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Sample records for anterior pituitary gland

  1. Distribution of epidermal growth factor binding sites in the adult rat anterior pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of epidermal growth (EGF) binding sites was studied in the pituitary gland using light and electron microscope autoradiography which was performed at different time intervals (2 to 60 min) after intravenous (IV) injection of [125I]EGF into adult rats. At the light microscopic level, the labeling was found over cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The time-course study performed by light microscope autoradiography showed that the maximal values were reached at the 2 min time interval. At this time interval, most silver grains were found at the periphery of the target cells. After, the number of silver grains decreased progressively and the localization of silver grains in the cytoplasm indicated the internalization of [125I]EGF. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that labeling was mostly restricted to mammotrophs and somatotrophs. Control experiments indicated that the autoradiographic labeling was due specific interaction of [125I]EGF with its binding site. These results indicate that EGF binding sites are present in at least two anterior pituitary cell types and suggest that EGF can exert a physiological role in the pituitary gland

  2. Distribution of epidermal growth factor binding sites in the adult rat anterior pituitary gland

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    Chabot, J.G.; Walker, P.; Pelletier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of epidermal growth (EGF) binding sites was studied in the pituitary gland using light and electron microscope autoradiography which was performed at different time intervals (2 to 60 min) after intravenous (IV) injection of (/sup 125/I)EGF into adult rats. At the light microscopic level, the labeling was found over cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The time-course study performed by light microscope autoradiography showed that the maximal values were reached at the 2 min time interval. At this time interval, most silver grains were found at the periphery of the target cells. After, the number of silver grains decreased progressively and the localization of silver grains in the cytoplasm indicated the internalization of (/sup 125/I)EGF. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that labeling was mostly restricted to mammotrophs and somatotrophs. Control experiments indicated that the autoradiographic labeling was due specific interaction of (/sup 125/I)EGF with its binding site. These results indicate that EGF binding sites are present in at least two anterior pituitary cell types and suggest that EGF can exert a physiological role in the pituitary gland.

  3. In Situ Hybridization Method Reveals (Pro)renin Receptor Expressing Cells in the Pituitary Gland of Rats: Correlation with Anterior Pituitary Hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expression of (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR), a specific receptor for renin and prorenin, was studied in rat pituitary gland. In situ hybridization showed that cells expressing (P)RR mRNA were widely distributed in the anterior lobe and intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. Double-staining using in situ hybridization for (P)RR mRNA and immunohistochemistry for the pituitary hormones showed that (P)RR mRNA was expressed in most of the GH cells and ACTH cells in the anterior lobe. (P)RR mRNA was also expressed in a few prolactin cells and TSH cells, but not in LH cells. The present study has shown for the first time the distribution of (P)RR mRNA expressing cells in the rat pituitary gland. These findings suggest that (P)RR plays physiological roles in the pituitary gland, such as the modulation of the pituitary hormone secretion

  4. Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland

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    Lisbôa P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID, an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P<0.05, while the EB-treated OVX group showed activity similar to that of the normal group. Thyroid 5'-ID-I showed the same pattern of changes, but these changes were not statistically significant. Pituitary and hepatic 5'-ID-II did not show major alterations. The treatment with the higher EB dose (14 µg, contrary to the results obtained with the lower dose, had no effect on the reduced pituitary 5'-ID-I of OVX rats. However, it induced an important increment of 5'-ID-I in the thyroid gland (0.8 times higher than that of the normal group: control = 131.9 ± 23.7 vs ovx + EB 14 µg = 248.0 ± 31.2; P<0.05, which is associated with increased serum TSH (0.6-fold vs OVX, P<0.05 but normal serum free T3 and free T4. The data suggest that estrogen is a physiological stimulator of anterior pituitary 5'-ID-I and a potent stimulator of the thyroid enzyme when employed at high doses

  5. Constitution and behavior of follicular structures in the human anterior pituitary gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Ciocca, D. R.; Puy, L. A.; Stati, A. O.

    1984-01-01

    The follicular structures present in the human pituitary gland were studied, at the light-microscopic level, using histochemical and immunocytochemical techniques. The antisera applied in the peroxidase-antiperoxidase procedure were anti-hFSH beta, anti-hLH beta, anti-hPRL, anti-hGH, anti-hTSH beta, anti-hLPH beta, anti-pACTH, and anti-hACTH. In the 10 normal pituitaries examined, follicles were always found in the three areas of the adenohypophysis. The wall of the pars distalis follicles sh...

  6. Functional maturation of growth hormone cells in the anterior pituitary gland of the fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Nogami, Haruo; Hisano, Setsuji

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have disclosed the molecular mechanisms responsible for the phenotype determination of the anterior pituitary cell types. However, as far as growth hormone (GH) cells are concerned, particular extra-cellular cues are required for the initiation of GH and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-receptor gene production in addition to the expression of the cell type specific transcription factor, pit-1. The glucocorticoids play a principal role in the functional maturation of nascent GH cell...

  7. Pineal and Pituitary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registries Review Brain & CNS Tumors Signs & Symptoms Anatomy Neurons & Glial Cells Brain Meninges Spinal Cord Cranial Nerves Pineal and Pituitary Glands Abstracting, Coding, & Staging Topographic Sites Histological Types Grading Staging Multiple Primaries Malignant Transformation Coding Sequence ...

  8. Pituitary gland tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  9. Immunocharacteristics of oestrogen and androgen target cells in the anterior pituitary gland of the chick as embryo demonstrated by a combined method of autoradiography and immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of oestrogen and androgen target cells in the anterior pituitary gland of the chick embryo on days 10, 12 and 15 of incubation was studied 1 h after the injection of tritium-labelled steroid hormone using the thaw-mount autoradiographic technique. Oestradiol target cells were localized in the caudal zone that corresponds to the so-called 'caudal lobe', while androgen target cells were found throughout the rostral and caudal lobes of the anterior gland. With a combined autoradiography and immunohistochemistry technique, most of the oestrogen target cells showed immunoreactivity to turkey LH antiserum but not to adrenocorticotrophin (1-24) and β-thyrotrophin antisera. In contrast, androgen target cells did not show positive immunoreactivity to the three antisera used. The results suggested a direct and early involvement of oestrogens but not of androgens in the feedback regulation of pituitary gonadotrophin secretion in the chick embryo. (U.K.)

  10. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

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    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  11. Diagnostic Accuracy of Perioperative Measurement of Basal Anterior Pituitary and Target Gland Hormones in Predicting Adrenal Insufficiency After Pituitary Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Vatroslav; Kruljac, Ivan; Radosevic, Jelena Marinkovic; Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Stipic, Darko; Pecina, Hrvoje Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2016-03-01

    The insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the gold standard for diagnosing adrenal insufficiency (AI) after pituitary surgery. The ITT is unpleasant for patients, requires close medical supervision and is contraindicated in several comorbidities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether tumor size, remission rate, preoperative, and early postoperative baseline hormone concentrations could serve as predictors of AI in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy of morning serum cortisol.This prospective study enrolled 70 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pituitary adenomas. Thirty-seven patients had nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NPA), 28 had prolactinomas and 5 had somatotropinomas. Thyroxin (T4), thyrotropin (TSH), prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) were measured preoperatively and on the sixth postoperative day. Serum morning cortisol was measured on the third postoperative day (CORT3) as well as the sixth postoperative day (CORT6). Tumor mass was measured preoperatively and remission was assessed 3 months after surgery. An ITT was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively.Remission was achieved in 48% of patients and AI occurred in 51%. Remission rates and tumor type were not associated with AI. CORT3 had the best predictive value for AI (area under the curve (AUC) 0.868, sensitivity 82.4%, specificity 83.3%). Tumor size, preoperative T4, postoperative T4, and TSH were also associated with AI in a multivariate regression model. A combination of all preoperative and postoperative variables (excluding serum cortisol) had a sensitivity of 75.0% and specificity of 77.8%. The predictive power of CORT3 substantially improved by adding those variables into the model (AUC 0.921, sensitivity 94.1%, specificity 78.3%, PPV 81.9%, NPV of 92.7%). In a subgroup analysis that included only female patients with NPA, LH had exactly the same predictive value as CORT3. The addition

  12. Cellular and molecular specificity of pituitary gland physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Castro, Carolina; Renner, Ulrich; Haedo, Mariana R; Stalla, Gunter K; Arzt, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The anterior pituitary gland has the ability to respond to complex signals derived from central and peripheral systems. Perception of these signals and their integration are mediated by cell interactions and cross-talk of multiple signaling transduction pathways and transcriptional regulatory networks that cooperate for hormone secretion, cell plasticity, and ultimately specific pituitary responses that are essential for an appropriate physiological response. We discuss the physiopathological and molecular mechanisms related to this integrative regulatory system of the anterior pituitary gland and how it contributes to modulate the gland functions and impacts on body homeostasis. PMID:22298650

  13. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) - TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones, which regulate the body's metabolism, energy balance, growth, and nervous system activity. Read about TSH-secreting tumors . Luteinizing hormone (LH) - LH stimulates testosterone production in ...

  14. CT evaluation of the normal pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct coronal computed tomography with 1.5mm contiguous scanning was done in total 95 cases, who had no clinical evidence of pituitary and hypothalamic disease. The evaluation of pituitary height, width, upper surface contour and density was done and the pituitary stalk was also evaluated. The results as follow : 1. Total 95 cases were 45 males and 50 females. 2. The average height of normal pituitary gland was 5.72 ± 1.44 mm in female and 5.37 ± 1.17 mm in male. There was no significant difference of pituitary height between male and female (ρ > 0.1). 3. The pituitary height was decreased according to the increased age both in male and female except prepubertal age. 4. The group between 15-30 year old age showed significantly increased pituitary height comparing to the remained age group both in male and female (ρ 0.1). 8. The focal low density of normal pituitary gland was noted in only 8.4% and its size was always below 3mm. 9. The pituitary stalk can be seen in 94.7% by direct coronal CT scanning and it was located at the midline. The width of pituitary stalk was always smaller than internal carotid artery and basilar artery. 10. There were no significant difference in pituitary height and width according to the menopause or the marriage

  15. Computed tomography of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is written entirely to include the imaging of the pituitary gland by computed tomography (CT). The first three chapters illustrated technical aspects of scanning, anatomic depiction of the gland by CT, and the use of dynamic CT scanning for detecting and displaying abnormalities. The chapters discuss and illustrate various types of pathologic processes in and around the pituitary gland. One short but very helpful chapter demonstrates potential pitfalls due to the combination of anatomic variants and the geometry of CT sections. Some illustrations of disease processed are depicted by magnetic resonance imaging. All major types of pituitary diseases are illustrated. Lists of readily available English-language references are available. A small subject index is provided at the end of the book in which the illustrations are identified by use of a special numeric front

  16. Anatomy, Physiology, and Laboratory Evaluation of the Pituitary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gregory K; Payne, Spencer C; Jane, John A

    2016-02-01

    The pituitary gland functions prominently in the control of most endocrine systems in the body. Diverse processes such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, and water balance are tightly regulated by the pituitary in conjunction with the hypothalamus and various downstream endocrine organs. Benign tumors of the pituitary gland are the primary cause of pituitary pathology and can result in inappropriate secretion of pituitary hormones or loss of pituitary function. First-line management of clinically significant tumors often involves surgical resection. Understanding of normal pituitary physiology and basic testing strategies to assess for pituitary dysfunction should be familiar to any skull base surgeon. PMID:26614827

  17. Regulation of Intestinal Immune Response by Selective Removal of the Anterior, Posterior, or Entire Pituitary Gland in Trichinella spiralis Infected Golden Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Moreno-Méndoza, Norma; López-Griego, Lorena; López-Salazar, Valeria; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Carrero, Julio César; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been previously reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX) in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, and reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, as well as increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. However, to our knowledge, no findings have been published concerning the immune response following HYPOX during worm infection, particularly that which is caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of total or partial HYPOX on colonization of T. spiralis in the intestinal lumen, together with duodenal and splenic cytokine expression. Our results indicate that 5 days post infection, only neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL) reduces the number of intestinally recovered T. spiralis larvae. Using semiquantitative inmunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of all tested Th1 cytokines was markedly diminished, even in the duodenum of infected controls. In contrast, a high level of expression of these cytokines was noted in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Th2 cytokines (with the exception of IL-4) was apparent in the duodenum of control and sham infected hamsters, compared to animals with NIL surgeries, which showed an increase in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13. Histology of duodenal mucosa from NIL hamsters showed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria, which was related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the gastrointestinal immune responses to T. spiralis through various mechanisms. PMID:23555042

  18. Regulation of intestinal immune response by selective removal of the anterior, posterior, or entire pituitary gland in Trichinella spiralis infected golden hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Hernández-Cervantes

    Full Text Available The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been previously reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, and reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, as well as increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. However, to our knowledge, no findings have been published concerning the immune response following HYPOX during worm infection, particularly that which is caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of total or partial HYPOX on colonization of T. spiralis in the intestinal lumen, together with duodenal and splenic cytokine expression. Our results indicate that 5 days post infection, only neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL reduces the number of intestinally recovered T. spiralis larvae. Using semiquantitative inmunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of all tested Th1 cytokines was markedly diminished, even in the duodenum of infected controls. In contrast, a high level of expression of these cytokines was noted in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Th2 cytokines (with the exception of IL-4 was apparent in the duodenum of control and sham infected hamsters, compared to animals with NIL surgeries, which showed an increase in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13. Histology of duodenal mucosa from NIL hamsters showed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria, which was related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the gastrointestinal immune responses to T. spiralis through various mechanisms.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of normal pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable procedure for diagnosing such midline-positioned lesions as pituitary adenomas. To differentiate them from microadenomas fifty-seven cases (9 - 74 years old, 29 men and 28 women), including 50 patients without any sellar or parasellar diseases and seven normal volunteers, were studied in order to clarify the MR findings of the shape, height, and signal intensity of the normal pituitary gland, especially at the median sagittal section. The height of a normal pituitary gland varied from 2 to 9 mm (mean: 5.7 mm); the upper surface of the gland was convex in 19.3 %, flat in 49.1 %, and concave in 31.6 %. The mean height of the gland in women in their twenties was 7.5 mm, and the upper convex shape appeared exclusively in women of the second to fourth decades. Nine intrasellar pituitary adenomas (PRL-secreting: 4, GH-secreting: 4, ACTH-secreting: 1), all verified by surgery, were diagnosed using a resistive MR system. The heights of the gland in these cases were from 7 to 15 mm (mean: 11.3 mm); the upper surface was convex in 7 cases. A localized bulging of the upper surface of the gland and a localized depression of the sellar floor were depicted on the coronal and sagittal sections in most cases. Although the GH- and ACTH-secreting adenoma cases showed homogeneous intrasellar contents, in all the PRL-secreting adenoma cases a low-signal-intensity area was detected in the IR images. The mean T1 values of the intrasellar content of the normal volunteers, the PRL-, GH-, and ACTH-secreting adenoma cases, were 367, 416, 355, and 411 ms respectively. However, in the PRL-secreting adenoma cases, the mean T1 value of the areas showing a low signal intensity on IR images was 455 ms; this was a significant prolongation in comparison with that of a normal pituitary gland. (J.P.N.)

  20. Diabetes Insipidus and Anterior Pituitary Insufficiency Due to Breast Cancer Metastasis

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    Ayşe Arduç

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastases from breast cancer to the pituitary gland are uncommon. We present a 35-year-old woman with diabetes insipidus and anterior pituitary insufficiency resulting from breast cancer metastases to the pituitary gland. The patient presented with reduced consciousness, fatigue, polyuria, and polydipsia. Hypernatremia (sodium: 154 mmol/L, hypostenuria (urine density: 1001, and hypopituitarism were present on laboratory evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed heterogeneous pituitary gland, thickened pituitary stalk (8mm, and loss of normal hyperintense signal of the posterior pituitary. Based on the clinical, laboratory, and MRI findings, the patient was diagnosed with diabetes insipidus and anterior pituitary insufficiency due to pituitary metastases from breast cancer. She received desmopressin, L-thyroxine, and prednisolone, which resulted in improvement of her symptoms and laboratory results. The patient, who also received Gamma Knife radiosurgery and chemotherapy, died six months later due to disseminated metastases. Although pituitary metastasis is rare, it should be kept in mind in patients with breast cancer since early detection and treatment can improve symptoms of patients.

  1. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies ...

  2. Birthdating studies reshape models for pituitary gland cell specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shannon W; Mortensen, Amanda H; Camper, Sally A

    2011-04-15

    The intermediate and anterior lobes of the pituitary gland are derived from an invagination of oral ectoderm that forms Rathke's pouch. During gestation proliferating cells are enriched around the pouch lumen, and they appear to delaminate as they exit the cell cycle and differentiate. During late mouse gestation and the postnatal period, anterior lobe progenitors re-enter the cell cycle and expand the populations of specialized, hormone-producing cells. At birth, all cell types are present, and their localization appears stratified based on cell type. We conducted a birth dating study of Rathke's pouch derivatives to determine whether the location of specialized cells at birth is correlated with the timing of cell cycle exit. We find that all of the anterior lobe cell types initiate differentiation concurrently with a peak between e11.5 and e13.5. Differentiation of intermediate lobe melanotropes is delayed relative to anterior lobe cell types. We discovered that specialized cell types are not grouped together based on birth date and are dispersed throughout the anterior lobe. Thus, the apparent stratification of specialized cells at birth is not correlated with cell cycle exit. Thus, the currently popular model of cell specification, dependent upon timing of extrinsic, directional gradients of signaling molecules, needs revision. We propose that signals intrinsic to Rathke's pouch are necessary for cell specification between e11.5 and e13.5 and that cell-cell communication likely plays an important role in regulating this process. PMID:21262217

  3. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies on...... the adrenal or pituitary glands or hypothalamus volume in unipolar depressive disorder published in PubMed 1966 to December 2009. We identified three studies that investigated the volume of the adrenal glands and eight studies that examined the volume of the pituitary gland, but no studies on...... identified such as small population samples, different subtypes of depression and insufficient matching of patients and controls. Due to large heterogeneity of study designs and data, it was futile to make a meta-analysis. It is concluded that it remains unclear whether hyperactivity of the HPA axis results...

  4. Hedgehog signaling activation induces stem cell proliferation and hormone release in the adult pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyczek, Joanna; Buslei, Rolf; Schult, David; Hölsken, Annett; Buchfelder, Michael; Heß, Ina; Hahn, Heidi; Uhmann, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling is known to be essential during the embryonal development of the pituitary gland but the knowledge about its role in the adult pituitary and in associated tumors is sparse. In this report we investigated the effect of excess Hh signaling activation in murine pituitary explants and analyzed the HH signaling status of human adenopituitary lobes and a large cohort of pituitary adenomas. Our data show that excess Hh signaling led to increased proliferation of Sox2(+) and Sox9(+) adult pituitary stem cells and to elevated expression levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (Acth), growth hormone (Gh) and prolactin (Prl) in the adult gland. Inhibition of the pathway by cyclopamine reversed these effects indicating that active Hh signaling positively regulates proliferative processes of adult pituitary stem cells and hormone production in the anterior pituitary. Since hormone producing cells of the adenohypophysis as well as ACTH-, GH- and PRL-immunopositive adenomas express SHH and its target GLI1, we furthermore propose that excess HH signaling is involved in the development/maintenance of hormone-producing pituitary adenomas. These findings advance the understanding of physiological hormone regulation and may open new treatment options for pituitary tumors. PMID:27109116

  5. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with β-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with β-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  6. Xanthomatosis, pituitary gland, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Sella turcica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seok Jin; Kim, Eui Jong; Choi, Woo Seok [Dept. of Radiology, Kyunghee Medical Center, Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Bong Jin [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Kyunghee Medical Center, Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Xanthomatous hypophysitis is a rare inflammatory disorder of the pituitary gland of unknown prevalence that causes pituitary dysfunction and a mass-like lesion. The authors report a case of 40-year-old man with a visual disturbance and a confirmed diagnosis of xanthomatous hypophysitis.

  7. Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Pituitary Gland Mimicking a Pituitary Adenoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Da Mi; Yu, In Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Han Kyu [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son Hyun Jin [Dept. of Pathology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    A 38-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with diplopia. The patient had a relatively well-defined pituitary mass with high cellularity as well as weaker enhancement on imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), than a typical pituitary adenoma. The distinction between a pseudotumor and an invasive neoplasm is very difficult before biopsy. In this case report, we discuss the characteristic imaging features of a fibrosing inflammatory pseudotumor of the pituitary gland

  8. Excitatory and inhibitory effects of prolactin release activated by nerve stimulation in rat anterior pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Li-Zhi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A series of studies showed the presence of substantial amount of nerve fibers and their close relationship with the anterior pituitary gland cells. Our previous studies have suggested that aside from the classical theory of humoral regulation, the rat anterior pituitary has direct neural regulation on adrenocorticotropic hormone release. In rat anterior pituitary, typical synapses are found on every type of the hormone-secreting cells, many on lactotrophs. The present study was aimed at investigating the physiological significance of this synaptic relationship on prolactin release. Methods The anterior pituitary of rat was sliced and stimulated with electrical field in a self-designed perfusion chamber. The perfusate was continuously collected in aliquots and measured by radioimmunoassay for prolactin levels. After statistic analysis, differences of prolactin concentrations within and between groups were outlined. Results The results showed that stimulation at frequency of 2 Hz caused a quick enhancement of prolactin release, when stimulated at 10 Hz, prolactin release was found to be inhibited which came slower and lasted longer. The effect of nerve stimulation on prolactin release is diphasic and frequency dependent. Conclusions The present in vitro study offers the first physiological evidence that stimulation of nerve fibers can affect prolactin release in rat anterior pituitary. Low frequency stimulation enhances prolactin release and high frequency mainly inhibits it.

  9. Development and sexual dimorphism of the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Frank P; Keshavan, Matcheri; Mirza, Yousha; Carrey, Normand; Upadhyaya, Ameet R; El-Sheikh, Rhonda; Buhagiar, Christian J; Taormina, S Preeya; Boyd, Courtney; Lynch, Michelle; Rose, Michelle; Ivey, Jennifer; Moore, Gregory J; Rosenberg, David R

    2007-02-13

    The pituitary gland plays a central role in sexual development and brain function. Therefore, we examined the effect of age and gender on pituitary volume in a large sample of healthy children and adults. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted in one hundred and fifty four (77 males and 77 females) healthy participants. Males were between the ages of 7 to 35 years (16.91+/-5.89 years) and females were 7 to 35 years of age (16.75+/-5.75 years). Subjects were divided into subgroups of age (7 to 9, 10 to 13, 14 to 17, 18 to 21, 22 and older) and sex (male/female). Pituitary gland volume differed between sexes when comparing the age groups (F=3.55, df=2, 143, p=0.03). Females demonstrated larger pituitary glands than males in the age 14 to 17 year old groups (p=0.04). Young (19 years and under) and old (20 years and older) females demonstrated a correlation between pituitary volume and age. Males did not show this relationship. These findings provide additional evidence for gender differences in the normative anatomy of the pituitary and may have relevance for the study of various childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders in which pituitary dysfunction has been implicated. PMID:17174342

  10. μ- and m-calpain expression and activity changes following diethylstilbestrol injection in the rat anterior pituitary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijiang Zhao; Zhongfang Shi; Fang Yuan; Guilin Li; Yazhuo Zhang; Zhongcheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about changes in calpain activity in the pituitary gland.In the present study,μ- and m-calpain activity changes were detected in the rat anterior pituitary following intraperitoneal injection of diethylstilbestrol.Double-immunofluorescence labeling confirmed colocalization of μ - and m-calpain in prolactin-secreting cells (lactotrophs).Western blot analysis revealed significantly increased expression of both calpains,which accompanied upregulated cytosol and membrane zymographic activities at 12 weeks following diethylstilbestrol injection,compared with rats injected with sunflower oil.Moreover,following estrogen injection,pituitary gland pathological damage gradually worsened with increasing time.Results demonstrated that estrogen regulated calpain expression and activity,and both calpains participated in the pathophysiological processes of the pituitary gland.Ubiquitous calpain expression could serve as an effective target for anti-estrogen drugs.

  11. Expression and activity of acid-sensing ion channels in the mouse anterior pituitary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyang Du

    Full Text Available Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs are proton-gated cation channels that are expressed in the nervous system and play an important role in fear learning and memory. The function of ASICs in the pituitary, an endocrine gland that contributes to emotions, is unknown. We sought to investigate which ASIC subunits were present in the pituitary and found mRNA expression for all ASIC isoforms, including ASIC1a, ASIC1b, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, ASIC3 and ASIC4. We also observed acid-evoked ASIC-like currents in isolated anterior pituitary cells that were absent in mice lacking ASIC1a. The biophysical properties and the responses to PcTx1, amiloride, Ca2+ and Zn2+ suggested that ASIC currents were mediated predominantly by heteromultimeric channels that contained ASIC1a and ASIC2a or ASIC2b. ASIC currents were also sensitive to FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe amide, suggesting that FMRFamide-like compounds might endogenously regulate pituitary ASICs. To determine whether ASICs might regulate pituitary cell function, we applied low pH and found that it increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These data suggest that ASIC channels are present and functionally active in anterior pituitary cells and may therefore influence their function.

