peak of apoptosis, in particular of lactotropes, is evident in this gland. Estrogens exert rapid antimitogenic and proapoptotic actions in the anterior pituitary through membrane-associated estrogen receptors, a mechanism that might also be involved in remodeling of this gland during the estrous cycle. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Expression and regulation of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper in the developing anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellestad, Laura E; Malkiewicz, Stefanie A; Guthrie, H David; Welch, Glenn R; Porter, Tom E

    2009-02-01

    The expression profile of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) in the anterior pituitary during the second half of embryonic development in the chick is consistent with in vivo regulation by circulating corticosteroids. However, nothing else has been reported about the presence of GILZ in the neuroendocrine system. We sought to characterize expression and regulation of GILZ in the chicken embryonic pituitary gland and determine the effect of GILZ overexpression on anterior pituitary hormone levels. Pituitary GILZ mRNA levels increased during embryogenesis to a maximum on the day of hatch, and decreased through the first week after hatch. GILZ expression was rapidly upregulated by corticosterone in embryonic pituitary cells. To determine whether GILZ regulates hormone gene expression in the developing anterior pituitary, we overexpressed GILZ in embryonic pituitary cells and measured mRNA for the major pituitary hormones. Exogenous GILZ increased prolactin mRNA above basal levels, but not as high as that in corticosterone-treated cells, indicating that GILZ may play a small role in lactotroph differentiation. The largest effect we observed was a twofold increase in FSH beta subunit in cells transfected with GILZ but not treated with corticosterone, suggesting that GILZ may positively regulate gonadotroph development in a manner not involving glucocorticoids. In conclusion, this is the first report to characterize avian GILZ and examine its regulation in the developing neuroendocrine system. We have shown that GILZ is upregulated by glucocorticoids in the embryonic pituitary gland and may regulate expression of several pituitary hormones.

  11. Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide increases the expression of aquaporin-4 in the rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara-Otani, Sachi; Maeda, Seishi; Tanaka, Koichi; Hayakawa, Tetsu; Seki, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia on the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the rat anterior pituitary gland, using the real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. After intraperitoneal injection of LPS, the level of AQP4 mRNA doubled at 2, 4 and 8 hr. Immunohistochemical analysis showed an increase with time in AQP4 immunostaining in folliculo-stellate cells following LPS injection; the intensity of immunoreactivity peaked at 8 hr. At the same time, some cyst-like structures, formed by AQP4-positive cells, were observed. These findings indicate that LPS induces the expression of AQP4 in the anterior pituitary gland. The present results should provide an important key to elucidate the pathogenesis of the anterior pituitary gland during endotoxemia.

  12. Indomethacin inhibits the effects of oestrogen in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosental, D G; Machiavelli, G A; Cherñavsky, A C; Speziale, N S; Burdman, J A

    1989-06-01

    Two inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis, indomethacin and aspirin, blocked the increase of oestrogen-binding sites in the nuclear subcellular fraction, an increase which occurs after the administration of oestradiol. Consequently the biological effects of oestrogens in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat (prolactin synthesis, concentration of progesterone-binding sites and cell proliferation) are diminished. The anterior pituitary gland synthesized prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), PGE2 and PGD2 from arachidonic acid. This synthesis was blocked when indomethacin was added to the culture media. Oestrogen increased the concentration of PGE2: an increase that was partially prevented by indomethacin. Prostaglandins may have an important role on the effects of oestrogen in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat.

  13. Estradiol increases the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and induces apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldivar, Verónica; Magri, María Laura; Zárate, Sandra; Jaita, Gabriela; Eijo, Guadalupe; Radl, Daniela; Ferraris, Jimena; Pisera, Daniel; Seilicovich, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    Estrogens are recognized as acting as modulators of pituitary cell renewal, sensitizing cells to mitogenic and apoptotic signals, thus participating in anterior pituitary homeostasis during the estrous cycle. The balance of pro- and antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family is known to regulate cell survival and apoptosis. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying apoptosis during the estrous cycle, we evaluated the expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax and the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL in the anterior pituitary gland in cycling female rats as well as the influence of estradiol on the expression of these proteins in anterior pituitary cells of ovariectomized rats. As determined by Western blot, the expression of Bax was higher in anterior pituitary glands from rats at proestrus than at diestrus I, Bcl-2 protein levels showed no difference and Bcl-xL expression was lower, thus increasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio at proestrus. Assessed by annexin V binding and flow cytometry, the percentage of apoptotic anterior pituitary cells was higher in rats at proestrus than at diestrus I. Chronic estrogen treatment in ovariectomized rats enhanced the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and induced apoptosis. Moreover, incubation of cultured anterior pituitary cells from ovariectomized rats with 17beta-estradiol for 24 h increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, decreased Bcl-xL expression and induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that estradiol increases the ratio between proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family. This effect could participate in the sensitizing action of estrogens to proapoptotic stimuli and therefore be involved in the high apoptotic rate observed at proestrus in the anterior pituitary gland.

  14. Differential gene expression in anterior pituitary glands from anestrous and cycling postpartum beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oligionucleotide microarrays (GeneChip Bovine Genome Arrays, Affymetrix Inc., Santa Clara, CA) were used to evaluate gene expression profiles in anterior pituitary glands collected from 4 anestrous and 4 cycling postpartum primiparous beef cows to provide insight into genes associated with transitio...

  15. The extracellular matrix component laminin promotes gap junction formation in the rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Kouki, Tom; Fujiwara, Ken; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    Folliculo-stellate (FS) cells in the anterior pituitary gland are believed to have multifunctional properties. FS cells connect to each other not only by mechanical means, but also by gap junctional cell-to-cell communication. Using transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) specifically in FS cells in the anterior pituitary gland (S100b-GFP rats), we recently revealed that FS cells in primary culture markedly change their shape, and form numerous interconnections with neighboring FS cells in the presence of laminin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) component of the basement membrane. Morphological and functional changes in cells are believed to be partly modified by matricrine signaling, by which ECM components function as cellular signals. In the present study, we examined whether gap junction formation between FS cells is affected by matricrine cues. A cell sorter was used to isolate FS cells from male S100b-GFP rat anterior pituitary for primary culture. We observed that mRNA and protein levels of connexin 43 in gap junction channels were clearly higher in the presence of laminin. In addition, we confirmed the formation of gap junctions between FS cells in primary culture by electron microscopy. Interestingly, we also observed that FS cells in the presence of laminin displayed well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Our findings suggest that, in anterior pituitary gland, FS cells may facilitate functional roles such as gap junctional cell-to-cell communication by matricrine signaling.

  16. Expression of small leucine-rich proteoglycans in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Syaidah, Rahimi; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Ramadhani, Dini; Jindatip, Depicha; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Proteoglycans are components of the extracellular matrix and comprise a specific core protein substituted with covalently linked glycosaminoglycan chains. Small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) are a major family of proteoglycans and have key roles as potent effectors in cellular signaling pathways. Research during the last two decades has shown that SLRPs regulate biological functions in many tissues such as skin, tendon, kidney, liver, and heart. However, little is known of the expression of SLRPs, or the characteristics of the cells that produce them, in the anterior pituitary gland. Therefore, we have determined whether SLRPs are present in rat anterior pituitary gland. We have used real-time reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction to analyze the expression of SLRP genes and have identified the cells that produce SLRPs by using in situ hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probe. We have clearly detected the mRNA expression of SLRP genes, and cells expressing decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin, lumican, proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP), and osteoglycin are located in the anterior pituitary gland. We have also investigated the possible double-staining of SLRP mRNA and pituitary hormones, S100 protein (a marker of folliculostellate cells), desmin (a marker of capillary pericytes), and isolectin B4 (a marker of endothelial cells). Decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin, lumican, PRELP, and osteoglycin mRNA have been identified in S100-protein-positive and desmin-positive cells. Thus, we conclude that folliculostellate cells and pericytes produce SLRPs in rat anterior pituitary gland.

  17. Distribution of epidermal growth factor binding sites in the adult rat anterior pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, J.G.; Walker, P.; Pelletier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of epidermal growth (EGF) binding sites was studied in the pituitary gland using light and electron microscope autoradiography which was performed at different time intervals (2 to 60 min) after intravenous (IV) injection of [ 125 I]EGF into adult rats. At the light microscopic level, the labeling was found over cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The time-course study performed by light microscope autoradiography showed that the maximal values were reached at the 2 min time interval. At this time interval, most silver grains were found at the periphery of the target cells. After, the number of silver grains decreased progressively and the localization of silver grains in the cytoplasm indicated the internalization of [ 125 I]EGF. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that labeling was mostly restricted to mammotrophs and somatotrophs. Control experiments indicated that the autoradiographic labeling was due specific interaction of [ 125 I]EGF with its binding site. These results indicate that EGF binding sites are present in at least two anterior pituitary cell types and suggest that EGF can exert a physiological role in the pituitary gland

  18. Expression of the long-chain fatty acid receptor GPR120 in the gonadotropes of the mouse anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Ryutaro; Deura, Chikaya; Imoto, Shingo; Nose, Kazuhiro; Fukushima, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) has been known to be a receptor of long-chain fatty acids. Here, we investigated GPR120 expression in the mouse pituitary gland via real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. GPR120 mRNA was abundantly expressed in the pituitary gland of ad-lib fed animals. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed GPR120 expression in the gonadotropes of the anterior pituitary gland, but not in thyrotropes, somatotropes, lactotropes, corticotropes, melanotropes, and the posterior pituitary gland. Furthermore, 24 h of fasting induced an increase in GPR120 mRNA expression in the pituitary gland. These results demonstrate that GPR120 in mouse pituitary gonadotropes is upregulated by fasting and that it may play a role in controlling gonadotropin secretion.

  19. Sensitivity of T-Lymphocytes to Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishevskaya, N V; Gevorkyan, N M; Kozlova, N I

    2017-01-01

    The review provides information about the features of the sensitivity of thymocytes, lymphoid organs' cells and T-lymphocytes of peripheral blood to the hormones secreted by anterior pituitary gland's cells: growth hormone, thyrotropin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin and β-endorphin. Some aspects of the T-lymphocytes's response to humoral signals from the hypophysis are shown in the article. Also the pituitary hormones' role in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, and cytokine production of T-lymphocytes in normal and pathological conditions of the organism being discussed.

  20. Expression of the cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-2 in developing rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Syaidah, Rahimi; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Ramadhani, Dini; Jindatip, Depicha; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    In the anterior pituitary gland, folliculo-stellate cells and five types of hormone-producing cells are surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM) essential for these cells to perform their respective roles. Syndecans-type I transmembrane cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans act as major ECM coreceptors via their respective heparan sulfate chains and efficiently transduce intracellular signals through the convergent action of their transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. The syndecans comprise four family members in vertebrates: syndecan-1, -2, -3 and -4. However, whether syndecans are produced in the pituitary gland or whether they have a role as a coreceptor is not known. We therefore used (1) reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction to analyze the expression of syndecan genes and (2) immunohistochemical techniques to identify the cells that produce the syndecans in the anterior pituitary gland of adult rat. Syndecan-2 mRNA expression was clearly detected in the corticotropes of the anterior pituitary gland. Moreover, the expression of syndecan-2 in the developing pituitary gland had a distinct temporospatial pattern. To identify the cells expressing syndecan-2 in the developing pituitary gland, we used double-immunohistochemistry for syndecan-2 and the cell markers E-cadherin (immature cells) and Ki-67 (proliferating cells). Some E-cadherin- and Ki-67-immunopositive cells expressed syndecan-2. Therefore, syndecan-2 expression occurs in developmentally regulated patterns and syndecan-2 probably has different roles in adult and developing anterior pituitary glands.

  1. In Vivo and In Vitro Arsenic Exposition Induces Oxidative Stress in Anterior Pituitary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchetti, Sonia A; Bianchi, María S; Duvilanski, Beatriz H; Cabilla, Jimena P

    2016-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is at the top of toxic metalloids. Inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption is one of the greatest environmental health threats worldwide. Human iAs exposure has been associated with cancers of several organs, neurological disorders, and reproductive problems. Nevertheless, there are no reports describing how iAs affects the anterior pituitary gland. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in iAs-mediated anterior pituitary toxicity both in vivo and in vitro. We showed that iAs administration (from 5 to 100 ppm) to male rats through drinking water increased messenger RNA expression of several oxidative stress-responsive genes in the anterior pituitary gland. Serum prolactin levels diminished, whereas luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were only affected at the higher dose tested. In anterior pituitary cells in culture, 25 µmol/L iAs significantly decreased prolactin release in a time-dependent fashion, whereas LH levels remained unaltered. Cell viability was significantly reduced mainly by apoptosis evidenced by morphological and phosphatidylserine externalization studies. This process is characterized by early depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Expression of some key oxidative stress-responsive genes, such as heme oxygenase-1 and metallothionein-1, was also stimulated by iAs exposure. The antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine prevented iAs-induced effects on the expression of oxidative stress markers, prolactin release, and apoptosis. In summary, the present work demonstrates for the first time that iAs reduces prolactin release both in vivo and in vitro and induces apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells, possibly resulting from imbalanced cellular redox status. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. In Situ Hybridization Method Reveals (Pro)renin Receptor Expressing Cells in the Pituitary Gland of Rats: Correlation with Anterior Pituitary Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Yatabe, Megumi; Fujiwara, Ken; Hirose, Takuo; Totsune, Kazuhito; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-02-28

    Expression of (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR), a specific receptor for renin and prorenin, was studied in rat pituitary gland. In situ hybridization showed that cells expressing (P)RR mRNA were widely distributed in the anterior lobe and intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. Double-staining using in situ hybridization for (P)RR mRNA and immunohistochemistry for the pituitary hormones showed that (P)RR mRNA was expressed in most of the GH cells and ACTH cells in the anterior lobe. (P)RR mRNA was also expressed in a few prolactin cells and TSH cells, but not in LH cells. The present study has shown for the first time the distribution of (P)RR mRNA expressing cells in the rat pituitary gland. These findings suggest that (P)RR plays physiological roles in the pituitary gland, such as the modulation of the pituitary hormone secretion.

  3. In Situ Hybridization Method Reveals (Pro)renin Receptor Expressing Cells in the Pituitary Gland of Rats: Correlation with Anterior Pituitary Hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Yatabe, Megumi; Fujiwara, Ken; Hirose, Takuo; Totsune, Kazuhito; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Expression of (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR), a specific receptor for renin and prorenin, was studied in rat pituitary gland. In situ hybridization showed that cells expressing (P)RR mRNA were widely distributed in the anterior lobe and intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. Double-staining using in situ hybridization for (P)RR mRNA and immunohistochemistry for the pituitary hormones showed that (P)RR mRNA was expressed in most of the GH cells and ACTH cells in the anterior lobe. (P)RR mRNA was also expressed in a few prolactin cells and TSH cells, but not in LH cells. The present study has shown for the first time the distribution of (P)RR mRNA expressing cells in the rat pituitary gland. These findings suggest that (P)RR plays physiological roles in the pituitary gland, such as the modulation of the pituitary hormone secretion

  4. Immunohistochemical localization of anterior pituitary hormones in S-100 protein-positive cells in the rat pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yatabe, Megumi; Tando, Yukiko; Yashiro, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    In the anterior and intermediate lobes of the rat pituitary gland, non-hormone-producing cells that express S-100 protein coexist with various types of hormone-producing cells and are believed to function as phagocytes, supporting and paracrine-controlling cells of hormone-producing cells and stem cells, among other functions; however, their cytological characteristics are not yet fully understood. Using a transgenic rat that expresses green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the S100β protein gene, we immunohistochemically detected expression of the luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, growth hormone and proopiomelanocortin by S-100 protein-positive cells located between clusters of hormone-producing cells in the intermediate lobe. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that S-100 protein-positive cells are capable of differentiating into hormone-producing cells in the adult rat pituitary gland.

  5. Laminin in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat. Laminin in the gonadotrophic cells correlates with their functional state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Albrechtsen, R; Wewer, U M

    1987-01-01

    The distribution pattern of laminin in the rat anterior pituitary gland under physiological and hormonally altered conditions was studied immunohistochemically. Intense immunoreactivity of the capillaries and of the basement membranes surrounding parenchymal cells was found. Five to 10......% of the parenchymal cells of normal adult rat pituitary gland exhibited also intense positive cytoplasmic staining. These were identified as gonadotrophic cells on the basis of their topographic distribution and typical 700-nm light bodies. By immunoelectron microscopy it was shown that the light bodies contain...... laminin and the number of light bodies reflects the hormonal activity of the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland....

  6. Receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide in rat anterior pituitary glands: Localization of binding to lactotropes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanke, I.E.; Rorstad, O.P.

    1990-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been implicated as a physiological PRL-releasing factor; however, characterization of VIP receptors on normal pituitaries using radioligand-binding methods has been problematic. In this study we demonstrated specific receptors for VIP in anterior pituitary glands of female rats using HPLC-purified monoiodinated [Tyr(125I)10]VIP. Binding of VIP was reversible, saturable to receptor and radioligand, regulated by guanine nucleotides, and dependent on time and temperature. Scatchard analysis of competitive binding studies indicated high and low affinity binding sites, with equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) of 0.19 +/- 0.03 and 28 +/- 16 nM, respectively. The corresponding maximum numbers of binding sites were 158 +/- 34 fmol/mg and 11.7 +/- 6.9 pmol/mg. Binding was specific, as peptides with structural homology to VIP were less than 100th as potent as VIP. The rank order of potency of the peptides tested was VIP greater than rat (r) peptide histidine isoleucine = human (h) PHI greater than rGRF greater than bovine GRF = porcine PHI = VIP-(10-28) greater than hGRF greater than secretin greater than apamin greater than glucagon. Radioligand binding was associated primarily with lactotrope-enriched fractions prepared by unit gravity sedimentation of dispersed anterior pituitary cells. VIP stimulated PRL release from cultured rat anterior pituitary cells, with an ED50 of 1 nM. These results, comprising the first identification of specific VIP receptors in normal rat anterior pituitary tissue using radioligand-binding methods, provide additional support for a biological role of VIP in lactotrope function

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in folliculostellate cells of rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmiawati, Cimi; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Yashiro, Takashi

    2012-03-01

    Folliculostellate (FS) cells of the anterior pituitary gland express a variety of regulatory molecules. Using transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein specifically in FS cells, we recently demonstrated that FS cells in vitro showed marked changes in motility, proliferation, and that formation of cellular interconnections in the presence of laminin, a component of the extracellular matrix, closely resembled those observed in vivo. These findings suggested that FS cells express matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which assists their function on laminin. In the present study, we investigate MMP-9 expression in rat anterior pituitary gland and examine its role in motility and proliferation of FS cells on laminin. Immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and gelatin zymography were performed to assess MMP-9 expression in the anterior pituitary gland and cultured FS cells. Real-time RT-PCR was used to quantify MMP-9 expression in cultured FS cells under different conditions and treatments. MMP-9 expression was inhibited by pharmacological inhibitor or downregulated by siRNA and time-lapse images were acquired. A 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine assay was performed to analyze the proliferation of FS cells. Our results showed that MMP-9 was expressed in FS cells, that this expression was upregulated by laminin, and that laminin induced MMP-9 secretion by FS cells. MMP-9 inhibition and downregulation did not impair FS motility; however, it did impair the capacity of FS cells to form interconnections and it significantly inhibited proliferation of FS cells on laminin. We conclude that MMP-9 is necessary in FS cell interconnection and proliferation in the presence of laminin.

  8. High signal intensity of anterior pituitary gland on T1-weighted MR imaging in normal postpartum women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Soon; Yang, Hak Seok; Chung, In Bai

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the signal intensity and size of anterior pituitary gland in postpartum women, and to compare with those of control group. In 34 postpartum women (18-43 years, mean: 27 years) and another 35 control nonpregnant women (20-29 years, mean: 24 years), midsagittal T1-weighted MR images were obtained. The signal intensity and height of the anterior pituitary gland were compared between the post-partum and normal control groups. In postpartum women, the signal intensity of the anterior pituitary gland relative to the pons was higher than that of the control group. Pituitary gland height of postpartum women was higher (5-11. 8mm, mean 8.18 ± 1.8mm) than that of control group (2-9mm, mean: 6.2 ± 1.7mm). It is concluded that the hyperintensity of the anterior pituitary gland on T1-weighted image is a normal finding in postpartum women, which is useful in differentiation from pituitary abnormality

  9. High signal intensity of anterior pituitary gland on T1-weighted MR imaging in normal postpartum women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Soon; Yang, Hak Seok; Chung, In Bai [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the signal intensity and size of anterior pituitary gland in postpartum women, and to compare with those of control group. In 34 postpartum women (18-43 years, mean: 27 years) and another 35 control nonpregnant women (20-29 years, mean: 24 years), midsagittal T1-weighted MR images were obtained. The signal intensity and height of the anterior pituitary gland were compared between the post-partum and normal control groups. In postpartum women, the signal intensity of the anterior pituitary gland relative to the pons was higher than that of the control group. Pituitary gland height of postpartum women was higher (5-11. 8mm, mean 8.18 {+-} 1.8mm) than that of control group (2-9mm, mean: 6.2 {+-} 1.7mm). It is concluded that the hyperintensity of the anterior pituitary gland on T1-weighted image is a normal finding in postpartum women, which is useful in differentiation from pituitary abnormality.

  10. Function of the anterior pituitary gland following surgical and radiotherapeutical management for pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakisch, B.; Poier, E.; Stuecklschweiger, G.; Hackl, A.; Obermayer-Pietsch, B.; Warnkross, H.; Leb, G.; Mokry, M.; Clarici, G.

    1992-01-01

    Fifty-five adult patients with adenoma of the pituitary gland (20/55 with hyperfunctional tumors, 21/55 with endocrine inactive tumors, and 14/55 with hormonal deficits at the time of diagnosis) were studied retrospectively in terms of their endocrine outcome after surgery and radiotherapy. Twenty-two percent of the patients developed new hormone deficiency after surgery and 33% after radiotherapy. After a median follow-up time of 4.6 years, 44/53 patients had a pituitary dysfunction and 35/44 a gonadotropin deficiency. There seems to be a correlation between the daily single dose given and the development of endocrine dysfunction, as 15/35 (43%) of those patients who received 2.0 Gy per day developed hormonal deficiencies, compared to 6/20 (30%) of those who received 1.8 Gy per day. The median time from radiotherapy to onset of endocrine abnormalities was 19.7 months. Normalization of the prolactin levels occurred in 55% of the cases, and that of hGH levels in 80%. An ongoing hormone replacement was necessary in 69% of the patients. (orig.) [de

  11. The ectopic posterior pituitary gland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-04

    Nov 4, 2013 ... crinology with short stature, delayed bone age and biochemical features suggestive of hypo pituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated a flattened anterior pituitary gland within the sella, associated with absence of the infundibular stalk and an ectopic posterior pituitary gland (Fig.

  12. Correlation between LH secretion in castrated rats with cellular proliferation and synthesis of DNA in the anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, M I; Machiavelli, G A; Pérez, R L; Carricarte, V; Burdman, J A

    1984-07-01

    The relationship between the release of LH and the synthesis of DNA was studied in the anterior pituitary gland of castrated rats. Cell types were characterized immunocytochemically. Castration significantly (P less than 0.01) increased the concentration of LH in serum (1326%) and the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into pituitary DNA (72%). This was accompanied by an increment in the activity of the enzyme DNA polymerase-alpha (58%) and in the number of mitoses (from 2 +/- 0.1/mm2 in intact rats to 21 +/- 0.8/mm2 15 days after castration). Only 20% of the mitoses found in the pituitary gland of castrated rats were positively stained with the antiserum against the beta-subunit of LH. The other 80% did not stain either with LH antiserum or with antisera against the other pituitary hormones. There was a significant (P less than 0.01) increase in the number of LH cells in castrated rats (48%). All the changes produced in the anterior pituitary gland after castration were prevented by the administration of dihydrotestosterone. The results demonstrate that a stimulation of LH release is followed by an increase of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation of gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland.

  13. The role of flow cytometry in the study of cell growth in the rat anterior pituitary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vitale

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is a suitable technique for studying in vivo and in vitro the cell cycle kinetics of different animal and human tissues, both in normal and tumoral conditions. The rat anterior pituitary gland is a model to investigate cell growth and replication of differentiated, neuroendocrine cells, and we report current evidence on its cell cycle kinetics as well as on the role played by flow cytometry in this type of study. The proliferation potential of normal anterior pituitary cells is related to a number of different conditions, including heterogeneity of cell types, age and sex of donors, and circadian influences. In addition, the trend of cell proliferation in both in vivo and in vitro studies is similar, suggesting that cultured anterior pituitary elements may, at least in parts, retain growth features analogous to those of the intact gland. Sorting of selective cell types and analysis of the relation between proliferating anterior pituitary cells and the light-dark cycle have shown that flow cytometry may be useful to investigate the replication process of the gland. By using a combination of flow cytometry, light microscopic immunocytochemistry and morphometry, we have reported a peculiar trend of proliferation in prima- ry monolayer cultures of rat anterior pituitary gland, characterized by a non-linear reduction in their proliferation rate with advancing age, primarily dependent on a reduced transition of cells from the G0/G1- to the early S-phase pool. These studies indicate that flow cytometry offers insights into cell cycle check points of anterior pituitary cells, and suggest that it might be applied to the study of growth of selective pituitary elements, both in normal and tumoral conditions.

  14. Ras-dva is a novel Pit-1- and glucocorticoid-regulated gene in the embryonic anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellestad, Laura E; Porter, Tom E

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids play a role in functional differentiation of pituitary somatotrophs and lactotrophs during embryogenesis. Ras-dva was identified as a gene regulated by anterior neural fold protein-1/homeobox expressed in embryonic stem cells-1, a transcription factor known to be critical in pituitary development, and has an expression profile in the chicken embryonic pituitary gland that is consistent with in vivo regulation by glucocorticoids. The objective of this study was to characterize expression and regulation of ras-dva mRNA in the developing chicken anterior pituitary. Pituitary ras-dva mRNA levels increased during embryogenesis to a maximum on embryonic day (e) 18 and then decreased and remained low or undetectable after hatch. Ras-dva expression was highly enriched in the pituitary gland on e18 relative to other tissues examined. Glucocorticoid treatment of pituitary cells from mid- and late-stage embryos rapidly increased ras-dva mRNA, suggesting it may be a direct transcriptional target of glucocorticoids. A reporter construct driven by 4 kb of the chicken ras-dva 5'-flanking region, containing six putative pituitary-specific transcription factor-1 (Pit-1) binding sites and two potential glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding sites, was highly activated in embryonic pituitary cells and up-regulated by corticosterone. Mutagenesis of the most proximal Pit-1 site decreased promoter activity in chicken e11 pituitary cells, indicating regulation of ras-dva by Pit-1. However, mutating putative GR binding sites did not substantially reduce induction of ras-dva promoter activity by corticosterone, suggesting additional DNA elements within the 5'-flanking region are responsible for glucocorticoid regulation. We have identified ras-dva as a glucocorticoid-regulated gene that is likely expressed in cells of the Pit-1 lineage within the developing anterior pituitary gland.

  15. Brain cortex phosphatidylserine inhibits phosphatidylinositol turnover in rat anterior pituitary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetti, A.C.; Canonico, P.L.; MacLeod, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro effect of bovine brain cortex phosphatidylserine on 32 Pi incorporation into phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine of rat anterior pituitary glands was studied. Phosphatidylserine (0.1 to 66.6 microM) decreased the incorporation of 32 Pi into phosphatidylinositol, but not phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine, in a concentration-related manner. The inhibitory effect of phosphatidylinositol was similar to that of dopamine in the same experimental conditions. The combined effects of submaximal concentrations of dopamine and phosphatidylserine elicited an apparently additive inhibitory effect on phosphatidylinositol synthesis. The inhibitory effect of phosphatidylserine was completely reversed by haloperidol and sulpiride and only partially by pimozide, antidopaminergic agents which per se do not affect phosphatidylinositol synthesis. The stimulatory effect of TRH to increase 32 Pi incorporation into phosphatidylinositol was decreased by phosphatidylserine. These observations suggest that the decrease in prolactin release in the presence of phosphatidylserine may be evoked through a dopaminergic mechanism

  16. Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbôa P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID, an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P<0.05, while the EB-treated OVX group showed activity similar to that of the normal group. Thyroid 5'-ID-I showed the same pattern of changes, but these changes were not statistically significant. Pituitary and hepatic 5'-ID-II did not show major alterations. The treatment with the higher EB dose (14 µg, contrary to the results obtained with the lower dose, had no effect on the reduced pituitary 5'-ID-I of OVX rats. However, it induced an important increment of 5'-ID-I in the thyroid gland (0.8 times higher than that of the normal group: control = 131.9 ± 23.7 vs ovx + EB 14 µg = 248.0 ± 31.2; P<0.05, which is associated with increased serum TSH (0.6-fold vs OVX, P<0.05 but normal serum free T3 and free T4. The data suggest that estrogen is a physiological stimulator of anterior pituitary 5'-ID-I and a potent stimulator of the thyroid enzyme when employed at high doses

  17. Identification of M2 macrophages in anterior pituitary glands of normal rats and rats with estrogen-induced prolactinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Ken; Yatabe, Megumi; Tofrizal, Alimuddin; Jindatip, Depicha; Yashiro, Takashi; Nagai, Ryozo

    2017-05-01

    Macrophages are present throughout the anterior pituitary gland. However, the features and function of macrophages in the gland are poorly understood. Recent studies have indicated that there are two main macrophage classes: M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated). In this study, we examine whether both M1 and M2 macrophages are present in the anterior pituitary gland of rats. Our findings indicate that macrophages that are positive for CD68 (a pan-macrophage marker) were localized near capillaries in rat anterior pituitary gland. These macrophages were positive for iNOS or mannose receptor (MR), which are markers of M1 and M2 macrophages, respectively. To determine the morphological characteristics of M2 macrophages under pathological conditions, diethylstilbestrol (DES)-treated rats were used as an animal model of prolactinoma. After 2 weeks of DES treatment, a number of MR-immunopositive cells were present in the gland. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that MR-immunopositive M2 macrophages had many small vesicles and moderately large vacuoles in cytoplasm. Phagosomes were sometimes present in cytoplasm. Interestingly, M2 macrophages in prolactinoma tissues did not usually exhibit distinct changes or differences during the normal, hyperplasia and adenoma stages. This study is the first to confirm that both M1 and M2 macrophages are present in the anterior pituitary gland of rats. Moreover, the number of M2 macrophages was greatly increased in rats with DES-induced prolactinoma. Future studies should attempt to characterize the functional role of M2 macrophages in the gland.

  18. Maintenance of the Extracellular Matrix in Rat Anterior Pituitary Gland: Identification of Cells Expressing Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Morio; Tofrizal, Alimuddin; Maliza, Rita; Batchuluun, Khongorzul; Ramadhani, Dini; Syaidah, Rahimi; Tsukada, Takehiro; Fujiwara, Ken; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Yashiro, Takashi

    2015-12-25

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is important in creating cellular environments in tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that ECM components are localized in anterior pituitary cells and affect cell activity. Thus, clarifying the mechanism responsible for ECM maintenance would improve understanding of gland function. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are endogenous inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases and participate in ECM degradation. In this study, we investigated whether cells expressing TIMPs are present in rat anterior pituitary gland. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze expression of the TIMP family (TIMP1-4), and cells producing TIMPs in the gland were identified by using in situ hybridization. Expression of TIMP1, TIMP2, and TIMP3 mRNAs was detected, and the TIMP-expressing cells were located in the gland. The TIMP-expressing cells were also investigated by means of double-staining with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques. Double-staining revealed that TIMP1 mRNA was expressed in folliculostellate cells. TIMP2 mRNA was detected in folliculostellate cells, prolactin cells, and thyroid-stimulating hormone cells. TIMP3 mRNA was identified in endothelial cells, pericytes, novel desmin-immunopositive perivascular cells, and folliculostellate cells. These findings indicate that TIMP1-, TIMP2-, and TIMP3-expressing cells are present in rat anterior pituitary gland and that they are involved in maintaining ECM components.

  19. Maintenance of the Extracellular Matrix in Rat Anterior Pituitary Gland: Identification of Cells Expressing Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Morio; Tofrizal, Alimuddin; Maliza, Rita; Batchuluun, Khongorzul; Ramadhani, Dini; Syaidah, Rahimi; Tsukada, Takehiro; Fujiwara, Ken; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Yashiro, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is important in creating cellular environments in tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that ECM components are localized in anterior pituitary cells and affect cell activity. Thus, clarifying the mechanism responsible for ECM maintenance would improve understanding of gland function. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are endogenous inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases and participate in ECM degradation. In this study, we investigated whether cells expressing TIMPs are present in rat anterior pituitary gland. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze expression of the TIMP family (TIMP1-4), and cells producing TIMPs in the gland were identified by using in situ hybridization. Expression of TIMP1, TIMP2, and TIMP3 mRNAs was detected, and the TIMP-expressing cells were located in the gland. The TIMP-expressing cells were also investigated by means of double-staining with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques. Double-staining revealed that TIMP1 mRNA was expressed in folliculostellate cells. TIMP2 mRNA was detected in folliculostellate cells, prolactin cells, and thyroid-stimulating hormone cells. TIMP3 mRNA was identified in endothelial cells, pericytes, novel desmin-immunopositive perivascular cells, and folliculostellate cells. These findings indicate that TIMP1-, TIMP2-, and TIMP3-expressing cells are present in rat anterior pituitary gland and that they are involved in maintaining ECM components

  20. Resistance exercise induces region-specific adaptations in anterior pituitary gland structure and function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Flanagan, Shawn D; Volek, Jeff S; Nindl, Bradley C; Vingren, Jakob L; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Hooper, David R; Szivak, Tunde K; Looney, David P; Maresh, Carl M; Hymer, Wesley C

    2013-12-01

    The anterior pituitary gland (AP) increases growth hormone (GH) secretion in response to resistance exercise (RE), but the nature of AP adaptations to RE is unknown. To that end, we examined the effects of RE on regional AP somatotroph GH release, structure, and relative quantity. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of four groups: 1) no training or acute exercise (NT-NEX); 2) no training with acute exercise (NT-EX); 3) resistance training without acute exercise (RT-NEX); 4) resistance training with acute exercise (RT-EX). RE incorporated 10, 1 m-weighted ladder climbs at an 85° angle. RT groups trained 3 days/wk for 7 wk, progressively. After death, trunk blood was collected, and each AP was divided into quadrants (ventral-dorsal and left-right). We measured: 1) trunk plasma GH; 2) somatotroph GH release; 3) somatotroph size; 4) somatotroph secretory content; and 5) percent of AP cells identified as somatotrophs. Trunk GH differed by group (NT-NEX, 8.9 ± 2.4 μg/l; RT-NEX, 9.2 ± 3.5 μg/l; NT-EX, 15.6 ± 3.4 μg/l; RT-EX, 23.4 ± 4.6 μg/l). RT-EX demonstrated greater somatotroph GH release than all other groups, predominantly in ventral regions (P pituitary gland. RE training appears to induce dynamic adaptations in somatotroph structure and function.

  1. S100β-Positive Cells of Mesenchymal Origin Reside in the Anterior Lobe of the Embryonic Pituitary Gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Horiguchi

    Full Text Available The anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland develop through invagination of the oral ectoderm and as they are endocrine tissues, they participate in the maintenance of vital functions via the synthesis and secretion of numerous hormones. We recently observed that several extrapituitary cells invade the anterior lobe of the developing pituitary gland. This raised the question of the origin(s of these S100β-positive cells, which are not classic endocrine cells but instead comprise a heterogeneous cell population with plural roles, especially as stem/progenitor cells. To better understand the roles of these S100β-positive cells, we performed immunohistochemical analysis using several markers in S100β/GFP-TG rats, which express GFP in S100β-expressing cells under control of the S100β promoter. GFP-positive cells were present as mesenchymal cells surrounding the developing pituitary gland and at Atwell's recess but were not present in the anterior lobe on embryonic day 15.5. These cells were negative for SOX2, a pituitary stem/progenitor marker, and PRRX1, a mesenchyme and pituitary stem/progenitor marker. However, three days later, GFP-positive and PRRX1-positive (but SOX2-negative cells were observed in the parenchyma of the anterior lobe. Furthermore, some GFP-positive cells were positive for vimentin, p75, isolectin B4, DESMIN, and Ki67. These data suggest that S100β-positive cells of extrapituitary origin invade the anterior lobe, undergoing proliferation and diverse transformation during pituitary organogenesis.

  2. S100β-Positive Cells of Mesenchymal Origin Reside in the Anterior Lobe of the Embryonic Pituitary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Yako, Hideji; Yoshida, Saishu; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kanno, Naoko; Ueharu, Hiroki; Nishihara, Hiroto; Kato, Takako; Yashiro, Takashi; Kato, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    The anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland develop through invagination of the oral ectoderm and as they are endocrine tissues, they participate in the maintenance of vital functions via the synthesis and secretion of numerous hormones. We recently observed that several extrapituitary cells invade the anterior lobe of the developing pituitary gland. This raised the question of the origin(s) of these S100β-positive cells, which are not classic endocrine cells but instead comprise a heterogeneous cell population with plural roles, especially as stem/progenitor cells. To better understand the roles of these S100β-positive cells, we performed immunohistochemical analysis using several markers in S100β/GFP-TG rats, which express GFP in S100β-expressing cells under control of the S100β promoter. GFP-positive cells were present as mesenchymal cells surrounding the developing pituitary gland and at Atwell's recess but were not present in the anterior lobe on embryonic day 15.5. These cells were negative for SOX2, a pituitary stem/progenitor marker, and PRRX1, a mesenchyme and pituitary stem/progenitor marker. However, three days later, GFP-positive and PRRX1-positive (but SOX2-negative) cells were observed in the parenchyma of the anterior lobe. Furthermore, some GFP-positive cells were positive for vimentin, p75, isolectin B4, DESMIN, and Ki67. These data suggest that S100β-positive cells of extrapituitary origin invade the anterior lobe, undergoing proliferation and diverse transformation during pituitary organogenesis.

  3. P-OTX: a PIT-1-interacting homeodomain factor expressed during anterior pituitary gland development.

    OpenAIRE

    Szeto, D P; Ryan, A K; O'Connell, S M; Rosenfeld, M G

    1996-01-01

    A novel OTX-related homeodomain transcription factor has been identified on the basis of its ability to interact with the transactivation domain of the pituitary-specific POU domain protein, Pit-1. This factor, referred to as P-OTX (pituitary OTX-related factor), is expressed in primordial Rathke's pouch, oral epithelium, first bronchial arch, duodenum, and hindlimb. In the developing anterior pituitary, it is expressed in all regions from which cells with distinct phenotypes will emerge in t...

  4. Prolactin release, oestrogens and proliferation of prolactin-secreting cells in the anterior pituitary gland of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, R L; Machiavelli, G A; Romano, M I; Burdman, J A

    1986-03-01

    Relationships among the release of prolactin, the effect of oestrogens and the proliferation of prolactin-secreting cells were studied under several experimental conditions. Administration of sulpiride or oestradiol released prolactin and stimulated cell proliferation in the anterior pituitary gland of adult male rats. Clomiphene completely abolished the rise in cell proliferation, but did not interfere with the sulpiride-induced release of prolactin. Treatment with oestradiol plus sulpiride significantly increased serum prolactin concentrations and the mitotic index compared with the sum of the stimulation produced by both drugs separately. Bromocriptine abolished the stimulatory effect of oestradiol on the serum prolactin concentration and on cell proliferation. In oestradiol- and/or sulpiride-treated rats, 80% of the cells in mitoses were lactotrophs. The remaining 20% did not stain with antisera against any of the pituitary hormones. The number of prolactin-secreting cells in the anterior pituitary gland significantly increased after the administration of oestradiol or sulpiride. The results demonstrate that treatment with sulpiride and/or oestradiol increases the proliferation and the number of lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat.

  5. In vivo correlation between c-Fos expression and corticotroph stimulation by adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretagogues in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigami, Shu; Fujiwara, Ken; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2008-03-01

    In the anterior pituitary gland, c-Fos expression is evoked by various stimuli. However, whether c-Fos expression is directly related to the stimulation of anterior pituitary cells by hypothalamic secretagogues is unclear. To confirm whether the reception of hormone-releasing stimuli evokes c-Fos expression in anterior pituitary cells, we have examined c-Fos expression of anterior pituitary glands in rats administered with synthetic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) intravenously or subjected to restraint stress. Single intravenous administration of CRH increases the number of c-Fos-expressing cells, and this number does not change even if the dose is increased. Double-immunostaining has revealed that most of the c-Fos-expressing cells contain adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH); corticotrophs that do not express c-Fos in response to CRH have also been found. However, restraint stress evokes c-Fos expression in most of the corticotrophs and in a partial population of lactotrophs. These results suggest that c-Fos expression increases in corticotrophs stimulated by ACTH secretagogues, including CRH. Furthermore, we have found restricted numbers of corticotrophs expressing c-Fos in response to CRH. Although the mechanism underlying the different responses to CRH is not apparent, c-Fos is probably a useful immunohistochemical marker for corticotrophs stimulated by ACTH secretagogues.

  6. Direct demonstration of guanine nucleotide sensitive receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide in the anterior lobe of the rat pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agui, T.; Matsumoto, K.

    1990-01-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors were identified on the membranes from the rat anterior pituitary gland with [ 125 I]VIP. The dissociation constant (Kd) and the maximal binding capacity (Bmax) values were estimated from the competitive inhibition data. The Kd and Bmax values were 1.05 +/- 0.75 nM and 103 +/- 11 fmol/mg protein, respectively. The order of molar potency of related peptides to inhibit [ 125 I]VIP binding was VIP greater than peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) greater than secretin greater than glucagon. Glucagon was not effective to inhibit the binding. [ 125 I]VIP binding was effectively inhibited by the addition of guanine nucleotides. The order of molar potency to inhibit the binding was Gpp(NH)p greater than GTP greater than GDP greater than GMP greater than ATP. These results directly suggest the coupling of VIP receptors with guanine nucleotide binding proteins in the anterior pituitary gland

  7. Pituitary gland imaging and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorgi, Natascia; Morana, Giovanni; Gallizia, Anna Lisa; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a detailed and precise anatomical study of the pituitary gland by differentiating between the anterior and posterior pituitary lobes. The identification of posterior pituitary hyperintensity, now considered a marker of neurohypophyseal functional integrity, has been the most striking advance for the diagnosis and understanding of anterior and posterior pituitary diseases. The advent of MRI has in fact led to a significant improvement in the understanding of the pathogenesis of disorders that affect the hypothalamo-pituitary area. Today, there is convincing evidence to support the hypothesis that marked MRI differences in pituitary morphology indicate a diverse range of disorders which affect the organogenesis and function of the anterior pituitary gland with different prognoses. Furthermore, the association of extrapituitary malformations accurately defined by MRI has supported a better definition of several conditions linked to pituitary hormone deficiencies and midline defects. MRI is a very informative procedure that should be used to support a diagnosis of hypopituitarism. It is useful in clinical management, because it helps endocrinologists determine which patients to target for further molecular studies and genetic counselling, which ones to screen for additional hormone deficits, and which ones may need growth hormone replacement into adult life. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Fibromodulin Expression in Folliculostellate Cells and Pericytes Is Promoted by TGFβ Signaling in Rat Anterior Pituitary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaidah, Rahimi; Tsukada, Takehiro; Azuma, Morio; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2016-12-28

    Fibromodulin belongs to the family of small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs), an active component of extracellular matrix. It directly binds collagens to promote fibrillogenesis and also binds transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) to antagonize its actions. Our previous studies of rat anterior pituitary gland revealed that fibromodulin is expressed in folliculostellate cells and pericytes. Although our recent study showed that TGFβ2 secreted from folliculostellate cells induces collagen synthesis in pericytes, the involvement of fibromodulin in TGFβ2-mediated collagen regulation has not been studied. The present study examined the effect of TGFβ2 on fibromodulin synthesis in rat anterior pituitary gland. In situ hybridization for TGFβ receptor II and immunohistological techniques revealed the presence of TGFβ receptor II in folliculostellate cells and pericytes. To confirm canonical TGFβ intracellular signaling, Smad2 immunocytochemistry was performed. Nuclear translocation of Smad2 was observed in folliculostellate cells and pericytes after TGFβ2 treatment. TGFβ2 strongly enhanced fibromodulin mRNA and protein expressions, and TGFβ2-induced mRNA expression was completely blocked by TGFβ receptor I inhibitor (SB431542). These results suggest that folliculostellate cells and pericytes exhibit canonical TGFβ2 signaling, which is associated with fibromodulin production. Thus, this is the first report to show that TGFβ signaling regulates the endogenous TGFβ antagonist fibromodulin in the gland.

  9. Immunohistochemistry of connexin 43 throughout anterior pituitary gland in a transgenic rat with green fluorescent protein-expressing folliculo-stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Kouki, Tom; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2008-12-01

    Folliculo-stellate (FS) cells in the anterior pituitary gland have been speculated to possess multifunctional properties. Because gap junctions (GJ) have been identified between FS cells, FS cells may be interconnected electrophysiologically by GJ and serve as signal transmission networks to modulate hormone release in the anterior pituitary gland. But whether GJ are localized among FS cells from the pars tuberalis through the pars distalis is unclear. The S100b-GFP transgenic rat has recently been generated, which expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) specifically in FS cells in the anterior pituitary. This model is expected to be a powerful tool for studies of FS cells. The purpose of the present paper was therefore to examine the localization of GJ on connexin 43 immunohistochemistry throughout the anterior pituitary gland of S100b-GFP rats under confocal laser microscopy. The localization patterns of FS cells was also observed in primary culture of anterior pituitary cells and the question of whether GJ between FS cells are reconstructed in vitro was investigated. In vivo studies showed that GJ were present specifically between FS cells from the pars tuberalis to the pars distalis in the anterior pituitary gland. The appearance of FS cells was distinguished into two types, with localization of GJ differing between types. In vitro, it was observed for the first time that FS cells in primary culture could be categorized into two types. In vivo localization of GJ between FS cells was reconstructed in vitro. These morphological observations are consistent with the hypothesis that FS cells form an electrophysiological network throughout the anterior pituitary for signal transmission.

  10. Region-specific expression and hormonal regulation of the first exon variants of rat prolactin receptor mRNA in rat brain and anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, H; Hoshino, R; Ogasawara, K; Miyamoto, S; Hisano, S

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies have revealed the occurrence of five first exon variants of the rat prolactin receptor mRNA, suggesting that multiple promoters direct prolactin receptor transcription in response to different regulatory factors. In the present study, regional expression of these first exon variants, as well as two prolactin receptor subtypes generated by alternative splicing, was examined in the brains and anterior pituitary glands of female rats. Expression of the long-form was detected in the choroid plexus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, cerebral cortex and anterior pituitary gland, whereas the short form was detected only in the choroid plexus. E1-3 mRNA, a first exon variant, was detected in the choroid plexus, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary gland, whereas E1-4 was detected only in the choroid plexus. Other variants were not detectable by the polymerase chain reaction protocol employed in this study. Ovariectomy increased the short form in the choroid plexus and the E1-3 expression in the choroid plexus and pituitary gland, but changes in the long-form and E1-4 expression were minimal. Replacement of oestrogens and prolactin suggest that oestrogens down-regulate E1-3 expression in the choroid plexus and pituitary gland, and that the negative effect of oestrogen is mediated by prolactin in the pituitary gland. The present results revealed the region-specific promoter usage in prolactin receptor mRNA transcription, as well as the involvement of oestrogens in the regulation of E1-3 mRNA expression in the brain and pituitary gland.

  11. In situ hybridization reveals that type I and III collagens are produced by pericytes in the anterior pituitary gland of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Ken; Jindatip, Depicha; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2010-12-01

    Type I and III collagens widely occur in the rat anterior pituitary gland and are the main components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Although ECM components possibly play an important role in the function of the anterior pituitary gland, little is known about collagen-producing cells. Type I collagen is a heterotrimer of two α1(I) chains (the product of the col1a1 gene) and one α2(I) chain (the product of the col1a2 gene). Type III collagen is a homotrimer of α1(III) chains (the product of the col3a1 gene). We used in situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes to examine the expression of col1a1, col1a2, and col3a1 mRNAs in the pituitary gland of adult rats. mRNA expression for these collagen genes was clearly observed, and cells expressing col1a1, col1a2, and col3a1 mRNA were located around capillaries in the gland. We also investigated the possible double-staining of collagen mRNA and pituitary hormones, S-100 protein (a marker of folliculo-stellate cells), or desmin (a marker of pericytes). Col1a1 and col3a1 mRNA were identified in desmin-immunopositive cells. Thus, only pericytes produce type I and III collagens in the rat anterior pituitary gland.

  12. Pituitary gland tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [de

  13. [Pituitary gland tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesser, J; Schlamp, K; Bendszus, M

    2014-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15% of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65% of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50% secrete prolactin, 10% secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6% secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10% of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland.

  14. Immunohistochemical proliferation markers may overestimate the growth potential after ionizing radiation. In vivo study in the rat anterior pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasu, Satoshi; Fukami, Tadateru; Matsuda, Masayuki; Nakasu, Yoko

    2003-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on the expression of immunohistochemical proliferation markers was examined in the rat pituitary gland. Rats were irradiated in the pituitary region with a dose of 40 Gy, or were sham-irradiated as controls. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was given to the rats after one week, either one hour (Br-1 group) or 17 hours (Br-17 group) before perfusion fixation. Immunohistochemical staining for BrdU, topoisomerase II-alpha (TopoII), Ki-67 (MIB-5), p21 WAF1/CiP1 (p21), and p27 Kip1 (p27) was performed. Apoptotic cells were detected by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling method. The mean BrdU labeling index (LI) and MIB-5 LI were significantly higher in the irradiated rats than in the sham rats in the Br-1 group. TopoII LI was higher in the irradiated rats than in the sham rats, although not significantly. p27-positive cells decreased in irradiated rats, but p21-positive cells increased more than in the sham rats. The number of apoptotic cells increased significantly after radiation. BrdU LIs were lower in the irradiated rats than in the sham rats in the Br-17 group. A few small BrdU-positive fragments with apoptotic features were phagocytosed in the anterior lobe cells. These results indicate that some ''immunohistochemically proliferating cells'' subsequently undergo apoptosis in the irradiated pituitary gland. The values of proliferative indices should be cautiously interpreted after irradiation of tissue. (author)

  15. Ultrastructural modifications and changes in the expression of hormonal genes produced by indomethacin in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, L A; Rivolta, C; Machiavelli, G A; Burdman, J A

    1995-10-01

    Indomethacin decreases the level of prolactin (50%) and growth hormone (70%) mRNA in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat. Actin mRNA increases (59%). Ultrastructurally there is a decrease in the number of secretory granules. Indomethacin also prevents the increase in prolactin secretory granules produced by the administration of estradiol. The results indicate that indomethacin inhibits hormonal synthesis in the APG at a transcriptional level. This effect appears selective because mRNA level for actin synthesis in the pituitary gland was higher than in nontreated rats.

  16. Isolation of dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Yoshida, Saishu; Higuchi, Masashi; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kanno, Naoko; Yashiro, Takashi; Tateno, Kozue; Osako, Shunji; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2014-07-01

    S100β-protein-positive cells in the anterior pituitary gland appear to possess multifunctional properties. Because of their pleiotropic features, S100β-positive cells are assumed to be of a heterogeneous or even a non-pituitary origin. The observation of various markers has allowed these cells to be classified into populations such as stem/progenitor cells, epithelial cells, astrocytes and dendritic cells. The isolation and characterization of each heterogeneous population is a prerequisite for clarifying the functional character and origin of the cells. We attempt to isolate two of the subpopulations of S100β-positive cells from the anterior lobe. First, from transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the S100β protein promoter, we fractionate GFP-positive cells with a cell sorter and culture them so that they can interact with laminin, a component of the extracellular matrix. We observe that one morphological type of GFP-positive cells possesses extended cytoplasmic processes and shows high adhesiveness to laminin (process type), whereas the other is round in shape and exhibits low adherence to laminin (round type). We successfully isolate cells of the round type from the cultured GFP-positive cells by taking advantage of their low affinity to laminin and then measure mRNA levels of the two cell types by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The resultant data show that the process type expresses vimentin (mesenchymal cell marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte marker). The round type expresses dendritic cell markers, CD11b and interleukin-6. Thus, we found a method for isolating dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells by means of their property of adhering to laminin.

  17. Immunocharacteristics of oestrogen and androgen target cells in the anterior pituitary gland of the chick as embryo demonstrated by a combined method of autoradiography and immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasc, J.-M.; Sar, M.; Stumpf, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of oestrogen and androgen target cells in the anterior pituitary gland of the chick embryo on days 10, 12 and 15 of incubation was studied 1 h after the injection of tritium-labelled steroid hormone using the thaw-mount autoradiographic technique. Oestradiol target cells were localized in the caudal zone that corresponds to the so-called 'caudal lobe', while androgen target cells were found throughout the rostral and caudal lobes of the anterior gland. With a combined autoradiography and immunohistochemistry technique, most of the oestrogen target cells showed immunoreactivity to turkey LH antiserum but not to adrenocorticotrophin (1-24) and β-thyrotrophin antisera. In contrast, androgen target cells did not show positive immunoreactivity to the three antisera used. The results suggested a direct and early involvement of oestrogens but not of androgens in the feedback regulation of pituitary gonadotrophin secretion in the chick embryo. (U.K.)

  18. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

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    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  19. Expression pattern of neuronal intermediate filament α-internexin in anterior pituitary gland and related tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schult, D; Hölsken, A; Buchfelder, M; Schlaffer, S-M; Siegel, S; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, I; Fahlbusch, R; Buslei, R

    2015-08-01

    α-Internexin (INA) is a class IV neuronal intermediate filament protein that maintains the morphogenesis of neurons. It is expressed in developing neuroblasts and represents the major component of the cytoskeleton in cerebellar granule cells of adult central nervous system tissue. Data concerning INA expression in the human frontal pituitary lobe and related adenomas (PA) is missing. Using immunohistochemistry we examined the distribution pattern of INA in a large cohort of 152 PA, 11 atypical PA, 4 pituitary carcinomas and 20 normal pituitaries (overall n = 187). Quantity of INA protein expression was semi-quantitatively evaluated and grouped into five categories (0 = 0%; 1 = >0-5%; 2 = >5-35%; 3 = >35-80%; 4 = >80% of cells). Cellular staining intensity of INA appeared significantly higher in gonadotropinomas (Go, n = 62), null cell adenomas (NC, n = 7) and thyrotropinomas (TSHomas, n = 7) compared to the other tumor subtypes (p ≤ 0.001). Furthermore, Go and NC showed a peculiar pseudorosette-like staining pattern surrounding blood vessels in 85.5% (59/69) of cases. Interestingly, areas exhibiting homogenous INA staining were often associated with oncocytic cell changes and decreased immunohistochemically detectable hormone expression. Only 8.5% (8/94) of other PA showed a comparable INA distribution (p ≤ 0.001). Go, NC as well as TSHomas exhibit high levels of intracellular INA protein indicating neuronal transdifferentiation. A possible impact on pathogenesis and endocrine activity needs further investigation.

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy of Perioperative Measurement of Basal Anterior Pituitary and Target Gland Hormones in Predicting Adrenal Insufficiency After Pituitary Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Vatroslav; Kruljac, Ivan; Radosevic, Jelena Marinkovic; Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Stipic, Darko; Pecina, Hrvoje Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2016-03-01

    The insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the gold standard for diagnosing adrenal insufficiency (AI) after pituitary surgery. The ITT is unpleasant for patients, requires close medical supervision and is contraindicated in several comorbidities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether tumor size, remission rate, preoperative, and early postoperative baseline hormone concentrations could serve as predictors of AI in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy of morning serum cortisol. This prospective study enrolled 70 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pituitary adenomas. Thirty-seven patients had nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NPA), 28 had prolactinomas and 5 had somatotropinomas. Thyroxin (T4), thyrotropin (TSH), prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) were measured preoperatively and on the sixth postoperative day. Serum morning cortisol was measured on the third postoperative day (CORT3) as well as the sixth postoperative day (CORT6). Tumor mass was measured preoperatively and remission was assessed 3 months after surgery. An ITT was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively. Remission was achieved in 48% of patients and AI occurred in 51%. Remission rates and tumor type were not associated with AI. CORT3 had the best predictive value for AI (area under the curve (AUC) 0.868, sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 83.3%). Tumor size, preoperative T4, postoperative T4, and TSH were also associated with AI in a multivariate regression model. A combination of all preoperative and postoperative variables (excluding serum cortisol) had a sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 77.8%. The predictive power of CORT3 substantially improved by adding those variables into the model (AUC 0.921, sensitivity 94.1%, specificity 78.3%, PPV 81.9%, NPV of 92.7%). In a subgroup analysis that included only female patients with NPA, LH had exactly the same predictive value as CORT3. The addition

  1. Laminin and collagen modulate expression of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan fibromodulin in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaidah, Rahimi; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-11-01

    The anterior pituitary is a complex organ consisting of five types of hormone-producing cells, non–hormone-producing cells such as folliculostellate (FS) cells and vascular cells (endothelial cells and pericytes). We have previously shown that FS cells and pericytes produce fibromodulin, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP). SLRPs are major proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and are important in regulating cell signaling pathways and ECM assembly. However, the mechanism regulating fibromodulin expression in the anterior pituitary has not been elucidated. Here, we investigate whether fibromodulin expression is modulated by major anterior pituitary ECM components such as laminin and type I collagen. Using transgenic rats expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) specifically in FS cells, we examine fibromodulin expression in GFP-positive (FS cells) and GFP-negative cells (e.g., pericytes, endocrine cells and endothelial cells). Immunostaining and Western blot analysis were used to assess protein expression in the presence and absence of laminin or type I collagen. We confirmed fibromodulin expression in the pituitary and observed the up-regulation of fibromodulin in FS cells in the presence of ECM components. However, neither laminin nor type I collagen affected expression in GFP-negative cells. This suggests that laminin and type I collagen support the function of FS cells by increasing fibromodulin protein expression in the anterior pituitary.

  2. Changes in fine structure of pericytes and novel desmin-immunopositive perivascular cells during postnatal development in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindatip, Depicha; Fujiwara, Ken; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kouki, Tom; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    Pericytes are perivascular cells associated with capillaries. We previously demonstrated that pericytes, identified by desmin immunohistochemistry, produce type I and III collagens in the anterior pituitary gland of adult rats. In addition, we recently used desmin immunoelectron microscopy to characterize a novel type of perivascular cell, dubbed a desmin-immunopositive perivascular cell, in the anterior pituitary. These two types of perivascular cells differ in fine structure. The present study attempted to characterize the morphological features of pituitary pericytes and novel desmin-immunopositive perivascular cells during postnatal development, in particular their role in collagen synthesis. Desmin immunostaining revealed numerous perivascular cells at postnatal day 5 (P5) and P10. Transmission electron microscopy showed differences in the fine structure of the two cell types, starting at P5. Pericytes had well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus at P5 and P10. The novel desmin-immunopositive perivascular cells exhibited dilated cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum at P5-P30. In addition, during early postnatal development in the gland, a number of type I and III collagen-expressing cells were observed, as were high expression levels of these collagen mRNAs. We conclude that pituitary pericytes and novel desmin-immunopositive perivascular cells contain well-developed cell organelles and that they actively synthesize collagens during the early postnatal period.

  3. Relationship between release of LH and incorporation of tritiated thymidine in the anterior pituitary gland of the castrated female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiavelli, G A; Romano, M I; Burdman, J A

    1985-06-01

    Castration of female rats during diestrus increases the concentration of circulating LH from days 3 and the incorporation of 3H thymidine into pituitary DNA from day 5. Both effects are completely abolished by the administration of dihydrotestosterone. Although the i.v. injection of LHRH markedly enhances the concentration of LH in serum, it does not modify the incorporation of 3H thymidine into pituitary DNA. Castration might produce a maximal stimulation in 3H thymidine incorporation and a further stimulation of LH release with LHRH is unable to enhance the incorporation of the radioactive precursor. The results suggest a relationship between LH secretion and DNA synthesis in the pituitary gland of the rat.

  4. Effect of endotoxin on the expression of GnRH and GnRHR genes in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland of anestrous ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Andrzej Przemysław; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, Dorota

    2010-07-01

    An immune/inflammatory challenge can affect reproduction at the level of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, or gonads. Nonetheless, the major impact is thought to occur within the brain or the pituitary gland. The present study was designed to examine the effect of intravenous (i.v.) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection on the expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) genes in the hypothalamic structures where GnRH neurons are located as well as in the anterior pituitary gland (AP) of anestrous ewes. We also determined the effect of LPS on luteinizing hormone (LH) release. It was found that i.v. LPS injection significantly decreased GnRH and GnRHR mRNAs levels in the preoptic area (40%, ppituitary cells to GnRH stimulation. The presence of GnRH mRNA in the median eminence, the hypothalamic structure where GnRH-ergic neurons' terminals are located, suggests that the axonal transport of GnRH mRNA may occur in these neurons. This phenomenon could play an important role in the physiology of GnRH neurons. Our data demonstrate that immune stress could be important inhibitor of this process. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of chemokine CXCL10 in dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Higuchi, Masashi; Yoshida, Saishu; Tsukada, Takehiro; Ueharu, Hiroki; Chen, Mo; Hasegawa, Rumi; Takigami, Shu; Ohsako, Shunji; Yashiro, Takashi; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2014-09-01

    Chemokines are mostly small secreted polypeptides whose signals are mediated by seven trans-membrane G-protein-coupled receptors. Their functions include the control of leukocytes and the intercellular mediation of cell migration, proliferation, and adhesion in several tissues. We have previously revealed that the CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor 4 (CXCR4) are expressed in the anterior pituitary gland, and that the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis evokes the migration and interconnection of S100β-protein-positive cells (S100β-positive cells), which do not produce classical anterior pituitary hormones. However, little is known of the cells producing the other CXCLs and CXCRs or of their characteristics in the anterior pituitary. We therefore examined whether CXCLs and CXCRs occurred in the rat anterior pituitary lobe. We used reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction to analyze the expression of Cxcl and Cxcr and identified the cells that expressed Cxcl by in situ hybridization. Transcripts of Cxcl10 and its receptor (Cxcr3 and toll-like receptor 4, Tlr4) were clearly detected: cells expressing Cxcl10 and Tlr4 were identified amongst S100β-positive cells and those expressing Cxcr3 amongst adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing cells. We also investigated Cxcl10 expression in subpopulations of S100β-positive cells. We separated cultured S100β-positive cells into the round-type (dendritic-cell-like) and process-type (astrocyte- or epithelial-cell-like) by their adherent activity to laminin, a component of the extracellular matrix; CXCL10 was expressed only in round-type S100β-positive cells. Thus, CXCL10 produced by a subpopulation of S100β-positive cells probably exerts an autocrine/paracrine effect on S100β-positive cells and ACTH-producing cells in the anterior lobe.

  6. Height, shape and anterior-posterior diameter of pituitary gland on magnetic resonance imaging among patients with multiple sclerosis compared to normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Hossein Ali; Ahmadi-Pour, Habibeh; Khodadoust, Mohammad

    2017-10-07

    Background: Several studies indicate contribution of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in multiple sclerosis (MS) disease. This study was designed to determine whether there is an effective difference in pituitary height, shape, and anterior-posterior diameter (APD) between patients with MS and the control group. Methods: In this study, sagittal pituitary height and APD of 134 men and women (64 patients with MS and 70 healthy subjects as control group) were measured by T1 sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All the subjects were free of sellar or parasellar pathology without a history of surgical intervention or prolactin affecting drugs like bromocriptine and cabergoline or corticosteroid consumption. Results: Mean height of pituitary gland was 6.62 ± 1.43 and 5.78 ± 1.15 mm for patients and the control group, respectively, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Mean APD was 10.40 ± 1.29 mm for the group of patients and 10.25 ± 1.41 mm for the control group, respectively, without significant differences. 46.9%, 37.5%, and 15.6% of patients had flat, convex, and concave hypophyseal surfaces, respectively. This rate was 50%, 30%, and 20% among the control group, respectively. There was no significant difference between our measurements among patients on whom imaging study was performed at time of disease onset with others. Conclusion: Mean height of pituitary gland among patients with MS was significantly greater than the control group (P = 0.001). So can we consider the same etiology for pituitary hypertrophy among patients with MS as a hypothesis?

  7. Nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase is differentially regulated by nuclear and non-nuclear estrogen pathways in anterior pituitary gland.

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    Jimena P Cabilla

    Full Text Available 17β-estradiol (E2 regulates hormonal release as well as proliferation and cell death in the pituitary. The main nitric oxide receptor, nitric oxide sensitive- or soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC, is a heterodimer composed of two subunits, α and β, that catalyses cGMP formation. α1β1 is the most abundant and widely expressed heterodimer, showing the greater activity. Previously we have shown that E2 decreased sGC activity but exerts opposite effects on sGC subunits increasing α1 and decreasing β1 mRNA and protein levels. In the present work we investigate the mechanisms by which E2 differentially regulates sGC subunits' expression on rat anterior pituitary gland. Experiments were performed on primary cultures of anterior pituitary cells from adult female Wistar rats at random stages of estrous cycle. After 6 h of E2 treatment, α1 mRNA and protein expression is increased while β1 levels are down-regulated. E2 effects on sGC expression are partially dependent on de novo transcription while de novo translation is fully required. E2 treatment decreased HuR mRNA stabilization factor and increased AUF1 p37 mRNA destabilization factor. E2-elicited β1 mRNA decrease correlates with a mRNA destabilization environment in the anterior pituitary gland. On the other hand, after 6 h of treatment, E2-BSA (1 nM and E2-dendrimer conjugate (EDC, 1 nM were unable to modify α1 or β1 mRNA levels, showing that nuclear receptor is involved in E2 actions. However, at earlier times (3 h, 1 nM EDC causes a transient decrease of α1 in a PI3k-dependent fashion. Our results show for the first time that E2 is able to exert opposite actions in the anterior pituitary gland, depending on the activation of classical or non-classical pathways. Thus, E2 can also modify sGC expression through membrane-initiated signals bringing to light a new point of regulation in NO/sGC pathway.

  8. Nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase is differentially regulated by nuclear and non-nuclear estrogen pathways in anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabilla, Jimena P; Nudler, Silvana I; Ronchetti, Sonia A; Quinteros, Fernanda A; Lasaga, Mercedes; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2011-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) regulates hormonal release as well as proliferation and cell death in the pituitary. The main nitric oxide receptor, nitric oxide sensitive- or soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), is a heterodimer composed of two subunits, α and β, that catalyses cGMP formation. α1β1 is the most abundant and widely expressed heterodimer, showing the greater activity. Previously we have shown that E2 decreased sGC activity but exerts opposite effects on sGC subunits increasing α1 and decreasing β1 mRNA and protein levels. In the present work we investigate the mechanisms by which E2 differentially regulates sGC subunits' expression on rat anterior pituitary gland. Experiments were performed on primary cultures of anterior pituitary cells from adult female Wistar rats at random stages of estrous cycle. After 6 h of E2 treatment, α1 mRNA and protein expression is increased while β1 levels are down-regulated. E2 effects on sGC expression are partially dependent on de novo transcription while de novo translation is fully required. E2 treatment decreased HuR mRNA stabilization factor and increased AUF1 p37 mRNA destabilization factor. E2-elicited β1 mRNA decrease correlates with a mRNA destabilization environment in the anterior pituitary gland. On the other hand, after 6 h of treatment, E2-BSA (1 nM) and E2-dendrimer conjugate (EDC, 1 nM) were unable to modify α1 or β1 mRNA levels, showing that nuclear receptor is involved in E2 actions. However, at earlier times (3 h), 1 nM EDC causes a transient decrease of α1 in a PI3k-dependent fashion. Our results show for the first time that E2 is able to exert opposite actions in the anterior pituitary gland, depending on the activation of classical or non-classical pathways. Thus, E2 can also modify sGC expression through membrane-initiated signals bringing to light a new point of regulation in NO/sGC pathway. © 2011 Cabilla et al.

  9. Expression of Slug in S100β-protein-positive cells of postnatal developing rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Yako, Hideji; Tateno, Kozue; Hasegawa, Rumi; Takigami, Shu; Ohsako, Shunji; Yashiro, Takashi; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    Among heterogeneous S100β-protein-positive (S100β-positive) cells, star-like cells with extended cytoplasmic processes, the so-called folliculo-stellate cells, envelop hormone-producing cells or interconnect homophilically in the anterior pituitary. S100β-positive cells are known, from immunohistochemistry, to emerge from postnatal day (P) 10 and to proliferate and migrate in the parenchyma of the anterior pituitary with growth. Recent establishment of S100β-GFP transgenic rats expressing specifically green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the S100β-promoter has allowed us to observe living S100β-positive cells. In the present study, we first confirmed that living S100β-positive cells in tissue cultures of S100β-GFP rat pituitary at P5 were present prior to P10 by means of confocal laser microscopy and that they proliferated and extended their cytoplasmic processes. Second, we examined the expression of the Snail-family zinc-finger transcription factors, Snail and Slug, to investigate the mechanism behind the morphological changes and the proliferation of S100β-positive cells. Interestingly, we detected Slug expression in S100β-positive cells and its increase together with development in the anterior pituitary. To analyze downstream of SLUG in S100β-positive cells, we utilized specific small interfering RNA for Slug mRNAs and observed that the expression of matrix metalloprotease (Mmp) 9, Mmp14 and chemokine Cxcl12 was down-regulated and that morphological changes and proliferation were decreased. Thus, our findings suggest that S100β-positive cells express Slug and that its expression is important for subsequent migration and proliferation.

  10. Evaluation of diffusivity in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland: 3D turbo field echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwatashi, A; Yoshiura, T; Togao, O; Yamashita, K; Kikuchi, K; Kobayashi, K; Ohga, M; Sonoda, S; Honda, H; Obara, M

    2014-01-01

    3D turbo field echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation is a non-echo-planar technique for DWI, which enables high-resolution DWI without field inhomogeneity-related image distortion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium turbo field echo in evaluating diffusivity in the normal pituitary gland. First, validation of diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium turbo field echo was attempted by comparing it with echo-planar DWI. Five healthy volunteers were imaged by using diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium turbo field echo and echo-planar DWI. The imaging voxel size was 1.5 × 1.5 × 1.5 mm(3) for diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium turbo field echo and 1.5 × 1.9 × 3.0 mm(3) for echo-planar DWI. ADCs measured by the 2 methods in 15 regions of interests (6 in gray matter and 9 in white matter) were compared by using the Pearson correlation coefficient. The ADC in the pituitary anterior lobe was then measured in 10 volunteers by using diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium turbo field echo, and the results were compared with those in the pons and vermis by using a paired t test. The ADCs from the 2 methods showed a strong correlation (r = 0.79; P pituitary gland were 1.37 ± 0.13 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, which were significantly higher than those in the pons (1.01 ± 0.24 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) and the vermis (0.89 ± 0.25 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, P pituitary gland.

  11. Cellular and molecular specificity of pituitary gland physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Castro, Carolina; Renner, Ulrich; Haedo, Mariana R; Stalla, Gunter K; Arzt, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The anterior pituitary gland has the ability to respond to complex signals derived from central and peripheral systems. Perception of these signals and their integration are mediated by cell interactions and cross-talk of multiple signaling transduction pathways and transcriptional regulatory networks that cooperate for hormone secretion, cell plasticity, and ultimately specific pituitary responses that are essential for an appropriate physiological response. We discuss the physiopathological and molecular mechanisms related to this integrative regulatory system of the anterior pituitary gland and how it contributes to modulate the gland functions and impacts on body homeostasis.

  12. Identification of THY1 as a novel thyrotrope marker and THY1 antibody-mediated thyrotrope isolation in the rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Nakakura, Takashi; Yoshida, Saishu; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kanno, Naoko; Hasegawa, Rumi; Takigami, Shu; Ohsako, Shunji; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2016-11-11

    Contact-dependent (juxtacrine) signaling is important for local cell-to-cell interaction and has received attention in recent years regarding its role in pituitary function, differentiation, and development. This study investigated one of the juxtacrine-related molecules, thymocyte differentiation antigen 1 (THY1), in the anterior lobe of the rat pituitary gland. Western blot analysis revealed expression of the THY1 protein in the adult rat anterior lobe. We also found that the THY1 ligand, integrin-β2 (ITGB2), is also expressed in the pituitary gland. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses showed that both THY1 mRNA and protein were present in almost, if not all, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-immunopositive cells (thyrotropes) and that ITGB2 was co-expressed in these cells. As THY1 appeared to represent a novel marker for thyrotropes, we then attempted to isolate these cells from various anterior lobe cells by the use of a THY1 antibody and a pluriBead-cascade cell isolation system. This technology allowed the isolation of thyrotropes with 83% purity at about 17-fold enrichment. Furthermore, the isolated THY1-immunopositive cells had higher Tsh mRNA levels compared with THY1-immunonegative cells and released TSH in response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. These findings indicated that THY1 represents a potent thyrotrope marker and that the thyrotrope isolation method using the THY1 antibody may serve as a powerful tool to analyze their function including juxtacrine regulation through THY1/ITGB2 interaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Caveolin 3-mediated integrin β1 signaling is required for the proliferation of folliculostellate cells in rat anterior pituitary gland under the influence of extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Ilmiawati, Cimi; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kouki, Tom; Yashiro, Takashi

    2011-07-01

    Folliculostellate (FS) cells in the anterior pituitary gland are believed to have multifunctional properties. Using transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) specifically in FS cells in the anterior pituitary gland (S100b-GFP rats), we recently revealed that FS cells in primary culture exhibited marked proliferation in the presence of laminin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) component of the basement membrane. In a process referred to as matricrine action, FS cells receive ECM as a signal through their receptors, which results in morphological and functional changes. In this study, we investigated matricrine signaling in FS cells and observed that the proliferation of FS cells is mediated by integrin β1, which is involved in various signaling pathways for cell migration and proliferation in response to ECM. Then, we analyzed downstream events of the integrin β1 signaling pathway in the proliferation of FS cells and identified caveolin 3 as a potential candidate molecule. Caveolin 3 is a membrane protein that binds cholesterol and a number of signaling molecules that interact with integrin β1. Using specific small interfering RNA of caveolin 3, the proliferation of FS cells was inhibited. Furthermore, caveolin 3 drove activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades, which resulted in upregulation of cyclin D1 in FS cells. These findings suggest that matricrine signaling in the proliferation of FS cells was transduced by a caveolin 3-mediated integrin β1 signaling pathway and subsequent activation of the MAPK pathway. © 2011 Society for Endocrinology

  14. Effects of grafts of single anterior pituitary glands on the incidence and type of mammary neoplasm in neutron- or γ-irradiated Fischer female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.; Douple, E.B.; Sridharan, B.N.

    1976-01-01

    Three batches comprised of 48 young adult Fischer female rats each were subjected to total-body irradiation with 50 rads modified fission neutrons, or were given 600 rads 137 Cs γ-rays, or served as unirradiated controls. On the day following exposure, one-half of each batch was grafted with a single anterior pituitary gland beneath the left kidney capsule. The animals were observed for mammary neoplasia and all those that died during the experiment were autopsied. The experiment was terminated 538 +- 13 days after irradiation when all neutron-irradiated, pituitary-grafted animals had one or more mammary tumors. Only 2 of the 23 untreated rats that survived until termination of the experiment developed mammary fibroadenomas, and none had mammary carcinomas. The incidence of fibroadenomas was increased, and a single carcinoma was found in unirradiated rats with pituitary grafts. Irradiation alone caused an increase in the incidence of mammary fibroadenomas and the appearance of carcinomas. Fibroadenomas were markedly increased by the addition of pituitary grafts to irradiation. Carcinoma incidence was less markedly affected. The neutron dose of 50 rads was slightly more effective in inducing mammary neoplasms than the 600-rad dose of γ-rays

  15. 17 beta-estradiol modifies nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase expression and down-regulates its activity in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabilla, Jimena P; Díaz, María del Carmen; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Poliandri, Ariel H; Quinteros, Fernanda A; Lasaga, Mercedes; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies showed that 17 beta-estradiol (17 beta-E2) regulates the nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway in many tissues. Evidence from our laboratory indicates that 17 beta-E2 disrupts the inhibitory effect of NO on prolactin release, decreasing sGC activity and affecting the cGMP pathway in anterior pituitary gland of adult ovariectomized and estrogenized rats. To ascertain the mechanisms by which 17 beta-E2 affects sGC activity, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of 17 beta-E2 on sGC protein and mRNA expression in anterior pituitary gland from immature female rats. In the present work, we showed that 17 beta-E2 acute treatment exerted opposite effects on the two sGC subunits, increasing alpha1 and decreasing beta1 subunit protein and mRNA expression. This action on sGC protein expression was maximal 6-9 h after 17 beta-E2 administration. 17beta-E2 also caused the same effect on mRNA expression at earlier times. Concomitantly, 17 beta-E2 dramatically decreased sGC activity 6 and 9 h after injection. These effects were specific of 17 beta-E2, because they were not observed with the administration of other steroids such as progesterone and 17 alpha-estradiol. This inhibitory action of 17beta-E2 on sGC also required the activation of estrogen receptor (ER), because treatment with the pure ER antagonist ICI 182,780 completely blocked 17 beta-E2 action. 17 beta-E2 acute treatment caused the same effects on pituitary cells in culture. These results suggest that 17 beta-E2 exerts an acute inhibitory effect on sGC in anterior pituitary gland by down-regulating sGC beta 1 subunit and sGC activity in a specific, ER-dependent manner.

  16. MRI of normal pituitary glands and their surrounding structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiyuki

    1991-01-01

    Normal MRI appearances of the pituitary glands and their surrounding structures were evaluated in 332 patients without sellar and parasellar diseases. The height of the pituitary gland was maximum at 10-19 years of age reflecting hormonal activity. The width of the pituitary gland decreased, while that of the cavernous sinus increased with aging. This is probably due to atherosclerotic change of the internal carotid artery. Females younger than 30 years of age tended to show a convex upper surface of the pituitary gland and the displacement of the pituitary stalk was common after 50 years of age. Almost all of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland showed isointensity relative to the pons or cerebral cortex and the majority (85.1%) of the posterior lobe showed hyperintensity. However, the anterior lobe in 2 newborns showed hyperintensity similar to the normal posterior lobe in adults. The posterior lobe was located off the midline in 19.1% of the subjects. One case of pars intermedia cyst was discovered among 14 subjects who were administered Gd-DTPA. The dural membrane between the pituitary gland and cavernous sinus was recognizable only in 8.6% on the right side and 7.5% on the left side. Primary empty sella was identified in 4.5%. Knowledge of the above normal ranges and variations of the pituitary gland and its surrounding structures is important in diagnosing sellar and parasellar lesions. (author) 52 refs

  17. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Men's Health Rare Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health You and Your ...

  18. DNA synthesis in the pituitary gland of the rat: effect of sulpiride and clomiphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdman, J A; Szijan, I; Jahn, G A; Machiavelli, G; Kalbermann, L E

    1979-09-15

    Sulpiride administration to rats releases prolactin and increases DNA replication in the anterior pituitary gland. Clomiphene prevents the stimulation of DNA synthesis produced by sulpiride, but does not affect prolactin release from the gland. These findings suggest that the intracellular prolactin content of the anterior pituitary gland plays a role in the regulation of DNA synthesis through a mechanism mediated by oestrogens.

  19. Colloid cyst in pituitary gland: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Hee Youn; Lee, Myung Jun; Lee, Chang Joon; Yoo, Jeong Hyun

    2001-01-01

    Colloid cyst is a congenital lesion which is thought to be derived from the primitive neuro epithelium, and is most frequently located in the anterior half of the third ventricle. Colloid cysts rarely occur in the pituitary gland, and we describe a case of pituitary colloid cyst, including the CT, MRI and pathologic findings

  20. Hypopituitarism as the presenting feature of bronchogenic carcinoma with metastases to the pituitary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C Johnston

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumours metastasizing to the pituitary gland are uncommon. Symptomatic patients with pituitary metastases can present with diabetes insipidus, headache, visual field defects and/or anterior pituitary hormonal dysfunction. Treatment options for pituitary metastases include, surgical resection, cranial or parasellar irradiation and/or chemotherapy, and hormonal replacement if indicated. The overall prognosis of pituitary metastases is poor. We present a case of hypopituitarism as the presenting feature of bronchogenic carcinoma with metastases to the pituitary gland.

  1. Three-dimensional ultrastructural analyses of anterior pituitary gland expose spatial relationships between endocrine cell secretory granule localization and capillary distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, Munetake; Ohta, Keisuke; Kanazawa, Tomonoshin; Togo, Akinobu; Hirashima, Shingo; Uemura, Kei-Ichiro; Okayama, Satoko; Morioka, Motohiro; Nakamura, Kei-Ichiro

    2016-10-31

    Endocrine and endothelial cells of the anterior pituitary gland frequently make close appositions or contacts, and the secretory granules of each endocrine cell tend to accumulate at the perivascular regions, which is generally considered to facilitate secretory functions of these cells. However, three-dimensional relationships between the localization pattern of secretory granules and blood vessels are not fully understood. To define and characterize these spatial relationships, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) three-dimensional reconstruction method based on focused ion-beam slicing and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM). Full three-dimensional cellular architectures of the anterior pituitary tissue at ultrastructural resolution revealed that about 70% of endocrine cells were in apposition to the endothelial cells, while almost 30% of endocrine cells were entirely isolated from perivascular space in the tissue. Our three-dimensional analyses also visualized the distribution pattern of secretory granules in individual endocrine cells, showing an accumulation of secretory granules in regions in close apposition to the blood vessels in many cases. However, secretory granules in cells isolated from the perivascular region tended to distribute uniformly in the cytoplasm of these cells. These data suggest that the cellular interactions between the endocrine and endothelial cells promote an uneven cytoplasmic distribution of the secretory granules.

  2. MR imaging of the pituitary gland in central precocious puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, S.C.S.; Cook, J.S.; Hansen, J.R.; Simonson, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Cranial magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 17 children with central precocious puberty (CPP) and 19 aged-matched controls to compare the appearance of the pituitary gland. Gland size was measured on T1-weighted sagittal and coronal images. The gland was graded according to the concavity or convexity of the upper surface, and the signal intensity of the gland was assessed visually. The mean pituitary volume in 13 CPP children without hypothalamic tumor (292.6 mm 3 ) was significantly greater than that in normal controls (181.35 mm 3 ). The mean volume for the four CPP children with hypothalamic tumor was smaller (145.0 mm 3 ). Compared to controls, the upper pituitary surface in CPP patients appeared convex in a higher proportion. The anterior pituitary was isointense to pons in all patients and controls. Although the posterior pituitary bright spot was present in 14 controls and 11 CPP patients, none with hypothalamic tumor showed it. (orig.)

  3. Pituitary gland development: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancalari, Rodrigo E; Gregory, Louise C; McCabe, Mark J; Dattani, Mehul T

    2012-01-01

    The embryonic development of the pituitary gland involves a complex and highly spatio-temporally regulated network of integrating signalling molecules and transcription factors. Genetic mutations in any of these factors can lead to congenital hypopituitarism in association with a wide spectrum of craniofacial/midline defects ranging from incompatibility with life to holoprosencephaly (HPE) and cleft palate and septo-optic dysplasia (SOD). Increasing evidence supports a genotypic overlap with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal disorders such as Kallmann syndrome, which is consistent with the known overlap in phenotypes between these disorders. This chapter reviews the cascade of events leading up to the successful development of the pituitary gland and to highlight key areas where genetic variations can occur thus leading to congenital hypopituitarism and associated defects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Relationship between release of LH and incorporation of tritiated thymidine in the anterior pituitary gland of the castrated male rat: effect of LHRH and its highly active analogue buserelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, M I; Machiavelli, G A; Alonso, G E; Burdman, J A

    1986-01-01

    Castration of the adult male rat significantly (P less than 0.01) increased the concentration of LH in serum and the incorporation of (3H) thymidine into the pituitary DNA. The administration of a single dose of LHRH or its analogue buserelin stimulated the release of LH but it did not modify (3H) thymidine incorporation. When multiple doses of LHRH or buserelin were injected, there was a significant (P less than 0.01) inhibition of LH release and also the incorporation of (3H) thymidine into the DNA of the anterior pituitary gland was significantly (P less than 0.01) diminished. These observations are compatible with the idea of the close relationship between hormonal release and DNA synthesis in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat.

  5. Ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma (ESSPA) with normal anterior pituitary gland: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic study of 32 cases with a comprehensive review of the english literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lester D R; Seethala, Raja R; Müller, Susan

    2012-03-01

    Ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma (ESSPA) may arise from a remnant of Rathke's pouch. These tumors are frequently misdiagnosed as other neuroendocrine or epithelial neoplasms which may develop in this site (olfactory neuroblastoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, paraganglioma, melanoma). Thirty-two patients with ESSPA identified in patients with normal pituitary glands (intact sella turcica) were retrospectively retrieved from the consultation files of the authors' institutions. Clinical records were reviewed with follow-up obtained. An immunohistochemical panel was performed on available material. Sixteen males and 16 females, aged 2-84 years (mean, 57.1 years), presented with chronic sinusitis, headache, obstructive symptoms, and visual field defects, although several were asymptomatic (n = 6). By definition, the tumors were centered within the sphenoid sinus and demonstrated, by imaging studies or intraoperative examination, a normal sella turcica without a concurrent pituitary adenoma. A subset of tumors showed extension into the nasal cavity (n = 5) or nasopharynx (n = 9). Mean tumor size was 3.4 cm. The majority of tumors were beneath an intact respiratory epithelium (n = 22), arranged in many different patterns (solid, packets, organoid, pseudorosette-rosette, pseudopapillary, single file, glandular, trabecular, insular). Bone involvement was frequently seen (n = 21). Secretions were present (n = 16). Necrosis was noted in 8 tumors. The tumors showed a variable cellularity, with polygonal, plasmacytoid, granular, and oncocytic tumor cells. Severe pleomorphism was uncommon (n = 5). A delicate, salt-and-pepper chromatin distribution was seen. In addition, there were intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions (n = 25) and multinucleated tumor cells (n = 18). Mitotic figures were infrequent, with a mean of 1 per 10 HPFs and a pituitary hormones included 48% reactive for 2 or more hormones (plurihormonal), and

  6. Intercellular communication within the rat anterior pituitary: XIV electron microscopic and immunohistochemical study on the relationship between the agranular cells and GnRH neurons in the dorsal pars tuberalis of the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Sakuma, Eisuke; Wada, Ikuo; Naito, Akira; Horiuchi, Osamu; Mabuchi, Yoshio; Kanai, Miharu; Herbert, Damon C; Soji, Tsuyoshi

    2007-11-01

    Although numerous investigators in 1970s to 1980s have reported the distribution of LH-RH nerve fibers in the median eminence, a few LH-RH fibers have been shown to be present in the pars tuberalis. The significance of the finding remains to be elucidated, and there are few studies on the distribution of LH-RH neurons in the pars tuberalis, especially in the dorsal pars tuberalis (DPT). Adult male Wistar-Imamichi rats were separated into two groups: one for electron microscopy and the other for immunohistochemistry to observe LH-RH and neurofilaments. Pituitary glands attached to the brain were fixed by perfusion, and the sections were prepared parallel to the sagittal plane. The typical glandular structure of the pars tuberalis was evident beneath the bottom floor of the third ventricle, and the thick glandular structure was present in the foremost region. Closer to the anterior lobe, the glandular structure changed to be a thin layer, and it was again observed at the posterior portion. Then the pituitary stalk was surrounded with the dorsal, lateral, and ventral pars tuberalis. LH-RH and neurofilaments fibers were noted in the bottom floor, and some of them vertically descended to the gland. Adjacent to the glandular folliculostellate cells in the pars tuberalis, Herring bodies with numerous dense granules invading into the gland were present between the pituitary stalk and DPT. It was postulated that the "message" carried by LH-RH might have been transmitted to the cells in the DPT to aid in the modulation of LH release. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Plurihormonal cells of normal anterior pituitary: Facts and conclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrofanova, Lubov B.; Konovalov, Petr V.; Krylova, Julia S.; Polyakova, Victoria O.; Kvetnoy, Igor M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction plurihormonality of pituitary adenomas is an ability of adenoma cells to produce more than one hormone. After the immunohistochemical analysis had become a routine part of the morphological study, a great number of adenomas appeared to be multihormonal in actual practice. We hypothesize that the same cells of a normal pituitary gland releases several hormones simultaneously. Objective To analyse a possible co-expression of hormones by the cells of the normal anterior pituitary of...

  8. Expression of the GnRH and GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) genes in the hypothalamus and of the GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland of anestrous and luteal phase ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowska, Magdalena; Lapot, Magdalena; Malewski, Tadeusz; Mateusiak, Krystyna; Misztal, Tomasz; Przekop, Franciszek

    2008-11-01

    Data exists showing that seasonal changes in the innervations of GnRH cells in the hypothalamus and functions of some neural systems affecting GnRH neurons are associated with GnRH release in ewes. Consequently, we put the question as to how the expression of GnRH gene and GnRH-R gene in the hypothalamus and GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland is reflected with LH secretion in anestrous and luteal phase ewes. Analysis of GnRH gene expression by RT-PCR in anestrous ewes indicated comparable levels of GnRH mRNA in the preoptic area, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus. GnRH-R mRNA at different concentrations was found throughout the preoptic area, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus, stalk/median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. The highest GnRH-R mRNA levels were detected in the stalk/median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. During the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in ewes, the levels of GnRH mRNA and GnRH-R mRNA in all structures were significantly higher than in anestrous ewes. Also LH concentrations in blood plasma of luteal phase ewes were significantly higher than those of anestrous ewes. In conclusion, results from this study suggest that low expression of the GnRH and GnRH-R genes in the hypothalamus and of the GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland, amongst others, may be responsible for a decrease in LH secretion and the anovulatory state in ewes during the long photoperiod.

  9. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy study of the characteristics and morphology of pericytes and novel desmin-immunopositive perivascular cells before and after castration in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindatip, Depicha; Fujiwara, Ken; Kouki, Tom; Yashiro, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Pericytes are perivascular cells associated with microcirculation. Typically, they are localized close to the capillary wall, underneath the basement membrane, and have sparse cytoplasm and poorly developed cell organelles. However, the specific properties of pericytes vary by organ and the conditions within organs. We recently demonstrated that pericytes in rat anterior pituitary gland produce type I and III collagens. The present study attempted to determine the morphological characteristics of these pituitary pericytes. Castrated rats were used as a model of hormonal and vascular changes in the gland. Pericytes, as determined by desmin immunohistochemistry, were more numerous and stained more intensely in castrated rats. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that pituitary pericytes displayed the typical characteristics of pericytes. In pituitary sections from castrated rats, the Golgi apparatus of pericytes was well developed and the rough endoplasmic reticulum was elongated. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy revealed four pericyte shapes: oval, elongate, triangular, and multiangular. As compared with normal rats, the proportion of oval pericytes was lower, and the proportions of the other three shapes were higher, in castrated rats. These results suggest that pericytes change their fine structure and cell shape in response to hormonal and vascular changes in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, a novel type of perivascular cell was found by desmin immunoelectron microscopy. The morphological properties of these cells were dissimilar to those of pericytes. The cells were localized in the perivascular space, had no basement membrane, and contained dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum. This new cell type will require further study of its origin and characteristics.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging validation of pituitary gland compression and distortion by typical sellar pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Charles H; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Hsu, Liangge; Bi, Wenya Linda; Zamani, Amir A; Laws, Edward R

    2013-12-01

    Identification of the normal pituitary gland is an important component of presurgical planning, defining many aspects of the surgical approach and facilitating normal gland preservation. Magnetic resonance imaging is a proven imaging modality for optimal soft-tissue contrast discrimination in the brain. This study is designed to validate the accuracy of localization of the normal pituitary gland with MRI in a cohort of surgical patients with pituitary mass lesions, and to evaluate for correlation between presurgical pituitary hormone values and pituitary gland characteristics on neuroimaging. Fifty-eight consecutive patients with pituitary mass lesions were included in the study. Anterior pituitary hormone levels were measured preoperatively in all patients. Video recordings from the endoscopic or microscopic surgical procedures were available for evaluation in 47 cases. Intraoperative identification of the normal gland was possible in 43 of 58 cases. Retrospective MR images were reviewed in a blinded fashion for the 43 cases, emphasizing the position of the normal gland and the extent of compression and displacement by the lesion. There was excellent agreement between imaging and surgery in 84% of the cases for normal gland localization, and in 70% for compression or noncompression of the normal gland. There was no consistent correlation between preoperative pituitary dysfunction and pituitary gland localization on imaging, gland identification during surgery, or pituitary gland compression. Magnetic resonance imaging proved to be accurate in identifying the normal gland in patients with pituitary mass lesions, and was useful for preoperative surgical planning.

  11. Functional heterogeneity among cell types in the normal pituitary gland and in human and rat pituitary tumors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Hofland (Leo)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractHormone secretion by the anterior pituitary gland is under control of hypothalamic regulatory factorsjhormones (see chapter I.l) and peripheral hormones. Apart from the direct effects of these hormones on anterior pituitary hormone secretion several fine- regulatory mechanisms

  12. Expression of the proteoglycan syndecan-4 and the mechanism by which it mediates stress fiber formation in folliculostellate cells in the rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Kouki, Tom; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Ly, Floren; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    Folliculostellate (FS) cells in the anterior pituitary gland appear to have multifunctional properties. FS cells connect to each other at gap junctions and thereby form a histological and functional network. We have performed a series of studies on network formation in FS cells and recently reported that FS cells markedly prolong their cytoplasmic processes and form numerous interconnections with neighboring FS cells in the presence of laminin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) component of the basement membrane. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of this extension of FS cell cytoplasmic processes under the influence of laminin and found that laminin promoted stress fiber formation within FS cells. Next, we noted that formation of stress fibers in FS cells was mediated by syndecan-4, a transmembrane proteoglycan that binds ECM and soluble factors via their extracellular glycosaminoglycan chain. We then observed that expressions of syndecan-4 and α-actinin (a microfilament bundling protein that cross-links actin stress fibers in FS cells) were upregulated by laminin. Using specific siRNA of syndecan-4, actin polymerization of FS cells was inhibited. Our findings suggest that FS cells received a signal from laminin-syndecan-4 interaction, which resulted in morphological changes, and that the formation of a morphological and functional network in FS cells was transduced by a syndecan-4-dependent mechanism in the presence of ECM.

  13. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I binding to a cell membrane associated IGF binding protein-3 acid-labile subunit complex in human anterior pituitary gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilczak, N; Kuhl, N; Chesik, D; Geerts, A; Luiten, P; De Keyser, J

    The binding characteristics of [(125) I]insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I were studied in human brain and pituitary gland. Competition binding studies with DES(1-3)IGF-I and R-3 -IGF-I, which display high affinity for the IGF-I receptor and low affinity for IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), were

  14. Pituitary gland and its stalk observed by high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Fukami, Tsuneharu; Matsumoto, Keizo.

    1982-01-01

    It seemed to be important to recognize the CT findings of normal pituitary gland and the stalk for the acurate morphological diagnosis of pituitary microadenoma. In a consecutive series of normal 103 cases, the CT scans obtained by high resolution CT (CE-CT, Metrizamide CT) were analized and compared with 6 cases of microadenoma. The pituitary stalk demonstrated by the reconstructed coronal CT was examined and the inclination of the stalk was measured. The mean value of the inclination of pituitary stalk was 1.4 +- 1.7 0 in normal group and 9.3 +- 2.4 0 in microadenoma group. The form of the pituitary gland demonstrated by a reconstructed mid-saggital CT were classified into the following 3 types. Type I : The gland filling the whole pituitary fossa. Type II : The gland filled with small CSF space localized in the upper-anterior part in the pituitary fossa. Type III : The enlarged CSF space of more than half of the depth of pituitary fossa and the gland localized in the retro-lower part. As for the shape of pituitary gland, type I was revealed in 26 cases (7 cases in male and 19 cases in female), Type II was revealed in 31 cases (12 cases in male and 19 cases in female), Type III was revealed in 46 cases (25 cases in male and 21 cases in female). Type I was shown in female, especially in 10 years old young female. In 19 cases of 30 years to 40 years female, Type II was shown in 9 cases. In 44 male cases, Type I and Type II were shown in all ages. In the aged, Type III was shown in more than the other types. On the other hand, Type I was noted in 5 out of 6 cases of microadenoma group. (author)

  15. Intercellular communication within the rat anterior pituitary gland. XV. Properties of spontaneous and LHRH-induced Ca2+ transients in the transitional zone of the rat anterior pituitary in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kazuki; Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Hikaru; Otsuka, Takanobu; Wada, Ikuo; Yashiro, Takashi; Herbert, Damon C; Soji, Tsuyoshi; Hashitani, Hikaru

    2013-01-01

    In the transitional zone of the rat anterior pituitary, spontaneous and LHRH-induced Ca(2+) dynamics were visualized using fluo-4 fluorescence Ca(2+) imaging. A majority of cells exhibited spontaneous Ca(2+) transients, while small populations of cells remained quiescent. Approximately 70% of spontaneously active cells generated fast, oscillatory Ca(2+) transients that were inhibited by cyclopiazonic acid (10 μm) but not nicardipine (1 μm), suggesting that Ca(2+) handling by endoplasmic reticulum, but not Ca(2+) influx through voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channels, plays a fundamental role in their generation. In the adult rat anterior pituitary, LHRH (100 μg/ml) caused a transient increase in the Ca(2+) level in a majority of preparations taken from the morning group rats killed between 0930 h and 1030 h. However, the second application of LHRH invariably failed to elevate Ca(2+) levels, suggesting that the long-lasting refractoriness to LHRH stimulation was developed upon the first challenge of LHRH. In contrast, LHRH had no effect in most preparations taken from the afternoon group rats euthanized between 1200 h and 1400 h. In the neonatal rat anterior pituitary, LHRH caused a suppression of spontaneous Ca(2+) transients. Strikingly, the second application of LHRH was capable of reproducing the suppression of Ca(2+) signals, indicating that the refractoriness to LHRH had not been established in neonatal rats. These results suggest that responsiveness to LHRH has a long-term refractoriness in adult rats, and that the physiological LHRH surge may be clocked in the morning. Moreover, LHRH-induced excitation and associated refractoriness appear to be incomplete in neonatal rats and may be acquired during development.

  16. Effect of retinoic acid on midkine gene expression in rat anterior pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliza, Rita; Fujiwara, Ken; Azuma, Morio; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2017-06-29

    Retinoic acid (RA) is converted from retinal by retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs) and is an essential signaling molecule in embryonic and adult tissue. We previously reported that RALDH1 was produced in the rat anterior pituitary gland and hypothesized that RA was generated in the gland. Midkine (MK) is an RA-inducible growth factor, and MK production in the rat anterior pituitary gland was recently reported. However, the mechanism that regulates gene expression of MK in the pituitary gland has not been determined. To investigate regulation of MK production in the anterior pituitary gland, we analyzed changes in MK mRNA in cultured rat anterior pituitary cells. We identified MK-expressing cells by double-staining with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques for RALDH1. MK mRNA was expressed in RALDH1-producing cells in the anterior pituitary gland. Using isolated anterior pituitary cells of rats, we examined the effect of RA on gene expression of MK. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that 72 h exposure to a concentration of 10 -6 M of retinal and all-trans retinoic acid increased MK mRNA levels by about 2-fold. Moreover, the stimulatory effect of all-trans retinoic acid was mimicked by the RA receptor agonist Am80. This is the first report to show that RA is important in regulating MK expression in rat anterior pituitary gland.

  17. Effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone and its antagonist on the gene expression of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland of follicular phase ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowska, Magdalena; Łapot, Magdalena; Malewski, Tadeusz; Mateusiak, Krystyna; Misztal, Tomasz; Przekop, Franciszek

    2011-01-01

    There is no information in the literature regarding the effect of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on genes encoding gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the hypothalamus or on GnRHR gene expression in the pituitary gland in vivo. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate, in follicular phase ewes, the effects of prolonged, intermittent infusion of small doses of CRH or its antagonist (α-helical CRH 9-41; CRH-A) into the third cerebral ventricle on GnRH mRNA and GnRHR mRNA levels in the hypothalamo-pituitary unit and on LH secretion. Stimulation or inhibition of CRH receptors significantly decreased or increased GnRH gene expression in the hypothalamus, respectively, and led to different responses in GnRHR gene expression in discrete hypothalamic areas. For example, CRH increased GnRHR gene expression in the preoptic area, but decreased it in the hypothalamus/stalk median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, CRH decreased LH secretion. Blockade of CRH receptors had the opposite effect on GnRHR gene expression. The results suggest that activation of CRH receptors in the hypothalamus of follicular phase ewes can modulate the biosynthesis and release of GnRH through complex changes in the expression of GnRH and GnRHR genes in the hypothalamo-anterior pituitary unit. © CSIRO 2011 Open Access

  18. Expression of chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in folliculostellate (FS) cells of the rat anterior pituitary gland: the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis induces interconnection of FS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Ilmiawati, Cimi; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2012-04-01

    The anterior pituitary gland is composed of five types of hormone-producing cells plus folliculostellate (FS) cells, which do not produce classical anterior pituitary hormones. FS cells are interconnected by cytoplasmic processes and encircle hormone-producing cells or aggregate homophilically. Using living-cell imaging of primary culture, we recently reported that some FS cells precisely extend their cytoplasmic processes toward other FS cells and form interconnections with them. These phenomena suggest the presence of a chemoattractant factor that facilitates the interconnection. In this study, we attempted to discover the factor that induces interconnection of FS cells and succeeded in identifying chemokine (CXC)-L12 and its receptor CXCR4 as potential candidate molecules. CXCL12 is a chemokine of the CXC subfamily. It exerts its effects via CXCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is a potent chemoattractant for many types of neural cells. First, we revealed that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are expressed by FS cells in rat anterior pituitary gland. Next, to clarify the function of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in FS cells, we observed living anterior pituitary cells in primary culture with specific CXCL12 inhibitor or CXCR4 antagonist and noted that extension of cytoplasmic processes and interconnection of FS cells were inhibited. Finally, we examined FS cell migration and invasion by using Matrigel matrix assays. CXCL12 treatment resulted in markedly increased FS cell migration and invasion. These data suggest that FS cells express chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 and that the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis evokes interconnection of FS cells.

  19. Moderate Exercise Prevents Functional Remodeling of the Anterior Pituitary Gland in Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats: Role of Oxidative Stress and Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercau, María E; Repetto, Esteban M; Perez, Matías N; Martinez Calejman, Camila; Sanchez Puch, Silvia; Finkielstein, Carla V; Cymeryng, Cora B

    2016-03-01

    A sustained elevation of glucocorticoid production, associated with the establishment of insulin resistance (IR) could add to the deleterious effects of the IR state. The aim of this study is to analyze the consequences of long-term feeding with a sucrose-rich diet (SRD) on Pomc/ACTH production, define the underlying cellular processes, and determine the effects of moderate exercise (ME) on these parameters. Animals fed a standard chow with or without 30% sucrose in the drinking water were subjected to ME. Circulating hormone levels were determined, and pituitary tissues were processed and analyzed by immunobloting and quantitative real-time PCR. Parameters of oxidative stress (OxS), endoplasmic reticulum stress, and autophagy were also determined. Rats fed SRD developed a decrease in pituitary Pomc/ACTH expression levels, increased expression of antioxidant enzymes, and induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy. ME prevented pituitary dysfunction as well as induction of antioxidant enzymes and autophagy. Reporter assays were performed in AtT-20 corticotroph cells incubated in the presence of palmitic acid. Pomc transcription was inhibited by palmitic acid-dependent induction of OxS and autophagy, as judged by the effect of activators and inhibitors of both processes. Long-term feeding with SRD triggers the generation of OxS and autophagy in the pituitary gland, which could lead to a decline in Pomc/ACTH/glucocorticoid production. These effects could be attributed to an increase in fatty acids availability to the pituitary gland. ME was able to prevent these alterations, suggesting additional beneficial effects of ME as a therapeutic strategy in the management of IR.

  20. MR imaging of the pituitary gland in central precocious puberty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, S.C.S. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Iowa Coll. of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)); Cook, J.S. (Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Iowa Coll. of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)); Hansen, J.R. (Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Iowa Coll. of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)); Simonson, T.M. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Iowa Coll. of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    Cranial magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 17 children with central precocious puberty (CPP) and 19 aged-matched controls to compare the appearance of the pituitary gland. Gland size was measured on T1-weighted sagittal and coronal images. The gland was graded according to the concavity or convexity of the upper surface, and the signal intensity of the gland was assessed visually. The mean pituitary volume in 13 CPP children without hypothalamic tumor (292.6 mm[sup 3]) was significantly greater than that in normal controls (181.35 mm[sup 3]). The mean volume for the four CPP children with hypothalamic tumor was smaller (145.0 mm[sup 3]). Compared to controls, the upper pituitary surface in CPP patients appeared convex in a higher proportion. The anterior pituitary was isointense to pons in all patients and controls. Although the posterior pituitary bright spot was present in 14 controls and 11 CPP patients, none with hypothalamic tumor showed it. (orig.)

  1. Modulation of β-adrenergic receptors in the pituitary gland following adrenalectomy in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, E.B. de

    1987-01-01

    The effects of adrenalectomy on β-adrenergic receptors in the rat pituitary were examined using quantitative in vitro autoradiography with 125 I-iodocyanopindolol( 125 ICYP). 125 ICYP binding in the anterior, intermediate and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland was significantly increased in chronically adrenalectomized rats. The increase in 125 ICYP binding sites in the rat pituitary following adrenalectomy was not reversed by glucocorticoid replacement with dexamethasone. These data indicate that catecholamines of adrenomedullary origin are capable of modulating β-adrenergic receptors in the pituitary gland and suggest that peripheral epinephrine may be important in regulating pituitary hormone secretion. (author)

  2. Computed tomography of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville, J.F.; Cattin, F.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book is written entirely to include the imaging of the pituitary gland by computed tomography (CT). The first three chapters illustrated technical aspects of scanning, anatomic depiction of the gland by CT, and the use of dynamic CT scanning for detecting and displaying abnormalities. The chapters discuss and illustrate various types of pathologic processes in and around the pituitary gland. One short but very helpful chapter demonstrates potential pitfalls due to the combination of anatomic variants and the geometry of CT sections. Some illustrations of disease processed are depicted by magnetic resonance imaging. All major types of pituitary diseases are illustrated. Lists of readily available English-language references are available. A small subject index is provided at the end of the book in which the illustrations are identified by use of a special numeric front

  3. Diabetes Insipidus and Anterior Pituitary Insufficiency Due to Breast Cancer Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşe Arduç; Ayşe Gül Alımlı; Serdar Güler

    2016-01-01

    Metastases from breast cancer to the pituitary gland are uncommon. We present a 35-year-old woman with diabetes insipidus and anterior pituitary insufficiency resulting from breast cancer metastases to the pituitary gland. The patient presented with reduced consciousness, fatigue, polyuria, and polydipsia. Hypernatremia (sodium: 154 mmol/L), hypostenuria (urine density: 1001), and hypopituitarism were present on laboratory evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed heterog...

  4. Cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling in the anterior pituitary gland in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2018-03-05

    The cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was the first among the so-called "second messengers" to be described. It is conserved in most organisms and functions as a signal transducer by mediating the intracellular effects of multiple hormones and neurotransmitters. In this review, we first delineate how different members of the cAMP pathway ensure its correct compartmentalization and activity, mediate the terminal intracellular effects, and allow the crosstalk with other signaling pathways. We then focus on the pituitary gland, where cAMP exerts a crucial function by controlling the responsiveness of the cells to hypothalamic hormones, neurotransmitters and peripheral factors. We discuss the most relevant physiological functions mediated by cAMP in the different pituitary cell types, and summarize the defects affecting this pathway that have been reported in the literature. We finally discuss how a deregulated cAMP pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of pituitary disorders and how it affects the response to therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease involving the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriden, Zina; Bullock, Grant C; Bagg, Adam; Bonatti, Hugo; Cousar, John B; Lopes, M Beatriz; Robbins, Mark K; Cathro, Helen P

    2010-11-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are heterogeneous lesions with variable morphology, immunophenotype, and molecular characteristics. Multiple distinct primary lesions can occur in PTLD, rarely with both B-cell and T-cell characteristics. Lesions can involve both grafted organs and other sites; however, PTLD involving the pituitary gland has not been previously reported. We describe a patient who developed Epstein-Barr virus-negative PTLD 13 years posttransplantation involving the terminal ileum and pituitary, which was simultaneously involved by a pituitary adenoma. Immunohistochemistry of the pituitary lesion showed expression of CD79a, CD3, and CD7 with clonal rearrangements of both T-cell receptor gamma chain (TRG@) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH@) genes. The terminal ileal lesion was immunophenotypically and molecularly distinct. This is the first report of pituitary PTLD and illustrates the potentially complex nature of PTLD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of selective pituitary gland incision or resection on hormonal function after adenoma or cyst resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhoudarian, Garni; Cutler, Aaron R; Yost, Sam; Lobo, Bjorn; Eisenberg, Amalia; Kelly, Daniel F

    2015-12-01

    With the resection of pituitary lesions, the anterior pituitary gland often obstructs transsphenoidal access to the lesion. In such cases, a gland incision and/or partial gland resection may be required to obtain adequate exposure. We investigate this technique and determine the associated risk of post-operative hypopituitarism. All patients who underwent surgical resection of a pituitary adenoma or Rathke cleft cyst (RCC) between July 2007 and January 2013 were analyzed for pre- and post-operative hormone function. The cohort of patients with gland incision/resection were compared to a case-matched control cohort of pituitary surgery patients. Total hypophysectomy patients were excluded from outcome analysis. Of 372 operations over this period, an anterior pituitary gland incision or partial gland resection was performed in 79 cases (21.2 %). These include 53 gland incisions, 12 partial hemi-hypophysectomies and 14 resections of thinned/attenuated anterior gland. Diagnoses included 64 adenomas and 15 RCCs. New permanent hypopituitarism occurred in three patients (3.8 %), including permanent DI (3) and growth hormone deficiency (1). There was no significant difference in the rate of worsening gland dysfunction nor gain of function. Compared to a control cohort, there was a significantly lower incidence of transient DI (1.25 vs. 11.1 %, p = 0.009) but no significant difference in permanent DI (3.8 vs. 4.0 %) in the gland incision group. Selective gland incisions and gland resections were performed in over 20 % of our cases. This technique appears to minimize traction on compressed normal pituitary gland during removal of large lesions and facilitates better visualization and removal of cysts, microadenomas and macroadenomas.

  7. Regulation of intestinal immune response by selective removal of the anterior, posterior, or entire pituitary gland in Trichinella spiralis infected golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Moreno-Méndoza, Norma; López-Griego, Lorena; López-Salazar, Valeria; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Carrero, Julio César; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been previously reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX) in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, and reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, as well as increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. However, to our knowledge, no findings have been published concerning the immune response following HYPOX during worm infection, particularly that which is caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of total or partial HYPOX on colonization of T. spiralis in the intestinal lumen, together with duodenal and splenic cytokine expression. Our results indicate that 5 days post infection, only neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL) reduces the number of intestinally recovered T. spiralis larvae. Using semiquantitative inmunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of all tested Th1 cytokines was markedly diminished, even in the duodenum of infected controls. In contrast, a high level of expression of these cytokines was noted in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Th2 cytokines (with the exception of IL-4) was apparent in the duodenum of control and sham infected hamsters, compared to animals with NIL surgeries, which showed an increase in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13. Histology of duodenal mucosa from NIL hamsters showed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria, which was related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the gastrointestinal immune responses to T. spiralis through various mechanisms.

  8. Regulation of intestinal immune response by selective removal of the anterior, posterior, or entire pituitary gland in Trichinella spiralis infected golden hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Hernández-Cervantes

    Full Text Available The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been previously reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, and reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, as well as increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. However, to our knowledge, no findings have been published concerning the immune response following HYPOX during worm infection, particularly that which is caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of total or partial HYPOX on colonization of T. spiralis in the intestinal lumen, together with duodenal and splenic cytokine expression. Our results indicate that 5 days post infection, only neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL reduces the number of intestinally recovered T. spiralis larvae. Using semiquantitative inmunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of all tested Th1 cytokines was markedly diminished, even in the duodenum of infected controls. In contrast, a high level of expression of these cytokines was noted in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Th2 cytokines (with the exception of IL-4 was apparent in the duodenum of control and sham infected hamsters, compared to animals with NIL surgeries, which showed an increase in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13. Histology of duodenal mucosa from NIL hamsters showed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria, which was related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the gastrointestinal immune responses to T. spiralis through various mechanisms.

  9. The effects of frequency-encoding gradient upon detectability of the margins and height measurements of normal adult pituitary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, A.; Sato, N.; Aoki, J.; Endo, K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of frequency-encoding gradient (FEG) upon detectability and height measurements of the normal adult pituitary gland. We obtained two sets of T1-weighted sagittal images of the pituitary gland from 70 adult subjects without known pituitary dysfunction using 1.5 tesla imagers; one with an inferior-superior FEG, and one with an anterior-posterior FEG. We classified the subjects into three types according to the distribution of fatty marrow in the clivus. Each set of images was assessed for pituitary height on midline sagittal images, and detectability of pituitary margins. Height measurements and detectability scores were evaluated for significant difference between the two FEGs. In subjects with fatty marrow in the clivus, there was significant difference between pituitary height measurements (P<0.005) and pituitary margin detectability (P<0.001). Care should be taken to image the pituitary gland using an anterior-posterior FEG. (orig.)

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of normal pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Masami; Uozumi, Tohru; Sakoda, Katsuaki; Ohta, Masahiro; Kagawa, Yoshihiro; Kajima, Toshio.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable procedure for diagnosing such midline-positioned lesions as pituitary adenomas. To differentiate them from microadenomas fifty-seven cases (9 - 74 years old, 29 men and 28 women), including 50 patients without any sellar or parasellar diseases and seven normal volunteers, were studied in order to clarify the MR findings of the shape, height, and signal intensity of the normal pituitary gland, especially at the median sagittal section. The height of a normal pituitary gland varied from 2 to 9 mm (mean: 5.7 mm); the upper surface of the gland was convex in 19.3 %, flat in 49.1 %, and concave in 31.6 %. The mean height of the gland in women in their twenties was 7.5 mm, and the upper convex shape appeared exclusively in women of the second to fourth decades. Nine intrasellar pituitary adenomas (PRL-secreting: 4, GH-secreting: 4, ACTH-secreting: 1), all verified by surgery, were diagnosed using a resistive MR system. The heights of the gland in these cases were from 7 to 15 mm (mean: 11.3 mm); the upper surface was convex in 7 cases. A localized bulging of the upper surface of the gland and a localized depression of the sellar floor were depicted on the coronal and sagittal sections in most cases. Although the GH- and ACTH-secreting adenoma cases showed homogeneous intrasellar contents, in all the PRL-secreting adenoma cases a low-signal-intensity area was detected in the IR images. The mean T1 values of the intrasellar content of the normal volunteers, the PRL-, GH-, and ACTH-secreting adenoma cases, were 367, 416, 355, and 411 ms respectively. However, in the PRL-secreting adenoma cases, the mean T1 value of the areas showing a low signal intensity on IR images was 455 ms; this was a significant prolongation in comparison with that of a normal pituitary gland. (J.P.N.)

  11. Pituitary gland and sella turcica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucharczyk, W.

    1987-01-01

    The investigation of pituitary pathology has undergone significant changes during the past two decades. CT permitted direct visualization of the sella turcica and its soft tissue contents in a noninvasive manner. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) now offers significant advantages over CT without intravenous contrast or radiation exposure. There is substantially greater soft tissue contrast as well as excellent definition of adjacent vascular structures. With the current generation of MR systems, much improved spatial definition is possible. Thus, the spatial resolution of MRI is now competitive with CT. In view of the many other advantages described, MRI is superceding CT as the modality of choice for evaluating the sella turcica

  12. Dopamine D2 receptor expression in the corticotroph cells of the human normal pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivonello, Rosario; Waaijers, Marlijn; Kros, Johan M; Pivonello, Claudia; de Angelis, Cristina; Cozzolino, Alessia; Colao, Annamaria; Lamberts, Steven W J; Hofland, Leo J

    2017-08-01

    The dopamine D 2 receptor is the main dopamine receptor expressed in the human normal pituitary gland. The aim of the current study was to evaluate dopamine D 2 receptor expression in the corticotroph cell populations of the anterior lobe and pars intermedia, as well as posterior lobe of the human normal pituitary gland by immunohistochemistry. Human normal pituitary gland samples obtained from routine autopsies were used for the study. In all cases, histology together with immunostaining for adrenocorticotropic hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and neurofilaments were performed and compared to the immunostaining for D 2 receptor. D 2 receptor was heterogeneously expressed in the majority of the cell populations of the anterior and posterior lobe as well as in the area localized between the anterior and posterior lobe, and arbitrary defined as "intermediate zone". This zone, characterized by the presence of nerve fibers included the residual pars intermedia represented by the colloid-filled cysts lined by the remnant melanotroph cells strongly expressing D 2 receptors, and clusters of corticotroph cells, belonging to the anterior lobe but localized within the cysts and adjacent to the posterior lobe, variably expressing D 2 receptors. D 2 dopamine receptor is expressed in the majority of the cell populations of the human normal pituitary gland, and particularly, in the different corticotroph cell populations localized in the anterior lobe and the intermediate zone of the pituitary gland.

  13. Duplication of the pituitary gland - plus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Debraj; Arora, Vijinder

    2016-01-01

    Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG) is a very rare developmental anomaly that is often associated with other anomalies – the DPG-plus syndrome and occurs due to splitting of the rostral notochord and prechordal plate during blastogenesis. DPG with the constellation of associated anomalies as in our patient has not been reported previously. This article illustrates the importance of imaging the brain in all patients with obvious midline facial anomalies and the complementary role of MRI and CT in such cases

  14. Intercellular communications within the rat anterior pituitary. XVI: postnatal changes of distribution of S-100 protein positive cells, connexin 43 and LH-RH positive sites in the pars tuberalis of the rat pituitary gland. An immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ikuo; Sakuma, Eisuke; Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Wakabayashi, Kenjiro; Otsuka, Takanobu; Hattori, Kazuki; Yashiro, Takashi; Herbert, Damon C; Soji, Tsuyoshi

    2014-02-01

    The architecture of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) nerve ends and the S-100 protein containing folliculo-stellate cells forming gap junctions in the pars tuberalis is basically important in understanding the regulation of the hormone producing mechanism of anterior pituitary glands. In this study, intact male rats 5-60 days old were prepared for immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. From immunostained sections, the S-100 containing cells in pars tuberalis were first detected on day 30 and increased in number to day 60; this was parallel to the immunohistochemical staining of gap junction protein, connexin 43. LH-RH positive sites were clearly observed on just behind the optic chiasm and on the root of pituitary stalk on day 30. On day 60, the width of layer increased, while follicles and gap junctions were frequently observed between agranular cells in 10 or more layers of pars tuberalis. In the present study, we investigated the sexual maturation of the anterior pituitary glands through the postnatal development of S-100 positive cells, connexin 43 and LH-RH nerves. It is suggested that the folliculo-stellate cell system including the LH-RH neurons in the pars tuberalis participates in the control of LH secretion along with the portal vein system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces prolactin expression in rat pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Satoya; Kurotani, Reiko; Miyano, Yuki; Sakahara, Satoshi; Koike, Kanako; Maruyama, Minoru; Ishikawa, Fumio; Sakatai, Ichiro; Abe, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Takafumi

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in the pituitary gland to understand the effect of M-CSF on pituitary hormones and the relationship between the endocrine and immune systems. When we attempted to establish pituitary cell lines from a thyrotropic pituitary tumor (TtT), a macrophage cell line, TtT/M-87, was established. We evaluated M-CSF-like activity in conditioned media (CM) from seven pituitary cell lines using TtT/M-87 cells. TtT/M-87 proliferation significantly increased in the presence of CM from TtT/GF cells, a pituitary folliculostellate (FS) cell line. M-CSF mRNA was detected in TtT/GF and MtT/E cells by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and its expression in TtT/GF cells was increased in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) dose-dependent manner. M-CSF mRNA expression was also increased in rat anterior pituitary glands by LPS. M-CSF receptor (M-CSFR) mRNA was only detected in TtT/ M-87 cells and increased in the LPS-stimulated rat pituitary glands. In rat pituitary glands, M-CSF and M-CSFR were found to be localized in FS cells and prolactin (PRL)-secreting cells, respectively, by immunohistochemistry. The PRL concentration in rat sera was significantly increased at 24 h after M-CSF administration, and mRNA levels significantly increased in primary culture cells of rat anterior pituitary glands. In addition, TNF-α mRNA was increased in the primary culture cells by M-CSF. These results revealed that M-CSF was secreted from FS cells and M-CSF regulated PRL expression in rat pituitary glands.

  16. Proton receptor GPR68 expression in dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells of rat anterior pituitary gland: GPR68 induces interleukin-6 gene expression in extracellular acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Higuchi, Masashi; Yoshida, Saishu; Nakakura, Takashi; Tateno, Kozue; Hasegawa, Rumi; Takigami, Shu; Ohsako, Shunji; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2014-11-01

    S100β-positive cells, which do not express the classical pituitary hormones, appear to possess multifunctional properties and are assumed to be heterogeneous in the anterior pituitary gland. The presence of several protein markers has shown that S100β-positive cells are composed of populations such as stem/progenitor cells, epithelial cells, astrocytes and dendritic cells. Recently, we succeeded in separating S100β-positive cells into round-cell (dendritic-cell-like) and process-cell types. We also found the characteristic expression of anti-inflammatory factors (interleukin-6, Il-6) and membrane receptors (integrin β-6) in the round type. Here, we further investigate the function of the subpopulation of S100β-positive cells. Since IL-6 is also a paracrine factor that regulates hormone producing-cells, we examine whether a correlation exists among extracellular acid stress, IL-6 and hormone production by using primary cultures of anterior pituitary cells. Dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells notably expressed Gpr68 (proton receptor) and Il-6. Furthermore, the expression of Il-6 and proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) was up-regulated by extracellular acidification. The functional role of IL-6 and GPR68 in the gene expression of Pomc during extracellular acidification was also examined. Small interfering RNA for Il-6 up-regulated Pomc expression and that for Gpr68 reversed the down-regulation of Il-6 and up-regulated Pomc expression by extracellular acidification. Thus, S100β-positive dendritic-like cells can sense an increase in extracellular protons via GPR68 and respond by the production of IL-6 in order to suppress the up-regulation of Pomc expression.

  17. Effects of irradiation on the anterior pituitary of young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriishi, Reijiro; Tsunoda, Shigeru; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Ohishi, Hajime; Okamoto, Shingo; Tsujii, Tadasu

    1994-01-01

    We examined irradiation-induced damage to the anterior pituitary of young rats, particularly to the folliculo-stellate (F-S) cells. The whole brain of 3-week-old Wistar rats (n=24), was irradiated once with a linear accelerator (Linac). The pituitary gland was removed after sacrifice and fixed in formalin. Pituitary specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E), or immunostained for S-100 protein, growth hormone (GH), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by the ABC technique. Angiogenesis in the chronic stage after irradiation was related to an increase of F-S cells in the subacute stage. The decrease in GH cells and ACTH cells after irradiation was dose-dependent, with more severe irradiation-induced damage being in GH cells than in ACTH cells. (author)

  18. Pituitary gland volumes in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian A; Mackay, Clare E; Goodwin, Guy M

    2014-12-01

    Bipolar disorder has been associated with increased Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis function. The mechanism is not well understood, but there may be associated increases in pituitary gland volume (PGV) and these small increases may be functionally significant. However, research investigating PGV in bipolar disorder reports mixed results. The aim of the current study was twofold. First, to assess PGV in two novel samples of patients with bipolar disorder and matched healthy controls. Second, to perform a meta-analysis comparing PGV across a larger sample of patients and matched controls. Sample 1 consisted of 23 established patients and 32 matched controls. Sample 2 consisted of 39 medication-naïve patients and 42 matched controls. PGV was measured on structural MRI scans. Seven further studies were identified comparing PGV between patients and matched controls (total n; 244 patients, 308 controls). Both novel samples showed a small (approximately 20mm(3) or 4%), but non-significant, increase in PGV in patients. Combining the two novel samples showed a significant association of age and PGV. Meta-analysis showed a trend towards a larger pituitary gland in patients (effect size: .23, CI: -.14, .59). While results suggest a possible small difference in pituitary gland volume between patients and matched controls, larger mega-analyses with sample sizes greater even than those used in the current meta-analysis are still required. There is a small but potentially functionally significant increase in PGV in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. Results demonstrate the difficulty of finding potentially important but small effects in functional brain disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Duplication of the pituitary gland - plus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debraj Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG is a very rare developmental anomaly that is often associated with other anomalies - the DPG-plus syndrome and occurs due to splitting of the rostral notochord and prechordal plate during blastogenesis. DPG with the constellation of associated anomalies as in our patient has not been reported previously. This article illustrates the importance of imaging the brain in all patients with obvious midline facial anomalies and the complementary role of MRI and CT in such cases.

  20. Cushing's disease due to mixed pituitary adenoma-gangliocytoma of the posterior pituitary gland presenting with Aspergillus sp. sinus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridenstine, Mark; Kerr, Janice M; Lillehei, Kevin O; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Bette K

    2013-01-01

    Gangliocytic lesions of the pituitary gland producing Cushing's disease are extremely rare entities that may exist with or without a pituitary adenoma. The latter have been designated mixed pituitary adenoma-gangliocytomas, the majority of which produce growth hormone, not adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), and are localized to the anterior gland. We now report an immunocompetent woman with hypercortisolism who presented with an intranasal aspergilloma eroding the bony sellar floor. The fungal ball was contiguous with, and extended into, a large neurohypophyseal-centered mass. Transsphenoidal resection revealed a gangliocytic lesion of the posterior gland with small clusters of intimately admixed ACTH-immunoreactive adenoma cells as the cause of her Cushing's disease. Rare transitional sizes and shapes of cells coupled with immunohistochemical findings supported interpretation as advanced neuronal metaplasia within an ACTH adenoma. This mixed ACTH adenoma-gangliocytoma is the first example to present clinically with an opportunistic infection.

  1. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies ...