  12. Folliculostellate Cells Are Required for Laminin Release from Gonadotrophs in Rat Anterior Pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anterior pituitary gland is organized tissue comprising hormone-producing cells and folliculostellate (FS) cells. FS cells interconnect to form a meshwork, and their cytoplasmic processes are anchored by a basement membrane containing laminin. Recently, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture that reproduces this FS cell architecture. In this study of the novel function of FS cells, we used transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein in FS cells for the 3D culture. Anterior pituitary cells were cultured with different proportions of FS cells (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20%). Anterior pituitary cells containing 5–20% FS cells formed round/oval cell aggregates, whereas amorphous cell aggregates were formed in the absence of FS cells. Interestingly, immunohistochemistry showed laminin-immunopositive cells instead of extracellular laminin deposition in FS cell-deficient cell aggregates. Double-immunostaining revealed that these laminin-immunopositive cells were gonadotrophs. Laminin mRNA expression did not differ in relation to the presence or absence of FS cells. When anterior pituitary cells with no FS cells were cultured with FS cell-conditioned medium, the proportion of laminin-immunopositive cells was lower than in control. These results suggest that a humoral factor from FS cells is required for laminin release from gonadotrophs

  13. In vivo xenoestrogenic actions of cadmium and arsenic in anterior pituitary and uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchetti, Sonia A; Novack, Gisela V; Bianchi, María S; Crocco, Melisa C; Duvilanski, Beatriz H; Cabilla, Jimena P

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (iAs) are toxic metals ubiquitously present in the environment. Both pollutants exert nonmonotonic dose responses, being mostly cytotoxic at high concentrations but mimicking estrogen (E2) effects at low doses. Xenoestrogenic activity of Cd and iAs has been demonstrated in different hormone-dependent tumor cell lines; however, their actions in vivo remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether in vivo administration of low doses of Cd and iAs through drinking water would display xenoestrogenic effects in the anterior pituitary gland and uterus of ovariectomized rats. Cd (1ppm) and iAs (0.1ppm) exposure increased the wet weight of anterior pituitary gland and uterus and induced proestrus- and estrus-like vaginal smears. Both metals stimulate cell proliferation of these tissues as they increased the expression of proliferation markers. More importantly, they augmented soluble guanylyl cyclase α1 subunit expression, which has been linked to hormone-dependent tumor progression. Also, Cd and iAs modified protein levels of full-length estrogen receptor α and its truncated variants in an E2-like manner. Anterior pituitary hormone secretion was differentially affected by both metals. Luteinizing hormone synthesis and release were strongly diminished after Cd exposure and only mildly reduced by iAs. Both metals were able to increase prolactin synthesis, although only iAs augmented serum prolactin levels. This study shows for the first time that Cd and iAs exert strong xenoestrogenic effects on anterior pituitary gland at low doses. The differences between Cd and iAs E2-like behavior indicate that other Cd- and iAs-specific mechanisms could be involved. Altogether, these results contribute to the knowledge of reproductive disorders associated with Cd and iAs environmental contamination. PMID:27256631

  14. Colloid cyst of the pituitary gland: Case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The sellar and parasellar region is an area where many heterogenous neoplastic, inflammatory, developmental and vascular pathologies can occur. Differentiation among various diseases may be not easy, because many of these lesions could mimic the clinical, endocrinologic and radiologic features of pituitary adenomas, which can be the cause of possible misdiagnosis. Case Report: We report a case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a persistent headache for the last 5 - 6 years and visual disturbances. Endocrine system examinations disclosed only insignificant hyperprolactinaemia. The MRI revealed an hypointense area - its presentation was similar to that of pituitary adenoma. The correct diagnosis, i.e. a colloid cyst of the pituitary gland, was made intraoperatively. Conclusions: Colloid cyst of the pituitary gland is a very rare pathology but it must be considered if there is an hypointense area between the anterior and posterior pituitary lobe in MR imaging without contrast enhancement and if the patient presents with headaches, hypopituitarism and hyperprolactinaemia. (authors)

  15. In vivo and in vitro effects of chromium VI on anterior pituitary hormone release and cell viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr VI) is a highly toxic metal and an environmental pollutant. Different studies indicate that Cr VI exposure adversely affects reproductive functions. This metal has been shown to affect several tissues and organs but Cr VI effects on pituitary gland have not been reported. Anterior pituitary hormones are central for the body homeostasis and have a fundamental role in reproductive physiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cr VI at the pituitary level both in vivo and in vitro. We showed that Cr VI accumulates in the pituitary and hypothalamus, and decreases serum prolactin levels in vivo but observed no effects on LH levels. In anterior pituitary cells in culture, the effect of Cr VI on hormone secretion followed the same differential pattern. Besides, lactotrophs were more sensitive to the toxicity of the metal. As a result of oxidative stress generation, Cr VI induced apoptosis evidenced by nuclear fragmentation and caspase 3 activation. Our results indicate that the anterior pituitary gland can be a target of Cr VI toxicity in vivo and in vitro, thus producing a negative impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and affecting the normal endocrine function

  16. Prenatal expression of interleukin 1beta and interleukin 6 in the rat pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, J A; Carretero, J; Alonso, M I; Martín, C; Gato, A; Mano, A de la

    2008-12-01

    It is known that interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are expressed post-natally in normal and tumoral cells in the anterior pituitary, and that they play a role in both the liberation of different hormones and in the growth, proliferation and tumor formation of the pituitary gland. However, their expression and role during embryonic and fetal development remain unknown. We have performed an immunocytochemistry study of prenatal expression and distribution of IL-1beta and IL-6 in isolated embryonic rat Rathke's pouch prior to birth, more specifically between 13.5 and 19.5 days p.c. Western-blot analysis carried out on 19.5-day p.c. embryos showed positive immunolabelling for IL-1beta and IL-6. These interleukins were initially expressed simultaneously in the rostral and ventral portions of Rathke's pouch in 15.5-day p.c. embryos, and this expression progressed caudodorsally in later developmental stages, extending to most of the hypophysis before birth. The number of cells expressing these interleukins increased throughout this period: 48.22% of anterior pituitary cells expressed IL-6 in 19.5-day embryos, whilst IL-1beta was positive in 39.8% of the cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that some adenohypophyseal cells co-express both interleukins. Such findings represent the first step towards an understanding of the physiological role of these interleukins in anterior pituitary development. PMID:19041259

  17. Effects of HPM irradiation on expression of GR in hypothalamus and pituitary gland of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the expression and significance of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in hypothalamus and pituitary gland of rats after high power microwave (HPM) exposure. Methods: A total of 130 male Wistar rats were sacrificed at 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, 14 d, 28 d and 3 m after whole body irradiation by 2-90 mW/cm2 HPM and their hypothalamus and pituitary gland were collected. The changes of GR in the two tissues after HPM exposure were investigated by means of immunohistochemical staining and image analysis. Results: The expression of GR in hypothalamus was decreased after HPM exposure. The level of GR in the group of 10 mW/cm2 was significantly lower (P2 group was significantly lower (P2 group was significantly higher (P2 group was significantly higher (P<0.01) on 1 d and 3 d after HPM exposure. Conclusion: The expression of GR in hypothalamus was decreased while that in the anterior pituitary was increased after HPM exposure. The refore, the negative feedback of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was upset and the changes of GR is involved in the pathophysiological course of HPA. (authors)

  18. Is technetium-99m-MIBI taken up by the normal pituitary gland? A comparison of normal pituitary glands and pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to compare the behavioral uptake of a normal gland and a pituitary adenoma and to assess the ability to diagnose pituitary adenoma by means of technetium-99m-hexakis-2-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The study included 15 patients with pituitary adenomas (mean age=44.0 years, range 19-63) and 15 control subjects (mean age=50.7 years, range 20-67). SPECT was performed 15 minutes after an intravenous injection of MIBI 600 MBq. The shape and location of MIBI uptake were evaluated on a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging/SPECT registration image. The shape patterns and location were classified as follows: Shape C (circular); LO (longitudinal oval); T/R (triangular or rectangular) and location P (pituitary gland or adenoma); D/C (dorsum sellae and/or clivus). Analysis of the uptake showed that 10 (67%) adenomas were C, and 5 (33%) were LO. Of the controls, 5 (33%) were C, and 10 (69%) were T/R. With regard to location, all patients with pituitary adenomas were classified as P, and all control subjects (93%) but one showed uptake in the dorsum sellae and clivus (D/C). MIBI was taken up in the dorsum sellae or clivus but not the normal pituitary gland and had a strong affinity for the pituitary adenoma. This result implies that MIBI SPECT may be a useful new auxiliary examination technique for the location diagnosis of pituitary adenoma. (author)

  19. Transcriptome-Wide Identification of Preferentially Expressed Genes in the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland

    OpenAIRE

    YuichiroNishida; JonnySt-Amand

    2012-01-01

    To identify preferentially expressed genes in the central endocrine organs of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, we generated transcriptome-wide mRNA profiles of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and parietal cortex in male mice (12–15 weeks old) using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Total counts of SAGE tags for the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and parietal cortex were 165824, 126688, and 161045 tags, respectively. This represented 59244, 45151, and 55131 distinct tags, resp...

  20. Expression of IGFBP7 mRNA in Corticotrophs in the Anterior Pituitary of Adrenalectomized Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nakakura, Takashi; Soda, Azusa; Unno, Keisuke; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2010-01-01

    The number of corticotrophs increases in the anterior pituitary (AP) gland in adrenalectomized (AdX) rats. In this study, aimed at identifying the growth factor implicated in this proliferation, we analyzed proteins secreted from a cDNA library of the AP of AdX rats, using the signal sequence trap method. A PCR analysis of several cDNAs that coded for insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) 5, IGFBP7, and vacuolar H+-ATPase accessory subunit Ac45 revealed an increased and decreased...

  1. Hyperprolactinemia Secondary to Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Compressing the Pituitary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapurin, Nikita; Wang, Cynthia; Steinberg, David M; Jang, David W

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aim to describe the first case in the literature of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) presenting with hyperprolactinemia due to compression of the pituitary gland. Case Presentation. A 37-year-old female presented with bilateral galactorrhea and occipital headaches of several weeks. Workup revealed elevated prolactin of 94.4, negative pregnancy test, and normal thyroid function. MRI and CT demonstrated a 5.0 × 2.7 × 2.5 cm heterogeneous expansile mass in the right sphenoid sinus with no pituitary adenoma as originally suspected. Patient was placed on cabergoline for symptomatic control until definitive treatment. Results. The patient underwent right endoscopic sphenoidotomy, which revealed nasal polyps and fungal debris in the sphenoid sinus, consistent with AFS. There was bony erosion of the sella and clivus. Pathology and microbiology were consistent with allergic fungal sinusitis caused by Curvularia species. Prolactin levels normalized four weeks after surgery with resolution of symptoms. Conclusion. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery alone was able to reverse the patient's pituitary dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case of AFS presenting as hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary compression. PMID:26998375

  2. Hyperprolactinemia Secondary to Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Compressing the Pituitary Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Chapurin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aim to describe the first case in the literature of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS presenting with hyperprolactinemia due to compression of the pituitary gland. Case Presentation. A 37-year-old female presented with bilateral galactorrhea and occipital headaches of several weeks. Workup revealed elevated prolactin of 94.4, negative pregnancy test, and normal thyroid function. MRI and CT demonstrated a 5.0 × 2.7 × 2.5 cm heterogeneous expansile mass in the right sphenoid sinus with no pituitary adenoma as originally suspected. Patient was placed on cabergoline for symptomatic control until definitive treatment. Results. The patient underwent right endoscopic sphenoidotomy, which revealed nasal polyps and fungal debris in the sphenoid sinus, consistent with AFS. There was bony erosion of the sella and clivus. Pathology and microbiology were consistent with allergic fungal sinusitis caused by Curvularia species. Prolactin levels normalized four weeks after surgery with resolution of symptoms. Conclusion. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery alone was able to reverse the patient’s pituitary dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case of AFS presenting as hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary compression.

  3. Hyperprolactinemia Secondary to Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Compressing the Pituitary Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Nikita Chapurin; Cynthia Wang; Steinberg, David M.; Jang, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aim to describe the first case in the literature of allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) presenting with hyperprolactinemia due to compression of the pituitary gland. Case Presentation. A 37-year-old female presented with bilateral galactorrhea and occipital headaches of several weeks. Workup revealed elevated prolactin of 94.4, negative pregnancy test, and normal thyroid function. MRI and CT demonstrated a 5.0 × 2.7 × 2.5 cm heterogeneous expansile mass in the right sphenoid sinus w...

  4. Advances in Imaging of the Pediatric Pituitary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Ayache, Jad M; Delman, Bradley N

    2016-06-01

    High-resolution MRI of the pediatric sella can help identity or confirm clinical abnormalities, assess pituitary gland size and structure, and reveal acquired lesions. This article reviews contemporary techniques for imaging of the sella and associated structures in this population. Strengths and weaknesses of conventional imaging are discussed, as are techniques that can enhance yield. Some new and emerging technologies are discussed, including MR elastography, perfusion imaging, spectroscopy, and diffusion-weighted and diffusion-tensor imaging. It is expected that this overview will provide insight as to where pediatric sella imaging is currently and where it may head in the future. PMID:27241974

  5. Radioimmunological study of the gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland in women during menstrual cycle recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland in women atan early stage of pregnancy and a month after abortion has been studied. The results of the investigation testify to the fact that radioimmunoassay of horiones in blood plasma is rather a precise criterion for estimat+on of the gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland at an earby stage of pregnancy and after abortion

  6. Pituitary gland levels of mercury, selenium, iron, and zinc in an Alzheimer`s disease study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornett, C.R.; Markesbery, W.R.; Wekstein, D.R.; Ehmann, W.D. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Mercury, iron, selenium, and zinc imbalances have been observed in comparisons between Alzheimer`s disease (AD) and control subject brains. Analyses of the pituitary gland have demonstrated that this organ retains relatively high concentrations of trace elements, including mercury, iron, and zinc. Our previous work has shown that the pituitary glands of AD and control subjects are typically higher in these trace elements than brain samples from the same subject. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to compare the pituitary trace element levels of AD and control subjects. This study also describes the intrasubject relationships of brain trace element levels to those in the pituitary gland of AD and control subjects.

  7. Hedgehog signaling activation induces stem cell proliferation and hormone release in the adult pituitary gland

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Pyczek; Rolf Buslei; David Schult; Annett Hölsken; Michael Buchfelder; Ina Heß; Heidi Hahn; Anja Uhmann

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling is known to be essential during the embryonal development of the pituitary gland but the knowledge about its role in the adult pituitary and in associated tumors is sparse. In this report we investigated the effect of excess Hh signaling activation in murine pituitary explants and analyzed the HH signaling status of human adenopituitary lobes and a large cohort of pituitary adenomas. Our data show that excess Hh signaling led to increased proliferation of Sox2+ and Sox...

  8. The endocrine-immune network during taeniosis by Taenia solium: The role of the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that sex hormones play an important role during Taenia solium infection; however, to our knowledge no studies exist concerning the immune response following complete or lobe-specific removal of the pituitary gland during T. solium infection. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze in hamsters, the effects of lack of pituitary hormones on the duodenal immune response, and their impact on T. solium establishment and development. Thus, in order to achieve this goal, we perform anterior pituitary lobectomy (AL, n = 9), neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL, n = 9) and total hypophysectomy (HYPOX, n = 8), and related to the gut establishment and growth of T. solium, hematoxylin-eosin staining of duodenal tissue and immunofluorescence of duodenal cytokine expression and compared these results to the control intact (n = 8) and control infected group (n = 8). Our results indicate that 15 days post-infection, HYPOX reduces the number and size of intestinally recovered T. solium adults. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of duodenal IFN-γ and IL-12 Th1 cytokines was mildly expressed in the infected controls, in contrast with the high level of expression of these cytokines in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, the duodenum of HYPOX animals showed an increase in the expression of Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-6, when compared to control hamsters. Histological analysis of duodenal mucosa from HYPOX hamsters revealed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria and related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that lobe-specific pituitary hormones affect differentially the T. solium development and the gut immune response. PMID:26481692

  9. MR measurement of normal pituitary gland height on midsagittal section: Age and sex differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of the normal pituitary gland height was performed on magnetic resonance (MR) images of 144 subjects with no known or suspected pituitary or hypothalamic diseases. Midsagittal T1 weighted images(T1WI) were used for measurement, and mean vertical height according to age and sex group was obtained. In all age groups, the pituitary height was greater in females than in male. The group of 0-9 years in both genders showed the minimum mean pituitary height. The maximum mean height was observed in the 10-19 years age group in both genders. The height gradually decreases with increasing age after age 20 years. There was no subject with a height more than 9.0 mm in females or 8.0 mm in males. In conclusion the measurement of the normal pituitary gland height using mid-sagittal MR imaging can be used for the evaluation of the pituitary gland lesions

  10. Diurnal variation of β-endorphin like immunoreactivity in rat brain, pituitary gland, and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-endorphin like immunoreactivity was measured in the brain, pituitary gland and plasma of rats at 2 A.M, 8 A.M, 2 P.M and 8 P.M. Values were higher in the brain and pituitary gland at 8 P.M and in the plasma at 8 A.M and 2 P.M. The findings suggest a circadian rhythm in the production and release of β-endorphin immunoreactive material. (Author)

  11. Direct Radioimmunoassay of Nuclear 3,5,3′ Triiodothyronine in Rat Anterior Pituitary

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, P R; Bavli, S. Z.; Castonguay, M.; Jove, R

    1980-01-01

    Previous tracer studies have suggested that 5′-monodeiodination of l-thyroxine (T4) in anterior pituitary may contribute a substantial portion of specifically bound nuclear 3,5,3′ l-triiodothyronine (T3) in this tissue in rats. To evaluate this possibility, a radioimmunoassay for nuclear T3 in individual anterior pituitaries was developed. Animals received [125I]T3 60 min before removal of the anterior pituitary and isolation of the nuclei by differential centrifugation. This allowed calculat...

  12. High-resolution MRI study of pituitary glands in healthy adult of the Han nationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the morphological characteristics of pituitary glands in healthy adult of the Han nationality on the High-resolution Mill and provide morphological data of pituitary glands for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. Methods: This is a clinical multi-center study. Nine hundred and seventy eight Chinese healthy volunteers (age range=18 to 70 ) recruited from 16 hospitals were divided into 5 groups, i. e., Group A (age range = 18 to 30), B (age range = 31 to 40), C (age range =41 to 50), D (age range = 51 to 60), and E (age range = 61 to 70). All of the volunteers were scanned by MR using T1 weighted three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. By Multiplan reconstruction with 3D software, the pituitary gland's volume, size, and inclination of pituitary, stalk were measured and the differences between sexualities and among age groups were compared by analysis of variance using SPSS13.0; those among five age groups were compared pair-wised by Tukey analysis; and the differences between male and female were analyzed by independent t test, and the differences of measurements of typing of pituitary glands were analyzed by Chi-square analysis. Results: (1) Volume of pituitary glands: the mean volume of male and female among 5 age groups were (1142 ± 290), (996 ± 223), (979 ± 178), (971 ± 174), (930 ± 189)and (1247 ± 210), (1199 ± 216), (1108 ± 196), (1059 ± 212), (984 ± 177) mm3 respectively. There were significant differences among the age groups(F=13.811,27.091,P0.05). (4) The typing of pituitary glands in middle sagittal MR images: there were significant differences between each typing (χ2=44.212, 107.518, P<0.01), there was a tendency of pituitary upper border to depressed when age increased. Conclusions: With high- resolution Mill and 3D volumetric analytic software, volume and size of pituitary glands and the angle of inclination of pituitary stalks were accurately measured, and

  13. Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Changes Related To Methylphenidate In Rat Pituitary and Pineal Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem ELMAS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The presence of a dopaminergic function in pituitary and pineal glands is well known. Methylphenidate (MPH, a widely prescribed psychostimulant for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, is an indirect dopamine agonist which could have the capacity of influencing the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system with the pineal gland. Our aim is to investigate dose-dependent immunohistochemical dopamine 2 expression, possible cell apoptosis and ultrastructural changes of the rat pituitary and pineal gland tissue, to demonstrate possible toxicity of the chronic extended use of the MPH.Material and Methods: In this study, 27 female prepubertal Wistar albino rats, divided into three different dose groups (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, were treated orally with MPH dissolved in saline solution for 5 days per week during three months. At the end of the third month, after perfusion fixation, pituitary and pineal glands were removed and sections were collected for immunohistochemical, TUNEL assay and ultrastructural studies.Results: We observed that methylphenidate induced dose-related ultrastructural changes in pituitary and pineal glands.Conclusion: High dose administration of this drug could influence the functions of these glands. Thus, we suggest that the therapeutic dose of methylphenidate must be kept in minimum level.

  14. Dynamic MR imaging for diagnosis of lesions adjacent to pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Osamu; Ueda, Fumiaki; Matsushita, Tsuyoshi; Fujinaga, Yasunari; Kobayashi, Keiko; Horichi, Yasushi; Hayashi, Yutaka; Tachibana, Osamu; Yamashita, Junkoh

    2005-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of dynamic studies for the preoperative diagnosis of tumor lesions adjacent to the pituitary gland. We examined 13 tumors. We obtained pre- and post-contrast thin slice T1-weighted images of the sellar regions. FSE sequences were used for dynamic study. The capability to distinguish the tumor from the pituitary gland and additional information obtained from the dynamic study were evaluated. Two meningiomas were identified more clearly on the dynamic than on the delayed study. In two cavernous hemangiomas, the peripheral nodular stains gradually increased during the dynamic study. For the preoperative evaluation of lesions adjacent to the pituitary gland, the dynamic study can often identify the lesions more clearly and may provide additional information.

  15. Two forensic autopsy cases of death from unexpected lesions of the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hayashi, Kino; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report the findings of 2 forensic autopsy cases, in which unexpected pituitary lesions were the underlying cause of death. Case 1: A 56-year-old woman was found dead at her home during a cold winter spell. Macroscopic autopsy findings included a difference in the color of blood that filled her left and right cardiac chambers (deep red and dark red, respectively), collapse of both lungs, atrophy of the thyroid gland, and a large tumor arising from the sella turcica. Microscopic examination revealed a pituitary adenoma along with extensive bleeding. The cause of death was considered to be hypothermia, resulting from dysregulation of thermogenesis due to the pituitary adenoma. Case 2: An 86-year-old man with a history of pollakiuria was found dead in a bathtub, with his face and chest submerged in bathwater and his legs positioned outside the bathtub. The macroscopic findings of the autopsy included hyper-inflated lungs, fluid collection in the thoracic cavity, and aspiration of gastric contents in the bronchi. The atherosclerotic changes of the man's coronary and cerebral arteries were considered mild for his age. Microscopic examination showed a marked infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the posterior pituitary gland, as well as in the liver, pancreas, and submandibular gland. Considering the results of the autopsy and the findings from the investigation conducted at the death scene, we concluded that the man probably lost consciousness following a neurally mediated syncope, which was induced by diabetes insipidus (lymphocytic hypophysitis). After losing consciousness, the man likely fell in the filled bathtub and then drowned. These 2 cases highlight the need for a thorough post-mortem investigation, including a microscopic examination of the pituitary gland. In addition, forensic pathologists should carefully study the pituitary gland in cases where the cause of death is thought to be related to dysfunction of thermoregulation or

  16. Modulation of the tyrosine kinase receptor Ret/glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signaling: a new player in reproduction induced anterior pituitary plasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillou, Anne; Romanò, Nicola; Bonnefont, Xavier; Le Tissier, Paul; Mollard, Patrice; Martin, Agnès O

    2011-02-01

    During gestation, parturition, and lactation, the endocrine axis of the dam must continually adapt to ensure the continual and healthy development of offspring. The anterior pituitary gland, which serves as the endocrine interface between the brain and periphery, undergoes adaptations that contribute to regulation of the reproductive axis. Growth factors and their receptors are potential candidates for intrapituitary and paracrine factors to participate in the functional and anatomical plasticity of the gland. We examined the involvement of the growth factor glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase rearranged during transfection (Ret) in the physiological functional and anatomical plasticity of the anterior pituitary gland. We found that variations in both expression and subcellular localization of Ret during gestation and lactation are temporally correlated with changes in pituitary gland function. We showed that Ret/GDNF signaling could endorse two different functional roles depending on the physiological status. At the end of lactation and after weaning, Ret was colocalized with markers of apoptosis. We found that Ret could therefore act as a physiological dependence receptor capable of inducing apoptosis in the absence of GDNF. In addition, we identified the follicullostellate cell as a probable source for intrapituitary GDNF and proposed GDNF as a potential physiological modulator of endocrine cell function. During all stages studied, we showed that acute application of GDNF to pituitary slices was able to modulate both positively and negatively intracellular calcium activity. Altogether our results implicate Ret/GDNF as a potent pleiotropic factor able to influence pituitary physiology during a period of high plasticity. PMID:21239429

  17. Dynamics of anterior pituitary immunoreactive gonadotrophs in moulted hens supplemented with protein, symbiotic and probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, H; Rahman, Z U

    2016-06-01

    The present work delineates redistribution patterns of the hormone-producing cells of the anterior pituitary, after the phase of moulting. Two hundred single comb White Leghorn hens at the end of their first production cycle (Age = 70 week) were purchased from the commercial poultry farm and were induced to moult by high-dietary zinc (3 g/kg feed/day) after 1 week of acclimatization, at the experimental research station, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The moulted birds were equally (n = 50) and randomly allocated to their respective groups as G1 (control; CP (Crude protein) 16%, no supplement), G2 (CP18%, no other supplement), G3 (CP16%, symbiotic at does rate of 85 mg/l in drinking water daily) and G4 (CP16%, probiotic at dose rate of 85 mg/l in drinking water daily). Ten birds were slaughtered in each group at 5% and at peak of post-moult production stage to collect their pituitary glands. An earlier post-moult production recovery, sustained and lengthier production span was seen in the G2 as compared to all other groups. The lowest production and an earlier production decline were seen in G1. The cell diameter and area of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) gonadotroph increased (p ≤ 0.01) in G2 and G3 as compared to G1. The FSH gonadotroph nucleus diameter and area did increase (p ≤ 0.01) in G2 and G3, while LH gonadotroph nucleus diameter and area decreased (p ≤ 0.01) in G2 and G3 as compared to G1. The increased FSH and LH gonadotroph diameter in protein and symbiotic supplemented birds is accountable for the increased egg production in these groups. PMID:26335931

  18. Influence of internal exposure on the morphofunctional characteristics of hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase changes in morphofunctional states of hypothalamus, pituitary, cortex and medulla of adrenal gland of rats, which for a long time (9 month) were fed a 137Cs diary, were determined. At early stages of experiment (7 - 30 days) the enhancing of morphofunctional and secretory activity of cells of hypothalamus, pituitary, cortex and medulla of adrenal gland cells, were observed (total absorbed doses of 0,3 sGy). After 9 months (total absorbed doses of 3,0 sGy) in cells of hypothalamus, pituitary, cortex and medulla of adrenal gland the progressions of dystrophic-destructive changes of intracellular structures with the sings of decreasing of morphofunctional and secretory activities were determined. It is necessary to underline, that the sings of intracellular reparative regeneration, were observed in a small part of cells against the background of presence of dystrophic-destructive changes. In spite of the processes of intracellular reparative regeneration which were observed 9 months later after exposure, the completely renewing of morphofunctional and secretory activities in cells of hypothalamus, pituitary, cortex and medulla of adrenal gland cells were absent

  19. Specific in vitro uptake of serotonin by cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, M.A.; Azmitia, E.C.; Krieger, D.T.

    1982-03-01

    In vivo studies have suggested that serotonin (5HT) influences anterior pituitary function at the hypothalamic level. The present in vitro study investigated the possibility that 5HT may act directly on the anterior pituitary. The high affinity uptake of (3H)5HT into adult rat anterior pituitary tissue was examined in two types of experiments. 1) To test the specificity and saturability of uptake of 5HT in the anterior pituitary, pituitary tissue was incubated (37 C) with (3H)5HT (10(-8)-10(-6) M) in the presence and absence of excess (10(-5) M) unlabeled 5HT, norepinephrine, fluoxetine (FLUOX), metergoline, or cyproheptadine. A Hofstee analysis of the specific uptake of (3H)5HT gave an apparent Km value of 4.23 x 10(-7) M and a Vmax of 1576 pmol/g/10 min (3H)5HT. The total uptake of (3H)5HT was not altered by norepinephrine or metergoline, but was significantly reduced (P less than 0.01-0.001) by FLUOX and cyproheptadine. Uptake was shown to be temperature and sodium dependent and not directly dependent on energy derived from glycolysis or aerobic metabolism. 2) To study the site of uptake of 5 HT in the anterior pituitary, in concomitant radioautographic experiments, tissue was incubated with (3H)5HT with and without excess 5HT or FLUOX. Three patterns of silver grain distribution were observed: 1) nonrandom concentrations over select anterior pituitary cells near blood vessels, 2) heavy aggregates of silver grains usually associated with blood vessels, and 3) a seemingly random dispersal of grains over pituitary tissue. Tissue incubated with (3H)5HT alone contained 10% heavily labeled cells, 32% moderately labeled cells, and 58% weakly labeled cells. In contrast, no heavily labeled cells were seen when tissue was incubated with either excess 5HT or FLUOX in addition to (3H)5HT. Our findings of saturable and specific high affinity uptake of (3H)5HT into a subgroup of anterior pituitary cells suggest a direct pituitary action of 5HT.

  20. Specific in vitro uptake of serotonin by cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo studies have suggested that serotonin (5HT) influences anterior pituitary function at the hypothalamic level. The present in vitro study investigated the possibility that 5HT may act directly on the anterior pituitary. The high affinity uptake of [3H]5HT into adult rat anterior pituitary tissue was examined in two types of experiments. 1) To test the specificity and saturability of uptake of 5HT in the anterior pituitary, pituitary tissue was incubated (37 C) with [3H]5HT (10(-8)-10(-6) M) in the presence and absence of excess (10(-5) M) unlabeled 5HT, norepinephrine, fluoxetine (FLUOX), metergoline, or cyproheptadine. A Hofstee analysis of the specific uptake of [3H]5HT gave an apparent Km value of 4.23 x 10(-7) M and a Vmax of 1576 pmol/g/10 min [3H]5HT. The total uptake of [3H]5HT was not altered by norepinephrine or metergoline, but was significantly reduced (P less than 0.01-0.001) by FLUOX and cyproheptadine. Uptake was shown to be temperature and sodium dependent and not directly dependent on energy derived from glycolysis or aerobic metabolism. 2) To study the site of uptake of 5 HT in the anterior pituitary, in concomitant radioautographic experiments, tissue was incubated with [3H]5HT with and without excess 5HT or FLUOX. Three patterns of silver grain distribution were observed: 1) nonrandom concentrations over select anterior pituitary cells near blood vessels, 2) heavy aggregates of silver grains usually associated with blood vessels, and 3) a seemingly random dispersal of grains over pituitary tissue. Tissue incubated with [3H]5HT alone contained 10% heavily labeled cells, 32% moderately labeled cells, and 58% weakly labeled cells. In contrast, no heavily labeled cells were seen when tissue was incubated with either excess 5HT or FLUOX in addition to [3H]5HT. Our findings of saturable and specific high affinity uptake of [3H]5HT into a subgroup of anterior pituitary cells suggest a direct pituitary action of 5HT

  1. Clinical results of stereotactic hellium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first therapeutic clinical trial using accelerated heavy-charged particles in humans was performed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the treatment of various endocrine and metabolic disorders of the pituitary gland, and as suppressive therapy for adenohypophyseal hormone-responsive carcinomas and diabetic retinopathy. In acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome and prolactin-secreting tumors, the therapeutic goal in the 433 patients treated has been to destroy or inhibit the growth of the pituitary tumor and control hormonal hypersecretion, while preserving a functional rim of tissue with normal hormone-secreting capacity, and minimizing neurologic injury. An additional group of 34 patients was treated for nonsecreting chromophobe adenomas. This paper discusses the methods and results of stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. 11 refs

  2. Clinical results of stereotactic hellium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Lawrence, J.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1989-12-01

    The first therapeutic clinical trial using accelerated heavy-charged particles in humans was performed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the treatment of various endocrine and metabolic disorders of the pituitary gland, and as suppressive therapy for adenohypophyseal hormone-responsive carcinomas and diabetic retinopathy. In acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome and prolactin-secreting tumors, the therapeutic goal in the 433 patients treated has been to destroy or inhibit the growth of the pituitary tumor and control hormonal hypersecretion, while preserving a functional rim of tissue with normal hormone-secreting capacity, and minimizing neurologic injury. An additional group of 34 patients was treated for nonsecreting chromophobe adenomas. This paper discusses the methods and results of stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. 11 refs.

  3. Isolation of pancreatic trypsin inhibitor from bovine pituitary glands.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, C. H.; Chung, D.

    1983-01-01

    A trypsin inhibitor has been isolated from bovine pituitary extracts. From its amino acid composition, NH2-terminal residue, mobility in paper electrophoresis, and behavior in high-performance liquid chromatography and from the tryptic pattern of the performic acid-oxidized material, it appears that the inhibitor is identical to the Kunitz and Northrop pancreatic trypsin inhibitor.

  4. Value of computerized tomography in the diagnosis of primary and recurrent pituitary gland tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of cranial computerized tomography (CCT) of 33 patients with questionable space-occupying lesions in the sella-region are compared with clinical, radiological and surgical reports. Five pituitary gland tumors could be detected for the first time. Four of them are verified by surgery. In eight cases recurrent pituitary glant tumors are suspected. Surprisingly these tumors could be found by surgery only in three cases, while in the remaining five cases only scar-tissue was demonstrable. The high accuracy of CCT in the detection of pituitary gland tumors and the possibility to save the patient expensive and high invasive examinations as well, makes CCT in the presence of corresponding clinical signs to a diagnostic 'must'. It is undecided whether in the cases with possible recurrent tumors, there are real recurrent tumors, which could not be detected by surgery, or only scar tissue. In the latter case scar tissue and recurrent pituitary gland tumors are very similar with CCT. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 CKA

  5. Evaluation of clinical hypothyroidism risk due to irradiation of thyroid and pituitary glands in radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) has been reported. This study investigated the radiation effects of the thyroid and pituitary glands on thyroid function after radiotherapy for NPC. Sixty-five NPC patients treated with radiotherapy were recruited. Baseline thyroid hormone levels comprising free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were taken before treatment and at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. A seven-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan was generated for each patient. Thyroid and pituitary gland dose volume histograms were generated, dividing the patients into four groups: high (>50Gy) thyroid and pituitary doses (HTHP group); high thyroid and low pituitary doses (HTLP group); low thyroid and high pituitary doses; and low thyroid and pituitary doses. Incidence of hypothyroidism was analysed. Twenty-two (34%) and 17 patients (26%) received high mean thyroid and pituitary doses, respectively. At 18 months, 23.1% of patients manifested various types of hypothyroidism. The HTHP group showed the highest incidence (83.3%) of hypothyroidism, followed by the HTLP group (50%). NPC patients with high thyroid and pituitary gland doses carried the highest risk of abnormal thyroid physiology. The dose to the thyroid was more influential than the pituitary dose at 18 months after radiotherapy, and therefore more attention should be given to the thyroid gland in radiotherapy planning.

  6. Relationship between growth of nursing pigs and composition of sow colostrum and milk from anterior and posterior mammary glands

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Piglets that nurse anterior mammary glands grow faster than those suckling posterior mammary glands. The underlying mechanisms are not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there is a difference in composition in colostrum and milk secreted by anterior and posterior mammary glands. Seven healthy sows were used. The first three pairs of mammary glands were defined as anterior mammary glands (AMG) and the rest as posterior mammary glands (PMG...

  7. MRI of the liver and the pituitary gland in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: Does hepatic siderosis predict pituitary iron deposition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Efremidis, Stavros C. [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios N. [Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to study, in thalassemic patients, if hepatic siderosis evaluated by MRI could predict the pituitary iron overload. In 36 thalassemic patients (age range 6-44 years, mean age 21.7 years) the liver/fat ratio (L/F), the pituitary/fat ratio (P/F), the liver and pituitary T2 relaxation times were evaluated, by using a multiecho spin-echo sequence. Serum ferritin levels were measured and an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed. The L/F, the P/F and pituitary T2 showed a good correlation with serum ferritin (r=-0.55, r=-0.55 and r=-0.53, respectively; p<0.01). Liver T2 did not show significant correlation with serum ferritin. The variability of L/F explained only the 10.8% of the variability of pituitary T2 and of the P/F. When ferritin was added to the model it predicted only the 26.85% and the 30.8% of the variability of pituitary T2 and of the P/F, respectively. The P/F and pituitary T2 were lower in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (group 1) compared with those without pituitary dysfunction (group 2). No significant differences of L/F were found between the two groups. Hepatic iron overload evaluated by MR is a poor predictor of pituitary siderosis. The MR studies of the pituitary gland might be necessary to evaluate the pituitary iron overload. (orig.)

  8. The pituitary gland of the European eel reveals massive expression of genes involved in the melanocortin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirill Ager-Wick

    Full Text Available Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland regulate important processes such as development, growth and metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and body pigmentation. Synthesis and secretion of pituitary hormones are regulated by different factors from the hypothalamus, but also through feedback mechanisms from peripheral organs, and from the pituitary itself. In the European eel extensive attention has been directed towards understanding the different components of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis, but little is known about the regulation of upstream processes in the pituitary gland. In order to gain a broader mechanistic understanding of the eel pituitary gland, we have performed RNA-seq transcriptome profiling of the pituitary of prepubertal female silver eels. RNA-seq reads generated on the Illumina platform were mapped to the recently assembled European eel genome. The most abundant transcript in the eel pituitary codes for pro-opiomelanocortin, the precursor for hormones of the melanocortin system. Several genes putatively involved in downstream processing of pro-opiomelanocortin were manually annotated, and were found to be highly expressed, both by RNA-seq and by qPCR. The melanocortin system, which affects skin color, energy homeostasis and in other teleosts interacts with the reproductive system, has so far received limited attention in eels. However, since up to one third of the silver eel pituitary's mRNA pool encodes pro-opiomelanocortin, our results indicate that control of the melanocortin system is a major function of the eel pituitary.

  9. Profiling of adrenocorticotropic hormone and arginine vasopressin in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R; Changelian, Armen; Laws, Edward R; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y R; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections, using a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectrometric detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this method and data obtained with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland. AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis), and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH-secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH-secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared with non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis, as expected. This work reveals that a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS-MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, including AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity, and specificity of this method support the potential of this basic technology, with further advancement, for assisting surgical decision-making. Graphical Abstract Mass spectrometry based profiling of hormones in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections. PMID:26084546

  10. Flow cytometric immunofluorescence of rat anterior pituitary cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J. Michael; Hymer, W. C.

    1985-01-01

    A flow cytometric immunofluorescence technique was developed for the quantification of growth hormone, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone producing cells. The procedure is based on indirect-immunofluorescence of intracellular hormone using an EPICS V cell sorter and can objectively count 50,000 cells in about 3 minutes. It can be used to study the dynamics of pituitary cell populations under various physiological and pharmacological conditions.

  11. Effects of Prenatal Dexamethasone on the Rat Pituitary Gland and Gonadotropic Cells in Female Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, Nataša; Severs, Walter; Nestorović, Nataša; Jarić, Ivana; Manojlović-Stojanoski, Milica; Trifunović, Svetlana; Pendovski, Lazo; Milosević, Verica

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have a strong influence on growth and maturation of fetal organ systems, but overexposure to exogenous glucocorticoids may retard fetal growth and alter developmental processes in sensitive tissues. The aim of this study was to specifically determine whether prenatal exposure to dexamethasone (Dx) altered normal development and function of pituitary gonadotropic cells in neonatal, infant and peripubertal female offspring. On day 16 of pregnancy, rat dams received 1.0 mg Dx/kg body weight (BW) s.c., followed by 0.5 mg Dx/kg BW on days 17 and 18 of gestation. Control gravid females received the same volume of saline. Female offspring were sacrificed on days 5, 16 and 38 after delivery. The volume of the pituitary gland estimated using Cavalieri's principle was significantly reduced (p programming of the female reproductive system at the pituitary cellular level, which may be associated with impaired reproductive function. PMID:26950885

  12. Clinical results of stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Lawrence, J.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1989-12-01

    The first therapeutic clinical trial using accelerated heavy-charged particles in humans was performed for the treatment of various endocrine and metabolic disorders of the pituitary gland, and as suppressive therapy for adenohypophyseal hormone-responsive carcinomas and diabetic retinopathy. Since then, over 800 patients have received stereotactically-directed plateau-beam heavy-charged particle pituitary irradiation at this institution. In acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome and prolactin-secreting tumors, the therapeutic goal in the 433 patients treated has been to destroy or inhibit the growth of the pituitary tumor and control hormonal hypersecretion, while preserving a functional rim of tissue with normal hormone-secreting capacity, and minimizing neurologic injury. An additional group of 34 patients was treated for nonsecreting chromophobe adenomas. This paper discusses the methods and results of these treatments. 11 refs.

  13. Clinical results of stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first therapeutic clinical trial using accelerated heavy-charged particles in humans was performed for the treatment of various endocrine and metabolic disorders of the pituitary gland, and as suppressive therapy for adenohypophyseal hormone-responsive carcinomas and diabetic retinopathy. Since then, over 800 patients have received stereotactically-directed plateau-beam heavy-charged particle pituitary irradiation at this institution. In acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome and prolactin-secreting tumors, the therapeutic goal in the 433 patients treated has been to destroy or inhibit the growth of the pituitary tumor and control hormonal hypersecretion, while preserving a functional rim of tissue with normal hormone-secreting capacity, and minimizing neurologic injury. An additional group of 34 patients was treated for nonsecreting chromophobe adenomas. This paper discusses the methods and results of these treatments. 11 refs

  14. Stereotactic radiotherapy for the treatment of neurosarcoidosis involving the pituitary gland and hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We report the case of a 38-year-old, female patient with neurosarcoidosis involving the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, who was treated with stereotactic radiotherapy (24 Gy in 12 fractions) with an excellent result. The purpose of this case report was to illustrate and discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges faced in the management of neurosarcoidosis, as well as document our experience with the use of stereotactic radiotherapy in the treatment of neurosarcoidosis

  15. Influence of physical factors on sexual function and pituitary gland-gonads system. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Chapter 3 it is noted, that different physical factors even with low intensity (vibration, noise, electromagnetic oscillations of s.h.f. and u.h.f range, laser radiation, temperature changes) predictably lead to spermatogenesis dysfunctions and functional shift in hypothalamus-pituitary gland-gonads system with examined animals and man. The sexual function of men changing in the result of contact with unfavourable physical factors arise early and quite often they preceding the manifestation of occupational diseases pattern

  16. Immunocytochemical localization of secretory phospholipase A(2)-like protein in the pituitary gland and surrounding tissue of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Y; Kikuyama, S; Hayashi, H; Hanaoka, Y; Sakai, M; Tanaka, S

    2001-05-01

    Previously, we obtained a protein that has considerable amino acid sequence homology with secretory phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) from a bullfrog pituitary fraction obtained during the purification of thyrotropin (TSH). Subsequently, partial amino acid sequence (N-terminal 45 amino acid residues) analysis revealed this protein to be identical to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of otoconin-22, the major protein of aragonitic otoconia in the Xenopus saccule. In this study we developed an antibody against the N-terminal peptide of the bullfrog protein and applied it for immunocytochemical study of the pituitary and its surrounding tissue. Western blotting analysis showed that this antibody recognizes a 20.4-kD protein that has a molecular mass close to that of otoconin-22. Immunohistochemical reaction with the antibody was not found in any anterior pituitary cells but was intense in the monolayer epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac surrounding the pituitary gland, which is a major storage site of calcium carbonate in amphibians. An electron microscopic study revealed that the cuboidal cells in the endolymphatic sac contained large, polymorphic secretory granules in their apical cytoplasm. Immunogold particles indicating the presence of a PLA(2)-like protein were observed predominately in these secretory granules. These findings support the view that this PLA(2)-like protein obtained during purification of TSH was derived from the endolymphatic sac adhering to the pituitary and that this protein is a bullfrog otoconin. (J Histochem Cytochem 49:631-637, 2001) PMID:11304801

  17. Fast three-dimensional imaging of the pituitary gland with very short echo times: Elimination of magnetic susceptibility artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New fast gradient echo sequences have recently made it possible to perform true/isotropic volume imaging in a clinically acceptable examination time, making it ideal for pituitary evaluation. The problem to date, however, has been the sensitivity of the gradient echo to magnetic susceptibility, which occurs in the parasellar region. Magnetic susceptibility can cause areas of signal void and totally obscure the brain base and pituitary gland. This paper proposes a method whereby very short echo time sequences (5-6 msec) eliminate magnetic susceptibility artifacts, allowing high-resolution isotropic evaluation of the pituitary gland

  18. Uptake of medroxyprogesterone acetate by progestin and androgen target neurons in the brain and pituitary gland of male cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsall, R W; Rees, H D; Michael, R P

    1990-12-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a synthetic progestin that reduces plasma testosterone levels, has been used in the treatment of male sex offenders. It also reduces the sexual activity of male macaques. To investigate its sites and mechanisms of action, 11 adult male cynomolgus monkeys were castrated and 7 and 21 h later were pretreated with 20 mg progesterone s.c. (Prog, n = 3), or 5 mg dihydrotestosterone propionate s.c. (DHTP, n = 3) or oil vehicle (controls, n = 5). Twenty-four hours after castration, all males were injected i.v. with 5 mCi [3H]-MPA, and killed after 60 min. Left halves of the brains were processed for thaw-mount autoradiography to identify the neurons accumulating radioactivity, and right halves were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to measure the uptake of [3H]-MPA in nuclear fractions. In males pretreated with oil, there were labeled neurons in the ventromedial nucleus (n.), arcuate n., medial preoptic n. and anterior hypothalamic area. In progesterone-pretreated males, labeling was reduced by 84-100% compared with controls (p less than 0.001), but in DHTP-pretreated males there was no effect, and labeling was not significantly different from control levels. Nuclear concentrations of [3H]-MPA measured by HPLC in controls were highest in the hypothalamus, amygdala, preoptic area and pituitary gland. Pretreatments with progesterone reduced the nuclear concentrations of [3H]-MPA in hypothalamus, preoptic area and pituitary gland by 82-95% compared with controls (p less than 0.05), but DHTP pretreatments had no effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2149428

  19. Live Staining and Isolation of Specific Hormone-Producing Cells from Rat Anterior Pituitary by Cytochemistry with Lectins and Cholera Toxin B Subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anterior pituitary glands contain five types of hormone-producing cells. Distinguishing and isolating specific types of living cells are essential for studying their function. Although many such attempts have been made, the results have been disappointing. In the present study, we labeled specific types of living hormone-producing cells by using potential differences in sugar chains on the cell surfaces. Cytochemical analysis with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit revealed that PNA, S-WGA, and cholera toxin B subunit recognized sugar chains specific to prolactin cells, ACTH cells, and GH cells, respectively, and that UEA-I recognized most of prolactin cells and GH cells. Next, fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to isolate GH cells labeled by fluoresceinated cholera toxin B. The purity of the GH cell fraction estimated by immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR for cell type-specific genes was more than 98%, which was higher than that reported in earlier studies, including those using transgenic animals. We conclude that cytochemistry with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit is a straightforward, acceptable method of isolating specific types of anterior pituitary cells and that the cells isolated by this method can serve as useful materials in the study of anterior pituitary cells

  20. Cadmium induces apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells that can be reversed by treatment with antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd2+) is an ubiquitous toxic metal that is involved in a variety of pathological conditions. Several reports indicate that Cd2+ alters normal pituitary hormone secretion; however, little is known about the mechanisms that induce this misregulation. This paper reports the effect of Cd2+ on anterior pituitary cell viability and its relation to prolactin secretion. Cd2+ concentrations above 10 μM were found to be cytotoxic for pituitary cells. Morphological studies as well as DNA ladder fragmentation and caspase activation showed that Cd2+-treated cells undergo apoptosis. Even though several hours were needed to detect Cd2+-induced cytotoxicity, the effect of the metal became irreversible very quickly, requiring only 3 h of treatment. Prolactin release (measured at 48 h) was inhibited when the cells were exposed to Cd2+ for 1 h, before any change in cell viability was observed. The antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine and Trolox (a hydrosoluble derivative of vitamin E), but not ascorbic acid, reversed both Cd2+-mediated cytotoxicity and the inhibition of prolactin release, supporting the involvement of oxidative stress in the mechanism of Cd2+ action. In summary, the present work demonstrates that Cd2+ is cytotoxic for anterior pituitary cells, that this effect is due to an induction of apoptosis, and that it can be reversed by antioxidants

  1. Competing interests in a lung cancer with metastasis to the pituitary gland: syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion versus diabetes insipidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsin, Gaurav Singh; Jacobs, Madeleine Louisa Bryson; Gohil, Shailesh; Thomas, Adam; Levy, Miles

    2016-01-01

    Metastases to the pituitary gland are rare; cancers that most commonly metastasize to the pituitary are breast and lung cancers. No specific computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging features reliably distinguish primary pituitary masses from metastases. A combination of a detailed clinical assessment together with specialist endocrine and neuroradiology support is essential to make the rare diagnosis of a pituitary metastasis. We present the case of a man with metastatic lung cancer, initially presenting as hypopituitarism. Subtle features in the history, together with neuroimaging findings atypical for pituitary adenomas, provided clues that the diagnosis was one of the pituitary metastases. Treatment of diabetes insipidus (DI) with replacement antidiuretic hormone (ADH) was complicated by extreme difficulties in achieving a satisfactory sodium and water balance. This was the result of coexistent DI and syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion perpetuated by the patient's primary lung cancer, a phenomenon not previously described in the literature. PMID:27274855

  2. Combined use of vasopressin and synthetic hypothalamic releasing factors as a new test of anterior pituitary function.

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, P. J.; Wiles, P G; Davies, J. A.; Prentice, C R

    1986-01-01

    Nine normal volunteers and 15 patients with pituitary disorders were given a combined test of anterior pituitary function using four hypothalamic releasing factors and arginine vasopressin. Rapid sequential intravenous infusions of human corticotrophin releasing factor 100 micrograms, growth hormone releasing factor 100 micrograms, luteinising hormone releasing hormone 100 micrograms, and thyrotrophin releasing hormone 200 micrograms were administered. Arginine vasopressin (10 pressor units) ...

  3. The development of radioimmunoassay systems for the human pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was the preparation of 1. Human Growth Hormone (HGH), 2. The glycoprotein hormones: Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), 3. The Prolactin. 1. A standardised procedure for the preparation of HGH ''clinical grade'' was developed. This HGH can be applied for the treatment of children diagnosed as hypophyseal dwarfism; the preliminary results are encouraging. The final ethanol-soluble fraction is used also for the prolactin preparation. As shown by exclusion chromatography, the lyophilized HGH ''clinical grade'' contains mainly its monomeric form. The purified HGH obtained by processing of frozen glands is suitable as antigen for the preparation of antisera in rabbits. Large quantities of purified HGH were prepared, used as preparation for radioiodination, and proposed as a national reference preparation for immunoassay. The double antibody HGH-RIA system using author's procedure seems to be adequate for the HGH measurements in biological fluids. 2. Using two chromatographic steps (Sephadex G-150, DEAE-cellulose) followed by a preparative electrophoresis (P-PAGE) purified LH was obtained. The measurement of the β-TSH in the P-PAGE eluates showed concentrations lower than the sensitivity limit of the β-TSH RIA system (5microU/ml). The three chromatographic steps (Sephadex G-150, DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100) allowed to separate the FSH from TSH during the third step, FSH being eluted faster than TSH, as resulted from the RIA measurements of the FSH and of β-TSH: Some overlapping of the concentrations of these hormones was observed only in eluates on the descending arm of the FSH peak. 3. The procedure for the isolation and purification of prolactin was developed according to Hwang's method. The extraction procedure started with the discarded step during the HSH ''clinical grade'' preparation and included three chromatographic steps for purification. However, the final product

  4. Liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland iron overload in young and adult thalassemic patients: a T2 relaxometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Astrakas, Loukas; Metafratzi, Zafiria; Efremidis, Stavros C. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios N. [University of Ioannina, Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Chalissos, Nikolaos [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); University of Ioannina, Laboratory of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2007-12-15

    Thirty-seven patients with {beta}-thalassemia major, including 14 adolescents (15.2 {+-} 3.0 years) and 23 adults (26.4 {+-} 6.9 years), were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2) of the liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland was measured in a 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imager, using a multiecho spin-echo sequence (TR/TE 2,000/20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 ms). Pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan of a spin-echo sequence (TR/TE, 500/20 ms). The T2 of the pituitary gland was higher in adolescents (59.4 {+-} 15 ms) than in adults (45.3 {+-} 10.4 ms), P < 0.05. The T2 of the pancreas was lower in adolescents (43.6 {+-} 10.3 ms) than in adults (54.4 {+-} 10.4 ms). No difference among groups was found in the T2 of the liver and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation of the T2 among the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation between serum ferritin and T2 of the liver, pancreas and bone marrow. Pituitary T2 showed a significant correlation with pituitary gland height (adolescents: R = 0.63, adults: R = 0.62, P < 0.05) and serum ferritin (adolescents: R = -0.60, adults: R = -0.50, P < 0.05). In conclusion, iron overload evaluated by T2 is organ specific. After adolescence, age-related T2 changes are predominantly associated with pituitary siderosis and fatty degeneration of the pancreas. Pituitary size decreases with progressing siderosis. (orig.)

  5. Liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland iron overload in young and adult thalassemic patients: a T2 relaxometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-seven patients with β-thalassemia major, including 14 adolescents (15.2 ± 3.0 years) and 23 adults (26.4 ± 6.9 years), were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2) of the liver, bone marrow, pancreas and pituitary gland was measured in a 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imager, using a multiecho spin-echo sequence (TR/TE 2,000/20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 ms). Pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan of a spin-echo sequence (TR/TE, 500/20 ms). The T2 of the pituitary gland was higher in adolescents (59.4 ± 15 ms) than in adults (45.3 ± 10.4 ms), P < 0.05. The T2 of the pancreas was lower in adolescents (43.6 ± 10.3 ms) than in adults (54.4 ± 10.4 ms). No difference among groups was found in the T2 of the liver and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation of the T2 among the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland and bone marrow. There was no significant correlation between serum ferritin and T2 of the liver, pancreas and bone marrow. Pituitary T2 showed a significant correlation with pituitary gland height (adolescents: R = 0.63, adults: R = 0.62, P < 0.05) and serum ferritin (adolescents: R = -0.60, adults: R = -0.50, P < 0.05). In conclusion, iron overload evaluated by T2 is organ specific. After adolescence, age-related T2 changes are predominantly associated with pituitary siderosis and fatty degeneration of the pancreas. Pituitary size decreases with progressing siderosis. (orig.)

  6. Calcitonin receptor binding in the hen anterior pituitary during an oviposition cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Nakagawa-Mizuyachi, Kaori; Kawashima, Mitsuo

    2011-10-01

    The equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d) ) and the maximum binding capacity (B(max) ) of calcitonin (CT) receptor in the plasma membrane of the anterior pituitary in hens were examined by Scatchard analysis of specific binding of (125) I-labeled chicken CT. Values of K(d) and B(max) of CT receptor were smaller in laying hens than in non-laying hens. A decrease in the K(d) and B(max) value of CT receptor was observed in the anterior pituitary after the injection of estradiol-17β and progesterone into nonlaying hens, but not changed after the injection of 5α-dihydrotestosterone. During an oviposition cycle, the K(d) and the B(max) value decreased 3 h before oviposition. In non-laying hens, neither the K(d) nor the B(max) value changed during a full day period. The present study suggests that the CT action on the anterior pituitary may increase 3 h before oviposition by the effect of estradiol-17β and progesterone in laying hens. PMID:21951904

  7. The advantages of submandibular gland resection in anterior retropharyngeal approach to the upper cervical spine

    OpenAIRE

    Skaf, Ghassan S.; Sabbagh, Amira S.; Hadi, Usamah

    2006-01-01

    Anterior surgery to the upper cervical spine, although rare, several successful approaches were described in the literature. To avoid the risks and limitations of transoral approach, the anterior retropharyngeal approach was developed. In this study, we describe our experience with anterior retropharyngeal approach to the upper cervical spine and discuss the significance of resecting the submandibular gland. From July 2001 to July 2004, we performed six anterior prevascular retropharyngeal ap...

  8. Effect of Alterations in Thyroid Status on the Metabolism of Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine by Rat Pituitary Gland In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Michiko; Ingbar, Sidney H.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism of thyroxine (T4) was studied in slices of rat pituitary gland and liver from the same animal incubated in vitro with [125I]T4 and 10 mM dithiothreitol. In the pituitary gland, generation of 125I-labeled 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3), as well as overall T4 degradation, increased significantly at 24 h after thyroidectomy and by 2 wk were approximately five times control values. Conversely, following a single injection of T3 (1.5 μg/100 g body wt), values for both functions were s...

  9. Immunohistochemical Localization of the Water Channels AQP4 and AQP5 in the Rat Pituitary Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pituitary gland is composed of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. The adenohypophysis contains endocrine cells, folliculo-stellate (FS) cells, and marginal layer cells, whereas the neurohypophysis mainly comprises axons and pituicytes. To understand the molecular nature of water transfer in the pituitary gland, we examined the immunohistochemical localization of the membrane water channels aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and AQP5 in rat tissue. Double immunofluorescence analysis of AQP4 and S100 protein, a known marker for FS cells, marginal layer cells, and pituicytes, clearly revealed that FS cells and marginal layer cells in the adenohypophysis and the pituicytes in pars nervosa are positive for AQP4. AQP5 was found to be localized at the apical membrane in some marginal layer cells surrounding the Rathke’s residual pouch, in which AQP4 was observed to be localized on the basolateral membranes. These results suggest the following possibilities: 1) FS cells especially require water for their functions and 2) transepithelial water transfer could occur between the lumen of Rathke’s residual pouch and the interstitial fluid in the adenohypophysis through the AQP4 and AQP5 channels in the marginal layer cells

  10. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & Pineal Glands Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other ... hormone secretion. « Previous (Characteristics of Hormones) Next (Pituitary & Pineal Glands) » Contact Us | Privacy Policy | Accessibility | FOIA | File Formats ...

  11. Computed tomography in the evaluation of the supraclinoid arteries in suprasellar pituitary gland tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demonstration of the supraclinoid arteries at CT in 38 patients with suprasellar lesions was evaluated. The anterior cerebral artery was visible in 8 per cent, the other supraclinoid arteries in about 80 per cent. In one patient cerebral angiography revealed a giant aneurysm which was erroneously considered as a suprasellar neoplasm at CT and encephalography. The demonstration of the supraclinoid arteries was often inadequate in large suprasellar tumors. Therefore, cerebral angiography is still necessary preoperatively in suprasellar pituitary lesions-at least at the state of technology represented by the Delta 25 Head Scanner. (Auth.)

  12. A descriptive study to find possible correlation between MRI findings of pituitary gland and serum prolactin level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore equation, if any, between findings of magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary gland and serum prolactin level. Methods: The retrospective, descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Radiology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and related to patients records from April 19, 2006 to April 23, 2009. Seventy patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging of brain for pituitary gland. Inclusion criteria were all patients referred with relevant clinical symptoms or deranged serum prolactin level. Patients who were claustrophobic or had a pacemaker, aneurysm clip, metallic foreign body in the orbit or with no laboratory investigation were excluded from the study. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 70 patients, normal imaging was noted in 29 (41.4 %) patients. Out of these, 18 (62.06%) patients had normal and 11 (37.93%) had raised serum prolactin levels. Microadenoma was found in 23 (32.8%) patients. Out of these, 10 (42.47%) had normal and 13 (56.52%) had raised prolactin levels. Macroadenoma was found in 16 (22.8 %). Out of these, 8 (50%) had normal and 8 (50%) had raised prolactin levels. Pituitary cyst was located in 2 (2.8 %) patients. Out of these, 1 (50%) had normal and 1 (50%) had raised serum prolactin levels. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary gland was not associated with serum prolactin levels in patients with clinical suspicion of pituitary abnormality. Therefore, regular monitoring of serum prolactin is suggested. (author)

  13. Substances resembling C-terminal vasopressin fragments are present in the brain but not in the pituitary gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wied, D. de; Burbach, J.P.H.; Wang, X.C.; Haaf, J.A. ten

    1984-01-01

    In order to investigate the endogenous occurrence of vasopressin fragments that have previously been found to be generated in vitro by brain peptidases and to have highly potent central activity, extracts of hypothalamus, hippocampus and the pituitary gland were fractionated by high pressure liquid

  14. Bioprocessing in Microgravity: Applications of Continuous Flow Electrophoresis to Rat Anterior Pituitary Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Salada, T.; Cenci, R.; Krishnan, K.; Seaman, G. V. F.; Snyder, R.; Matsumiya, H.; Nagaoka, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this report we describe the results of a continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE) experiment done on STS-65 in which we tested the idea that intracellular growth hormone (GH) particles contained in a cell lysate prepared from cultured rat anterior pituitary cells in microgravity might have different electrophoretic mobilities from those in a synchronous ground control cell lysate. Collectively, the results suggested that CFE processing in microgravity was better than on earth; more samples could be processed at a time (6 x) and more variant forms of GH molecules could be resolved as well. We had also hoped to carry out a pituitary cell CFE experiment, but failure of the hardware required that the actual cell electrophoresis trials be done on earth shortly after Shuttle landing. Data from these experiments showed that space-flown cells possessed a higher electrophoretic mobility than ground control cells, thereby offering evidence for the idea that exposure of cultured cells to microgravity can change their net surface charge-density especially when the cells are fed. Collectively, the results from this pituitary cell experiment document the advantage of using coupled cell culture and CFE techniques in the microgravity environment.