  2. MRI study of normal pituitary glands in stage of puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Guangwu; Zhang Tao; Yang Ning; Cai Feng; Shi Yifan; Deng Jieying; Zhang Luodong; Jiang Yayun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of shape, size and signal intensity of normal pituitary glands in adolescents and to correlate the size and shape of normal pituitary glands with the age, height and weight in stage of puberty. Methods: One hundred and fifty-five cases of MRI data of pituitary glands in normal adolescents range from 6.0 year to 18.9 year were used. Using high-field 1.5T MR scanner, the appearances of pituitary glands in 152 normal adolescents were analyzed on T 1 WI in standard median sagittal and coronal plane. Results: Three groups quantitative data of size, shape and single intensity changes of normal pituitary glands were obtained, which were divided into 6- m =0.74, t=3.624, P=0.004; r f =0.94, t=9.562, P=0.000), however, it was not markedly correlated with the height and weight (P>0.05). Conclusion: Obvious changes of the size and shape of pituitary glands were found in health adolescents. The pituitary glands manifest physiologic hypertrophy with more convex of upper border when age increased in stage of puberty. The spherical appearance of the pituitary glands is a normal developmental feature and should not warrant clinical investigation for the presence of an underlying micro-adenoma in teenage females. (authors)

  3. A STUDY ON OPHTHALMIC MANIFESTATIONS IN PITUITARY GLAND TUMOURS

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    Chitra Munusamy Rajendran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pituitary adenoma is a benign tumour that originates from the adenohypophyseal cells of the anterior lobe of pituitary gland. It accounts for 12% to 15% of all intracranial tumours. A spectrum of ocular manifestations are seen with these tumours ranging from the absence of any visual symptoms to severe visual field defects and loss of vision. The aim of the study is to study the various ocular features and its effect on vision, visual fields and ocular motility in cases of pituitary adenoma diagnosed on CT or MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study for a period of 1 year and 8 months conducted in Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Madras Medical College. 25 patients aged between 25 to 65 years diagnosed as pituitary adenomas on radiological imaging who presented to squint clinic were evaluated after detailed history with visual acuity, pupillary reaction, colour vision, extraocular movements, slit lamp and fundus examination. Visual field examination was done with Octopus field analyser. RESULTS In our study, 25 patients of pituitary adenoma diagnosed on radio imaging were enrolled and evaluated. Most patients were above 50 years, 15 patients of the 25 were above 50 yrs. (60%. Females were predominantly affected (76%. Visual acquity of the patient was between 6/12-6/6 (62% on presentation. Headache was the commonest mode of presentation (80%. 76% showed field defects of which bitemporal hemianopia was the commonest in 52.9%. Pituitary macroadenoma 96% was the commonest type. Optic atrophy was seen only in 4 cases. Others had normal fundus. CONCLUSION Neuro-ophthalmic evaluation plays a major role not only in early detection, planning of treatment and further follow up, but also prevents visual loss if intervened early.

  4. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies...... on the adrenal or pituitary glands or hypothalamus volume in unipolar depressive disorder published in PubMed 1966 to December 2009. We identified three studies that investigated the volume of the adrenal glands and eight studies that examined the volume of the pituitary gland, but no studies on hypothalamus...... were found. Two out of three studies found a statistically significant increase in adrenal volume in patients compared to controls. Four out of eight studies found a statistically significant increase in pituitary volume in patients compared to controls. Different methodological problems were...

  5. Histomorphologic study of the pituitary glands of Korean cadavers and correlation with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Ik; Chung, In Hyuk; Suh, Jung Ho

    1989-01-01

    Histomorphological analysis of the pituitary glands of 62 Korean Adult cadavers was performed, and its results were compared to the findings of high resolution CT scan in 6 cases and magnetic resonance imaging in 2 cases. The CT attenuation density of pituitary glands was also evaluated with coronal scans of 103 normal Korean adults who had no clinical evidence of pituitary abnormalities. The pituitary gland was classified into 4 types based on the contours of superior margin of the glands; slightly convex (type I and type II), slightly concave (type III) and deeply concave (type IV). Among them type III was the most common (44.4%). The size and shape of each lobe of gland were varied. The mean length and height of gland were 10.9 ± 1.4 mm and 4.6 ± 1.2 mm. Rathke's cleft cysts over 0.5 mm in diameter was found in 54.8%, but it rarely exceeded 3 mm in diameter. Rathke's cleft cysts were commonly located at the middle one third between anterior lobe and pars intermedia of pituitary gland. The CT attenuation density of pituitary gland varied depending on the anatomic location and was roughly corresponding to the compactness of cellularity. Focal low attenuation density areas could be consider to represent Rathke's cleft cysts. In one of two pituitary glands, the posterior lobe showed high signal intensity in T1-weighted MRI, which was not corresponding to the intrasellar fat pad or cellularity of gland

  6. High-Resolution DCE-MRI of the Pituitary Gland Using Radial k-Space Acquisition with Compressed Sensing Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi Espagnet, M C; Bangiyev, L; Haber, M; Block, K T; Babb, J; Ruggiero, V; Boada, F; Gonen, O; Fatterpekar, G M

    2015-08-01

    The pituitary gland is located outside of the blood-brain barrier. Dynamic T1 weighted contrast enhanced sequence is considered to be the gold standard to evaluate this region. However, it does not allow assessment of intrinsic permeability properties of the gland. Our aim was to demonstrate the utility of radial volumetric interpolated brain examination with the golden-angle radial sparse parallel technique to evaluate permeability characteristics of the individual components (anterior and posterior gland and the median eminence) of the pituitary gland and areas of differential enhancement and to optimize the study acquisition time. A retrospective study was performed in 52 patients (group 1, 25 patients with normal pituitary glands; and group 2, 27 patients with a known diagnosis of microadenoma). Radial volumetric interpolated brain examination sequences with golden-angle radial sparse parallel technique were evaluated with an ROI-based method to obtain signal-time curves and permeability measures of individual normal structures within the pituitary gland and areas of differential enhancement. Statistical analyses were performed to assess differences in the permeability parameters of these individual regions and optimize the study acquisition time. Signal-time curves from the posterior pituitary gland and median eminence demonstrated a faster wash-in and time of maximum enhancement with a lower peak of enhancement compared with the anterior pituitary gland (P pituitary gland evaluation. In the absence of a clinical history, differences in the signal-time curves allow easy distinction between a simple cyst and a microadenoma. This retrospective study confirms the ability of the golden-angle radial sparse parallel technique to evaluate the permeability characteristics of the pituitary gland and establishes 120 seconds as the ideal acquisition time for dynamic pituitary gland imaging. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  7. Plurihormonal cells of normal anterior pituitary: Facts and conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanova, Lubov B.; Konovalov, Petr V.; Krylova, Julia S.; Polyakova, Victoria O.; Kvetnoy, Igor M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction plurihormonality of pituitary adenomas is an ability of adenoma cells to produce more than one hormone. After the immunohistochemical analysis had become a routine part of the morphological study, a great number of adenomas appeared to be multihormonal in actual practice. We hypothesize that the same cells of a normal pituitary gland releases several hormones simultaneously. Objective To analyse a possible co-expression of hormones by the cells of the normal anterior pituitary of adult humans in autopsy material. Materials and methods We studied 10 pituitary glands of 4 women and 6 men with cardiovascular and oncological diseases. Double staining immunohistochemistry using 11 hormone combinations was performed in all the cases. These combinations were: prolactin/thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin/luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin/adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH)/TSH, GH/LH, GH/FSH, GH/ACTH, TSH/LH, TSH/FSH, TSH/ACTH. Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy with a mixture of primary antibodies was performed in 2 cases. These mixtures were ACTH/prolactin, FSH/prolactin, TSH/prolactin, ACTH/GH, and FSH/GH. Results We found that the same cells of the normal adenohypophysis can co-express prolactin with ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH; GH with ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH, and TSH with ACTH, FSH, LH. The comparison of the average co-expression coefficients of prolactin, GH and TSH with other hormones showed that the TSH co-expression coefficient was significantly the least (9,5±6,9%; 9,6±7,8%; 1,0±1,3% correspondingly). Conclusion Plurihormonality of normal adenohypophysis is an actually existing phenomenon. Identification of different hormones in pituitary adenomas enables to find new ways to improve both diagnostic process and targeted treatment. PMID:28418929

  8. Plurihormonal cells of normal anterior pituitary: Facts and conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanova, Lubov B; Konovalov, Petr V; Krylova, Julia S; Polyakova, Victoria O; Kvetnoy, Igor M

    2017-04-25

    plurihormonality of pituitary adenomas is an ability of adenoma cells to produce more than one hormone. After the immunohistochemical analysis had become a routine part of the morphological study, a great number of adenomas appeared to be multihormonal in actual practice. We hypothesize that the same cells of a normal pituitary gland releases several hormones simultaneously. To analyse a possible co-expression of hormones by the cells of the normal anterior pituitary of adult humans in autopsy material. We studied 10 pituitary glands of 4 women and 6 men with cardiovascular and oncological diseases. Double staining immunohistochemistry using 11 hormone combinations was performed in all the cases. These combinations were: prolactin/thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin/luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin/adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH)/TSH, GH/LH, GH/FSH, GH/ACTH, TSH/LH, TSH/FSH, TSH/ACTH. Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy with a mixture of primary antibodies was performed in 2 cases. These mixtures were ACTH/prolactin, FSH/prolactin, TSH/prolactin, ACTH/GH, and FSH/GH. We found that the same cells of the normal adenohypophysis can co-express prolactin with ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH; GH with ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH, and TSH with ACTH, FSH, LH. The comparison of the average co-expression coefficients of prolactin, GH and TSH with other hormones showed that the TSH co-expression coefficient was significantly the least (9,5±6,9%; 9,6±7,8%; 1,0±1,3% correspondingly). Plurihormonality of normal adenohypophysis is an actually existing phenomenon. Identification of different hormones in pituitary adenomas enables to find new ways to improve both diagnostic process and targeted treatment.

  9. Hypophyseal corticosteroids stimulate somatotrope differentiation in the embryonic chicken pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Takagi, Hiroyasu; Tsutsui, Chihiro; Adachi, Akihito; Sakai, Takafumi

    2008-03-01

    Although it is known that glucocorticoids induce differentiation of growth hormone (GH)-producing cells in rodents and birds, the effect of mineralocorticoids on GH mRNA expression and the origin of corticosteroids affecting somatotrope differentiation have not been elucidated. In this study, we therefore carried out experiments to determine the effect of mineralocorticoids on GH mRNA expression in the chicken anterior pituitary gland in vitro and to determine whether corticosteroids are synthesized in the chicken embryonic pituitary gland. In a pituitary culture experiment with E11 embryos, both corticosterone and aldosterone stimulated GH mRNA expression and increased the number of GH cells in both lobes of the pituitary gland in a dose-dependent manner. These effects of the corticosteroids were significantly reversed by pretreatment with mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist, or spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist. Interestingly, an in vitro serum-free culture experiment with an E11 pituitary gland showed that the GH mRNA level spontaneously increased during cultivation for 2 days without any extra stimulation, and this increase in GH mRNA level was completely suppressed by metyrapone, a corticosterone-producing enzyme P450C11 inhibitor. Moreover, progesterone, the corticosterone precursor, also stimulated GH mRNA expression in the cultured chicken pituitary gland, and this effect was blocked by pretreatment with metyrapone. We also detected mRNA expression of enzymes of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage (P450scc) and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase1 (3beta-HSD1) in the developmental chicken pituitary gland from E14 and E18, respectively. These results suggest that mineralocorticoids as well as glucocorticoids can stimulate GH mRNA expression and that corticosteroids generated in the embryonic pituitary gland by intrinsic steroidogenic enzymes stimulate somatotrope differentiation.

  10. Pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders: a review of neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was reviewed neuroimaging results of the pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and somatoform disorders. The author made internet search in detail by using PubMed database including the period between 1980 and 2012 October. It was included in the articles in English, Turkish and French languages on pituitary gland in psychiatric disorders through structural or functional neuroimaging results. After searching mentioned in the Methods section in detail, investigations were obtained on pituitary gland neuroimaging in a variety of psychiatric disorders. There have been so limited investigations on pituitary neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders including major psychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia and mood disorders. Current findings are so far from the generalizability of the results. For this reason, it is required to perform much more neuroimaging studies of pituitary gland in all psychiatric disorders to reach the diagnostic importance of measuring it.

  11. Anterior pituitary lobe atrophy as late complication of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dragan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is acute infective multisystemic disease followed by febrility, hemorrhages and acute renal insufficiency. Bleeding in the anterior pituitary lobe leading to tissue necrosis occurs in acute stage of severe clinical forms of HFRS, while atrophy of the anterior pituitary lobe with diminution of the gland function occurs after recovery stage. Case report. We presented a patient with the development of chronic renal insufficiency and hypopituitarism as complication that had been diagnosed six years after Hantavirus infection. Magnetic resonance of the pituitary gland revealed atrophy and empty sella turcica. Conclusion. Regarding frequency of this viral infection and its endemic character in some parts of our country partial and/or complete loss of pituitary function should be considered during the late stage of HFRS.

  12. Angiotensin converting enzyme in the brain, testis, epididymis, pituitary gland and adrenal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strittmatter, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    [ 3 H]Captopril binds to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in rat tissue homogenates. The pharmacology, regional distribution and copurification of [ 3 H]captopril binding with enzymatic activity demonstrate the selectivity of [ 3 H]captopril labeling of ACE. [ 3 H]Captopril binding to purified ACE reveals differences in cationic dependence and anionic regulation between substrate catalysis and inhibitor recognition. [ 3 H]Captopril association with ACE is entropically driven. The selectivity of [ 3 H]captopril binding permits autoradiographic localization of the ACE in the brain, male reproductive system, pituitary gland and adrenal gland. In the brain, ACE is visualized in a striatonigral neuronal pathway which develops between 1 and 7 d after birth. In the male reproductive system, [ 3 H]captopril associated silver grains are found over spermatid heads and in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in stages I-VIII and XII-XIV. In the pituitary gland, ACE is localized to the posterior lobe and patches of the anterior lobe. The adrenal medulla contains moderate ACE levels while low levels are found in the adrenal cortex. Adrenal medullary ACE is increased after hypophysectomy and after reserpine treatment. The general of ligand binding techniques for the study of enzymes is demonstrated by the specific labeling of another enzyme, enkephaline convertase, in crude tissue homogenates by the inhibitor [ 3 H]GEMSA

  13. Deletion of OTX2 in neural ectoderm delays anterior pituitary development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Amanda H.; Schade, Vanessa; Lamonerie, Thomas; Camper, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    OTX2 is a homeodomain transcription factor that is necessary for normal head development in mouse and man. Heterozygosity for loss-of-function alleles causes an incompletely penetrant, haploinsufficiency disorder. Affected individuals exhibit a spectrum of features that range from developmental defects in eye and/or pituitary development to acephaly. To investigate the mechanism underlying the pituitary defects, we used different cre lines to inactivate Otx2 in early head development and in the prospective anterior and posterior lobes. Mice homozygous for Otx2 deficiency in early head development and pituitary oral ectoderm exhibit craniofacial defects and pituitary gland dysmorphology, but normal pituitary cell specification. The morphological defects mimic those observed in humans and mice with OTX2 heterozygous mutations. Mice homozygous for Otx2 deficiency in the pituitary neural ectoderm exhibited altered patterning of gene expression and ablation of FGF signaling. The posterior pituitary lobe and stalk, which normally arise from neural ectoderm, were extremely hypoplastic. Otx2 expression was intact in Rathke's pouch, the precursor to the anterior lobe, but the anterior lobe was hypoplastic. The lack of FGF signaling from the neural ectoderm was sufficient to impair anterior lobe growth, but not the differentiation of hormone-producing cells. This study demonstrates that Otx2 expression in the neural ectoderm is important intrinsically for the development of the posterior lobe and pituitary stalk, and it has significant extrinsic effects on anterior pituitary growth. Otx2 expression early in head development is important for establishing normal craniofacial features including development of the brain, eyes and pituitary gland. PMID:25315894

  14. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with β-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C.; Kiortsis, D.N.; Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A.

    2001-01-01

    In transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with β-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  15. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-12-01

    In transfusion-dependent {beta}-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with {beta}-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  16. Hedgehog signaling activation induces stem cell proliferation and hormone release in the adult pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyczek, Joanna; Buslei, Rolf; Schult, David; Hölsken, Annett; Buchfelder, Michael; Heß, Ina; Hahn, Heidi; Uhmann, Anja

    2016-04-25

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling is known to be essential during the embryonal development of the pituitary gland but the knowledge about its role in the adult pituitary and in associated tumors is sparse. In this report we investigated the effect of excess Hh signaling activation in murine pituitary explants and analyzed the HH signaling status of human adenopituitary lobes and a large cohort of pituitary adenomas. Our data show that excess Hh signaling led to increased proliferation of Sox2(+) and Sox9(+) adult pituitary stem cells and to elevated expression levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (Acth), growth hormone (Gh) and prolactin (Prl) in the adult gland. Inhibition of the pathway by cyclopamine reversed these effects indicating that active Hh signaling positively regulates proliferative processes of adult pituitary stem cells and hormone production in the anterior pituitary. Since hormone producing cells of the adenohypophysis as well as ACTH-, GH- and PRL-immunopositive adenomas express SHH and its target GLI1, we furthermore propose that excess HH signaling is involved in the development/maintenance of hormone-producing pituitary adenomas. These findings advance the understanding of physiological hormone regulation and may open new treatment options for pituitary tumors.

  17. Plasma ACTH concentration and pituitary gland histo-pathology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and histology of the pituitary gland and paraventricular nucleus in rats. Methods: Rats were randomly ... symptoms and signs including motor, psychiatric and sensory disorders and .... tuitary and cortisol from the adrenal cortex. Circulating.

  18. Effects of bromocriptine on [3H]estradiol binding in cytosol of anterior pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Nicola, A.F.; Weisenberg, L.S.; Arakelian, M.C.; Libertun, C.

    1981-01-01

    The hypothalamus may control hormone receptors in the anterior pituitary either by a direct trophic effect or indirectly by regulation of serum pituitary hormone levels. Rats whose medial basal hypothalamus had been destroyed in order to suppress neural control of the gland showed a reduction in [ 3 H]estradiol binding in the anterior pituitary and high serum PRL levels; both changes were reversed by treatment of the lesioned rats with daily injections of bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist. In nonlesioned animals, the same treatment did not modify significantly those parameters. In another hyperprolactinemic model (rats with anterior pituitaries transplanted under the kidney capsule), [ 3 H]estradiol binding by the in situ pituitaries of the host rats was similar to that in the nongrafted controls. These results suggest that changes due to median eminence lesion are reversible and that bromocriptine is able to act as a substitutive therapy which restores binding of estradiol in glands whose receptors have been decreased by the effect of the lesion. High PRL levels due to pituitary transplant do not account for the observed changes in the pituitary estradiol binding

  19. High resolution computed tomography of the post partum pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshaw, D.B.; Hasso, A.N.; Thompson, J.R.; Davidson, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Eight volunteer post partum female patients were examined with high resolution computed tomography during the week immediately after delivery. All patients received high dose (40-70 gm) intravenous iodine contrast administration. The scans were examined for pituitary gland height, shape and homogeneity. All of the patients had enlarged glands by the traditional standards (i.e. gland height of 8 mm or greater). The diaphragma sellae in every call bulged upward with a convex domed appearance. The glands were generally inhomogeneous. One gland had a 4 mm focal well defined area of decreased attenuation. Two patients who were studied again months later had glands which had returned to ''normal'' size. The enlarged, upwardly convex pituitary gland appears to be typical and normal for the recently post partum period. (orig.)

  20. Xanthomatosis, pituitary gland, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Sella turcica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seok Jin; Kim, Eui Jong; Choi, Woo Seok; Park, Bong Jin

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomatous hypophysitis is a rare inflammatory disorder of the pituitary gland of unknown prevalence that causes pituitary dysfunction and a mass-like lesion. The authors report a case of 40-year-old man with a visual disturbance and a confirmed diagnosis of xanthomatous hypophysitis.

  1. Size, shape, and appearance of the normal female pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolpert, S.M.; Molitch, M.E.; Goldman, J.A.; Wood, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred seven women 18-65 years old were studied who were referred for suspected central nervous system disease not related to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus. High-resolution, direct, coronal, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) was used to examine the size; shape, and density of the normal pituitary gland. There were three major conclusions: (1) the height of the normal gland can be as much as 9 mm; (2) the superior margin of the gland may bulge in normal patients; and (3) both large size and convex contour appear to be associated with younger age. It was also found that serum prolactin levels do not appear to correlate with the CT appearances. Noise artifacts inherent in high-detail, thin-section, soft-tissue scanning may be a limiting factor in defining reproducible patterns in different parts of the normal pituitary gland

  2. Expression and roles of pannexins in ATP release in the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Yan, Zonghe; Kucka, Marek; Tomic, Melanija; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2011-06-01

    Pannexins are a newly discovered three-member family of proteins expressed in the brain and peripheral tissues that belong to the superfamily of gap junction proteins. However, in mammals pannexins do not form gap junctions, and their expression and function in the pituitary gland have not been studied. Here we show that the rat pituitary gland expresses mRNA and protein transcripts of pannexins 1 and 2 but not pannexin 3. Pannexin 1 was more abundantly expressed in the anterior lobe, whereas pannexin 2 was more abundantly expressed in the intermediate and posterior pituitary. Pannexin 1 was identified in corticotrophs and a fraction of somatotrophs, the S100-positive pituicytes of the posterior pituitary and AtT-20 (mouse pituitary adrenocorticotropin-secreting cells) and rat immortalized pituitary cells secreting prolactin, whereas pannexin 2 was detected in the S100-positive folliculostellate cells of the anterior pituitary, melanotrophs of the intermediate lobe, and vasopressin-containing axons and nerve endings in the posterior lobe. Overexpression of pannexins 1 and 2 in AtT-20 pituitary cells enhanced the release of ATP in the extracellular medium, which was blocked by the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone. Basal ATP release in At-T20 cells was also suppressed by down-regulating the expression of endogenous pannexin 1 but not pannexin 2 with their short interfering RNAs. These results indicate that pannexins may provide a pathway for delivery of ATP, which is a native agonist for numerous P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors endogenously expressed in the pituitary gland.

  3. Connecting proximate mechanisms and evolutionary patterns: pituitary gland size and mammalian life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilar, J M; Tecot, S R

    2015-11-01

    At the proximate level, hormones are known to play a critical role in influencing the life history of mammals, including humans. The pituitary gland is directly responsible for producing several hormones, including those related to growth and reproduction. Although we have a basic understanding of how hormones affect life history characteristics, we still have little knowledge of this relationship in an evolutionary context. We used data from 129 mammal species representing 14 orders to investigate the relationship between pituitary gland size and life history variation. Because pituitary gland size should be related to hormone production and action, we predicted that species with relatively large pituitaries should be associated with fast life histories, especially increased foetal and post-natal growth rates. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that total pituitary size and the size of the anterior lobe of the pituitary significantly predicted a life history axis that was correlated with several traits including body mass, and foetal and post-natal growth rates. Additional models directly examining the association between relative pituitary size and growth rates produced concordant results. We also found that relative pituitary size variation across mammals was best explained by an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of evolution, suggesting an important role of stabilizing selection. Our results support the idea that the size of the pituitary is linked to life history variation through evolutionary time. This pattern is likely due to mediating hormone levels but additional work is needed. We suggest that future investigations incorporating endocrine gland size may be critical for understanding life history evolution. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Ghrelin receptor expression and colocalization with anterior pituitary hormones using a GHSR-GFP mouse line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Alex; Steyn, Frederik J; Sleeman, Mark W; Andrews, Zane B

    2012-11-01

    Ghrelin is the endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and robustly stimulates GH release from the anterior pituitary gland. Ghrelin also regulates the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones including TSH, LH, prolactin (PRL), and ACTH. However, the relative contribution of a direct action at the GHSR in the anterior pituitary gland vs. an indirect action at the GHSR in the hypothalamus remains undefined. We used a novel GHSR-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter mouse to quantify GHSR coexpression with GH, TSH, LH, PRL, and ACTH anterior pituitary cells in males vs. females and in chow-fed or calorie-restricted (CR) mice. GHSR-eGFP-expressing cells were only observed in anterior pituitary. The number of GHSR-eGFP-expressing cells was higher in male compared with females, and CR did not affect the GHSR-eGFP cell number. Double staining revealed 77% of somatotrophs expressed GHSR-eGFP in both males and females. Nineteen percent and 12.6% of corticotrophs, 21% and 9% of lactotrophs, 18% and 19% of gonadotrophs, and 3% and 9% of males and females, respectively, expressed GHSR-eGFP. CR increased the number of TSH cells, but suppressed the number of lactotrophs and gonadotrophs, expressing GHSR-eGFP compared with controls. These studies support a robust stimulatory action of ghrelin via the GHSR on GH secretion and identify a previously unknown sexual dimorphism in the GHSR expression in the anterior pituitary. CR affects GHSR-eGFP expression on lactotrophs, gonadotrophs, and thyrotrophs, which may mediate reproductive function and energy metabolism during periods of negative energy balance. The low to moderate expression of GHSR-eGFP suggests that ghrelin plays a minor direct role on remaining anterior pituitary cells.

  5. Mechanisms for pituitary tumorigenesis: the plastic pituitary

    OpenAIRE

    Melmed, Shlomo

    2003-01-01

    The anterior pituitary gland integrates the repertoire of hormonal signals controlling thyroid, adrenal, reproductive, and growth functions. The gland responds to complex central and peripheral signals by trophic hormone secretion and by undergoing reversible plastic changes in cell growth leading to hyperplasia, involution, or benign adenomas arising from functional pituitary cells. Discussed herein are the mechanisms underlying hereditary pituitary hypoplasia, reversible pituitary hyperplas...

  6. Birthdating studies reshape models for pituitary gland cell specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shannon W; Mortensen, Amanda H; Camper, Sally A

    2011-04-15

    The intermediate and anterior lobes of the pituitary gland are derived from an invagination of oral ectoderm that forms Rathke's pouch. During gestation proliferating cells are enriched around the pouch lumen, and they appear to delaminate as they exit the cell cycle and differentiate. During late mouse gestation and the postnatal period, anterior lobe progenitors re-enter the cell cycle and expand the populations of specialized, hormone-producing cells. At birth, all cell types are present, and their localization appears stratified based on cell type. We conducted a birth dating study of Rathke's pouch derivatives to determine whether the location of specialized cells at birth is correlated with the timing of cell cycle exit. We find that all of the anterior lobe cell types initiate differentiation concurrently with a peak between e11.5 and e13.5. Differentiation of intermediate lobe melanotropes is delayed relative to anterior lobe cell types. We discovered that specialized cell types are not grouped together based on birth date and are dispersed throughout the anterior lobe. Thus, the apparent stratification of specialized cells at birth is not correlated with cell cycle exit. Thus, the currently popular model of cell specification, dependent upon timing of extrinsic, directional gradients of signaling molecules, needs revision. We propose that signals intrinsic to Rathke's pouch are necessary for cell specification between e11.5 and e13.5 and that cell-cell communication likely plays an important role in regulating this process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Normal Indian pituitary gland size on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.; Jena, A.N.; Gulati, P.K.; Marwah, R.K.; Tripathi, R.P.; Sharma, R.K.; Khanna, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The size of the pituitary gland was measured in 294 subjects, who had no known pituitary or hypothalamic disorders. Mid sagittal TIW images showing maximum dimensions of the pituitary gland, were used for measurement of the height in each age and sex group. The mean pituitary height of all the subjects in men was 5.3 mm (SD=0.9 mm), whereas in women, the mean height was 5.9 mm (SD = 1.2 mm). Beyond 10 years of age, the pituitary height measured was greater in women than in men. The gland height showed a gradual decrease with increasing age after the age of 30 years in both men and women except in the age group of 51-60 years, which showed paradoxical increase in size. The minimum gland height found in this study was 2.5 mm and the maximum, 8.8 mm. The study presents a demographic profile of pituitary gland size in north Indian subjects as measured on MR images. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone receptor expression in the chicken pituitary gland: potential influence of sexual maturation and ovarian steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddineni, S; Ocón-Grove, O M; Krzysik-Walker, S M; Hendricks, G L; Proudman, J A; Ramachandran, R

    2008-09-01

    Gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a hypothalamic RFamide, has been found to inhibit gonadotrophin secretion from the anterior pituitary gland originally in birds and, subsequently, in mammalian species. The gene encoding a transmembrane receptor for GnIH (GnIHR) was recently identified in the brain, pituitary gland and gonads of song bird, chicken and Japanese quail. The objectives of the present study are to characterise the expression of GnIHR mRNA and protein in the chicken pituitary gland, and to determine whether sexual maturation and gonadal steroids influence pituitary GnIHR mRNA abundance. GnIHR mRNA quantity was found to be significantly higher in diencephalon compared to either anterior pituitary gland or ovaries. GnIHR mRNA quantity was significantly higher in the pituitaries of sexually immature chickens relative to sexually mature chickens. Oestradiol or a combination of oestradiol and progesterone treatment caused a significant decrease in pituitary GnIHR mRNA quantity relative to vehicle controls. GnIHR-immunoreactive (ir) cells were identified in the chicken pituitary gland cephalic and caudal lobes. Furthermore, GnIHR-ir cells were found to be colocalised with luteinising hormone (LH)beta mRNA-, or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)beta mRNA-containing cells. GnIH treatment significantly decreased LH release from anterior pituitary gland slices collected from sexually immature, but not from sexually mature chickens. Taken together, GnIHR gene expression is possibly down regulated in response to a surge in circulating oestradiol and progesterone levels as the chicken undergoes sexual maturation to allow gonadotrophin secretion. Furthermore, GnIHR protein expressed in FSHbeta or LHbeta mRNA-containing cells is likely to mediate the inhibitory effect of GnIH on LH and FSH secretion.

  9. Progesterone and 17β-estradiol regulate expression of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in mouse pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yiwa; Kim, Jinhee; Im, Eunji; Kim, Heejeong; Yang, Hyunwon

    2015-01-01

    Nesfatin-1 was first shown to be involved in the control of appetite and energy metabolism in the hypothalamus. Many recent reports have shown nesfatin-1 expression in various tissues including the pituitary gland, but its expression and regulation mechanisms in the pituitary gland are unclear. Therefore, first, we investigated the mRNA and protein expression of nesfatin-1 in the pituitary using qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Expression of NUCB2 mRNA and nesfatin-1 protein was higher in the pituitary gland than in other organs, and nesfatin-1 protein was localized in many cells in the anterior pituitary gland. Next, we investigated whether NUCB2 mRNA expression in the pituitary gland was regulated by sex steroid hormones secreted by the ovary. Mice were ovariectomized and injected with progesterone (P4) and 17β-estradiol (E2). The expression of NUCB2 in the pituitary gland was dramatically decreased after ovariectomy and increased with injection of P4 and E2, respectively. The in vitro experiment to elucidate the direct effect of P4 and E2 on NUCB2 mRNA expression showed NUCB2 mRNA expression was significantly increased with E2 and decreased with P4 alone and P4 plus E2 in cultured pituitary tissue. The present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1/NUCB2 was highly expressed in the mouse pituitary and was regulated by P4 and E2. These data suggest that reproductive-endocrine regulation through hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis may contribute to nesfatin-1/NUCB2 expression in the pituitary gland. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Displacement of the normal pituitary gland by sellar and juxtasellar tumours: surgical-MRI correlation and use in differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumida, M.; Uozumi, T.; Yamanaka, M.; Mukada, K.; Arita, K.; Kurisu, K.; Satoh, H.; Ikawa, F.

    1994-01-01

    We compared the position of the normal pituitary gland as estimated by gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA-enhanced MRI, with its position at surgery in 40 patients with intra- and juxtasellar tumours: 22 pituitary adenomas, 4 craniopharyngiomas, 7 meningiomas, 2 germinomas, and 5 Rathke cleft cysts. In 37 of these, the normal gland showed more intense contrast enhancement than the adjacent tumour, from which it could be differentiated by Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI, especially in the sagittal plane. The direction of displacement of the normal pituitary gland correlated well with tumour type, so that its position proved helpful in the differential diagnosis. The normal gland was typically displaced superiorly by pituitary adenomas, inferiorly by craniopharyngiomas, and anteriorly by germinomas. It showed variable displacement by Rathke cleft cysts, and was not usually displaced by meningiomas. (orig.)

  11. Regulation of LH/FSH expression by secretoglobin 3A2 in the mouse pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyano, Yuki; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Sakata, Ichiro; Sakai, Takafumi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Shioko; Kurotani, Reiko

    2014-04-01

    Secretoglobin (SCGB) 3A2 was originally identified as a downstream target for the homeodomain transcription factor NKX2-1 in the lung. NKX2-1 plays a role in the genesis and expression of genes in the thyroid, lung and ventral forebrain; Nkx2-1-null mice have no thyroid and pituitary and severely hypoplastic lungs and hypothalamus. To demonstrate whether SCGB3A2 plays any role in pituitary hormone production, NKX2-1 and SCGB3A2 expression in the mouse pituitary gland was examined by immunohistochemical analysis and RT-PCR. NKX2-1 was localized in the posterior pituitary lobe, whereas SCGB3A2 was observed in both anterior and posterior lobes as shown by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Expression of CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs), which regulate mouse Scgb3a2 transcription, was also examined by RT-PCR. C/EBPβ, γ, δ and ζ were expressed in the adult mouse pituitary gland. SCGB3A2 was expressed in the anterior and posterior lobes from postnatal days 1 and 5, respectively and the areas where SCGB3A2 expression was found coincided with the area where FSH-secreting cells were found. Double-staining for SCGB3A2 and pituitary hormones revealed that SCGB3A2 was mainly localized in gonadotrophs in 49 % of FSH-secreting cells and 47 % of LH-secreting cells. In addition, SCGB3A2 dramatically inhibited LH and FSH mRNA expression in rat pituitary primary cell cultures. These results suggest that SCGB3A2 regulates FSH/LH production in the anterior pituitary lobe and that transcription factors other than NKX2-1 may regulate SCGB3A2 expression.

  12. Changes in Laminin Chain Expression in Pre- and Postnatal Rat Pituitary Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadhani, Dini; Tsukada, Takehiro; Fujiwara, Ken; Azuma, Morio; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Cell–matrix interaction is required for tissue development. Laminin, a major constituent of the basement membrane, is important for structural support and as a ligand in tissue development. Laminin has 19 isoforms, which are determined by combinational assembly of five α, three β, and three γ chains (eg, laminin 121 is α1, β2, and γ1). However, no report has identified the laminin isoforms expressed during pituitary development. We used in situ hybridization to investigate all laminin chains expressed during rat anterior pituitary development. The α5 chain was expressed during early pituitary development (embryonic day 12.5–15.5). Expression of α1 and α4 chains was noted in vasculature cells at embryonic day 19.5, but later diminished. The α1 chain was re-expressed in parenchymal cells of anterior lobe from postnatal day 10 (P10), while the α4 chain was present in vasculature cells from P30. The α2 and α3 chains were transiently expressed in vasculature cells and anterior lobe, respectively, only at P30. Widespread distribution of β and γ chains was also observed during development. These findings suggest that numerous laminin isoforms are involved in anterior pituitary gland development and that alteration of the expression pattern is required for proper development of the gland

  13. Distribution of the Vasotocin Subtype Four Receptor (VT4R) in the Anterior Pituitary Gland of the Chicken, Gallus gallus, and its Possible Role in the Avian Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, R; Jurkevich, A; Kang, S W; Mikhailova, M V; Cornett, L E; Kuenzel, W J

    2013-01-01

    The neurohormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) in non mammalian vertebrates is homologous to arginine vasopressin (AVP) in mammals. Its actions are mediated via G protein-coupled receptors that belong to the vasotocin/mesotocin family. Because of the known regulatory effects of nonapeptide hormones on anterior pituitary functions, receptor subtypes in that family have been proposed to be located in anterior pituitary cells. Recently, an avian vasotocin receptor subtype designated VT4R has been cloned, which shares 69% sequence homology with a human vasopressin receptor, the V1aR. In the present study, a polyclonal antibody to the VT4R was developed and validated to confirm its specificity to the VT4R. The antibody was used to test the hypothesis that the VT4R is present in the avian anterior pituitary and is specifically associated with certain cell types, where its expression is modulated by acute stress. Western blotting of membrane protein extracts from pituitary tissue, the use of HeLa cells transfected with the VT4R and peptide competition assays all confirmed the specificity of the antibody to the VT4R. Dual-labelling immunofluorescence microscopy was utilised to identify pituitary cell types that contained immunoreactive VT4R. The receptor was found to be widely distributed throughout the cephalic lobe but not in the caudal lobe of the anterior pituitary. Immunoreactive VT4R was associated with corticotrophs. Approximately 89% of immunolabelled corticotrophs were shown to contain the VT4R. The immunoreactive VT4R was not found in gonadotrophs, somatotrophs or lactotrophs. To determine a possible functional role of the VT4R and previously characterised VT2R, gene expression levels in the anterior pituitary were determined after acute immobilisation stress by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed a significant increase in plasma corticosterone levels (three- to four-fold), a significant reduction of VT4R mRNA and an

  14. Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Pituitary Gland Mimicking a Pituitary Adenoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Da Mi; Yu, In Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Han Kyu [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son Hyun Jin [Dept. of Pathology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    A 38-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with diplopia. The patient had a relatively well-defined pituitary mass with high cellularity as well as weaker enhancement on imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), than a typical pituitary adenoma. The distinction between a pseudotumor and an invasive neoplasm is very difficult before biopsy. In this case report, we discuss the characteristic imaging features of a fibrosing inflammatory pseudotumor of the pituitary gland

  15. Changes of pituitary gland volume in Kennedy disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, C C; Teismann, I K; Konrad, C; Heindel, W L; Schiffbauer, H

    2013-12-01

    Kennedy disease is a rare X-linked neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the first exon of the androgen-receptor gene. Apart from neurologic signs, this mutation can cause a partial androgen insensitivity syndrome with typical alterations of gonadotropic hormones produced by the pituitary gland. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the impact of Kennedy disease on pituitary gland volume under the hypothesis that endocrinologic changes caused by partial androgen insensitivity may lead to morphologic changes (ie, hypertrophy) of the pituitary gland. Pituitary gland volume was measured in sagittal sections of 3D T1-weighted 3T-MR imaging data of 8 patients with genetically proven Kennedy disease and compared with 16 healthy age-matched control subjects by use of Multitracer by a blinded, experienced radiologist. The results were analyzed by a univariant ANOVA with total brain volume as a covariant. Furthermore, correlation and linear regression analyses were performed for pituitary volume, patient age, disease duration, and CAG repeat expansion length. Intraobserver reliability was evaluated by means of the Pearson correlation coefficient. Pituitary volume was significantly larger in patients with Kennedy disease (636 [±90] mm(3)) than in healthy control subjects (534 [±91] mm(3)) (P = .041). There was no significant difference in total brain volume (P = .379). Control subjects showed a significant decrease in volume with age (r = -0.712, P = .002), whereas there was a trend to increasing gland volume in patients with Kennedy disease (r = 0.443, P = .272). Gland volume correlated with CAG repeat expansion length in patients (r = 0.630, P = .047). The correlation coefficient for intraobserver reliability was 0.94 (P pituitary volume that correlated with the CAG repeat expansion length. This could reflect hypertrophy as the result of elevated gonadotropic hormone secretion caused by the androgen receptor mutation with partial

  16. Development and sexual dimorphism of the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Frank P; Keshavan, Matcheri; Mirza, Yousha; Carrey, Normand; Upadhyaya, Ameet R; El-Sheikh, Rhonda; Buhagiar, Christian J; Taormina, S Preeya; Boyd, Courtney; Lynch, Michelle; Rose, Michelle; Ivey, Jennifer; Moore, Gregory J; Rosenberg, David R

    2007-02-13

    The pituitary gland plays a central role in sexual development and brain function. Therefore, we examined the effect of age and gender on pituitary volume in a large sample of healthy children and adults. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted in one hundred and fifty four (77 males and 77 females) healthy participants. Males were between the ages of 7 to 35 years (16.91+/-5.89 years) and females were 7 to 35 years of age (16.75+/-5.75 years). Subjects were divided into subgroups of age (7 to 9, 10 to 13, 14 to 17, 18 to 21, 22 and older) and sex (male/female). Pituitary gland volume differed between sexes when comparing the age groups (F=3.55, df=2, 143, p=0.03). Females demonstrated larger pituitary glands than males in the age 14 to 17 year old groups (p=0.04). Young (19 years and under) and old (20 years and older) females demonstrated a correlation between pituitary volume and age. Males did not show this relationship. These findings provide additional evidence for gender differences in the normative anatomy of the pituitary and may have relevance for the study of various childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders in which pituitary dysfunction has been implicated.

  17. Excitatory and inhibitory effects of prolactin release activated by nerve stimulation in rat anterior pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Li-Zhi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A series of studies showed the presence of substantial amount of nerve fibers and their close relationship with the anterior pituitary gland cells. Our previous studies have suggested that aside from the classical theory of humoral regulation, the rat anterior pituitary has direct neural regulation on adrenocorticotropic hormone release. In rat anterior pituitary, typical synapses are found on every type of the hormone-secreting cells, many on lactotrophs. The present study was aimed at investigating the physiological significance of this synaptic relationship on prolactin release. Methods The anterior pituitary of rat was sliced and stimulated with electrical field in a self-designed perfusion chamber. The perfusate was continuously collected in aliquots and measured by radioimmunoassay for prolactin levels. After statistic analysis, differences of prolactin concentrations within and between groups were outlined. Results The results showed that stimulation at frequency of 2 Hz caused a quick enhancement of prolactin release, when stimulated at 10 Hz, prolactin release was found to be inhibited which came slower and lasted longer. The effect of nerve stimulation on prolactin release is diphasic and frequency dependent. Conclusions The present in vitro study offers the first physiological evidence that stimulation of nerve fibers can affect prolactin release in rat anterior pituitary. Low frequency stimulation enhances prolactin release and high frequency mainly inhibits it.

  18. An Ectopic Thyroid Gland and Tissue in the Goat Pituitary Gland – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Ectopic Thyroid Gland and Tissue in the Goat Pituitary Gland – A Short Communication. H B O'Hara, D Oduor-Okele, S Gombe. Abstract. No Abstract. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 15 1991: pp. 45-46. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. Preoperative preparation of patients with pituitary gland disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenković, Vesna; Gvozdenović, Ljiljana; Milaković, Branko; Sabljak, Vera; Ladjević, Nebojsa; Zivaljević, Vladan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the most common disorders of pituitary function: acromegaly, hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus and syndrome similar to diabetes insipidus, in terms of their importance in preoperative preparation of patients. Pituitary function manages almost the entire endocrine system using the negative feedback mechanism that is impaired by these diseases. The cause of acromegaly is a pituitary adenoma, which produces growth hormone in adults. Primary therapy of acromegaly is surgical, with or without associated radiotherapy. If a patient with acromegaly as comorbidity prepares for non-elective neurosurgical operation, then it requires consultation with brain surgeons for possible delays of that operation and primary surgical treatment of pituitary gland. If operative treatment of pituitary gland is carried out, the preoperative preparation (for other surgical interventions) should consider the need for perioperative glucocorticoid supplementation. Panhypopituitarism consequences are different in children and adults and the first step in diagnosis is to assess the function of target organs. Change of electrolytes and water occurs in the case of pituitary lesions in the form of central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus as a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Preoperative preparation of patients with pituitary dysfunction should be multidisciplinary, whether it is a neurosurgical or some other surgical intervention. The aim is to evaluate the result of insufficient production of pituitary hormones (hypopituitarism), excessive production of adenohypophysis hormones (acromegaly, Cushing's disease and hyperprolactinemia) and the influence of pituitary tumours in surrounding structures (compression syndrome) and to determine the level of perioperative risk. Pharmacological suppressive therapy of the hyperfunctional pituitary disorders can have significant interactions with drugs used in the perioperative period.

  20. The 2017 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the pituitary gland: a summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M Beatriz S

    2017-10-01

    The 4th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of endocrine tumors has been recently released. In this new edition, major changes are recommended in several areas of the classification of tumors of the anterior pituitary gland (adenophypophysis). The scope of the present manuscript is to summarize these recommended changes, emphasizing a few significant topics. These changes include the following: (1) a novel approach for classifying pituitary neuroendocrine tumors according to pituitary adenohypophyseal cell lineages; (2) changes to the histological grading of pituitary neuroendocrine tumors with the elimination of the term "atypical adenoma;" and (3) introduction of new entities like the pituitary blastoma and re-definition of old entities like the null-cell adenoma. This new classification is very practical and mostly based on immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones, pituitary-specific transcription factors, and other immunohistochemical markers commonly used in pathology practice, not requiring routine ultrastructural analysis of the tumors. Evaluation of tumor proliferation potential, by mitotic count and Ki-67 labeling index, and tumor invasion is strongly recommended on individual case basis to identify clinically aggressive adenomas. In addition, the classification offers the treating clinical team information on tumor prognosis by identifying specific variants of adenomas associated with an elevated risk for recurrence. Changes in the classification of non-neuroendocrine tumors are also proposed, in particular those tumors arising in the posterior pituitary including pituicytoma, granular cell tumor of the posterior pituitary, and spindle cell oncocytoma. These changes endorse those previously published in the 2016 WHO classification of CNS tumors. Other tumors arising in the sellar region are also reviewed in detail including craniopharyngiomas, mesenchymal and stromal tumors, germ cell tumors, and hematopoietic tumors. It is

  1. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in the pituitary gland and central nervous system: methods and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, E.B.; Kuhar, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Studies with the radioiodinated oCRF analog, Nle21, 125I-Tyr32-oCRF have identified, characterized, and localized high affinity binding sites for CRF in anterior and intermediate lobes of rat pituitary, in anterior lobe of human pituitary, and in rat, monkey, and human brain. The pharmacology and distribution of Nle21, 125I-Tyr32-oCRF binding in the pituitary gland correlate well with the biological potency and sites of action of CRF and suggest that these CRF binding sites represent specific receptors that mediate the well-established actions of CRF on the anterior pituitary and on the intermediate lobe of the pituitary. The studies in adrenalectomized rats demonstrating that endogenous CRF is capable of modulating its receptor density provide additional evidence that the radioligand labels the functional CRF receptor. The areas of distribution of Nle21, 125I-Tyr32-oCRF binding sites in the rat CNS correlate well with the immunohistochemical distribution of CRF pathways and the pharmacological sites of action of CRF. These data confirm the established role of CRF in regulating secretion of POMC-derived peptides from the pituitary gland. In addition, the data support a physiological role for endogenous CRF in regulating CNS activity and suggest the importance of this neuropeptide in integrating endocrine and visceral functions and behavior, especially in response to stress. Studies to characterize CRF receptors and CRF-containing pathways in the brain provide a means for better understanding the various functions of this neuropeptide in different areas of the CNS. Finally, the ability to map CRF receptors in postmortem human tissue provides a basis for studying the role of CRF in a variety of endocrine, neurological, and psychiatric disorders

  2. Pure intrasellar meningioma located under the pituitary gland: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Choong Ki; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, SAeung Ro

    2013-01-01

    Most intrasellar meningiomas are located in the subdiaphragmatic and supraglandular region because they originate from the diaphragma sellae. Subglandular meningiomas located under the pituitary gland are extremely rare. Intrasellar meningiomas in the subdiaphragmatic and subglandular region probably originate from the dura in the sellar floor. We report a case of a subglandular meningioma along with a review of the literature.

  3. Pure intrasellar meningioma located under the pituitary gland: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Choong Ki; Pyo, Ju Yeon [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Jun; Lee, SAeung Ro [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Most intrasellar meningiomas are located in the subdiaphragmatic and supraglandular region because they originate from the diaphragma sellae. Subglandular meningiomas located under the pituitary gland are extremely rare. Intrasellar meningiomas in the subdiaphragmatic and subglandular region probably originate from the dura in the sellar floor. We report a case of a subglandular meningioma along with a review of the literature.

  4. Be careful….. She has a pituitary gland in her nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabelink, N.M.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Castelijns, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this case report we describe a 38 year-old-female with galactorrhea several months after the birth of an anencephalic child. She had hyperpolactemia and imaging of the pituitary gland revealed a midline defect and a nasopharyngeal mass compatible with a meningo-(hypophyso-) encephalocele and

  5. Investigation of the growth patterns of non-functioning pituitary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-28

    Jul 28, 2016 ... Pituitary adenomas are almost always benign (>99.9%), arise from the anterior pituitary and ... Non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFMA) are the most ... pituitary gland, most likely due to alterations in perfusion.

  6. Pituitary gland imaging in Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville, J.F.; Cattin, F.; Bonneville, F.; Schillo, F.; Jacquet, G.

    2003-01-01

    Specific MR techniques are r-required for optimal detection of adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting adenomas responsible for Cushing's disease. Adequate MR sequences, high resolution coronal T1 and T2 - weighted images, dynamic MR imaging, post-gadolinium delayed images, dose of gadolinium adjusted for each sequence can routinely demonstrate pituitary adenomas less than 3 mm in Cushing's disease. (authors)

  7. Colloid cyst of the pituitary gland: Case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladowska, J.; Biel, A.; Bednarek-Tupikowska, G.; Sasiadek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The sellar and parasellar region is an area where many heterogenous neoplastic, inflammatory, developmental and vascular pathologies can occur. Differentiation among various diseases may be not easy, because many of these lesions could mimic the clinical, endocrinologic and radiologic features of pituitary adenomas, which can be the cause of possible misdiagnosis. Case Report: We report a case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a persistent headache for the last 5 - 6 years and visual disturbances. Endocrine system examinations disclosed only insignificant hyperprolactinaemia. The MRI revealed an hypointense area - its presentation was similar to that of pituitary adenoma. The correct diagnosis, i.e. a colloid cyst of the pituitary gland, was made intraoperatively. Conclusions: Colloid cyst of the pituitary gland is a very rare pathology but it must be considered if there is an hypointense area between the anterior and posterior pituitary lobe in MR imaging without contrast enhancement and if the patient presents with headaches, hypopituitarism and hyperprolactinaemia. (authors)

  8. Expression and activity of acid-sensing ion channels in the mouse anterior pituitary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyang Du

    Full Text Available Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs are proton-gated cation channels that are expressed in the nervous system and play an important role in fear learning and memory. The function of ASICs in the pituitary, an endocrine gland that contributes to emotions, is unknown. We sought to investigate which ASIC subunits were present in the pituitary and found mRNA expression for all ASIC isoforms, including ASIC1a, ASIC1b, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, ASIC3 and ASIC4. We also observed acid-evoked ASIC-like currents in isolated anterior pituitary cells that were absent in mice lacking ASIC1a. The biophysical properties and the responses to PcTx1, amiloride, Ca2+ and Zn2+ suggested that ASIC currents were mediated predominantly by heteromultimeric channels that contained ASIC1a and ASIC2a or ASIC2b. ASIC currents were also sensitive to FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe amide, suggesting that FMRFamide-like compounds might endogenously regulate pituitary ASICs. To determine whether ASICs might regulate pituitary cell function, we applied low pH and found that it increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These data suggest that ASIC channels are present and functionally active in anterior pituitary cells and may therefore influence their function.

  9. Development and sexual dimorphism of the pituitary gland

    OpenAIRE

    MacMaster, Frank P.; Keshavan, Matcheri; Mirza, Yousha; Carrey, Normand; Upadhyaya, Ameet R.; El-Sheikh, Rhonda; Buhagiar, Christian J; Taormina, S. Preeya; Boyd, Courtney; Lynch, Michelle; Rose, Michelle; Ivey, Jennifer; Moore, Gregory J.; Rosenberg, David R.

    2006-01-01

    The pituitary gland plays a central role in sexual development and brain function. Therefore, we examined the effect of age and gender on pituitary volume in a large sample of healthy children and adults. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted in one hundred and fifty four (77 males and 77 females) healthy participants. Males were between the ages of 7 to 35 years (16.91 ± 5.89 years) and females were 7 to 35 years of age (16.75 ± 5.75 years). Subjects were divided into sub...

  10. In vivo xenoestrogenic actions of cadmium and arsenic in anterior pituitary and uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchetti, Sonia A; Novack, Gisela V; Bianchi, María S; Crocco, Melisa C; Duvilanski, Beatriz H; Cabilla, Jimena P

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (iAs) are toxic metals ubiquitously present in the environment. Both pollutants exert nonmonotonic dose responses, being mostly cytotoxic at high concentrations but mimicking estrogen (E2) effects at low doses. Xenoestrogenic activity of Cd and iAs has been demonstrated in different hormone-dependent tumor cell lines; however, their actions in vivo remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether in vivo administration of low doses of Cd and iAs through drinking water would display xenoestrogenic effects in the anterior pituitary gland and uterus of ovariectomized rats. Cd (1ppm) and iAs (0.1ppm) exposure increased the wet weight of anterior pituitary gland and uterus and induced proestrus- and estrus-like vaginal smears. Both metals stimulate cell proliferation of these tissues as they increased the expression of proliferation markers. More importantly, they augmented soluble guanylyl cyclase α1 subunit expression, which has been linked to hormone-dependent tumor progression. Also, Cd and iAs modified protein levels of full-length estrogen receptor α and its truncated variants in an E2-like manner. Anterior pituitary hormone secretion was differentially affected by both metals. Luteinizing hormone synthesis and release were strongly diminished after Cd exposure and only mildly reduced by iAs. Both metals were able to increase prolactin synthesis, although only iAs augmented serum prolactin levels. This study shows for the first time that Cd and iAs exert strong xenoestrogenic effects on anterior pituitary gland at low doses. The differences between Cd and iAs E2-like behavior indicate that other Cd- and iAs-specific mechanisms could be involved. Altogether, these results contribute to the knowledge of reproductive disorders associated with Cd and iAs environmental contamination. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  11. Reassembly of anterior pituitary organization by hanging drop three-dimensional cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Takehiro; Kouki, Tom; Fujiwara, Ken; Ramadhani, Dini; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-08-29

    The anterior pituitary gland comprises 5 types of hormone-producing cells and non-endocrine cells, such as folliculostellate (FS) cells. The cells form a lobular structure surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM) but are not randomly distributed in each lobule; hormone-producing cells have affinities for specific cell types (topographic affinity), and FS cells form a homotypic meshwork. To determine whether this cell and ECM organization can be reproduced in vitro, we developed a 3-dimensional (3D) model that utilizes hanging drop cell culture. We found that the topographic affinities of hormone-producing cells were indeed maintained (ie, GH to ACTH cells, GH to TSH cells, PRL to LH/FSH cells). Fine structures in hormone-producing cells retained their normal appearance. In addition, FS cells displayed well-developed cytoplasmic protrusions, which interconnected with adjacent FS cells to form a 3D meshwork. In addition, reassembly of gap junctions and pseudofollicles among FS cells was observed in cell aggregates. Major ECM components-collagens and laminin-were deposited and distributed around the cells. In sum, the dissociated anterior pituitary cells largely maintained their in vivo anterior pituitary architectures. This culture system appears to be a powerful experimental tool for detailed analysis of anterior pituitary cell organization.

  12. Folliculostellate Cells Are Required for Laminin Release from Gonadotrophs in Rat Anterior Pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Takehiro; Fujiwara, Ken; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Azuma, Morio; Ramadhani, Dini; Tofrizal, Alimuddin; Batchuluun, Khongorzul; Maliza, Rita; Syaidah, Rahimi; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The anterior pituitary gland is organized tissue comprising hormone-producing cells and folliculostellate (FS) cells. FS cells interconnect to form a meshwork, and their cytoplasmic processes are anchored by a basement membrane containing laminin. Recently, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture that reproduces this FS cell architecture. In this study of the novel function of FS cells, we used transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein in FS cells for the 3D culture. Anterior pituitary cells were cultured with different proportions of FS cells (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20%). Anterior pituitary cells containing 5–20% FS cells formed round/oval cell aggregates, whereas amorphous cell aggregates were formed in the absence of FS cells. Interestingly, immunohistochemistry showed laminin-immunopositive cells instead of extracellular laminin deposition in FS cell-deficient cell aggregates. Double-immunostaining revealed that these laminin-immunopositive cells were gonadotrophs. Laminin mRNA expression did not differ in relation to the presence or absence of FS cells. When anterior pituitary cells with no FS cells were cultured with FS cell-conditioned medium, the proportion of laminin-immunopositive cells was lower than in control. These results suggest that a humoral factor from FS cells is required for laminin release from gonadotrophs

  13. Signaling by purinergic receptors and channels in the pituitary gland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojilkovic, S. S.; He, M. L.; Koshimizu, T.; Balík, A.; Zemková, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 314, č. 2 (2010), s. 184-191 ISSN 0303-7207 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/07/0681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : purinergic receptors * ATP * anterior pituitary Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.119, year: 2010

  14. In vivo and in vitro effects of chromium VI on anterior pituitary hormone release and cell viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinteros, Fernanda A.; Poliandri, Ariel H.B.; Machiavelli, Leticia I.; Cabilla, Jimena P.; Duvilanski, Beatriz H.

    2007-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr VI) is a highly toxic metal and an environmental pollutant. Different studies indicate that Cr VI exposure adversely affects reproductive functions. This metal has been shown to affect several tissues and organs but Cr VI effects on pituitary gland have not been reported. Anterior pituitary hormones are central for the body homeostasis and have a fundamental role in reproductive physiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cr VI at the pituitary level both in vivo and in vitro. We showed that Cr VI accumulates in the pituitary and hypothalamus, and decreases serum prolactin levels in vivo but observed no effects on LH levels. In anterior pituitary cells in culture, the effect of Cr VI on hormone secretion followed the same differential pattern. Besides, lactotrophs were more sensitive to the toxicity of the metal. As a result of oxidative stress generation, Cr VI induced apoptosis evidenced by nuclear fragmentation and caspase 3 activation. Our results indicate that the anterior pituitary gland can be a target of Cr VI toxicity in vivo and in vitro, thus producing a negative impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and affecting the normal endocrine function

  15. In vivo and in vitro effects of chromium VI on anterior pituitary hormone release and cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros, Fernanda A; Poliandri, Ariel H B; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Cabilla, Jimena P; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2007-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr VI) is a highly toxic metal and an environmental pollutant. Different studies indicate that Cr VI exposure adversely affects reproductive functions. This metal has been shown to affect several tissues and organs but Cr VI effects on pituitary gland have not been reported. Anterior pituitary hormones are central for the body homeostasis and have a fundamental role in reproductive physiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cr VI at the pituitary level both in vivo and in vitro. We showed that Cr VI accumulates in the pituitary and hypothalamus, and decreases serum prolactin levels in vivo but observed no effects on LH levels. In anterior pituitary cells in culture, the effect of Cr VI on hormone secretion followed the same differential pattern. Besides, lactotrophs were more sensitive to the toxicity of the metal. As a result of oxidative stress generation, Cr VI induced apoptosis evidenced by nuclear fragmentation and caspase 3 activation. Our results indicate that the anterior pituitary gland can be a target of Cr VI toxicity in vivo and in vitro, thus producing a negative impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and affecting the normal endocrine function.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal pituitary gland using ultrashort TE (UTE) pulse sequences (REV 1.0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portman, Olivia; Flemming, Stephen; Cox, Jeremy P.D.; Johnston, Desmond G.; Bydder, Graeme M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the normal pituitary gland in male subjects with ultrashort echo time (TE) pulse sequences, describe its appearance and measure its signal intensity before and after contrast enhancement. Eleven male volunteers (mean age 57.1 years; range 36-81 years) were examined with a fat-suppressed ultrashort TE (= 0.08 ms) pulse sequence. The studies were repeated after the administration of intravenous gadodiamide. The MR scans were examined for gland morphology and signal intensity before and after enhancement. Endocrinological evaluation included baseline pituitary function tests and a glucagon stimulatory test to assess pituitary cortisol and growth hormone reserve. High signal intensity was observed in the anterior pituitary relative to the brain in nine of the 11 subjects. These regions involved the whole of the anterior pituitary in three subjects, were localised to one side in two examples and were seen inferiorly in three subjects. Signal intensities relative to the brain increased with age, with a peak around the sixth or seventh decade and decreasing thereafter. Overall, the pituitary function tests were considered to be within normal limits and did not correlate with pituitary gland signal intensity. The anterior pituitary shows increased signal intensity in normal subjects when examined with T 1 -weighted ultrashort TE pulse sequences. The cause of this increased intensity is unknown, but fibrosis and iron deposition are possible candidates. The variation in signal intensity with age followed the temporal pattern of iron content observed at post mortem. No relationship with endocrine status was observed. (orig.)

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal pituitary gland using ultrashort TE (UTE) pulse sequences (REV 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portman, Olivia; Flemming, Stephen; Cox, Jeremy P.D.; Johnston, Desmond G. [Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, St Mary' s Hospital, Endocrinology and Metabolic Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Bydder, Graeme M. [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the normal pituitary gland in male subjects with ultrashort echo time (TE) pulse sequences, describe its appearance and measure its signal intensity before and after contrast enhancement. Eleven male volunteers (mean age 57.1 years; range 36-81 years) were examined with a fat-suppressed ultrashort TE (= 0.08 ms) pulse sequence. The studies were repeated after the administration of intravenous gadodiamide. The MR scans were examined for gland morphology and signal intensity before and after enhancement. Endocrinological evaluation included baseline pituitary function tests and a glucagon stimulatory test to assess pituitary cortisol and growth hormone reserve. High signal intensity was observed in the anterior pituitary relative to the brain in nine of the 11 subjects. These regions involved the whole of the anterior pituitary in three subjects, were localised to one side in two examples and were seen inferiorly in three subjects. Signal intensities relative to the brain increased with age, with a peak around the sixth or seventh decade and decreasing thereafter. Overall, the pituitary function tests were considered to be within normal limits and did not correlate with pituitary gland signal intensity. The anterior pituitary shows increased signal intensity in normal subjects when examined with T{sub 1}-weighted ultrashort TE pulse sequences. The cause of this increased intensity is unknown, but fibrosis and iron deposition are possible candidates. The variation in signal intensity with age followed the temporal pattern of iron content observed at post mortem. No relationship with endocrine status was observed. (orig.)

  18. [Effect of veralipride on the estral cycle, genital tract, mammary gland and pituitary gland in female rats (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchmann-Duplessis, H

    1980-10-15

    A study of the potential biological effects of veralipride was conducted in female rats. A definite stimulating action on the mammary gland was noted, but doses of 5 to 20 mg/kg/day are required to produce secretion, which is varying from one animal to another. Follicular maturation is preserved, though there is an increase in the number of corpora lutea with more marked development in some of them. Progesterone impregnation of the uterus occurs in a variable way and then only at doses of 5 + 0 20 mg/kg/day. Vaginal mucification, from a reduction in estrogen in relation to progesterone impregnation, is noted after 1 mg/kg/day (though 25 p. cent of the animals still demonstrate vaginal keratinization after 20 mg/kg/day). Finally, degranulation of the carminophile cells of the anterior pituitary gland, occurs after 5 mg/kg/day.