  15. Combined anterior pituitary function test using CRH, GRH, LH-RH, TRH and vasopressin in patients with non-functioning pituitary tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto,Kozo

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined 8 normal subjects and 16 patients with non-functioning pituitary tumors with a combined anterior pituitary test to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the test. Diagnoses included 9 of chromophobe adenoma, 3 of craniopharyngioma, 2 of Rathke's cleft cyst, and 1 each of intrasellar cyst and tuberculum sella meningioma. All subjects received hypothalamic releasing hormones: 1 micrograms/kg corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH, 1 micrograms/kg growth hormone releasing hormone (GRH, 500 micrograms thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, 100 micrograms luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH, and a relatively small dose (5 mU/kg of lysine vasopressin (LVP. In the normal subjects, the addition of LVP potentiated the secretion of adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH induced by CRH, but had no significant effect on the secretion of other anterior pituitary hormones. In the combined test with 5 releasing hormones, the plasma ACTH and cortisol responses were not impaired in the majority of the patients before pituitary surgery. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, prolactin (PRL and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH responses were not impaired in 82%, 70% and 67% of the patients, respectively, while the serum LH and GH responses were impaired in 67% and 73% of the patients, respectively. Following pituitary surgery, responses of these hormones to combined testing were similarly impaired in more than 75% of the patients. These results indicate that plasma ACTH, cortisol and serum TSH responses are fairly good before pituitary surgery but are impaired significantly after surgery. No subjects experienced any serious adverse effects related to the testing. These results suggest that combined testing with hypothalamic hormones is a convenient and useful method for evaluating pituitary function.

  16. Prolactin kinase activity in bovine anterior pituitary sub-cellular fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, J R; Brooks, C L

    1999-01-25

    Bovine anterior pituitary cells phosphorylate prolactin (PRL). We describe the phosphorylation of endogenous and exogenous bPRL in highly enriched subcellular fractions of bovine anterior pituitary using [gamma-32P]-ATP. 32P-labeling of endogenous and exogenous bPRL occurred in all subcellular membrane fractions, but most significantly in the fraction enriched for secretory granules. Zn2+ (0.8 mM), Cu2+ (0.8 mM), and Mn2+ (9.8 mM) increased bPRL phosphorylation by 268, 214, and 154%, respectively, relative to basal phosphorylation with no added cations. Neither Mg2+ (10 mM) nor Ca2+ (0.9 mM) increased bPRL phosphorylation above basal levels. Phosphorylation was dependent on the concentration of Zn2+ with an apparent Km of 570 microM. bPRL phosphorylation occurred over a wide pH range of 5.9-8.3, with the greatest activity at pH of 6.7 or greater. Phosphorylation of bPRL was time-dependent. The apparent Kms of the bPRL kinase for exogenous bPRL and ATP were 15.3 and 267 microM, respectively. bPRL incorporation of 32P was unaffected by the presence of calcium and calmodulin, cAMP, phosphotidylserine and diolein, or spermine. From these results we conclude that in vitro phosphorylation of bPRL occurs under physiological conditions that would be found in pituitary cells. PMID:10195699

  17. Lack of correlation between Ki-67 labelling index and tumor size of anterior pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiducci Antonio

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims and background The Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen detected by the monoclonal antibody MIB-1 and its Labeling Index (LI is considered a marker of normal and abnormal cell proliferation. Pituitary adenomas are generally well differentiated neoplasms, even if in about one third of cases they are invasive of surrounding tissues. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between Ki-67 labelling index and tumor size of pituitary adenomas extimated by means CT and MRI and confirmed at operation. Methods Using the monoclonal antibody MIB-1, we evaluated the expression of Ki-67 in 121 anterior pituitary adenomas consecutively operated on in a 48-month period. Results In relation to neuroradiological (CT and MRI and surgically verified tumor size, we identified 24 microadenomas, 27 intrasellar macroadenomas, 34 intra-suprasellar macroadenomas, and 36 intra-supra-parasellar macroadenomas. The adenomas were non-infiltrating (76 cases and infiltrating (45 cases adenomas. The wall of the cavernous sinus (CS was infiltrated in 18 cases. Forty-eight adenomas were non-functioning and 73 functioning. The overall mean ± SD Ki-67 LI was 2.72 ± 2.49% (median 1.6. It was 2.59 ± 1.81 in microadenomas, 2.63 ± 3.45 in intrasellar macroadenomas, 1.91 ± 2.11 in intra-suprasellar macroadenomas, and 3.29 ± 5.45 in intra-supra-parasellar macroadenomas (p = 0.27. It was 3.73 ± 5.13% in infiltrating and 2.03 ± 2.41% in non-infiltrating adenomas (p = 0.02, and 5.61 ± 7.19% in CS-infiltrating versus 2.09 ± 2.37% in CS-non-infiltrating adenomas (p = 0.0005. Conclusions Our preliminary results seem to exclude significative correlations between Ki-67 LI and tumor size of anterior pituitary adenomas, even if this index can be considered a useful marker in the determination of the infiltrative behaviour of these tumors.

  18. Lack of correlation between Ki-67 labelling index and tumor size of anterior pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen detected by the monoclonal antibody MIB-1 and its Labeling Index (LI) is considered a marker of normal and abnormal cell proliferation. Pituitary adenomas are generally well differentiated neoplasms, even if in about one third of cases they are invasive of surrounding tissues. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between Ki-67 labelling index and tumor size of pituitary adenomas extimated by means CT and MRI and confirmed at operation. Using the monoclonal antibody MIB-1, we evaluated the expression of Ki-67 in 121 anterior pituitary adenomas consecutively operated on in a 48-month period. In relation to neuroradiological (CT and MRI) and surgically verified tumor size, we identified 24 microadenomas, 27 intrasellar macroadenomas, 34 intra-suprasellar macroadenomas, and 36 intra-supra-parasellar macroadenomas. The adenomas were non-infiltrating (76 cases) and infiltrating (45 cases) adenomas. The wall of the cavernous sinus (CS) was infiltrated in 18 cases. Forty-eight adenomas were non-functioning and 73 functioning. The overall mean ± SD Ki-67 LI was 2.72 ± 2.49% (median 1.6). It was 2.59 ± 1.81 in microadenomas, 2.63 ± 3.45 in intrasellar macroadenomas, 1.91 ± 2.11 in intra-suprasellar macroadenomas, and 3.29 ± 5.45 in intra-supra-parasellar macroadenomas (p = 0.27). It was 3.73 ± 5.13% in infiltrating and 2.03 ± 2.41% in non-infiltrating adenomas (p = 0.02), and 5.61 ± 7.19% in CS-infiltrating versus 2.09 ± 2.37% in CS-non-infiltrating adenomas (p = 0.0005). Our preliminary results seem to exclude significative correlations between Ki-67 LI and tumor size of anterior pituitary adenomas, even if this index can be considered a useful marker in the determination of the infiltrative behaviour of these tumors

  19. Anterior pituitary influence on adipokine expression and secretion by porcine adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleri, R; Cavalli, V; Martelli, P; Borghetti, P

    2016-06-01

    Nutritional stressors may cause negative effects on animal health and growth and lead to significant economic impact. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ producing, mediators and hormones, called adipokines. They play a dynamic role in body homeostasis and in the regulation of energy expenditure, interacting with feeding behavior, hormones and growth factors. This in vitro study aimed to investigate how nutritional conditions and growth hormone (GH) can influence nitric oxide (NO) production and the expression and secretion of three important adipokines, that is leptin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), by swine adipocytes. In our experimental model, mesenchymal stem cells from omental adipose tissue were induced to adipogenic differentiation. After differentiation, adipocytes were incubated for 24 h (T0) with DMEM/Ham's F12 (group A) or DMEM/Ham's F12 salts (group B), a DMEM/Ham's F12 formulation deprived of nutritional components. Primary adipocyte cells were also co-cultured for 4 h (T+4) or 12 h (T+12) with or without anterior pituitary slices. To stimulate GH secretion by pituitary cells, growth hormone releasing hormone at 10-8 M was added at the start of the incubation times (4 or 12 h). At T0, T+4 and T+12, NO production, leptin, IL-6 and TNF-α expression and secretion were measured. NO increased (Pculture conditions. Deprived medium and coincubation with anterior pituitary positively influenced leptin secretion and expression. TNF-α was expressed and secreted only in deprived culture condition groups (B, B1 and B2). Nutrients availability and pituitary co-culture did not affect IL-6 expression and secretion. Our study shows an endocrine function for porcine adipocytes. In our model, adipocytes readily responded to nutritional inputs by secretion of molecules affecting energy balance. This secretion capacity was modulated by GH. Improving our knowledge of the role of adipocyte in the endocrine system, may lead to a more complete

  20. Light bodies in human pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1987-01-01

    Light bodies are large cytoplasmic granules originally described in the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland. In order to determine whether similar bodies occur in the human anterior pituitary gland, 89 pituitary adenomas and periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases were examined by...... cells in periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases. These results show that some human pituitary adenomas may contain light bodies identical to those seen in gonadotrophs of rat pituitary....... transmission electron microscopy. Double membrane bound bodies with filamentous internal structure identical to rodent light bodies were identified in 10 hormone-producing adenomas: 5 PRL, 1 PRL-GH, 2 GH, and 2 ACTH-producing tumours. No light bodies were found in the remaining 79 tumours nor in the pituitary...

  1. A SELF-PRIMING EFFECT OF LHRH ON LH SECRETION IN DISPERSED ANTERIOR PITUITARY CELLS OF ADULT MALE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUZhi-Chao; GUOJing; GUOJian

    1989-01-01

    LHRH self-priming effect is simply defmed as an enhancement of LH response to LHRH, i. e., a second challenge with LHRH elicits more LH secretion as compared to the first challenge. The present study is to observe whether this phenomenon exists in perfused anterior pituitary (AP) cells of adult male rat. Dispersed AP cells of adult SD

  2. [Combined test for assessment of anterior pituitary function using glucagon-propranolol, TRH and LHRH (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feït, J P; David, M; Chopard, A; Souillet, G; Ruitton, A; Claustrat, B; Jeune, M

    1979-04-28

    Combined Glucagon-Propranolol test used for study of growth hormone is advantages. The combined administration of TRH and LHRH is possible. In 53 children, the hormone responses (GH, TSH, FSH, LH and prolactin) were studied. This combined test allows the rapid assessment of anterior pituitary function. PMID:114972

  3. Glucocorticoids Inhibit CRH/AVP-Evoked Bursting Activity of Male Murine Anterior Pituitary Corticotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Peter J; Tabak, Joël; Ruth, Peter; Bertram, Richard; Shipston, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Corticotroph cells from the anterior pituitary are an integral component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which governs the neuroendocrine response to stress. Corticotrophs are electrically excitable and fire spontaneous single-spike action potentials and also display secretagogue-induced bursting behavior. The HPA axis function is dependent on effective negative feedback in which elevated plasma glucocorticoids result in inhibition at the level of both the pituitary and the hypothalamus. In this study, we have used an electrophysiological approach coupled with mathematical modeling to investigate the regulation of spontaneous and CRH/arginine vasopressin-induced activity of corticotrophs by glucocorticoids. We reveal that pretreatment of corticotrophs with 100 nM corticosterone (CORT; 90 and 150 min) reduces spontaneous activity and prevents a transition from spiking to bursting after CRH/arginine vasopressin stimulation. In addition, previous studies have identified a role for large-conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels in the generation of secretagogue-induced bursting in corticotrophs. Using the dynamic clamp technique, we demonstrated that CRH-induced bursting can be switched to spiking by subtracting a fast BK current, whereas the addition of a fast BK current can induce bursting in CORT-treated cells. In addition, recordings from BK knockout mice (BK(-/-)) revealed that CORT can also inhibit excitability through BK-independent mechanisms to control spike frequency. Thus, we have established that glucocorticoids can modulate multiple properties of corticotroph electrical excitability through both BK-dependent and BK-independent mechanisms. PMID:27254001

  4. Muscarinic supersensibility of anterior pituitary ACTH and beta-endorphin release in major depressive illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since numerious physiological systems display muscarinic receptor supersensitivity in major depressive illnesses, the authors have hypothesize that anterior pituitary release of ACTH and beta-Endorphin immunoreactivity may also be muscarinically supersensitive in depression. The studies were conducted under FDA-approved IND and with local human subjects committee approval. Plasma ACTH concentrations were determined as follows: samples were assayed in duplicate using equilibrium radioimmunoassay utilizing a rabbit anti-porcine ACTH antibody. Significance ofchanges in plasma cortisol, ACTH and beta-endorphin immunoreactivity after physostigmine and saline were determined by repeated measures analysis of variance. In all subject groups, physostigmine (relative to placebo) caused significant increases in plasma concentrations of cortisol, ACTH, and beta-endorphin immonoreactivity

  5. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Discovery in Bovine Pituitary Gland Using RNA-Seq Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Smoczyński, Rafał; Kadarmideen, Haja N; Dziuba, Piotr; Błaszczyk, Paweł; Sikora, Marcin; Walendzik, Paulina; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Pierzchała, Mariusz; Horbańczuk, Jarosław; Szostak, Agnieszka; Ogluszka, Magdalena; Zwierzchowski, Lech; Czarnik, Urszula; Fraser, Leyland; Sobiech, Przemysław; Wąsowicz, Krzysztof; Gelfand, Brian; Feng, Yaping; Kumar, Dibyendu

    2016-01-01

    Examination of bovine pituitary gland transcriptome by strand-specific RNA-seq allows detection of putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within potential candidate genes (CGs) or QTLs regions as well as to understand the genomics variations that contribute to economic trait. Here we report a breed-specific model to successfully perform the detection of SNPs in the pituitary gland of young growing bulls representing Polish Holstein-Friesian (HF), Polish Red, and Hereford breeds at three developmental ages viz., six months, nine months, and twelve months. A total of 18 bovine pituitary gland polyA transcriptome libraries were prepared and sequenced using the Illumina NextSeq 500 platform. Sequenced FastQ databases of all 18 young bulls were submitted to NCBI-SRA database with NCBI-SRA accession numbers SRS1296732. For the investigated young bulls, a total of 113,882,3098 raw paired-end reads with a length of 156 bases were obtained, resulting in an approximately 63 million paired-end reads per library. Breed-wise, a total of 515.38, 215.39, and 408.04 million paired-end reads were obtained for Polish HF, Polish Red, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Burrows-Wheeler Aligner (BWA) read alignments showed 93.04%, 94.39%, and 83.46% of the mapped sequencing reads were properly paired to the Polish HF, Polish Red, and Hereford breeds, respectively. Constructed breed-specific SNP-db of three cattle breeds yielded at 13,775,885 SNPs. On an average 765,326 breed-specific SNPs per young bull were identified. Using two stringent filtering parameters, i.e., a minimum 10 SNP reads per base with an accuracy ≥ 90% and a minimum 10 SNP reads per base with an accuracy = 100%, SNP-db records were trimmed to construct a highly reliable SNP-db. This resulted in a reduction of 95,7% and 96,4% cut-off mark of constructed raw SNP-db. Finally, SNP discoveries using RNA-Seq data were validated by KASP™ SNP genotyping assay. The comprehensive QTLs/CGs analysis of 76 QTLs

  6. Phosphorylation of intracellular proteins related to the multihormonal regulation of prolactin: comparison of normal anterior pituitary cells in culture with the tumor-derived GH cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously identified a group of cytoplasmic phosphoproteins (proteins 1-11) whose phosphorylation could be related, on a pharmacological basis, to the multihormonal regulation of PRL synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary tumor-derived GH cell lines. Phosphoproteins with identical migration properties on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels were also detectable in normal rat anterior pituitary cells in culture. We designed appropriate culture and [32P] phosphate-labeling conditions allowing to analyze the regulation of the phosphorylation of these proteins in normal pituitary cells. TRH, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, and vasoactive intestinal peptide induced the same qualitative changes in phosphorylation of proteins 1-11 in normal as in GH cells. Quantitative differences observed are most likely due to the heterogeneity of primary pituitary cultures. Phosphorylation changes affecting proteins 14-16, not previously detected in GH cells, were also observed with normal anterior pituitary cells. GH cell lines have lost the sensitivity of pituitary lactotrophs for dopamine, an important physiological inhibitor of PRL synthesis and release. In normal anterior pituitary cells in culture, dopamine inhibited also the TRH-stimulated phosphorylation of proteins 1-10, thus strengthening the correlation between phosphorylation of these proteins and multihormonal regulation of pituitary cell functions. Our results indicate: 1) that the same phosphoproteins as in GH cells are related to the multihormonal regulation of nontumoral, normal anterior pituitary cells in culture; 2) that dopamine acts by interfering with the phosphorylation of these proteins

  7. Comparison of two heterogeneity correction algorithms in pituitary gland treatments with intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose accuracy calculated by a treatment planning system is directly related to the chosen algorithm. Nowadays, several calculation doses algorithms are commercially available and they differ in calculation time and accuracy, especially when individual tissue densities are taken into account. The aim of this study was to compare two different calculation algorithms from iPlan®, BrainLAB, in the treatment of pituitary gland tumor with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). These tumors are located in a region with variable electronic density tissues. The deviations from the plan with no heterogeneity correction were evaluated. To initial validation of the data inserted into the planning system, an IMRT plan was simulated in a anthropomorphic phantom and the dose distribution was measured with a radiochromic film. The gamma analysis was performed in the film, comparing it with dose distributions calculated with X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) algorithm and pencil beam convolution (PBC). Next, 33 patients plans, initially calculated by PBC algorithm, were recalculated with XVMC algorithm. The treatment volumes and organs-at-risk dose-volume histograms were compared. No relevant differences were found in dose-volume histograms between XVMC and PBC. However, differences were obtained when comparing each plan with the plan without heterogeneity correction. (author)

  8. Accuracy and reproducibility of a novel semi-automatic segmentation technique for MR volumetry of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although several reports about volumetric determination of the pituitary gland exist, volumetries have been solely performed by indirect measurements or manual tracing on the gland's boundaries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of a novel semi-automatic MR-based segmentation technique. In an initial technical investigation, T1-weighted 3D native magnetised prepared rapid gradient echo sequences (1.5 T) with 1 mm isotropic voxel size achieved high reliability and were utilised in different in vitro and in vivo studies. The computer-assisted segmentation technique was based on an interactive watershed transform after resampling and gradient computation. Volumetry was performed by three observers with different software and neuroradiologic experiences, evaluating phantoms of known volume (0.3, 0.9 and 1.62 ml) and healthy subjects (26 to 38 years; overall 135 volumetries). High accuracy of the volumetry was shown by phantom analysis; measurement errors were 0.05). The analysed semi-automatic MR volumetry of the pituitary gland is a valid, reliable and fast technique. Possible clinical applications are hyperplasia or atrophy of the gland in pathological circumstances either by a single assessment or by monitoring in follow-up studies. (orig.)

  9. High resolution pituitary gland MRI at 7.0 tesla: a clinical evaluation in Cushing's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotte, Alexandra A.J. de; Groenewegen, Amy; Rutgers, Dik R.; Witkamp, Theo; Luijten, Peter R.; Hendrikse, Jeroen [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zelissen, Pierre M.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Internal Medicine (Section of Endocrinology), Utrecht (Netherlands); Meijer, F.J.A. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lindert, Erik J. van [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hermus, Ad [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine (Section of Endocrinology), Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    To evaluate the detection of pituitary lesions at 7.0 T compared to 1.5 T MRI in 16 patients with clinically and biochemically proven Cushing's disease. In seven patients, no lesion was detected on the initial 1.5 T MRI, and in nine patients it was uncertain whether there was a lesion. Firstly, two readers assessed both 1.5 T and 7.0 T MRI examinations unpaired in a random order for the presence of lesions. Consensus reading with a third neuroradiologist was used to define final lesions in all MRIs. Secondly, surgical outcome was evaluated. A comparison was made between the lesions visualized with MRI and the lesions found during surgery in 9/16 patients. The interobserver agreement for lesion detection was good at 1.5 T MRI (κ = 0.69) and 7.0 T MRI (κ = 0.62). In five patients, both the 1.5 T and 7.0 T MRI enabled visualization of a lesion on the correct side of the pituitary gland. In three patients, 7.0 T MRI detected a lesion on the correct side of the pituitary gland, while no lesion was visible at 1.5 T MRI. The interobserver agreement of image assessment for 7.0 T MRI in patients with Cushing's disease was good, and lesions were detected more accurately with 7.0 T MRI. (orig.)

  10. High resolution pituitary gland MRI at 7.0 tesla: a clinical evaluation in Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the detection of pituitary lesions at 7.0 T compared to 1.5 T MRI in 16 patients with clinically and biochemically proven Cushing's disease. In seven patients, no lesion was detected on the initial 1.5 T MRI, and in nine patients it was uncertain whether there was a lesion. Firstly, two readers assessed both 1.5 T and 7.0 T MRI examinations unpaired in a random order for the presence of lesions. Consensus reading with a third neuroradiologist was used to define final lesions in all MRIs. Secondly, surgical outcome was evaluated. A comparison was made between the lesions visualized with MRI and the lesions found during surgery in 9/16 patients. The interobserver agreement for lesion detection was good at 1.5 T MRI (κ = 0.69) and 7.0 T MRI (κ = 0.62). In five patients, both the 1.5 T and 7.0 T MRI enabled visualization of a lesion on the correct side of the pituitary gland. In three patients, 7.0 T MRI detected a lesion on the correct side of the pituitary gland, while no lesion was visible at 1.5 T MRI. The interobserver agreement of image assessment for 7.0 T MRI in patients with Cushing's disease was good, and lesions were detected more accurately with 7.0 T MRI. (orig.)

  11. Rapid sequential intravenous administration of four hypothalamic releasing hormones as a combined anterior pituitary function test in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, W R; DeBold, C R; Evans, W S; DeCherney, G S; Jackson, R V; Island, D P; Thorner, M O; Orth, D N

    1985-04-01

    Normal subjects were studied to test the feasibility of a combined anterior pituitary function test using iv administration of four hypothalamic releasing hormones: ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone, human GH-releasing hormone, GnRH, and TRH. Initially, nine normal men were studied with various combinations of these four hormones to exclude the possibility that they might inhibit or synergize with each other in releasing the individual anterior pituitary hormones. When given in combination, the releasing hormones were administered as sequential 20-sec iv infusions in the following order and doses: ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone, 1 microgram/kg; GnRH, 100 micrograms; human GH-releasing hormone, 1 microgram/kg; and TRH, 200 micrograms. Plasma or serum samples were assayed for ACTH, cortisol, GH, PRL, FSH, LH, and TSH at multiple times for 120 min after injection. Compared to individual administration, combined administration of these four hypothalamic releasing hormones caused no apparent inhibition or synergism with respect to the individual hormone responses of these normal subjects. Side-effects of the combined test were the same as those observed with individual hormone administration. No unusual or dangerous side-effects were observed. Having confirmed the efficacy of combined administration of the four releasing hormones, we administered the combination to five additional normal men and 12 normal women. Anterior pituitary hormone and cortisol responses were the same in men and women, except for a lower LH and a greater PRL response in women. There was a rapid increase in all hormones, with peak levels usually reached by 60 min. Adequate assessment of individual hormone responses can be achieved by assaying a basal and only 2 (or 3 in the case of ACTH and GH) postinfusion samples. A rapid, safe, and useful test of combined anterior pituitary function appears to be feasible using these four hypothalamic releasing hormones. PMID:2982903

  12. Properties of rat anterior pituitary vasopressin receptors: relation to adenylate cyclase and the effect of corticotropin-releasing factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaillard, R C; Schoenenberg, P; Favrod-Coune, C A; Muller, A F; Marie, J. (ed.); Bockaert, J.; Jard, S

    1984-01-01

    Crude plasma membrane fractions were prepared from female Wistar rat anterior pituitaries. These fractions contained a single population of specific 3H-labeled [8-lysine]vasopressin [( 3H]vasopressin) binding sites with a dissociation of constant (Kd) of 8 +/- 2 X 10(-9) M and maximal binding capacity of 244 +/- 45 fmol/mg of protein. The Kd values for a series of vasopressin structural analogues with selective vasopressor or antidiuretic activities were determined together with the correspon...

  13. Evaluation of the responsiveness of pituitary gland to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in rats in the period of 8:00 to 12:00 a.m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional pituitary capacity for the secretion thyrotropin in rats, in relation to the period of time 8:00-12:00 a.m. was studied by means of the administration of synthetic TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone). The highest pituitary response to the hypothalamic hormone attains its peak between 9:50 and 10:30 a.m., a time in which the gland denotes a high and practically constant level of TSH secretion

  14. CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF VISUAL FIELD DEFECTS IN PITUITARY GLAND TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananth Bhandary

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the proportion of patients with visual field defects in pituitary adenomas And to study the pattern of visual field defects in pituitary adenomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24 patients diagnosed with a pituitary adenoma underwent complete ophthalmic and Humphrey’s Perimetry 30 – 2 visual field test at Department of ophthalmology, M. S Ramaiah Hospital between November 2011 to May 2013. RESULTS: Among the 24 cases in the study, 3 cases were of pituitary micro adenoma constituting 12.5% and the remaining cases (21 cases were pituitary macro adenoma, constituting 87.5%. Visual acuity of 6/6 – 6/12 were observed in 28 (58.3% out of total 48 eyes. Visual field defects were observed in 19 cases (79%. Bilateral temporal hemianopia was observed in the majority (41% of cases with field defects. One eye blind and contra lateral temporal hemianopia was observed in 20.8%. One eye temporal hemianopia and other eye involvement of 3 quadrants seen in 2 patients (8.4%. 5 patients had no visual field defects. CONCLUSION: Although ophthalmologists have a minor role in primary diagnosis of pituitary adenoma, routine ophthalmologic examination is very important. To detect early visual field defects, automated perimetry should be done as a part routine examination in patients with suspected pituitary adenoma

  15. Alleviating effects of melatonin on oxidative changes in the testes and pituitary glands evoked by subacute chlorpyrifos administration in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angela J Umosen; Suleiman F Ambali; Joseph O Ayo; Bisala Mohammed; Chidiebere Uchendu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the alleviating effects of melatonin on oxidative changes in the testes and pituitary gland induced by subacute chlopyrifos (CPF) exposure in rats. Methods: Forty adult male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups of 10 animals were used for the study. Group I received soya oil (2 mL/kg) while group II was administered with melatonin (0.5 mg/kg). Group III was administered CPF only (8.5 mg/kg ~ 1/10th of the LD50) while group IV was pretreated with melatonin (0.5 mg/kg) and then exposed to CPF (8.5 mg/kg), 10 min later. The regimens were administered by gavage once daily for a period of 28 d. At the end of the exposure period, the rats were sacrificed and the testicular tissues and pituitary glands were evaluated for the malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Results: CPF increased MDA concentrations and reduced the activities of SOD and CAT in the testes and pituitary gland. Melatonin pretreatment reduced the testicular and pituitary MDA concentrations and improves the SOD and CAT activities. Conclusions: the study showed that subacute CPF-induced oxidative stress in the testes and pituitary glands were alleviated by melatonin due to its antioxidant property.

  16. Effects from postoperative radiotherapy of parasellar ademonas of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the effects from postoperative radiotherapy of parasellar or suprasellar adenomas of the pituitary were analysed to provide more detailed information about the value of radiation treatment, when used as a secondary measure after surgery or even in the primary treatment of pituitary adenomas. The analysis was based on 75 patients showing parasellar or suprasellar tumours of the pituitary. Radiation was in most cases preceded by surgery and carried out in the Radiological Department of Munich's University Hospital after the year 1975, when computed tomography had been made available to the Neurosurgical Department of this clinic. (orig./MG)

  17. Vitamin E Mitigates Chronic Chlorpyrifos-Induced Oxidative Changes in Pituitary Glands and Testes in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shittu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The sperm counts of men have declined by about 50% in the last few decades. The contribution of environmental contaminants to this decline cannot be overemphasized. Pesticide is one of the most pervasive environmental chemical contaminants that have been of increased use due to the compelling need to feed the ever-growing world human and animal population and protect their health. Chlorpyrifos (CPF, a widely used Organophosphate (OP insecticide has been reported to alter male reproductive hormones and semen characteristics. Apart from acetyl cholinesterase inhibition, the induction of oxidative stress is one of the molecular mechanisms implicated in CPF poisoning. Approach: The present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of vitamin E in mitigating oxidative damage to the pituitary gland and the testis, induced by chronic CPF administration in Wistar rats. Methodology: Twenty adult male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups of 5 rats in each group were used for this study. Group I received soya oil (2 mL kg-1, while Group II was administered vitamin E (75 mg kg-1; Group III was administered CPF only (10.6 mg kg-1~1/8th LD50, while group IV was pretreated with vitamin E (75 mg kg-1 and exposed to CPF (10.6 mg kg-1 30 min later. The regimens were administered orally by gavages once daily for a period of 15 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were sacrificed and the pituitary glands and testicular tissues were assayed for the concentrations of Malonaldehyde (MDA and the activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD and Catalane (CAT. Results: The result showed that the increase in concentrations of pituitary and testicular MDA and a decrease in the activities of SOD and CAT recorded in the group exposed to CPF were ameliorated by pretreatment with vitamin E. Conclusion: This indicates that vitamin E mitigates reproductive toxicity induced by chronic CPF exposure due to its protective antioxidant activity on pituitary

  18. MRI in haemochromatosis: pituitary versus testicular iron deposition in five patients with hypogonadism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miaux, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 Paris (France); Daurelle, P. [Dept. of Endocrinology, Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 Paris (France); Zagdanski, A.M. [Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 Paris (France); Passa, P. [Dept. of Endocrinology, Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 Paris (France); Bourrier, P. [Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 Paris (France); Frija, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 Paris (France)

    1995-08-01

    Haemochromatosis is a disease characterised by iron deposition in the liver and other organs. Hypogonadism is a commonly associated condition and may be either primary due to testicular lesions or secondary due to pituitary dysfunction. Hypogonadism secondary to pituitary dysfunction is more frequent and is thought to be related to iron deposition in the anterior pituitary. Increased iron content decreases signal intensity of spin-echo MRI images because T2 values are significantly shortened. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate by MRI iron deposition in the liver, testis and pituitary of 6 patients with haemochromatosis and severe hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Six subjects served as controls. There was a significant T2 shortening of the liver and pituitary in patients with haemochromatosis compared with control patients. Therefore MRI detected iron overload in the pituitary and no iron in the testis, supporting the hypothesis of hypogonadotrophic pituitary insufficiency due to cellular damage induced by iron overload in the anterior pituitary gland. (orig.)

  19. Effect of different forms of delivery on mother and infant plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones (PRL, TSH, ACTH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the effects of different forms of delivery on plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones in both mother and infant. Methods: Maternal and cord blood plasma levels of PRL, TSH and ACTH were measured with RIA in 25 women undergone normal vaginal delivery (group VD) and 25 women undergone caesarean section (group CS, with spinal-epidural anaesthesia). Results: The plasma levels of PRL, TSH, ACTH of mother and infants in group VD were significantly higher than those in group CS (P<0.05). Conclusion: Caesarean section can affect the plasma levels of pituitary hormones in both the mother and neonate, the plasma levels of PRL, TSH, ACTH were lower than those in women undergone normal vaginal delivery. (authors)

  20. Signal Intensity Reduction May Be Prior to Height or Volume Loss in Pituitary Gland MRI of Beta-Thalassemic Patients with Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hekmatnia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: Pituitary iron overload in patients with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia may lead to delayed puberty. MRI has the potential to estimate excessive iron accumulation in the pituitary gland by measuring its dimensions or signal intensity. This study investigates the association of pituitary MRI findings and the pubertal status in thalassemic patients as well as demonstrating any priority to reveal these manifestations. "nMaterials and Methods: Twenty seven beta-thalassemic patients, aged 15-24 years, including 13 patients with delayed puberty (Group A and 14 normal puberty (Group B were enrolled. They were matched by age, gender, duration of transfusion and chelation therapy. Thirty eight age and sex adjusted healthy subjects were also included as the control group (Group C. All participants underwent pituitary MRI using a 1.5T unit. Pituitary-to-fat signal intensity ratios (SIR were calculated from coronal T2-weighted images. Estimated pituitary volumes were measured using pituitary height, width and length. Data were expressed as mean± SD and analyzed using Student's t test. "nResults: The pituitary-to-fat SIRs were significantly lower in group A compared with group B (P<0.001 and likewise group B had statistically lower values than group C (P=0.03. The pituitary height and volume were significantly decreased in group A in comparison with group B (P=0.006 and P=0.002, respectively. No statistically significant difference in height and volume measurements was demonstrated between group B and C. "nConclusion: Pituitary MRI findings as signal intensity reduction and decrease in volume or height are useful markers to estimate pituitary dysfunction related hypogonadism in beta-thalassemic patients. Higher values of pituitary-to-fat SIRs in healthy subjects compared with thalassemic patients experiencing normal puberty indicate that signal reduction may be prior to height or volume loss and could be expected first on MRI.

  1. The interaction of growth hormone releasing hormone with other hypothalamic hormones on the release of anterior pituitary hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looij, B J; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, A C; Mudde, A H; Frölich, M; Piaditis, G P; Hodgkinson, S C; McLean, C; Grossman, A; Coy, D H; Rees, L H

    1986-02-01

    To determine whether the 29 amino-acid fragment of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) can be combined with other hypothalamic releasing hormones in a single test of anterior pituitary reserve, the responses of anterior pituitary hormones to combinations of an i.v. bolus of GHRH(1-29)NH2 or saline with an i.v. bolus of either LH releasing hormone (LHRH) plus TRH, ovine CRH(oCRH) or saline were studied. Each infusion of GHRH(1-29)NH2 resulted in a rapid increment of the plasma GH value. Infusion of GHRH(1-29)NH2 also caused a small and transient rise in plasma PRL, but no change in the integrated PRL response. The combination of GHRH(1-29)NH2 with LHRH plus TRH caused a larger increment of peak and integrated plasma TSH levels than LHRH plus TRH alone. GHRH(1-29)NH2 did not affect the release of other anterior pituitary hormones after infusion with oCRH or LHRH plus TRH. Because of the finding of potentiation of the TSH-releasing activity of LHRH plus TRH by GHRH(1-29)NH2, the study was extended to the investigation of TSH release after infusion of TRH in combination with either GHRH(1-29)NH2 or GHRH(1-40). In this study the combination of TRH with both GHRH preparations also caused a larger increment of the peak and integrated plasma TSH levels than TRH alone. It is concluded that GHRH(1-29)NH2 possesses moderate PRL-releasing activity apart from GH-releasing activity. In addition, GHRH potentiates the TSH-releasing activity of TRH.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2871949

  2. Anterior Pituitary Leptin Expression Changes in Different Reproductive States: Stimulation, in vitro, by Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)

    OpenAIRE

    Akhter, Noor; Johnson, Brandy W.; Crane, Christopher; Iruthayanathan, Mary; Zhou, Yi-Hong; Kudo, Akihiko; Childs, Gwen V

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to learn more about the changes in expression of rat anterior pituitary (AP) leptin during the estrous cycle. QRT-PCR assays of cycling rat AP leptin mRNA showed 2—fold increases from metestrus to diestrus followed by an 86% decrease on the morning of proestrus. Percentages of leptin cells increased in proestrus and pregnancy to 55–60% of AP cells. Dual labeling for leptin proteins and growth hormone (GH) or gonadotropins, showed that the rise in leptin protein-bearing...

  3. Results of postoperative radiotherapy and radiation of recurrent tumours, observed in adenomas of the pituitary gland operated at a primary stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective study included 134 patients showing adenomas of the pituitary gland. It was found that radiotherapy carried out immediately after surgery was superior to radiation commencing only after tumour recidivation. Treatment was predominantly based an 'ultrahard' X-rays (betatron), to a lesser extent on cobalt-60 gamma rays. (MBC)

  4. CT findings in symptomatic Rathke's cleft cysts of the pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietemann, J.L.; Wackenheim, A.; Bonneville, J.F.; Cattin, F.; Buchheit, F.; Heldt, N.

    1983-03-01

    Symptomatic intrasellar Rathke's cleft cysts are rather rare: only a few cases with CT findings have been reported. The authors describe the CT appearance of 3. Histological aspects and embryology are discussed. Rathke's cleft cysts have to be differentiated from other intersellar tumors: cystic craniopharyngiomas, cystic or necrotic pituitary adenomas, cysticercosis.

  5. CT findings in symptomatic Rathke's cleft cysts of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symptomatic intrasellar Rathke's cleft cysts are rather rare: only a few cases with CT findings have been reported. The authors describe the CT appearance of 3. Histological aspects and embryology are discussed. Rathke's cleft cysts have to be differentiated from other intersellar tumors: cystic craniopharyngiomas, cystic or necrotic pituitary adenomas, cysticercosis. (orig.)

  6. Some autophagic and apoptotic features of programmed cell death in the anterior silk glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncu, Ebru; Parlak, Osman

    2008-11-01

    Programmed cell death has been subdivided into two major groups: apoptosis and autophagic cell death. The anterior silk gland of Bombyx mori degenerates during larval-pupal metamorphosis. Our findings indicate that two types of programmed cell death features are observed during this physiological process. During the prepupal period, pyknosis of the nucleus, cell detachment,and membrane blebbing occur and they are the first signs of programmed cell death in the anterior silk glands. According to previous studies, all of these morphological appearances are common for both cell-death types. Autophagy features are also exhibited during the prepupal period. Levels of one of the lysosomal marker enzymes-acid phosphatase-are high during this period then decrease gradually. Vacuole formation begins to appear first at the basal surface of the cell, then expands to the apical surface just before the larval pupal ecdysis. After larval-pupal ecdysis, DNA fragmentation, which is the obvious biochemical marker of apoptosis, is detected in agarose gel electrophoresis, which also shows that caspase-like enzyme activities occur during the programmed cell death process of the anterior silk glands. Apoptosis and autophagic cell death interact with each other during the degeneration process of the anterior silk gland in Bombyx mori and this interaction occurs at a late phase of cell death. We suggest that apoptotic cell death only is not enough for whole gland degeneration and that more effective degeneration occurs with this cooperation. PMID:18838861

  7. Influence of apricot kernels on blood plasma levels of selected anterior pituitary hormones in male and female rabbits in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Michalcová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is represented in the family Rosacea more precisely in an apricot kernels and an almonds. There are a lot of components such as trace elements, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, esters, phenols, terpenoids, except cyanogenic glycoside in the seeds. It is known that bioregulators can modulate the activity of specific enzymes and hormones very exactly at low levels and in a short time. The aim of our study was examine the effects of selected doses (0, 60, 300, 420 mg/kg b.w. of apricot kernels in feed on the plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones in young male and female rabbits in vivo. A sensitive, biochemical method, ELISA was used to determine the hormones prolactin (PRL, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. 28-day application of apricot kernels did not affect the concentration of PRL, LH, FSH in blood plasma of males. No significant (P≤0.05 differences in case of PRL and LH levels in the blood plasma of females were found. On the other hand a significant (P≤0.05 inhibition of FSH release induced by kernels at the doses 300, 420 mg/kg was found. Our results indicate that apricot kernels could affect secretion of anterior pituitary hormone FSH in female rabbits.

  8. The effect of radioactive radiation of the neurotransmitter levels in the hypothalamus, pituitary and pineal glands of sheeps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the exposure of the whole body to continuous radiation was studied of catecholamines (epinephrine and unepinephrine) in the hypothalamus, pineal and pituitary glands of ewes during the anestric period with synchronized oestrus. The radiation was provided at the rate 0.020 Gy per hour. Catecholamines were separated from the tissue supernatants by the absorption chromatographic method and the catecholamine contents in the eluates were determined spectrofluorometrically. Protracted exposure to gamma radiation and hormone stimulation with SG reduces the concentration of unepinephrine (P<0.001) in the whole hypothalamus of the sheep. A statistically significant decrease (P<0.001) was recorded in the medial and caudal hypothalamus of ewes. If is assumed that the decrease in catecholamine concentration after irradiation (2.4 Gy) is associated with the destroyed metabolism of catecholamines in nervous tissue and activity its degradation enzyme monoaminooxidase. (authors)

  9. Discovery of transcriptional regulators and signaling pathways in the developing pituitary gland by bioinformatic and genomic approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkmeier, Michelle L.; Davis, Shannon W.; Carninci, Piero; MacDonald, James W.; Kawai, Jun; Ghosh, Debashis; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Lyons, Robert H.; Camper, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    We report a catalog of the mouse embryonic pituitary gland transcriptome consisting of five cDNA libraries including wild type tissue from E12.5 and E14.5, Prop1df/df mutant at E14.5, and two cDNA subtractions: E14.5 WT-E14.5 Prop1df/df and E14.5 WT-E12.5 WT. DNA sequence information is assembled into a searchable database with gene ontology terms representing 12,009 expressed genes. We validated coverage of the libraries by detecting most known homeobox gene transcription factor cDNAs. A tot...

  10. Histological, immunohistochemical and pathological features of the pituitary gland of odontocete cetaceans from the Western gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, D F; Haubold, E M; Tajima, Y

    2008-01-01

    Pituitary glands were recovered from dolphins and small whales found stranded along the Texas coast of the Gulf of Mexico over a 15-year period (1991-2006). One hundred animals of 14 species were found to be suitable for inclusion in this study. Of these, 72 were Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Other species included were the melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra), spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris), striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), the short finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhyncha), false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), Fraser's dolphin (Lagenorhynchus hosei), rough-tooth dolphin (Steno bredanensis), Gervais's beaked whale (Mesoplodon europaeus) and an infant sperm whale (Physeter catodon). The pituitary weights in T. truncatus ranged from 0.69 g in a 109-cm long neonate to 3.44 g in a large (277 cm) male. More typical weights were in the range of 0.95-2.35 g (mean=1.65+/-0.70 g) The cetacean pituitary consisted of two distinct parts, the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis, which were separated by a thin fibrous membrane in all species examined, in contrast to terrestrial mammals in which the parts are apposed and joined through a pars intermedia. Cell types were identified with conventional stains and immunohistochemistry. Cells positive for adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, growth hormone, melanocyte stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactin were identified with appropriate antibodies. Lesions, which were few, included one pituicytoma of the pars nervosa and a squamous cyst in T. truncatus, and colloid cysts in several species. Nodular aggregates of single cell types were common, probably representing a physiological variant. PMID:18621384

  11. Effect of maternal nutrition and days of gestation on pituitary gland and gonadal gene expression in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, M M D C A; Fortes, M R S; Marcondes, M I; Rotta, P P; Gionbeli, T R S; Valadares Filho, S C; Campos, M M; Silva, F F; Silva, W; Moore, S; Guimarães, S E F

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated effects of maternal overnutrition on gonadal development and pituitary-gonadal gene expression in cattle fetuses at mid- and late-gestation. Twenty-seven multiparous dry cows were fed either high (ad libitum, H) or moderate (M) intake of the same diet. Twelve cows from H (n=6) and M (n=6) intake carrying females fetuses were euthanized at 199 and 268d of gestation (DG; n=3 for H or M on each DG). Fifteen cows from H (n=6) and M intake (n=9) carrying male fetuses were euthanized at 139, 199, and 241 DG (n=2 for H and n=3 for M on each DG). Fetal gonads and pituitary gland were sampled for gene expression and histological analyses. Sex-specific responses to maternal intake were observed. Primordial and total follicle numbers were lower in fetal ovaries from H than in M intake cows. These results were the reverse for preantral and antral follicles. Volumetric proportion and diameter of seminiferous cord were lower in fetal testis of H than M intake cows. The expression level of FSHB was greater in pituitary gland of the female fetus from H compared with M intake cows, irrespective of DG, whereas LHB gene expression did not differ. In males, FSHB and LHB gene expression levels were similar between maternal intake groups. Fetal ovarian expression of P450 aromatase, StAR, BMPR2, TGFBR1, GDF9, FSHR, Bax, and CASP3 genes were higher in H than in M intake cows, irrespective of DG. Fetal testicular expression of StAR, HSD17B3, IGF1, IGF2, and IGF1R genes was higher in M than in H intake cows. The differences in gene expression for steroidogenesis, folliculogenesis, and apoptosis may explain the distinct pattern of follicular growth between offspring of M and H intake cows. By contrast, the lower volumetric proportion, diameter, and length of seminiferous cord may relate to decreased gene expression in fetal testis from H intake cows. In conclusion, maternal H intake seems to affect fetal ovarian follicular growth and number of follicles, which may

  12. Malformations of cranial base structures and pituitary gland in prenatal Meckel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, K W; Hansen, B F; Keeling, J W;

    1999-01-01

    are constant phenotypic traits in MS. The adenohypophysis was present in three cases. In one of these, ectopia of the gland occurred with adenopituitary tissue overlying the dorsum sella, and in another remnants were found in the pharyngeal submucosa. In two fetuses the neurohypophysis was not found...

  13. Ionic currents in two strains of rat anterior pituitary tumor cells

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The ionic conductance mechanisms underlying action potential behavior in GH3 and GH4/C1 rat pituitary tumor cell lines were identified and characterized using a patch electrode voltage-clamp technique. Voltage- dependent sodium, calcium, and potassium currents and calcium-activated potassium currents were present in the GH3 cells. GH4/C1 cells possess much less sodium current, less voltage-dependent potassium current, and comparable amounts of calcium current. Voltage-dependent inward sodium ...

  14. Molecular cloning and expression of prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 in the pituitary gland of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Kikuyama, Sakae; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-09-01

    We cloned cDNAs encoding PC1 and PC2 from a cDNA library constructed for the anterior pituitary gland of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and sequenced them. The bullfrog PC1 cDNA consisted of 2972 base pairs (bp) with an open reading frame of 2208 bp and encoded a protein of 736 amino acids, including a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acids. The protein showed a high homology to R. ridibunda PC1 (95.1%) and mammalian PC1 (72.6%). The bullfrog PC2 cDNA consisted of 2242 bp with an open reading frame of 1914 bp and encoded a protein of 638 amino acids, including a putative signal peptide of 23 amino acids. This protein showed a high homology to R. ridibunda PC2 (95.5%) and mammalian PC2 (84.8%). The catalytic triad of serine proteinases of the subtilisin family was found at Asp-168, His-209, and Ser-383 in the PC1 protein and at Asp-167, His-208, and Ser-384 in the PC2 protein. In situ hybridization staining revealed that PC2 mRNA was detected in corticotrope cells of the tadpoles, but not in those of the adults. In the adult, only PC1 mRNA was detected in the pars distalis but both PC1 and PC2 mRNAs were detected in the pars intermedia. The data also showed that PC1 mRNA was expressed in gonadotrope cells. PMID:14578575

  15. Cirurgia da hipófise por via trans-esfenoidal sob controle radiofluoroscópico e microdissecção novo tratamento da retinopatia diabética, tumores selares e neoplasias endocrinodependentes The surgery of the pituitary gland using a transphenoidal approach under radiofluoroscopic control and microdisection: a new treatment for diabetic retinopathy, pituitary tumors and endocrinodependent growths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Hardy

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentada nova técnica para a ablação total ou seletiva da hipófise utilizando via de acesso trans-esfenoidal, controle radiofluoroscópico e microdissecção, com traumatismo desprezível às estruturas circunvizinhas. Os autores comentam as aplicações do método à prática neurocirúrgica, relatando parte de uma série de mais 140 casos já operados. São discutidos os resultados obtidos no tratamento de 17 casos de retinopatia diabética, em 11 dos quais apenas o lobo anterior da hipófise foi removido, assim como aqueles obtidos na exérese de 20 casos de tumores selares. As indicações da hipofisectomia por via trans-esfenoidal no controle da sintomatologia das neoplasias endòcrinodependentes é estudada à luz dos resultados obtidos em 17 casos, sendo os resultados comparados com casos nos quais foi feita a implantação selar de ítrio90. As complicações operatorias em relação às três entidades nosológicas acima estudadas são também analisadas. Os autores salientam que a técnica descrita constitui, no presente estado das técnicas neurocirúrgicas utilizadas para a produção de uma insuficiência hipofisária duradoura, a intervenção de escolha.A new neurosurgical technique for the partial or total exéresis of the pituitary gland, using a transphenoidal approach under radiofluoroscopic control and microdisection is described. Part of a series of more than 140 cases operated upon by this method is reported. Results obtained in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy in 17 cases, 11 of which had only the pars anterior removed, are discussed. The applications of the transphenoidal route in 20 cases of pituitary fossa tumors are analysed. The indications of this type of operation in the management of endocrinodependent cancer is studied in 17 cases and compared with the results of 36 cases submitted to implant of Yttrium90 in the sella turcica. The operative complications following transphenoidal exéresis of the

  16. Pituitary gland signal in pre-term infants during the first year of life: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Xydis, V.; Zikou, A.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Pantou, K.; Andronikou, S. [Neonatology Clinic, Child Health Dept., Univ. of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece)

    2004-12-01

    Our purpose was to determine the pituitary gland signal of premature neonates and infants. We retrospectively measured, in a midline sagittal T1-weighted MRI scan, the pituitary signal of 121 premature infants (mean gestational age: 32.8 weeks, mean chronological age:6.9 months, mean corrected age:5.2 months). The relative signal intensity of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis was measured as (A-V)/V and (P-V)/V, respectively (where A, P, V are the mean signal intensities of the adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis and vermis white matter, respectively). On visual inspection the adenohypophysis was rated relative to the vermis white matter (VWM) and scored as hyperintense (grade 3), isointense (grade 2) and hypointense (grade 1). (A-V)/V and (P-V)/V had a negative correlation with chronological age (r = -0.38, r = -0.35, respectively, P < 0.01) and corrected age (r = -0.42, r = -0.40, respectively, P < 0.01). The (A-V)/V was different in the three grade groups; significant difference was found between grades 3 and 2 and grades 3 and 1. The adenohypophysis was bright in 93% of babies under 2 months of chronological age. In five babies of mean gestational age 29.1 weeks a hyperintense adenohypophysis was observed at 2.9-3.7 months of chronological age (corrected age 0.37-2 months). We conclude that in pre-term babies the adenohypophysis appears in hypersignal that may persist up to 2 months of corrected age. The adenohypophyseal and neurohypophyseal signals decrease with age. (orig.)

  17. Pituitary gland signal in pre-term infants during the first year of life: an MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to determine the pituitary gland signal of premature neonates and infants. We retrospectively measured, in a midline sagittal T1-weighted MRI scan, the pituitary signal of 121 premature infants (mean gestational age: 32.8 weeks, mean chronological age:6.9 months, mean corrected age:5.2 months). The relative signal intensity of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis was measured as (A-V)/V and (P-V)/V, respectively (where A, P, V are the mean signal intensities of the adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis and vermis white matter, respectively). On visual inspection the adenohypophysis was rated relative to the vermis white matter (VWM) and scored as hyperintense (grade 3), isointense (grade 2) and hypointense (grade 1). (A-V)/V and (P-V)/V had a negative correlation with chronological age (r = -0.38, r = -0.35, respectively, P < 0.01) and corrected age (r = -0.42, r = -0.40, respectively, P < 0.01). The (A-V)/V was different in the three grade groups; significant difference was found between grades 3 and 2 and grades 3 and 1. The adenohypophysis was bright in 93% of babies under 2 months of chronological age. In five babies of mean gestational age 29.1 weeks a hyperintense adenohypophysis was observed at 2.9-3.7 months of chronological age (corrected age 0.37-2 months). We conclude that in pre-term babies the adenohypophysis appears in hypersignal that may persist up to 2 months of corrected age. The adenohypophyseal and neurohypophyseal signals decrease with age. (orig.)

  18. Influence of leptin on luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone secreted from cultured rat anterior pituitary cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuebing Qiao; Xiuyan Ma; Huixian Cui

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leptin may regulate reproductive function via release of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y. However, it is unknown whether this regulatory effect is limited to the hypothalamus. OBJECTIVE: To detect the effect of different dosages of leptin on luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion from in vitro cultured rat anterior pituitary cells. DESIGN: Contrast study based on cells. SETTING: This study was performed in the Basic Institute of Chengde Medical College, Chengde City, Hebei Province, China from March to June 2007. MATERIALS: Eighteen female Wistar rats of three months of age, weighing 200-220 g, and of clean grade were used. Leptin was provided by Peprotech Company, DMEM culture medium by Invitrogen Company, and the radioimmunological kit by Beijing Zhongshan Jinqiao Biotechnology Co., Ltd. METHODS: Three glandular organs were regarded as one group for culture of anterior pituitary cells. In the control group, saline was added to the culture medium instead of leptin. In the leptin group, leptin was prepared into different concentrations of 1×10-12, 1×10-11, 1×10-9, 1×10-7, and 1×10-6 mol/L for stimulation of cultured cells. The culture supernatant was obtained at three hours after additional of saline/leptin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Contents of LH and FSH were detected by radioimmunology. RESULTS: Following leptin stimulation, LH release increased with increasing concentrations of leptin up to 1×10-9 mol/L, where LH release peaked. LH release then progressively decreased with increasing leptin concentrations (P<0.01). LH release in the leptin (1×10-12, 1×10-11, 1×10-7, and 1×10-6 mol/L) groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). FSH content in the leptin (1×10-11, 1×10-9, and 1×10-7 mol/L) groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Leptin can directly affect pituitary tissue to promote the secretion of LH and FSH in a dose-dependent manner.

  19. MRI of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios Nikiforos [University of Ioannina, Department of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2005-11-01

    In childhood, the MR characteristics of the normal pituitary gland are well established. During the first 2 months of life the adenohypophysis demonstrates high signal. Pituitary gland height (PGH) decreases during the 1st year of life and then increases, reaching a plateau after puberty. The magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) increases in both sexes up to the age of 20 years. On dynamic contrast-enhanced studies, the posterior pituitary lobe enhances simultaneously with the straight sinus, and the adenohypophysis later, but within 30 s. In genetically determined dysfunctional states, the adenohypophysis may be normal, hypoplastic, or enlarged. Pituitary enlargement, observed in Prop 1 gene mutations, is characterized by a mass interposed between the anterior and posterior lobes. An ectopic posterior lobe (EPP), associated with a hypoplastic or absent pituitary stalk, may be observed in patients with hypopituitarism. Tumors of the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) axis may be the origin of adenohypophyseal deficiencies. A small hypointense adenohypophysis is found in iron overload states and is often associated with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Absence of the posterior lobe bright signal, with or without a thick pituitary stalk or a mass at any site from the median eminence to the posterior pituitary lobe, may be found in diabetes insipidus. Hydrocephalus, suprasellar arachnoid cysts, hypothalamic hamartomas and craniopharyngiomas may result in central precocious puberty (CPP). Increased PGH in girls with idiopathic CPP is useful for its differential diagnosis from premature thelarche (PT). Pituitary adenomas, observed mainly in adolescents, present the same MR characteristics as those in adults. (orig.)

  20. Atrial natriuretic factor: radioimmunoassay and effects on adrenal and pituitary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and sensitive radioimmunoassay was developed for measurement of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factor (IR-ANF) in rat and human plasma and in rat atria. The two atria contain about 20 μg ANF per rat. The right atrium contained 2.5 times more ANF than did the left. Ether anesthesia and morphine markedly increased IR-ANF in rat plasma. The concentration of IR-ANF in plasma of clinically normal human subjects was 65.3 +/- 2.5 pg/ml. Paroxysmal tachycardia and rapid atrial pacing significantly increased IR-ANF in human plasma. Two- to seven-fold higher concentrations were found in coronary sinus blood than in the peripheral circulation. In the plasma of rats and humans, circulating ANF is probably a small-molecular-weight peptide. ANF acts on the adrenal and the pituitary. ANF inhibits aldosterone secretion from rat zona glomerulosa and steroid secretion by bovine adrenal zona glomerulosa and fasciculata. ANF stimulated the basal secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in vitro and inhibited KCl-stimulated release of AVP

  1. The clinical study on the relationship between growth hormone secretion and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging findings in children with short stature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between pituitary size evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pituitary function was studied in 104 boys and 81 girls with short stature. Eighteen boys and 10 girls had normal secretion of growth hormone (GH) based on growth hormone provocative tests. Their height and volume of pituitary gland with normal anatomy were significantly correlated with their age. The pituitary height of girls was higher than that of boys. Sixty boys and 29 girls had growth hormone deficiency (GHD), and 3 boys of them had multiple pituitary deficiencies (MPHD) with pituitary interruption syndrome (transected pituitary stalk, severe small anterior lobe, ectopic posterior lobe). Pituitary height of the groups with GHD were almost less than normal groups. Thirteen girls with Turner syndrome out of 81 girls with short stature showed no difference in pituitary height compared to normal girls. (author)

  2. Identification of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) target cells and effects of dexamethasone on binding in anterior pituitary using a fluorescent analog of CRF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, J; Billestrup, Nils; Perrin, M;

    1986-01-01

    A fluorescein-conjugated bioactive analog of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was synthesized and used to label cells that have high affinity CRF-binding sites. Of cultured bovine anterior pituitary cells, 6.1 +/- 0.6% were visible by fluorescence microscopy after incubation with the analog....... Fluorescence was eliminated by coincubation with a 200-fold excess of unlabeled CRF. Treatment with dexamethasone (10(-9)-10(-7) M) decreased visible fluorescence in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrate the utility of a fluorescent CRF analog for identification of cells with specific CRF......-binding sites and suggest that binding of CRF to anterior pituitary cells is altered by glucocorticoids....