  19. ACTH radioimmunocytochemistry (RICH) on rat anterior pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappay, G.; Karteszi, M.; Makara, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    Radioimmunocytochemistry (RICH) was applied to detect corticotrophs in adult rat pituitaries and 8-day-old anterior pituitary monolayers by incubating sections and cultures with 125 I-ACTH-anti ACTH immune complexes. After incubations autoradiography was made. In comparison, 'conventional' immunostaining was carried out on adjacent sections and parallel cultures. It has been established that RICH is suitable for detection of corticotrophs. (orig.) [de

  20. Effects of HPM irradiation on expression of GR in hypothalamus and pituitary gland of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Li; Peng Ruiyun; Gao Yabing; Ma Junjie; Wang Shuiming; Hu Wenhua; Wang Dewen; Su Zhentao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the expression and significance of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in hypothalamus and pituitary gland of rats after high power microwave (HPM) exposure. Methods: A total of 130 male Wistar rats were sacrificed at 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, 14 d, 28 d and 3 m after whole body irradiation by 2-90 mW/cm 2 HPM and their hypothalamus and pituitary gland were collected. The changes of GR in the two tissues after HPM exposure were investigated by means of immunohistochemical staining and image analysis. Results: The expression of GR in hypothalamus was decreased after HPM exposure. The level of GR in the group of 10 mW/cm 2 was significantly lower (P 2 group was significantly lower (P 2 group was significantly higher (P 2 group was significantly higher (P<0.01) on 1 d and 3 d after HPM exposure. Conclusion: The expression of GR in hypothalamus was decreased while that in the anterior pituitary was increased after HPM exposure. The refore, the negative feedback of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was upset and the changes of GR is involved in the pathophysiological course of HPA. (authors)

  1. Identification and characterisation of side population cells in the canine pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Sarah J; Gremeaux, Lies; Riemers, Frank M; Brinkhof, Bas; Vankelecom, Hugo; Penning, Louis C; Meij, Björn P

    2012-06-01

    To date, stem/progenitor cells have not been identified in the canine pituitary gland. Cells that efficiently exclude the vital dye Hoechst 33342 can be visualised and identified using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) as a 'side population' (SP), distinct from the main population (MP). Such SPs have been identified in several tissues and display stem/progenitor cell characteristics. In this study, a small SP (1.3%, n=6) was detected in the anterior pituitary glands of healthy dogs. Quantitative PCR indicated significantly higher expression of CD34 and Thy1 in this SP, but no differences in the expression of CD133, Bmi-1, Axin2 or Shh. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and Lhx3 expression were significantly higher in the MP than in the SP, but no differences in the expression of Tpit, GH or PRL were found. The study demonstrated the existence of an SP of cells in the normal canine pituitary gland, encompassing cells with stem cell characteristics and without POMC expression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intravoxel Incoherent Motion in Normal Pituitary Gland: Initial Study with Turbo Spin-Echo Diffusion-Weighted Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, K; Nakajo, M; Fukukura, Y; Iwanaga, T; Saito, T; Sasaki, M; Fujisaki, T; Takemura, A; Okuaki, T; Yoshiura, T

    2016-12-01

    DWI with conventional single-shot EPI of the pituitary gland is hampered by strong susceptibility artifacts. Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of intravoxel incoherent motion assessment by using DWI based on TSE of the normal anterior pituitary lobe. The intravoxel incoherent motion parameters, including the true diffusion coefficient (D), the perfusion fraction (f), and the pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), were obtained with TSE-DWI in 5 brain regions (the pons, the WM and GM of the vermis, and the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum) in 8 healthy volunteers, and their agreement with those obtained with EPI-DWI was evaluated by using the intraclass correlation coefficient. The 3 intravoxel incoherent motion parameters in the anterior pituitary lobe were compared with those in the brain regions by using the Dunnett test. The agreement between TSE-DWI and EPI-DWI was moderate (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.571) for D, substantial (0.699) for f', but fair (0.405) for D*. D in the anterior pituitary lobe was significantly higher than in the 5 brain regions (P anterior pituitary lobe was significantly higher than in the 5 brain regions (P pituitary D* was not significantly different from that in the 5 brain regions. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of intravoxel incoherent motion assessment of the normal anterior pituitary lobe by using TSE-DWI. High D and f values in the anterior pituitary lobe were thought to reflect its microstructural and perfusion characteristics. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  3. Cadmium mimics estrogen-driven cell proliferation and prolactin secretion from anterior pituitary cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia A Ronchetti

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a heavy metal of considerable occupational and environmental concern affecting wildlife and human health. Recent studies indicate that Cd, like other heavy metals, can mimic effects of 17β-estradiol (E2 involving E2 receptor (ER activation. Lactotrophs, the most abundant cell type in anterior pituitary gland, are the main target of E2, which stimulates cell proliferation and increases prolactin secretion through ERα. The aim of this work was to examine whether Cd at nanomolar concentrations can induce cell proliferation and prolactin release in anterior pituitary cells in culture and whether these effects are mediated through ERs. Here we show that 10 nM Cd was able to stimulate lactotroph proliferation in anterior pituitary cell cultures from female Wistar rats and also in GH3 lactosomatotroph cell line. Proliferation of somatotrophs and gonadotrophs were not affected by Cd exposure. Cd promoted cell cycle progression by increasing cyclins D1, D3 and c-fos expression. Cd enhanced prolactin synthesis and secretion. Cd E2-like effects were blocked by the pure ERs antagonist ICI 182,780 supporting that Cd acts through ERs. Further, both Cd and E2 augmented full-length ERαexpression and its 46 kDa-splicing variant. In addition, when co-incubated Cd was shown to interact with E2 by inducing ERα mRNA expression which indicates an additive effect between them. This study shows for the first time that Cd at nanomolar concentration displays xenoestrogenic activities by inducing cell growth and stimulating prolactin secretion from anterior pituitary cells in an ERs-dependent manner. Cd acting as a potent xenoestrogen can play a key role in the aetiology of different pathologies of the anterior pituitary and in estrogen-responsive tissues which represent considerable risk to human health.

  4. Mechanisms of chromium (VI)-induced apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros, Fernanda A; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Miler, Eliana A; Cabilla, Jimena P; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2008-07-30

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) is a highly toxic metal. Exposure to Cr (VI) compounds may affect reproductive functions. Due to the importance of anterior pituitary hormones on reproductive physiology we have studied the effects of Cr (VI) on anterior pituitary. We previously demonstrated that, after in vivo Cr (VI) administration, Cr accumulates in the pituitary gland and affects prolactin secretion. In vitro, Cr (VI) causes apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells due to oxidative stress generation. To better understand the mechanisms involved in Cr (VI)-induced apoptosis we studied: (a) whether Cr (VI) affects the intracellular antioxidant response and (b) which of the apoptotic factors participates in Cr (VI) effect. Our results show that Cr (VI) treatment induces a decrease in catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity but does not modify glutathione reductase (GR) activity. Cr (VI) exposure causes an increase of GSH levels. p53 and Bax mRNA are also upregulated by the metal. Pifithrin alpha, a p53 transcriptional inhibitor, increases Cr (VI) cytotoxicity, suggesting a role of p53 as a survival molecule. The antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) could prevent Bax mRNA increase and caspase 3 activation, confirming that Cr (VI)-induced apoptosis involves oxidative stress generation.

  5. Hepatopathy in an adult, secondary to congenital untreated panhypopituitarism and ectopic posterior pituitary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Valle-Murillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of an adult with advanced liver failure in the setting of an untreated congenital panhypopituitarism. A 32-years-old man presented with a newly onset seizure episode secondary to hypoglycemia. In the initial exploration, we found eunuchoid habitus, absence of secondary sexual characteristics, ascites, and hepatic encephalopathy. Hormonal evaluation confirmed the absence of anterior hypophyseal hormones and the liver function tests showed derangement of liver function. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI showed hypoplastic adenohypophysis and ectopic posterior pituitary gland. In the approach to liver disease, no cause was identified, besides the untreated panhypopituitarism.

  6. Hepatopathy in an adult, secondary to congenital untreated panhypopituitarism and ectopic posterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Murillo, Miguel A; Perez-Diaz, Ivan

    2012-09-01

    We report a rare case of an adult with advanced liver failure in the setting of an untreated congenital panhypopituitarism. A 32-years-old man presented with a newly onset seizure episode secondary to hypoglycemia. In the initial exploration, we found eunuchoid habitus, absence of secondary sexual characteristics, ascites, and hepatic encephalopathy. Hormonal evaluation confirmed the absence of anterior hypophyseal hormones and the liver function tests showed derangement of liver function. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed hypoplastic adenohypophysis and ectopic posterior pituitary gland. In the approach to liver disease, no cause was identified, besides the untreated panhypopituitarism.

  7. A rare case of anasarca caused by infiltration of the pituitary gland by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumabe, Ayako; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Nishimura, Yoshioki; Aikawa, Masaki; Mori, Masaki; Matsumura, Masami

    2015-03-25

    Anasarca in patients with lymphoma is a rare symptom. We report a patient with DLBCL associated with pituitary gland infiltration that was diagnosed based on significant anasarca. A 72-year-old woman with a 10-year history of hypertension visited a local hospital presenting with anasarca and 15-kg weight gain in the past 3 months. we clinically diagnosed central hypothyroidism caused by pituitary gland infiltration of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (clinical stage IV in the Ann Arbor staging classification). The first course of chemotherapy improved anasarca remarkably and the patient's body weight returned to what it was 3 months before. We experienced a patient with remarkable anasarca caused by DLBCL infiltration of the pituitary gland. A pituitary gland lesion with central hypothyroidism should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses of edema. This case was very valuable because we could assess it by following the time course of symptoms (edema and delayed relaxation time of the Achilles tendon reflex), laboratory data, and imaging findings (swelling anterior pituitary lobe).

  8. Endosphenoidal coil for intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland during transsphenoidal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittiboina, Prashant; Talagala, S Lalith; Merkle, Hellmut; Sarlls, Joelle E; Montgomery, Blake K; Piazza, Martin G; Scott, Gretchen; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Lonser, Russell R; Oldfield, Edward H; Koretsky, Alan P; Butman, John A

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Pituitary MR imaging fails to detect over 50% of microadenomas in Cushing's disease and nearly 80% of cases of dural microinvasion. Surface coils can generate exceptionally high-resolution images of the immediately adjacent tissues. To improve imaging of the pituitary gland, a receive-only surface coil that can be placed within the sphenoid sinus (the endosphenoidal coil [ESC]) during transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) was developed and assessed. METHODS Five cadaver heads were used for preclinical testing of the ESC. The ESC (a double-turn, 12-mm-diameter surface coil made from 1-mm-diameter copper wire) was developed to obtain images in a 1.5-T MR scanner. The ESC was placed (via a standard sublabial TSS approach) on the anterior sella face. Clinical MR scans were obtained using the 8-channel head coil and ESC as the receiver coils. Using the ESC, ultra-high-resolution, 3D, balanced fast field echo (BFFE) and T1-weighted imaging were performed at resolutions of 0.25 × 0.25 × 0.50 mm 3 and 0.15 × 0.15 × 0.30 mm 3 , respectively. RESULTS Region-of-interest analysis indicated a 10-fold increase in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the pituitary when using the ESC compared with the 8-channel head coil. ESC-related improvements (p anterior pituitary gland surface. High-resolution BFFE MR imaging obtained using ESC revealed a number of anatomical features critical to pituitary surgery that were not visible on 8-channel MR imaging, including the pituitary capsule, the intercavernous sinus, and microcalcifications in the pars intermedia. These ESC imaging findings were confirmed by the pathological correlation with whole-mount pituitary sections. CONCLUSIONS ESC can significantly improve SNR in the sellar region intraoperatively using current 1.5-T MR imaging platforms. Improvement in SNR can provide images of the sella and surrounding structures with unprecedented resolution. Clinical use of this ESC may allow for MR imaging detection of previously occult

  9. Expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70 and vacuolization in the pituitary glands in cases of fatal hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doberentz, Elke; Markwerth, Philipp; Wagner, Rebecca; Madea, Burkhard

    2017-09-01

    Hypothermia causes systemic cellular stress. The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland and plays an important role in thermoregulation. When the core body temperature drops, the pituitary gland is activated by stimulation of hypothalamic hormones. In this study, we investigated morphological alterations of the pituitary gland in cases of fatal hypothermia. Several morphological alterations of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, such as hemorrhage, vacuolization, and hyperemia, have been previously described in fatal hypothermia. However, the diagnostic value of these findings is controversial. We compared 11 cases of fatal hypothermia with 10 cases lacking antemortem hypothermic influences. In the presence of thermal cellular stress, the expression of heat shock proteins increases to protect cellular structures. Therefore, we immunohistochemically analyzed Hsp27 and Hsp70. Hsp27 expression was detected in 27.3% of the cases of fatal hypothermia and in 10.0% of the control cases, whereas Hsp70 expression was not detected in any case. Additionally, Sudan staining was performed to quantify fatty degeneration. A positive reaction was found in 45.5% of the study group and in 10.0% of the control group. This indicates that fatty degeneration might be a valuable marker when other macroscopic signs of hypothermia are absent.

  10. Evaluation of the pituitary gland in idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasundar, R.; Raghunathan, P.; Ammini, A.C.; Gupta, R.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the pituitary gland has been carried out in idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) to test the potential of MR imaging in differentiating IHH patients from normals. Material and Methods: Thirty-seven patients (aged 18-30 years), and 20 volunteers (aged 20-30 years) were studied by T1-weighted MR imaging. Length (L A and L P ), height (H), width (W), area (A A and A P ), and volume (V 1A , V 1P , V 2A , V 2P ) of the pituitary gland were determined. (Subscripts P and A refer to measurements made with and without the posterior lobe, respectively.) V 1 and V 2 were estimated using two different methods. Results: in the control group, L P , W and V 2A exhibited significant differences between female and male volunteers. While W was the only parameter that did not show significant difference between normals and patients (in both men and women), all other parameters except L P , H and A P showed statistically significant differences between normals and IHH patients in both males and females. While L P was significantly different between normals and patients (men), H and A P were significantly different between normals and patients only in the female group. Conclusion: Correlation analysis between various parameters has shown that L A can be used for evaluating the pituitary in both the male and female IHH patients. (orig.)

  11. Genetic Regulation of Pituitary Gland Development in Human and Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Kelberman, Daniel; Rizzoti, Karine; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Robinson, Iain C. A. F.; Dattani, Mehul T.

    2009-01-01

    Normal hypothalamopituitary development is closely related to that of the forebrain and is dependent upon a complex genetic cascade of transcription factors and signaling molecules that may be either intrinsic or extrinsic to the developing Rathke’s pouch. These factors dictate organ commitment, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation within the anterior pituitary. Abnormalities in these processes are associated with congenital hypopituitarism, a spectrum of disorders that includes syndr...

  12. Effect of haloperidol on the synthesis of DNA in the pituitary gland of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiavelli, G A; Jahn, G A; Kalbermann, L E; Szijan, I; Alonso, G E; Burdman, J A

    1982-03-01

    The administration of haloperidol increased serum prolactin and decreased the pituitary concentration of prolactin 15 min after its administration. Concomitantly there was a stimulation in the synthesis of DNA and the activity of DNA polymerase alpha in the anterior pituitary gland that was greater in oestrogenized than in non-oestrogenized male rats. Both these effects were greatly reduced by clomiphene in the oestrogenized male rats, although it did not affect the release of prolactin produced by haloperidol. In non-oestrogenized animals clomiphene abolished the stimulatory effect of haloperidol on the synthesis of DNA. These results suggest that the reduction in the intracellular levels of prolactin are a primary event in the oestrogen mediated stimulation of cell proliferation by prolactin releasing agents.

  13. The incidentaloma of the pituitary gland: Is neurosurgery required

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reincke, M.; Allolio, B.; Saeger, W.; Menzel, J.; Winkelmann, W. (Univ. of Cologne (West Germany))

    1990-05-23

    The authors describe a series of 18 patients with an intrasellar mass incidentally discovered by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The average size of the mass was 13 mm, with a range from 5 to 25 mm. Initial ophthalmologic examination revealed bitemporal hemianopia in 2 patients. Results of routine endocrine testing showed partial hypopituitarism in 5 patients and growth hormone hypersecretion without signs and symptoms of acromegaly in 1 patient. Four patients underwent neurosurgery. Histologically, one chondroid chordoma and three pituitary adenomas were found. In the remaining 14 patients treated conservatively, repeated computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed no significant change in tumor size at the time of follow-up. The results suggest that the incidentaloma of the pituitary gland is a benign condition that does not necessarily require neurosurgical intervention.

  14. The incidentaloma of the pituitary gland: Is neurosurgery required?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reincke, M.; Allolio, B.; Saeger, W.; Menzel, J.; Winkelmann, W.

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe a series of 18 patients with an intrasellar mass incidentally discovered by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The average size of the mass was 13 mm, with a range from 5 to 25 mm. Initial ophthalmologic examination revealed bitemporal hemianopia in 2 patients. Results of routine endocrine testing showed partial hypopituitarism in 5 patients and growth hormone hypersecretion without signs and symptoms of acromegaly in 1 patient. Four patients underwent neurosurgery. Histologically, one chondroid chordoma and three pituitary adenomas were found. In the remaining 14 patients treated conservatively, repeated computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed no significant change in tumor size at the time of follow-up. The results suggest that the incidentaloma of the pituitary gland is a benign condition that does not necessarily require neurosurgical intervention

  15. Comparison of post-surgical MRI presentation of the pituitary gland and its hormonal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladowska, Joanna; Sokolska, Violetta; Sozański, Tomasz; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Post-surgical evaluation of the pituitary gland in MRI is difficult because of a change of anatomical conditions. It depends also on numerous other factors, including: size and expansion of a tumour before surgery, type of surgical access, quality and volume of filling material used and time of its resorption.The aim of the study was to compare MR image of the pituitary gland after surgery with clinical findings and to establish a correlation between MRI presentation of spared pituitary and its hormonal function. 124 patients after resection of pituitary adenomas - 409 MRI results in total - were studied. With a 1.5-T unit, T1-weighted sagittal and coronal, enhanced and unenhanced images were obtained. The pituitary gland seemed to be normal in MRI in 11 patients, 8 of them had completely regular pituitary function but in 3 of them we noticed a partial hypopituitarism. In 99 patients only a part of the pituitary gland was recognised, 53 of them had hypopituitarism but 46 of them were endocrinologically healthy. 14 patients seemed to have no persistent pituitary gland in MRI, in comparison to hormonal studies: there was panhypopituitarism in 6 and hypopituitarism in 8 cases. MRI presentation of post - surgical pituitary gland doesn't necessarily correlate with its hormonal function - there was a significant statistical difference. Some patients with partial pituitary seems normal hormonal function. In some cases the pituitary seem normal in MRI but these patients have hormonal disorders and need substitution therapy.

  16. Comparison of post-surgical MRI presentation of the pituitary gland and its hormonal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladowska, J.; Sokolska, V.; Sasiadek, M.; Sozanski, T.; Bednarek-Tupikowska, G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Post-surgical evaluation of the pituitary gland in MRI is difficult because of a change of anatomical conditions. It depends also on numerous other factors, including: size and expansion of a tumour before surgery, type of surgical access, quality and volume of filling material used and time of its resorption.The aim of the study was to compare MR image of the pituitary gland after surgery with clinical findings and to establish a correlation between MRI presentation of spared pituitary and its hormonal function. Material/Methods: 124 patients after resection of pituitary adenomas - 409 MRI results in total - were studied. With a 1.5-T unit, T1-weighted sagittal and coronal, enhanced and unenhanced images were obtained. Results: The pituitary gland seemed to be normal in MRI in 11 patients, 8 of them had completely regular pituitary function but in 3 of them we noticed a partial hypopituitarism. In 99 patients only a part of the pituitary gland was recognised, 53 of them had hypopituitarism but 46 of them were endocrinologically healthy. 14 patients seemed to have no persistent pituitary gland in MRI, in comparison to hormonal studies: there was panhypopituitarism in 6 and hypopituitarism in 8 cases. Conclusions: MRI presentation of post - surgical pituitary gland doesn't necessarily correlate with its hormonal function - there was a significant statistical difference. Some patients with partial pituitary seems normal hormonal function. In some cases the pituitary seem normal in MRI but these patients have hormonal disorders and need substitution therapy. (authors)

  17. Pituitary gland volume in adolescent and young adult bipolar and unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Frank P; Leslie, Ronald; Rosenberg, David R; Kusumakar, Vivek

    2008-02-01

    Few studies have examined pituitary gland size in mood disorders, particularly in adolescents. We hypothesized increase in the pituitary gland size in early-onset mood disorders. Thirty subjects between the ages of 13 and 20 years participated in the study. Three groups (control, bipolar I depression and unipolar depression) of 10 subjects each (4 male, 6 female) underwent volumetric magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T. Analysis of covariance (covarying for age, sex and intracranial volume) revealed a significant difference in pituitary gland volume amongst the groups [F(2,24) = 7.092, p = 0.014]. Post hoc analysis revealed that controls had a significantly smaller pituitary gland volume than both bipolar patients (p = 0.019) and depressed patients (p = 0.049). Bipolar and depressed subjects did not differ significantly from each other with regard to pituitary gland volume (p = 0.653). Control females had larger pituitary glands than control males [F(1,8) = 10.523, p = 0.012], but no sex differences were noted in the mood disorder groups. Pituitary glands are enlarged in adolescents with mood disorders compared to controls. Healthy young females have larger pituitary glands than males, but such a difference is not evident in individuals with unipolar depression or bipolar disorder. These findings provide new evidence of abnormalities of the pituitary in early onset mood disorders, and are consistent with neuroendocrine dysfunction in early stages of such illnesses.

  18. Review of the embryologic development of the pituitary gland and report of a case of hypophyseal duplication detected by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollias, S.S. [Dept. of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Neuroradiology, and Depts. of Radiology and Pediatrics, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Ball, W.S. [Dept. of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Neuroradiology, and Depts. of Radiology and Pediatrics, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Prenger, E.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Neuroradiology, and Depts. of Radiology and Pediatrics, Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-01-01

    We describe the clinical manifestations, associated abnormalities, MRI appearances and pathologic significance of a case of hypophyseal duplication. A 16-year-old girl presented with delayed sexual development and history of midline craniofacial anomalies. MRI revealed paired infundibula extending inferiorly to two small pituitary glands, a midline hypothalamic mass, and a midline cleft in the basisphenoid. Twelve cases of pituitary duplication have previously been described. The suggested pathogenesis is duplication of the prechordal plate and anterior end of the notochord during early embryologic development. (orig.)

  19. Endosphenoidal coil for intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland during transsphenoidal surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittiboina, Prashant; Talagala, S. Lalith; Merkle, Hellmut; Sarlls, Joelle E.; Montgomery, Blake K.; Piazza, Martin G.; Scott, Gretchen; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Lonser, Russell R.; Oldfield, Edward H.; Koretsky, Alan P.; Butman, John A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Pituitary MR imaging fails to detect over 50% of microadenomas in Cushing’s disease and nearly 80% of cases of dural microinvasion. Surface coils can generate exceptionally high-resolution images of the immediately adjacent tissues. To improve imaging of the pituitary gland, a receive-only surface coil that can be placed within the sphenoid sinus (the endosphenoidal coil [ESC]) during transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) was developed and assessed. METHODS Five cadaver heads were used for preclinical testing of the ESC. The ESC (a double-turn, 12-mm-diameter surface coil made from 1-mm-diameter copper wire) was developed to obtain images in a 1.5-T MR scanner. The ESC was placed (via a standard sublabial TSS approach) on the anterior sella face. Clinical MR scans were obtained using the 8-channel head coil and ESC as the receiver coils. Using the ESC, ultra–high-resolution, 3D, balanced fast field echo (BFFE) and T1-weighted imaging were performed at resolutions of 0.25 × 0.25 × 0.50 mm3 and 0.15 × 0.15 × 0.30 mm3, respectively. RESULTS Region-of-interest analysis indicated a 10-fold increase in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the pituitary when using the ESC compared with the 8-channel head coil. ESC-related improvements (p pituitary gland surface. High-resolution BFFE MR imaging obtained using ESC revealed a number of anatomical features critical to pituitary surgery that were not visible on 8-channel MR imaging, including the pituitary capsule, the intercavernous sinus, and microcalcifications in the pars intermedia. These ESC imaging findings were confirmed by the pathological correlation with whole-mount pituitary sections. CONCLUSIONS ESC can significantly improve SNR in the sellar region intraoperatively using current 1.5-T MR imaging platforms. Improvement in SNR can provide images of the sella and surrounding structures with unprecedented resolution. Clinical use of this ESC may allow for MR imaging detection of previously occult pituitary

  20. Cell type-specific localization of Ephs pairing with ephrin-B2 in the rat postnatal pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Saishu; Kato, Takako; Kanno, Naoko; Nishimura, Naoto; Nishihara, Hiroto; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Kato, Yukio

    2017-10-01

    Sox2-expressing stem/progenitor cells in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland form two types of micro-environments (niches): the marginal cell layer and dense cell clusters in the parenchyma. In relation to the mechanism of regulation of niches, juxtacrine signaling via ephrin and its receptor Eph is known to play important roles in various niches. The ephrin and Eph families are divided into two subclasses to create ephrin/Eph signaling in co-operation with confined partners. Recently, we reported that ephrin-B2 localizes specifically to both pituitary niches. However, the Ephs interacting with ephrin-B2 in these pituitary niches have not yet been identified. Therefore, the present study aims to identify the Ephs interacting with ephrin-B2 and the cells that produce them in the rat pituitary gland. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry demonstrated cell type-specific localization of candidate interacting partners for ephrin-B2, including EphA4 in cells located in the posterior lobe, EphB1 in gonadotropes, EphB2 in corticotropes, EphB3 in stem/progenitor cells and EphB4 in endothelial cells in the adult pituitary gland. In particular, double-immunohistochemistry showed cis-interactions between EphB3 and ephrin-B2 in the apical cell membranes of stem/progenitor cell niches throughout life and trans-interactions between EphB2 produced by corticotropes and ephrin-B2 located in the basolateral cell membranes of stem/progenitor cells in the early postnatal pituitary gland. These data indicate that ephrin-B2 plays a role in pituitary stem/progenitor cell niches by selective interaction with EphB3 in cis and EphB2 in trans.

  1. Ghrelin increases intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration in the various hormone-producing cell types of the rat pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Mami; Aizawa, Sayaka; Tanaka, Toru; Sakai, Takafumi; Sakata, Ichiro

    2012-09-20

    Ghrelin, isolated from the stomach as an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), has potent growth hormone release ability in vivo and in vitro. Although GHS-R is abundantly expressed in the pituitary gland, there is no direct evidence of a relationship between hormone-producing cells and functional GHS-R in the pituitary gland. The aim of this study was to determine which anterior pituitary cells respond to ghrelin stimulation in male rats. We performed Fura-2 Ca(2+) imaging analysis using isolated pituitary cells, and performed immunocytochemistry to identify the type of pituitary hormone-producing cells. In Fura-2 Ca(2+) imaging analysis, ghrelin administration increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in approximately 50% of total isolated anterior pituitary cells, and 20% of these cells strongly responded to ghrelin. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that 82.9 ± 1.3% of cells that responded to ghrelin stimulation were GH-immunopositive. On the other hand, PRL-, LH-, and ACTH-immunopositive cells constituted 2.0 ± 0.3%, 12.6 ± 0.3%, and 2.5 ± 0.8% of ghrelin-responding pituitary cells, respectively. TSH-immunopositive cells did not respond to ghrelin treatment. These results suggest that ghrelin directly acts not only on somatotrophs, but also on mammotrophs, gonadotrophs, and corticotrophs in the rat pituitary gland. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic regulation of pituitary gland development in human and mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelberman, Daniel; Rizzoti, Karine; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Robinson, Iain C A F; Dattani, Mehul T

    2009-12-01

    Normal hypothalamopituitary development is closely related to that of the forebrain and is dependent upon a complex genetic cascade of transcription factors and signaling molecules that may be either intrinsic or extrinsic to the developing Rathke's pouch. These factors dictate organ commitment, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation within the anterior pituitary. Abnormalities in these processes are associated with congenital hypopituitarism, a spectrum of disorders that includes syndromic disorders such as septo-optic dysplasia, combined pituitary hormone deficiencies, and isolated hormone deficiencies, of which the commonest is GH deficiency. The highly variable clinical phenotypes can now in part be explained due to research performed over the last 20 yr, based mainly on naturally occurring and transgenic animal models. Mutations in genes encoding both signaling molecules and transcription factors have been implicated in the etiology of hypopituitarism, with or without other syndromic features, in mice and humans. To date, mutations in known genes account for a small proportion of cases of hypopituitarism in humans. However, these mutations have led to a greater understanding of the genetic interactions that lead to normal pituitary development. This review attempts to describe the complexity of pituitary development in the rodent, with particular emphasis on those factors that, when mutated, are associated with hypopituitarism in humans.

  3. Radioimmunological study of the gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland in women during menstrual cycle recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemodanov, V.I.; Likhacheva, T.M.; Sel'verova, N.B.

    1985-01-01

    The gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland in women atan early stage of pregnancy and a month after abortion has been studied. The results of the investigation testify to the fact that radioimmunoassay of horiones in blood plasma is rather a precise criterion for estimat+on of the gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland at an earby stage of pregnancy and after abortion

  4. Pituitary gland levels of mercury, selenium, iron, and zinc in an Alzheimer`s disease study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornett, C.R.; Markesbery, W.R.; Wekstein, D.R.; Ehmann, W.D. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Mercury, iron, selenium, and zinc imbalances have been observed in comparisons between Alzheimer`s disease (AD) and control subject brains. Analyses of the pituitary gland have demonstrated that this organ retains relatively high concentrations of trace elements, including mercury, iron, and zinc. Our previous work has shown that the pituitary glands of AD and control subjects are typically higher in these trace elements than brain samples from the same subject. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to compare the pituitary trace element levels of AD and control subjects. This study also describes the intrasubject relationships of brain trace element levels to those in the pituitary gland of AD and control subjects.

  5. Neurotrophins and their receptors in the rat pituitary gland: regulation of BDNF and trkB mRNA levels by adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononen, J; Soinila, S; Persson, H; Honkaniemi, J; Hökfelt, T; Pelto-Huikko, M

    1994-12-01

    We studied the expression of messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs) for neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors in the rat pituitary gland and examined the influence of adrenal hormones on their mRNA levels, using in situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis. The only neurotrophin present at detectable levels in the pituitary was brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which was observed in the anterior and intermediate lobes. Several transcripts of the putative receptor for BDNF, trkB, were present in the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary. A low amount of trkC mRNA was found in both the anterior and the intermediate lobe. Dexamethasone treatment decreased both BDNF and trkB mRNA levels in the anterior lobe of the pituitary. Adrenalectomy had no effect on trkB expression, but it decreased BDNF mRNA levels in comparison to the control animals. This effect could not be reversed by dexamethasone substitution, suggesting that BDNF, mRNA levels may be regulated not only by glucocorticoids but also by other adrenal hormones. These results demonstrate that BDNF, trkB and trkC are expressed in the pituitary gland and that glucocorticoids and possibly other adrenal hormones may modulate pituitary functions by regulating the expression of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. Whether BDNF acts as a secreted hormone, a trophic factor, or has autocrine/paracrine functions within the pituitary through its receptor, trkB, remains to be studied.

  6. Regions of low density in the contrast-enhanced pituitary gland: normal and pathologic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, E.F.; Turski, P.A.; LaMasters, D.; Newton, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of low-density regions in the contrast-enhanced pituitary gland and the possible causes of these regions were investigated by a retrospective review of computed tomographic (CT) scans of the head in 50 patients and autopsy specimens of the pituitary in 100 other patients. It was found that focal areas of low density within the contrast enhanced pituitary gland can be caused by various normal and pathologic conditions such as pituitary microadenomas, pars intermedia cysts, foci of metastasis, infarcts, epidermoid cysts, and abscesses. Although most focal low-density regions probably represent pituitary microadenomas, careful clinical correlation is needed to establish a diagnosis

  7. Evaluation of the pituitary gland in idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasundar, R.; Raghunathan, P. [All India Inst. of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India). Dept. of NMR; Ammini, A.C. [All India Inst. of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Endocrinology and Metabolism; Gupta, R. [All India Inst. of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Radiodiagnosis

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the pituitary gland has been carried out in idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) to test the potential of MR imaging in differentiating IHH patients from normals. Material and Methods: Thirty-seven patients (aged 18-30 years), and 20 volunteers (aged 20-30 years) were studied by T1-weighted MR imaging. Length (L{sub A} and L{sub P}), height (H), width (W), area (A{sub A} and A{sub P}), and volume (V{sub 1A}, V{sub 1P}, V{sub 2A}, V{sub 2P}) of the pituitary gland were determined. (Subscripts P and A refer to measurements made with and without the posterior lobe, respectively.) V{sub 1} and V{sub 2} were estimated using two different methods. Results: in the control group, L{sub P}, W and V{sub 2A} exhibited significant differences between female and male volunteers. While W was the only parameter that did not show significant difference between normals and patients (in both men and women), all other parameters except L{sub P}, H and A{sub P} showed statistically significant differences between normals and IHH patients in both males and females. While L{sub P} was significantly different between normals and patients (men), H and A{sub P} were significantly different between normals and patients only in the female group. Conclusion: Correlation analysis between various parameters has shown that L{sub A} can be used for evaluating the pituitary in both the male and female IHH patients. (orig.)

  8. Prokaryotic adenylate cyclase toxin stimulates anterior pituitary cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, M.J.; Evans, W.S.; Rogol, A.D.; Weiss, A.A.; Thorner, M.O.; Orth, D.N.; Nicholson, W.E.; Yasumoto, T.; Hewlett, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis synthesis a variety of virulence factors including a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase (AC) toxin. Treatment of anterior pituitary cells with this AC toxin resulted in an increase in cellular cAMP levels that was associated with accelerated exocytosis of growth hormone (GH), prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The kinetics of release of these hormones, however, were markedly different; GH and prolactin were rapidly released, while LH and ACTH secretion was more gradually elevated. Neither dopamine agonists nor somatostatin changes the ability of AC toxin to generate cAMP (up to 2 h). Low concentrations of AC toxin amplified the secretory response to hypophysiotrophic hormones. The authors conclude that bacterial AC toxin can rapidly elevate cAMP levels in anterior pituitary cells and that it is the response that explains the subsequent acceleration of hormone release

  9. Sellar plasmacytoma presenting with symptoms of anterior pituitary dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana G Ferreira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sellar plasmacytomas are rare and the differential diagnosis with non-functioning pituitary adenomas might be difficult because of clinical and radiological resemblance. They usually present with neurological signs and intact anterior pituitary function. Some may already have or eventually progress to multiple myeloma. We describe a case associated with extensive anterior pituitary involvement, which is a rare form of presentation. A 68-year-old man was referred to our Endocrinology outpatient clinic due to gynecomastia, reduced libido and sexual impotence. Physical examination, breast ultrasound and mammography confirmed bilateral gynecomastia. Blood tests revealed slight hyperprolactinemia, low testosterone levels, low cortisol levels and central hypothyroidism. Sellar MRI showed a heterogeneous sellar mass (56 × 60 × 61 mm, initially suspected as an invasive macroadenoma. After correcting the pituitary deficits with hydrocortisone and levothyroxine, the patient underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Histological examination revealed a plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma was ruled out. The patient was unsuccessfully treated with radiation therapy (no tumor shrinkage. Myeloma ultimately developed, with several other similar lesions in different locations. The patient was started on chemotherapy, had a bone marrow transplant and is now stable (progression free on lenalidomide and dexamethasone. The presenting symptoms and panhypopituitarism persisted, requiring chronic replacement treatment with levothyroxine, hydrocortisone and testosterone.

  10. Long-term effects of external radiation on the pituitary and thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuks, Z.; Glatstein, E.; Marsa, G.W.; Bagshaw, M.A.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1976-01-01

    Chronic damage following external irradiation of the normal pituitary and thyroid glands, delivered incidentally during radiotherapy of neoplasms of the head and neck may be more common than has been appreciated in the past. A case of a child who developed pituitary dwarfism 5 1 / 2 years after radiation therapy had been delivered for an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the nasopharynx is described. A review of similar cases from the literature is presented. Likewise, external irradiation of the normal thyroid gland produces a spectrum of radiation-induced syndromes. Clinical damage to the pituitary and thyroid glands is usually manifested months to years after treatment and is preceded by a long subclinical phase. A careful exclusion of these glands from radiation treatment fields is recommended whenever possible. An early detection of endocrine function abnormalities in patients receiving radiation to these glands is desirable, since appropriate treatment may prevent the late deleterious effects of external irradiation of the pituitary and thyroid glands

  11. Anterior pituitary failure (panhypopituitarism) with balanced chromosome translocation 46,XY,t(11;22)(q24;q13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C Y; Chou, C W; Chen, S Y; Cheng, H M

    2001-04-01

    Hypopituitarism is the clinical syndrome that results from failure of the anterior pituitary gland to produce its hormones. Hypopituitarism can result from: (1) intrinsic or primary pituitary disease; (2) intrinsic hypothalamic or secondary pituitary disease; or (3) extrinsic extrasellar or parasellar disease. The etiologies of primary hypopituitarism are miscellaneous. The dominant clinical picture of hypopituitarism in the adult is that of hypogonadism. Reports have associated hypopituitarism with anti-pituitary-antibodies, hereditary syndrome and chromosome defects, but hypopituitarism has rarely been associated with balanced chromosome translocation (11;22)(q24;q13). Here, we describe a case of anterior pituitary failure with balanced chromosome translocation. A 19-year-old Chinese teenager presented with failure of pubertal development and sexual infantilism. On examination, the patient had the classic appearance of hypogonadism. Endocrine studies and three combined pituitary function tests revealed panhypopituitarism. A chromosomal study revealed 46,XY,t(11;22)(q24;q13), a balanced translocation between 11q24 and 22q13. Chest films showed delayed fusion of bilateral humeral head epiphyses and bilateral acromions. Scrotal sonography revealed testes were small bilaterally. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sella revealed pituitary dwarfism. The patient received 19 months replacement therapy, including steroids (prednisolone 5 mg each day), L-thyroxine (Eltroxin 100 ug each day), and testosterone enanthate 250 mg every two weeks. His height increased 4 cm with secondary sexual characteristics developed, and muscle power increased.

  12. Ept7 influences estrogen action in the pituitary gland and body weight of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Scott G; Dennison, Kirsten L; Samanas, Nyssa Becker; Hickman, Maureen Peters; Eckert, Quincy A; Walker, Tiffany L; Cupp, Andrea S; Shull, James D

    2014-06-01

    Estrogens control many aspects of pituitary gland biology, including regulation of lactotroph homeostasis and synthesis and secretion of prolactin. In rat models, these actions are strain specific and heritable, and multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped that impact the responsiveness of the lactotroph to estrogens. One such QTL, Ept7, was mapped to RNO7 in female progeny generated in an intercross between BN rats, in which the lactotroph population is insensitive to estrogens, and ACI rats, which develop lactotroph hyperplasia/adenoma and associated hyperprolactinemia in response to estrogen treatment. The primary objective of this study was to confirm the existence of Ept7 and to quantify the impact of this QTL on responsiveness of the pituitary gland of female and male rats to 17β-estradiol (E2) and diethylstilbestrol (DES), respectively. Secondary objectives were to determine if Ept7 influences the responsiveness of the male reproductive tract to DES and to identify other discernible phenotypes influenced by Ept7. To achieve these objectives, a congenic rat strain that harbors BN alleles across the Ept7 interval on the genetic background of the ACI strain was generated and characterized to define the effect of administered estrogens on the anterior pituitary gland and male reproductive tissues. Data presented herein indicate Ept7 exerts a marked effect on development of lactotroph hyperplasia in response to estrogen treatment, but does not affect atrophy of the male reproductive tissues in response to hormone treatment. Ept7 was also observed to exert gender specific effects on body weight in young adult rats.

  13. Hedgehog signaling activation induces stem cell proliferation and hormone release in the adult pituitary gland

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Pyczek; Rolf Buslei; David Schult; Annett Hölsken; Michael Buchfelder; Ina Heß; Heidi Hahn; Anja Uhmann

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling is known to be essential during the embryonal development of the pituitary gland but the knowledge about its role in the adult pituitary and in associated tumors is sparse. In this report we investigated the effect of excess Hh signaling activation in murine pituitary explants and analyzed the HH signaling status of human adenopituitary lobes and a large cohort of pituitary adenomas. Our data show that excess Hh signaling led to increased proliferation of Sox2(+) and S...

  14. The endocrine-immune network during taeniosis by Taenia solium: The role of the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that sex hormones play an important role during Taenia solium infection; however, to our knowledge no studies exist concerning the immune response following complete or lobe-specific removal of the pituitary gland during T. solium infection. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze in hamsters, the effects of lack of pituitary hormones on the duodenal immune response, and their impact on T. solium establishment and development. Thus, in order to achieve this goal, we perform anterior pituitary lobectomy (AL, n = 9), neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL, n = 9) and total hypophysectomy (HYPOX, n = 8), and related to the gut establishment and growth of T. solium, hematoxylin-eosin staining of duodenal tissue and immunofluorescence of duodenal cytokine expression and compared these results to the control intact (n = 8) and control infected group (n = 8). Our results indicate that 15 days post-infection, HYPOX reduces the number and size of intestinally recovered T. solium adults. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of duodenal IFN-γ and IL-12 Th1 cytokines was mildly expressed in the infected controls, in contrast with the high level of expression of these cytokines in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, the duodenum of HYPOX animals showed an increase in the expression of Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-6, when compared to control hamsters. Histological analysis of duodenal mucosa from HYPOX hamsters revealed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria and related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that lobe-specific pituitary hormones affect differentially the T. solium development and the gut immune response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Somatotrophs and lactotrophs: an immunohistochemical study of Gallus domesticus pituitary gland at different stages of induced moult

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    M. A. Sandhu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of somatotrophs and lactotrophs and conduct a morphometrical analysis of immunoreactive somatotrophs and lactotrophs in the pituitary glands of White Leghorn Hens (Gallus domesticus during the period of induced moult. We divided the periods of induced moulting into three phases viz. 7, 14 and 21 days. The labeled alkaline-phsphatase method with anti-GH (growth hormone and anti-PRL (prolactin as a primary antibody was used to detect somatotrophs and lactotrophs, in the midsagital sections of chicken adenohypophysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that somatotrophs are not only confined to the cephalo-caudal axis but can also be found in the caudal lobe; while lactotrophs were distributed in both lobes of the anterior pituitary gland at all stages of moulting (7, 14 and 21 days. Lactotrophs were of different shapes but somatotrophs were oval to round in morphology. At the given stages of induced moulting, some hypertrophied lactotrophs were also present after 7 days of induced moult in the anterior pituitary gland. However, there were moulting-related changes: from 7 to 21 days of induced moulting the immunoreactive-PRL cell population decreased, while the mean lactotroph size was more than that of somatotrophs. Basic quantitative and morphological information relating to somatotrophs and lactotrophs during the period of induced moult in laying hens is reported here and the changes brought about by induced moulting are restricted to PRL positive cells rather than GH positive cells.

  16. Effects of alcohol feeding on androgen receptors in the rat pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    Specific binding of testosterone-1β,2β- 3 H by cytosol from anterior pituitary gland of ethanol-fed, isocaloric control, and castrated control and ethanol-fed rats with or without testosterone treatment has been investigated by charcoal assay. The number of androgen binding sites was significantly reduced in alcohol-fed rats when compared to the isocaloric control value, with no significant change in Kd. Castration significantly increased the number of receptor sites in control rats and when castrated control animals were treated with testosterone the binding sites were decreased to the intact control level. In contrast, castration or testosterone given to castrated alcohol-fed rats did not alter alcohol-induced reduction of the receptor sites. The binding affinity (Kd) is identical in all groups. The concentration of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) was significantly lower in alcohol-fed rats when compared to that of normal controls. An increased serum LH level with a decreased testosterone level was noted in castrated control rats. However, castration of alcohol-fed rats had little or no effects on the concentrations of LH and testosterone. Administration of testosterone suppressed castration-induced high LH in control rats but alcohol induced reduction of LH level was not altered by this treatment. These findings indicate that alcohol exerts a suppressive effect on the content of androgen receptors and secretory functions of gonadotropins in the pituitary gland. 23 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  17. Cocaine-and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) Peptide Is Expressed in Precursor Cells and Somatotropes of the Mouse Pituitary Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Amanda H.

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) peptide is expressed in the brain, endocrine and neuroendocrine systems and secreted into the serum. It is thought to play a role in regulation of hypothalamic pituitary functions. Here we report a spatial and temporal analysis of Cart expression in the pituitaries of adult and developing normal and mutant mice with hypopituitarism. We found that Prop1 is not necessary for initiation of Cart expression in the fetal pituitary at e14.5, but it is required indirectly for maintenance of Cart expression in the postnatal anterior pituitary gland. Pou1f1 deficiency has no effect on Cart expression before or after birth. There is no 1:1 correspondence between CART and any particular cell type. In neonates, CART is detected primarily in non-proliferating, POU1F1-positive cells. CART is also found in some cells that express TSH and GH suggesting a correspondence with committed progenitors of the POU1F1 lineage. In summary, we have characterized the normal temporal and cell specific expression of CART in mouse development and demonstrate that postnatal CART expression in the pituitary gland requires PROP1. PMID:27685990

  18. Cocaine-and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART Peptide Is Expressed in Precursor Cells and Somatotropes of the Mouse Pituitary Gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda H Mortensen

    Full Text Available Cocaine-and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART peptide is expressed in the brain, endocrine and neuroendocrine systems and secreted into the serum. It is thought to play a role in regulation of hypothalamic pituitary functions. Here we report a spatial and temporal analysis of Cart expression in the pituitaries of adult and developing normal and mutant mice with hypopituitarism. We found that Prop1 is not necessary for initiation of Cart expression in the fetal pituitary at e14.5, but it is required indirectly for maintenance of Cart expression in the postnatal anterior pituitary gland. Pou1f1 deficiency has no effect on Cart expression before or after birth. There is no 1:1 correspondence between CART and any particular cell type. In neonates, CART is detected primarily in non-proliferating, POU1F1-positive cells. CART is also found in some cells that express TSH and GH suggesting a correspondence with committed progenitors of the POU1F1 lineage. In summary, we have characterized the normal temporal and cell specific expression of CART in mouse development and demonstrate that postnatal CART expression in the pituitary gland requires PROP1.

  19. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binds to a specific receptor and releases microsomal calcium in the arterior pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemette, G.; Balla, T.; Baukal, A.J.; Catt, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP 3 ) receptor sites in the anterior pituitary were evaluated by binding studies with InsP 3 labeled with 32 P to high specific radioactivity. Specific binding of Ins[ 32 P]P 3 was demonstrable in pituitary membrane preparations and was linearly proportional to the amount of membrane added over the range 0.5-2 mg of protein. Kinetic studies showed that specific InsP 3 binding was half-maximal in about 40 sec and reached a plateau after 15 min at 0 0 C. Scatchard analysis of the binding data was consistent with a single set of high affinity sites. The specificity of Ins[ 32 P]P 3 binding to these sites was illustrated by the much weaker affinity for structural analogs such as inositol 1-phosphate, phytic acid, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. To assess the functional relevance of the InsP 3 binding sites, the Ca 2+ -releasing activity of InsP 3 was measured in pituitary membrane preparations. Under physiological conditions within the cytosol, the high-affinity InsP 3 binding sites characterized in pituitary membranes could serve as the putative receptors through which InsP 3 triggers Ca 2+ mobilization in the anterior pituitary gland

  20. Proteomic Profiling of the Pituitary Gland in Studies of Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Divya; Rahmoune, Hassan; Guest, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders have been associated with perturbations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Therefore, proteomic studies of the pituitary gland have the potential to provide new insights into the underlying pathways affected in these conditions as well as identify new biomarkers or targets for use in developing improved medications. This chapter describes a protocol for preparation of pituitary protein extracts followed by characterization of the pituitary proteome by label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in expression mode (LC-MS E ). The main focus was on establishing a method for identifying the major pituitary hormones and accessory proteins as many of these have already been implicated in psychiatric diseases.

  1. Metastatic involvement of the pituitary gland: a systematic review with pooled individual patient data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenzhuan; Chen, Fangxiang; Dalm, Brian; Kirby, Patricia A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2015-02-01

    To report a rare case of pituitary metastasis (PM) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and help better understand the incidence of PM and its most common presenting symptoms through a pooled individual patient data analysis. Literature regarding PM was systematically reviewed with a pooled individual patient data analysis conducted. Pooled individual data analysis result is also compared with the result in a most recent systematic review. Our results demonstrate that the incidence of PM among all intracranial metastases is 0.87% (95% CI 0.56, 1.18); it is 1.9% (95% CI 1.46, 2.34) among all autopsied cancer cases; it is 11.56% (95% CI 7.08, 16.04) among all breast cancer patients who had hypophysectomies and 12.83% (95% CI 10.5, 15.16) among all autopsied breast cancer patients. The fixed effect model showed that the incidence of PM in breast cancer patients group is significantly higher (p anterior hypopituitarism (23.68 vs 39.66%, p = 0.015), visual deterioration (27.89 vs 41.38%, p = 0.039), cranial nerve palsies (21.58 vs 41.38%, p = 0.003) and headaches (15.79 vs 32.76%, p = 0.005) were reported significantly higher than previously described in the literature. Pituitary metastasis is rare in patients with cancer, and the pituitary gland is an uncommonly involved location in patients with intracranial metastases. With advanced diagnostic imaging techniques and increased awareness about the manifestation of sellar lesions, the incidence of cranial nerve palsies and anterior pituitarism are higher than reported. This information may allow earlier diagnosis of PM.

  2. Nitric Oxide Plays a Key Role in Ovariectomy-Induced Apoptosis in Anterior Pituitary: Interplay between Nitric Oxide Pathway and Estrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros, Fernanda A.; Duvilanski, Beatriz H.; Cabilla, Jimena P.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the estrogenic status produce deep changes in pituitary physiology, mainly because estrogens (E2) are one of the main regulators of pituitary cell population. Also, E2 negatively regulate pituitary neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity and expression and may thereby modulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), an important regulator of cell death and survival. Little is known about how ovary ablation affects anterior pituitary cell remodelling and molecular mechanisms that regulate this process have not yet been elucidated. In this work we used freshly dispersed anterior pituitaries as well as cell cultures from ovariectomized female rats in order to study whether E2 deficiency induces apoptosis in the anterior pituitary cells, the role of NO in this process and effects of E2 on the NO pathway. Our results showed that cell activity gradually decreases after ovariectomy (OVX) as a consequence of cell death, which is completely prevented by a pan-caspase inhibitor. Furthermore, there is an increase of fragmented nuclei and DNA cleavage thereby presenting the first direct evidence of the existence of apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland after OVX. NO production and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) expression in anterior pituitary cells increased concomitantly to the apoptosis. Inhibition of both, NO synthase (NOS) and sGC activities prevented the drop of cell viability after OVX, showing for the first time that increased NO levels and sGC activity observed post-OVX play a key role in the induction of apoptosis. Conversely, E2 and prolactin treatments decreased nNOS expression and activity in pituitary cells from OVX rats in a time- and E2 receptor-dependent manner, thus suggesting interplay between NO and E2 pathways in anterior pituitary. PMID:27611913

  3. Nitric Oxide Plays a Key Role in Ovariectomy-Induced Apoptosis in Anterior Pituitary: Interplay between Nitric Oxide Pathway and Estrogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia A Ronchetti

    Full Text Available Changes in the estrogenic status produce deep changes in pituitary physiology, mainly because estrogens (E2 are one of the main regulators of pituitary cell population. Also, E2 negatively regulate pituitary neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS activity and expression and may thereby modulate the production of nitric oxide (NO, an important regulator of cell death and survival. Little is known about how ovary ablation affects anterior pituitary cell remodelling and molecular mechanisms that regulate this process have not yet been elucidated. In this work we used freshly dispersed anterior pituitaries as well as cell cultures from ovariectomized female rats in order to study whether E2 deficiency induces apoptosis in the anterior pituitary cells, the role of NO in this process and effects of E2 on the NO pathway. Our results showed that cell activity gradually decreases after ovariectomy (OVX as a consequence of cell death, which is completely prevented by a pan-caspase inhibitor. Furthermore, there is an increase of fragmented nuclei and DNA cleavage thereby presenting the first direct evidence of the existence of apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland after OVX. NO production and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC expression in anterior pituitary cells increased concomitantly to the apoptosis. Inhibition of both, NO synthase (NOS and sGC activities prevented the drop of cell viability after OVX, showing for the first time that increased NO levels and sGC activity observed post-OVX play a key role in the induction of apoptosis. Conversely, E2 and prolactin treatments decreased nNOS expression and activity in pituitary cells from OVX rats in a time- and E2 receptor-dependent manner, thus suggesting interplay between NO and E2 pathways in anterior pituitary.

  4. Nitric Oxide Plays a Key Role in Ovariectomy-Induced Apoptosis in Anterior Pituitary: Interplay between Nitric Oxide Pathway and Estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchetti, Sonia A; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Quinteros, Fernanda A; Duvilanski, Beatriz H; Cabilla, Jimena P

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the estrogenic status produce deep changes in pituitary physiology, mainly because estrogens (E2) are one of the main regulators of pituitary cell population. Also, E2 negatively regulate pituitary neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity and expression and may thereby modulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), an important regulator of cell death and survival. Little is known about how ovary ablation affects anterior pituitary cell remodelling and molecular mechanisms that regulate this process have not yet been elucidated. In this work we used freshly dispersed anterior pituitaries as well as cell cultures from ovariectomized female rats in order to study whether E2 deficiency induces apoptosis in the anterior pituitary cells, the role of NO in this process and effects of E2 on the NO pathway. Our results showed that cell activity gradually decreases after ovariectomy (OVX) as a consequence of cell death, which is completely prevented by a pan-caspase inhibitor. Furthermore, there is an increase of fragmented nuclei and DNA cleavage thereby presenting the first direct evidence of the existence of apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland after OVX. NO production and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) expression in anterior pituitary cells increased concomitantly to the apoptosis. Inhibition of both, NO synthase (NOS) and sGC activities prevented the drop of cell viability after OVX, showing for the first time that increased NO levels and sGC activity observed post-OVX play a key role in the induction of apoptosis. Conversely, E2 and prolactin treatments decreased nNOS expression and activity in pituitary cells from OVX rats in a time- and E2 receptor-dependent manner, thus suggesting interplay between NO and E2 pathways in anterior pituitary.

  5. Contrast-enhanced MRI of intrasellar arachnoid cysts: relationship between the pituitary gland and cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, M.; Kanazawa Univ. School of Medicine; Tachibana, O.; Hasegawa, M.; Kohda, Y.; Nakada, M.; Yamashima, T.; Yamashita, J.; Suzuki, M.

    1996-01-01

    We recently encountered two large intrasellar arachnoid cysts extending to the suprasellar region. The intensity of the cyst contents was identical to that of the cerebrospinal fluid on both T1- and T2-weighted MRI. On contrast-enhanced MRI, the pituitary gland was compressed posteroinferiorly and flattened in the sella turcica. In this report of rare intrasellar arachnoid cysts the discussion is focused on dislocation of the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  6. Diurnal variation of. beta. -endorphin like immunoreactivity in rat brain, pituitary gland, and plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, I.A.; Perry, M.L.S.; Carrasco, M.A.; Dias, R.D. (Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias); Orsingher, O.A. (Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina))

    1984-09-01

    ..beta..-endorphin like immunoreactivity was measured in the brain, pituitary gland and plasma of rats at 2 A.M, 8 A.M, 2 P.M and 8 P.M. Values were higher in the brain and pituitary gland at 8 P.M and in the plasma at 8 A.M and 2 P.M. The findings suggest a circadian rhythm in the production and release of ..beta..-endorphin immunoreactive material.

  7. Diurnal variation of β-endorphin like immunoreactivity in rat brain, pituitary gland, and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, I.A.; Perry, M.L.S.; Carrasco, M.A.; Dias, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    β-endorphin like immunoreactivity was measured in the brain, pituitary gland and plasma of rats at 2 A.M, 8 A.M, 2 P.M and 8 P.M. Values were higher in the brain and pituitary gland at 8 P.M and in the plasma at 8 A.M and 2 P.M. The findings suggest a circadian rhythm in the production and release of β-endorphin immunoreactive material. (Author) [pt

  8. Comparison of post-surgical MRI presentation of the pituitary gland and its hormonal function

    OpenAIRE

    Bladowska, Joanna; Sokolska, Violetta; Sozański, Tomasz; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background: Post-surgical evaluation of the pituitary gland in MRI is difficult because of a change of anatomical conditions. It depends also on numerous other factors, including: size and expansion of a tumour before surgery, type of surgical access, quality and volume of filling material used and time of its resorption.The aim of the study was to compare MR image of the pituitary gland after surgery with clinical findings and to establish a correlation between MRI presentation of sp...

  9. Pituitary gland shrinkage in bipolar disorder: The role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Mandolini, Gian Mario; Perlini, Cinzia; Barillari, Marco; Marinelli, Veronica; Ruggeri, Mirella; Altamura, A Carlo; Bellani, Marcella; Brambilla, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    Hyperactivity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis (HPAA) has been consistently reported in mood disorders. However, only few studies investigated the Pituitary gland (PG) in Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the results are so far contrasting. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the integrity of the PG as well as the role of gender and the impact of clinical measurements on this structure in a sample of BD patients compared to healthy controls (HC). 34 BD patients and 41 HC underwent a 1.5 T MRI scan. PG volumes were manually traced for all subjects. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed by means of the Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Bech Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale. We found decreased PG volumes in BD patients compared to HC (F = 24.9, p < 0.001). Interestingly, after dividing the sample by gender, a significant PG volume decrease was detected only in female BD patients compared to female HC (F = 9.1, p < 0.001), but not in male BD compared to male HC (F = -0.12, p = 0.074). No significant correlations were observed between PG volumes and clinical variables. Our findings suggest that BD patients have decreased PG volumes, probably due to the long-term hyperactivity of the HPAA and to the consequent strengthening of the negative feedback control towards the PG volume itself. This alteration was particularly evident in females, suggesting a role of gender in affecting PG volumes in BD. Finally, the absence of significant correlations between PG volumes and clinical variables further supports that PG disruption is a trait feature of BD, being independent of symptoms severity and duration of treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuropeptidome of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland of Indicine × Taurine Heifers: Evidence of Differential Neuropeptide Processing in the Pituitary Gland before and after Puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAtley, Kasey L; Colgrave, Michelle L; Cánovas, Angela; Wijffels, Gene; Ashley, Ryan L; Silver, Gail A; Rincon, Gonzalo; Medrano, Juan F; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Fortes, Marina R S; Reverter, Antonio; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Lehnert, Sigrid A; Thomas, Milton G

    2018-05-04

    Puberty in cattle is regulated by an endocrine axis, which includes a complex milieu of neuropeptides in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The neuropeptidome of hypothalamic-pituitary gland tissue of pre- (PRE) and postpubertal (POST) Bos indicus-influenced heifers was characterized, followed by quantitative analysis of 51 fertility-related neuropeptides in these tissues. Comparison of peptide abundances with gene expression levels allowed assessment of post-transcriptional peptide processing. On the basis of classical cleavage, 124 mature neuropeptides from 35 precursor proteins were detected in hypothalamus and pituitary gland tissues of three PRE and three POST Brangus heifers. An additional 19 peptides (cerebellins, PEN peptides) previously reported as neuropeptides that did not follow classical cleavage were also identified. In the pre-pubertal hypothalamus, a greater diversity of neuropeptides (25.8%) was identified relative to post-pubertal heifers, while in the pituitary gland, 38.6% more neuropeptides were detected in the post-pubertal heifers. Neuro-tissues of PRE and POST heifers revealed abundance differences ( p pituitary before and after puberty.

  11. Transcriptome-wide identification of preferentially expressed genes in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Amand, Jonny; Yoshioka, Mayumi; Tanaka, Keitaro; Nishida, Yuichiro

    2011-01-01

    To identify preferentially expressed genes in the central endocrine organs of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, we generated transcriptome-wide mRNA profiles of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and parietal cortex in male mice (12-15 weeks old) using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Total counts of SAGE tags for the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and parietal cortex were 165824, 126688, and 161045 tags, respectively. This represented 59244, 45151, and 55131 distinct tags, respectively. Comparison of these mRNA profiles revealed that 22 mRNA species, including three potential novel transcripts, were preferentially expressed in the hypothalamus. In addition to well-known hypothalamic transcripts, such as hypocretin, several genes involved in hormone function, intracellular transduction, metabolism, protein transport, steroidogenesis, extracellular matrix, and brain disease were identified as preferentially expressed hypothalamic transcripts. In the pituitary gland, 106 mRNA species, including 60 potential novel transcripts, were preferentially expressed. In addition to well-known pituitary genes, such as growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone beta, a number of genes classified to function in transport, amino acid metabolism, intracellular transduction, cell adhesion, disulfide bond formation, stress response, transcription, protein synthesis, and turnover, cell differentiation, the cell cycle, and in the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix were also preferentially expressed. In conclusion, the current study identified not only well-known hypothalamic and pituitary transcripts but also a number of new candidates likely to be involved in endocrine homeostatic systems regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

  12. Transcriptome-wide identification of preferentially expressed genes in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny eSt-Amand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify preferentially expressed genes in the central endocrine organs of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, we generated transcriptome-wide mRNA profiles of the mouse hypothalamus, pituitary gland and parietal cortex using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE. Total counts of SAGE tags for the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and parietal cortex were 165824, 126688 and 161045 tags, respectively. This represented 59244, 45151 and 55131 distinct tags, respectively. Comparison of these mRNA profiles revealed that 22 mRNA species, including three potential novel transcripts, were preferentially expressed in the hypothalamus. In addition to well-known hypothalamic transcripts, such as hypocretin, several genes involved in hormone function, intracellular transduction, metabolism, protein transport, steroidogenesis, extracellular matrix and brain disease were identified as preferentially expressed hypothalamic transcripts. In the pituitary gland, 106 mRNA species, including 60 potential novel transcripts, were preferentially expressed. In addition to well-known pituitary genes, such as growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone beta, a number of genes classified to function in transport, amino acid metabolism, intracellular transduction, cell adhesion, disulfide bond formation, stress response, transcription, protein synthesis and turnover, cell differentiation, the cell cycle and in the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix were also preferentially expressed. In conclusion, the current study identified not only well-known hypothalamic and pituitary transcripts but also a number of new candidates likely to be involved in endocrine homeostatic systems regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

  13. N-terminal prolactin-derived fragments, vasoinhibins, are proapoptoptic and antiproliferative in the anterior pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Jimena; Radl, Daniela Betiana; Zárate, Sandra; Jaita, Gabriela; Eijo, Guadalupe; Zaldivar, Verónica; Clapp, Carmen; Seilicovich, Adriana; Pisera, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The anterior pituitary is under a constant cell turnover modulated by gonadal steroids. In the rat, an increase in the rate of apoptosis occurs at proestrus whereas a peak of proliferation takes place at estrus. At proestrus, concomitant with the maximum rate of apoptosis, a peak in circulating levels of prolactin is observed. Prolactin can be cleaved to different N-terminal fragments, vasoinhibins, which are proapoptotic and antiproliferative factors for endothelial cells. It was reported that a 16 kDa vasoinhibin is produced in the rat anterior pituitary by cathepsin D. In the present study we investigated the anterior pituitary production of N-terminal prolactin-derived fragments along the estrous cycle and the involvement of estrogens in this process. In addition, we studied the effects of a recombinant vasoinhibin, 16 kDa prolactin, on anterior pituitary apoptosis and proliferation. We observed by Western Blot that N-terminal prolactin-derived fragments production in the anterior pituitary was higher at proestrus with respect to diestrus and that the content and release of these prolactin forms from anterior pituitary cells in culture were increased by estradiol. A recombinant preparation of 16 kDa prolactin induced apoptosis (determined by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry) of cultured anterior pituitary cells and lactotropes from ovariectomized rats only in the presence of estradiol, as previously reported for other proapoptotic factors in the anterior pituitary. In addition, 16 kDa prolactin decreased forskolin-induced proliferation (evaluated by BrdU incorporation) of rat total anterior pituitary cells and lactotropes in culture and decreased the proportion of cells in S-phase of the cell cycle (determined by flow cytometry). In conclusion, our study indicates that the anterior pituitary production of 16 kDa prolactin is variable along the estrous cycle and increased by estrogens. The antiproliferative and estradiol-dependent proapoptotic actions of this

  14. N-terminal prolactin-derived fragments, vasoinhibins, are proapoptoptic and antiproliferative in the anterior pituitary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Ferraris

    Full Text Available The anterior pituitary is under a constant cell turnover modulated by gonadal steroids. In the rat, an increase in the rate of apoptosis occurs at proestrus whereas a peak of proliferation takes place at estrus. At proestrus, concomitant with the maximum rate of apoptosis, a peak in circulating levels of prolactin is observed. Prolactin can be cleaved to different N-terminal fragments, vasoinhibins, which are proapoptotic and antiproliferative factors for endothelial cells. It was reported that a 16 kDa vasoinhibin is produced in the rat anterior pituitary by cathepsin D. In the present study we investigated the anterior pituitary production of N-terminal prolactin-derived fragments along the estrous cycle and the involvement of estrogens in this process. In addition, we studied the effects of a recombinant vasoinhibin, 16 kDa prolactin, on anterior pituitary apoptosis and proliferation. We observed by Western Blot that N-terminal prolactin-derived fragments production in the anterior pituitary was higher at proestrus with respect to diestrus and that the content and release of these prolactin forms from anterior pituitary cells in culture were increased by estradiol. A recombinant preparation of 16 kDa prolactin induced apoptosis (determined by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry of cultured anterior pituitary cells and lactotropes from ovariectomized rats only in the presence of estradiol, as previously reported for other proapoptotic factors in the anterior pituitary. In addition, 16 kDa prolactin decreased forskolin-induced proliferation (evaluated by BrdU incorporation of rat total anterior pituitary cells and lactotropes in culture and decreased the proportion of cells in S-phase of the cell cycle (determined by flow cytometry. In conclusion, our study indicates that the anterior pituitary production of 16 kDa prolactin is variable along the estrous cycle and increased by estrogens. The antiproliferative and estradiol-dependent proapoptotic

  15. In situ hybridization analysis of the temporospatial expression of the midkine/pleiotrophin family in rat embryonic pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Ken; Maliza, Rita; Tofrizal, Alimuddin; Batchuluun, Khongorzul; Ramadhani, Dini; Tsukada, Takehiro; Azuma, Morio; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Pituitary gland development is controlled by numerous signaling molecules, which are produced in the oral ectoderm and diencephalon. A newly described family of heparin-binding growth factors, namely midkine (MK)/pleiotrophin (PTN), is involved in regulating the growth and differentiation of many tissues and organs. Using in situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes, we detected cells expressing MK and PTN in the developing rat pituitary gland. At embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5), MK expression was localized in Rathke's pouch (derived from the oral ectoderm) and in the neurohypophyseal bud (derived from the diencephalon). From E12.5 to E19.5, MK mRNA was expressed in the developing neurohypophysis, and expression gradually decreased in the developing adenohypophysis. To characterize MK-expressing cells, we performed double-staining of MK mRNA and anterior pituitary hormones. At E19.5, no MK-expressing cells were stained with any hormone. In contrast, PTN was expressed only in the neurohypophysis primordium during all embryonic stages. In situ hybridization clearly showed that MK was expressed in primitive (immature/undifferentiated) adenohypophyseal cells and neurohypophyseal cells, whereas PTN was expressed only in neurohypophyseal cells. Thus, MK and PTN might play roles as signaling molecules during pituitary development.

  16. Diabetes insipidus as the first symptom caused by lung cancer metastasis to the pituitary glands: Clinical presentations, diagnosis, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J F Mao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Central diabetes insipidus (CDI, secondary to pituitary metastatic lesions, is uncommon; however, lung and breast cancer are the commonest malignancies to have metastases to the pituitary. Early management of systemic chemotherapy and pituitary irradiation might improve the prognosis of patients. Aims : To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of CDI caused by lung cancer metastasis to the pituitary glands. Materials and Methods : We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients who had CDI as their first symptom before their lung cancers were diagnosed. Their clinical presentations, anterior pituitary gland function, sellar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, management, and prognosis were described. Settings and Design : This retrospective cross-sectional clinical study was conducted in a medical college hospital. Results : The patient′s mean age was 58.6±7.8 years. Diabetes insipidus was the main complaint when they were referred to our hospital. MRI revealed specific dumbbell-shaped masses in the sella turcica in five patients. In seven patients whose hormones were measured, the levels of hormones from adenohypophysis were abnormally low in six patients. The main treatments included surgery, systemic chemotherapy, and sellar irradiation. Although nine patients had poor prognoses, one patient has survived for more than 3 years, suggesting benefit from early diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions : New-onset CDI might be the only symptom presented by the patients with pituitary metastasis (PM from lung cancer. Dumbbell-shaped sellar masses in MRI are prone to the diagnosis of PM. A thorough examination for primary cancer should be carried out in these aged and elderly patients.

  17. High-resolution MRI study of pituitary glands in healthy adult of the Han nationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Bin; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhuo Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the morphological characteristics of pituitary glands in healthy adult of the Han nationality on the High-resolution Mill and provide morphological data of pituitary glands for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. Methods: This is a clinical multi-center study. Nine hundred and seventy eight Chinese healthy volunteers (age range=18 to 70 ) recruited from 16 hospitals were divided into 5 groups, i. e., Group A (age range = 18 to 30), B (age range = 31 to 40), C (age range =41 to 50), D (age range = 51 to 60), and E (age range = 61 to 70). All of the volunteers were scanned by MR using T 1 weighted three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. By Multiplan reconstruction with 3D software, the pituitary gland's volume, size, and inclination of pituitary, stalk were measured and the differences between sexualities and among age groups were compared by analysis of variance using SPSS13.0; those among five age groups were compared pair-wised by Tukey analysis; and the differences between male and female were analyzed by independent t test, and the differences of measurements of typing of pituitary glands were analyzed by Chi-square analysis. Results: (1) Volume of pituitary glands: the mean volume of male and female among 5 age groups were (1142 ± 290), (996 ± 223), (979 ± 178), (971 ± 174), (930 ± 189)and (1247 ± 210), (1199 ± 216), (1108 ± 196), (1059 ± 212), (984 ± 177) mm 3 respectively. There were significant differences among the age groups(F=13.811,27.091,P 0.05). (4) The typing of pituitary glands in middle sagittal MR images: there were significant differences between each typing (χ 2 =44.212, 107.518, P<0.01), there was a tendency of pituitary upper border to depressed when age increased. Conclusions: With high- resolution Mill and 3D volumetric analytic software, volume and size of pituitary glands and the angle of inclination of pituitary stalks were accurately measured

  18. DNA polymerases in the rat pituitary gland. Effect of oestrogens and sulpiride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, G A; Kalbermann, L E; Machiavelli, G; Szijan, I; Burdman, J A

    1980-06-01

    Changes in the activity of DNA polymerase and [3H]thymidine incorporation into the DNA of the anterior pituitary gland were studied in oestrogenized male and pregnant rats. The activities of DNA polymerases alpha and beta, extracted in Tris--HCl or in sodium phosphate buffer were characterized according to their optimum pH and sensitivity to N-ethyl-maleimide. In the Tris-soluble fraction DNA polymerase activity is almost exclusively alpha, while in the phosphate soluble fraction it is a mixture of alpha and beta. The administration of oestrogens to male rats increases [3H]thymidine incorporation and enhances the activity of DNA polymerases in the Tris-soluble fraction, while the activity of the phosphate-soluble enzyme does not change. Sulpiride administration results in a further increment of [3H]thymidine incorporation and of DNA polymerase activity in the Tris-soluble fraction. In pregnant rats sulpiride also produces an increment of DNA polymerase activity only in the Tris-soluble fraction. Thus, the activity of the Tris-soluble fraction from APG behaves as DNA polymerase alpha. This activity changes in parallel with [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA which is an indication of cell proliferation in the gland. This is discussed with respect to a negative feedback mechanism between intracellular prolactin concentration and DNA synthesis in the APG.

  19. Altered Pituitary Gland Structure and Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Odelia; Bonert, Vivien; Moser, Franklin; Mirocha, James; Melmed, Shlomo

    2017-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stressors, but links to neurophysiological and neuroanatomical changes are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress-induced cortisol alters negative feedback on pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume. Prospective controlled study in an outpatient clinic. Subjects with PTSD and matched control subjects underwent pituitary volume measurement on magnetic resonance imaging, with pituitary function assessed by 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC), 8:00 am cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and ACTH levels after 2-day dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone test. Primary outcome was pituitary volume; secondary outcomes were ACTH area under the curve (AUC) and 24-hour UFC. Thirty-nine subjects were screened and 10 subjects with PTSD were matched with 10 healthy control subjects by sex and age. Mean pituitary volume was 729.7 mm 3 [standard deviation (SD), 227.3 mm 3 ] in PTSD subjects vs 835.2 mm 3 (SD, 302.8 mm 3 ) in control subjects. ACTH AUC was 262.5 pg/mL (SD, 133.3 pg/mL) L in PTSD vs 244.0 pg/mL (SD, 158.3 pg/mL) in control subjects ( P = 0.80). In PTSD subjects, UFC levels and pituitary volume inversely correlated with PTSD duration; pituitary volume correlated with ACTH AUC in control subjects (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.88, P = 0.0009) but not in PTSD subjects. The HPA axis may be downregulated and dysregulated in people with PTSD, as demonstrated by discordant pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume vs intact HPA feedback and correlation of pituitary volume with ACTH levels in healthy control subjects. The results suggest a link between pituitary structure and function in PTSD, which may point to endocrine targeted therapeutic approaches.

  20. Altered Pituitary Gland Structure and Function in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonert, Vivien; Moser, Franklin; Mirocha, James; Melmed, Shlomo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stressors, but links to neurophysiological and neuroanatomical changes are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether stress-induced cortisol alters negative feedback on pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume. Design: Prospective controlled study in an outpatient clinic. Methods: Subjects with PTSD and matched control subjects underwent pituitary volume measurement on magnetic resonance imaging, with pituitary function assessed by 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC), 8:00 am cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and ACTH levels after 2-day dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone test. Primary outcome was pituitary volume; secondary outcomes were ACTH area under the curve (AUC) and 24-hour UFC. Results: Thirty-nine subjects were screened and 10 subjects with PTSD were matched with 10 healthy control subjects by sex and age. Mean pituitary volume was 729.7 mm3 [standard deviation (SD), 227.3 mm3] in PTSD subjects vs 835.2 mm3 (SD, 302.8 mm3) in control subjects. ACTH AUC was 262.5 pg/mL (SD, 133.3 pg/mL) L in PTSD vs 244.0 pg/mL (SD, 158.3 pg/mL) in control subjects (P = 0.80). In PTSD subjects, UFC levels and pituitary volume inversely correlated with PTSD duration; pituitary volume correlated with ACTH AUC in control subjects (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.88, P = 0.0009) but not in PTSD subjects. Conclusions: The HPA axis may be downregulated and dysregulated in people with PTSD, as demonstrated by discordant pituitary corticotroph function and pituitary volume vs intact HPA feedback and correlation of pituitary volume with ACTH levels in healthy control subjects. The results suggest a link between pituitary structure and function in PTSD, which may point to endocrine targeted therapeutic approaches. PMID:29264511

  1. Morphometry of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus in long-term survivors of childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, L; Margerkurth, J; Althaus, J; You, S-J; Zanella, F E; Kieslich, M

    2011-11-01

    Chronic pituitary dysfunction is increasingly recognized as a sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Our aim was to rule out any late morphometric changes of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus in survivors of TBI during childhood requiring intensive care. We assessed morphometric abnormalities of the sella region and hypothalamus in patients who sustained TBI during childhood. The patients showed no clinical hormonal dysfunction at the acute phase and pituitary hormone levels at the time of our study were within normal limits. From the 18 enrolled patients in the magnetic resonance study, five were removed due to morphological changes or anatomical variations. We studied the MRI of 13 male survivors (mean age 27 years, mean time after trauma 20 years) and compared them to 13 male control subjects who were matched in terms of age (mean age, 26 years), education and ethnicity. Analyses of the pituitary gland and sella on a midsagittal T2- and T1-weighted image were performed. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM), an unbiased MRI morphometric method to investigate hypothalamic region in this group of patients. There was only a trend towards a reduced pituitary gland width in the patient group compared to controls. However, no significant morphological and morphometric abnormality was seen and VBM showed no hypothalamic grey matter loss. In the absence of hormonal dysfunction, no persisting morphometric changes of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus were seen in survivors of childhood TBI requiring intensive care.

  2. Sella turcica morphology and the pituitary gland-a new contribution to craniofacial diagnostics based on histology and neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjær, Inger

    2015-02-01

    The present review summarizes two decades of published and unpublished studies on normal and pathological development of sella turcica and pituitary gland in humans. The pathological conditions are studied in known genotype deviations, syndromes, and other malformations. The studies include histological analyses of human prenatal material and profile radiographic analyses of human postnatal material, supplemented in a few cases with neuroradiology. Prenatal and postnatal results are compared. Similarities between prenatal and postnatal deviations in sella turcica morphology were demonstrated. Malformations in the pituitary gland were observed in several cases. For diagnostic purposes, the review distinguishes between deviations in the anterior wall and in the posterior wall of the sella turcica. Deviations in the anterior wall seem to be associated with deviations specifically in the frontonasal developmental field, while deviations in the posterior wall are often connected with malformations in the posterior structures, e.g. the cerebellum. In normal cases, minor variations in morphology are observed. In each pathological case, a specific malformation pattern was observed in sella turcica morphology, varying from mild to severe phenotype. The malformation in the sella turcica/pituitary gland can be associated with a malformation within a developmental field that forms the craniofacial region (frontonasal, maxillary, palatal, and mandibular fields), sometimes also involving the brain stem, thymus, thyroid, and heart (velocardiofacial syndrome). Pathological sella turcica morphology can also be associated with malformations in the cerebellum and larynx (Cri-du-Chat syndrome). This review demonstrates the value of combining profile radiographic diagnostics with neuroradiological diagnostics in cases with malformed sella turcicae. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For

  3. The pituitary gland under infrared light - in search of a representative spectrum for homogeneous regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, A; Banas, K; Furgal-Borzych, A; Kwiatek, W M; Pawlicki, B; Breese, M B H

    2015-04-07

    The pituitary gland is a small but vital organ in the human body. It is located at the base of the brain and is often described as the master gland due to its multiple functions. The pituitary gland secretes and stores hormones, such as the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (hGH), prolactin, gonadotropins, and luteinizing hormones, as well as the antidiuretic hormone (ADH). A proper diagnosis of pituitary disorders is of utmost importance as this organ participates in regulating a variety of body functions. Typical histopathological analysis provides much valuable information, but it gives no insight into the biochemical background of the changes that occur within the gland. One approach that could be used to evaluate the biochemistry of tissue sections obtained from pituitary disorders is Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectromicroscopy. In order to collect diagnostically valuable information large areas of tissue must be investigated. This work focuses on obtaining a unique and representative FTIR spectrum characteristic of one type of cell architecture within a sample. The idea presented is based on using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) for data evaluation to search for uniform patterns within samples from the perspective of FTIR spectra. The results obtained demonstrate that FTIR spectromicroscopy, combined with proper statistical evaluation, can be treated as a complementary method for histopathological analysis and ipso facto can increase the sensitivity and specificity for detecting various disorders not only for the pituitary gland, but also for other human tissues.

  4. Astrocytoma of the pituitary gland (pituicytoma): case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, T.; Miyazono, M.; Nishio, S.; Iwaki, T.

    2002-01-01

    A 34-year-old man presented with a 4-month history of visual obscuration. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a solid, discrete, contrast-enhancing pituitary mass with suprasellar extension. Surgery, which was performed via a transsphenoidal approach, disclosed the pituitary tumor to be a fibrillary astrocytoma (pituicytoma). This case report contains the clinical and neuroimaging features of this rare tumor of the neurohypophysis, which masqueraded as a pituitary adenoma. (orig.)

  5. The effect of angiotensin 1-7 on tyrosine kinases activity in rat anterior pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebas, Elzbieta; Zabczynska, Joanna; Lachowicz, Agnieszka

    2006-01-01

    Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) is a peptide originated from Ang II. It is known that in vessels Ang 1-7 shows opposite effects to Ang II. Ang 1-7 can modify processes of proliferation. However, Ang 1-7 action in pituitary gland cells was never studied. Moreover, the specific binding sites for Ang 1-7 are still unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Ang 1-7 on tyrosine kinases (PTKs) activity in the anterior pituitary. The reaction of phosphorylation was carrying out in presence of different concentration of Ang 1-7 and losartan (antagonist of AT1 receptor) and PD123319 (antagonist of AT2). Our results show that Ang 1-7 inhibited activity of PTK to 60% of basic activity. Losartan did not change the Ang 1-7-induced changes in PTKs activity. The presence of PD123319 together with Ang 1-7 caused stronger inhibition PTKs activity than Ang 1-7 alone. These observations suggest that Ang 1-7 binds to the novel, unknown, specific for this peptide receptor

  6. Detailed analysis of the δ-crystallin mRNA-expressing region in early development of the chick pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Makiko; Shiina, Tomoya; Aizawa, Sayaka; Sakata, Ichiro; Takagi, Hiroyasu; Sakai, Takafumi

    2012-06-01

    Although δ-crystallin (δ-crys), also known as lens protein, is transiently expressed in Rathke's pouch (RP) of the chick embryo, detailed temporal and spatial expression patterns have been obscure. In this study, to understand the relationship between the δ-crys mRNA-expressing region and RP formation, we examined the embryonic expression pattern of δ-crys mRNA in the primordium of the adenohypophysis. δ-crys mRNA expression was initially found at stage 15 anterior to the foregut and posterior to the invaginated oral ectoderm. After RP formation, the δ-crys mRNA was expressed in the post-ventral region of RP and the anterior region of RP. δ-crys mRNA expression was then restricted to the cephalic lobe of the pituitary gland. From stage 20, the δ-crys and alpha-glycoprotein subunit (αGSU) mRNA-expressing regions were almost completely overlapping. The αGSU mRNA-expressing region is thought to be the primordium of the pars tuberalis, and these regions were overlapped with the Lhx3 mRNA-expressing region. The intensity of δ-crys mRNA expression gradually decreased with development and completely disappeared by stage 34. These results suggest that the embryonic chick pituitary gland consists of two different regions labeled with δ-crys and Lhx3.

  7. Clinical presentation of epignathus teratoma with cleft palate; and duplication of cranial base, tongue, mandible, and pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yujiro; Suenaga, Hideyuki; Sugiyama, Madoka; Saijo, Hideto; Hoshi, Kazuto; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2013-07-01

    A 2-day-old girl was diagnosed with an oral epignathus teratoma and an uncommon combination of orofacial malformations including cleft palate; tongue, mandible, cranial base, cervical vertebrae, lower lip, and pituitary gland duplications; and fistula of the glabella and lower lip. Computed tomography revealed that the mass within the nasal cavity had tooth-like calcifications and protruded into the nasopharynx and oral cavity. It was implanted on the anterior wall of the body of the sphenoid bone and was accompanied with mandibular duplication. Magnetic resonance imaging detected duplication of the pituitary gland and confirmed the absence of intracranial communication of the nasopharyngeal mass. The teratoma did not cause respiratory obstruction; however, the patient required continuous nasogastric tube feeding. Usually, an epignathus teratoma is associated with few midline defects and can be corrected with multiple interventions at different time points. The current study describes the surgical procedure comprising excision of the tumor along with reconstructive surgeries of the mandible, tongue, and fistulae undertaken when the infant reached 7 months of age. The cleft palate was repaired at 18 months of age using the Kaplan buccal flap method. Histopathologic examination confirmed a grade 0 teratoma covered with keratinized skin and containing pilosebaceous and sweat glands, adipose tissue, and smooth muscle. The long-term success of this intervention was determined at the follow-up examination conducted at 3 years of age, with no signs of the teratoma recurrence observed.

  8. All Hormone-Producing Cell Types of the Pituitary Intermediate and Anterior Lobes Derive From Prop1-Expressing Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shannon W; Keisler, Jessica L; Pérez-Millán, María I; Schade, Vanessa; Camper, Sally A

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in PROP1, the most common known cause of combined pituitary hormone deficiency in humans, can result in the progressive loss of all hormones of the pituitary anterior lobe. In mice, Prop1 mutations result in the failure to initiate transcription of Pou1f1 (also known as Pit1) and lack somatotropins, lactotropins, and thyrotropins. The basis for this species difference is unknown. We hypothesized that Prop1 is expressed in a progenitor cell that can develop into all anterior lobe cell types, and not just the somatotropes, thyrotropes, and lactotropes, which are collectively known as the PIT1 lineage. To test this idea, we produced a transgenic Prop1-cre mouse line and conducted lineage-tracing experiments of Prop1-expressing cells. The results reveal that all hormone-secreting cell types of both the anterior and intermediate lobes are descended from Prop1-expressing progenitors. The Prop1-cre mice also provide a valuable genetic reagent with a unique spatial and temporal expression for generating tissue-specific gene rearrangements early in pituitary gland development. We also determined that the minimal essential sequences for reliable Prop1 expression lie within 10 kilobases of the mouse gene and demonstrated that human PROP1 can substitute functionally for mouse Prop1. These studies enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of disease in patients with PROP1 mutations.

  9. SOX10-positive cells emerge in the rat pituitary gland during late embryogenesis and start to express S100β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueharu, Hiroki; Yoshida, Saishu; Kanno, Naoko; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Nishimura, Naoto; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2018-04-01

    In the pituitary gland, S100β-positive cells localize in the neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis but the lineage of the two groups remains obscure. S100β is often observed in many neural crest-derived cell types. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the origin of pituitary S100β-positive cells by immunohistochemistry for SOX10, a potent neural crest cell marker, using S100β-green fluorescence protein-transgenic rats. On embryonic day 21.5, a SOX10-positive cell population, which was also positive for the stem/progenitor cell marker SOX2, emerged in the pituitary stalk and posterior lobe and subsequently expanded to create a rostral-caudal gradient on postnatal day 3 (P3). Thereafter, SOX10-positive cells appeared in the intermediate lobe by P15, localizing to the boundary facing the posterior lobe, the gap between the lobule structures and the marginal cell layer, a pituitary stem/progenitor cell niche. Subsequently, there was an increase in SOX10/S100β double-positive cells; some of these cells in the gap between the lobule structures showed extended cytoplasm containing F-actin, indicating a feature of migration activity. The proportion of SOX10-positive cells in the postnatal anterior lobe was lower than 0.025% but about half of them co-localized with the pituitary-specific progenitor cell marker PROP1. Collectively, the present study identified that one of the lineages of S100β-positive cells is a SOX10-positive one and that SOX10-positive cells express pituitary stem/progenitor cell marker genes.

  10. Rare case of Cushing's disease due to double ACTH-producing adenomas, one located in the pituitary gland and one into the stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendola, Marco; Dolci, Alessia; Piscopello, Lanfranco; Tomei, Giustino; Bauer, Dario; Corbetta, Sabrina; Ambrosi, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We describe a patient affected by Cushing's disease due to the presence of double pituitary adenomas, one located within the anterior pituitary and the other in the infundibulum associated with a remnant of Rakthe's pouch. Cure was achieved only after the infundibulum lesion was surgically removed. A 38-year-old female presented with unexplained weight gain, hirsutism, amenorrhea, asthenia, recurrent cutaneous micotic infections and alopecia. Hormonal studies indicated Cushing's disease and MRI showed an enlarged pituitary gland with a marked and homogeneous enhancement after injection of gadolinium and an enlarged infundibulum with a maximum diameter of 8 mm. As a venous sampling of the inferior petrosal sinus after 10 μg iv desmopressin stimulation revealed a central to peripheral ACTH ratio consistent with a pituitary ACTH-secreting tumor, transphenoidal explorative surgery was performed and a 4-mm pituitary adenoma immunopositive for ACTH was disclosed and removed. Since postoperative hormonal evaluation showed persistent hypercortisolism, confirmed by dynamic tests, the patient again underwent surgery by transcranial access and the infundibulum mass was removed. Histology and immunochemistry were consistent with an ACTH-secreting adenoma. A few months after the second operation, cushingoid features were significantly reverted and symptoms improved. Although Cushing's patients bearing multiple adenomas have already been documented, the presence of two adenomas both immunohistochemically positive for ACTH is a very rare cause of Cushing's disease and this is the first report of a case of double ACTH-producing adenomas, one located in the pituitary gland and one attached to the stalk.

  11. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance volumetry of the pituitary gland is effective in detecting short stature in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Xiu, Jianjun; Huang, Zhaoqin; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Zhonghe; Dong, Yin; Yuan, Xianshun; Liu, Qingwei

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain standard reference values for the pituitary gland volumes of healthy children and to analyze the potential diagnostic values of pituitary gland volumetry for growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and idiopathic short stature (ISS). The volume of the pituitary gland was measured using a thin-section three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence of magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo imaging with a section thickness of 1 mm. A group of 75 healthy children aged between 1 and 19 years were recruited to obtain normal volumetry values of the pituitary gland. These individuals demonstrated no evidence of abnormalities to the central nervous or endocrine systems prior to the study. An additional group of 55 children with GHD (n=32) or ISS (n=23) aged between 0 and 14 years were included in the measurement of pituitary gland volume and height. The Student's t-test was used to evaluate the repetition test, while Pearson's correlation coefficient and regression analyses were performed to examine the correlations between the volume and height of the pituitary glands. Pituitary gland volume and height demonstrated an increasing trend with age in the healthy children. In addition, the pituitary gland volume exhibited a growth spurt in the early teenage years (10-14 years-old), which was more prominent in females. The growth spurt was not observed for pituitary gland height. When compared with the healthy children, 65.6% of the children with GHD and 34.8% of the children with ISS had smaller pituitary gland volumes. Similarly, 37.5% of the children with GHD and 26.1% of the children with ISS had a smaller pituitary gland height compared with the healthy children. The pituitary gland volume performed significantly better compared with height with regard to the detection rate. Therefore, the results indicated that 3D MRI volumetry was useful for understanding the developmental characteristics of the pituitary gland in

  12. Influence of internal exposure on the morphofunctional characteristics of hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derev'yanko, L.P.; Nosov, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    The phase changes in morphofunctional states of hypothalamus, pituitary, cortex and medulla of adrenal gland of rats, which for a long time (9 month) were fed a 137 Cs diary, were determined. At early stages of experiment (7 - 30 days) the enhancing of morphofunctional and secretory activity of cells of hypothalamus, pituitary, cortex and medulla of adrenal gland cells, were observed (total absorbed doses of 0,3 sGy). After 9 months (total absorbed doses of 3,0 sGy) in cells of hypothalamus, pituitary, cortex and medulla of adrenal gland the progressions of dystrophic-destructive changes of intracellular structures with the sings of decreasing of morphofunctional and secretory activities were determined. It is necessary to underline, that the sings of intracellular reparative regeneration, were observed in a small part of cells against the background of presence of dystrophic-destructive changes. In spite of the processes of intracellular reparative regeneration which were observed 9 months later after exposure, the completely renewing of morphofunctional and secretory activities in cells of hypothalamus, pituitary, cortex and medulla of adrenal gland cells were absent

  13. Gene Expression Profiling in the Pituitary Gland of Laying Period and Ceased Period Huoyan Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhong Luan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Huoyan goose is a Chinese local breed famous for its higher laying performance, but the problems of variety degeneration have emerged recently, especially a decrease in the number of eggs laid. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism that underlies egg laying in Huoyan geese, gene profiles in the pituitary gland of Huoyan geese taken during the laying period and ceased period were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH method. Total RNA was extracted from pituitary glands of ceased period and laying period geese. The cDNA in the pituitary glands of ceased geese was subtracted from the cDNA in the pituitary glands of laying geese (forward subtraction; the reverse subtraction was also performed. After sequencing and annotation, a total of 30 and 24 up and down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These genes mostly related to biosynthetic process, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, transport, cell differentiation, cellular protein modification process, signal transduction, small molecule metabolic process. Furthermore, eleven genes were selected for further analyses by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. The qRT-PCR results for the most part were consistent with the SSH results. Among these genes, Synaptotagmin-1 (SYT1 and Stathmin-2 (STMN2 were substantially over-expressed in laying period compared to ceased period. These results could serve as an important reference for elucidating the molecular mechanism of higher laying performance in Huoyan geese.

  14. Anterior Gray Matter Pituicytic Heterotopia with Monomorphic Anterior Pituitary Cells: A Variant of Nonsecretory Pituitary Adenoma Neuronal Choristoma? Report of a Rare Case and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yowtak, June; Sharma, Suash; Forseen, Scott E; Alleyne, Cargill H

    2017-01-01

    Mixed tumors of adenomatous and neuronal cells in the sellar region are an uncommon finding. The origins of these heterogeneous tumors are unknown, and management remains unsettled. We report a very rare case of anterior gray matter pituicytic heterotopia with monomorphic anterior pituitary cells that likely represents a variant of nonsecreting pituitary adenoma neuronal choristoma (PANCH) with no ganglion cells. We also review the current literature for the various clinical presentations of PANCH. A 49-year-old female complaining of headache, blurred vision, and hair loss was found to have a nonsecretory sellar mass with compression of the optic chiasm on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The mass was excised via a transsphenoidal procedure. Histological analysis of tissue sections revealed heterotopic gray matter with reactive gliosis without ganglion cells or Herring bodies. Only 1 smear exhibited characteristics of a pituitary adenoma. The overall findings were most consistent with a variant of PANCH. At a postoperative follow-up of 4.5 years, there was resolution of visual symptoms, and the residual sellar mass was stable on MRI. Neuronal choristoma is hypothesized to originate from embryonal pituitary or hypothalamus, or by differentiation from pituitary adenoma cells. Surgery is the cornerstone of management, and the clinical course appears to be similar to that of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma in reported cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical results of stereotactic hellium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Lawrence, J.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1989-12-01

    The first therapeutic clinical trial using accelerated heavy-charged particles in humans was performed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the treatment of various endocrine and metabolic disorders of the pituitary gland, and as suppressive therapy for adenohypophyseal hormone-responsive carcinomas and diabetic retinopathy. In acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome and prolactin-secreting tumors, the therapeutic goal in the 433 patients treated has been to destroy or inhibit the growth of the pituitary tumor and control hormonal hypersecretion, while preserving a functional rim of tissue with normal hormone-secreting capacity, and minimizing neurologic injury. An additional group of 34 patients was treated for nonsecreting chromophobe adenomas. This paper discusses the methods and results of stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. 11 refs.

  16. Clinical results of stereotactic hellium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Lawrence, J.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1989-12-01

    The first therapeutic clinical trial using accelerated heavy-charged particles in humans was performed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the treatment of various endocrine and metabolic disorders of the pituitary gland, and as suppressive therapy for adenohypophyseal hormone-responsive carcinomas and diabetic retinopathy. In acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome and prolactin-secreting tumors, the therapeutic goal in the 433 patients treated has been to destroy or inhibit the growth of the pituitary tumor and control hormonal hypersecretion, while preserving a functional rim of tissue with normal hormone-secreting capacity, and minimizing neurologic injury. An additional group of 34 patients was treated for nonsecreting chromophobe adenomas. This paper discusses the methods and results of stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. 11 refs

  17. The pituitary gland in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a clinical and radiological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtulmus, Neslihan; Mert, Meral; Tanakol, Refik; Yarman, Sema

    2015-04-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease in which the most common endocrine manifestation is diabetes insipidus (DI). Data on anterior pituitary function in patients with LCH are limited. Thus, the present study investigated anterior pituitary function in LCH patients with DI via the evaluation of clinical and radiological findings at disease onset and during follow-up. The present study retrospectively evaluated nine patients with LCH (five males and four females). All diagnoses of LCH were made following histological and/or immunophenotypic analyses of tissue biopsies, bronchoalveolar lavage, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Basal and, if necessary, dynamic pituitary function tests were used to assess anterior pituitary function, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were used to image the pituitary. The LCH treatment modality was based on organ involvement. The mean age at onset of DI was 27.6 years (range 15-60 years). One patient (11%) exhibited single organ involvement, while eight patients (89%) displayed multisystem organ involvement. On admittance, one patient had hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, one patient exhibited panhypopituitarism [hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, central hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, and growth hormone (GH) deficiency], and four patients (44%) displayed hyperprolactinemia. The MRI data revealed infundibular enlargement in seven patients (78%), a thalamic mass in one patient (11%), and the absence of the bright spot in all patients. A single patient (11%) showed a mass in the pons that had a partially empty sella. The patients were treated with radiation therapy (RT), chemotherapy (CT), or a combination of both (RT+CT) and were followed up for a median of 91.8 months (range 2-318 months). Seven patients were assessed during the follow-up period, of whom four patients (57.1%) developed anterior pituitary hormone deficiency, three (43%) were diagnosed with GH deficiency, and one (14%) exhibited gonadotropin deficiency

  18. Value of computerized tomography in the diagnosis of primary and recurrent pituitary gland tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imhof, H.; Kuester, W.; Eslami-Nejad, S.

    1979-01-01

    The results of cranial computerized tomography (CCT) of 33 patients with questionable space-occupying lesions in the sella-region are compared with clinical, radiological and surgical reports. Five pituitary gland tumors could be detected for the first time. Four of them are verified by surgery. In eight cases recurrent pituitary glant tumors are suspected. Surprisingly these tumors could be found by surgery only in three cases, while in the remaining five cases only scar-tissue was demonstrable. The high accuracy of CCT in the detection of pituitary gland tumors and the possibility to save the patient expensive and high invasive examinations as well, makes CCT in the presence of corresponding clinical signs to a diagnostic 'must'. It is undecided whether in the cases with possible recurrent tumors, there are real recurrent tumors, which could not be detected by surgery, or only scar tissue. In the latter case scar tissue and recurrent pituitary gland tumors are very similar with CCT. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 CKA [de

  19. Metastatic Mantle Cell Lymphoma to the Pituitary Gland: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of a metastatic mantle cell lymphoma (MCL to the pituitary gland. The patient had a known history of MCL for which she previously received chemotherapy. She presented with new-onset diplopia and confusion, and reported a history of progressive vision blurriness associated with headache, nausea, and vomiting. MRI of the brain showed an enhancing lesion within the sella turcica involving the cavernous sinuses bilaterally, extending into Meckel's cave on the left, and abutting the optic nerves bilaterally. Following surgical excision, histopathology revealed the tumor to be a MCL. Metastatic pituitary tumors are rare and have been estimated to make up 1% of tumors discovered in the sellar region. The two most common secondary metastatic lesions to the sella are breast and lung carcinoma followed by prostate, renal cell, and gastrointestinal carcinoma. Metastatic lymphoma to the pituitary gland is especially rare and is estimated to constitute 0.5% of all metastatic tumors to the sella turcica. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of MCL metastasizing to the pituitary gland.

  20. Specific in vivo binding of 3H-spiperone to individual lobes of the pituitary gland of the rat. Evidence for the labelling of dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, C.; Fahlberg, K.

    1985-01-01

    The in vivo binding of 3 H-spiperone to individual lobes of the pituitary gland was studied after intravenous injections in unanesthetized male rats. The binding was found to be saturable and reversible. The percentage of total binding of 3 H-spiperone that was specific binding was highest in the intermediate (approx= 75%) and lowest in the posterior (approx= 35%) lobes. The regional distribution of 3 H-spiperone binding 1 hour after injections was the following: intermediate>anterior>posterior. Pharmacological analysis of the in vivo 3 H-spiperone binding showed that dopamine agonists (e.g. bromocriptine, N-n-propylnorapomorphine) and antagonsits could prevent the in vivo binding of sup3H-spiperone in all three parts of the gland. The substituted benzamide drugs remoxipride and raclopride blocked the in vivo 3 H-spiperone binding in the anterior and intermediate lobes but did not reduce the 3 H-spiperone binding in the posterior part, except when given in very high doses. Taken together, the present study has shown that 3 H-spiperone can be used in studies of the dopamine receptors in the anterior, intermediate and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland, but the proportion of non-specific binding is higher than in the striatum. The use of in vivo 3 H-spiperone binding may thus be a useful method to study the regulation and pharmacology of these receptors in situ. (Author)

  1. Hypergravity and estrogen effects on avian anterior pituitary growth hormone and prolactin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorindo, R. P.; Negulesco, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Developing female chicks with fractured right radii were maintained for 14 d at either earth gravity (1 g) or a hypergravity state (2 g). The birds at 1 g were divided into groups which received daily injections of (1) saline, (2) 200 micrograms estrone, and (3) 400 micrograms estrone for 14 d. The 2-g birds were divided into three similarly treated groups. All 2-g birds showed significantly lower body weights than did 1-g birds. Anterior pituitary (AP) glands were excised and analyzed for growth hormone and prolactin content by analytical electrophoresis. The 1-g chicks receiving either dose of daily estrogen showed increased AP growth hormone levels, whereas hypergravity alone did not affect growth hormone content. Chicks exposed to daily estrogen and hypergravity displayed reduced growth hormone levels. AP prolactin levels were slightly increased by the lower daily estrogen dose in 1-g birds, but markedly reduced in birds exposed only to hypergravity. Doubly-treated chicks displayed normal prolactin levels. Reduced growth in 2-g birds might be due, in part, to reduced AP levels of prolactin and/or growth hormone.

  2. Evaluation of clinical hypothyroidism risk due to irradiation of thyroid and pituitary glands in radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zhixiong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Wenjia; Che, Kaijun; Wu, Vincent W.C.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) has been reported. This study investigated the radiation effects of the thyroid and pituitary glands on thyroid function after radiotherapy for NPC. Sixty-five NPC patients treated with radiotherapy were recruited. Baseline thyroid hormone levels comprising free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were taken before treatment and at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. A seven-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan was generated for each patient. Thyroid and pituitary gland dose volume histograms were generated, dividing the patients into four groups: high (>50Gy) thyroid and pituitary doses (HTHP group); high thyroid and low pituitary doses (HTLP group); low thyroid and high pituitary doses; and low thyroid and pituitary doses. Incidence of hypothyroidism was analysed. Twenty-two (34%) and 17 patients (26%) received high mean thyroid and pituitary doses, respectively. At 18 months, 23.1% of patients manifested various types of hypothyroidism. The HTHP group showed the highest incidence (83.3%) of hypothyroidism, followed by the HTLP group (50%). NPC patients with high thyroid and pituitary gland doses carried the highest risk of abnormal thyroid physiology. The dose to the thyroid was more influential than the pituitary dose at 18 months after radiotherapy, and therefore more attention should be given to the thyroid gland in radiotherapy planning.

  3. Specific in vitro uptake of serotonin by cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, M.A.; Azmitia, E.C.; Krieger, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo studies have suggested that serotonin (5HT) influences anterior pituitary function at the hypothalamic level. The present in vitro study investigated the possibility that 5HT may act directly on the anterior pituitary. The high affinity uptake of [3H]5HT into adult rat anterior pituitary tissue was examined in two types of experiments. 1) To test the specificity and saturability of uptake of 5HT in the anterior pituitary, pituitary tissue was incubated (37 C) with [3H]5HT (10(-8)-10(-6) M) in the presence and absence of excess (10(-5) M) unlabeled 5HT, norepinephrine, fluoxetine (FLUOX), metergoline, or cyproheptadine. A Hofstee analysis of the specific uptake of [3H]5HT gave an apparent Km value of 4.23 x 10(-7) M and a Vmax of 1576 pmol/g/10 min [3H]5HT. The total uptake of [3H]5HT was not altered by norepinephrine or metergoline, but was significantly reduced (P less than 0.01-0.001) by FLUOX and cyproheptadine. Uptake was shown to be temperature and sodium dependent and not directly dependent on energy derived from glycolysis or aerobic metabolism. 2) To study the site of uptake of 5 HT in the anterior pituitary, in concomitant radioautographic experiments, tissue was incubated with [3H]5HT with and without excess 5HT or FLUOX. Three patterns of silver grain distribution were observed: 1) nonrandom concentrations over select anterior pituitary cells near blood vessels, 2) heavy aggregates of silver grains usually associated with blood vessels, and 3) a seemingly random dispersal of grains over pituitary tissue. Tissue incubated with [3H]5HT alone contained 10% heavily labeled cells, 32% moderately labeled cells, and 58% weakly labeled cells. In contrast, no heavily labeled cells were seen when tissue was incubated with either excess 5HT or FLUOX in addition to [3H]5HT. Our findings of saturable and specific high affinity uptake of [3H]5HT into a subgroup of anterior pituitary cells suggest a direct pituitary action of 5HT

  4. The pituitary gland of the European eel reveals massive expression of genes involved in the melanocortin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirill Ager-Wick

    Full Text Available Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland regulate important processes such as development, growth and metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and body pigmentation. Synthesis and secretion of pituitary hormones are regulated by different factors from the hypothalamus, but also through feedback mechanisms from peripheral organs, and from the pituitary itself. In the European eel extensive attention has been directed towards understanding the different components of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis, but little is known about the regulation of upstream processes in the pituitary gland. In order to gain a broader mechanistic understanding of the eel pituitary gland, we have performed RNA-seq transcriptome profiling of the pituitary of prepubertal female silver eels. RNA-seq reads generated on the Illumina platform were mapped to the recently assembled European eel genome. The most abundant transcript in the eel pituitary codes for pro-opiomelanocortin, the precursor for hormones of the melanocortin system. Several genes putatively involved in downstream processing of pro-opiomelanocortin were manually annotated, and were found to be highly expressed, both by RNA-seq and by qPCR. The melanocortin system, which affects skin color, energy homeostasis and in other teleosts interacts with the reproductive system, has so far received limited attention in eels. However, since up to one third of the silver eel pituitary's mRNA pool encodes pro-opiomelanocortin, our results indicate that control of the melanocortin system is a major function of the eel pituitary.

  5. Profiling of adrenocorticotropic hormone and arginine vasopressin in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R; Changelian, Armen; Laws, Edward R; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y R; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections, using a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectrometric detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this method and data obtained with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland. AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis), and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH-secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH-secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared with non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis, as expected. This work reveals that a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS-MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, including AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity, and specificity of this method support the potential of this basic technology, with further advancement, for assisting surgical decision-making. Graphical Abstract Mass spectrometry based profiling of hormones in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections.

  6. Genetic aspects of hypothalamic and pituitary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Mark J; Dattani, Mehul T

    2014-01-01

    Hypothalamo-pituitary development during embryogenesis is a highly complex process involving the interaction of a network of spatiotemporally regulated signaling molecules and transcription factors. Mutations in any of the genes encoding these components can lead to congenital hypopituitarism, which is often associated with a wide spectrum of defects affecting craniofacial/midline development. In turn, these defects can be incompatible with life, or lead to disorders encompassing holoprosencephaly (HPE) and cleft palate, and septo-optic dysplasia (SOD). In recent years, there has been increasing evidence of an overlapping genotype between this spectrum of disorders and Kallmann syndrome (KS), defined as the association of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) and anosmia. This is consistent with the known phenotypic overlap between these disorders and opens a new avenue of identifying novel genetic causes of the hypopituitarism spectrum. This chapter reviews the genetic and molecular events leading to the successful development of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis during embryogenesis, and focuses on genes in which variations/mutations occur, leading to congenital hypopituitarism and associated defects. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A rare case of anasarca caused by infiltration of the pituitary gland by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kumabe, Ayako; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Nishimura, Yoshioki; Aikawa, Masaki; Mori, Masaki; Matsumura, Masami

    2015-01-01

    Background Anasarca in patients with lymphoma is a rare symptom. We report a patient with DLBCL associated with pituitary gland infiltration that was diagnosed based on significant anasarca. Case presentation A 72-year-old woman with a 10-year history of hypertension visited a local hospital presenting with anasarca and 15-kg weight gain in the past 3?months. we clinically diagnosed central hypothyroidism caused by pituitary gland infiltration of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (clinica...

  8. MRI of the liver and the pituitary gland in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: Does hepatic siderosis predict pituitary iron deposition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Efremidis, Stavros C. [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios N. [Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to study, in thalassemic patients, if hepatic siderosis evaluated by MRI could predict the pituitary iron overload. In 36 thalassemic patients (age range 6-44 years, mean age 21.7 years) the liver/fat ratio (L/F), the pituitary/fat ratio (P/F), the liver and pituitary T2 relaxation times were evaluated, by using a multiecho spin-echo sequence. Serum ferritin levels were measured and an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed. The L/F, the P/F and pituitary T2 showed a good correlation with serum ferritin (r=-0.55, r=-0.55 and r=-0.53, respectively; p<0.01). Liver T2 did not show significant correlation with serum ferritin. The variability of L/F explained only the 10.8% of the variability of pituitary T2 and of the P/F. When ferritin was added to the model it predicted only the 26.85% and the 30.8% of the variability of pituitary T2 and of the P/F, respectively. The P/F and pituitary T2 were lower in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (group 1) compared with those without pituitary dysfunction (group 2). No significant differences of L/F were found between the two groups. Hepatic iron overload evaluated by MR is a poor predictor of pituitary siderosis. The MR studies of the pituitary gland might be necessary to evaluate the pituitary iron overload. (orig.)

  9. Duplication of the pituitary gland associated with multiple blastogenesis defects: Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG)-plus syndrome. Case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjila, Sunil; Miller, Erin A; Vadera, Sumeet; Goel, Rishi K; Khan, Fahd R; Crowe, Carol; Geertman, Robert T

    2012-01-01

    Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG) is a rare craniofacial developmental anomaly occurring during blastogenesis with postulated etiology such as incomplete twinning, teratogens, median cleft face syndrome or splitting of the notochord. The complex craniocaudal spectrum of blastogenesis defects associated with DPG is examined with an illustrative case. We report for the first time in the medical literature some unique associations with DPG, such as a clival encephalocele, third cerebral peduncle, duplicate odontoid process and a double tongue with independent volitional control. This patient also has the previously reported common associations such as duplicated sella, cleft palate, hypertelorism, callosal agenesis, hypothalamic enlargement, nasopharyngeal teratoma, fenestrated basilar artery and supernumerary teeth. This study also reviews 37 cases of DPG identified through MEDLINE literature search from 1880 to 2011. It provides a detailed analysis of the current case through physical examination and imaging. The authors propose that the developmental deformities associated with duplication of pituitary gland (DPG) occur as part of a developmental continuum, not as chance associations. Considering the fact that DPG is uniquely and certainly present throughout the spectrum of these blastogenesis defects, we suggest the term DPG-plus syndrome.

  10. Influence of physical factors on sexual function and pituitary gland-gonads system. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Chapter 3 it is noted, that different physical factors even with low intensity (vibration, noise, electromagnetic oscillations of s.h.f. and u.h.f range, laser radiation, temperature changes) predictably lead to spermatogenesis dysfunctions and functional shift in hypothalamus-pituitary gland-gonads system with examined animals and man. The sexual function of men changing in the result of contact with unfavourable physical factors arise early and quite often they preceding the manifestation of occupational diseases pattern

  11. Clinical results of stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Lawrence, J.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1989-12-01

    The first therapeutic clinical trial using accelerated heavy-charged particles in humans was performed for the treatment of various endocrine and metabolic disorders of the pituitary gland, and as suppressive therapy for adenohypophyseal hormone-responsive carcinomas and diabetic retinopathy. Since then, over 800 patients have received stereotactically-directed plateau-beam heavy-charged particle pituitary irradiation at this institution. In acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome and prolactin-secreting tumors, the therapeutic goal in the 433 patients treated has been to destroy or inhibit the growth of the pituitary tumor and control hormonal hypersecretion, while preserving a functional rim of tissue with normal hormone-secreting capacity, and minimizing neurologic injury. An additional group of 34 patients was treated for nonsecreting chromophobe adenomas. This paper discusses the methods and results of these treatments. 11 refs.

  12. Clinical results of stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Lawrence, J.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1989-12-01

    The first therapeutic clinical trial using accelerated heavy-charged particles in humans was performed for the treatment of various endocrine and metabolic disorders of the pituitary gland, and as suppressive therapy for adenohypophyseal hormone-responsive carcinomas and diabetic retinopathy. Since then, over 800 patients have received stereotactically-directed plateau-beam heavy-charged particle pituitary irradiation at this institution. In acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome and prolactin-secreting tumors, the therapeutic goal in the 433 patients treated has been to destroy or inhibit the growth of the pituitary tumor and control hormonal hypersecretion, while preserving a functional rim of tissue with normal hormone-secreting capacity, and minimizing neurologic injury. An additional group of 34 patients was treated for nonsecreting chromophobe adenomas. This paper discusses the methods and results of these treatments. 11 refs

  13. In situ hybridization of somatolactin transcripts in the pituitary glands from acclimatized carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO LÓPEZ

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We isolated and cloned a carp somatolactin SL DNA fragment, of which 78% of the nucleotides were identical to the corresponding salmon SL sequence. The results obtained upon Northern blot hybridization of carp pituitary RNA allowed the identification of two transcripts as described for other fish. When the content of SL transcripts in pituitary sections from summer- and winter- acclimatized carp was quantified by in situ hybridization assays, we found no significant differences between the two seasons. In salmonids, plasma SL reaches higher levels in summer than in winter in synchrony with the water temperature cycle; in the eurythermal carp, however, the complex adaptive responses imposed by seasonal environmental changes do not seem to include the regulation of the somatolactin detected with the probe used at the transcriptional level in pituitary glands

  14. The effect of ionizing irradiation on the catecholamine levels in pituitary gland of ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorova, B.; Stanikova, A.; Maracek, I.; Danko, J.

    2004-01-01

    The changes were studied in the levels of catecholamines and L-DOPA in the pituitary gland of sheep after all-body irradiation with 60 Co at the total dose of 6.7 Gy for seven days. The power input per hour of irradiation source was 0.039 Gy. The catecholamines were determined after having been isolated from the tissues and determined by the method of spectral fluorimetry. After all-body exposition to gamma-radiation L-DOPA dropped in pituitary gland in comparison with the control group of sheep most significantly by 66.7% (P < 0,001). A similar drop like in the case of adrenaline was also observed in epinephrine (P < 0,05). On basis of the results we presume that the all-body irradiation of sheep by results a significant decrease in the content of catecholamines in pituitary gland, which is probably in relation with failure of synthesis and degradation of catecholamines and with total organism injury. (authors)

  15. The effect of atypical antipsychotics on pituitary gland volume in patients with first-episode psychosis: a longitudinal MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolo, John-Paul; Berger, Gregor E; Garner, Belinda A; Velakoulis, Dennis; Markulev, Connie; Kerr, Melissa; McGorry, Patrick D; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; McConchie, Mirabel; Pantelis, Christos; Wood, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary volume is currently measured as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hyperactivity in patients with psychosis despite suggestions of susceptibility to antipsychotics. Qualifying and quantifying the effect of atypical antipsychotics on the volume of the pituitary gland will determine whether this measure is valid as a future estimate of HPA-axis activation in psychotic populations. To determine the qualitative and quantitative effect of atypical antipsychotic medications on pituitary gland volume in a first-episode psychosis population. Pituitary volume was measured from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images in a group of 43 first-episode psychosis patients, the majority of whom were neuroleptic-naïve, at baseline and after 3months of treatment, to determine whether change in pituitary volume was correlated with cumulative dose of atypical antipsychotic medication. There was no significant baseline difference in pituitary volume between subjects and controls, or between neuroleptic-naïve and neuroleptic-treated subjects. Over the follow-up period there was a negative correlation between percentage change in pituitary volume and cumulative 3-month dose of atypical antipsychotic (r=-0.37), i.e. volume increases were associated with lower doses and volume decreases with higher doses. Atypical antipsychotic medications may reduce pituitary gland volume in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that atypical antipsychotic medication may support affected individuals to cope with stress associated with emerging psychotic disorders.

  16. Cationic ferritin uptake by cultured anterior pituitary cells treated with the proteinase inhibitor, BOC-DPhe-Phe-Lys-H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, G; Bácsy, E; Rappay, G

    1988-01-01

    Cultured cells from the anterior pituitary glands of adult rats were treated with the tripeptide aldehyde proteinase inhibitor, BOC-DPhe-Phe-Lys-H. The addition of this tripeptide aldehyde decreased the in vitro release of prolactin to 25% of the control value, while the release of growth hormone in the same cultures decreased to 33% of the control value. Prolactin immunostaining was stronger in semithin sections of proteinase-inhibitor-treated cultures than in control sections. After 2 h treatment with the inhibitor, prolactin- and growth hormone-containing secretory granules were numerous, and the number of crinophagic vacuoles had increased. In the presence of the inhibitor, the overall cytoarchitecture of parenchymal cells was well preserved, and the pathway of the uptake of cationic ferritin appeared to be unaffected.

  17. Amidated joining peptide in the human pituitary, gut, adrenal gland and bronchial carcinoids. Immunocytochemical and immunochemical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjartell, A; Fenger, M; Ekman, R

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of the proopiomelanocortin-derivated amidated joining peptide (JP-N) was examined in the human pituitary gland, adrenal gland, gut and in three bronchial carcinoids. Double immunostaining showed coexistence of immunoreactive JP-N and other proopiomelanocortin derivatives, e......-N, respectively, but under reduced conditions most of the immunoreactive material appeared as of low molecular weight in both extracts. In conclusion, immunoreactive JP-N is a major product from the processing of proopiomelanocortin in human extrapituitary tissues. The molecular forms of immunoreactive JP......-N correspond to previous findings in the human pituitary gland....

  18. Diurnal change in gonadotropic activity in cephalic and caudal lobes of anterior pituitary in capons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyoshi, Michiharu; Yoshihara, Masato; Tanaka, Katuhide

    1977-01-01

    Two groups of male white leghorn chickens were raised under two light regimens after hatch, 14 hr (0500 - 1900 hours) and 8 hr (0500 - 1300 hours) lighting per day, respectively. Both groups were caponized at 4 weeks of the age. At 10 weeks of the age, the anterior pituitaries were excised at different times during 24 hr period, and the gonadotropic activities of the cephalic and caudal lobes of anterior pituitary were measured by the bioassay of 32 D-uptake in chick test. In the 14 hr lighting per day group, peak gonadotropic activity was observed at 1100 hour (6 hr of lighting) in both lobes, but in the 8 hr lighting per day group, no peak was observed. The diurnal change of pituitary gonadotropic activity may be related to the photoperiod. (Mori, K.)

  19. Sensitivity of anterior pituitary hormones to graded levels of psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, A; Lopez-Calderón, A; Jolin, T; Castellanos, J M

    1986-08-04

    The effect of graded levels of stressor intensity on anterior pituitary hormones was studied in adult male rats. Corticosterone, considered as a reflection of ACTH release, and prolactin responses showed a good correlation with the intensity of the stressors. On the contrary, neither LH, GH nor TSH release showed a parallelism with the intensity of the stressors in spite of the fact that they clearly responded to all the stimuli. It appears that the hormones of the anterior pituitary might be divided into two groups: those whose response is sensitive to the levels of emotional arousal elicited by stress, and those displaying a clear but stereotyped response during stress. However, other alternative explanations might exist to justify the present results. The neural mechanisms underlying the two types of response are at present unknown. These data indicate that only the pituitary-adrenal axis and prolactin have some potential utilities as quantitative indices of emotional arousal elicited by currently applied stressors in the rat.

  20. Anterior Pituitary Aplasia in an Infant with Ring Chromosome 18p Deletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Bellfield

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first reported case of an infant with 18p deletion syndrome with anterior pituitary aplasia secondary to a ring chromosome. Endocrine workup soon after birth was reassuring; however, repeat testing months later confirmed central hypopituitarism. While MRI reading initially indicated no midline defects, subsequent review of the images confirmed anterior pituitary aplasia with ectopic posterior pituitary. This case demonstrates how deletion of genetic material, even if resulting in a chromosomal ring, still results in a severe syndromic phenotype. Furthermore, it demonstrates the necessity of close follow-up in the first year of life for children with 18p deletion syndrome and emphasizes the need to verify radiology impressions if there is any doubt as to the radiologic findings.

  1. Uptake of thyroxine in cultured anterior pituitary cells of euthyroid rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Everts (Maria); R. Docter (Roel); E.P.C.M. Moerings (Ellis); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); T.J. Visser (Theo); E.P. Krenning (Eric); G. Hennemann; M. de Jong (Marcel)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe uptake of [125I]T4 was investigated in cultured anterior pituitary cells isolated from adult fed Wistar rats and cultured for 3 days in medium containing 10% fetal calf serum. Experiments were performed with [125I]T4 (10(5) to 2 x 10(6) cpm; 0.35-7 nM)

  2. Long-term treatment of anterior pituitary cells with nitric oxide induces programmed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velardez, Miguel Omar; Poliandri, Ariel Hernán; Cabilla, Jimena Paula; Bodo, Cristian Carlos Armando; Machiavelli, Leticia Inés; Duvilanski, Beatriz Haydeé

    2004-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a complex role in modulating programmed cell death. It can either protect the cell from apoptotic death or mediate apoptosis, depending on its concentration and the cell type and/or status. In this study, we demonstrate that long-term exposition to NO induces cell death of anterior pituitary cells from Wistar female rats. DETA NONOate (Z)-1-[2-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate, 1 mm], a NO donor that releases NO for an extended period of time, decreased cellular viability and prolactin release from primary cultures of anterior pituitary cells. Morphological studies showed an increase in the number of cells with chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation at 24 and 48 h after DETA/NO exposure. DNA internucleosomal fragmentation was also observed at the same time. Reversibility of the NO effect on cellular viability and prolactin release was observed only when the cells were incubated with DETA/NO for less than 6 h. Most apoptotic cells were immunopositive for prolactin, suggesting a high susceptibility of lactotrophs to the effect of NO. The cytotoxic effect of NO is dependent of caspase-9 and caspase-3, but seems to be independent of oxidative stress or nitrosative stress. Our results show that the exposition of anterior pituitary cells to NO for long periods induces programmed cell death of anterior pituitary cells.

  3. Effects of leptin on FSH cells in the pituitary gland of Podarcis siculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandino, Ida; Monaco, Antonio; Grimaldi, Maria Consiglio

    2015-03-01

    Leptin is the hormone synthesised by adipocytes, which plays an important role in regulating appetite and metabolism. In mammals, this pleiotropic hormone also plays a key role in controlling gonadotropin secretion by stimulatory hypothalamic and pituitary actions. However, little is known about leptin in lower vertebrates and particularly few studies are available on reptiles. In the present work, we analysed the action of recombinant human leptin on FSH cells in the pituitary gland of Podarcis siculus female lizards exposed to four different concentrations of the hormone. FSH cells showed a dose-dependent reaction. The data are indicative of the role played by leptin in modulating the cellular activity of such cells in the pituitary gland of P. siculus, similar to what was already reported in mammals. A functional receptor is evidently able to respond to leptin in this lizard, but further comparative studies are needed to understand the role of this hormone in ectothermic vertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Endocrine gland derived-VEGF is down-regulated in human pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raica, Marius; Coculescu, Mihail; Cimpean, Anca Maria; Ribatti, Domenico

    2010-10-01

    Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is an angiogenic molecule restricted to endocrine glands and, particularly, to steroid-secreting cells. The expression of EG-VEGF and its significance in human adenohypophysis in physiological and pathological conditions is still unknown. In this study, we investigated by immunohistochemistry the expression of EG-VEGF in 2 samples of normal adenohypophysis and 43 bioptic samples of pituitary adenoma. Moreover, the expression of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and adrenocorticoprophic hormone (ACTH) were also estimated. The results of this study for the first time demonstrate a down-regulation of EG-VEGF expression in human pituitary adenoma as compared to normal adenohypophysis, suggesting an impaired function of the neoplastic cells in terms of hormone release in the blood stream, as a consequence of impaired tumor angiogenesis in the tumor. On the basis of our data showing a marked decrease in the expression of EG-VEGF in pituitary adenoma, with the exception of LH-secreting adenomas, we suggest that LH might be involved in the induction of EG-VEGF secretion.

  5. Neurotransmitter receptors as signaling platforms in anterior pituitary cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, Hana; Stojilkovic, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 463, C (2018), s. 49-64 ISSN 0303-7207 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12695S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : pituitary * ligand-gated receptor channels * G protein -coupled receptors * neurotransmitters * action potentials * calcium signaling * hormone secretion Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 3.754, year: 2016

  6. Longitudinal volume changes of the pituitary gland in patients with schizotypal disorder and first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Zhou, Shi-Yu; Nakamura, Kazue; Tanino, Ryoichiro; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Noguchi, Kyo; Seto, Hikaru; Kurachi, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Michio

    2011-01-15

    An enlarged volume of the pituitary gland has been reported in the schizophrenia spectrum, possibly reflecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hyperactivity. However, it remains largely unknown whether the pituitary size longitudinally changes in the course of the spectrum disorders. In the present study, longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were obtained from 18 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 13 patients with schizotypal disorder, and 20 healthy controls. The pituitary volume was measured at baseline and follow-up (mean, 2.7 years) scans and was compared across groups. The pituitary volume was larger in the schizophrenia patients than controls at baseline, and both patient groups had significantly larger pituitary volume than controls at follow-up. In a longitudinal comparison, both schizophrenia (3.6%/year) and schizotypal (2.7%/year) patients showed significant pituitary enlargement compared with controls (-1.8%/year). In the schizophrenia patients, greater pituitary enlargement over time was associated with less improvement of delusions and higher scores for thought disorders at the follow-up. These findings suggest that the pituitary gland exhibits ongoing volume changes during the early course of the schizophrenia spectrum as a possible marker of state-related impairments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The development of radioimmunoassay systems for the human pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simionescu, L.

    1983-11-01

    The aim of the study was the preparation of 1. Human Growth Hormone (HGH), 2. The glycoprotein hormones: Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), 3. The Prolactin. 1. A standardised procedure for the preparation of HGH ''clinical grade'' was developed. This HGH can be applied for the treatment of children diagnosed as hypophyseal dwarfism; the preliminary results are encouraging. The final ethanol-soluble fraction is used also for the prolactin preparation. As shown by exclusion chromatography, the lyophilized HGH ''clinical grade'' contains mainly its monomeric form. The purified HGH obtained by processing of frozen glands is suitable as antigen for the preparation of antisera in rabbits. Large quantities of purified HGH were prepared, used as preparation for radioiodination, and proposed as a national reference preparation for immunoassay. The double antibody HGH-RIA system using author's procedure seems to be adequate for the HGH measurements in biological fluids. 2. Using two chromatographic steps (Sephadex G-150, DEAE-cellulose) followed by a preparative electrophoresis (P-PAGE) purified LH was obtained. The measurement of the β-TSH in the P-PAGE eluates showed concentrations lower than the sensitivity limit of the β-TSH RIA system (5microU/ml). The three chromatographic steps (Sephadex G-150, DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100) allowed to separate the FSH from TSH during the third step, FSH being eluted faster than TSH, as resulted from the RIA measurements of the FSH and of β-TSH: Some overlapping of the concentrations of these hormones was observed only in eluates on the descending arm of the FSH peak. 3. The procedure for the isolation and purification of prolactin was developed according to Hwang's method. The extraction procedure started with the discarded step during the HSH ''clinical grade'' preparation and included three chromatographic steps for purification. However, the final product

  8. MR imaging of pituitary dwarfism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Inoue, Yusuke

    1993-01-01

    Pituitary MR imaging was performed in 32 patients with clinically diagnosed pituitary dwarfism and 12 normal controls. The patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of pituitary dwarfism based on endocrinological data. The two patients with severe dwarfism showed transection of the pituitary stalk, ectopic posterior lobe and atrophy of the anterior lobe on MR imaging, while the 27 patients with mild dwarfism showed no abnormal MR findings of the pituitary gland. The former group corresponds to typical pituitary dwarfism and the latter to partial GH deficiency, which was recently proposed as another type of pituitary dwarfism. In conclusion, pituitary MR imaging may differentiate partial GH deficiency from typical (stalk-transected) pituitary dwarfism. (author)

  9. MR imaging of pituitary dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Inoue, Yusuke (Saitama Medical School, Kawagoe (Japan). Medical Center)

    1993-02-01

    Pituitary MR imaging was performed in 32 patients with clinically diagnosed pituitary dwarfism and 12 normal controls. The patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of pituitary dwarfism based on endocrinological data. The two patients with severe dwarfism showed transection of the pituitary stalk, ectopic posterior lobe and atrophy of the anterior lobe on MR imaging, while the 27 patients with mild dwarfism showed no abnormal MR findings of the pituitary gland. The former group corresponds to typical pituitary dwarfism and the latter to partial GH deficiency, which was recently proposed as another type of pituitary dwarfism. In conclusion, pituitary MR imaging may differentiate partial GH deficiency from typical (stalk-transected) pituitary dwarfism. (author).