  3. Effect of THIP and SL 76002, two clinically experimented GABA-mimetic compounds, on anterior pituitary GABA receptors and prolactin secretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the ability of three direct GABA agonists, muscimol, THIP and SL 76002 to displace 3H-GABA binding from anterior pituitary and medio-basal hypothalamus membranes was evaluated. Further, the effect of both THIP and SL 76002 on baseline prolactin levels or after stimulation of hormone release with haloperidol has been also studied. Either muscimol, THIP or SL 76002 have shown to posses 7-, 7- and 3-fold higher affinity, respectively, for the central nervous system than for the anterior pituitary 3H-GABA binding sites. Moreover, THIP and SL 76002 have demonstrated to be respectively, 25- and 1000- fold less potent than muscimol in inhibiting 3H- GABA binding at the level of the anterior pituitary and about 25- and 2700-fold less potent at the level of the medio-basal hypothalamus. Under basal conditions, either THIP or SL 76002 were ineffective to reduce prolactin release. However, after stimulation of prolactin secretion through blockade of the dopaminergic neurotransmission with haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), both THIP (10 mg/kg) and SL 76002 (200 mg/kg) significantly counteracted the neuroleptic-induced prolactin rise with a potency which is in line with their ability to inhibit 3H-GABA binding in the anterior pituitary. The present results indicate that both compounds inhibit prolactin release under specific experimental situations probably through a GABAergic mechanism. In view of the endocrine effects of these GABA-mimetic compounds, the possibility arises for an application of these type of drugs in clinical neuroendocrinology. 35 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  4. Impact of repeated stressor exposure on the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine-vasopressin and bombesin-like peptides at the anterior pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merali, Z; Hayley, S; Kent, P; McIntosh, J; Bédard, T; Anisman, H

    2009-03-01

    Repeated exposure to stressors was reported to increase the expression of arginine-vasopressin (AVP), especially in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons co-expressing AVP, within the hypothalamus. This may increase the potential for subsequent stressor-elicited enhancement of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning as these peptides synergistically stimulate pituitary ACTH secretion. Likewise, members of the bombesin (BB) family of peptides (including its mammalian analogues gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and neuromedin B (NMB)) stimulate the release of ACTH and may play a role in the mediation and/or modulation of the CRH stress response. In the present investigation, chronic stressor exposure (daily restraint over 14 days) was associated with increased co-expression of CRH and AVP at the median eminence. In addition, in vivo interstitial levels of anterior pituitary AVP, GRP and NMB (but not CRH) were elevated following chronic stressor exposure. Basal pituitary corticosterone levels, in contrast, were unaffected by chronic stressor exposure. Following consumption of a highly palatable snack, interstitial levels of CRH, GRP, NMB and corticosterone (but not AVP) were elevated at the pituitary; however, a cross-sensitization was not apparent among rats previously exposed to the stressor and then provided with the snack. As the CRH, AVP and BB-like peptide systems have been associated with altered anxiety and depressive symptoms, the sustained peptidergic alterations observed in the chronically stressed rats may have implications for the development of these stressor-related disorders. PMID:19014976

  5. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N;

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  6. Deregulated E2F activity induces hyperplasia and senescence-like features in the mouse pituitary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazzerini Denchi, Eros; Attwooll, Claire; Pasini, Diego;

    2005-01-01

    The retinoblastoma gene, RB1, is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. Rb heterozygous mice develop pituitary tumors with 100% incidence, and the E2F transcription factors are required for this. To assess whether deregulated E2F activity is sufficient to induce pituitary tumor...

  7. Growth hormone-secreting macroadenoma of the pituitary gland successfully treated with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog (90)Y-DOTATATE: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waligórska-Stachura, Joanna; Gut, Paweł; Sawicka-Gutaj, Nadia; Liebert, Włodzimierz; Gryczyńska, Maria; Baszko-Błaszyk, Daria; Blanco-Gangoo, Al Ricardo; Ruchała, Marek

    2016-08-01

    Pituitary tumors causing acromegaly are usually macroadenomas at the time of diagnosis, and they can grow aggressively, infiltrating surrounding tissues. Difficulty in achieving complete tumor removal at surgery can lead toward a strong tendency for recurrence, making it necessary to consider a means of treatment other than those currently used such as somatostatin analogs (SSAs), growth hormone (GH) receptor antagonist, surgical removal, and radiotherapy. The purpose of this paper is to describe a patient diagnosed with an aggressive, giant GH-secreting tumor refractory to medical therapy but ultimately treated with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog (90)Y-DOTATATE. A 26-year-old male with an invasive macroadenoma of the pituitary gland (5.6 × 2.5 × 3.6 cm) and biochemically confirmed acromegaly underwent 2 partial tumor resections: the first used the transsphenoidal approach and the second used the transcranial method. The patient received SSAs pre- and postoperatively. Because of the progression in pituitary tumor size, he underwent classic irradiation of the tumor (50 Gy). One and a half years later, the patient presented with clinically and biochemically active disease, and the tumor size was still 52 mm in diameter (height). Two neurosurgeons disqualified him from further surgical procedures. After confirming the presence of somatostatin receptors in the pituitary tumor by using (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT, we treated the patient 4 times with an SSA bound with (90)Y-DOTATATE. After this treatment, the patient attained partial biochemical remission and a reduction in the tumor mass for the first time. Treatment with an SSA bound with (90)Y-DOTATATE may be a promising option for some aggressive GH-secreting pituitary adenomas when other methods have failed. PMID:26636388

  8. 雷洛昔酚对大鼠垂体的作用%Effects of raloxifene on the pituitary gland in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽娜; 王旭东; 郑魏; 陈丽; 吴梅清; 杨二静; 徐春

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察雷洛昔酚是否能诱发出催乳素瘤的动物模型以及对PRL水平的影响,以研究雷洛昔酚对大鼠垂体的作用.方法 雌性Wistar大鼠切除卵巢后,分别在皮下埋植含有雷洛昔酚、雌激素和空白硅胶管,术后8周处死大鼠,检测大鼠体重变化、垂体重量变化、血清催乳素(PRL)水平和垂体组织学变化.结果 雷洛昔酚组与阴性对照组大鼠体重无明显统计学差异,与雌激素组大鼠体重具有统计学差异(P<0.05);雷洛昔酚组与阴性对照组大鼠垂体重相比无明显差异,与雌激素组大鼠垂体重相比具有统计学差异(P<0.05);雌激素组大鼠血清PRL水平最高,阴性对照组血清PRL水平最低,雷洛昔酚组介于两者之间,分别与雌激素组、对照组相比较差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05);雷洛昔酚组与对照组垂体病理为正常细胞形态,雌激素组垂体病理为PRL瘤表现.结论 雷洛昔酚对大鼠垂体有一定的影响,但不能诱发催乳素瘤.%Objective To explore the effects of raloxifene on pituitary gland in rats. Methods Ovariectomized Wistar female rats were implanted with silastic tubes containing raloxifene, 17-β estradiol or blank silastic tube alone, re-spec tiyely. After 8 weeks, all the rats were weighed and sacrifieced. The pituitary glands were collected and weighed. Serum prolactin level (PRL) was tested by solid phase-sandwich method. Results There was no significant difference between the pituitary weights of the raloxifene and control groups. However, the pituitary weight of the estrogen group was significantly higher than that of raloxifene and control groups. (both P < 0. 05). The serum PRL level in the estrogen group was significantly higher than that in the raloxifene and control groups (both P < 0.05). The serum PRL level of the raloxifene group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P <0.05). The serum PRL level in the raloxifene group was

  9. Effect of hormonal stimulation with Folistiman (FSH) and of chronic gamma irradiation on catecholamine levels in hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands of ewes in anestral period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trials were performed with 15 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed in the period of physiological anoestrus. The first group was used as control (n=5). The ewes of the second group were exposed to gamma radiation for five days (total dose 2.48 Gy). After irradiation, they were given the total dose of 450 I.U. FSH for hormonal stimulation. The third group was hormonally stimulated by FSH without irradiation. Chronic exposure of the whole body to gamma radiation and the hormonal stimulation by FSH significantly reduced the concentrations of norepinephrine in the studied hypothalamus regions of the ewes (by 70%, on an average, compared with the control values). The content of epinephrine in the medial hypothalamus of the ewes decreased by 63%. The concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine in the adrenal glands of the irradiated and hormonally stimulated ewes decreased by 32.9% and 16%, respectively, and in their pituitary glands by 35% and 43.1%, respectively. The hormonal treatment of the ewes without irradiation did not induce any great reduction in catecholamine concentration in the hypothalamus of ewes but significantly reduced their proportions in the pituitary glands where the concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine were observed to have decreased by 82% and 67.3%, respectively. In the adrenal glands of this gorup of ewes, the concentration of epinephrine decreased by 63.9% but the concentrations of norepinephrine did not change, compared with the control values. It follows from the results that gamma radiation and hormonal stimulation by FSH significantly reduced the concentrations of catecholamines in the cerebroneural system regions involved in the control of the reproduction processes. (author). 4 figs., 25 refs

  10. α-transforming growth factor secreted by untransformed bovine anterior pituitary cells in culture. I. Purification from conditioned medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 6-kDa α-transforming growth factor (TGF) was purified 100,000-fold to homogeneity from the culture fluid conditioned by normal bovine anterior pituitary-derived cells. Initial purification of the acid-soluble TGF from concentrated conditioned medium was achieved by Bio-Gel P-60 gel filtration (apparent molecular mass of 9 kDa). After the Bio-Gel step, three different steps of reverse-phase fast-protein liquid chromatography on the same Pharmacia C18 column, using linear acetonitrile gradients, gave complete purification. The ion-pairing agents used in the three consecutive steps were: 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid, 0.13% heptafluorobutyric acid, and again, 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid at a shallower gradient. Homogeneity was confirmed by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, where TGF visualization was facilitated by autoradiography of 125I-TGF. The 125I-TGF bound to epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors and after elution ran identically to the starting material. The molecular mass of TGF is 6 kDa by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 6.6 kDa by amino acid analysis. The amino acid composition of bovine TGF is similar to that of rat or human αTGF and distinct from epidermal growth factor. Colony-stimulating activity was lost after purification, but the TGF retained its ability to stimulate thymidine uptake by quiescent cells. This mitogenic activity could be blocked completely by anti-EGF-receptor monoclonal antibodies, indicating that the activity was mediated through the EGF-receptor

  11. [Leptomeningeal Dissemination in Patients with Pituitary Metastasis from Breast Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Nakamasa; Mitsuya, Koichi; Harada, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Junichiro; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Nakasu, Yoko

    2016-05-01

    Pituitary metastases are uncommon complications of systemic cancer and account for only 1% of pituitary lesions. Breast cancer is one of the most common tumors to metastasize to the pituitary gland. A multidisciplinary approach that calls for close collaboration among oncologists, neurosurgeons, radiologists, and endocrinologists is mandatory for diagnosis and treatment of pituitary metastasis. From 2002 through 2013, 6 patients with pituitary metastases were treated at Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital. The patients' age at presentation ranged from 45 to 75 years(average 59 years). Five of 6 patients had symptoms: anterior pituitary insufficiency in 4, diabetes insipidus in 3, and visual deficits in 2 patients. Five patients had other metastases at the time of presentation. Local irradiation to the metastatic lesion was adopted in 4, and whole brain irradiation was in 2 patients. In all cases, local control was achieved after irradiation, however, the pituitary insufficiency did not recover. Two of 4 patients treated with local irradiation suffered from meningeal dissemination within 5 months after treatment, and died at 8 and 11 months after diagnosis of pituitary metastasis, respectively. The patients treated with whole brain irradiation had longer survival periods. Early diagnosis, endocrinological management, and radiation therapy improve the quality of life in patients suffering from pituitary metastasis. Whole brain irradiation may be favorable in order to prevent meningeal dissemination. PMID:27166841

  12. Estradiol feedback effects on the alpha-subunit mRNA in the sheep pituitary gland: correlation with serum and pituitary luteinizing hormone concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Landefeld, T; Kepa, J.; Karsch, F.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of estradiol feedback on pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) content, serum LH concentration, and in vitro-translated alpha subunit was examined in the ewe. Three animal models were used representing positive, negative, and no estradiol feedback. Two experiments were carried out: (i) anestrous ewes were treated acutely with five Silastic estradiol implants to induce a LH surge (positive feedback) and (ii) ovariectomized ewes were treated chronically with an estradiol implant (negat...

  13. Three-dimensional gradient echo versus spin echo sequence in contrast-enhanced imaging of the pituitary gland at 3 T

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    Kakite, Suguru, E-mail: sugkaki@med.tottori-u.ac.jp [Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36-1, Nishicho, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan); Fujii, Shinya [Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36-1, Nishicho, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan); Kurosaki, Masamichi [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36-1, Nishicho, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan); Kanasaki, Yoshiko; Matsusue, Eiji; Kaminou, Toshio; Ogawa, Toshihide [Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 36-1, Nishicho, Yonago 683-8503 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Introduction: To clarify whether a three-dimensional-gradient echo (3D-GRE) or spin echo (SE) sequence is more useful for evaluating sellar lesions on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging at 3.0 Tesla (T). Methods: We retrospectively assessed contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images using 3D-GRE and SE sequences at 3.0 T obtained from 33 consecutive patients with clinically suspected sellar lesions. Two experienced neuroradiologists evaluated the images qualitatively in terms of the following criteria: boundary edge of the cavernous sinus and pituitary gland, border of sellar lesions, delineation of the optic nerve and cranial nerves within the cavernous sinus, susceptibility and flow artifacts, and overall image quality. Results: At 3.0 T, 3D-GRE provided significantly better images than the SE sequence in terms of the border of sellar lesions, delineation of cranial nerves, and overall image quality; there was no significant difference regarding the boundary edge of the cavernous sinus and pituitary gland. In addition, the 3D-GRE sequence showed fewer pulsation artifacts but more susceptibility artifacts. Conclusion: Our results indicate that 3D-GRE is the more suitable sequence for evaluating sellar lesions on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging at 3.0 T.

  14. Pituitary apoplexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Ranabir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is rare endocrine emergency which can occur due to infarction or haemorrhage of pituitary gland. This disorder most often involves a pituitary adenoma. Occasionally it may be the first manifestation of an underlying adenoma. There is conflicting data regarding which type of pituitary adenoma is prone for apoplexy. Some studies showed predominance of non-functional adenomas while some other studies showed a higher prevalence in functioning adenomas amongst which prolactinoma have the highest risk. Although pituitary apoplexy can occur without any precipitating factor in most cases, there are some well recognizable risk factors such as hypertension, medications, major surgeries, coagulopathies either primary or following medications or infection, head injury, radiation or dynamic testing of the pituitary. Patients usually present with headache, vomiting, altered sensorium, visual defect and/or endocrine dysfunction. Hemodynamic instability may be result from adrenocorticotrophic hormone deficiency. Imaging with either CT scan or MRI should be performed in suspected cases. Intravenous fluid and hydrocortisone should be administered after collection of sample for baseline hormonal evaluation. Earlier studies used to advocate urgent decompression of the lesion but more recent studies favor conservative approach for most cases with surgery reserved for those with deteriorating level of consciousness or increasing visual defect. The visual and endocrine outcomes are almost similar with either surgery or conservative management. Once the acute phase is over, patient should be re-evaluated for hormonal deficiencies.

  15. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Beatty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s. Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should immediately start empiric antibiotics and request a neurosurgical consult when pituitary abscess is suspected. Escherichia coli (E. coli causing intracranial infections are not well understood and are uncommon in adults. We present an interesting case of an immunocompetent male with a history of hypogonadism presenting with worsening headache and acute right eye vision loss. He was found to have a polymicrobial pituitary abscess predominantly involving E.   coli in addition to Actinomyces odontolyticus and Prevotella melaninogenica in the setting of an apoplectic pituitary prolactinoma. The definitive etiology of this infection was not determined but an odontogenic process was suspected. A chronic third molar eruption and impaction in close proximity to the pituitary gland likely led to contiguous spread of opportunistic oral microorganisms allowing for a polymicrobial pituitary abscess formation.

  16. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Norman; Medina-Garcia, Luis; Al Mohajer, Mayar; Zangeneh, Tirdad T

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s). Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should immediately start empiric antibiotics and request a neurosurgical consult when pituitary abscess is suspected. Escherichia coli (E. coli) causing intracranial infections are not well understood and are uncommon in adults. We present an interesting case of an immunocompetent male with a history of hypogonadism presenting with worsening headache and acute right eye vision loss. He was found to have a polymicrobial pituitary abscess predominantly involving E.   coli in addition to Actinomyces odontolyticus and Prevotella melaninogenica in the setting of an apoplectic pituitary prolactinoma. The definitive etiology of this infection was not determined but an odontogenic process was suspected. A chronic third molar eruption and impaction in close proximity to the pituitary gland likely led to contiguous spread of opportunistic oral microorganisms allowing for a polymicrobial pituitary abscess formation. PMID:27006841

  17. α-transforming growth factor secreted by untransformed bovine anterior pituitary cells in culture. II. Identification using a sequence-specific monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Untransformed bovine anterior pituitary cells cultured in serum-free defined medium secrete an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like peptide with an amino acid composition similar to rat or human α-transforming growth factor (αTGF). To further characterize the bovine pituitary αTGF, it was compared to a human αTGF partially purified from the conditioned medium of a human melanoma cell line. An anti-αTGF monoclonal antibody, MF9, was produced from hybridomas derived from mice immunized with a 17-residue synthetic peptide corresponding to the carboxyl-terminal sequence of rat αTGF. The hybridoma supernatants were initially screened for the ability to immunoprecipitate 125I-peptide and then tested for recognition of human αTGF. Only 2 of 36 antipeptide antibodies recognized the native αTGF. The binding of 125I-peptide to MF9 was displaced by human αTGF but not by EGF. Bovine pituitary αTGF also displaced the binding of 125I-peptide to MF9 in a similar manner to human αTGF. Both iodinated human and bovine pituitary αTGF were immunoprecipitated by MF9 whereas 125I-EGF was not. Tryptic digests of both 125I-αTGFs chromatographed to give a single, indistinguishable peak of iodinated material on a reverse-phase C18 high performance liquid chromatography column when eluted with two different solvent systems, suggesting the generation of a single and identical tyrosine-containing tryptic peptide from both αTGFs. The comparisons of the bovine pituitary and human melanoma αTGF using a sequence-specific monoclonal antibody and peptide mapping suggest that these αTGFs are related and that αTGF production is not limited to transformed or fetal sources

  18. Ovarian steroid effects on gonadotrophin output, and on the incorporation of 35S from methionine into protein of discrete brain areas and the anterior pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of various ovarian hormones administered on the morning of pro-oestrus on gonadotrophin levels and the incorporation of 35S from methionine into protein of discrete areas of the brain and the anterior pituitary were investigated at 15.00 h of the same day in femal rats. The hormones which were investigated in this study could be divided in general into two groups according to their actions. The first group, consisting of oestradiol-17β and progesterone, tended to advance the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) by 3-6 h from 18.00-21.00 h. together with the peaks of [35S]incorporation in the median eminence area and the anterior pituitary which normally accompany the LH surge. The second group, consisting of the LH-stimulated reduced progesterone metabolites, 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione (pregnanedione) and 20α-hydroxy-pregn-4-en-3-one (dihydroprogesterone), tended to inhibit serum gonadotrophin levels as well as inhibiting the pro-oestrous increase of [35S]incorporation in the median eminence area and in the amygdala, but not in the preoptic area and the anterior pituitary. On the afternoon of pro-oestrus in intact animals, luteinizing hormonereleasing hormone or LH administration had the same effect on [35S]incorporation in the brain as did the progesterone metabolites, though this effect was not observed it the animals had been ovariectomized a few hours beforehand. It is suggested that certain ovarian hormones are involved in the neural events which induce the pre-ovulatory LH surge, while others are associated with neural events which terminate the stimulus for the LH surge. (author)

  19. The level of expression of the rat growth hormone gene in liver tumor cells is at least eight orders of magnitude less than that in anterior pituitary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivarie, R D; Schacter, B S; O'Farrell, P H

    1983-01-01

    Rat liver hepatoma cells (HTC) which express liver-specific gene products were assayed for the expression of the rat growth hormone (rGH) gene, which is normally expressed in anterior pituitary somatotrophs. The combination of immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis provided a highly sensitive assay for rGH synthesis at levels as low as one part in 10(9) of cell protein synthesis (or four molecules of rGH per cell). No rGH expression was detected at this level. The lack of...

  20. What Are Pituitary Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too little makes you sluggish. If a pituitary tumor makes too much TSH, it can cause hyperthyroidism (an overactive thyroid gland). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also known as corticotropin ) causes ...

  1. Targeted Anterior Gland Focal Therapy-a Novel Treatment Option for a Better Defined Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Kae Jack; Villers, Arnauld; Polascik, Thomas J

    2016-10-01

    The goal of focal therapy is to achieve long-term oncological control by eradicating only the clinically significant focus/foci of cancer within the prostate, while preserving erectile function and continence. Anterior prostate cancers may have a PZ or TZ origin and share commonalities in location and biology. While anterior prostate cancers previously constituted a diagnostic blind spot in the prostate and were often not detected or discovered late, with the rapid dissemination of advanced imaging and biopsy techniques, they can now be identified at an earlier, organ-confined stage due to MR imaging and targeted biopsies. Due to their anterior location, they represent a therapeutic target that allows for thorough ablation of the cancer focus/foci with an adequate margin while remaining far from the neurovascular bundles bilaterally. However, the TZ origin cancers are mostly anterior to the distal urethra close to the apex and the striated sphincter. Men having early stage anterior cancers may represent good candidates to achieve a balance between oncological control and functional preservation with focal therapy. Thus, this class of tumor based on location, along with the proposed treatment, represents a novel form of targeted image-guided therapy. PMID:27502428

  2. Differential expression of cyclin Dl in human pituitary tumors: relation to MIB-1 and p27/Kipl labeling indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pituitary tumors are a common form of endocrine neoplasia. However few studies assessed the expression of the principal cyclin regulating checkpoint exit, cyclin Dl. Cyclin Dl expression in pituitary tumors and its possible relation to MIB-1 and p27/K.ipl labeling indices (Us) was explored. Design: We studied a total of 199 pituitaries, including normal pituitaries (n = 7), pituitary adenomas (n = 187), and pituitary carcinoma (n = 5). All tissues were tested as cores of archived tissue microarrays that were immuno stained for cyclin Dl, MIB-1 and p27 using a standard technique. Tissue cores were subjected to automated analysis to evaluate the staining LIs, Results: No cyclin Dl positive cells in the normal anterior pituitary gland was found. Sparse nuclear staining was noted in pituitary tumors. Higher expression of cyclin Dl was noted in pituitary carcinomas compared to adenomas (p < 0.001), in non-functioning adenomas compared to functioning ones (p < 0.001) in macroadenomas versus micro adenomas (p — 0.017) and in recurrent non recurrent adenomas (p < 0.001). Cyclin Dl LI and MIB-1 LI were related among adenomas (p < 0.001) and carcinomas (p = 0.041). p27 LI was neither related to pituitary adenoma recurrence nor invasion. Conclusions: Expression of cyclin Dl in pituitary tumors is related to cell proliferation, recurrence, and metastatic potential. Nuclear cyclin Dl expression is a good marker of aggressive behavior in pituitary tumors

  3. Pituitary apoplexy presenting as isolated third cranial nerve palsy with ptosis : two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won-Jin; Joo, Sung-Pil; Kim, Tae-Sun; Seo, Bo-Ra

    2009-02-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is a clinical syndrome caused by an acute ischemic or hemorrhagic vascular accident involving a pituitary adenoma or an adjacent pituitary gland. Pituitary apoplexy may be associated with a variety of neurological and endocrinological signs and symptoms. However, isolated third cranial nerve palsy with ptosis as the presenting sign of pituitary apoplexy is very rare. We describe two cases of pituitary apoplexy presenting as sudden-onset unilateral ptosis and diplopia. In one case, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass in the pituitary fossa with signs of hemorrhage, upward displacement of the optic chiasm, erosion of the sellar floor and invasion of the right cavernous sinus. In the other case, MRI showed a large area of insufficient enhancement in the anterior pituitary consistent with pituitary infarction or Sheehan's syndrome. We performed neurosurgical decompression via a transsphenoidal approach. Both patients showed an uneventful recovery. Both cases of isolated third cranial nerve palsy with ptosis completely resolved during the early postoperative period. We suggest that pituitary apoplexy should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with isolated third cranial nerve palsy with ptosis and that prompt neurosurgical decompression should be considered for the preservation of third cranial nerve function. PMID:19274125

  4. Thyroid tumors following 131I or localized x irradiation to the thyroid and pituitary glands in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three thousand 6-week-old female Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to 10 equal treatment groups. Three groups were injected intraperitoneally with 0.48, 1.9, and 5.4 μCi of Na 131I yielding mean thyroid doses of 30, 330, and 850 rad, respectively. Three groups were irradiated with 94, 410, and 1060 rad from localized X ray to the thyroid. One group was irradiated with 410 rad to the pituitary, and another group was given 410 rad to both the thyroid and the pituitary with localized X rays. The remaining two groups of animals were used as separate sham-irradiated controls for the two types of radiation. All the surviving animals were killed 2 years later. Results derived from this study indicate that: (a) The proportion of animals with thyroid carcinoma is similar for 131I and X irradiation within the dose range of 0-1000 rad. (b) The thryoid carcinoma dose-response functions fitted by the least-squares method are nearly proportional to the square root of the thyroid dose. (c) Thyroid carcinoma induction appears to be independent of the dose rates resulting from the radiations used in this study. (d) A localized X-ray dose of 410 rad to the pituitary, whether the dose was administered concomitantly with thyroid irradiation or without thyroid irradiation, did not modify the risk of thyroid tumor

  5. Fasting lowers gastrin-releasing peptide and FSH mRNA in the ovine anterior pituitary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogen receptor beta (ER-ß), LH, and FSH are important mediators of reproduction. FSH stimulates follicle recruitment and development. During anorexia, serum concentrations of FSH and LH decrease. Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), neuromedin B (NMB), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma...

  6. Fasting lowers gastrin-releasing peptide and Fsh mRNA in the ovine anterior pituitary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogen receptor beta (ER-ß), LH, and FSH are important mediators of reproduction. FSH stimulates follicle recruitment and development. During anorexia, serum concentrations of FSH and LH decrease. Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), neuromedin B (NMB), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma...

  7. Protein kinase C (PKC) activity and PKC messenger RNAs in human pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L; Maeda, T; Chandler, W F; Lloyd, R V

    1993-02-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the differentiation and growth regulation of a variety of tissues including anterior pituitary gland cells. To determine the distribution of PKC in different types of adenomas, PKC activity was analyzed in human pituitary tumors and the effects of hypothalamic hormone stimulation on PKC activity were examined in cultured adenoma cells. Gonadotroph (LH/FSH) and null cell adenomas had significantly higher levels of particulate, soluble, and total PKC activity compared with growth hormone (GH) adenomas (P delta, epsilon, and zeta) were localized by in situ hybridization, normal and neoplastic pituitaries expressed abundant mRNA for PKC epsilon, whereas some tumors and one normal pituitary had a few cells positive for PKC zeta mRNA as evaluated by grain density and the number of cells labeled. These results indicate that there is a variable distribution of PKC mRNA isozymes in human pituitary adenomas and that normal pituitaries and pituitary adenoma cells express the mRNA for both the calcium-dependent and some of the calcium-independent PKC isozymes. Chronic treatment with the hypothalamic gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone and GH-releasing hormone, which increased LH/FSH and GH secretion, respectively, did not increase PKC activity in cultured adenoma cells. The presence of calcium-dependent and calcium-independent PKC isozymes in normal and neoplastic pituitary cells indicates that PKC probably plays a major role in signal transduction in the human pituitary adenomas examined in this study. PMID:8434650

  8. Immunological characterization and distribution of three GnRH forms in the brain and pituitary gland of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Sethu; Kitano, Hajime; Fujinaga, Yoichiro; Amano, Masafumi; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Shimizu, Akio; Yoneda, Michio; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2009-12-01

    The presence of three gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) forms in the brain of the chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, namely, salmon GnRH (sGnRH), chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II), and seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), was confirmed by combined high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA). Immunocytochemical localization of the three GnRH forms in the brain was Investigated by using specific antisera, to elucidate possible roles of each GnRH form in reproduction in this species, and double immunolabeling was used to localize GnRH-ir (immunoreactive) fibers Innervating the pituitary. sGnRH-ir neurons were localized in the ventral olfactory bulb and terminal nerve ganglion region. Further, sGnRH-ir fibers were found in different regions of the brain, with prominent fibers running in parallel in the preoptic area (POA) without entering the pituitary. cGnRH-II-ir cell bodies were observed only in the midbrain tegmentum region, with a wide distribution of fibers, which were dense in the midbrain tegmentum and spinal cord. SbGnRH-ir cell bodies were localized in the nucleus preopticus of the POA, with fibers in the olfactory bulb, POA, and hypothalamus. Among the three GnRH forms, only SbGnRH-ir fibers innervated the pituitary gland from the preoptic-hypothalamic region, targeting follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)-producing cells in the proximal pars distalis, as demonstrated by double immunocytochemistry. The localization of the GnRH-ir system was similar in male and female fish. These results demonstrate that multiple GnRH forms exist in the brain of the chub mackerel and suggest that they serve different functions, with SbGnRH having a significant role in reproduction in stimulating FSH- and LH-producing cells, and sGnRH and cGnRH-II serving as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators. PMID:19968470

  9. Subcellular localization of pituitary enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    A cytochemical procedure is reported for identifying subcellular sites of enzymes hydrolyzing beta-naphthylamine substrates, and to study the sites of reaction product localization in cells of various tissues. Investigations using the substrate Leu 4-methoxy-8-naphthylamine, a capture with hexonium pararosaniline, and the final chelation of osmium have identified the hydrolyzing enzyme of rat liver cells; this enzyme localized on cell membranes with intense deposition in the areas of the parcanaliculi. The study of cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat showed the deposition of reaction product on cell membrane; and on the membranes of secretion granules contained within the cell. The deposition of reaction product on the cell membrane however showed no increase or decrease with changes in the physiological state of the gland and release of secretion granules from specific cells.