  10. Long-term results of stereotactic radiosurgery to the pituitary gland in Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degerblad, M.; Raehn, T.; Bergstrand, G.; Thoren, M.

    1986-01-01

    Gamma radiation from 60 Co delivered with stereotactic technique was given to the pituitary gland in 35 patients, aged 18-65 years, with Cushing's disease. The doses were 70-100 Gy in each single irradiation. The size of the sella turcica was normal in the majority of the patients. The observation time was 3-9 years in 29 patiens. Out of them, 14 (48%) obtained clinical remission and normal urinary cortisol after one irradiation. Eight achieved remission after two to four irradiations. In total, 22 out of 29 patients (76%) obtained remission. In 12 of them remission was obtained in 1 year and in another 10 within 3 years. No recurrences were observed. Improvement was seen in 2 patients after one and three irradiations. Bilateral adrenalectomy was performed in 5 patients owing to unsatisfactory effect of irradiation. Pituitary insufficiency with gonadotropin, thyrotropin or cortocotropin failure was demonstrated in 12 of 22 patients in remission. This occurred 4 months to 7 years after the first irradiation. Another 6 patients were followed less than 3 years after the first irradiation. Two obtained remission after the first treatment, whereas the other 4 improved. Stereotactic pituitary irradiation is suggested as a non-invasive therapeutic alternative in Cushing's disease for example in patients with considerable surgical risk or as a supplement to pituitary microsurgery. (author)

  11. Liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland iron overload in young and adult thalassemic patients: a T2 relaxometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Astrakas, Loukas; Metafratzi, Zafiria; Efremidis, Stavros C.; Kiortsis, Dimitrios N.; Chalissos, Nikolaos

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-seven patients with β-thalassemia major, including 14 adolescents (15.2 ± 3.0 years) and 23 adults (26.4 ± 6.9 years), were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2) of the liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland was measured in a 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imager, using a multiecho spin-echo sequence (TR/TE 2,000/20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 ms). Pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan of a spin-echo sequence (TR/TE, 500/20 ms). The T2 of the pituitary gland was higher in adolescents (59.4 ± 15 ms) than in adults (45.3 ± 10.4 ms), P < 0.05. The T2 of the pancreas was lower in adolescents (43.6 ± 10.3 ms) than in adults (54.4 ± 10.4 ms). No difference among groups was found in the T2 of the liver and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation of the T2 among the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation between serum ferritin and T2 of the liver, pancreas and bone marrow. Pituitary T2 showed a significant correlation with pituitary gland height (adolescents: R = 0.63, adults: R = 0.62, P < 0.05) and serum ferritin (adolescents: R = -0.60, adults: R = -0.50, P < 0.05). In conclusion, iron overload evaluated by T2 is organ specific. After adolescence, age-related T2 changes are predominantly associated with pituitary siderosis and fatty degeneration of the pancreas. Pituitary size decreases with progressing siderosis. (orig.)

  12. Liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland iron overload in young and adult thalassemic patients: a T2 relaxometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Astrakas, Loukas; Metafratzi, Zafiria; Efremidis, Stavros C. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios N. [University of Ioannina, Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Chalissos, Nikolaos [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); University of Ioannina, Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2007-12-15

    Thirty-seven patients with {beta}-thalassemia major, including 14 adolescents (15.2 {+-} 3.0 years) and 23 adults (26.4 {+-} 6.9 years), were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2) of the liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland was measured in a 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imager, using a multiecho spin-echo sequence (TR/TE 2,000/20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 ms). Pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan of a spin-echo sequence (TR/TE, 500/20 ms). The T2 of the pituitary gland was higher in adolescents (59.4 {+-} 15 ms) than in adults (45.3 {+-} 10.4 ms), P < 0.05. The T2 of the pancreas was lower in adolescents (43.6 {+-} 10.3 ms) than in adults (54.4 {+-} 10.4 ms). No difference among groups was found in the T2 of the liver and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation of the T2 among the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation between serum ferritin and T2 of the liver, pancreas and bone marrow. Pituitary T2 showed a significant correlation with pituitary gland height (adolescents: R = 0.63, adults: R = 0.62, P < 0.05) and serum ferritin (adolescents: R = -0.60, adults: R = -0.50, P < 0.05). In conclusion, iron overload evaluated by T2 is organ specific. After adolescence, age-related T2 changes are predominantly associated with pituitary siderosis and fatty degeneration of the pancreas. Pituitary size decreases with progressing siderosis. (orig.)

  13. Cell proliferation and death in the irradiated pituitary gland and its modification by growth stimulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yaping; Hendry, Jolyon H.; Morris, Ian D.; Davis, Julian R.E.; Beardwell, Colin G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to show whether the rate of expression of radiation injury in the rat pituitary gland could be accelerated by the use of growth stimulants. Methods and Materials: Rat pituitary glands were irradiated in situ with a range of single doses up to 20 Gy. The rats were then given subcutaneous slow-release implants containing 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) and sulpiride (S) to stimulate lactotroph proliferation. Two sequential cycles were used, each consisting of stimulation (3 weeks) and withdrawal (2 weeks). Measurements were made of gland weight; BrdU-labeled, giant, and apoptotic cells; lactotrophs; as well as pituitary prolactin content, in response to exogenous thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH). Results: The two cycles of stimulation/withdrawal resulted in marked changes in gland weight, BrdU-labeling index, and serum prolactin (PRL) levels in unirradiated rats. The proportion of immunopositive growth-hormone-producing (GH) cells increased after irradiation. Radiation inhibited the hypertrophic response to E 2 + S and also inhibited increases in BrdU-labeling index and serum PRL levels. Also, giant lactotrophs were observed in the irradiated pituitaries. However, they were not seen in the unirradiated rats or in the irradiated rats treated with E 2 + S. TRH promoted PRL secretion in the unirradiated rat. In contrast, TRH inhibited PRL secretion in the irradiated rat and in all treatment groups receiving E 2 + S. Apoptosis was induced by irradiation and was substantially increased in lactotrophs and in other cell types by withdrawal of the E 2 and S stimulus, although the highest observed incidence was only 7 per 10,000 cells. Conclusion: Both irradiation and E 2 + S treatment removed the hypothalamic control of PRL secretion, which reveals this important inhibitory action of TRH upon PRL secretion. This suggests that it is not suitable as a dynamic test of pituitary PRL reserves in such abnormal situations, where there may also be damage to

  14. Comparison of Ct and MRI in the study of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliani, G.; Avataneo, T.; Potenzoni, F.; Sorrentino, T

    1989-01-01

    Normal CT and MR anatomy was studied in two series (53 and 25 cases respectively) of young volunteers of both sexes, asymptomatic and certainly without lesions of the pituitary gland. 115 other pathological cases (73 hyperprolactinemias, 8 acromegalies, 15 Cushing syndromes, 2 hyperthyroidisms, 17 non-secreting adenomas) were examined using both CT and MRI. Both an accurate review of the relative literature and the results of our own series prove that MR is superior to CT in diagnosing pituitary microadenomas (3.2% not diagnosed with MRI and 25.8% not diagnosed with CT), in the follow-up of prolactinomas subjected to medical therapy and in the study of extrasellar involvement of pituitery adenomas, particularly with regard to the demonstration of compression of the optic chiasma

  15. Radiation dose in critical organs due to non-coplanar irradiation of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, R.W.M.; Rittmann, K.L.; Meinass, H.J.; Rennicke, P.

    1996-01-01

    In order to estimate the somatic and genetic risk associated with a non-coplanar linac-based radiation technique of the pituitary gland, systematic secondary-dose measurements in a phantom and sample measurements of the dose near critical organs of patients were performed. For measurements of the dose outside the primary radiation field an acrylic-PVC phantom was used which was irradiated with a single field (4x4 cm 2 ). Eight patients with pituitary tumors were treated isocentrically with a combination of sagittal and transverse rotational arcs. To measure the dose in critical organs, LiF thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) in chip form were placed onto 1 eyelid, the skin over the thyroid, and the patient's clothes covering the region of breasts and ovaries of female patients and the testicles of male patients. Measurements were performed for all patients during 1 sagittal irradiation and for the majority of patients during 1 transverse irradiation. The phantom measurements demonstrated that the secondary dose measured on the patients surface can be considered as a good approximation for the dose in adjacent organs. The median dose in critical organs for sagittal irradiation was in the range of 25.8 mGy (eyes) to 1.9 mGy (testicles), and for transverse irradiation in the range of 23.3 mGy (eyes) to 1.3 mGy (testicles). The ratio of median organ doses for sagittal and transverse irradiation was 2.1 for the thyroid gland, 1.1 for the eyes, and 1.5 for the other organs. The dose in critical organs due to non-coplanar irradiation of the pituitary gland is only a small fraction of the dose delivered to the reference point of the planning target volume. The risk of a radiation-induced tumor and a genetic consequence associated with these small doses is generally less than 1% and 0.1%, respectively. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Live Staining and Isolation of Specific Hormone-Producing Cells from Rat Anterior Pituitary by Cytochemistry with Lectins and Cholera Toxin B Subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Motoshi; Kusumoto, Kenji; Fujiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Kozue; Tando, Yukiko; Yashiro, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Anterior pituitary glands contain five types of hormone-producing cells. Distinguishing and isolating specific types of living cells are essential for studying their function. Although many such attempts have been made, the results have been disappointing. In the present study, we labeled specific types of living hormone-producing cells by using potential differences in sugar chains on the cell surfaces. Cytochemical analysis with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit revealed that PNA, S-WGA, and cholera toxin B subunit recognized sugar chains specific to prolactin cells, ACTH cells, and GH cells, respectively, and that UEA-I recognized most of prolactin cells and GH cells. Next, fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to isolate GH cells labeled by fluoresceinated cholera toxin B. The purity of the GH cell fraction estimated by immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR for cell type-specific genes was more than 98%, which was higher than that reported in earlier studies, including those using transgenic animals. We conclude that cytochemistry with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit is a straightforward, acceptable method of isolating specific types of anterior pituitary cells and that the cells isolated by this method can serve as useful materials in the study of anterior pituitary cells

  17. Ultra structure differentiation of the anterior pituitary cells of the adult female non pregnant carnivore Vulpes zerda

    OpenAIRE

    Selim, Atteyat; El Nahass, Eman

    2016-01-01

    The pituitary gland of carnivore mammals in the world was described, but that of those in Egypt may be low, so the present study is carried out on some carnivore mammals such as Vulpes zerda, to elucidate the similarities and the differences of the pituitary cells between the mammals in the world and those in Egypt. The results indicate that, the gland is pyramidal in shape. The acidophilic cells and the basophilic cells are distributed heterogeneously in the body of the gland. The STH cells ...

  18. A pediatric case of pituitary macroadenoma presenting with pituitary apoplexy and cranial nerve involvement: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Özçetin, Mustafa; Karacı, Mehmet; Toroslu, Ertuğ; Edebali, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas usually arise from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and are manifested with hormonal disorders or mass effect. Mass effect usually occurs in nonfunctional tumors. Pituitary adenomas may be manifested with visual field defects or rarely in the form of total oculomotor palsy. Visual field defect is most frequently in the form of bitemporal hemianopsia and superior temporal defect. Sudden loss of vision, papilledema and ophthalmoplegia may be observed. Pituitary apople...

  19. In vivo oestrogenic modulation of Egr1 and Pitx1 gene expression in female rat pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewska, Alina; Herman, Andrzej P; Wolińska-Witort, Ewa; Kochman, Kazimierz; Zwierzchowski, Lech

    2014-12-01

    EGR1 and PITX1 are transcription factors required for gonadotroph cell Lhb promoter activation. To determine changes in Egr1 and Pitx1 mRNA levels in central and peripheral pituitary stimulations, an in vivo model based on i.c.v. pulsatile (1 pulse/0.5 h over 2 h) GnRH agonist (1.5 nM buserelin) or antagonist (2 nM antide) microinjections was used. The microinjections were given to ovariectomised and 17β-oestradiol (E2) (3×20 μg), ERA (ESR1) agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) (3×0.5 mg), ERB (ESR2) agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) (3×0.5 mg) s.c. pre-treated rats 30 min after last pulse anterior pituitaries were excised. Relative mRNA expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Results revealed a gene-specific response for GnRH and/or oestrogenic stimulations in vivo. Buserelin pulses enhanced Egr1 expression by 66% in ovariectomised rats, whereas the oestradiol-supplemented+i.c.v. NaCl-microinjected group showed a 50% increase in Egr1 mRNA expression. The oestrogenic signal was transmitted via ERA (ESR1) and ERB (ESR2) activation as administration of PPT and DPN resulted in 97 and 62%, respectively, elevation in Egr1 mRNA expression. A synergistic action of GnRH agonist and 17β-oestradiol (E2) stimulation of the Egr1 gene transcription in vivo were found. GnRHR activity did not affect Pitx1 mRNA expression; regardless of NaCl, buserelin or antide i.c.v. pulses, s.c. oestrogenic supplementation (with E2, PPT or DPN) consistently decreased (by -46, -48 and -41% respectively) the Pitx1 mRNA in the anterior pituitary gland. Orchestrated Egr1 and Pitx1 activities depending on specific central and peripheral regulatory inputs could be responsible for physiologically variable Lhb gene promoter activation in vivo. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. 3D volumetry comparison using 3T magnetic resonance imaging between normal and adenoma-containing pituitary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Roldan-Valadez; Ana Cristina Garcia-Ulloa; Omar Gonzalez-Gutierrez; Manuel Martinez-Lopez

    2011-01-01

    Background: Computed-assisted three-dimensional data (3D) allows for an accurate evaluation of volumes compared with traditional measurements. Aims: An in vitro method comparison between geometric volume and 3D volumetry to obtain reference data for pituitary volumes in normal pituitary glands (PGs) and PGs containing adenomas. Design: Prospective, transverse, analytical study. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight subjects underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with 3D sequencing for ...

  1. A journey through the pituitary gland: Development, structure and function, with emphasis on embryo-foetal and later development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castorina, Sergio; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Loreto, Carla; Leonardi, Rosi; Aiello, Flavia Concetta; Magro, Gaetano; Imbesi, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus are morphologically and functionally associated in the endocrine and neuroendocrine control of other endocrine glands. They therefore play a key role in a number of regulatory feedback processes that co-ordinate the whole endocrine system. Here we review the neuroendocrine system, from the discoveries that led to its identification to some recently clarified embryological, functional, and morphological aspects. In particular we review the pituitary gland and the main notions related to its development, organization, cell differentiation, and vascularization. Given the crucial importance of the factors controlling neuroendocrine system development to understand parvocellular neuron function and the aetiology of the congenital disorders related to hypothalamic-pituitary axis dysfunction, we also provide an overview of the molecular and genetic studies that have advanced our knowledge in the field. Through the action of the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland is involved in the control of a broad range of key aspects of our lives: the review focuses on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, particularly GnRH, whose abnormal secretion is associated with clinical conditions involving delayed or absent puberty and reproductive dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Cadmium induces apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells that can be reversed by treatment with antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poliandri, Ariel H.B.; Cabilla, Jimena P.; Velardez, Miguel O.; Bodo, Cristian C.A.; Duvilanski, Beatriz H.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd 2+ ) is an ubiquitous toxic metal that is involved in a variety of pathological conditions. Several reports indicate that Cd 2+ alters normal pituitary hormone secretion; however, little is known about the mechanisms that induce this misregulation. This paper reports the effect of Cd 2+ on anterior pituitary cell viability and its relation to prolactin secretion. Cd 2+ concentrations above 10 μM were found to be cytotoxic for pituitary cells. Morphological studies as well as DNA ladder fragmentation and caspase activation showed that Cd 2+ -treated cells undergo apoptosis. Even though several hours were needed to detect Cd 2+ -induced cytotoxicity, the effect of the metal became irreversible very quickly, requiring only 3 h of treatment. Prolactin release (measured at 48 h) was inhibited when the cells were exposed to Cd 2+ for 1 h, before any change in cell viability was observed. The antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine and Trolox (a hydrosoluble derivative of vitamin E), but not ascorbic acid, reversed both Cd 2+ -mediated cytotoxicity and the inhibition of prolactin release, supporting the involvement of oxidative stress in the mechanism of Cd 2+ action. In summary, the present work demonstrates that Cd 2+ is cytotoxic for anterior pituitary cells, that this effect is due to an induction of apoptosis, and that it can be reversed by antioxidants

  3. Immunohistochemical Localization of the Water Channels AQP4 and AQP5 in the Rat Pituitary Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Inahata, Yuki; Sawai, Nobuhiko; Yang, Chun-Ying; Kobayashi, Makito; Takata, Kuniaki; Ozawa, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The pituitary gland is composed of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. The adenohypophysis contains endocrine cells, folliculo-stellate (FS) cells, and marginal layer cells, whereas the neurohypophysis mainly comprises axons and pituicytes. To understand the molecular nature of water transfer in the pituitary gland, we examined the immunohistochemical localization of the membrane water channels aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and AQP5 in rat tissue. Double immunofluorescence analysis of AQP4 and S100 protein, a known marker for FS cells, marginal layer cells, and pituicytes, clearly revealed that FS cells and marginal layer cells in the adenohypophysis and the pituicytes in pars nervosa are positive for AQP4. AQP5 was found to be localized at the apical membrane in some marginal layer cells surrounding the Rathke’s residual pouch, in which AQP4 was observed to be localized on the basolateral membranes. These results suggest the following possibilities: 1) FS cells especially require water for their functions and 2) transepithelial water transfer could occur between the lumen of Rathke’s residual pouch and the interstitial fluid in the adenohypophysis through the AQP4 and AQP5 channels in the marginal layer cells

  4. Regulation of pro-adrenocorticotropin-endorphin synthesis and secretion in cultured neonatal rat anterior pituitary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S.M.; Mains, R.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Previous work demonstrated that newborn rat anterior pituitary corticotropes display processing patterns for pro-ACTH/endorphin that are different from the adult. The synthesis and release of beta-endorphin-related peptides was examined in dispersed cell and explant cultures of newborn anterior pituitary to investigate corticotrope development further. The temporal pattern of pro-ACTH/endorphin processing differed significantly from adult rat melanotropes and AtT-20 cells. While pro-ACTH/endorphin processing begins within 30 min of synthesis in adult melanotropes and AtT-20 cells, pulse-labeling of newborn corticotropes in culture indicated that pro-ACTH/endorphin remained uncleaved for at least 90 min after synthesis. With further incubation, there was a decrease in radioactivity associated with the precursor and an equivalent rise in the radioactivity associated with beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin. However, unprocessed precursor still remained in the cultured newborn anterior pituitary cells after a 25-h chase. Although intact pro-ACTH/endorphin from newborn corticotropes was very long-lived, the precursor did undergo oligosaccharide maturation and became endoglycosidase H resistant within 1 h after synthesis. Similar to the adult, pro-ACTH/endorphin synthesis was doubled in cultures of newborn anterior pituitary chronically treated with 10 nM CRF resulting in a 3- to 4-fold stimulation of secretion over the basal rate. However, unlike the AtT-20 cell or adult rat corticotrope, the proteolytic processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the newborn corticotrope was altered by chronic secretagogue treatment; less pro-ACTH/endorphin was converted to beta-endorphin in secretagogue-treated corticotropes than in controls. Thus processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the corticotrope is not mature by birth and can be regulated by chronic CRF treatment.

  5. Regulation of pro-adrenocorticotropin-endorphin synthesis and secretion in cultured neonatal rat anterior pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, S.M.; Mains, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated that newborn rat anterior pituitary corticotropes display processing patterns for pro-ACTH/endorphin that are different from the adult. The synthesis and release of beta-endorphin-related peptides was examined in dispersed cell and explant cultures of newborn anterior pituitary to investigate corticotrope development further. The temporal pattern of pro-ACTH/endorphin processing differed significantly from adult rat melanotropes and AtT-20 cells. While pro-ACTH/endorphin processing begins within 30 min of synthesis in adult melanotropes and AtT-20 cells, pulse-labeling of newborn corticotropes in culture indicated that pro-ACTH/endorphin remained uncleaved for at least 90 min after synthesis. With further incubation, there was a decrease in radioactivity associated with the precursor and an equivalent rise in the radioactivity associated with beta-endorphin and beta-lipotropin. However, unprocessed precursor still remained in the cultured newborn anterior pituitary cells after a 25-h chase. Although intact pro-ACTH/endorphin from newborn corticotropes was very long-lived, the precursor did undergo oligosaccharide maturation and became endoglycosidase H resistant within 1 h after synthesis. Similar to the adult, pro-ACTH/endorphin synthesis was doubled in cultures of newborn anterior pituitary chronically treated with 10 nM CRF resulting in a 3- to 4-fold stimulation of secretion over the basal rate. However, unlike the AtT-20 cell or adult rat corticotrope, the proteolytic processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the newborn corticotrope was altered by chronic secretagogue treatment; less pro-ACTH/endorphin was converted to beta-endorphin in secretagogue-treated corticotropes than in controls. Thus processing of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the corticotrope is not mature by birth and can be regulated by chronic CRF treatment

  6. Radioautographic study of binding and internalization of corticotropin-releasing factor by rat anterior pituitary corticotrophs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroux, P.; Pelletier, G.

    1984-01-01

    In order to identify the anterior pituitary cell type(s) containing corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors and to study the internalization processes of this peptide by the target cells, radioautography was performed on rat anterior pituitaries removed at specific intervals (2-60 min) after intracarotid injection of [ 125 I]iodo-CRF into intact and adrenalectomized female rats. In intact animals, all corticotrophs were labeled, whereas in the adrenalectomized animals about 80% of the hypertrophied corticotrophs (adrenalectomy cells) were. In control animals injected with both iodinated CRF and an excess of unlabeled peptide, no specific reaction could be detected. The time-course study in intact animals showed that 2 min after injection most silver grains were found over or within 160 nm of the plasma membrane. At the 5-min time intervals, grains were observed both over the plasma membrane and within the cytoplasm, associated with lysosomes, and the Golgi apparatus. Fifteen minutes after injection, grains were mostly found over lysosomes and the Golgi apparatus, whereas at the longest time intervals (30 and 60 min) almost no labeling could be detected. The results obtained in this study indicate that in the anterior pituitary CRF receptors are restricted to corticotrophs (as identified by electron microscopy) and that, after binding to the plasma membrane, CRF is rapidly internalized to Golgi elements and lysosomes

  7. Interaction of angiotensin II with dispersed cells from the anterior pituitary of the male rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paglin, S.; Stukenbrok, H.; Jamieson, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Membranes from 6-week-old male rat anterior pituitaries possess saturable binding sites for angiotensin II (AII; Kd . approximately 2 X 10(-9) M). The binding is specific since it can be competed for with [Sar1,Leu8]AII and is unaffected by the presence of insulin or cholecystokinin octapeptide at nanomolar concentrations. To find out which cell types specifically interact with AII, rat anterior pituitaries were enzymatically dispersed and exposed to [ 125 I]iodo-AII (2 nM) in the absence or presence of [Sar1,Leu8]AII (400 nM). The cells were then washed free of unbound ligand and processed for light and electron microscopic autoradiography. Distribution of autoradiographic grains revealed that three cell types were specifically labeled with [ 125 I]iodo-AII, namely mammotrophs, corticotrophs, and presumptive thyrotrophs. These cells were all labeled in the presence of [ 125 I]iodo-AII alone (experimentals), whereas only 10-30% of them were labeled when 400 nM [Sar1,Leu8]AII was included in the binding reaction (controls). The number of grains over the labeled cells in the controls was 20% of that found in the experimental cells. These results may imply that AII can regulate anterior pituitary functions under physiological conditions by interacting directly with its secretory cells

  8. Dopaminergic Neurons Controlling Anterior Pituitary Functions: Anatomy and Ontogenesis in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Romain; Affaticati, Pierre; Bureau, Charlotte; Colin, Ingrid; Demarque, Michaël; Dufour, Sylvie; Vernier, Philippe; Yamamoto, Kei; Pasqualini, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons located in the preoptico-hypothalamic region of the brain exert a major neuroendocrine control on reproduction, growth, and homeostasis by regulating the secretion of anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) hormones. Here, using a retrograde tract tracing experiment, we identified the neurons playing this role in the zebrafish. The DA cells projecting directly to the anterior pituitary are localized in the most anteroventral part of the preoptic area, and we named them preoptico-hypophyseal DA (POHDA) neurons. During development, these neurons do not appear before 72 hours postfertilization (hpf) and are the last dopaminergic cell group to differentiate. We found that the number of neurons in this cell population continues to increase throughout life proportionally to the growth of the fish. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation analysis suggested that this increase is due to continuous neurogenesis and not due to a phenotypic change in already-existing neurons. Finally, expression profiles of several genes (foxg1a, dlx2a, and nr4a2a/b) were different in the POHDA compared with the adjacent suprachiasmatic DA neurons, suggesting that POHDA neurons develop as a distinct DA cell population in the preoptic area. This study offers some insights into the regional identity of the preoptic area and provides the first bases for future functional genetic studies on the development of DA neurons controlling anterior pituitary functions.

  9. Nitric oxide protects anterior pituitary cells from cadmium-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliandri, Ariel H B; Velardez, Miguel O; Cabilla, Jimena P; Bodo, Cristian C A; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Quinteros, Alnilan F; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2004-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd2+) is a potent toxic metal for both plants and animals. Chronic exposure to low doses of Cd2+ results in damage to several organs. We have previously reported that Cd2+ induces apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells by a caspase- and oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis is affected by Cd2+ in several systems. NO has been shown to be either cytoprotective or cytotoxic in many systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible participation of NO in the cytotoxic effect of Cd2+ on rat anterior pituitary cells. Cell viability was evaluated by mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity assay and confirmed by microscopy, studying nuclear morphology. Here we show that DETA NONOate ((Z)-1-[2 (2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate), a long-term NO donor, at concentrations below 0.5 mM, reduces nuclear condensation and fragmentation and reverses the decrease in cellular activity induced by Cd2+. Cd2+, by itself, induced NO synthesis, and inhibition of this synthesis enhanced Cd2+ cytotoxicity. NO also prevented caspase-3 activation and lipidic peroxidation induced by Cd2+. The NO/cGMP pathway does not seem to be involved in the cytoprotective effect of NO. These results indicate that NO has a cytoprotective role in Cd2+ -induced apoptosis, suggesting that endogenous NO could have a physiological role in protecting anterior pituitary cells.

  10. Effect of thyroid gland function following 60Co-γ ray irradiation on rabbit pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Shigenori

    1987-01-01

    Cobalt 60 gamma-ray irradiation using a single exposure at 10 Gy or 20 Gy was applied to the hypophysis in rabbits in order to study the relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone (T 4 ) after irradiation, and the histopathologic features were observed together with determination of the blood T 4 levels. The histopathologic features were observed with special reference to changes in the β cells of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis involved in TSH secretion using mainly hematoxylin and eosin staining. Blood T 4 level was determined by radioimmunoassay, and the histopathologic features and hormone levels were compared between the 10 Gy- and 20 Gy-irradiation groups. The following results were obtained: 1) The T 4 level rapidly decreased the day following irradiation in both groups, continuing for 3 days and 7 days, respectively. subsequently, the level rapidly returned to the pre-irradiation level about 14 days after irradiation in the 10 Gy group, while the level in the 20 Gy group continued to decrease at a rate significantly different from that in the 10 Gy group even after 14 days following irradiation. However, the level was restored to the pre-irradiation level in both groups 28 days after irradiation. 2) Histopathologic examination of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis revealed a decrease in the number of β cells until about 14 days after irradiation in both groups, and thereafter there were only a few changes. However, pyknosis and vacuolar degeneration of other cells and dilatation of sinusoidal capillaries were present for a relatively long period, which were not relieved even 28 days after irradiation, particularly in the 20 Gy group. 3) There was a relatively close relationship between changes in the β cells of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis and changes in blood T 4 level, but histopathologic changes in the hypophysis seemed to remain for a relatively long period. (author)

  11. Endothelin in human brain and pituitary gland: Presence of immunoreactive endothelin, endothelin messenger ribonucleic acid, and endothelin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; Ghatei, M.A.; Jones, P.M.; Murphy, J.K.; Lam, H.C.; O'Halloran, D.J.; Bloom, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of immunoreactive (IR) endothelin, endothelin mRNA, and endothelin receptors in human brain and pituitary gland has been studied by RIA, Northern blot hybridization, and receptor assay. IR endothelin was detected in all five brain regions examined (cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brain stem, basal ganglia, and hypothalamus) (6-10 fmol/g wet wt) and spinal cord (22 +/- 6 fmol/g wet wt, n = 7, mean +/- SEM). Higher concentrations of IR endothelin were found in the pituitary gland (147 +/- 30 fmol/g wet wt). Fast protein liquid chromatographic analysis of the IR endothelin in pituitary gland showed a large IR peak in the position of endothelin-3 and a smaller peak in the position of endothelin-1, whereas IR endothelin in the hypothalamus and brain stem was mainly endothelin-1. Endothelin messenger RNA was detected by Northern blot hybridization in the pituitary but not in hypothalamus. The receptor assay showed that 125I-endothelin-1 binding sites were present in large numbers in all five brain regions but were much less abundant in the pituitary gland. Binding capacity and dissociation constant were 5052 +/- 740 fmol/mg protein and 0.045 +/- 0.007 nM in brain stem and 963 +/- 181 fmol/mg protein and 0.034 +/- 0.009 nM in hypothalamus. In the pituitary gland, there were two classes of binding sites for endothelin with dissociation constants of 0.059 +/- 0.002 nM (binding capacity = 418 +/- 63 fmol/mg protein) and 0.652 +/- 0.103 nM (binding capacity = 1717 +/- 200 fmol/mg protein). Endothelin-1, -2 and -3 were almost equipotent in displacing the binding (IC50 approximately 0.04 nM). These findings are in accord with the possibility that endothelin acts as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator or neurohormone in man

  12. Importance of radioimmunological determinations of hormones of pituitary gland in praxi usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, W.; Knappe, G.

    1977-01-01

    A short introduction into the radioimmunoassay technique as a modern method for hormone determination is given. Some general problems related to the use of the radioimmunoassay technique are discussed. The clinical application of this technique to the determination of hormones of the anterior pituitary such as HGH, PRL, ACTH, MSH, TSH, LH and FSH in combination with dynamic tests are reviewed and illustrated by own results for the determination of HGH, LH and FSH. Analytical problems of the special hormones are mentioned only. (author)

  13. Expression of androgen receptor and estrogen receptor-alpha in the developing pituitary gland of male sheep lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Bo; Yuan, Xue-Jun

    2011-09-01

    To explore the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the developing pituitary of male lamb, we detected AR and ERα expression in the anterior pituitary of lambs aged 2-7 months old by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that both AR immunoreactivity (AR-ir) and ERα immunoreactivity (ERα-ir) were localized in the nuclei of anterior pituitary cell. The percentage of the anterior pituitary cells expressing ERα fluctuated from 8.79±0.02% to 11.80±0.04% during the examined stages, but fell significantly to the lowest level at 6 months. While the proportion of AR-ir showed significant changes, it was in 11.52±1.26% at 2 months, it firstly increased to 19.86±1.03% at 3 months, and then significantly decreased to 8.18±1.17% at 6 months (Panterior pituitary cells. These results indicate that both AR and ERα are important in regulation of secretary function of anterior pituitary in sheep lamb, although the related mechanism needs to be elucidated further. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tracing of Zinc Nanocrystals in the Anterior Pituitary of Zinc-Deficient Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, Anjana; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, Ranveer Singh

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to trace zinc nanocrystals in the anterior pituitary of zinc-deficient Wistar rats by using autometallographic technique. Male Wistar rats (30-40 days of age, pre-pubertal period) of 40-50 g body weight were divided into the following: the ZC (zinc control) group-fed with 100 ppm zinc in diet, the ZD (zinc-deficient) group-fed with zinc-deficient (1.00 ppm) diet and the PF (pair-fed) group-received 100 ppm zinc in diet. The experiments were set for 2 and 4 weeks. Pituitary was removed and processed for the autometallographic technique. The control and pair-fed groups retained their normal morphological features. However, male Wistar rats fed on zinc-deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks displayed a wide range of symptoms such as significant (P zinc nanocrystals in the nuclei. The present findings suggest that the dietary zinc deficiency causes decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals localization and their distribution in the pituitary thereby contributing to the dysfunction of the pituitary of the male Wistar rats. The severity of zinc deficiency symptoms progressed after the second week of the experiment. Decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals attenuates the pituitary function which would exert its affect on other endocrine organs impairing their functions indicating that the metabolic regulation of pituitary is mediated to a certain extent by zinc and/or hypothalamus-hypophysial system which also reflects its essentiality during the period of growth.

  15. Ultrastructural autoradiographic localization of somatostatin-28 in the rat pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, G.; Leroux, P.; Pelletier, G.

    1985-01-01

    To identify the anterior pituitary cell type(s) containing somatostatin-28 (SS-28)-binding sites and to study the internalization processes of this peptide by the target cells, autoradiography was performed on rat anterior pituitaries removed at specific intervals (2-60 min) after iv injection of the [ 125 I]iodo-SS-28 agonist [Leu8,D-Trp22,Tyr25]SS-28 into intact, adrenalectomized, or castrated male rats. At the light microscopic level, the silver grains were found in 75% of cells. Concomitant injection of an excess of unlabeled peptide prevented the binding of label, verifying the specificity of binding. No specific labeling could be detected in the adrenocorticotrophs of adrenalectomized rats or gonadotrophs (castration cells) of castrated rats. At the electron microscopic level, three cell types (somatotrophs, thyrotrophs, and mammotrophs) appear to contain radiolabeled SS-28. The time-course study in somatotrophs of intact animals showed that 2 min after injection, most silver grains were associated with the plasma membrane. Five to 15 min after injection, label was found over both the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic organelles, especially the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and secretory granules. At the longest time interval (60 min), labeling was mostly associated with the cytoplasmic organelles. These results indicate that SS-28-binding sites are present only in those cell types in which somatostatin is known to regulate secretory functions. The present data also show that a rapid internalization of the radiolabeled peptide occurs

  16. Isolation and characterization of gonadotropin isohormones from the pituitary gland of pike eel (Muraenesox cinereus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.-L.; Huang, C.-J.; Lin, S.-H.; Lo, T.-B.; Papkoff, H.

    1981-01-01

    Pike eel gonadotropins were isolated from pituitary glands by 40% alcohol-6% ammonium acetate, pH 5.1 extraction and were purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and electrophoresis into four electrophoretically homogeneous forms. These four isohormones were biologically identified as gonadotropins by the stimulation of 32 P-uptake in 1-day-old chick testes, by the induction of ovulation in catfish, and by the in vitro production of testosterone from isolated rat Leydig cells and of androgen from carp testes. The amino acid composition of the isohormones were similar to other known piscine gonadotropins (carp and salmon) and were composed of two non-identical subunits with Tyr and Ser as N-terminal amino acid residues. The molecular weights of two subunits were 15000 and 10500, respectively, as estimated by SDS-gel disc electrophoresis. (author)

  17. Developmental disorders of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland associated with congenital hypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ameeta; Dattani, Mehul T

    2008-02-01

    The pituitary gland is a complex organ secreting six hormones from five different cell types. It is the end product of a carefully orchestrated pattern of expression of signalling molecules and transcription factors. Naturally occurring and transgenic murine models have demonstrated a role for many of these molecules in the aetiology of congenital hypopituitarism. These include the transcription factors HESX1, PROP1, POU1F1, LHX3, LHX4, PITX1, PITX2, SOX2 and SOX3. The expression pattern of these transcription factors dictates the phenotype that results when the gene encoding the relevant transcription factor is mutated. The highly variable phenotype may consist of isolated hypopituitarism or more complex disorders such as septo-optic dysplasia and holoprosencephaly. However, the overall incidence of mutations in known transcription factors in patients with hypopituitarism is low, indicating that many genes remain to be identified; characterization of these will further elucidate the pathogenesis of this complex condition and also shed light on normal pituitary development and function.

  18. Relationship between growth of nursing pigs and composition of sow colostrum and milk from anterior and posterior mammary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Piglets that nurse anterior mammary glands grow faster than those suckling posterior mammary glands. The underlying mechanisms are not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there is a difference in composition in colostrum and milk secreted by anterior and posterior mammary glands. Seven healthy sows were used. The first three pairs of mammary glands were defined as anterior mammary glands (AMG and the rest as posterior mammary glands (PMG. Additionally, the total of 87 born piglets from 7 litters derived from the sows involved in the experiment was analyzed. Piglets from each litter that nursed AMG were defined as AMG group while the rest of piglets from the litter were defined as PMG group. Colostrum and milk were collected at days 1, 2, 3 and 7 after parturition. Samples taken from anterior and posterior mammary glands were pooled, respectively. Results showed that total protein, IGF-I and insulin concentrations were significantly higher in the colostrum of anterior than posterior glands and IGF-I concentration remained significantly higher in milk of anterior compared to posterior glands. There were no significant differences in fat, dry matter and lactose among anterior and posterior glands during all examined periods. Additionally, blood samples from nursing sows were obtained at days 1 and 7 after parturition. Results showed that concentrations of Ca, glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, total bilirubin and insulin significantly increased from day 1 to day 7 of parturition while concentrations of P, BUN, CK and IGF-I did not significantly change during this period. Initial body weight of pigs nursing the anterior gland was higher but not significantly that those suckling posterior glands. Pigs that nursed anterior glands gained weight faster then those which suckled posterior glands resulting with significantly higher body weigh of piglets nursing anterior compared to posterior glands at day 8 of neonatal life (p

  19. Effects of X-irradiation on gonadotropin secretion in rat anterior pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinmin; Liu Shuzheng

    1988-01-01

    The dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells cultured in 3 days was exposed to single doses of X-irradiation in the range of 0.5-8.0 Gy. LH and FSH contents in both the supernatant and the cells were measured. The LH secretion was significantly increased at the doses greater than 0.5 Gy and FSH secretion was also significantly enhanced at the dose of 4.0 Gy. The cellular contents of both LH and FSH remained near the control levels. It is concluded that gonadotropin secretion can be stimulated by single doses of X-rays in the range of 0.5-8.0 Gy

  20. The Influence of the Size, Age and Sex on the Computed Tomographic Measured Size of the Pituitary Gland in Normal Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crijns, C P; Van Bree, H J; Broeckx, B J G; Schauvliege, S; Van Loon, G; Martens, A; Vanderperren, K; Dingemanse, W B; Gielen, I M

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of the size, age and sex of the horse on the size of the pituitary gland and determine the possibility of using the pituitary gland height-to-brain area ratio (P:B ratio) to allow comparison of different sized and aged horses. Thirty-two horses without pituitary pars inter-media dysfunction that underwent a contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) examination were included in a cross-sectional study. On the CT images, the pituitary gland height was measured and the P:B ratio was calculated. These measurements were correlated to the size, age and sex of the horses. The pituitary gland height was significantly associated with the size (P horses. No significant association was found between the P:B ratio and the size (P = 0.25), the age (P = 0.06) or the sex (P = 0.25) of the horses. In conclusion, the pituitary gland size varies between different sized and aged horses. The use of the P:B ratio is a valuable metric for making comparisons between the pituitary glands of these horses. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Effectiveness of proton-beam irradiation of the pituitary gland in children with Itsenko-Cushing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukovskij, M.A.; Bukhman, A.I.; Levshina, R.B.; Kirpatovskaya, L.E.; Kolesnikova, G.S.; Pankova, S.S.; Lisovets, S.P.; Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol'zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow

    1990-01-01

    The results of the treatment of 20 children with Icenko-Cushing disease (ICD) by proton-beam irradiation of the pituitary glandare presented. The use of the medical proton beam of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics found to be effective for the treatment of children with mild and average forms of ICD. Irradiation of the pituitary gland at a dose of 70-100 Gy is accompanied by general and local radiation reactions which are not dangerous for children. The time of development of remission after irradiation depends on a degree of severity and features of a course of disease

  2. Dopamine inhibition of anterior pituitary adenylate cyclase is mediated through the high-affinity state of the D2 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgundvaag, B.; George, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    The diterpinoid forskolin stimulated adenylate cyclase activity (measured by conversion of [ 3 H]-ATP to [ 3 H]-cAMP) in anterior pituitary from male and female rats. Inhibition of stimulated adenylate cyclase activity by potent dopaminergic agonists was demonstrable only in female anterior pituitary. The inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity displayed a typically dopaminergic rank order of agonist potencies and could be completely reversed by a specific dopamine receptor antagonist. The IC 50 values of dopamine agonist inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity correlated with equal molarity with the dissociation constant of the high-affinity dopamine agonist-detected receptor binding site and with the IC 50 values for inhibition of prolactin secretion. These findings support the hypothesis that it is the high-affinity form of the D 2 dopamine receptor in anterior pituitary which is responsible for mediating the dopaminergic function of attenuating adenylate cyclase activity. 12 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  3. Reactive oxygen species are key mediators of the nitric oxide apoptotic pathway in anterior pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiavelli, Leticia I; Poliandri, Ariel H; Quinteros, Fernanda A; Cabilla, Jimena P; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2007-03-01

    We previously showed that long-term exposure of anterior pituitary cells to nitric oxide (NO) induces apoptosis. The intracellular signals underlying this effect remained unclear. In this study, we searched for possible mechanisms involved in the early stages of the NO apoptotic cascade. Caspase 3 was activated by NO with no apparent disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. NO caused a rapid increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and this increase seems to be dependent of mitochondrial electron transport chain. The antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine avoided ROS increase, prevented the NO-induced caspase 3 activation, and reduced the NO apoptotic effect. Catalase was inactivated by NO, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) were not modified at first, but increased at later times of NO exposure. The increase of GSH level is important for the scavenging of the NO-induced ROS overproduction. Our results indicate that ROS have an essential role as a trigger of the NO apoptotic cascade in anterior pituitary cells. The permanent inhibition of catalase may strengthen the oxidative damage induced by NO. GPx activity and GSH level augment in response to the oxidative damage, though this increase seems not to be enough to rescue the cells from the NO effect.

  4. Sellar door: Harvey Cushing's entry into the pituitary gland, the unabridged Johns Hopkins experience 1896-1912.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Courtney; Adams, Hadie; Mathioudakis, Nestoras; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2013-02-01

    To review the original surgical records from the Johns Hopkins Hospital, and analyze the records of patients Cushing treated for pituitary disorders from 1896 to 1912. Following IRB approval, and through the courtesy of the Alan Mason Chesney Archives, we reviewed the original surgical files from the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Patients presenting with pituitary-related symptoms, who underwent surgical treatment directed at the pituitary gland, were selected for further review. Thirty-seven patients who underwent surgical intervention for pituitary disorders were found. Of these patients, 12 were mentioned only briefly in Cushing's 1912 monograph, whereas 6 were not described at all. The remaining 19 were documented by Cushing in his 1912 monograph. Cushing used three main surgical approaches to the pituitary: transsphenoidal, transcranial, and the subfrontal "omega incision." There were 6 inpatient deaths. The mean time to last follow-up was 41.0 months. At follow-up, headache was the most common unresolved symptom. This review highlights Cushing's accomplishments in the surgical treatment of suspected pituitary pathology during his early career as a young attending at Johns Hopkins Hospital. It reveals new information about patients whom Cushing did not include in his publications detailing his surgical experience at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Discovery in Bovine Pituitary Gland Using RNA-Seq Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Smoczyński, Rafał; Kadarmideen, Haja N; Dziuba, Piotr; Błaszczyk, Paweł; Sikora, Marcin; Walendzik, Paulina; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Pierzchała, Mariusz; Horbańczuk, Jarosław; Szostak, Agnieszka; Ogluszka, Magdalena; Zwierzchowski, Lech; Czarnik, Urszula; Fraser, Leyland; Sobiech, Przemysław; Wąsowicz, Krzysztof; Gelfand, Brian; Feng, Yaping; Kumar, Dibyendu

    2016-01-01

    Examination of bovine pituitary gland transcriptome by strand-specific RNA-seq allows detection of putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within potential candidate genes (CGs) or QTLs regions as well as to understand the genomics variations that contribute to economic trait. Here we report a breed-specific model to successfully perform the detection of SNPs in the pituitary gland of young growing bulls representing Polish Holstein-Friesian (HF), Polish Red, and Hereford breeds at three developmental ages viz., six months, nine months, and twelve months. A total of 18 bovine pituitary gland polyA transcriptome libraries were prepared and sequenced using the Illumina NextSeq 500 platform. Sequenced FastQ databases of all 18 young bulls were submitted to NCBI-SRA database with NCBI-SRA accession numbers SRS1296732. For the investigated young bulls, a total of 113,882,3098 raw paired-end reads with a length of 156 bases were obtained, resulting in an approximately 63 million paired-end reads per library. Breed-wise, a total of 515.38, 215.39, and 408.04 million paired-end reads were obtained for Polish HF, Polish Red, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA) read alignments showed 93.04%, 94.39%, and 83.46% of the mapped sequencing reads were properly paired to the Polish HF, Polish Red, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Constructed breed-specific SNP-db of three cattle breeds yielded at 13,775,885 SNPs. On an average 765,326 breed-specific SNPs per young bull were identified. Using two stringent filtering parameters, i.e., a minimum 10 SNP reads per base with an accuracy ≥ 90% and a minimum 10 SNP reads per base with an accuracy = 100%, SNP-db records were trimmed to construct a highly reliable SNP-db. This resulted in a reduction of 95,7% and 96,4% cut-off mark of constructed raw SNP-db. Finally, SNP discoveries using RNA-Seq data were validated by KASP™ SNP genotyping assay. The comprehensive QTLs/CGs analysis of 76 QTLs

  6. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Discovery in Bovine Pituitary Gland Using RNA-Seq Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekhar Pareek

    Full Text Available Examination of bovine pituitary gland transcriptome by strand-specific RNA-seq allows detection of putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within potential candidate genes (CGs or QTLs regions as well as to understand the genomics variations that contribute to economic trait. Here we report a breed-specific model to successfully perform the detection of SNPs in the pituitary gland of young growing bulls representing Polish Holstein-Friesian (HF, Polish Red, and Hereford breeds at three developmental ages viz., six months, nine months, and twelve months. A total of 18 bovine pituitary gland polyA transcriptome libraries were prepared and sequenced using the Illumina NextSeq 500 platform. Sequenced FastQ databases of all 18 young bulls were submitted to NCBI-SRA database with NCBI-SRA accession numbers SRS1296732. For the investigated young bulls, a total of 113,882,3098 raw paired-end reads with a length of 156 bases were obtained, resulting in an approximately 63 million paired-end reads per library. Breed-wise, a total of 515.38, 215.39, and 408.04 million paired-end reads were obtained for Polish HF, Polish Red, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA read alignments showed 93.04%, 94.39%, and 83.46% of the mapped sequencing reads were properly paired to the Polish HF, Polish Red, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Constructed breed-specific SNP-db of three cattle breeds yielded at 13,775,885 SNPs. On an average 765,326 breed-specific SNPs per young bull were identified. Using two stringent filtering parameters, i.e., a minimum 10 SNP reads per base with an accuracy ≥ 90% and a minimum 10 SNP reads per base with an accuracy = 100%, SNP-db records were trimmed to construct a highly reliable SNP-db. This resulted in a reduction of 95,7% and 96,4% cut-off mark of constructed raw SNP-db. Finally, SNP discoveries using RNA-Seq data were validated by KASP™ SNP genotyping assay. The comprehensive QTLs/CGs analysis

  7. Estimating volumes of the pituitary gland from T1-weighted magnetic-resonance images: effects of age, puberty, testosterone, and estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Angelita Pui-Yee; Pipitone, Jon; Park, Min Tae M; Dickie, Erin W; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, Bruce G; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2014-07-01

    The pituitary gland is a key structure in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis--it plays an important role in sexual maturation during puberty. Despite its small size, its volume can be quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we study a cohort of 962 typically developing adolescents from the Saguenay Youth Study and estimate pituitary volumes using a newly developed multi-atlas segmentation method known as the MAGeT Brain algorithm. We found that age and puberty stage (controlled for age) each predicts adjusted pituitary volumes (controlled for total brain volume) in both males and females. Controlling for the effects of age and puberty stage, total testosterone and estradiol levels also predict adjusted pituitary volumes in males and pre-menarche females, respectively. These findings demonstrate that the pituitary gland grows during adolescence, and its volume relates to circulating plasma-levels of sex steroids in both males and females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Physiologically-induced changes in proopiomelanocortin mRNA levels in the pituitary gland of the amphibian Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, G J; Weterings, K A; van Zoest, I D; Jenks, B G

    1987-03-13

    In the pars intermedia of the pituitary gland of the amphibian Xenopus laevis the level of mRNA encoding proopiomelanocortin (POMC), the precursor protein for alpha-melanophore-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), is shown to be dependent on physiological parameters. POMC mRNA levels in the pars intermedia of black-background-adapted Xenopus are much higher than those of white-adapted animals. These physiological changes in POMC mRNA levels are tissue-specific because they were not found in the pars distalis of the pituitary gland. Background transfer experiments revealed that modulation of POMC gene activity is much slower than changes in the secretion of alpha-MSH.

  9. Effect of single-dose radiation on cell survival and growth hormone secretion by rat anterior pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, Z.; Kuten, A.; Hertz, P.; Tatcher, M.; Kedar, A.; Benderly, A.

    1983-01-01

    Cranial irradiation has been shown to impair growth hormone secretion in children. In this study a cell culture of dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells was exposed to single doses of radiation in the range of 100 to 1500 rad. Survival curves were obtained for the different anterior pituitary cell lines, and growth hormone secretion was measured in the tissue culture medium. Both survival and growth hormone secretion curves showed an initial shoulder in the range of 0 to 300 rad, followed by a decline between 300 to 750 rad. It is concluded that growth hormone secreting acidophilic pituicytes are sensitive to radiation at single doses greater than 300 rad

  10. Effects of photoperiod and temperature on the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland of the goldfish, Carassius auratus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, B.A. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC); Peter, R.E.

    1976-11-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of photoperiod and temperature on prolactin release from the goldfish pituitary gland. Fish were acclimated to different photoperiods and temperatures, and also were subjected to a change in either of these two parameters after different acclimation conditions. Serum and pituitary samples were collected and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for prolactin levels. In other experiments samples for prolactin analysis were taken every 3 h intermittently over a period of 3 days from fish that were acclimated to different photoperiod and temperature conditions. Longer photoperiods and higher temperatures caused pituitary prolactin release. Serum prolactin changed on a circadian rhythm and the rhythm was modified depending on the length of the photoperiod.

  11. Dynamic MR imaging of pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Yukio; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Keyaki, Atsushi; Nabeshima, Sachio; Kawamura, Junichiro; Matsuo, Michimasa

    1990-01-01

    The authors performed serial dynamic MR imaging in patients with 10 normal pituitary and 21 pituitary adenoma utilizing spin-echo sequence with a very short repetition time (SE 100/15) every minute immediately after a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA. Usual T 1 -weighted images (SE 600/15) were also obtained before and after the dynamic study. Pituitary adenomas included 10 adenomas confirmed by surgery, 4 adenomas confirmed by biologic data, and 7 postoperative adenomas. Out of 10 patients who underwent surgery after dynamic MRI, 9 patients underwent postoperative dynamic MRI. In normal patients, the pituitary gland was markedly enhanced on the early-phase images of the dynamic study, followed by gradual decrease of intensity throughout the dynamic study. In cases of microadenomas, the contrast between the normal pituitary gland and adenoma is better than that on the usual T 1 -weighted images by marked enhancement of the normal pituitary gland. Dynamic images clearly showed the residual normal pituitary glands in all cases of macroadenoma larger than 15 mm in diameter, whereas usual contrast-enhanced images showed the normal pituitary gland only in one case. In all patients who underwent both preoperative and postoperative dynamic MRI, postoperative dynamic MRI showed the normal pituitary glands which are markedly enhanced on the early-phase images in the sites which correspond to the preoperative dynamic study. The normal residual anterior gland was also visualized in four out of 7 patients who received only postoperative dynamic MRI. Dynamic MRI is a strong diagnostic modality for visualizing microadenoma and for visualizing the normal pituitary gland in cases of preoperative and postoperative macroadenoma. (author)

  12. Stafne bone cavity with ectopic salivary gland tissue in the anterior of mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Deyhimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stafne bone cavities (SBCs are uncommon well-demarcated defects of the mandible, which often occur in the posterior portion of the jaw bone and are usually asymptomatic. Furthermore, SBC is found in men aged 50-70-year-old. Anterior mandibular variants of SBC are very rare. This article describes a case of anterior SBC in a 45-year-old man that resembled endodontic periapical lesions. Upon histopathological examination, it turned out to be a normal salivary gland tissue.

  13. Comparison of two heterogeneity correction algorithms in pituitary gland treatments with intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, Lucas D.; Santos, Gabriela R.; Ribeiro, Victor A.B.; Rodrigues, Laura N.; Weltman, Eduardo; Braga, Henrique F.

    2013-01-01

    The dose accuracy calculated by a treatment planning system is directly related to the chosen algorithm. Nowadays, several calculation doses algorithms are commercially available and they differ in calculation time and accuracy, especially when individual tissue densities are taken into account. The aim of this study was to compare two different calculation algorithms from iPlan®, BrainLAB, in the treatment of pituitary gland tumor with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). These tumors are located in a region with variable electronic density tissues. The deviations from the plan with no heterogeneity correction were evaluated. To initial validation of the data inserted into the planning system, an IMRT plan was simulated in a anthropomorphic phantom and the dose distribution was measured with a radiochromic film. The gamma analysis was performed in the film, comparing it with dose distributions calculated with X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) algorithm and pencil beam convolution (PBC). Next, 33 patients plans, initially calculated by PBC algorithm, were recalculated with XVMC algorithm. The treatment volumes and organs-at-risk dose-volume histograms were compared. No relevant differences were found in dose-volume histograms between XVMC and PBC. However, differences were obtained when comparing each plan with the plan without heterogeneity correction. (author)

  14. Glucocorticoid regulation of gonadotropin release from gonadotropes of ovine pituitary gland in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nangalama, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    In order to understand the role of glucocorticoids in the regulation of gonadotropin release by the pituitary gland, the short-term effects of cortisol perifusion (1.5 h to 8 hrs) on GnRH-induced LH secretion were investigated. To determine the biochemical mechanism(s) by which cortisol can act to modulate GnRH-induced LH release, the interactions of cortisol and arachidonic acid in GnRH-stimulated LH release were examined. Cortisol perifusion for 1.5 hr had no effect on GnRH-induced LH release, but longer treatment periods (4 hr-8 hrs) significantly reduced GnRH-stimulated LH release (4.0 hr, p -4 M AA was administered for 20 min before a 10 min, 10 -10 M GnRH pulse. Like cortisol, chloroquine also failed to inhibit AA-induced LH release. Perifusion with 10 -6 M cortisol for 6.0 hours significantly (p 3 ]AA release 24% below the basal (100%) [ 3 H]AA secretion. Reduction of [ 3 H]AA release was accompanied by decreased GnRH-stimulated LH secretion

  15. Accuracy and reproducibility of a novel semi-automatic segmentation technique for MR volumetry of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renz, Diane M.; Hahn, Horst K.; Rexilius, Jan; Schmidt, Peter; Lentschig, Markus; Pfeil, Alexander; Sauner, Dieter; Fitzek, Clemens; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim; Kaiser, Werner A.; Reichenbach, Juergen R.; Boettcher, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Although several reports about volumetric determination of the pituitary gland exist, volumetries have been solely performed by indirect measurements or manual tracing on the gland's boundaries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of a novel semi-automatic MR-based segmentation technique. In an initial technical investigation, T1-weighted 3D native magnetised prepared rapid gradient echo sequences (1.5 T) with 1 mm isotropic voxel size achieved high reliability and were utilised in different in vitro and in vivo studies. The computer-assisted segmentation technique was based on an interactive watershed transform after resampling and gradient computation. Volumetry was performed by three observers with different software and neuroradiologic experiences, evaluating phantoms of known volume (0.3, 0.9 and 1.62 ml) and healthy subjects (26 to 38 years; overall 135 volumetries). High accuracy of the volumetry was shown by phantom analysis; measurement errors were 0.05). The analysed semi-automatic MR volumetry of the pituitary gland is a valid, reliable and fast technique. Possible clinical applications are hyperplasia or atrophy of the gland in pathological circumstances either by a single assessment or by monitoring in follow-up studies. (orig.)

  16. Light bodies in human pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1987-01-01

    Light bodies are large cytoplasmic granules originally described in the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland. In order to determine whether similar bodies occur in the human anterior pituitary gland, 89 pituitary adenomas and periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases were examined...... cells in periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases. These results show that some human pituitary adenomas may contain light bodies identical to those seen in gonadotrophs of rat pituitary....... by transmission electron microscopy. Double membrane bound bodies with filamentous internal structure identical to rodent light bodies were identified in 10 hormone-producing adenomas: 5 PRL, 1 PRL-GH, 2 GH, and 2 ACTH-producing tumours. No light bodies were found in the remaining 79 tumours nor in the pituitary...

  17. Localization of the aromatase enzyme expression in the human pituitary gland and its effect on growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid stimulating hormone axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, Asli Sezgin; Kapucu, Aysegul; Dar, Kadriye Akgun; Ozkaya, Hande Mefkure; Caglar, Erkan; Ince, Haluk; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate aromatase expression in prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and growth hormone (GH) secreting cells. Nontumoral human pituitary specimens were obtained from autopsy samples. Aromatase co-expression was determined by double immunohistochemical staining and assessed using H scores. H scores for GH-aromatase co-expression (GH-aromatase), TSH-aromatase co-expression (TSH-aromatase), and PRL-aromatase co-expression (PRL-aromatase) were 83.1 ± 13.1, 95.6 ± 16.1, and 83.7 ± 14.5, respectively. TSH producing cells exhibited the highest H score for co-expression of aromatase (p 0.05 for all). There was a negative correlation between the H scores for aromatase and PRL-aromatase, GH-aromatase and TSH-aromatase, respectively (r = -0.592, p 0.05 for all). Age was negatively correlated with PRL-aromatase H score (r = -0.373, p = 0.008). Our study demonstrated significant aromatase co-expression in PRL, GH, and TSH secreting cells of the human anterior pituitary gland. The mutual paracrinal regulation between aromatase and three adenohypophyseal hormones indicates that aromatase may have a regulatory role on the synthesis and secretion of these hormones.

  18. MRI finding of reversible pituitary hyperplasia due to hypothyroidism: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Tong; Bae, Won Kyung; Cho, Won Soo; Lee, Hye Kyoung

    1999-01-01

    We report a case of reversible pituitary enlargement due to hypothyroidism in a 3-year-old male. On T1-weighted images, the mass was located in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, and the signal intensity of the mass was equal to that of brain cortex. Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images showed homogeneous enhancement of the mass. After supplemental therapy with thyroid hormone for 8 months, MRI showed that the pituitary gland was markedly smaller

  19. Regional differences in the pituitary distribution of luteinizing hormone in the gonadectomized and proestrous female rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous data have shown regional differences in the presence of anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) that generally correlate with comparable disparities in the distribution of gonadotropes throughout the gland. In female rats, the differences are apparent over the estro...

  20. Size and Shape of the Pituitary Gland with MR Imaging from Newborn to 30 Years: A Study at Siriraj Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keanninsiri, C.; Cheiwvit, P.; Tritrakarn, S.; Thepamongkhol, K.; Santiprabhop, J.

    2012-01-01

    MRI can provide the best visualization of structures in cranio - spinal region, especially the anatomy of the pituitary gland.This study was a retrospective with the purpose to determine the size and shape of the pituitary gland in normal puberty groups of both genders at age 1-30 years at Siriraj Hospital.Two planar views of the MRI, sagittal and coronal views for measurement the height, width and the shape of pituitary gland. The sample size (299 cases, 149 male and 150 female) were included the patients in both in-patient and out-patient groups at Siriraj Hospital, during age 1-30 years old and divided into six groups. All cases have Medical Record and MRI brain scan, without pathology history related to the pituitary gland or hormonal disorders, surgery and treated by hormone therapy. The mean and standard deviation of the height of pituitary gland in group 1 (1-10 years) were 5.4 ± 1.2mm in male, n = 50, 5.1 ± 1.3mm in female, n = 50, group 2 (11-20 years) were 6.8 ± 1.7mm in male, n = 50, 5.8 ± 1.3 mm. in female, n 50 and group 3 (21-30 years) were 5.4 ± 1.3mm in male, n = 50, 5.9 ± 1.5mm in female, n = 50 and significantly different in female (p<0.001) but no significantly different in male (p = 0.181). The mean and standard deviation of the width of pituitary gland of group1 (1-10 years) were10.8 ± 1.9mm in male, n = 50, 10.2 ± 2.2mm.in female, n = 50, group 2 (11-20 years) were12.9 ± 2.0mm in male, n = 50, 13.5 ± 1.5mm in female, n 50 and group 3 (21-30 years) were 13.4 ± 1.7mm in male, n = 49 and 13.8 ± 1.7mm in female, n = 50 and significant different for both sexes (p<0.001). The most frequency grade shape of ''flatwas'' shown in all groups except female groups 2(11-20 years) higher frequency of ''convex'' for both sagittal and coronal views.The study was analyzed by two experienced neuroradiologists. This aim to the demonstrated of database in Thai people with age range newborns to 30 years which an

  1. Muscarinic supersensibility of anterior pituitary ACTH and beta-endorphin release in major depressive illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risch, S.C.; Gillin, J.C.; Janowsky, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    Since numerious physiological systems display muscarinic receptor supersensitivity in major depressive illnesses, the authors have hypothesize that anterior pituitary release of ACTH and beta-Endorphin immunoreactivity may also be muscarinically supersensitive in depression. The studies were conducted under FDA-approved IND and with local human subjects committee approval. Plasma ACTH concentrations were determined as follows: samples were assayed in duplicate using equilibrium radioimmunoassay utilizing a rabbit anti-porcine ACTH antibody. Significance ofchanges in plasma cortisol, ACTH and beta-endorphin immunoreactivity after physostigmine and saline were determined by repeated measures analysis of variance. In all subject groups, physostigmine (relative to placebo) caused significant increases in plasma concentrations of cortisol, ACTH, and beta-endorphin immonoreactivity

  2. Diagnosis of pituitary adenoma by dynamic CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Sumiyoshi; Uede, Teiji; Daibo, Masahiko; Niwa, Jun; Hashi, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    The advantage of high resolution CT in the diagnosis of pituitary microadenomas has been established, but the diagnosis becomes more difficult when the pituitary microadenoma is less than 5 mm in diameter. We have studied the usefulness of dynamic CT scans particularly for diagnosis of small microadenomas. The dynamic CT scans were performed for 61 normal pituitary glands and 68 pituitary adenomas (36 microadenomas, 32 macroadenomas) with a GECT/T 9800 scanner. Coronal sections of 1.5 mm thickness were taken at the plane just in front of the pituitary stalk of the pituitary gland. Following a bolus intra-venous injection of 40 - 60 ml of contrast media using an automatic injector, ten consecutive CT scans of 2 seconds scan time were obtained, beginning 2 seconds from the start of intravenous injection. The first seven scans were taken with an interval of 2.3 seconds, and the last three scans with an interval of 10 seconds. Then, time-density curves were obtained at the ROI which were set on the anterior pituitary gland, the vascular bed of the pituitary gland, the pituitary stalk and the area of the pituitary adenoma respectively. In a normal pituitary gland, the density increases gradually and makes an S shaped curve, then attains the maximum density value (92.3 CT number) approximately 60 seconds after the administration of contrast media. The pituitary vascular bed is located in midline on the upper surface of the pituitary gland, and shows a symmetrical square, triangular or rhomboid shape. In case of pituitary adenoma, the time-density curve makes a plateau curve and attains the maximum density value (60.1 CT number) approximately 60 seconds after the administration of contrast media. In microadenoma, the pituitary vascular bed is either deformed or compressed, showing an asymmetrical shape. (author)

  3. Accuracy and reproducibility of a novel semi-automatic segmentation technique for MR volumetry of the pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, Diane M. [Charite University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow Clinic, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Hahn, Horst K.; Rexilius, Jan [Institute for Medical Image Computing, Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Schmidt, Peter [Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena University Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Neuroradiology, Jena (Germany); Lentschig, Markus [MR- and PET/CT Centre Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Pfeil, Alexander [Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine III, Jena (Germany); Sauner, Dieter [St. Georg Clinic Leipzig, Hospital Hubertusburg, Department of Radiology, Wermsdorf (Germany); Fitzek, Clemens [Asklepios Clinic Brandenburg, Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Brandenburg an der Havel (Germany); Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena University Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Jena (Germany); Kaiser, Werner A. [Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena University Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); Reichenbach, Juergen R. [Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena University Hospital, Medical Physics Group, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Jena (Germany); Boettcher, Joachim [SRH Clinic Gera, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Gera (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Although several reports about volumetric determination of the pituitary gland exist, volumetries have been solely performed by indirect measurements or manual tracing on the gland's boundaries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of a novel semi-automatic MR-based segmentation technique. In an initial technical investigation, T1-weighted 3D native magnetised prepared rapid gradient echo sequences (1.5 T) with 1 mm isotropic voxel size achieved high reliability and were utilised in different in vitro and in vivo studies. The computer-assisted segmentation technique was based on an interactive watershed transform after resampling and gradient computation. Volumetry was performed by three observers with different software and neuroradiologic experiences, evaluating phantoms of known volume (0.3, 0.9 and 1.62 ml) and healthy subjects (26 to 38 years; overall 135 volumetries). High accuracy of the volumetry was shown by phantom analysis; measurement errors were <4% with a mean error of 2.2%. In vitro, reproducibility was also promising with intra-observer variability of 0.7% for observer 1 and 0.3% for observers 2 and 3; mean inter-observer variability was in vitro 1.2%. In vivo, scan-rescan, intra-observer and inter-observer variability showed mean values of 3.2%, 1.8% and 3.3%, respectively. Unifactorial analysis of variance demonstrated no significant differences between pituitary volumes for various MR scans or software calculations in the healthy study groups (p > 0.05). The analysed semi-automatic MR volumetry of the pituitary gland is a valid, reliable and fast technique. Possible clinical applications are hyperplasia or atrophy of the gland in pathological circumstances either by a single assessment or by monitoring in follow-up studies. (orig.)

  4. Differentially expressed miRNAs after GnRH treatment and their potential roles in FSH regulation in porcine anterior pituitary cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Song Ye

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a major regulator of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH secretion in gonadotrope cell in the anterior pituitary gland. microRNAs (miRNAs are small RNA molecules that control gene expression by imperfect binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR of mRNA at the post-transcriptional level. It has been proven that miRNAs play an important role in hormone response and/or regulation. However, little is known about miRNAs in the regulation of FSH secretion. In this study, primary anterior pituitary cells were treated with 100 nM GnRH. The supernatant of pituitary cell was collected for FSH determination by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA at 3 hours and 6 hours post GnRH treatment respectively. Results revealed that GnRH significantly promoted FSH secretion at 3 h and 6 h post-treatment by 1.40-fold and 1.80-fold, respectively. FSHβ mRNA at 6 h post GnRH treatment significantly increased by 1.60-fold. At 6 hours, cells were collected for miRNA expression profile analysis using MiRCURY LNA Array and quantitative PCR (qPCR. Consequently, 21 up-regulated and 10 down-regulated miRNAs were identified, and qPCR verification of 10 randomly selected miRNAs showed a strong correlation with microarray results. Chromosome location analysis indicated that 8 miRNAs were mapped to chromosome 12 and 4 miRNAs to chromosome X. Target and pathway analysis showed that some miRNAs may be associated with GnRH regulation pathways. In addition, In-depth analysis indicated that 10 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated miRNAs probably target FSHβ mRNA 3'-UTR directly, including miR-361-3p, a highly conserved X-linked miRNA. Most importantly, functional experimental results showed that miR-361-3p was involved in FSH secretion regulation, and up-regulated miR-361-3p expression inhibited FSH secretion, while down-regulated miR-361-3p expression promoted FSH secretion in pig pituitary cell model. These differentially

  5. The state of «the pituitary gland - thyroid gland system» in the young men with undifferentiated dysplasia of the connective tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Yurchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the state of «the pituitary gland-thyroid gland system» in the patients with undifferentiated dysplasia of the connective tissue (UDCT 83 young men of the call up age (18.2±0.4 y.o. were examined. The control group consisted of 26 practically healthy young men of the same age (18.5±0.2 y.o.. Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT was diagnosed in 32.5 % of the men with UDCT. The rate of the internal (visceral phenotypical signs of UDCT in this group was significantly higher than in the men with UDCT but without thyroid problems.

  6. Phosphorylation of intracellular proteins related to the multihormonal regulation of prolactin: comparison of normal anterior pituitary cells in culture with the tumor-derived GH cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, L.; Boutterin, M.C.; Sobel, A.

    1988-01-01

    We have previously identified a group of cytoplasmic phosphoproteins (proteins 1-11) whose phosphorylation could be related, on a pharmacological basis, to the multihormonal regulation of PRL synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary tumor-derived GH cell lines. Phosphoproteins with identical migration properties on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels were also detectable in normal rat anterior pituitary cells in culture. We designed appropriate culture and [ 32 P] phosphate-labeling conditions allowing to analyze the regulation of the phosphorylation of these proteins in normal pituitary cells. TRH, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, and vasoactive intestinal peptide induced the same qualitative changes in phosphorylation of proteins 1-11 in normal as in GH cells. Quantitative differences observed are most likely due to the heterogeneity of primary pituitary cultures. Phosphorylation changes affecting proteins 14-16, not previously detected in GH cells, were also observed with normal anterior pituitary cells. GH cell lines have lost the sensitivity of pituitary lactotrophs for dopamine, an important physiological inhibitor of PRL synthesis and release. In normal anterior pituitary cells in culture, dopamine inhibited also the TRH-stimulated phosphorylation of proteins 1-10, thus strengthening the correlation between phosphorylation of these proteins and multihormonal regulation of pituitary cell functions. Our results indicate: 1) that the same phosphoproteins as in GH cells are related to the multihormonal regulation of nontumoral, normal anterior pituitary cells in culture; 2) that dopamine acts by interfering with the phosphorylation of these proteins

  7. High resolution pituitary gland MRI at 7.0 tesla: a clinical evaluation in Cushing's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotte, Alexandra A.J. de; Groenewegen, Amy; Rutgers, Dik R.; Witkamp, Theo; Luijten, Peter R.; Hendrikse, Jeroen [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zelissen, Pierre M.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Internal Medicine (Section of Endocrinology), Utrecht (Netherlands); Meijer, F.J.A. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lindert, Erik J. van [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hermus, Ad [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine (Section of Endocrinology), Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    To evaluate the detection of pituitary lesions at 7.0 T compared to 1.5 T MRI in 16 patients with clinically and biochemically proven Cushing's disease. In seven patients, no lesion was detected on the initial 1.5 T MRI, and in nine patients it was uncertain whether there was a lesion. Firstly, two readers assessed both 1.5 T and 7.0 T MRI examinations unpaired in a random order for the presence of lesions. Consensus reading with a third neuroradiologist was used to define final lesions in all MRIs. Secondly, surgical outcome was evaluated. A comparison was made between the lesions visualized with MRI and the lesions found during surgery in 9/16 patients. The interobserver agreement for lesion detection was good at 1.5 T MRI (κ = 0.69) and 7.0 T MRI (κ = 0.62). In five patients, both the 1.5 T and 7.0 T MRI enabled visualization of a lesion on the correct side of the pituitary gland. In three patients, 7.0 T MRI detected a lesion on the correct side of the pituitary gland, while no lesion was visible at 1.5 T MRI. The interobserver agreement of image assessment for 7.0 T MRI in patients with Cushing's disease was good, and lesions were detected more accurately with 7.0 T MRI. (orig.)

  8. High resolution pituitary gland MRI at 7.0 tesla: a clinical evaluation in Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotte, Alexandra A.J. de; Groenewegen, Amy; Rutgers, Dik R.; Witkamp, Theo; Luijten, Peter R.; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Zelissen, Pierre M.J.; Meijer, F.J.A.; Lindert, Erik J. van; Hermus, Ad

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the detection of pituitary lesions at 7.0 T compared to 1.5 T MRI in 16 patients with clinically and biochemically proven Cushing's disease. In seven patients, no lesion was detected on the initial 1.5 T MRI, and in nine patients it was uncertain whether there was a lesion. Firstly, two readers assessed both 1.5 T and 7.0 T MRI examinations unpaired in a random order for the presence of lesions. Consensus reading with a third neuroradiologist was used to define final lesions in all MRIs. Secondly, surgical outcome was evaluated. A comparison was made between the lesions visualized with MRI and the lesions found during surgery in 9/16 patients. The interobserver agreement for lesion detection was good at 1.5 T MRI (κ = 0.69) and 7.0 T MRI (κ = 0.62). In five patients, both the 1.5 T and 7.0 T MRI enabled visualization of a lesion on the correct side of the pituitary gland. In three patients, 7.0 T MRI detected a lesion on the correct side of the pituitary gland, while no lesion was visible at 1.5 T MRI. The interobserver agreement of image assessment for 7.0 T MRI in patients with Cushing's disease was good, and lesions were detected more accurately with 7.0 T MRI. (orig.)

  9. Identification of transcripts related to high egg production in the chicken hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Yow-Ling; Chen, Lih-Ren; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Yi-Ling; Ju, Jhy-Phen; Chao, Ching-Hsien; Lin, Yuan-Ping; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Tang, Pin-Chi; Lee, Yen-Pai

    2006-09-15

    To identify transcripts related to high egg production expressed specifically in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland of the chicken, two subtracted cDNA libraries were constructed. Two divergently selected strains of Taiwan Country Chickens (TCCs), B (sire line) and L2 (dam line) were used; they had originated from a single population and were further subjected (since 1982) to selection for egg production to 40 wk of age and body weight/comb size, respectively. A total of 324 and 370 clones were identified from the L2-B (L2-subtract-B) and the B-L2 subtracted cDNA libraries, respectively. After sequencing and annotation, 175 and 136 transcripts that represented 53 known and 65 unknown non-redundant sequences were characterized in the L2-B subtracted cDNA library. Quantitative reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR was used to screen the mRNA expression levels of 32 randomly selected transcripts in another 78 laying hens from five different strains. These strains included the two original strains (B and L2) used to construct the subtracted cDNA libraries and an additional three commercial strains, i.e., Black- and Red-feather TCCs and Single-Comb White Leghorn (WL) layer. The mRNA expression levels of 16 transcripts were significantly higher in the L2 than in the B strain, whereas the mRNA expression levels of nine transcripts, BDH, NCAM1, PCDHA@, PGDS, PLAG1, PRL, SAR1A, SCG2 and STMN2, were significantly higher in two high egg production strains, L2 and Single-Comb WL; this indicated their usefulness as molecular markers of high egg production.

  10. Is it or isn't it? A reexamination of the anterior orbital glands of the fat-tailed Dunnart Sminthopsis Crassicaudata (Dasyuridae: Marsupiala) and a reevaluation of definitions for the Harderian gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehorek, S J; Hillenius, W J; Leigh, C; Firth, B T

    2010-08-01

    The anterior orbital glands of tetrapods, which include the Harderian and nictitans glands, can usually be differentiated either anatomically (nictitans gland is more anterior) or histochemically (Harderian gland secretes lipids). However, conflicting statements exist in the literature about the presence and identity of these glands. Two previous studies on Sminthopsis crassicaudata (Dasyuridae: Marsupiala) either failed to note any anterior ocular glands or used no histochemical analyses. This study reexamined the structure of the anterior orbital glands of S. crassicaudata. Histological, histochemical, and ultrastructural examination revealed three glandular units: two of which are located superficially in the nictitating membrane, the third lying deeper in the connective tissue. The ducts of these three glandular units all open onto the corneal aspect of the nictitating membrane. These cells contain mainly serous granules with sparse intracellular lipid droplets. The nomenclature of these structures depends upon the definition used. According to the anatomical definition, S. crassicaudata has two glands: anteriorly the nictitans and posteriorly the Harderian gland. In contrast, if the histochemical definition is used, there is only one gland, but its precise identity cannot be confirmed until the role of the lipid droplets is established. Moreover, the histochemical definition poses additional problems with respect to the mechanism of secretion, multiple secretions, and glandular plasticity. Finally, the unitary definition identifies one deeply subdivided gland with an anterior and a posterior lobe in S. crassicaudata. This last definition is broad enough to accommodate a wide level of anatomical variation in the anterior ocular glands of tetrapods. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Morphometric analysis of the folliculostellate cells and luteinizing hormone gonadotropic cells of the anterior pituitary of the men during the aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čukuranović Kokoris, Jovana; Jovanović, Ivan; Pantović, Vukica; Krstić, Miljan; Stanojković, Milica; Milošević, Verica; Ugrenović, Slađana; Stojanović, Vesna

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research was to quantify the changes in the morphology and density of the anterior pituitary folliculostellate (FS) and luteinizing hormone (LH) cells. Material was tissue of the pituitary gland of the 14 male cadavers. Tissue slices were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal anti-LH antibody and polyclonal anti-S100 antibody for the detection of LH and FS cells, respectively. Digital images of the stained slices were afterwards morphometrically analyzed by ImageJ. Results of the morphometric analysis showed significant increase of the FS cells volume density in cases older than 70 years. Volume density of the LH cells did not significantly change, whereas their area significantly increased with age. Nucleocytoplasmic ratio of the LH cells gradually decreased and became significant after the age of 70. Finally, volume density of the FS cell significantly correlated with LH cells area and nucleocytoplasmic ratio. From all above cited, we concluded that in men, density and size of the FS cells increase with age. Long-term hypertrophy of the LH cells results in their functional decline after the age of 70. Strong correlation between FS cells and LH cells morphometric parameters might point to age-related interaction between these two cell groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical importance of the basal cavernous sinuses and cavernous carotid arteries relative to the pituitary gland and macroadenomas: quantitative analysis of the complete anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmazlar, Selcuk; Kocaeli, Hasan; Eyigor, Ozhan; Hakyemez, Bahattin; Korfali, Ender

    2008-08-01

    It is unusual to encounter hemorrhagic complications caused by arterial or venous damage during TSS. Problems with these structures can lead to permanent disability or death. Our aim was to quantitatively analyze anatomical and radiologic relationships among the BCS, the CCA, and the pituitary gland, as these structures are accessed during TSS. Forty-nine formaldehyde-fixed, sellar-parasellar tissue blocks from adult cadavers were used to simulate accessing the BCSs via TSS. In each specimen, size of the pituitary gland and specific characteristics of each BCS and the horizontal segment of each CCA were recorded. Nine other specimens were used for histologic investigation and microanatomical measurements. To attest correlation between clinical data and cadaveric measurements, coronal MRI scans of 22 healthy adults as well as of 28 patients with macroadenomas were analyzed. In cadaveric specimens, distances between both CCAs in the BCS were 17.1 +/- 4.0 mm anteriorly, 20.3 +/- 4.2 mm medially, and 18.8 +/- 4.6 mm posteriorly. In this study, the anterior medial space of the BCS was dominant in 12 specimens on the right side and in 5 specimens on the left; the posterior medial space of the BCS was dominant in 23 specimens on the right side and in 9 specimens on the left side. The right medial BCS was dominant in 35 specimens. On histologic coronal sections, some part of the carotid artery's (CA's) diameter was located below the line passing from the basal dural layer ranging from 5.3% to 65.4%. In normal-sella images, distances between both CCAs were 15.4 +/- 1.8 mm anteriorly, 16.0 +/- 2.8 mm medially, 16.2 +/- 3.4 mm posteriorly. On coronal normal-sella images, some part of the CA's diameter was located below the line passing from the basal dural layer ranging from 16.4% to 66.7%. In macroadenomas, distances between both CCAs were 22.0 +/- 3.6 mm anteriorly, 21.5 +/- 3.8 mm medially, and 20.7.2 +/- 3.7 mm posteriorly . On coronal images, in only 6 of 28

  13. Stimulatory effects of adenosine on prolactin secretion in the pituitary gland of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L.W. Picanço-Diniz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of adenosine on prolactin (PRL secretion from rat anterior pituitaries incubated in vitro. The administration of 5-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (MECA, an analog agonist that preferentially activates A2 receptors, induced a dose-dependent (1 nM to 1 µM increase in the levels of PRL released, an effect abolished by 1,3-dipropyl-7-methylxanthine, an antagonist of A2 adenosine receptors. In addition, the basal levels of PRL secretion were decreased by the blockade of cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase pathways, with indomethacin and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA, respectively. The stimulatory effects of MECA on PRL secretion persisted even after the addition of indomethacin, but not of NDGA, to the medium. MECA was unable to stimulate PRL secretion in the presence of dopamine, the strongest inhibitor of PRL release that works by inducing a decrease in adenylyl cyclase activity. Furthermore, the addition of adenosine (10 nM mimicked the effects of MECA on PRL secretion, an effect that persisted regardless of the presence of LiCl (5 mM. The basal secretion of PRL was significatively reduced by LiCl, and restored by the concomitant addition of both LiCl and myo-inositol. These results indicate that PRL secretion is under a multifactorial regulatory mechanism, with the participation of different enzymes, including adenylyl cyclase, inositol-1-phosphatase, cyclooxygenase, and lipoxygenase. However, the increase in PRL secretion observed in the lactotroph in response to A2 adenosine receptor activation probably was mediated by mechanisms involving regulation of adenylyl cyclase, independent of membrane phosphoinositide synthesis or cyclooxygenase activity and partially dependent on lipoxygenase arachidonic acid-derived substances.

  14. The Complex Biology of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor and Its Role in the Pituitary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formosa, Robert; Vassallo, Josanne

    2017-08-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor best known for its ability to mediate the effects of environmental toxins such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through the initiation of transcription of a number of metabolically active enzymes. Therefore, the AHR has been studied mostly in the context of xenobiotic signaling. However, several studies have shown that the AHR is constitutively active and plays an important role in general cell physiology, independently of its activity as a xenobiotic receptor and in the absence of exogenous ligands. Within the pituitary, activation of the AHR by environmental toxins has been implicated in disruption of gonadal development and fertility. Studies carried out predominantly in mouse models have revealed the detrimental influence of several environmental toxins on specific cell lineages of the pituitary tissue mediated by activation of AHR and its downstream effectors. Activation of AHR during fetal development adversely affected pituitary development while adult models exposed to AHR ligands demonstrated varying degrees of pituitary dysfunction. Such dysfunction may arise as a result of direct effects on pituitary cells or indirect effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This review offers in-depth analysis of all aspects of AHR biology, with a particular focus on its role and activity within the adenohypophysis and specifically in pituitary tumorigenesis. A novel mechanism by which the AHR may play a direct role in pituitary cell proliferation and tumor formation is postulated. This review therefore attempts to cover all aspects of the AHR's role in the pituitary tissue, from fetal development to adult physiology and the pathophysiology underlying endocrine disruption and pituitary tumorigenesis.

  15. Endocrine glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Gigantism Diabetes insipidus Cushing Disease Watch this video about: Pituitary gland Testes and ovaries: Lack of sex development (unclear genitalia) Thyroid: Congenital hypothyroidism Myxedema Goiter ...

  16. Evaluation of the responsiveness of pituitary gland to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in rats in the period of 8:00 to 12:00 a.m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghi, V.C.; Nicolau, W.; Bojarczuk, C.; Pieroni, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    The functional pituitary capacity for the secretion thyrotropin in rats, in relation to the period of time 8:00-12:00 a.m. was studied by means of the administration of synthetic TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone). The highest pituitary response to the hypothalamic hormone attains its peak between 9:50 and 10:30 a.m., a time in which the gland denotes a high and practically constant level of TSH secretion [pt

  17. Cysteamine depletes prolactin (PRL) but does not alter the structure of PRL-containing granules in the anterior pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, L.A.; Landis, D.M.; Sagar, S.M.; Millard, W.J.; Martin, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Cysteamine causes a profound depletion of PRL in the anterior pituitary and in the systemic circulation, as measured by RIA and bioassay. However, electron microscopic study of PRL-containing cells in rat anterior pituitary does not reveal changes in secretory granule or cytoplasmic structure during the interval of depressed PRL content and of subsequent recovery to normal levels. In contrast to the results obtained by RIA, PRL-like immunoreactivity as detected by immunocyto-chemistry is present and similar to that of control preparations after cysteamine administration. We suggest that cysteamine alters PRL structure in secretory granules, probably by interacting with the disulfide bonds of PRL, thereby altering bioactivity and immunoreactivity. The presence of cysteamine-altered PRL in secretory granules does not seem to trigger degradation of granules by the lysosomal system

  18. Blood plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones of rabbits after apricot seed exposure in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína MICHALCOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes possible changes in plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones induced by bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. seeds in young female rabbits in vivo. Prunus armeniaca L. is an important medicinal edible plant species commonly known as “apricot”. The apricot is a member of the Rosaceae and subfamily Prunoideae. It is one of the most delicious and commercially traded fruits in the world. Apricot kernel is the inner part of the seed of the apricot fruit. The kernel is used to produce oil and other chemicals used for medicinal purposes. The seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and for treatment several diseases especially cancer. In the present study apricot seeds were mixed with feed at different doses 0, 60, 300, 420 mg*kg-1 of body weight. ELISA was used to determine the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and prolactin (PRL. 58-days application of apricot seeds did not affect the concentration (P≥0.05 of PRL, LH in blood plasma. Significant (P≤0.01 inhibition of FSH levels induced by the seeds was found at the dose of 420 mg*kg-1 but not at 60 and 300 mg*kg-1 of body weight. These results are suggesting that the natural substances present in apricot seeds may be involved in mechanisms of ovarian folliculogenesis.

  19. Effects from postoperative radiotherapy of parasellar ademonas of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchfelder, M.

    1984-01-01

    In this study, the effects from postoperative radiotherapy of parasellar or suprasellar adenomas of the pituitary were analysed to provide more detailed information about the value of radiation treatment, when used as a secondary measure after surgery or even in the primary treatment of pituitary adenomas. The analysis was based on 75 patients showing parasellar or suprasellar tumours of the pituitary. Radiation was in most cases preceded by surgery and carried out in the Radiological Department of Munich's University Hospital after the year 1975, when computed tomography had been made available to the Neurosurgical Department of this clinic. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Identification of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) target cells and effects of dexamethasone on binding in anterior pituitary using a fluorescent analog of CRF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, J; Billestrup, Nils; Perrin, M

    1986-01-01

    A fluorescein-conjugated bioactive analog of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was synthesized and used to label cells that have high affinity CRF-binding sites. Of cultured bovine anterior pituitary cells, 6.1 +/- 0.6% were visible by fluorescence microscopy after incubation with the analog......-binding sites and suggest that binding of CRF to anterior pituitary cells is altered by glucocorticoids....

  1. 3D volumetry comparison using 3T magnetic resonance imaging between normal and adenoma-containing pituitary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Garcia-Ulloa, Ana Cristina; Gonzalez-Gutierrez, Omar; Martinez-Lopez, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Computed-assisted three-dimensional data (3D) allows for an accurate evaluation of volumes compared with traditional measurements. An in vitro method comparison between geometric volume and 3D volumetry to obtain reference data for pituitary volumes in normal pituitary glands (PGs) and PGs containing adenomas. Prospective, transverse, analytical study. Forty-eight subjects underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with 3D sequencing for computer-aided volumetry. PG phantom volumes by both methods were compared. Using the best volumetric method, volumes of normal PGs and PGs with adenoma were compared. Statistical analysis used the Bland-Altman method, t-statistics, effect size and linear regression analysis. Method comparison between 3D volumetry and geometric volume revealed a lower bias and precision for 3D volumetry. A total of 27 patients exhibited normal PGs (mean age, 42.07 ± 16.17 years), although length, height, width, geometric volume and 3D volumetry were greater in women than in men. A total of 21 patients exhibited adenomas (mean age 39.62 ± 10.79 years), and length, height, width, geometric volume and 3D volumetry were greater in men than in women, with significant volumetric differences. Age did not influence pituitary volumes on linear regression analysis. Results from the present study showed that 3D volumetry was more accurate than the geometric method. In addition, the upper normal limits of PGs overlapped with lower volume limits during early stage microadenomas.

  2. Nestin-Cre Mice Are Affected by Hypopituitarism, Which Is Not Due to Significant Activity of the Transgene in the Pituitary Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galichet, Christophe; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Rizzoti, Karine

    2010-01-01

    Nestin-Cre mice express Cre recombinase under control of the rat nestin promoter and central nervous system (CNS) enhancer. While endogenous Nestin is expressed in some other tissues including the pituitary gland, Nestin-Cre mice induce recombination predominantly in the CNS. For this reason, they have been widely used to explore gene function or cell fate in the latter. Pituitary hormonal deficiencies, or hypopituitarism, are associated with a wide range of symptoms and with a significant morbidity. These can have a neural and/or a pituitary origin as the gland's secretions are controlled by the hypothalamus. We report here that Nestin-Cre mice themselves are affected by mild hypopituitarism. Hence, physiological consequences are expected, especially in combination with defects resulting from Cre mediated deletion of any gene under investigation. To further investigate the origin of this phenotype, we re-examined the activity of the transgene. We compared it with expression of Nestin itself in the context of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis, especially in the light of a recent report showing pituitary Nestin-Cre activity, which contrasts with previous data. Our results disagree with those of this recent study and do not support the claim that Nestin positive cells are present in the pituitary anlagen, the Rathke's pouch (RP). Moreover we did not observe any significant activity in the post-natal pituitary, in agreement with the initial report. PMID:20625432

  3. Pituitary gland volume and psychosocial stress among children at elevated risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, A E; Day, F L; Roberts, R E; Pariante, C M; Laurens, K R

    2015-11-01

    Pituitary volume enlargements have been observed among individuals with first-episode psychosis. These abnormalities are suggestive of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, which may contribute to the development of psychosis. However, the extent to which these abnormalities characterize individuals at elevated risk for schizophrenia prior to illness onset is currently unclear, as volume increases, decreases and no volume differences have all been reported relative to controls. The current study aimed to determine whether antipsychotic-naive, putatively at-risk children who present multiple antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz) or a family history of illness (FHx) show pituitary volume abnormalities relative to typically developing (TD) children. An additional aim was to explore the association between pituitary volume and experiences of psychosocial stress. ASz (n = 30), FHx (n = 22) and TD (n = 32) children were identified at age 9-12 years using a novel community-screening procedure or as relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. Measures of pituitary volume and psychosocial stress were obtained at age 11-14 years. Neither ASz nor FHx children showed differences in pituitary volume relative to TD children. Among FHx children only, pituitary volume was negatively associated with current distress relating to negative life events and exposure to physical punishment. The lack of pituitary volume abnormalities among ASz and FHx children is consistent with our previous work demonstrating that these children are not characterized by elevated diurnal cortisol levels. The findings imply that these biological markers of HPA axis hyperactivity, observed in some older samples of high-risk individuals, may emerge later, more proximally to disease onset.

  4. Pituitary gland volume in patients with schizophrenia, subjects at ultra high-risk of developing psychosis and healthy controls: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholm, Dorte; Krogh, Jesper; Mondelli, Valeria; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine; Nordentoft, Merete

    2013-11-01

    A larger pituitary size is thought to reflect a greater activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may be related to an increase in the number and size of corticotroph cells. Some studies, but not all, indicate that pituitary volume increases before or at the onset of psychosis. There is a need for at critical appraisal of the literature on this topic accompanied by a meta-analytical evaluation of the data. We included studies comparing the volume of the pituitary gland in healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia, first episode of psychosis (FEP), schizotypal disorder or ultra high-risk (UHR) subjects. We defined three groups of subjects for the analyses: healthy controls; UHR and schizotypal patients; and patients diagnosed with first episode of psychosis, schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Ten studies were included in the meta-analysis. We found a trend of a larger pituitary volume in both UHR subject who had transition to psychosis (p=0.05) and in FEP subjects (p=0.09) compared to healthy controls. There was no difference in pituitary volume between patients with schizophrenia combined with FEP versus healthy controls (p=0.52) or between UHR (with and without transition) and healthy controls (p=0.24). In a regression analysis, we demonstrated that the number of subjects receiving antipsychotics and pituitary volume were positively correlated. As previously reported in other samples, gender also had an impact on pituitary volume with females presenting with a larger mean volume. Results from this meta-analysis suggest that the pituitary gland could be increasing before the onset of psychosis. Both gender and use of antipsychotics have a major impact on the pituitary volume. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pituitary gland development and disease: from stem cell to hormone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shannon W; Ellsworth, Buffy S; Peréz Millan, María Inés; Gergics, Peter; Schade, Vanessa; Foyouzi, Nastaran; Brinkmeier, Michelle L; Mortensen, Amanda H; Camper, Sally A

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of pituitary development have become better understood in the past two decades. The signaling pathways regulating pituitary growth and shape have emerged, and the balancing interactions between the pathways are now appreciated. Markers for multipotent progenitor cells are being identified, and signature transcription factors have been discovered for most hormone-producing cell types. We now realize that pulsatile hormone secretion involves a 3D integration of cellular networks. About a dozen genes are known to cause pituitary hypoplasia when mutated due to their essential roles in pituitary development. Similarly, a few genes are known that predispose to familial endocrine neoplasia, and several genes mutated in sporadic pituitary adenomas are documented. In the next decade, we anticipate gleaning a deeper appreciation of these processes at the molecular level, insight into the development of the hypophyseal portal blood system, and evolution of better therapeutics for congenital and acquired hormone deficiencies and for common craniopharyngiomas and pituitary adenomas. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural and functional studies on the pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    Pit-1 is a pituitary specific transcription factor that plays a central role in the development and maintenance of a number of cell lineages in the anterior pituitary gland. In these cell lineages, Pit-1 is required for the selective expression of the growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and the

  7. Surgical strategy for giant pituitary adenoma based on evaluation of fine feeding system and angioarchitecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Ogawa, M.D., Ph.D.

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Major blood supply was different from the normal supply to the anterior pituitary gland and did not necessarily correspond to tumor shape and extension. Surgical strategy should be established based on the tumor feeding systems and hemodynamics in giant pituitary adenomas.

  8. Effect of E-cadherin Expression on Hormone Production in Rat Anterior Pituitary Lactotrophs In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumoto, Kenji; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Fujiwara, Ken; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Kouki, Tom; Kawanishi, Kotaro; Yashiro, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Cadherins are a family of transmembrane glycoproteins that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. A change in cadherin type in cells, i.e., cadherin switching, induces changes in the character of the cell. Recent studies of the developing rat adenohypophysis found that primordial cells co-expressed E- and N-cadherins, but that hormone-producing cells lost E-cadherin and ultimately possessed only N-cadherin. In the present study, we examined the roles of cadherin switching in cytogenesis of anterior pituitary cells by observing prolactin mRNA and protein expression in lactotrophs that were transformed with an E-cadherin expression vector. In hormone-producing cells that were transfected with a pIRES2-ZsGreen1 plasmid with a full-length E-cadherin cDNA (rE-cad-IZ) insert in primary culture, we detected E- and N-cadherins on plasma membrane and E-cadherin in cytoplasm. In these rE-cad-IZ-transfected cells, in situ hybridization revealed prolactin mRNA signals that were at a level identical to that in control cells, while prolactin protein was barely detectable using immunocytochemistry. The mean signal intensity of prolactin protein in rE-cad-IZ-transfected cells was approximately one fourth that in intact cells and in null-IZ-transfected cells (P<0.01). These results suggest that the expression of E-cadherin does not affect prolactin mRNA transcription; rather, it reduces prolactin protein content, presumably by affecting trafficking of secretory granules

  9. Results of postoperative radiotherapy and radiation of recurrent tumours, observed in adenomas of the pituitary gland operated at a primary stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oettle, E.

    1987-01-01

    This retrospective study included 134 patients showing adenomas of the pituitary gland. It was found that radiotherapy carried out immediately after surgery was superior to radiation commencing only after tumour recidivation. Treatment was predominantly based an 'ultrahard' X-rays (betatron), to a lesser extent on cobalt-60 gamma rays. (MBC) [de

  10. [The history of the pituitary gland: evolution of mental representation and concepts over time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedidi, H; Jedidi, Z; Beckers, A

    2014-02-01

    The hypothalamo pituitary axis, as the true conductor of the endocrine orchestra, is frequently involved in a large variety of pathological conditions such as acromegaly, behavioral disorders, obesity or dwarfism. It is paradoxical to note that, in spite of its importance, this system has been almost ignored by the physiologists of the late centuries. From the physiological conceptions of the physicians and philosophers of antiquity to the theories of the medieval and of the Renaissance physiologists, we will try to understand why the role of pituitary remained so long unrecognized.

  11. MRI in haemochromatosis: pituitary versus testicular iron deposition in five patients with hypogonadism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miaux, Y.; Daurelle, P.; Zagdanski, A.M.; Passa, P.; Bourrier, P.; Frija, J.

    1995-01-01

    Haemochromatosis is a disease characterised by iron deposition in the liver and other organs. Hypogonadism is a commonly associated condition and may be either primary due to testicular lesions or secondary due to pituitary dysfunction. Hypogonadism secondary to pituitary dysfunction is more frequent and is thought to be related to iron deposition in the anterior pituitary. Increased iron content decreases signal intensity of spin-echo MRI images because T2 values are significantly shortened. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate by MRI iron deposition in the liver, testis and pituitary of 6 patients with haemochromatosis and severe hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Six subjects served as controls. There was a significant T2 shortening of the liver and pituitary in patients with haemochromatosis compared with control patients. Therefore MRI detected iron overload in the pituitary and no iron in the testis, supporting the hypothesis of hypogonadotrophic pituitary insufficiency due to cellular damage induced by iron overload in the anterior pituitary gland. (orig.)

  12. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association (ABTA) International RadioSurgery Association National Brain Tumor Society National Institute of Child Health and Human Development ... Definition The pituitary is a small, bean-sized gland ...

  13. MRI features of growth hormone deficiency in children with short stature caused by pituitary lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Zhang, Xinxian; Dong, Lina; Zhu, Bin; Xin, Tao

    2017-06-01

    We verified the advantages of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for improving the diagnostic quality of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children with short stature caused by pituitary lesions. Clinical data obtained from 577 GHD patients with short stature caused by pituitary lesions were retrospectively analyzed. There were 354 cases (61.3%) with anterior pituitary dysplasia; 45 cases (7.8%) of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS); 15 cases (2.6%) of pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism; 38 cases (6.6%) of Rathke cleft cyst; 68 cases (11.8%) of empty sella syndrome; 16 cases (2.8%) of pituitary invasion from Langerhans cell histiocytosis; 2 cases (0.3%) of sellar regional arachnoid cyst and 39 cases (6.8%) of craniopharyngioma. MRI results showed that the height of anterior pituitary in patients was less than normal. Location, size and signals of posterior pituitary and pituitary stalk were normal in anterior pituitary dysplasia. In all cases pituitary hyperplasia was caused by hypothyroidism. MRI results showed that anterior pituitary was enlarged, and we detected upward apophysis and obvious homogeneous enhancement. There were no pituitary stalk interruption and abnormal signal. We also observed that after hormone replacement therapy the size of pituitary gland was reduced. Anterior pituitary atrophy was observed in Rathke cleft cyst, empty sella syndrome, sellar regional arachnoid cyst and craniopharyngioma. The microstructure of hypophysis and sellar region was studied with MRI. We detected pituitary lesions, and the characteristics of various pituitary diseases of GHD in children with short stature. It was concluded that in children with GHD caused by pituitary lesions, MRI was an excellent method for early diagnosis. This method offers clinical practicability and we believe it can be used for differential diagnosis and to monitor the therapeutic effects.

  14. The effect of radioactive radiation of the neurotransmitter levels in the hypothalamus, pituitary and pineal glands of sheeps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorova, B.; Maracek, I.; Stanikova, A.; Halagan, J.; Sopkova, D.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the exposure of the whole body to continuous radiation was studied of catecholamines (epinephrine and unepinephrine) in the hypothalamus, pineal and pituitary glands of ewes during the anestric period with synchronized oestrus. The radiation was provided at the rate 0.020 Gy per hour. Catecholamines were separated from the tissue supernatants by the absorption chromatographic method and the catecholamine contents in the eluates were determined spectrofluorometrically. Protracted exposure to gamma radiation and hormone stimulation with SG reduces the concentration of unepinephrine (P<0.001) in the whole hypothalamus of the sheep. A statistically significant decrease (P<0.001) was recorded in the medial and caudal hypothalamus of ewes. If is assumed that the decrease in catecholamine concentration after irradiation (2.4 Gy) is associated with the destroyed metabolism of catecholamines in nervous tissue and activity its degradation enzyme monoaminooxidase. (authors)

  15. Height of normal pituitary gland as a function of age evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.; Brunelle, F. (Hopital des Enfants Malades, 75 - Paris (France). Service de Radiologie Pediatrique); Perignon, F.; Brauner, R.; Rappaport, R. (Hopital des Enfants Malades, 75 - Paris (France). Service d' Endocrinologie Pediatrique)

    1991-05-01

    MR anatomy of hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis is well established. However data about pituitary gland height (PGH) in children are sparse. A retrospective study was therefore performed in 60 children (30 boys and 30 girls) aged from 8 days to 21 years. All these children had MR for various neurological diseases. Patients with hypothalamo-hypophyseal disease and intracranial hypertension were excluded. The PGH was measured on a strict midline sagittal T1 weighted scan 3 to 7 mm thick. A positive linear correlation was found in children aged from 1 year to puberty followed by a plateau. In the first year of life a negative linear correlation was found. A positive linear correlation was found between PGH and statural height as well. (orig.).

  16. The Pituitary Gland and Age-Dependent Regulation of Body Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Andre P.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Runge, Evelien; Trainer, Peter J.; Jonsson, Peter J.; Koltowska-Haggstrom, Maria

    Context: The prevalence of obesity is increased in hypopituitarism. In the general population, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference increase with advancing age. It remains uncertain whether age-related changes in pituitary function contribute to the changes in body composition associated

  17. The Forkhead Transcription Factor, Foxd1, Is Necessary for Pituitary Luteinizing Hormone Expression in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbel, Jason H.; Patterson, Elizabeth M.; Owusu, Sarah A.; Kabat, Brock E.; Jung, Deborah O.; Simmons, Jasmine; Hopkins, Torin; Ellsworth, Buffy S.

    2012-01-01

    The pituitary gland regulates numerous physiological functions including growth, reproduction, temperature and metabolic homeostasis, lactation, and response to stress. Pituitary organogenesis is dependent on signaling factors that are produced in and around the developing pituitary. The studies described in this report reveal that the forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is not expressed in the developing mouse pituitary gland, but rather in the mesenchyme surrounding the pituitary gland, which is an essential source of signaling factors that regulate pituitary organogenesis. Loss of Foxd1 causes a morphological defect in which the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland protrudes through the cartilage plate that is developing ventral to the pituitary at embryonic days (e)14.5, e16.5, and e18.5. The number of proliferating pituitary cells is increased at e14.5 and e16.5. Loss of Foxd1 also results in significantly decreased levels of Lhb expression at e18.5. This decrease in Lhb expression does not appear to be due to a change in the number of gonadotrope cells in the pituitary gland. Previous studies have shown that loss of the LIM homeodomain factor, Lhx3, which is activated by the FGF signaling pathway, results in loss of LH production. Although there is a difference in Lhb expression in Foxd1 null mice, the expression pattern of LHX3 is not altered in Foxd1 null mice. These studies suggest that Foxd1 is indirectly required for normal Lhb expression and cartilage formation. PMID:23284914

  18. Radiotherapy of nonfunctional adenomas of the pituitary gland. Results with long-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, J.C.; Nelson, P.B.; Martinez, A.J.; Deutsch, M.; Taylor, F.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 112 patients with the diagnosis of nonfunctional pituitary adenoma received radiation therapy at the University of Pittsburgh between 1964 and 1987. Postoperative radiation therapy was administered in 87 patients. Actuarial progression-free survival (tumor control) at 5, 10, 15, and 20 years was 97%, 89%, 87%, and 76%, respectively. Radiation prescribed to the 95% isodose ranged from 35.72 Gy to 62.32 Gy. Multivariate analysis showed decreased tumor control to be significantly associated with increasing field size (P = .036). No improvement in tumor control could be detected with increasing total radiation dose or nominal standard dose (NSD). One patient developed optic neuropathy and another developed a glioblastoma after doses in both patients of 4750 cGy in 25 fractions. External beam radiotherapy for nonfunctional pituitary adenomas was found to be effective and safe when doses less than 4750 cGy in 25 fractions were used

  19. Autoradiographic demonstration of glucocorticoid receptors in the intermediate lobe of the rat pituitary transplanted to the anterior eye chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehle, H.J.; Schnabel, C.; Lausch, A.

    1989-01-01

    The neurointermediate lobe of adult male Wistar rats was syngeneic transplanted to the anterior eye chamber. The recipient rats were adrenalectomized 19 days after grafting and injected with (3H)corticosterone 5 days later. After a survival time of 60 min, autoradiograms were prepared by thaw-mount technique and quantitatively evaluated by silver grain counting. Beside the classical targets, anterior pituitary and hippocampal stratum pyramidale, the intraocular transplants showed a nuclear accumulation of radioactivity. This was abolished in rats treated for competition with an excess of unlabelled corticosterone prior to tracer application. No such receptor binding was found in the normotopic intermediate lobe and in the diaphragm studied as a non-target reference. Thus, this study confirmed that the glucocorticoid receptor gene is expressed of the tissue is grafted into an ectopic site. (author)

  20. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is requir...

  1. Malformations of cranial base structures and pituitary gland in prenatal Meckel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K W; Hansen, B F; Keeling, J W

    1999-01-01

    are constant phenotypic traits in MS. The adenohypophysis was present in three cases. In one of these, ectopia of the gland occurred with adenopituitary tissue overlying the dorsum sella, and in another remnants were found in the pharyngeal submucosa. In two fetuses the neurohypophysis was not found...

  2. Changes in growth hormone (GH) messenger RNA (GH mRNA) expression in the rat anterior pituitary after single interferon (IFN) alpha administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowski, W.; Braczkowski, R.; Nowakowska-Zajdel, E.; Muc-Wierzgon, M.; Zubelewicz-Szkodzinska, B.; Kosiewicz, J.; Korzonek, I.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Interferon a (IFN-a) is a cytokine with pleiotropic effects which, via different pathways, influences the secretion of certain cytokines and hormones. Growth hormone (GH) secreted from the pituitary has physiological effects on various target tissues. The question is how IFN-a administered in various types of disease influences GH secretion. This study investigated the acute effect of IFN-a on GH mRNA expression in the rat anterior pituitary. Objective: The aim of the study was to measure the cellular expression of GH mRNA by in situ hybridisation in the anterior pituitary after a single administration of IFN-a. Material and methods: Rats were administered an intraperitoneal injection of IFN-a or saline. The rat pituitaries were taken 2 and 4 hours after IFN/saline administration and kept frozen until in situ hybridisation histochemistry. A 31 - base 35S -labelled oligonucleotide probe complementary to part of the exonic mRNA sequence coding for GH mRNA was used. All control and experimental sections were hybridised in the same hybridisation reaction. Results: Acute administration of interferon a increased GH mRNA expression in the anterior pituitary in the 4-hour group in comparison with the control group, and there was no difference between the control group and the 2-hour rats. Conclusion: A single IFN-a administration was found to exert an influence on anterior pituitary GH mRNA expression. These observations may pave the way for presenting a possible new action of IFN-a. (author) GH mRNA, anterior pituitary, interferon

  3. Influence of apricot kernels on blood plasma levels of selected anterior pituitary hormones in male and female rabbits in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Michalcová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is represented in the family Rosacea more precisely in an apricot kernels and an almonds. There are a lot of components such as trace elements, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, esters, phenols, terpenoids, except cyanogenic glycoside in the seeds. It is known that bioregulators can modulate the activity of specific enzymes and hormones very exactly at low levels and in a short time. The aim of our study was examine the effects of selected doses (0, 60, 300, 420 mg/kg b.w. of apricot kernels in feed on the plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones in young male and female rabbits in vivo. A sensitive, biochemical method, ELISA was used to determine the hormones prolactin (PRL, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. 28-day application of apricot kernels did not affect the concentration of PRL, LH, FSH in blood plasma of males. No significant (P≤0.05 differences in case of PRL and LH levels in the blood plasma of females were found. On the other hand a significant (P≤0.05 inhibition of FSH release induced by kernels at the doses 300, 420 mg/kg was found. Our results indicate that apricot kernels could affect secretion of anterior pituitary hormone FSH in female rabbits.

  4. MRI findings and endocrinological dysfunction of apoplexy and silent hemorrhage in pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannuki, Seiji; Bando, Kazuhiko; Shirakawa, Norihito; Matsumoto, Keizo; Bando, Hiroshi; Saito, Shiro; Kusaka, Kazumasa.

    1993-01-01

    The study was designed to examine pathophysiology of endocrinological disturbance associated with diminished pituitary function by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The subjects were 13 patients with hemorrhagic pituitary adenoma. According to clinical severity, the patients were classified as having (I) classical pituitary apoplexy (PA, n=2), (II) subacute PA (n=4), or (III) asymptomatic hemorrhagic pituitary adenoma (n=7). MR imaging and intraoperative findings revealed hemorrhagic PA in 7 patients and necrotic cyst formation in 5 patients. The cyst contents, either hemorrhagic or xanthochromic, were more accurately predicted by intensities on MR images than CT fidnings. Niveau formation was seen in 2 patients in Group I on MR images; however, MR imaging intensities differed in the two patients. In the first patient who developed classical PA during pregnancy, the upper and lower parts of the pituitary gland were seen as high intensity and iso-intensity, respectively. In the other patient, the upper and lower parts were seen as water-like and methemoglobin-like intensities, respectively. These findings have implications for the different etiology of niveau formation. In conclusion, diminished hypothalamic and pituitary function in pituitary hemorrhage seemed to be associated with disturbance of the connection between hypothalamus-anterior pituitary gland, or stalk of the pituitary gland. Hemorrhagic pituitary apoplexy manifested by various clinical features seemed to be attributed to venous hemorrhagic infarction due to pituitary portal compression. Pituitary apoplexy itself seemed to compress the portal system, leading to venous hemorrhage. (N.K.)

  5. Ectopic Neurohypophysis in Patient with Pituitary Dwarfism: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    İlhan Kılınç; Deniz Gökalp; Cihan Akgül Özmen

    2008-01-01

    Ectopic neurohypophysis is an anomaly of the Pituitary gland whichmay be associated with short stature due to Growth hormone deficiency.MRI is the modality of choice in diagnosing this condition. We present acase of pituitary dwarfism and ectopic neurohypophysis with clinical andradiological findings. 21 year-old male admitted with short stature. Allhormones, except prolactin, of anterior hypophysis were low. Bright spotwas ectopically located at level of median eminence on enhanced MRI ofhyp...

  6. Pituitary Tumors: Condition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones. They can press on or damage the pituitary gland and prevent it from secreting adequate levels of hormones. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2010). NINDS pituitary tumors information page . ...

  7. Silent Crooke’s cell corticotroph adenoma of the pituitary gland presenting as delayed puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Giri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Corticotroph adenomas are extremely rare in children and adolescents. We present a 15-year-old boy who was investigated for delayed puberty (A1P2G1, bilateral testicular volumes of 3 mL each. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence suggestive of chronic illness, and the initial clinical impression was constitutional delay in puberty. Subsequently, MRI scan of the brain revealed the presence of a mixed cystic and solid pituitary lesion slightly displacing the optic chiasma. The lesion was removed by transphenoidal surgery and the biopsy confirmed the lesion to be pituitary adenoma. Furthermore, the adenoma cells also had Crooke’s hyaline changes and were intensely positive for ACTH. However there was no clinical/biochemical evidence of ACTH excess. There was a spontaneous pubertal progression twelve months after the surgery (A2P4G4, with bilateral testicular volume of 8 mL. Crooke’s cell adenoma is an extremely rare and aggressive variant of corticotroph adenoma that can uncommonly present as a silent corticotroph adenoma in adults. We report for the first time Crooke’s cell adenoma in an adolescent boy presenting with delayed puberty.

  8. Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Resection of a Suprasellar and Third Ventricular Retrochiasmatic Craniopharyngioma with a Narrow Pituitary Gland-Optic Chiasm Interval: Techniques to Optimize Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenning, Tyler J; Pinheiro-Neto, Carlos D

    2018-04-01

    The extended endoscopic endonasal approach can be utilized to surgically treat pathology within the suprasellar space. This relies on a sufficient corridor and interval between the superior aspect of the pituitary gland and the optic chiasm. Tumors located in the retrochiasmatic space and within the third ventricle, however, may not have a widened interval through which to work. With mass effect on the superior and posterior aspect of the optic chiasm, the corridor between the chiasm and the pituitary gland might even be further narrowed. This may negate the possibility of utilizing the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of pathology in this location. We present a case of a retrochiasmatic craniopharyngioma with a narrow resection corridor that was treated with the extended endoscopic approach and we review techniques to potentially overcome this limitation. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/ogRZj-aBqeQ .

  9. Age-dependent changes in 24-hour rhythms of catecholamine content and turnover in hypothalamus, corpus striatum and pituitary gland of rats injected with Freund's adjuvant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Toso Carlos A

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little information is available on the circadian sequela of an immune challenge in the brain of aged rats. To assess them, we studied 24-hour rhythms in hypothalamic and striatal norepinephrine (NE content, hypothalamic and striatal dopamine (DA turnover and hypophysial NE and DA content, in young (2 months and aged (18–20 months rats killed at 6 different time intervals, on day 18th after Freund's adjuvant or adjuvant's vehicle administration. Results Aging decreased anterior and medial hypothalamic NE content, medial and posterior hypothalamic DA turnover, and striatal NE concentration and DA turnover. Aging also decreased NE and DA content in pituitary neurointermediate lobe and augmented DA content in the anterior pituitary lobe. Immunization by Freund's adjuvant injection caused: (i reduction of DA turnover in anterior hypothalamus and corpus striatum; (ii acrophase delay of medial hypothalamic DA turnover in old rats, and of striatal NE content in young rats; (iii abolition of 24-h rhythm in NE and DA content of neurointermediate pituitary lobe, and in DA content of anterior lobe, of old rats. Conclusions The decline in catecholamine neurotransmission with aging could contribute to the decrease of gonadotropin and increase of prolactin release reported in similar groups of rats. Some circadian responses to immunization, e.g. suppression of 24-h rhythms of neurointermediate lobe NE and DA and of anterior lobe DA were seen only in aged rats.

  10. Primary pituitary abscess: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanel Ricardo Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary abscesses are potentially life-threatening lesions if not appropriately diagnosed and treated. The authors have operated on more than five hundred cases of pituitary tumors and only one represented a case of pituitary abscess. A 35-year-old woman was investigated for chronic frontal headache. CT scan showed a cystic sellar lesion with ring enhancement after contrast injection leading to an initial diagnosis of pituitary adenoma. She underwent a sublabial transsphenoidal approach to the pituitary gland. After dural opening, purulent material was obtained and no tumor or other associated lesion was detected. There was no evidence of current or previous septicemic illness, meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis or sinus infection. Cultures were negative. She was put on antibiotics and discharged after 4 weeks. Nowadays, 10 years after treatment, she is doing well, with no anterior pituitary hormone deficit. MRI shows a partially empty sella without residual lesion and the pituitary stalck is in the midline. The early diagnosis and adequate treatment of this life-threatening lesion may result in excellent prognosis.

  11. CASE REPORT Acute pituitary apoplexy complicating a pituitary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • December 2010. CASE REPORT. Acute pituitary apoplexy complicating a pituitary macroadenoma. Abstract. Pituitary apoplexy is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition caused by either haemorrhage or infarction of the pituitary gland. In most cases, a pre-existing pituitary ...

  12. Cirurgia da hipófise por via trans-esfenoidal sob controle radiofluoroscópico e microdissecção novo tratamento da retinopatia diabética, tumores selares e neoplasias endocrinodependentes The surgery of the pituitary gland using a transphenoidal approach under radiofluoroscopic control and microdisection: a new treatment for diabetic retinopathy, pituitary tumors and endocrinodependent growths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Hardy

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentada nova técnica para a ablação total ou seletiva da hipófise utilizando via de acesso trans-esfenoidal, controle radiofluoroscópico e microdissecção, com traumatismo desprezível às estruturas circunvizinhas. Os autores comentam as aplicações do método à prática neurocirúrgica, relatando parte de uma série de mais 140 casos já operados. São discutidos os resultados obtidos no tratamento de 17 casos de retinopatia diabética, em 11 dos quais apenas o lobo anterior da hipófise foi removido, assim como aqueles obtidos na exérese de 20 casos de tumores selares. As indicações da hipofisectomia por via trans-esfenoidal no controle da sintomatologia das neoplasias endòcrinodependentes é estudada à luz dos resultados obtidos em 17 casos, sendo os resultados comparados com casos nos quais foi feita a implantação selar de ítrio90. As complicações operatorias em relação às três entidades nosológicas acima estudadas são também analisadas. Os autores salientam que a técnica descrita constitui, no presente estado das técnicas neurocirúrgicas utilizadas para a produção de uma insuficiência hipofisária duradoura, a intervenção de escolha.A new neurosurgical technique for the partial or total exéresis of the pituitary gland, using a transphenoidal approach under radiofluoroscopic control and microdisection is described. Part of a series of more than 140 cases operated upon by this method is reported. Results obtained in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy in 17 cases, 11 of which had only the pars anterior removed, are discussed. The applications of the transphenoidal route in 20 cases of pituitary fossa tumors are analysed. The indications of this type of operation in the management of endocrinodependent cancer is studied in 17 cases and compared with the results of 36 cases submitted to implant of Yttrium90 in the sella turcica. The operative complications following transphenoidal exéresis of the

  13. Uptake of [3H]testosterone and its metabolites by the brain and pituitary gland of the fetal macaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, R.P.; Bonsall, R.W.; Rees, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    Testosterone is secreted by the fetal testis during gestation, and this is thought to influence certain aspects of the brain's subsequent development. To study this action at the neuronal level, nine macaque fetuses were injected with 250 microCi [3H]testosterone via the umbilical vein at about 120 days gestation. After 60 min, samples of brain and peripheral tissue were studied by autoradiography or HPLC. Purified nuclear pellets were prepared, and radioactivity in ether extracts was fractionated by HPLC and identified by coelution with internal standard steroids. Concentrations of radioactivity were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) in the hypothalamus-preoptic area than in amygdala, hippocampus, midbrain, and cerebral and cerebellar cortexes, and most of the radioactivity (75%) in the hypothalamus-preoptic area coeluted with 17 beta-estradiol. Radioactivity coeluting with 17 beta-estradiol was also detected in nuclear fractions from amygdala (44%). In contrast, 80% of the radioactivity extracted from pituitary gland nuclei coeluted with testosterone. Most of the neurons labeled in autoradiograms were located in the hypothalamus and preoptic area, fewer were found in the amygdala, and labeling in the frontal or motor cortex did not exceed chance levels. Results suggested that aromatization and, consequently, estrogen receptors play a role in the effects of testosterone on the hypothalamus and amygdala of the primate fetus at this stage of development

  14. Activity of the thyroid and the pituitary gland in the viviparous Cyprinodonts Lebistes reticulatus (Peters), Xiphophorus helleri Heckel and Xiphophorus maculatus Günther during the development of the gonopodium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.

    1959-01-01

    A description is given of the activity of the thyroid and of the pituitary gland during the development of the gonopodium in the viviparous Cyprinodonts Lebistes reticulatus (Peters), Xiphophorus helleri (Heckel) and Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther). During this process the thyroid gland and the

  15. Uptake of 3,3',5,5'-tetraiodothyroacetic acid and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine in cultured rat anterior pituitary cells and their effects on thyrotropin secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Everts (Maria); T.J. Visser (Theo); E.P.C.M. Moerings (Ellis); A.M. Tempelaars; H. van Toor (Hans); R. Docter (Roel); E.P. Krenning (Eric); G. Hennemann; M. de Jong (Marion)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe compared the uptake, metabolism, and biological effects of tetraiodothyroacetic acid (Tetrac) and rT3 in anterior pituitary cells with those of T4 and T3. Cells were isolated from adult male Wistar rats and cultured for 3 days in medium with 10% fetal

  16. Duplication of the pituitary gland in a newborn with median cleft face syndrome and nasal teratoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamon-Kerautret, M.; Ares, G.S.; Demondion, X.; Pruvo, J.P. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France); Rouland, V. [Service de Neonatologie, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France); Francke, J.P. [Departement d`Anatomie, Faculte de Medicine, Universite de Lille (France)

    1998-05-01

    A newborn suffered immediate neonatal respiratory distress because of an obstructive, soft-tissue nasal mass. Clinical examination revealed a cleft palate with a protruding polypoid mass. CT and MRI showed a heterogeneous nasopharyngeal mass and associated intracranial abnormalities - duplication of the hypophysis and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Duplication of the hypophysis is a very rare malformation, only 13 cases having been previously described. The suggested pathogenesis is duplication of the prechordal plate and anterior end of the notochord during early embryological development. (orig.) With 2 figs., 3 refs.

  17. Duplication of the pituitary gland in a newborn with median cleft face syndrome and nasal teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamon-Kerautret, M.; Ares, G.S.; Demondion, X.; Pruvo, J.P.; Rouland, V.; Francke, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    A newborn suffered immediate neonatal respiratory distress because of an obstructive, soft-tissue nasal mass. Clinical examination revealed a cleft palate with a protruding polypoid mass. CT and MRI showed a heterogeneous nasopharyngeal mass and associated intracranial abnormalities - duplication of the hypophysis and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Duplication of the hypophysis is a very rare malformation, only 13 cases having been previously described. The suggested pathogenesis is duplication of the prechordal plate and anterior end of the notochord during early embryological development. (orig.)

  18. Expression of a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Ect2, in the developing mouse pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M S; Tsuji, T; Higashida, C; Takahashi, M; Higashida, H; Koizumi, K

    2010-05-01

    The pituitary gland is a highly mitotically active tissue after birth. Various cell types are known to undergo proliferation in the anterior pituitary. However, little is known about the mechanisms regulating mitotic activity in this tissue. When searching for genes specifically expressed in the pituitary gland among those that we previously screened in Drosophila, we found epithelial cell-transforming gene 2 (Ect2). Ect2 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPases, which is known to play an essential role in cytokinesis. Although there have been many cellular studies regarding the function of Ect2, the temporal and spatial expression patterns of Ect2 in vivo have not been determined. In the present study, we examined the postnatal developmental expression of Ect2 in the mouse pituitary. Enhanced Ect2 expression was detected in the mouse pituitary gland during the first 3 weeks after birth, which coincided well with the period of rapid pituitary expansion associated with increased growth rate. Immunostaining analysis showed that Ect2-expressing cells were distributed in the anterior and intermediate lobes, but not the posterior lobe, of the pituitary. These Ect2-expressing cells frequently incorporated the thymidine analogue, EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine), indicating that these cells were mitotically active. Taken together, the results demonstrate the functional role of Ect2 in postnatal proliferating cells in the two lobes of the pituitary, thereby suggesting roles in developmental growth of the mammalian pituitary.

  19. Pituitary gland volume in patients with schizophrenia, subjects at ultra high-risk of developing psychosis and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Dorte; Krogh, Jesper; Mondelli, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    A larger pituitary size is thought to reflect a greater activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may be related to an increase in the number and size of corticotroph cells. Some studies, but not all, indicate that pituitary volume increases before or at the onset...

  20. Antiapoptotic factor humanin is expressed in normal and tumoral pituitary cells and protects them from TNF-α-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Gottardo

    Full Text Available Humanin (HN is a 24-amino acid peptide with cytoprotective action in several cell types such as neurons and testicular germ cells. Rattin (HNr, a homologous peptide of HN expressed in several adult rat tissues, also has antiapoptotic action. In the present work, we demonstrated by immunocytochemical analysis and flow cytometry the expression of HNr in the anterior pituitary of female and male adult rats as well as in pituitary tumor GH3 cells. HNr was localized in lactotropes and somatotropes. The expression of HNr was lower in females than in males, and was inhibited by estrogens in pituitary cells from both ovariectomized female and orquidectomized male rats. However, the expression of HNr in pituitary tumor cells was not regulated by estrogens. We also evaluated HN action on the proapoptotic effect of TNF-α in anterior pituitary cells assessed by the TUNEL method. HN (0.5 µM per se did not modify basal apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells but completely blocked the proapoptotic effect of TNF-α in total anterior pituitary cells, lactotropes and somatotropes from both female and male rats [corrected]. Also, HN inhibited the apoptotic effect of TNF-α on pituitary tumor cells. In summary, our results demonstrate that HNr is present in the anterior pituitary gland, its expression showing sexual dimorphism, which suggests that gonadal steroids may be involved in the regulation of HNr expression in this gland. Antiapoptotic action of HN in anterior pituitary cells suggests that this peptide could be involved in the homeostasis of this gland. HNr is present and functional in GH3 cells, but it lacks regulation by estrogens, suggesting that HN could participate in the pathogenesis of pituitary tumors.