  10. Effects of acute organophosphate poisoning on pituitary target gland hormones at admission, discharge and three months after poisoning: A hospital based pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinaki Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphate compound (OPC poisoning is common in the developing countries such as India. The acute and later effects of OPC poisoning on pituitary and target gland hormones is largely unknown. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted at Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research between January 2012 and March 2013. Fourteen patients (8 males, age 18-50 years with acute OPC poisoning were included in the study based on the history and clinical features, documented decreased in plasma cholinesterase activity or presence of the OPC in gastric lavage/blood samples. The hormonal parameters were done at baseline, at the time of discharge and at three months of follow-up. Results: A total of 14 patients out of 46 with the mean age of 30.1 ± 10.3 years were finally eligible for the study. Hormonal alterations at admission were similar to sick euhormonal syndrome. Overall 7 of them had nine hormonal deficits at three months of follow up, 4 having sub normal basal cortisol level and two each had low testosterone and growth hormone and only one had thyroxine deficiency. Conclusion: Acute organophosphate poisoning results in endocrine dysfunction akin to sick euhormonal syndrome. However, in a small subset of patients, varying level of hormonal insufficiency may occur either at admission or later. These observations need re-validation in a larger group of patients with specific OPC.

  11. Expression and regulation of neuromedin B in pituitary corticotrophs of male melanocortin 2 receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Hiraku; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Shimizu, Chikara; Nagai, So; Nakamura, Akinobu; Kondo, Takuma; Chida, Dai; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2014-07-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls responses to stress, and has an important function in the regulation of various body processes. We previously created a mouse line deficient in the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R). MC2R-deficient mice (MC2R(-/-) mice) have high adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels because of undetectable corticosterone levels. Increased neuromedin B (NMB) expression was recently reported in the pituitary gland of adrenalectomized mice, a model for acute adrenal insufficiency. To investigate gene expression in the pituitary gland under chronic adrenal deficiency, we examined the pituitary gland of MC2R(-/-) mice, a model of chronic adrenal insufficiency. To understand the molecular background of pituitary cells under chronic adrenal deficiency, we first performed DNA microarray analyses using the pituitary glands of the MC2R(-/-) mice. The DNA microarray analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that NMB expression was higher in the MC2R(-/-) than in the wild-type (WT) mice. We detected NMB expression in the MC2R(-/-) pituitary corticotrophs by immunohistochemistry using the specific antibodies for ACTH and NMB. In addition, the plasma NMB concentration was significantly higher in the MC2R(-/-) mice than in the WT mice. Subcutaneous implantation of a sustained-release corticosterone pellet decreased the expression of NMB mRNA as well as pituitary proopiomelanocortin mRNA. In isolated anterior pituitary cells, NMB mRNA expression was increased by the administration of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and was suppressed by dexamethasone treatment. In this study, we first demonstrate NMB expression in corticotrophs and its regulation by CRH and glucocorticoids. Furthermore, corticotrophs seemed to secrete NMB into the systemic circulation. PMID:24742195

  12. Evaluation of pituitary adenomas by multidirectional multislice dynamic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Multidetector-row CT is a new technology with a short scanning time. Multislice dynamic CT (MSDCT) in various directions can be obtained using the multidetector-row CT with multiplanar reformatting (MPR) technique. Material and Methods: We evaluated the initial results of sagittal and coronal MSDCT images reconstructed by MPR (MSDCT-MPR) in 3 pituitary adenoma patients with a pacemaker. Results: In a patient with microadenoma, the maximum contrast between the normal anterior pituitary gland and the adenoma occurred approximately 50 s after the start of the contrast medium injection. A microadenoma was depicted as a less enhanced area relative to normal pituitary tissue. The macroadenomas were depicted as a less enhanced mass with cavernous sinus invasion in 1 patient and as a non-uniformly enhanced mass in another patient. Bone destruction and incomplete opening of the sellar floor during previous surgery were clearly detected in 2 patients with macroadenomas. These pituitary adenomas were removed via the transnasal route based on information from the MSDCT-MPR images only. The findings were verified surgically. Conclusion: The MSDCT-MPR provided the information needed for surgery with good image quality in the 3 patients with pacemakers. MSDCT-MPR appears to be a useful technique for patients with a pituitary adenoma in whom MR imaging is not available. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of the MSDCT-MPR technique being used to demonstrate pituitary disorders

  13. Outcome After Pituitary Radiosurgery for Thalamic Pain Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes after pituitary radiosurgery in patients with post-stroke thalamic pain syndrome. Methods and Materials: From 2002 to 2006, 24 patients with thalamic pain syndrome underwent pituitary radiosurgery at Tokyo Women's Medical University and were followed at least 12 months thereafter. The radiosurgical target was defined as the pituitary gland and its connection with the pituitary stalk. The maximum dose varied from 140 to 180 Gy. Mean follow-up after treatment was 35 months (range, 12-48 months). Results: Initial pain reduction, usually within 48 h after radiosurgery, was marked in 17 patients (71%). However, in the majority of cases the pain recurred within 6 months after treatment, and at the time of the last follow-up examination durable pain control was marked in only 5 patients (21%). Ten patients (42%) had treatment-associated side effects. Anterior pituitary abnormalities were marked in 8 cases and required hormonal replacement therapy in 3; transient diabetes insipidus was observed in 2 cases, transient hyponatremia in 1, and clinical deterioration due to increase of the numbness severity despite significant reduction of pain was seen once. Conclusions: Pituitary radiosurgery for thalamic pain results in a high rate of initial efficacy and is accompanied by acceptable morbidity. It can be used as a primary minimally invasive management option for patients with post-stroke thalamic pain resistant to medical therapy. However, in the majority of cases pain recurrence occurs within 1 year after treatment

  14. What Are Some Types of Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones promote the development of male sexual organs. Pituitary Tumors The pituitary gland is located at the base ... to release the hormone cortisol. Sometimes, benign (noncancerous) pituitary tumors or—more rarely cancerous tumors 1 —may grow ...

  15. Comparative study of pituitary-thyroid hormone economy in fasting and hypothyroid rats.

    OpenAIRE

    St Germain, D L; Galton, V A

    1985-01-01

    Starvation in laboratory rodents results in significant alterations in thyroid hormone economy characterized by decreased circulating levels of thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and a decline in serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration. To investigate this apparent paradox, we have compared in fasted and hypothyroid animals the intracellular parameters mediating thyroid hormone action in the anterior pituitary gland. In vitro saturation analysis combined with quantitation of nuclea...

  16. Pituitary function in patients with newly diagnosed untreated systemic lupus erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Koller, M.; Templ, E; M. Riedl; Clodi, M; Wagner, O; Smolen, J.; Luger, A

    2004-01-01

    Methods: 11 patients with SLE and 9 healthy controls were tested for their total anterior pituitary gland reserve by simultaneous injection of corticotropin-, growth hormone- (GH), thyrotropin-, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Serum concentrations of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), cortisol, GH, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), PRL, luteinising hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured at baseline and after injection. Baseline values of oestradiol, testostero...

  17. MR of the pituitary in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome: size determination and imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is an unusual genetic disorder characterized by short stature, obesity, hypogonadism, hypotonia, cognitive impairment, and dysmorphic facies. There is an interstitial deletion of the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 in about 70% of patients. Some of these clinical features suggest a central hypothalamic/pituitary dysfunction, and recent investigations have demonstrated a marked impairment in spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion. We studied 15 GH-deficient PWS patients by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether there was a diminution in the gross morphological size of the anterior pituitary gland, the site of GH synthesis. We also set out to catalog the pertinent imaging findings in this patient population. Our results indicate that this is the first report documenting pituitary size by MRI in PWS patients. No statistically significant difference was found in the height of the anterior pituitary gland in PWS patients compared with either normal children or children with isolated GH deficiency. An interesting imaging finding is that three of 15 patients (20%) demonstrated complete absence of the posterior pituitary bright spot (PPBS), and a fourth patient demonstrated a small PPBS. These observations reflect an objective physiologic disturbance in the hypothalamus. The clinical and radiologic implications of these findings are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Persistence of intrasellar trigeminal artery and simultaneous pituitary adenoma: description of two cases and their importance for the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marcio Carlos; Kodaira, Sergio; Musolino, Nina Rosa Castro

    2014-08-01

    Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most frequent embryonic communication between the carotid and vertebrobasilar systems. However, hormonal changes or the association of PTA with other sellar lesions, such as pituitary adenomas, are extremely rare. The aim of the present study was to report two patients with intrasellar PTA and simultaneous pituitary adenoma in order to emphasize the importance of differential diagnoses for sellar lesions. Case 1. A female patient, 41 years old, was admitted with a history of chronic headache (> 20 years). Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a rounded lesion in the left portion of the pituitary gland suggestive of adenoma (most likely clinically non-functioning adenoma). In addition to this lesion, the MRI demonstrated ecstasy of the right internal carotid artery and imaging suggestive of an intrasellar artery that was subsequently confirmed by an angio-MRI of the cerebral vessels as PTA. Case 2. A female patient, 42 years old, was admitted with a history of amenorrhea and galactorrhea in 1994. Laboratorial investigation revealed hyperprolactinemia. Pituitary MRI showed a small hyposignal area in the anterior portion of pituitary gland suggestive of a microadenoma initiated by a dopaminergic agonist. Upon follow-up, aside from the first lesion, the MRI showed a well delineated rounded lesion inside the pituitary gland, similar to a vessel. Angio-MRI confirmed a left primitive PTA. Failure to recognize these anomalous vessels within the sella might lead to serious complications during transsphenoidal surgery. Therefore, although their occurrence is uncommon, a working knowledge of vascular lesions in the sella turcica or pituitary gland is important for the differential diagnosis of pituitary lesions, especially pituitary adenomas. PMID:25211451

  19. Effects of whole- and partial-body irradiation on circulating anterior pituitary hormones and testosterone and the relationship of these hormones to drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doses within the range of 850 to 1500 rad given to the whole body, head, or lower-trunk region of male rats cause a marked depression in the rate of oxidative demethylation of drugs in the liver endoplasmic reticulum, 3 to 4 days after the irradiation. The V/sub max/ of the enzyme system is depressed and the K/sub m/ increased. Irradiation to the whole body, head, or lower trunk also causes a fall in the circulating levels of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) and the concentrations of these hormones are markedly reduced 3 to 4 days after the irradiation. Injections of testosterone or anterior pituitary extract effectively restore the activity of the liver enzyme system after irradiation of the head or lower trunk. It is concluded that whole-body irradiation causes inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver by a complex series of interrelated effects on the testis, anterior pituitary, and possibly the hypothalamus

  20. Pituitary tumors: Diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a survey of the current status of the diagnosis of pituitary tumors by means of magnetic resonance imaging. It focuses on the clinical and practical aspects. The recommended procedure and the sequences and slice orientations for magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland are presented, and the features that are essential for the diagnosis of pituitary tumors are discussed. (orig.)

  1. β-Hydroxybutyric Sodium Salt Inhibition of Growth Hormone and Prolactin Secretion via the cAMP/PKA/CREB and AMPK Signaling Pathways in Dairy Cow Anterior Pituitary Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shou-Peng Fu; Wei Wang(College of William and Mary); Bing-Run Liu; Huan-Min Yang; Hong Ji; Zhan-Qing Yang; Bin Guo; Ju-Xiong Liu; Jian-Fa Wang

    2015-01-01

    β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) regulates the synthesis and secretion of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL), but its mechanism is unknown. In this study, we detected the effects of BHBA on the activities of G protein signaling pathways, AMPK-α activity, GH, and PRL gene transcription, and GH and PRL secretion in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells (DCAPCs). The results showed that BHBA decreased intracellular cAMP levels and a subsequent reduction in protein kinase A (PKA) activity. Inhibit...

  2. Effects of arachidonic acid and 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine on prolactin secretion from anterior pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of two lipids, arachidonic acid and 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, as modulators or prolactin secretion has been examined. Stimulators of phospholipase A2 activity, melittin and mastoparan, were found to increase prolactin release. Melittin also caused release of previously incorporated 3H-arachidonic acid and this effect was associated with loss of radiolabel from the phospholipid fraction. Exogenous arachidonic acid also stimulated prolactin secretion. Conversely, inhibitors of phospholipase A2 activity, dibromoacetophenone and U10029A, decreased basal and stimulated prolactin release. Prolactin release could also be lowered by ETYA, BW755C and NDGA, inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism. In the second series of experiments the effects of the biologically active phospholipid 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (platelet activating factor, PAF) on prolactin release were examined. PAF is an ether-linked phospholipid known to stimulate granule release in a variety of cell types including both inflammatory and noninflammatory cells. PAF increased release of prolactin from dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells; stimulation was not due to cell lysis. PAF-induced prolactin release could be blocked by the dopaminergic agonists apomorphine and bromocriptine as well as by two PAF receptor antagonists, SRI 63-072 and L-652-731

  3. Effects of arachidonic acid and 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine on prolactin secretion from anterior pituitary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoratto, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The role of two lipids, arachidonic acid and 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, as modulators or prolactin secretion has been examined. Stimulators of phospholipase A{sub 2} activity, melittin and mastoparan, were found to increase prolactin release. Melittin also caused release of previously incorporated {sup 3}H-arachidonic acid and this effect was associated with loss of radiolabel from the phospholipid fraction. Exogenous arachidonic acid also stimulated prolactin secretion. Conversely, inhibitors of phospholipase A{sub 2} activity, dibromoacetophenone and U10029A, decreased basal and stimulated prolactin release. Prolactin release could also be lowered by ETYA, BW755C and NDGA, inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism. In the second series of experiments the effects of the biologically active phospholipid 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (platelet activating factor, PAF) on prolactin release were examined. PAF is an ether-linked phospholipid known to stimulate granule release in a variety of cell types including both inflammatory and noninflammatory cells. PAF increased release of prolactin from dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells; stimulation was not due to cell lysis. PAF-induced prolactin release could be blocked by the dopaminergic agonists apomorphine and bromocriptine as well as by two PAF receptor antagonists, SRI 63-072 and L-652-731.

  4. MRI study of pituitary in girls with central precocious puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the shape, size and signal intensity of pituitary gland in girls aged 3-10 year old with central precocious puberty. Methods: MRI data of pituitary glands in 40 girls aged 3-10 years old with central precocious puberty were selected. The shape, height and the appearances of pituitary glands were measured and observed on sagittal T1WI. Results: Quantitative data about size, shape and single intensity changes of pituitary glands in central precocious puberty were obtained in two groups, including girls aged from 3-5 and 5-10. The convex pituitary gland were 85.0% in former group. The height of pituitary gland were 6.1±0.2mm (former group) and 6.4± 0.4mm (latter one) respectively. The width of pituitary stalk was 1.93±0.50mm. The posterior pituitary gland demonstrated high signal intensity in all cases. Conclusion: Obvious changes of the size and shape of pituitary glands were found in central precocious puberty of girls aged from 3-10. The pituitary glands manifested physiologic hypertrophy with more convex in central precocious puberty girls than in normal ones. The changes on MRI could reflect the function of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. It is of important value and significance in the diagnosis of central precocious puberty. (authors)

  5. Binding of (/sup 125/I)-N-(p-aminophenethyl)spiroperidol to the D-2 dopamine receptor in the neurointermediate lobe of the rat pituitary gland: a thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agui, T.; Amlaiky, N.; Caron, M.G.; Kebabian, J.W.

    1988-02-01

    The novel iodinated ligand (/sup 125/I)-N-(p-aminophenethyl)spiroperidol ((/sup 125/I)NAPS) was used to identify the D-2 dopamine receptor in the intermediate lobe of the rat pituitary gland. The binding of (/sup 125/I)NAPS was of high affinity and saturable, given that the dissociation constant and the maximal binding were 34.7 +/- 4.8 pM and 21.1 +/- 2.5 fmol/mg of protein, respectively. The ability of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists to compete with (/sup 125/I)NAPS varied markedly with incubation temperature. The marked decrease of the molar potency associated with increasing incubation temperature in the competitive displacement curve suggested that the binding of five agonists, dopamine, (-)-apomorphine, (-)-n-propylnorapomorphine, N-0434, and LY-171555, to the D-2 dopamine receptor was enthalpy-driven, with a negative change in entropy. In contrast, the binding of three antagonists, fluphenazine, (+)-butaclamol, and domperidone, was entropy-driven, with positive change in entropy, suggesting less temperature-sensitive change in the molar potency. Several molecules gave unanticipated results; the molar potency of two dopamine agonists, bromocriptine and lisuride, was much less temperature-sensitive than the other agonists used in this study. The thermodynamic parameters for the atypical agonists indicated entropy-driven binding. Conversely, the molar potency of (+)-apomorphine, a dopamine receptor antagonist, was markedly affected by incubation temperature, indicating enthalpy-driven binding. Another antagonist, YM-09151-2, was affected by the inclusion of sodium chloride in the assay system: in the absence of sodium chloride, the drug was relatively weak and displayed enthalpy-driven binding; in the presence of sodium chloride, its molar potency was increased and its binding manner turned into entropy-driven.

  6. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and the nuclear uptake of testosterone and its metabolites by brain, pituitary gland and genital tract in male cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, R P; Bonsall, R W; Zumpe, D

    1991-01-01

    The synthetic progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), is used to treat male sex offenders, and it is also suppresses sexual activity in male monkeys. To examine the possibility that MPA may act as an anti-androgen in the primate brain, 4 intact male cynomolgus monkeys were given MPA (40 mg i.m.) once a week for 16 weeks, while 4 control males received i.m. injections of vehicle. All males were then castrated and 3 days later were given 3 mCi [3H]testosterone ([3H]T) i.v.; 1 h after injection males were killed, and radioactivity in nuclear pellets obtained from the hypothalamus (HYP), preoptic area (POA), amygdala (AMG), septum, pituitary gland and genital tract was analyzed by HPLC. Concentrations of [3H]T and [3H]dihydrotestosterone in nuclear pellets were 65-96% lower in MPA-treated males than in controls (P less than 0.001), but the aromatized metabolite, [3H]estradiol, which was the major form of radioactivity present in nuclear pellets from HYP, POA and AMG, was unchanged. There were no differences in concentrations of [3H]T in supernatants from the tissues of MPA-treated and control males. Because the reduced nuclear uptake of androgen in brain occurred in males whose androgen-dependent behavior had been suppressed by MPA treatments, it is proposed that MPA may have anti-androgenic effects at the level of the cell nucleus in brain regions that control behavior. PMID:1825470

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging signal reduction may precede volume loss in the pituitary gland of transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekmatnia, Ali; Rahmani, Ali Asghar; Adibi, Atoosa (Image Processing and Signal Research Center, Dept. of Radiology, Isfahan Univ. of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran)); Radmard, Amir Reza (Dept. of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran)); Khademi, Hooman (Shariati Hospital, Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran)), e-mail: radmard@ams.ac.ir

    2010-01-15

    Background: Pituitary iron overload in patients with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia may lead to delayed puberty. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to estimate tissue iron concentration by detecting its paramagnetic effect and hypophyseal damage by measuring its dimensions indirectly. Purpose: To investigate the association of pituitary MRI findings and pubertal status in thalassemic patients as well as to demonstrate any priority in appearance of them. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven beta-thalassemic patients, aged 15-25 years, were divided into 13 with (group A) and 14 without hypogonadism (group B), matched by age, gender, duration of transfusion, and chelation therapy. Thirty-eight age- and sex-adjusted healthy control individuals were also included (group C). All participants underwent pituitary MRI using a 1.5T unit. Pituitary-to-fat signal intensity ratios (SIR) were calculated from coronal T2-weighted images. Estimated pituitary volumes were measured using pituitary height, width, and length on T1-weighted images. Results: The mean values of pituitary-to-fat SIRs were significantly lower in group A as compared with group B (P <0.001), and likewise group B had statistically lower values than group C (P=0.03). The pituitary height and volume were significantly decreased in group A compared to group B (P = 0.006 and P = 0.002, respectively), while these differences did not demonstrate statistically significance between groups B and C. Conclusion: Pituitary MRI findings such as signal intensity reduction and decrease in volume can be useful markers in estimating pituitary dysfunction in beta-thalassemic patients. Compared to healthy controls, lower values of pituitary-to-fat SIRs in thalassemic patients experiencing normal puberty, without marked decrease in volume, indicate that signal reduction may precede volume loss and could be expected first on MRI

  8. Adenosine A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of in vitro prolactin secretion from the rat anterior pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L.W. Picanço-Diniz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, we demonstrated biphasic purinergic effects on prolactin (PRL secretion stimulated by an adenosine A2 agonist. In the present study, we investigated the role of the activation of adenosine A1 receptors by (R-N6-(2-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA at the pituitary level in in vitro PRL secretion. Hemipituitaries (one per cuvette in five replicates from adult male rats were incubated. Administration of R-PIA (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 µM induced a reduction of PRL secretion into the medium in a U-shaped dose-response curve. The maximal reduction was obtained with 0.1 µM R-PIA (mean ± SEM, 36.01 ± 5.53 ng/mg tissue weight (t.w. treatment compared to control (264.56 ± 15.46 ng/mg t.w.. R-PIA inhibition (0.01 µM = 141.97 ± 15.79 vs control = 244.77 ± 13.79 ng/mg t.w. of PRL release was blocked by 1 µM cyclopentyltheophylline, a specific A1 receptor antagonist (1 µM = 212.360 ± 26.560 ng/mg t.w., whereas cyclopentyltheophylline alone (0.01, 0.1, 1 µM had no effect. R-PIA (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 µM produced inhibition of PRL secretion stimulated by both phospholipase C (0.5 IU/mL; 977.44 ± 76.17 ng/mg t.w. and dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM; 415.93 ± 37.66 ng/mg t.w. with nadir established at the dose of 0.1 µM (225.55 ± 71.42 and 201.9 ± 19.08 ng/mg t.w., respectively. Similarly, R-PIA (0.01 µM decreased (242.00 ± 24.00 ng/mg t.w. the PRL secretion stimulated by cholera toxin (0.5 mg/mL; 1050.00 ± 70.00 ng/mg t.w.. In contrast, R-PIA had no effect (468.00 ± 34.00 ng/mg t.w. on PRL secretion stimulation by pertussis toxin (0.5 mg/mL; 430.00 ± 26.00 ng/mg t.w.. These results suggest that inhibition of PRL secretion after A1 receptor activation by R-PIA is mediated by a Gi protein-dependent mechanism.

  9. Pituitary dysfunction in survivors of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage of anterior communicating artery and middle cerebral artery aneurysms: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinaki Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The data on incidence of hypopituitarism after SAH are conflicting. Furthermore, it is still not known whether there is any difference in hormonal deficiencies between SAH due to anterior communicating artery (A-com and middle cerebral artery (MCA aneurysms. Materials and Methods: This study includes both retrospective and prospective arms. The data collected included baseline demographic profile, clinical severity on admission to the hospital by the Hunt and Hess grading system and World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS grading, radiological severity of bleed by the Fisher′s classification, and treatment details. All the patients underwent detailed hormonal evaluation at baseline and 6 months in prospective group while at the end of 1 year in the retrospective group. Hormonal deficiencies between patients with A-com and MCA aneurysmal SAH were compared using appropriate statistical tests. Results: Of 60 patients studied, 47 patients (A-com: 28 and MCA: 19 were in the retrospective group, while 13 patients (A-com-9, MCA-4 were in the prospective group. The baseline data were comparable between the two groups. At or after 6 months follow-up, 19 (31.6% patients, 10 patients with A-com and 9 patients with MCA aneurysmal SAH, had some form of hormone deficiency. Furthermore, there was no difference in endocrine dysfunctions between the two groups. There was no correlation between the severity of hormonal deficiency and the clinical severity of SAH grade by Hunt and Hess and radiological grade of SAH by Fisher′s grade. Conclusion: Hormonal deficiencies are not uncommon in patients with SAH. There is no difference in hormonal deficiencies and severity of hypopituitarism in patients with SAH due to A-com and MCA bleed.

  10. Establishment and culture optimization of a new type of pituitary immortalized cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pituitary gland is a center of the endocrine system that controls homeostasis in an organism by secreting various hormones. The glandular anterior pituitary consists of five different cell types, each expressing specific hormones. However, their regulation and the appropriate conditions for their in vitro culture are not well defined. Here, we report the immortalization of mouse pituitary cells by introducing TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes. The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed a thyrotroph-specific thyroid stimulating hormone beta (Tshb). After optimization of the culture conditions, these immortalized cells proliferated and maintained morphological characteristics similar to those of primary pituitary cells under sphere culture conditions in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with N2, B27, basic FGF, and EGF. These cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators and induced the expression of Tshb mRNA. Moreover, transplantation of the immortalized cell line into subcutaneous regions and kidney capsules of mice further increased Tshb expression. These results suggest that immortalization of pituitary cells with TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes is a useful method for generating proliferating cells for the in vitro analysis of pituitary regulatory mechanisms. - Highlights: • Mouse pituitary cell lines were immortalized by introducing TERT, E6, and E7. • The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed thyroid stimulating hormone beta. • The cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators, and induced Tshb

  11. Establishment and culture optimization of a new type of pituitary immortalized cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokubu, Yuko [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Asashima, Makoto [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Life Science Center of TARA, The University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken 305-8577 (Japan); Kurisaki, Akira, E-mail: akikuri@hotmail.com [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Biotechnology Research Institute for Drug Discovery, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    The pituitary gland is a center of the endocrine system that controls homeostasis in an organism by secreting various hormones. The glandular anterior pituitary consists of five different cell types, each expressing specific hormones. However, their regulation and the appropriate conditions for their in vitro culture are not well defined. Here, we report the immortalization of mouse pituitary cells by introducing TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes. The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed a thyrotroph-specific thyroid stimulating hormone beta (Tshb). After optimization of the culture conditions, these immortalized cells proliferated and maintained morphological characteristics similar to those of primary pituitary cells under sphere culture conditions in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with N2, B27, basic FGF, and EGF. These cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators and induced the expression of Tshb mRNA. Moreover, transplantation of the immortalized cell line into subcutaneous regions and kidney capsules of mice further increased Tshb expression. These results suggest that immortalization of pituitary cells with TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes is a useful method for generating proliferating cells for the in vitro analysis of pituitary regulatory mechanisms. - Highlights: • Mouse pituitary cell lines were immortalized by introducing TERT, E6, and E7. • The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed thyroid stimulating hormone beta. • The cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators, and induced Tshb.