  1. Antiapoptotic Factor Humanin Is Expressed in Normal and Tumoral Pituitary Cells and Protects Them from TNF-α-Induced Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, María Laura; Zárate, Sandra; Moreno Ayala, Mariela; Ferraris, Jimena; Eijo, Guadalupe; Pisera, Daniel; Candolfi, Marianela; Seilicovich, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Humanin (HN) is a 24-amino acid peptide with cytoprotective action in several cell types such as neurons and testicular germ cells. Rattin (HNr), a homologous peptide of HN expressed in several adult rat tissues, also has antiapoptotic action. In the present work, we demonstrated by immunocytochemical analysis and flow cytometry the expression of HNr in the anterior pituitary of female and male adult rats as well as in pituitary tumor GH3 cells. HNr was localized in lactotropes and somatotropes. The expression of HNr was lower in females than in males, and was inhibited by estrogens in pituitary cells from both ovariectomized female and orquidectomized male rats. However, the expression of HNr in pituitary tumor cells was not regulated by estrogens. We also evaluated HN action on the proapoptotic effect of TNF-α in anterior pituitary cells assessed by the TUNEL method. HN (5 µM) per se did not modify basal apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells but completely blocked the proapoptotic effect of TNF-α in total anterior pituitary cells, lactotropes and somatotropes from both female and male rats. Also, HN inhibited the apoptotic effect of TNF-α on pituitary tumor cells. In summary, our results demonstrate that HNr is present in the anterior pituitary gland, its expression showing sexual dimorphism, which suggests that gonadal steroids may be involved in the regulation of HNr expression in this gland. Antiapoptotic action of HN in anterior pituitary cells suggests that this peptide could be involved in the homeostasis of this gland. HNr is present and functional in GH3 cells, but it lacks regulation by estrogens, suggesting that HN could participate in the pathogenesis of pituitary tumors. PMID:25360890

  2. Exposure to a complex cocktail of environmental endocrine-disrupting compounds disturbs the kisspeptin/GPR54 system in ovine hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingham, Michelle; Fowler, Paul A; Amezaga, Maria R; Rhind, Stewart M; Cotinot, Corinne; Mandon-Pepin, Beatrice; Sharpe, Richard M; Evans, Neil P

    2009-10-01

    Ubiquitous environmental chemicals, including endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), are associated with declining human reproductive health, as well as an increasing incidence of cancers of the reproductive system. Verifying such links requires animal models exposed to "real-life," environmentally relevant concentrations/mixtures of EDC, particularly in utero, when sensitivity to EDC exposure is maximal. We evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to a pollutant cocktail (sewage sludge) on the ovine fetal reproductive neuroendocrine axes, particularly the kisspeptin (KiSS-1)/GPR54 (G-protein-coupled receptor 54) system. KiSS-1, GPR54, and ERalpha (estrogen receptor alpha) mRNA expression was quantified in control (C) and treated (T) maternal and fetal (110-day) hypothalami and pituitary glands using semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and colocalization of kisspeptin with LHbeta (luteinizing hormone beta) and ERalpha in C and T fetal pituitary glands quantified using dual-labeling immunohistochemistry. Fetuses exposed in utero to the EDC mixture showed reduced KiSS-1 mRNA expression across three hypothalamic regions examined (rostral, mid, and caudal) and had fewer kisspetin immunopositive cells colocalized with both LHbeta and ERalpha in the pituitary gland. In contrast, treatment had no effect on parameters measured in the adult ewe hypothalamus or pituitary. This study demonstrates that the developing fetus is sensitive to real-world mixtures of environmental chemicals, which cause significant neuroendocrine alterations. The important role of kisspeptin/GPR54 in regulating puberty and adult reproduction means that in utero disruption of this system is likely to have long-term consequences in adulthood and represents a novel, additional pathway through which environmental chemicals perturb human reproduction.

  3. Rapid-onset obesity, hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, autonomic dysregulation and neuroendocrine tumor syndrome with a homogenous enlargement of the pituitary gland: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabban, Lama; Kassab, Lina; Bakoura, Nour Alhuda; Alsalka, Mohammad Fayez; Maksoud, Ismaeil

    2016-11-22

    Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome is a rare pediatric disorder with a variable sequence of clinical presentations, undefined etiology, and high risk of mortality. Our patient presented an unusual course of the disease accompanied by a homogenous mild enlargement of her pituitary gland with an intact pituitary-endocrine axis which, to the best of our knowledge, represents a new finding in rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome. We present a documented case of a 4 years and 8-month-old Syrian Arabic girl with a distinctive course of signs and symptoms of rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome accompanied by mature ganglioneuroma in her chest, a homogenous mild enlargement of her pituitary gland, generalized cortical brain atrophy, and seizures. Three months after her first marked symptoms were noted she had a sudden progression of severe respiratory distress that ended with her death. The findings of this case could increase our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation, and place more emphases on pediatricians to consider rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome whenever early rapid onset of obesity, associated with any malfunction, is observed in children. This knowledge could be lifesaving for children with rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome.

  4. MRI of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Kiortsis, Dimitrios Nikiforos

    2005-01-01

    In childhood, the MR characteristics of the normal pituitary gland are well established. During the first 2 months of life the adenohypophysis demonstrates high signal. Pituitary gland height (PGH) decreases during the 1st year of life and then increases, reaching a plateau after puberty. The magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) increases in both sexes up to the age of 20 years. On dynamic contrast-enhanced studies, the posterior pituitary lobe enhances simultaneously with the straight sinus, and the adenohypophysis later, but within 30 s. In genetically determined dysfunctional states, the adenohypophysis may be normal, hypoplastic, or enlarged. Pituitary enlargement, observed in Prop 1 gene mutations, is characterized by a mass interposed between the anterior and posterior lobes. An ectopic posterior lobe (EPP), associated with a hypoplastic or absent pituitary stalk, may be observed in patients with hypopituitarism. Tumors of the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) axis may be the origin of adenohypophyseal deficiencies. A small hypointense adenohypophysis is found in iron overload states and is often associated with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Absence of the posterior lobe bright signal, with or without a thick pituitary stalk or a mass at any site from the median eminence to the posterior pituitary lobe, may be found in diabetes insipidus. Hydrocephalus, suprasellar arachnoid cysts, hypothalamic hamartomas and craniopharyngiomas may result in central precocious puberty (CPP). Increased PGH in girls with idiopathic CPP is useful for its differential diagnosis from premature thelarche (PT). Pituitary adenomas, observed mainly in adolescents, present the same MR characteristics as those in adults. (orig.)

  5. MRI of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios Nikiforos [University of Ioannina, Department of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2005-11-01

    In childhood, the MR characteristics of the normal pituitary gland are well established. During the first 2 months of life the adenohypophysis demonstrates high signal. Pituitary gland height (PGH) decreases during the 1st year of life and then increases, reaching a plateau after puberty. The magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) increases in both sexes up to the age of 20 years. On dynamic contrast-enhanced studies, the posterior pituitary lobe enhances simultaneously with the straight sinus, and the adenohypophysis later, but within 30 s. In genetically determined dysfunctional states, the adenohypophysis may be normal, hypoplastic, or enlarged. Pituitary enlargement, observed in Prop 1 gene mutations, is characterized by a mass interposed between the anterior and posterior lobes. An ectopic posterior lobe (EPP), associated with a hypoplastic or absent pituitary stalk, may be observed in patients with hypopituitarism. Tumors of the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) axis may be the origin of adenohypophyseal deficiencies. A small hypointense adenohypophysis is found in iron overload states and is often associated with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Absence of the posterior lobe bright signal, with or without a thick pituitary stalk or a mass at any site from the median eminence to the posterior pituitary lobe, may be found in diabetes insipidus. Hydrocephalus, suprasellar arachnoid cysts, hypothalamic hamartomas and craniopharyngiomas may result in central precocious puberty (CPP). Increased PGH in girls with idiopathic CPP is useful for its differential diagnosis from premature thelarche (PT). Pituitary adenomas, observed mainly in adolescents, present the same MR characteristics as those in adults. (orig.)

  6. Ectopic Neurohypophysis in Patient with Pituitary Dwarfism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Kılınç

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic neurohypophysis is an anomaly of the Pituitary gland whichmay be associated with short stature due to Growth hormone deficiency.MRI is the modality of choice in diagnosing this condition. We present acase of pituitary dwarfism and ectopic neurohypophysis with clinical andradiological findings. 21 year-old male admitted with short stature. Allhormones, except prolactin, of anterior hypophysis were low. Bright spotwas ectopically located at level of median eminence on enhanced MRI ofhypophysis and stalk of hypophysis was not observed. Ectopicneurohypophysis may be present with pituitary dwarfism. Cranial MRI maybe useful to investigate related pathologies in such cases.

  7. CRTAC1 homolog proteins are conserved from cyanobacteria to man and secreted by the teleost fish pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redruello, Begoña; Louro, Bruno; Anjos, Liliana; Silva, Nádia; Greenwell, Roger S; Canario, Adelino V M; Power, Deborah M

    2010-05-15

    Cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1) gene expression is used as a marker for chondrocyte differentiation in stem cell-based tissue engineering. It is also transcribed outside the skeleton where at least two different transcripts are expressed in lung and brain. In the pituitary gland of the teleost fish sea bream Sparus auratus, we have found a transcript with a high degree of sequence identity to CRTAC1 family members but lacking the EGF-like calcium-binding domain encoding sequence of CRTAC1 and designated it as CRTAC2. Database searches revealed many previously unidentified members of the CRTAC1 and CRTAC2 in phylogenetically distant organisms, such as cyanobacteria, bryophyta, lancelets, and diverse representatives of vertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the genes encoding CRTAC1 and CRTAC2 proteins coexist in teleost fish genomes. Structural prediction analysis identified the N-terminal region of the CRTAC1/CRTAC2 family members as a potential seven-bladed beta-propeller structure, closely related to those of integrin alpha chains and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D1 protein families. This relationship is confirmed by phylogenetic analysis with the N-terminal domain of sea bream CRTAC2 as the most divergent sequence. Because teleost fishes are the only phylogenetic group where both CRTAC1 and CRTAC2 genes are present, they occupy a pivotal position in studies of the mechanisms governing the specific expression patterns of each gene/protein subfamily. This will be essential to elucidate their respective biological roles. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pituitary Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Barry D

    2017-09-01

    Modern pituitary imaging is MRI. However, computed tomography (CT) still has limited usefulness. In addition, because CT offers much better bone detail and calcium detection, there are some cases in which such additional information is necessary. Before the advent of CT, plain radiography, pneumoencephalography, and angiography were used to diagnose pituitary masses. More recently, CT, and then especially MRI, made it possible to primarily delineate lesions within and around the pituitary gland rather than depend on secondary information that could only suggest their presence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A five year prospective investigation of anterior pituitary function after traumatic brain injury: is hypopituitarism long-term after head trauma associated with autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriverdi, Fatih; De Bellis, Annamaria; Ulutabanca, Halil; Bizzarro, Antonio; Sinisi, Antonio A; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Amoresano Paglionico, Vanda; Dalla Mora, Liliana; Selcuklu, Ahmed; Unluhizarci, Kursad; Casanueva, Felipe F; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2013-08-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been recently recognized as a common cause of pituitary dysfunction. However, there are not sufficient numbers of prospective studies to understand the natural history of TBI induced hypopituitarism. The aim was to report the results of five years' prospective follow-up of anterior pituitary function in patients with mild, moderate and severe TBI. Moreover, we have prospectively investigated the associations between TBI induced hypopituitarism and presence of anti-hypothalamus antibodies (AHA) and anti-pituitary antibodies (APA). Twenty five patients (20 men, five women) were included who were prospectively evaluated 12 months and five years after TBI, and 17 of them also had a third-year evaluation. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is the most common pituitary hormone deficit at one, three, and five years after TBI. Although most of the pituitary hormone deficiencies improve over time, there were substantial percentages of pituitary hormone deficiencies at the fifth year (28% GH, 4% adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], and 4% gonadotropin deficiencies). Pituitary dysfunction was significantly higher in strongly AHA- and APA-positive (titers ≥1/16) patients at the fifth year. In patients with mild and moderate TBI, ACTH and GH deficiencies may improve over time in a considerable number of patients but, although rarely, may also worsen over the five-year period. However in severe TBI, ACTH and GH status of the patients at the first year evaluation persisted at the fifth year. Therefore, screening pituitary function after TBI for five years is important, especially in patients with mild TBI. Moreover, close strong associations between the presence of high titers of APA and/or AHA and hypopituitarism at the fifth year were shown for the first time.

  10. The clinical study on the relationship between growth hormone secretion and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging findings in children with short stature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Ryuji

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between pituitary size evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pituitary function was studied in 104 boys and 81 girls with short stature. Eighteen boys and 10 girls had normal secretion of growth hormone (GH) based on growth hormone provocative tests. Their height and volume of pituitary gland with normal anatomy were significantly correlated with their age. The pituitary height of girls was higher than that of boys. Sixty boys and 29 girls had growth hormone deficiency (GHD), and 3 boys of them had multiple pituitary deficiencies (MPHD) with pituitary interruption syndrome (transected pituitary stalk, severe small anterior lobe, ectopic posterior lobe). Pituitary height of the groups with GHD were almost less than normal groups. Thirteen girls with Turner syndrome out of 81 girls with short stature showed no difference in pituitary height compared to normal girls. (author)

  11. Effects of nalbuphine on anterior pituitary and adrenal hormones and subjective responses in male cocaine abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goletiani, Nathalie V; Mendelson, Jack H; Sholar, Michelle B; Siegel, Arthur J; Skupny, Alicja; Mello, Nancy K

    2007-04-01

    Nalbuphine (Nubain) is a mixed action mu-kappa agonist used clinically for the management of pain. Nalbuphine and other mu-kappa agonists decreased cocaine self-administration in preclinical models. Cocaine stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the effects of nalbuphine on the HPA axis are unknown. Analgesic doses (5 and 10 mg/70 kg) of IV nalbuphine were administered to healthy male cocaine abusers, and plasma levels of PRL, ACTH and cortisol were measured before and at 10, 17, 19, 23, 27, 31, 35, 40, 45, 60, 75, 105, and 135 min after nalbuphine administration. Subjective effects were measured on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Prolactin (PRL) increased significantly within 17 min (P=.04) and reached peak levels of 22.1+/-7.1 ng/ml and 54.1+/-11.3 at 60 min after low and high dose nalbuphine administration, respectively. VAS reports of "Sick," "Bad" and "Dizzy" were significantly higher after 10 mg/70 kg than after 5 mg/70 kg nalbuphine (P=.05-.0001), and were significantly correlated with increases in PRL (P=.05-.0003). However, sedation and emesis were observed only after a 10 mg/70 kg dose of nalbuphine. Interestingly, ACTH and cortisol levels did not change significantly after administration of either dose of nalbuphine. Taken together, these data suggest that nalbuphine had both mu- and kappa-like effects on PRL (PRL increase) but did not increase ACTH and cortisol.

  12. Deregulated E2F activity induces hyperplasia and senescence-like features in the mouse pituitary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazzerini Denchi, Eros; Attwooll, Claire; Pasini, Diego

    2005-01-01

    The retinoblastoma gene, RB1, is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. Rb heterozygous mice develop pituitary tumors with 100% incidence, and the E2F transcription factors are required for this. To assess whether deregulated E2F activity is sufficient to induce pituitary tumors...

  13. High-resolution heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic neurohypophysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanharawi, Imane El; Tzarouchi, Loukia [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Cardoen, Liesbeth [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Martinerie, Laetitia; Leger, Juliane; Carel, Jean-Claude [Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France); Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service d' Endocrinologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Elmaleh-Berges, Monique [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France); Alison, Marianne [Hopital Robert Debre, APHP, Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Inserm U1141, DHU PROTECT, Paris (France)

    2017-05-15

    In anterior pituitary deficiency, patients with non visible pituitary stalk have more often multiple deficiencies and persistent deficiency than patients with visible pituitary stalk. To compare the diagnostic value of a high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence to 1.5-mm-thick unenhanced and contrast-enhanced sagittal T1-weighted sequences to assess the presence of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland. We retrospectively evaluated the MRI data of 14 children diagnosed with ectopic posterior pituitary gland between 2010 and 2014. We evaluated the presence of a pituitary stalk using a sagittal high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence and a 1.5-mm sagittal T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence before and after contrast medium administration. A pituitary stalk was present on at least one of the sequences in 10 of the 14 children (71%). T2-weighted sequence depicted the pituitary stalk in all 10 children, whereas the 1.5-mm-thick T1-weighted sequence depicted 2/10 (20%) before contrast injection and 8/10 (80%) after contrast injection (P=0.007). Compared with 1.5-mm-thick contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence demonstrates better sensitivity in detecting the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland, suggesting that contrast injection is unnecessary to assess the presence of a pituitary stalk in this setting. (orig.)

  14. High-resolution heavily T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic neurohypophysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sanharawi, Imane; Tzarouchi, Loukia; Cardoen, Liesbeth; Martinerie, Laetitia; Leger, Juliane; Carel, Jean-Claude; Elmaleh-Berges, Monique; Alison, Marianne

    2017-05-01

    In anterior pituitary deficiency, patients with non visible pituitary stalk have more often multiple deficiencies and persistent deficiency than patients with visible pituitary stalk. To compare the diagnostic value of a high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence to 1.5-mm-thick unenhanced and contrast-enhanced sagittal T1-weighted sequences to assess the presence of the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland. We retrospectively evaluated the MRI data of 14 children diagnosed with ectopic posterior pituitary gland between 2010 and 2014. We evaluated the presence of a pituitary stalk using a sagittal high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence and a 1.5-mm sagittal T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence before and after contrast medium administration. A pituitary stalk was present on at least one of the sequences in 10 of the 14 children (71%). T2-weighted sequence depicted the pituitary stalk in all 10 children, whereas the 1.5-mm-thick T1-weighted sequence depicted 2/10 (20%) before contrast injection and 8/10 (80%) after contrast injection (P=0.007). Compared with 1.5-mm-thick contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, high-resolution heavily T2-weighted sequence demonstrates better sensitivity in detecting the pituitary stalk in children with ectopic posterior pituitary gland, suggesting that contrast injection is unnecessary to assess the presence of a pituitary stalk in this setting.

  15. Relative potencies of the somatostatin analogs octreotide, BIM-23014, and RC-160 on the inhibition of hormone release by cultured human endocrine tumor cells and normal rat anterior pituitary cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Hofland (Leo); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); M. Waaijers (Marlijn); J. Zuyderwijk; S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn the present study we investigated the effects of the somatostatin (SS) analogs octreotide, RC-160, and BIM-23014 on GH release by cultured cells of human GH-secreting pituitary tumors, in normal rat anterior pituitary cells, and on gastrin release by

  16. Effect of THIP and SL 76002, two clinically experimented GABA-mimetic compounds, on anterior pituitary GABA receptors and prolactin secretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apud, J.A.; Masotto, C.; Racagni, G.

    1987-01-01

    In the present study, the ability of three direct GABA agonists, muscimol, THIP and SL 76002 to displace 3 H-GABA binding from anterior pituitary and medio-basal hypothalamus membranes was evaluated. Further, the effect of both THIP and SL 76002 on baseline prolactin levels or after stimulation of hormone release with haloperidol has been also studied. Either muscimol, THIP or SL 76002 have shown to posses 7-, 7- and 3-fold higher affinity, respectively, for the central nervous system than for the anterior pituitary 3 H-GABA binding sites. Moreover, THIP and SL 76002 have demonstrated to be respectively, 25- and 1000- fold less potent than muscimol in inhibiting 3 H- GABA binding at the level of the anterior pituitary and about 25- and 2700-fold less potent at the level of the medio-basal hypothalamus. Under basal conditions, either THIP or SL 76002 were ineffective to reduce prolactin release. However, after stimulation of prolactin secretion through blockade of the dopaminergic neurotransmission with haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), both THIP (10 mg/kg) and SL 76002 (200 mg/kg) significantly counteracted the neuroleptic-induced prolactin rise with a potency which is in line with their ability to inhibit 3 H-GABA binding in the anterior pituitary. The present results indicate that both compounds inhibit prolactin release under specific experimental situations probably through a GABAergic mechanism. In view of the endocrine effects of these GABA-mimetic compounds, the possibility arises for an application of these type of drugs in clinical neuroendocrinology. 35 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  17. Differential regulation of proopiomelanocortin (POMC mRNA expression in hypothalamus and anterior pituitary following repeated cyanamide with ethanol administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinoshita Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. We have investigated proopiomelanocortin (POMC mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC and the anterior lobe of the pituitary (AL following repeated cyanamide-ethanol reaction (CER. Methods. Adult male Sprague -Dawley rats (250 −290 gr were housed in a temperature and humidity controlled environment with free access to food and water. Four experimental groups were used as follows: saline (as control, cyanamide alone, ethanol alone and ethanol with cyanamide. The animals received daily intraperitoneal injections (i.p. of cyanamide (10mg/kg, 60 min before ethanol dosing with or without ethanol (1g/kg for 5 consecutive days, and were sacrificed 60 min after the last dosing of ethanol. The results were presented as the mean ± SEM for each group. All groups within each data set were compared by one-way ANOVA followed by Fisher PLSD test for multiple comparisons. A value of p<0.05 was considered significant. Results. The POMC mRNA levels in ARC were significantly decreased with cyanamide compared to the control and ethanol alone (p<0.05 and p<0.05 respectively, but increased in AL following repeated CER. Conclusion. We speculate that this differential regulation of POMC mRNA expression may be partially involved in the preventive effects on alcohol intake in response to CER.

  18. Nitric oxide protects the mitochondria of anterior pituitary cells and prevents cadmium-induced cell death by reducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliandri, Ariel H B; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Quinteros, Alnilan F; Cabilla, Jimena P; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2006-02-15

    Cadmium (Cd2+) is a highly toxic metal that affects the endocrine system. We have previously shown that Cd2+ induces caspase-3 activation and apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells and that endogenous nitric oxide (NO) protects these cells from Cd2+. Here we investigate the mechanisms by which NO exerts this protective role. Cd2+ (25 microM) reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) as measured by flow cytometry. Cd2+-induced apoptosis was mitochondrial dependent since cyclosporin A protected the cells from this metal. Inhibition of NO synthesis with 0.5 mM L-NAME increased the effect of Cd2+ on MMP, whereas the NO donor DETANONOate (0.1 mM) reduced it. Cd2+ increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as measured by flow cytometry. This effect was electron-transfer-chain-dependent since it was inhibited by rotenone. In fact, rotenone reduced the cytotoxic effect of the metal. The action of Cd2+ on mitochondrial integrity was ROS dependent. Trolox, an antioxidant, inhibited the effect of the metal on the MMP. Cd2+-induced increase in ROS generation was reduced by DETANONOate. There are discrepancies concerning the role of NO in Cd2+ toxicity. Here we show that NO reduces Cd2+ toxicity by protecting the mitochondria from oxidative stress in a system where NO plays a regulatory role.

  19. Stem/progenitor cells in pituitary organ homeostasis and tumourigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshaei, Saba

    2018-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of pituitary gland stem cells has been provided over the last decade using a combination of approaches including in vitro clonogenicity assays, flow cytometric side population analysis, immunohistochemical analysis and genetic approaches. These cells have been demonstrated to be able to self-renew and undergo multipotent differentiation to give rise to all hormonal lineages of the anterior pituitary. Furthermore, evidence exists for their contribution to regeneration of the organ and plastic responses to changing physiological demand. Recently, stem-like cells have been isolated from pituitary neoplasms raising the possibility that a cytological hierarchy exists, in keeping with the cancer stem cell paradigm. In this manuscript, we review the evidence for the existence of pituitary stem cells, their role in maintaining organ homeostasis and the regulation of their differentiation. Furthermore, we explore the emerging concept of stem cells in pituitary tumours and their potential roles in these diseases. PMID:28855316

  20. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  1. LHRH incorporation in normal and denervated pineal gland, and in pineal gland of rats with constant estrous-anovulatory syndrome: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentini, G.P.; DeGaetani, C.F.; DiGregorio, C.; Botticelli, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Pineal gland and superior sympathetic cervical ganglia accumulated intravenously injected 3 H-LHRH in an amount significantly higher than anterior and posterior hypothalamus, cerebral cortex and pituitary gland, the latter a specific target for LHRH. The prior administration of unlabelled LHRH significantly decreased the 3 H-LHRH incorporation only in pineal and pituitary gland. Autoradiography showed that the radiolabel was localized at the level of the pinealocytes, with a seemingly, prevalent distribution of grains on the cellular contours. Pineal incorporation of LHRH was not significantly modified by either acute or chronic bilateral cervical ganglionectomy, although acute ganglioectomy resulted in a slight decrease in LHRH accumulation by pineal gland. Constant estrous anovulatory syndromes induced by either frontal hypothalamic deafferentation, or continuous illumination or neonatal androgenization did not appear to modify the LHRH incorporation in either pineal gland or cervical ganglia. Basing on these results, the pineal gland is supposed to be a target organ for LHRH. (author)

  2. Three-dimensional gradient echo versus spin echo sequence in contrast-enhanced imaging of the pituitary gland at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakite, Suguru, E-mail: sugkaki@med.tottori-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36-1, Nishicho, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan); Fujii, Shinya [Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36-1, Nishicho, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan); Kurosaki, Masamichi [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36-1, Nishicho, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan); Kanasaki, Yoshiko; Matsusue, Eiji; Kaminou, Toshio; Ogawa, Toshihide [Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36-1, Nishicho, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Introduction: To clarify whether a three-dimensional-gradient echo (3D-GRE) or spin echo (SE) sequence is more useful for evaluating sellar lesions on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging at 3.0 Tesla (T). Methods: We retrospectively assessed contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images using 3D-GRE and SE sequences at 3.0 T obtained from 33 consecutive patients with clinically suspected sellar lesions. Two experienced neuroradiologists evaluated the images qualitatively in terms of the following criteria: boundary edge of the cavernous sinus and pituitary gland, border of sellar lesions, delineation of the optic nerve and cranial nerves within the cavernous sinus, susceptibility and flow artifacts, and overall image quality. Results: At 3.0 T, 3D-GRE provided significantly better images than the SE sequence in terms of the border of sellar lesions, delineation of cranial nerves, and overall image quality; there was no significant difference regarding the boundary edge of the cavernous sinus and pituitary gland. In addition, the 3D-GRE sequence showed fewer pulsation artifacts but more susceptibility artifacts. Conclusion: Our results indicate that 3D-GRE is the more suitable sequence for evaluating sellar lesions on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging at 3.0 T.

  3. Uptake and metabolism of [3H]testosterone in the brain, pituitary gland and genital tract of the male cynomolgus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonsall, R.W.; Rees, H.D.; Micheal, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    To study the mechanism by which testosterone restores the sexual potency of castrated cynomolgus monkeys, two males (body weights 5.2 and 5.3 kg) were castrated and, 3 days later, injected with 3 mCi [ 3 H]testosterone ([ 3 H]T) as an intravenous bolus. After 30 min, males were killed and brains and samples of other tissues were rapidly removed and placed on ice. Samples were dissected from the right halves of the brain and homogenized. Purified cell nuclei were prepared and ether extracts were analyzed by reverse-phase HPCL. Generally, unchanged [ 3 H]T was the major form of radioactivity in brain and pituitary gland, but in cell nuclei from hypothalamus, preoptic area and amygdala, a large proportion (34 - 61%) was in the form of [ 3 H]estradiol ([ 4 H]E 2 ). Little or no [ 3 H]dihydrotestosterone ([ 3 H]DHT) was detected in cell nuclei from any brain region or from pituitary gland. However, [ 3 H]DHT was the major form (61 - 95%) of radioactivity in cell nuclei from glans penis, prostrate and seminal vesicles. In autoradiograms of the left halves of the same brains, the percentage of cells that accumulated radioactivity in their nuclei was high in specific regions of the hypothalamus, preoptic areas and amygdala. The authors conclude that the peripheral actions of T are mediated via DHT, but its central actions are dependent on unchanged T or on E 2 formed locally by aromatization

  4. Multiparametric MRI of the anterior prostate gland: clinical–radiological–histopathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, B.; Flood, T.A.; Al-Dandan, O.; Breau, R.H.; Cagiannos, I.; Morash, C.; Malone, S.C.; Schieda, N.

    2016-01-01

    Anterior prostate cancer (APC) is defined as a tumour in which more than half of malignant tissue is located anterior to the urethra. APCs are increasingly recognized as clinically important, particularly in patients undergoing active surveillance and for patients with negative non-targeted systematic transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies but with persistent clinical suspicion of cancer. Multiparametric (mp) MRI has a crucial role for the diagnosis of anterior tumours, eventual histological sampling of suspicious lesions using image-guided targeted biopsy techniques, and potentially, to improve local staging of disease. mpMRI is accurate for the detection of APC and for differentiation of tumour from other anterior prostatic structures including benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and the anterior fibromuscular stroma (AFMS). Characterization and reporting of APC should rely on the recently revised Prostate Imaging and Data Reporting System (PI-RADS) version 2.0 document. T2-weighted (T2W) imaging is emphasized as the determining sequence for assessment of the anterior prostate and specific features for APC on T2W imaging include: ill-defined/spiculated margin, lenticular shape, anterior/inferior location, and growth pattern (invasion of urethra or AFMS and crossing midline). Functional imaging, mainly with diffusion-weighted imaging, is also contributory and improves the sensitivity for detection of APC compared to T2W imaging alone. APCs commonly show positive surgical margins after radical prostatectomy and staging of disease extent using conventional clinical parameters is limited. mpMRI may have a future role to improve local staging of APC. This review illustrates the importance of mpMRI in APC using a clinical–radiological–histopathological approach.

  5. Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axes of rats with mammary gland cancer induced by N-methyl nitrosourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, M P; Ramírez-Expósito, M J; Valenzuela, M T; García, M J; Mayas, M D; Arias de Saavedra, J M; Sánchez, R; Pérez, M C; Martínez-Martos, J M

    2005-02-01

    Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase is an omega-peptidase that hydrolyses N-terminal pyroglutamyl residues from biologically active peptides such as gonadotropin-releasing and thyrotrophin-releasing hormones. We previously described a decrease in both rat and human pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity with breast cancer, suggesting that gonadotropin-releasing hormone may be an important local intracrine, autocrine and/or paracrine hormonal factor in the pathogenesis of breast cancer while playing a role in the tumoral process. However, the other susceptible substrate of pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, may also be modified with breast cancer, supporting an association between breast cancer and thyroid disorders. The present work analyses soluble and membrane-bound pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axes in N-methyl nitrosourea-induced breast cancer in rats. Our aim was to determine the possible relationship between gonadotropin-releasing hormone and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone regulation through pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity. We propose that pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity dysregulation at various local and systemic levels may participate in the initiation, promotion and progression of breast cancer induced in rat by N-methyl nitrosourea through the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Since pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity also acts on thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, the dysregulation of this enzyme's activity could indirectly affect hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis function, and thus potentially represent a link between the diseases of thyroid and breast cancer.

  6. Seasonal Relationship between Gonadotropin, Growth Hormone, and Estrogen Receptor mRNA Expression in the Pituitary Gland of Largemouth Bass

    OpenAIRE

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J.; Porak, Wesley F.; Steward, Cheree; Grier, Harry J.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal changes in pituitary gonadotropins, growth hormone (GH), and estrogen receptor (ER) isoform mRNA in wild female and male largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides) from an unpolluted habitat to better understand reproductive physiology in this ecologically important species. Female pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) β subunit and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β subunit mRNA showed significant seasonal variation with levels ...

  7. MRI of the TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) -secreting pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Chul; Kim, Dong Ik; Chung, Tae Sup; Cho, Yong Kook; Lee, Eun Gig; Jung, Joon Keun

    1995-01-01

    To demonstrate and evaluate the value of MRI findings of the TSH(Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, TSH, Thyrotropin)-secreting pituitary adenoma. The authors reviewed retrospectively the MR images of 4 patients with TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Evaluation of the anatomical location, signal characteristics, enhancement patterns, size, shape and circunferential changes were made. No characteristic common MR findings in size, shape, signal intensity, and circumferential changes of TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma waere observed among 4 cases (size; 5 x 7 mm to 10 x 11 mm, shape; ovoid to round signal intensity; high in 1 case on T1 and T2WI, isosignal intensity in the other 3 cases, circumferential change; stalk deviation in 1 case, no stalk deviation in 3 cases). But, the tumors were centrally located at the anterior pituitary gland and showed relatively homogeneous signal intensity on MR images of all 4 patients. We conclude that centrally-located mass at the anterior pituitary gland with homogeneous signal intensity on MR image may be suggestive of the TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma, although the MR findings are not specific for the disease

  8. Fetal antigen 1 in healthy adults and patients with pituitary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Støving, René Klinkby

    2001-01-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of human fetal antigen 1 (FA1) in adult human tissues has demonstrated a strong association between FA1 and (neuro)endocrine structures. In the anterior pituitary gland FA1 was colocalized with GH, and the present study was performed to evaluate...

  9. The forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is necessary for pituitary luteinizing hormone expression in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H Gumbel

    Full Text Available The pituitary gland regulates numerous physiological functions including growth, reproduction, temperature and metabolic homeostasis, lactation, and response to stress. Pituitary organogenesis is dependent on signaling factors that are produced in and around the developing pituitary. The studies described in this report reveal that the forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is not expressed in the developing mouse pituitary gland, but rather in the mesenchyme surrounding the pituitary gland, which is an essential source of signaling factors that regulate pituitary organogenesis. Loss of Foxd1 causes a morphological defect in which the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland protrudes through the cartilage plate that is developing ventral to the pituitary at embryonic days (e14.5, e16.5, and e18.5. The number of proliferating pituitary cells is increased at e14.5 and e16.5. Loss of Foxd1 also results in significantly decreased levels of Lhb expression at e18.5. This decrease in Lhb expression does not appear to be due to a change in the number of gonadotrope cells in the pituitary gland. Previous studies have shown that loss of the LIM homeodomain factor, Lhx3, which is activated by the FGF signaling pathway, results in loss of LH production. Although there is a difference in Lhb expression in Foxd1 null mice, the expression pattern of LHX3 is not altered in Foxd1 null mice. These studies suggest that Foxd1 is indirectly required for normal Lhb expression and cartilage formation.

  10. A Comparative Study of Pituitary Volume Variations in MRI in Acute Onset of Psychiatric Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Brijesh Kumar; Joish, Upendra Kumar; Sahni, Hirdesh; George, Raju A; Sivasankar, Rajeev; Aggarwal, Rohit

    2017-02-01

    The growing belief that endocrine abnormalities may underlie many mental conditions has led to increased use of imaging and hormonal assays in patients attending to psychiatric OPDs. People who are in an acute phase of a psychiatric disorder show Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, but the precise underlying central mechanisms are unclear. To assess the pituitary gland volume variations in patients presenting with new onset acute psychiatric illness in comparison with age and gender matched controls by using MRI. The study included 50 patients, with symptoms of acute psychiatric illness presenting within one month of onset of illness and 50 age and gender matched healthy controls. Both patients and controls were made to undergo MRI of the Brain. A 0.9 mm slices of entire brain were obtained by 3 dimensional T1 weighted sequence. Pituitary gland was traced in all sagittal slices. Anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary bright spot were measured separately in each slice. Volume of the pituitary (in cubic centimetre- cm 3 ) was calculated by summing areas. Significance of variations in pituitary gland volumes was compared between the cases and controls using Analysis of Covariance (ANOVA). There were significantly larger pituitary gland volumes in the cases than the controls, irrespective of psychiatric diagnosis (ANOVA, f=15.56; p=0.0002). Pituitary volumes in cases were 15.36% (0.73 cm 3 ) higher than in controls. There is a strong likelihood of HPA axis overactivity during initial phase of all mental disorders along with increased pituitary gland volumes. Further studies including hormonal assays and correlation with imaging are likely to provide further insight into neuroanatomical and pathological basis of psychiatric disorders.

  11. Differential effect of adrenocorticosteroids on 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase bioactivity at the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, R B; Mohamad, N B; Morat, P B; Saim, A; Abdul Kadir, K B

    1996-08-01

    11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-OHSD) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of cortisol (F) to cortisone (E) in man and corticosterone (B) to 11-dehydrocorticosterone (A) in rats. 11 beta-OHSD has been identified in a wide variety of tissues. The differential distribution of 11 beta-OHSD suggests that this enzyme has locally defined functions that vary from region to region. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the glucocorticoids B and dexamethasone (DM), the mineralocorticoid deoxycorticosterone (DOC), and the inhibitors of 11 beta-OHSD glycyrrhizic acid (Gl) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GE) on 11 beta-OHSD bioactivity at the hypothalamus (HT) and anterior pituitary (AP). Male Wistar rats were treated with GI or were adrenalectomized (ADX) and treated with either B, DM, or DOC for 7 days. All treatments were in vivo except GE, which was used in vitro. At the end of treatment, homogenates of HT and AP were assayed for 11 beta-OHSD bioactivity, expressed as the percentage conversion of B to A in the presence of NADP, 11 beta-OHSD bioactivity is significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in the AP compared with the HT. Adrenalectomy significantly increased the enzyme activity in the AP (P < 0.05), an effect reversed by B or DM. ADX rats treated with DOC showed decreased enzyme activity in the AP (P < 0.001) but increased the activity in the HT (P < 0.0001). Gl increased activity in both HT and AP, whereas GE decreased activity significantly. We conclude that the modulation of 11 beta-OHSD is both steroid specific and tissue specific.

  12. Seasonal relationship between gonadotropin, growth hormone, and estrogen receptor mRNA expression in the pituitary gland of largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Kroll, Kevin J; Porak, Wesley F; Steward, Cheree; Grier, Harry J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2009-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the seasonal changes in pituitary gonadotropins, growth hormone (GH), and estrogen receptor (ER) isoform mRNA in wild female and male largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides) from an unpolluted habitat to better understand reproductive physiology in this ecologically important species. Female pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) beta subunit and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) beta subunit mRNA showed significant seasonal variation with levels peaking from January to April and were lowest from May to August. Male LMB showed more variation in gonadotropin subunit expression from month to month. Females had approximately 2-3 times higher gonadotropin mRNA levels in the pituitary when compared to males. All three gonadotropin mRNAs in females were positively correlated to gonadosomatic index (GSI), but only LHbeta mRNA was correlated to GSI in males. Gonadotropin mRNA expression also increased with increasing oocyte and sperm maturation. Gonadotropin beta subunit mRNA expression was positively correlated to GH mRNA in both sexes. The expression of all three ER isoforms was significantly correlated to each other in both sexes. The concurrent increase in all three ER mRNA isoforms with increasing gonadotropin mRNA in females and males suggests a prominent role for E2 feedback on pituitary gonadotropin synthesis in both sexes and that each of the three ER isoforms are likely to play a role in the pituitary during teleost reproduction.

  13. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Beatty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s. Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should immediately start empiric antibiotics and request a neurosurgical consult when pituitary abscess is suspected. Escherichia coli (E. coli causing intracranial infections are not well understood and are uncommon in adults. We present an interesting case of an immunocompetent male with a history of hypogonadism presenting with worsening headache and acute right eye vision loss. He was found to have a polymicrobial pituitary abscess predominantly involving E.   coli in addition to Actinomyces odontolyticus and Prevotella melaninogenica in the setting of an apoplectic pituitary prolactinoma. The definitive etiology of this infection was not determined but an odontogenic process was suspected. A chronic third molar eruption and impaction in close proximity to the pituitary gland likely led to contiguous spread of opportunistic oral microorganisms allowing for a polymicrobial pituitary abscess formation.

  14. Pituitary transcription factors in the aetiology of combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfäffle, R; Klammt, J

    2011-02-01

    The somatotropic axis is the central postnatal regulator of longitudinal growth. One of its major components--growth hormone--is produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary, which also expresses and secretes five additional hormones (prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone). Proper development of the pituitary assures the regulation of critical processes such as metabolic control, puberty and reproduction, stress response and lactation. Ontogeny of the adenohypophysis is orchestrated by inputs from neighbouring tissues, cellular signalling molecules and transcription factors. Perturbation of expression or function of these factors has been implicated in the aetiology of combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). Mutations within the genes encoding for the transcription factors LHX3, LHX4, PROP1, and POU1F1 (PIT1) that act at different stages of pituitary development result in unique patterns of hormonal deficiencies reflecting their differential expression during organogenesis. In the case of LHX3 and LHX4 the phenotype may include extra-pituitary manifestations due to the function of these genes/proteins outside the pituitary gland. The remarkable variability in the clinical presentation of affected patients indicates the influence of the genetic background, environmental factors and possibly stochastic events. However, in the majority of CPHD cases the aetiology of this heterogeneous disease remains unexplained, which further suggests the involvement of additional genes. Identification of these factors might also help to close the gaps in our understanding of pituitary development, maintenance and function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. α-transforming growth factor secreted by untransformed bovine anterior pituitary cells in culture. II. Identification using a sequence-specific monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobrin, M.S.; Samsoondar, J.; Kudlow, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Untransformed bovine anterior pituitary cells cultured in serum-free defined medium secrete an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like peptide with an amino acid composition similar to rat or human α-transforming growth factor (αTGF). To further characterize the bovine pituitary αTGF, it was compared to a human αTGF partially purified from the conditioned medium of a human melanoma cell line. An anti-αTGF monoclonal antibody, MF9, was produced from hybridomas derived from mice immunized with a 17-residue synthetic peptide corresponding to the carboxyl-terminal sequence of rat αTGF. The hybridoma supernatants were initially screened for the ability to immunoprecipitate 125 I-peptide and then tested for recognition of human αTGF. Only 2 of 36 antipeptide antibodies recognized the native αTGF. The binding of 125 I-peptide to MF9 was displaced by human αTGF but not by EGF. Bovine pituitary αTGF also displaced the binding of 125 I-peptide to MF9 in a similar manner to human αTGF. Both iodinated human and bovine pituitary αTGF were immunoprecipitated by MF9 whereas 125 I-EGF was not. Tryptic digests of both 125 I-αTGFs chromatographed to give a single, indistinguishable peak of iodinated material on a reverse-phase C 18 high performance liquid chromatography column when eluted with two different solvent systems, suggesting the generation of a single and identical tyrosine-containing tryptic peptide from both αTGFs. The comparisons of the bovine pituitary and human melanoma αTGF using a sequence-specific monoclonal antibody and peptide mapping suggest that these αTGFs are related and that αTGF production is not limited to transformed or fetal sources

  16. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates adipokine and socs3 gene expression in mouse brain and pituitary gland in vivo, and in N-1 hypothalamic neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Russell; Imran, Syed A; Wilkinson, Michael

    2009-04-30

    Adipokines that modulate metabolic and inflammatory responses, such as resistin (rstn) and fasting-induced adipose factor (fiaf), are also expressed in mouse brain and pituitary gland. Since lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxinemia provokes an anorectic response via a hypothalamic-dependent mechanism we hypothesized that LPS would also modify hypothalamic adipokine expression. Challenging male CD-1 mice with LPS (5 mg/kg; s.c.) significantly reduced bodyweight (24 h) and realtime RT-PCR revealed time- and tissue-dependent increases in rstn, fiaf and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (socs-3) mRNA in hypothalamic, pituitary, cortical and adipose tissues. Gene expression was rapidly increased (3-6 h) in the hypothalamus and pituitary, but returned to normal within 24 h. In contrast, with the exception of rstn in fat, the expression of target genes remained elevated in cortex and visceral fat at 24 h post-injection. In order to more specifically examine the hypothalamic response to LPS we investigated its effects directly on N-1 hypothalamic neurons in vitro. LPS (25 microg/mL; 3 h) had no effect on rstn mRNA, but significantly stimulated fiaf and socs-3 expression. Although various toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonists (parthenolide, PD098059, and SB202190) did not prevent the LPS-induced increases in fiaf and socs-3, they did partially attenuate its stimulatory effects. We conclude that LPS treatment increases the expression of central, and possibly neuronal, adipokine genes which may influence local tissue repair and function, but could also have downstream consequences on the hypothalamic control of appetite and energy metabolism following an inflammatory insult.

  17. MRI of congenital pituitary insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Magalhaes, Alvaro C. de; Uehara, Karla C.; Iezzi, Denise

    1995-01-01

    We compare 1,5 T magnetic resonance (MR) image findings in 193 patients with congenital pituitary congenital insufficiency. One hundred and thirty nine of the MR studies were obtained in patients who had isolated growth hormone deficiency. Other fifth - four patients had multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. On MR images, normal anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary glands can be clearly differentiated because the posterior lobe has a characteristic high intensity on TI-weighted images. In fifty-four patients, the high- intensity of the posterior lobe was not seen, but a similar high signal intensity was observed at the proximal stump in fifty-one patients. this high- intensity area is the newly formed ectopic posterior lobe, which also secrets anti-diuretic hormone just as the posterior lobe would. MR imaging can demonstrate the transection of the pituitary stalk and the formation of the ectopic lobe, revealing to be a useful diagnostic tool in the definition of the type of alteration in growth defects of endocrine origin. (author)

  18. Pituitary infiltration by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aral Ferihan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pituitary adenomas represent the most frequently observed type of sellar masses; however, the presence of a rapidly growing sellar tumor, diabetes insipidus, ophthalmoplegia and headaches in an older patient strongly suggests metastasis to the pituitary. Since the anterior pituitary has a great reserve capacity, metastasis to the pituitary and pituitary involvement in lymphoma are usually asymptomatic. Whereas diabetes insipidus is the most frequent symptom, patients can present with headaches, ophthalmoplegia and bilateral hemianopsia. Case presentation A 70-year-old woman with no previous history of malignancy presented with headaches, right oculomotor nerve palsy and diabetes insipidus. As magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sellar mass involving the pituitary gland and infundibular stalk, which also extended into the right cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus, the patient underwent an immediate transsphenoidal decompression surgery. Her prolactin was 102.4 ng/ml, whereas her gonadotropic hormone levels were low. A low level of urine osmolality after overnight water deprivation, along with normal plasma osmolality suggested diabetes insipidus. Histological examination revealed that the mass had been the infiltration of a high grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma involving respiratory system epithelial cells. Paranasal sinus computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax and abdomen were performed. Since magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any abnormality, after paranasal sinus computed tomography was performed, we concluded that the primary lymphoma originated from the sphenoid sinus and infiltrated the pituitary. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the sellar area were planned, but the patient died and her family did not permit an autopsy. Conclusion Lymphoma infiltration to the pituitary is difficult to differentiate from pituitary adenoma, meningioma and other sellar lesions. To plan the

  19. Pituitary granulomatosis with polyangiitis

    OpenAIRE

    Slabu, Hannah; Arnason, Terra

    2013-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a small vessel vasculitis that can affect several organs, most commonly the respiratory tract and kidneys. Pituitary involvement is exceptionally rare. Most case reports of GPA of the pituitary gland have been described in middle-aged women who have concomitant ears, nose and throat involvement. The most frequent manifestation is diabetes insipidus due to a preponderance of posterior pituitary infiltration. The majority of cases sustain permanent dama...

  20. Fractionated stereotactically guided radiotherapy and radiosurgery in the treatment of functional and nonfunctional adenomas of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milker-Zabel, Stefanie; Debus, Juergen; Thilmann, Christoph; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Wannenmacher, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated survival rates and side effects after fractionated stereotactically guided radiotherapy (SCRT) and radiosurgery in patients with pituitary adenoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1989 and 1998, 68 patients were treated with FSRT (n=63) or radiosurgery (n=5) for pituitary adenomas. Twenty-six had functional and 42 had nonfunctional adenomas. Follow-up included CT/MRI, endocrinologic, and ophthalmologic examinations. Mean follow-up was 38.7 months. Seven patients received radiotherapy as primary treatment and 39 patients received it postoperatively for residual disease. Twenty-two patients were treated for recurrent disease after surgery. Mean total dose was 52.2 Gy for SCRT, and 15 Gy for radiosurgery. Results: Overall local tumor control was 93% (60/65 patients). Forty-three patients had stable disease based on CT/MRI, while 15 had a reduction of tumor volume. After FSRT, 26% with a functional adenoma had a complete remission and 19% had a reduction of hormonal overproduction after 34 months' mean. Two patients with STH-secreting adenomas had an endocrinologic recurrence, one with an ACTH-secreting adenoma radiologic recurrence, within 54 months. Reduction of visual acuity was seen in 4 patients and partial hypopituitarism in 3 patients. None of the patients developed brain radionecrosis or radiation-induced gliomas. Conclusion: Stereotactically guided radiotherapy is effective and safe in the treatment of pituitary adenomas to improve local control and reduce hormonal overproduction

  1. Differential expression of cyclin Dl in human pituitary tumors: relation to MIB-1 and p27/Kipl labeling indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewedi, I.H.; Osman, W.M.; El Mahdy, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are a common form of endocrine neoplasia. However few studies assessed the expression of the principal cyclin regulating checkpoint exit, cyclin Dl. Cyclin Dl expression in pituitary tumors and its possible relation to MIB-1 and p27/K.ipl labeling indices (Us) was explored. Design: We studied a total of 199 pituitaries, including normal pituitaries (n = 7), pituitary adenomas (n = 187), and pituitary carcinoma (n = 5). All tissues were tested as cores of archived tissue microarrays that were immuno stained for cyclin Dl, MIB-1 and p27 using a standard technique. Tissue cores were subjected to automated analysis to evaluate the staining LIs, Results: No cyclin Dl positive cells in the normal anterior pituitary gland was found. Sparse nuclear staining was noted in pituitary tumors. Higher expression of cyclin Dl was noted in pituitary carcinomas compared to adenomas (p < 0.001), in non-functioning adenomas compared to functioning ones (p < 0.001) in macroadenomas versus micro adenomas (p — 0.017) and in recurrent non recurrent adenomas (p < 0.001). Cyclin Dl LI and MIB-1 LI were related among adenomas (p < 0.001) and carcinomas (p = 0.041). p27 LI was neither related to pituitary adenoma recurrence nor invasion. Conclusions: Expression of cyclin Dl in pituitary tumors is related to cell proliferation, recurrence, and metastatic potential. Nuclear cyclin Dl expression is a good marker of aggressive behavior in pituitary tumors

  2. Primary hypothyroidism masquerading pituitary macroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Amit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse and reactive pituitary gland enlargement secondary to primary hypothyroidism is an uncommon occurrence and that can masquerade many pituitary disorders. In present article, we report a case of 19 year female severe hypothyroidism presenting with diffuse enlargement of pituitary gland and hyperprolactinemia and review the clinical importance of this entity. Knowledge of this entity is very important to avoid unnecessary surgery and irreversible complications in this sub-group of patients.

  3. Primary hypothyroidism masquerading pituitary macroadenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal Amit; Reddy Amareesh P.; Malleswara Rao G.; Reddy V. Umamaheswara

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse and reactive pituitary gland enlargement secondary to primary hypothyroidism is an uncommon occurrence and that can masquerade many pituitary disorders. In present article, we report a case of 19 year female severe hypothyroidism presenting with diffuse enlargement of pituitary gland and hyperprolactinemia and review the clinical importance of this entity. Knowledge of this entity is very important to avoid unnecessary surgery and irreversible complications in this sub-group of patients.

  4. Estradiol potentiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone responsiveness in the anterior pituitary is mediated by an increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.; Peegel, H.; Katta, V.

    1985-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism by which 17 beta-estradiol potentiates the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on the anterior pituitary in vitro, cultured pituitary cells from immature female rats were used as the model system. Cultures exposed to estradiol at concentrations ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/L exhibited a significant augmentation of luteinizing hormone release in response to a 4-hour gonadotropin-releasing hormone (10 mumol/L) challenge at a dose of 10(-9) mol/L compared to that of control cultures. The estradiol augmentation of luteinizing hormone release was also dependent on the duration of estradiol exposure. When these cultures were incubated with tritium-labeled L-leucine, an increase in incorporation of radiolabeled amino acid into total proteins greater than that in controls was observed. A parallel stimulatory effect of estradiol on iodine 125-labeled D-Ala6 gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding was observed. Cultures incubated with estradiol at different concentrations and various lengths of time showed a significant increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding capacity and this increase was abrogated by cycloheximide. Analysis of the binding data showed that the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding activity was due to a change in the number of gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding sites rather than a change in the affinity. These results suggest that (1) estradiol treatment increases the number of pituitary receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone, (2) the augmentary effect of estradiol on luteinizing hormone release at the pituitary level might be mediated, at least in part, by the increase in the number of binding sites of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and (3) new protein synthesis may be involved in estradiol-mediated gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor induction

  5. Effect of aging on GHRF-induced growth hormone release from anterior pituitary cells in primary culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spik, K.W.; Boyd, R.L.; Sonntag, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Five criteria were developed to validate the primary cell culture model for comparison of GRF-induced release of growth hormone in pituitary tissue from aging animals. Pituitaries from young (5-mo), middle-aged (14-mo), and old (24-mo) male Fischer 344 rats were dispersed using either trypsin/trypsin inhibitor or dispase and compared with respect to the number of pituitary cells recovered, cell viability, 3H-leucine incorporation into total protein, time course for recovery of optimal response to GRF, and the dose-relationship for GRF-induced release of growth hormone 2, 4, and 6 days after dispersal. Results indicated that direct comparison of cellular responses between tissues from young, middle-aged, and old rats in primary cell culture is confounded by variations in time for recovery of optimal responses, the effects of the enzymes used for dispersal, and the methods used to express the data

  6. Regulation of Pituitary Stem Cells by Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition Events and Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Leonard Y. M.; Davis, Shannon W.; Brinkmeier, Michelle L.; Camper, Sally A.; Pérez-Millán, María Inés

    2017-01-01

    The anterior pituitary gland is comprised of specialized cell-types that produce and secrete polypeptide hormones in response to hypothalamic input and feedback from target organs. These specialized cells arise from stem cells that express SOX2 and the pituitary transcription factor PROP1, which is necessary to establish the stem cell pool and promote an epithelial to mesenchymal-like transition, releasing progenitors from the niche. The adult anterior pituitary responds to physiological challenge by mobilizing the SOX2-expressing progenitor pool and producing additional hormone-producing cells. Knowledge of the role of signaling pathways and extracellular matrix components in these processes may lead to improvements in the efficiency of differentiation of embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells into hormone producing cells in vitro. Advances in our basic understanding of pituitary stem cell regulation and differentiation may lead to improved diagnosis and treatment for patients with hypopituitarism. PMID:27650955

  7. Spontaneous Pregnancy and Partial Recovery of Pituitary Function in a Patient with Sheehan's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting See

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheehan's syndrome is caused by pregnancy-related hemorrhage leading to ischemic necrosis of the anterior pituitary gland and hypopituitarism. Spontaneous pregnancy in Sheehan's syndrome is very rare. We report the case of a patient with Sheehan's syndrome who suffered from anterior pituitary insufficiency, but with sparing of gonadotropic function. The patient became pregnant spontaneously and, after her second delivery, thyrotropic function recovered. However, the patient's growth hormone and cortisol levels remained unresponsive to an insulin-tolerance test. This case demonstrates that pituitary function may recover from less extensive pituitary ischemia. We emphasize the importance of early identification of pregnancy in such cases. It is crucial to institute adequate hormone-replacement therapy during pregnancy, since hypopituitarism is associated with high fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality.

  8. Digenic Inheritance of PROKR2 and WDR11 Mutations in Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Shana E; Li, Dong; Kim, Yeon Joo; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Rapaport, Robert; Levine, Michael A

    2017-07-01

    Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS, ORPHA95496) is a congenital defect of the pituitary gland characterized by the triad of a very thin/interrupted pituitary stalk, an ectopic (or absent) posterior pituitary gland, and hypoplasia or aplasia of the anterior pituitary gland. Complex genetic patterns of inheritance of this disorder are increasingly recognized. The objective of this study was to identify a genetic cause of PSIS in an affected child. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed by using standard techniques, with prioritized genetic variants confirmed via Sanger sequencing. To investigate the effects of one candidate variant on mutant WDR11 function, Western blotting and coimmunofluorescence were used to assess binding capacity, and leptomycin B exposure along with immunofluorescence was used to assess nuclear localization. We describe a child who presented in infancy with combined pituitary hormone deficiencies and whose brain imaging demonstrated a small anterior pituitary, ectopic posterior pituitary, and a thin, interrupted stalk. WES demonstrated heterozygous missense mutations in two genes required for pituitary development, a known loss-of-function mutation in PROKR2 (c.253C>T;p.R85C) inherited from an unaffected mother, and a WDR11 (c.1306A>G;p.I436V) mutation inherited from an unaffected father. Mutant WDR11 loses its capacity to bind to its functional partner, EMX1, and to localize to the nucleus. WES in a child with PSIS and his unaffected family implicates a digenic mechanism of inheritance. In cases of hypopituitarism in which there is incomplete segregation of a monogenic genotype with the phenotype, the possibility that a second genetic locus is involved should be considered. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  9. LHRH-pituitary plasma membrane binding: the presence of specific binding sites in other tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J C; Shakespear, R A; Odell, W D

    1976-11-01

    Two specific binding sites for LHRH are present on plasma membranes prepared from rat and bovine anterior pituitary glands. One site is of high affinity (K = 2X108 1/MOL) and the second is of lower affinity (8-5X105 1/mol) and much greater capacity. Studies on membrane fractions prepared from other tissues showed the presence of a single specific site for LHRH. The kinetics and specificity of this site were similar to those of the lower affinity pituitary receptor. These results indicate that only pituitary membranes possess the higher affinity binding site and suggest that the low affinity site is not of physiological importance in the regulation of gonadotrophin secretion. After dissociation from membranes of non-pituitary tissues 125I-LHRH rebound to pituitary membrane preparations. Thus receptor binding per se does not result in degradation of LHRH and the function of these peripheral receptors remains obscure.

  10. Laying traits and underlying transcripts, expressed in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, that were associated with egg production variability in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Yen, Cheng-Ju; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chang, Hui-Chiu; Lee, Yen-Pai

    2007-12-01

    The objective was to characterize the potential laying traits and underlying transcripts expressed in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland that were associated with egg production variability in five genetic stocks of chickens: two commercial lines, Red- (n=12) and Black-feather (n=14) Taiwan country chickens (TCCs); two selected lines of TCCs, B (high body weight/comb size; n=17) and L2 (high-egg production; n=14); and a commercial single comb White Leghorn (WL; n=17). Six laying traits, age at first egg, clutch length, pause length, oviposition lag within clutch, follicle rapid growth period, and rate of yolk accumulation were measured. The significance of differential values among five chicken stocks and correlation coefficients between laying traits and number of eggs to 50 weeks of age or laying rate after first egg, and the expression level of 33 transcripts were determined. Longer clutch length and shorter oviposition lag within clutch contributed to a higher number of eggs to 50 weeks of age or laying rate after first egg in L2 (Pdifferent, indicating the accumulation of different alleles after long-term, independent selection. Across all five strains, numbers of eggs to 50 weeks of age were positive correlated with average clutch length (P<0.05) as well as the rate of yolk accumulation (P<0.05). Expressions of PLAG1, STMN2, PGDS, PARK7, ANP32A, PCDHA@, SCG2, BDH and SAR1A transcripts contributed to number of eggs to 50 weeks of age (P<0.05) or laying rate after first egg (P<0.05). Analysis of correlation coefficients indicated that PLAG1 additionally played roles in decreasing average pause length. Two transcripts, PRL and GARNL1, specifically contributed to number of eggs to 50 weeks of age or laying rate after first egg by reducing oviposition lag within clutch (P<0.05) and/or increasing average clutch length (P<0.05), respectively. Expression level of NCAM1, contributed to laying rate after first egg by association with a shorter oviposition lag within

  11. Effects of acute organophosphate poisoning on pituitary target gland hormones at admission, discharge and three months after poisoning: A hospital based pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinaki Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphate compound (OPC poisoning is common in the developing countries such as India. The acute and later effects of OPC poisoning on pituitary and target gland hormones is largely unknown. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted at Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research between January 2012 and March 2013. Fourteen patients (8 males, age 18-50 years with acute OPC poisoning were included in the study based on the history and clinical features, documented decreased in plasma cholinesterase activity or presence of the OPC in gastric lavage/blood samples. The hormonal parameters were done at baseline, at the time of discharge and at three months of follow-up. Results: A total of 14 patients out of 46 with the mean age of 30.1 ± 10.3 years were finally eligible for the study. Hormonal alterations at admission were similar to sick euhormonal syndrome. Overall 7 of them had nine hormonal deficits at three months of follow up, 4 having sub normal basal cortisol level and two each had low testosterone and growth hormone and only one had thyroxine deficiency. Conclusion: Acute organophosphate poisoning results in endocrine dysfunction akin to sick euhormonal syndrome. However, in a small subset of patients, varying level of hormonal insufficiency may occur either at admission or later. These observations need re-validation in a larger group of patients with specific OPC.

  12. On the blood-brain barrier to peptides: [3H]gonadotropin-releasing hormone accumulation by eighteen regions of the rat brain and by anterior pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermisch, A.; Ruehle, H.J.; Klauschenz, E.; Kretzschmar, R.

    1984-01-01

    After intracarotid injection of [ 3 H]gonadotropin-releasing hormone ([ 3 H]GnRH) the mean accumulation of radioactivity per unit wet weight of 18 brain samples investigated and the anterior pituitary was 0.38 +- 0.11% g -1 of the injected tracer dose. This indicates a low but measurable brain uptake of the peptide. The brain uptake of [ 3 H]GnRH in blood-brain barrier (BBB)-protected regions is 5% of that of separately investigated [ 3 H]OH. In BBB-free regions the accumulation of radioactivity was more than 25-fold higher than in BBB-protected regions. The accumulation of [ 3 H]GnRH among regions with BBB varies less than among regions with leaky endothelia. The data presented for [ 3 H]GnRH are similar to those for other peptides so far investigated. (author)

  13. Cushing's disease: pituitary imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.; Ammini, A.C.; Bhatia, R.; Gupta, R.; Berry, M.; Sarkar, C.; Mahajan, H.

    1994-01-01

    Fourteen patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent hypercortisolism underwent pituitary scanning with computed axial tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Computed tomography revealed pituitary macroadenomas in two patients, pituitary hyperplasia in one and suspicion of pituitary microadenoma in one. Thirteen patients underwent MRI. One with a macroadenoma diagnosed on CT did not undergo MRI. The MRI revealed a pituitary macroadenoma in one, microadenoma in three and hyperplasia in two cases. Magnetic resonance imaging following gadolinium diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhancement revealed four more pituitary microadenomas. All patients who had pituitary adenomas (micro and macro) and hyperplasia underwent trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery. One of the two patients, who had an enlarged pituitary on imaging but no demonstrable adenoma, was found to have a microadenoma at surgery. It is concluded that patients with ACTH dependent hypercortisolism should undergo MRI of the pituitary gland to identify/localize corticotroph pituitary ademonas. The study should include Gd-DTPA enhancement in cases where the scan is normal. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  14. The effect of training on responses of beta-endorphin and other pituitary hormones to insulin-induced hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikines, K J; Kjær, Michael; Hagen, C

    1985-01-01

    in untrained (25 +/- 6 mU X l-1) subjects (P less than 0.05). Levels of thyrotropin (TSH) changed in neither of the groups. It is concluded that, in contrast to what has been formerly proposed, training does not result in a general increase in secretory capacity of the anterior pituitary gland. TSH responds......We studied whether the previously reported intensified beta-endorphin response to exercise after training might result from a training-induced general increase in anterior pituitary secretory capacity. Identical hypoglycemia was induced by insulin infusion in 7 untrained (VO2max 49 +/- 4 ml X (kg X...

  15. Expression of mRNA for galanin, galanin-like peptide and galanin receptors 1-3 in the ovine hypothalamus and pituitary gland: effects of age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Christine Margaret; Robinson, Jane Elizabeth; Chambers, George Ballantine; Hastie, Peter; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Thompson, Robert Charles; Evans, Neil Price

    2009-01-01

    The neurotransmitters/neuromodulators galanin (GAL) and galanin-like peptide (GALP) are known to operate through three G protein-coupled receptors, GALR1, GALR2 and GALR3. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in expression of mRNA for galanin, GALP and GALR1-3 in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, of male and female sheep, to determine how expression changed in association with growth and the attainment of reproductive competence. Tissue samples from the hypothalami and pituitary glands were analysed from late foetal and pre-pubertal lambs and adult sheep. Although mRNA for galanin and GALR1-3 was present in both tissues, at all ages and in both genders, quantification of GALP mRNA was not possible due to its low levels of expression. mRNA expression for both galanin and its receptors was seen to change significantly in both tissues as a function of age. Specifically, hypothalamic galanin mRNA expression increased with age in the male, but decreased with age in the female pituitary gland. mRNA expression for all receptors increased between foetal and pre-pubertal age groups and decreased significantly between pre-pubertal and adult animals. The results indicate that the expression of mRNA for galanin and its receptors changes dynamically with age and those significant differences exist with regard to tissue type and gender. These changes suggest that galaninergic neuroendocrine systems could be involved in the regulation of ovine growth and or the development of reproductive competence. The roles played by these systems in the sheep, however, may differ from other species, in particular the neuroendocrine link between nutrition and reproduction and GALR1's role in pituitary signalling.

  16. Structura