  12. Pertussis toxin modifies the characteristics of both the inhibitory GTP binding proteins and the somatostatin receptor in anterior pituitary tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of pertussis toxin treatment on the characteristics of somatostatin receptors in the anterior pituitary tumor cell line AtT-20 were examined. Pertussis toxin selectively catalyzed the ADP ribosylation of the alpha subunits of the inhibitory GTP binding proteins in AtT-20 cells. Toxin treatment abolished somatostatin inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity and somatostatin stimulation of GTPase activity. To examine the effects of pertussis toxin treatment on the characteristics of the somatostatin receptor, the receptor was labeled by the somatostatin analog [125I]CGP 23996. [125I]CGP 23996 binding to AtT-20 cell membranes was saturable and within a limited concentration range was to a single high affinity site. Pertussis toxin treatment reduced the apparent density of the high affinity [125I]CGP 23996 binding sites in AtT-20 cell membranes. Inhibition of [125I]CGP 23996 binding by a wide concentration range of CGP 23996 revealed the presence of two binding sites. GTP predominantly reduced the level of high affinity sites in control membranes. Pertussis toxin treatment also diminished the amount of high affinity sites. GTP did not affect [125I]CGP 23996 binding in the pertussis toxin-treated membranes. The high affinity somatostatin receptors were covalently labeled with [125I] CGP 23996 and the photoactivated crosslinking agent n-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azidobenzoate. No high affinity somatostatin receptors, covalently bound to [125I]CGP 23996, were detected in the pertussis toxin-treated membranes. These results are most consistent with pertussis toxin uncoupling the inhibitory G proteins from the somatostatin receptor thereby converting the receptor from a mixed population of high and low affinity sites to only low affinity receptors

  13. Central diabetes insipidus in a dog with a pro-opiomelanocortin-producing pituitary tumor not causing hyperadrenocorticism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central diabetes insipidus was diagnosed by vasopressin measurements during hypertonic stimulation in a 9-year-old male giant Schnauzer with polyuria and polydipsia. The impaired release of vasopressin was believed to be caused by a large pituitary tumor, which was visualized by computed tomography. Studies of the function of the anterior lobe and the pars intermedia of the pituitary gland were conducted, and high concentrations of ACTH and alpha-melanotrophic hormone (alpha-MSH) were found without concomitant hyperadrenocorticism. Studies of the molecular size of the immunoreactive ACTH in plasma by gel filtration revealed that most of the circulating immunoreactivity was not ACTH but its precursor pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and low-molecular-weight POMC-derived peptides. The pituitary tumor of this dog probably originated from melanotrophic cells of the pars intermedia. The sensitivity of the pituitary-adrenocortical system for the suppressive effect of dexamethasone was unaffected

  14. Effects of tank color on melanin-concentrating hormone levels in the brain, pituitary gland, and plasma of the barfin flounder as revealed by a newly developed time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiya, Noriko; Amano, Masafumi; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Yamanome, Takeshi; Kawauchi, Hiroshi; Yamamori, Kunio

    2005-09-15

    A pleuronectiform fish, the barfin flounder Verasper moseri, reared in a white tank had a smaller ratio of pigmented area of the skin on non-eyed side, grew faster, and had greater melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-immunoreactive cell bodies and MCH gene expression in the brain than in the black tank, indicating that synthesis and release of MCH are higher in fish from a white tank. In the present study, a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for MCH was developed. MCH levels were assessed in the brain, pituitary gland, and plasma of barfin flounders reared in a white or black tank. A competitive assay using two antibodies was performed among secondary antibodies in the solid phase, MCH antibodies, samples, and europium-labeled MCH. Displacement curves of serially diluted extracts (brain, pituitary gland, and plasma) of the barfin flounder paralleled that of the MCH standard. MCH levels in the brain and plasma were higher in fish reared in the white tank for 5 months than in the black tank. These results suggest that synthesis and secretion of MCH are enhanced with the white background and that MCH is involved in both somatic growth and the skin pigmentation in the barfin flounder. PMID:15979616

  15. Changes in pituitary growth hormone cells prepared from rats flown on Spacelab 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R.; Hymer, W. C.; Farrington, M.; Fast, T.; Hayes, C.; Motter, K.; Patil, L.; Vasques, M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of exposure to microgravity on pituitary gland was investigated by examining cells isolated from anterior pituitaries of rats flown on the 7-day Spacelab 3 mission and, subsequently, cultured for 6 days. Compared with ground controls, flight cells contained more intracellular growth hormone (GH); however, the flight cells released less GH over the 6-day culture period and after implantation into hypophysectomized rats than did the control cells. Compared with control rats, glands from large rats (400 g) contained more somatotrophs (44 percent compared with 37 percent in control rats); small rats (200 g) showed no difference. No major differences were found in the somatotroph ultrastructure (by TEM) or in the pattern of the immunoactive GH variants. However, high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of culture media indicated that flight cells released much less of a biologically active high-molecular weight GH variant, suggesting that space flight may lead to secretory dysfunction.

  16. Pituitary Adenoma as a Rare Form of Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María León Blasco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas are benign tumors arising from one of the five cell types in the anterior pituitary. Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce hormones due to the lack of pituary adrenocorticotropic hormone or hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor. The case of a 37-year-old female patient who started developing muscle twitching in legs and arms, muscular weakness, fatigue, muscle aches, severe and throbbing hemicrania on the right side, among other symptoms, a year ago is presented. Several tests were performed (cortisol level, adrenocorticotropic hormone, calcium and phosphorus in blood and urine, magnetic resonance imaging of the skull, leading to the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma with isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency and secondary adrenal insufficiency. Treatment with steroids and calcium supplements ensured a satisfactory recovery.

  17. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Pituitary Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapochnik, Melanie; Nieto, Leandro Eduardo; Fuertes, Mariana; Arzt, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    During the last years, progress has been made on the identification of mechanisms involved in anterior pituitary cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Oncogene activation, tumor suppressor gene inactivation, epigenetic changes, and microRNAs deregulation contribute to the initiation of pituitary tumors. Despite the high prevalence of pituitary adenomas, they are mostly benign, indicating that intrinsic mechanisms may regulate pituitary cell expansion. Senescence is characterized by an irreversible cell cycle arrest and represents an important protective mechanism against malignancy. Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is an oncogene involved in early stages of pituitary tumor development, and also triggers a senescence response by activating DNA-damage signaling pathway. Cytokines, as well as many other factors, play an important role in pituitary physiology, affecting not only cell proliferation but also hormone secretion. Special interest is focused on interleukin-6 (IL-6) because its dual function of stimulating pituitary tumor cell growth but inhibiting normal pituitary cells proliferation. It has been demonstrated that IL-6 has a key role in promoting and maintenance of the senescence program in tumors. Senescence, triggered by PTTG activation and mediated by IL-6, may be a mechanism for explaining the benign nature of pituitary tumors. PMID:26718581

  18. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ... Tumors Oligoastrocytoma Oligodendroglioma Pineal Tumor Pituitary Tumor PNET Schwannoma Risk Factors Brain Tumor Facts Brain Tumor Dictionary ...

  19. Pituitary apoplexy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and you have already been diagnosed with a pituitary tumor, seek medical help right away. ... Melmed S, Kleinberg D. Pituitary masses and tumors. In: Melmed S, ... of Endocrinology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  20. Pituitary aspergillus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lauren A; Erstine, Emily M; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    Fungal infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pituitary or sellar mass, albeit fungal infections involving the pituitary gland and sella are a rare occurrence. We report a case of Aspergillus infection involving the pituitary gland and sellar region discovered in a 74-year-old man. The patient had a history of hypertension, chronic renal disease, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and presented with right eye pain, headaches and worsening hemiparesis. Imaging studies revealed a right internal carotid artery occlusion and an acute right pontine stroke along with smaller infarcts in the right middle cerebral artery distribution. Clinically, the patient was thought to have vasculitis. An infectious etiology was not identified. He developed respiratory distress and died. At autopsy, necrotizing meningitis was discovered. A predominantly chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate consisting of benign-appearing lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages was accompanied by acute angle branching, angioinvasive hyphae which were highlighted on Gomori methenamine silver staining and were morphologically consistent with Aspergillus species. In previously reported cases of Aspergillus infection involving the pituitary or sella, most presented with headaches or impaired vision and were not immunocompromised. A transsphenoidal surgical approach is recommended in suspected cases in order to minimize the risk of dissemination of the infection. Some patients have responded well to antifungal medications once diagnosed. PMID:26896907

  1. Chicken anterior pituitary extract induces multiple ovulate in the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus)%鸡垂体前叶提取物诱导鸡超数排卵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海棠; 赵晨; 李哲; 沙金; 周振明; 张易祥; 钱长嵩; 李赞东

    2003-01-01

    Chicken anterior pituitary extract (CAPE) and acetone-dried chicken anterior pituitary (ACAPE) were injected intraperitoneally into normal laying hens (‘ovulation-suppressed'following pretreatment with daily subcutaneous injection of PMSG) to induce multiple ovulations.The dose of PMSG,the effect of CAPE and ACAPE and the time required for induction of ovulation following injection of ovulation-inducing hormone were determined.The results revealed that (1) when 75 IU PMSG was administered daily,egg laying stopped in 33% of the treated hens within 6 days after the first injection.However,the percentage of hens showing the same effects changed significantly (over 95%) within 3 to 6 days when the amount of PMSG was increased to 100 IU;(2)the number of ovulated ova was 1.00±0.00,2.33±0.26,2.20±0.20 respectively after receiving 100 mg,200 mg and 300 mg;the number of ovulated ova was 2.00±0.00,2.86±0.48,3.00±1.50 respectively after receiving 10 mg,15 mg and 20 mg ACAPE;(3) The time from injection to ovulation in almost all hens was about 7.5 h except one hen ovulated about 6.5 h after receiving ACAPE [ActaZoologica Sinica 49(6):865-867,2003].

  2. MRI of cystic pituitary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively reviewed MRI findings of 17 patients with 3 histologically proven cystic pituitary tumors. They consisted of 10 cystic pituitary adenomas, 4 craniopharyngiomas and 3 Rathke's cleft cysts. We analyzed the following MRI parameters such as cyst wall appearance, enhancement pattern of cyst wall, location of residual pituitary gland and location of tumor. They were clinically significant parameters for histological differentiation. Even though combinations of such MRI parameters helped for more accurate preoperative diagnosis, the differentiation between craniopharyngioma and Rathke's cleft cyst was difficult in some cases. (author)

  3. [Status of the gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland in the late periods after induced abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakuleva, L P; Gatina, G A; Kuz'mina, T I; Ametov, A S

    1990-07-01

    Follicle-stimulating, luteinizing hormone and prolactin secretion has been evaluated with a radioimmunoassay at less than or equal to 5 years following a first-trimester abortion. Pituitary prolactin secretion was found to be most affected by abortion (96% of observations). PMID:2122760

  4. Cushing's Syndrome From Pituitary Microadenoma and Pulmonary Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tating, Dan Louie Renz P; Montevirgen, Natasha Denise S; Cajucom, Loyda

    2016-03-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a state of cortisol excess, possibly from a tumor in the pituitary gland, the adrenal gland, or an ectopic nonpituitary ACTH-secreting source. The first form, pituitary in origin, was originally described by Harvey Cushing, MD, and was labeled as Cushing's disease. Long-term therapy with glucocorticoids also can lead to iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. PMID:26906124

  5. MRI evaluation of pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the MRI manifestations of the pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism and to improve the differential diagnosis of secondary pituitary hyperplasia and pituitary tumors. Methods: The MRI findings of pituitary hyperplasia in 10 documented primary hypothyroidism patients (male 3, female 7; age range: 9-15 years) were reviewed. The pulse sequences using a 1.0T MR scanner included coronal and sagittal T1W, coronal T2W and coronal contrast-enhanced T1W in all patients. Results: The pituitary gland was markedly enlarged with mean height of 15.5 mm (11-23 mm). Central bulging of pituitary gland was seen in all 10 patients with mild displacement of the infundibulum in 3 and sellar enlargement in 5. All glands had homogeneous MR signal intensities and contrast enhancement. Conclusion: Pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism has characteristic MR features of central bulging with homogeneous signal intensities and contrast enhancement. (authors)

  6. Pituitary Apoplexy Presenting as Isolated Third Cranial Nerve Palsy with Ptosis : Two Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Won-Jin; Joo, Sung-Pil; Kim, Tae-Sun; Seo, Bo-Ra

    2009-01-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is a clinical syndrome caused by an acute ischemic or hemorrhagic vascular accident involving a pituitary adenoma or an adjacent pituitary gland. Pituitary apoplexy may be associated with a variety of neurological and endocrinological signs and symptoms. However, isolated third cranial nerve palsy with ptosis as the presenting sign of pituitary apoplexy is very rare. We describe two cases of pituitary apoplexy presenting as sudden-onset unilateral ptosis and diplopia. In on...

  7. Pituitary gland imaging in Cushing's disease; IRM - Maladie de Cushing. L'imagerie hypophysaire dans la maladie de Cushing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville, J.F.; Cattin, F.; Bonneville, F.; Schillo, F.; Jacquet, G. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 25 - Besancon (France)

    2003-02-01

    Specific MR techniques are r-required for optimal detection of adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting adenomas responsible for Cushing's disease. Adequate MR sequences, high resolution coronal T1 and T2 - weighted images, dynamic MR imaging, post-gadolinium delayed images, dose of gadolinium adjusted for each sequence can routinely demonstrate pituitary adenomas less than 3 mm in Cushing's disease. (authors)

  8. Reproductive, Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffroy, 1809 and its Hybrid Clariabranchus Induced with Synthetic Hormone and Pituitary Gland of Heterobranchus bidorsalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Anetekhai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the reproductive performance, growth rate and nutrient utilization capacities of pure breed Heterobranchus bidorsalis (H. bidorsalis ? x H. bidorsalis ? and its hybrid (H. bidorsalis ? x C. gariepinus ? (Clariabranchus induced with synthetic hormone (ovaprim and pituitary of male and female Heterobranchus bidorsalis. In this study, 3 female Heterobranchus bidorsalis, 3 male Heterobranchus bidorsalis and 3 male Clarias gariepinus were used for the experiment. One female H. bidorsalis induced with ovaprim produced eggs which were divided into two equal halves. Each half was fertilized separately by milt from H. bidorsalis and C. gariepinus to produce pure breed and hybrid, respectively. A similar crossing was done for the female H. bidorsalis induced with Male Pituitary Extract (MPE and Female Pituitary Extract (FPE. Percentage fertilization and hatching rate of pure breed induced with ovaprim were significantly (p<0.05 higher than the other genetic crosses. The highest values for weight gain (5.461.58 g, average daily growth (0.390.11 g and specific growth rate (1.040.16%/day occurred in pure breed induced with MPE. The lowest values for these growth parameters were obtained in the hybrid induced with FPE. Feed intake, protein intake, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio varied significantly (p<0.05 among the treatments. This study has shown that the pure breeds and hybrids induced with ovaprim and MPE performed better than those induced with FPE. Therefore, they are recommended for commercial aquaculture.

  9. Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jyothis T

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a well established cause of atrial fibrillation (AF. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-secreting pituitary tumours are rare causes of pituitary hyperthyroidism. Whilst pituitary causes of hyperthyroidism are much less common than primary thyroid pathology, establishing a clear aetiology is critical in minimising complications and providing appropriate treatment. Measuring Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH alone to screen for hyperthyroidism may be insufficient to appropriately evaluate the thyroid status in such cases. Case presentation A 63-year-old Caucasian man, previously fit and well, presented with a five-day history of shortness of breath associated with wheeze and dry cough. He denied symptoms of hyperthyroidism and his family, social and past history were unremarkable. Initial investigation was in keeping with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF with fast ventricular response leading to cardiac decompensation. TSH 6.2 (Normal Range = 0.40 – 4.00 mU/L, Free T3 of 12.5 (4.00 – 6.8 pmol/L and Free T4 51(10–30 pmol/L. Heterophilic antibodies were ruled out. Testosterone was elevated at 43.10 (Normal range: 10.00 – 31.00 nmol/L with an elevated FSH, 18.1 (1.0–7.0 U/L and elevated LH, 12.4 (1.0–8.0 U/L. Growth Hormone, IGF-1 and prolactin were normal. MRI showed a 2.4 cm pituitary macroadenoma. Visual field tests showed a right inferotemporal defect. While awaiting neurosurgical removal of the tumour, the patient was commenced on antithyroid medication (carbimazole and maintained on this until successful trans-sphenoidal excision of the macroadenoma had been performed. AF persisted post-operatively, but was electrically cardioverted subsequently and he remains in sinus rhythm at twelve months follow-up off all treatment. Conclusion This case reiterates the need to evaluate thyroid function in all patients presenting with atrial fibrillation. TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas must be considered

  10. Computed tomography in pituitary abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, W.; Scharphuis, T.; Distelmaier, P.

    1986-06-01

    This is a report on a rare case of a recurring abscess in the pituitary gland. Diagnosis was extremely difficult to establish preoperatively. This is demonstrated via various radiological methods. Anamnesis and clinical disease pattern are important assisting factors in diagnosis.

  11. Primary hypothyroidism mimicking a pituitary macroadenoma: regression after thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Ki Seong; Kim, Jong Moon; Kim, Tae Young [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Iksan (Korea); See-Sung, Choi [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Iksan (Korea); Kim, Jong Duck [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Iksan (Korea)

    2009-02-15

    We report a 9-year-old girl with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. She presented with growth arrest, abnormal thyroid function studies, and a pituitary mass on MRI. With thyroxine therapy, the pituitary mass regressed and her symptoms resolved. Primary hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid mass lesions of the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  12. β-Hydroxybutyric sodium salt inhibition of growth hormone and prolactin secretion via the cAMP/PKA/CREB and AMPK signaling pathways in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shou-Peng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Bing-Run; Yang, Huan-Min; Ji, Hong; Yang, Zhan-Qing; Guo, Bin; Liu, Ju-Xiong; Wang, Jian-Fa

    2015-01-01

    β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) regulates the synthesis and secretion of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL), but its mechanism is unknown. In this study, we detected the effects of BHBA on the activities of G protein signaling pathways, AMPK-α activity, GH, and PRL gene transcription, and GH and PRL secretion in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells (DCAPCs). The results showed that BHBA decreased intracellular cAMP levels and a subsequent reduction in protein kinase A (PKA) activity. Inhibition of PKA activity reduced cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting GH and PRL transcription and secretion. The effects of BHBA were attenuated by a specific Gαi inhibitor, pertussis toxin (PTX). In addition, intracellular BHBA uptake mediated by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) could trigger AMPK signaling and result in the decrease in GH and PRL mRNA translation in DCAPCs cultured under low-glucose and non-glucose condition when compared with the high-glucose group. This study identifies a biochemical mechanism for the regulatory action of BHBA on GH and PRL gene transcription, translation, and secretion in DCAPCs, which may be one of the factors that regulate pituitary function during the transition period in dairy cows. PMID:25690038

  13. β-Hydroxybutyric Sodium Salt Inhibition of Growth Hormone and Prolactin Secretion via the cAMP/PKA/CREB and AMPK Signaling Pathways in Dairy Cow Anterior Pituitary Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Peng Fu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA regulates the synthesis and secretion of growth hormone (GH and prolactin (PRL, but its mechanism is unknown. In this study, we detected the effects of BHBA on the activities of G protein signaling pathways, AMPK-α activity, GH, and PRL gene transcription, and GH and PRL secretion in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells (DCAPCs. The results showed that BHBA decreased intracellular cAMP levels and a subsequent reduction in protein kinase A (PKA activity. Inhibition of PKA activity reduced cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting GH and PRL transcription and secretion. The effects of BHBA were attenuated by a specific Gαi inhibitor, pertussis toxin (PTX. In addition, intracellular BHBA uptake mediated by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1 could trigger AMPK signaling and result in the decrease in GH and PRL mRNA translation in DCAPCs cultured under low-glucose and non-glucose condition when compared with the high-glucose group. This study identifies a biochemical mechanism for the regulatory action of BHBA on GH and PRL gene transcription, translation, and secretion in DCAPCs, which may be one of the factors that regulate pituitary function during the transition period in dairy cows.

  14. New method for enhancing contrast between pituitary tumor and surrounding nontumorous pituitary tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have performed serial dynamic MR imaging after bolus injection of Gd-DTPA in 10 patients with normal pituitary glands showed marked enhancement in the early phase of the dynamic study, followed by gradual intensity reduction throughout the late phase. Pituitary adenoma showed gradually increasing enhancement throughout the dynamic study. Adenoma, surrounding nontumorous pituitary tissue, and cavernous sinus are clearly distinguished in the early phase of the dynamic study in all micro or macroadenomas less than 15 mm

  15. Dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel activity related to prolactin, growth hormone, and luteinizing hormone release from anterior pituitary cells in culture: interactions with somatostatin, dopamine, and estrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, we determined the activity of voltage-dependent dihydropyridine (DHP)-sensitive Ca2+ channels related to PRL, GH, and LH secretion in primary cultures of pituitary cells from male or female rats. We investigated their modulation by 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and their involvement in dopamine (DA) and somatostatin (SRIF) inhibition of PRL and GH release. BAY-K-8644 (BAYK), a DHP agonist which increases the opening time of already activated channels, stimulated PRL and GH secretion in a dose-dependent manner. The effect was more pronounced on PRL than on GH release. BAYK-evoked hormone secretion was further amplified by simultaneous application of K+ (30 or 56 mM) to the cell cultures; in parallel, BAYK-induced 45Ca uptake by the cells was potentiated in the presence of depolarizing stimuli. In contrast, BAYK was unable to stimulate LH secretion from male pituitary cells, but it potentiated LHRH- as well as K+-induced LH release; it had only a weak effect on LH secretion from female cell cultures. Basal and BAYK-induced pituitary hormone release were blocked by the Ca2+ channel antagonist nitrendipine. Under no condition did BAYK affect the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides or cAMP formation. Pretreatment of female pituitary cell cultures with E2 (10(-9) M) for 72 h enhanced LH and PRL responses to BAYK, but was ineffective on GH secretion. DA (10(-7) M) inhibited basal and BAYK-induced PRL release from male or female pituitary cells treated or not treated with E2 (10(-9) M). SRIF (10(-9) and 10(-8) M) reversed BAYK-evoked GH release to the same extent in cell cultures derived from male or female animals. It was ineffective on BAYK-induced PRL secretion in the absence of E2, but antagonized it after E2 pretreatment. The effect was dependent upon the time of steroid treatment and was specific, since 17 alpha-estradiol was inactive

  16. Pituitary cells in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Shellenberger, K.; Grindeland, R.

    1994-01-01

    Cells of the mammalian pituitary gland synthesize and secrete several protein hormones which regulate a number of organ systems throughout the body. These include the musculoskeletal, immune, vascular and endocrine systems. Since changes occur in these tissues as a result of spaceflight, and since pituitary growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) play a role in the control of these systems on earth, we have focused attention over the last 10 years on GH and PRL cell function during and after spaceflight. The cumulative results of 4 spaceflight missions and several mimicked microgravity experiments establish 1) that production and release of biologically active GH and PRL is repeatedly and significantly attenuated (usually >50%) and 2) that changes in cell morphology also occur. In this paper we describe our results within the framework of methodologies and approaches frequently used to study pituitary cell function on earth. In so doing we hope to develop future flight experiments aimed at uncovering possible microgravity 'sensing systems' within the pituitary cell.

  17. Pituitary cells in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Shellenberger, K.; Grindeland, R.

    1994-08-01

    Cells of the mammalian pituitary gland synthesize and secrete several protein hormones which regulate a number of organ systems throughout the body. These include the musculoskeletal, immune, vascular and endocrine systems. Since changes occur in these tissues as a result of spaceflight, and since pituitary growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) play a role in the control of these systems on earth, we have focused attention over the last 10 years on GH and PRL cell function during and after spaceflight. The cumulative results of 4 spaceflight missions and several mimicked microgravity (μG) experiments establish 1) that production and release of biologically active GH and PRL is repeatedly and significantly attenuated (usually > 50%) and 2) that changes in cell morphology also occur. In this paper we describe our results within the framework of methodologies and approaches frequently used to study pituitary cell function on earth. In so doing we hope to develop future flight experiments aimed at uncovering possible μG ``sensing systems'' within the pituitary cell.

  18. Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: konishi@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ogawa, Tokiko, E-mail: togawa@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Kawahara, Shinichi, E-mail: kawahara@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, Sakiko, E-mail: s-matsumoto@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kiyama, Hiroshi, E-mail: kiyama@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); The 21st Century COE Program ' Base to Overcome Fatigue' , Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). {yields} CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. {yields} This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. {yields} PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

  19. Continuous stress-induced dopamine dysregulation augments PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → We focused on the rat pituitary intermediate lobe (IL) under continuous stress (CS). → CS induced PAP-I and PAP-II expression in melanotrophs of the IL. → This gene induction was triggered by CS-related dopamine dysregulation. → PAP-I and PAP-II may sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS. -- Abstract: Under continuous stress (CS) in rats, melanotrophs, the predominant cell-type in the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary, are hyperactivated to secrete α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and thereafter degenerate. Although these phenomena are drastic, the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular changes are mostly unknown. In this study, we focused on the pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) family members of the secretory lectins and characterized their expression in the IL of CS model rats because we had identified two members of this family as up-regulated genes in our previous microarray analysis. RT-PCR and histological studies demonstrated that prominent PAP-I and PAP-II expression was induced in melanotrophs in the early stages of CS, while another family member, PAP-III, was not expressed. We further examined the regulatory mechanisms of PAP-I and PAP-II expression and revealed that both were induced by the decreased dopamine levels in the IL under CS. Because the PAP family members are implicated in cell survival and proliferation, PAP-I and PAP-II secreted from melanotrophs may function to sustain homeostasis of the IL under CS conditions in an autocrine or a paracrine manner.

  20. Altered plasma and pituitary adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) concentrations in male rats exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TCDD induced hirsutism, alopecia and chloracne suggest that adverse effects of TCDD may be mediated through alterations in endocrine function. Anorexia, progressive weight loss, hypoglycemia, and accumulation of 14C-labeled TCDD in the adrenal gland suggest that this toxicant alters adrenal function. Previous studies in this laboratory have shown that exposure of rats to a single oral dose of TCDD results in increased adrenal microsomal lipid peroxidation, decreased adrenal microsomal cytochrome P-450 and 21-hydroxylation accompanied by depressed serum corticosterone levels. Adrenocortical function is regulated by the polypeptide ACTH which is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Thus, it is important to determine whether TCDD alters circulating ACTH and pituitary concentration of ACTH. Sprague Dawley rats (200-220g) were given a single oral dose of TCDD (50 μg/kg). Plasma and pituitary ACTH concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) on day 2 at 9:00a.m. following TCDD treatment. Rat plasma and pituitary ACTH concentrations were increased 1.5 and 4.7 fold, respectively. These results indicate that TCDD causes an early increase in plasma and pituitary ACTH concentrations which may be related to the subsequent impairment of adrenocortical function seen in the rat after exposure to TCDD

  1. Comparison of two heterogeneity correction algorithms in pituitary gland treatments with intensity-modulated radiation therapy; Comparacao de dois algoritmos de correcao de heterogeneidade em tratamentos de tumores de hipofise com radioterapia de intensidade modulada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, Lucas D.; Santos, Gabriela R.; Ribeiro, Victor A.B.; Rodrigues, Laura N., E-mail: lucasdelbem1@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Radiologia; Weltman, Eduardo; Braga, Henrique F. [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia

    2013-12-15

    The dose accuracy calculated by a treatment planning system is directly related to the chosen algorithm. Nowadays, several calculation doses algorithms are commercially available and they differ in calculation time and accuracy, especially when individual tissue densities are taken into account. The aim of this study was to compare two different calculation algorithms from iPlan®, BrainLAB, in the treatment of pituitary gland tumor with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). These tumors are located in a region with variable electronic density tissues. The deviations from the plan with no heterogeneity correction were evaluated. To initial validation of the data inserted into the planning system, an IMRT plan was simulated in a anthropomorphic phantom and the dose distribution was measured with a radiochromic film. The gamma analysis was performed in the film, comparing it with dose distributions calculated with X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) algorithm and pencil beam convolution (PBC). Next, 33 patients plans, initially calculated by PBC algorithm, were recalculated with XVMC algorithm. The treatment volumes and organs-at-risk dose-volume histograms were compared. No relevant differences were found in dose-volume histograms between XVMC and PBC. However, differences were obtained when comparing each plan with the plan without heterogeneity correction. (author)

  2. Pituitary apoplexy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LH Prolactin TSH Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) Sodium Osmolarity in blood and urine ... The outlook is good for people who have long-term (chronic) pituitary deficiency that is diagnosed and ...

  3. Reversible pituitary hyperplasia at birth in a macrosomic full-term baby boy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pituitary hyperplasia is generally associated with end-organ failure such as primary hypothyroidism, physiological changes such as puberty and pregnancy, or neoplasms secreting releasing factors. We present a full-term infant with an enlarged pituitary height of 8 mm at age 3 days despite a normal endocrinological evaluation. Repeat imaging at 5 months of age revealed a normal-size pituitary gland. To our knowledge, pituitary hyperplasia has not been described in a neonate with normal pituitary function. (orig.)

  4. Reversible pituitary hyperplasia at birth in a macrosomic full-term baby boy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipoff, Jennifer; Wilson, Thomas A. [State University of New York, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Peyster, Robert [Stony Brook University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Pituitary hyperplasia is generally associated with end-organ failure such as primary hypothyroidism, physiological changes such as puberty and pregnancy, or neoplasms secreting releasing factors. We present a full-term infant with an enlarged pituitary height of 8 mm at age 3 days despite a normal endocrinological evaluation. Repeat imaging at 5 months of age revealed a normal-size pituitary gland. To our knowledge, pituitary hyperplasia has not been described in a neonate with normal pituitary function. (orig.)

  5. Butyrate increases intracellular calcium levels and enhances growth hormone release from rat anterior pituitary cells via the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and 43.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Consolata Miletta

    Full Text Available Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB, which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous agonist for the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR, GPR41 and 43, on non-stimulated and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH-stimulated hGH secretion. Furthermore, we investigated the potential role of GPR41 and 43 on the generation of butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ signal and its ultimate impact on hGH secretion. To study this, wt-hGH was transfected into a rat pituitary tumour cell line stably expressing the human GHRH receptor. Treatment with butyrate promoted hGH synthesis and improved basal and GHRH-induced hGH-secretion. By acting through GPR41 and 43, butyrate enhanced intracellular free cytosolic Ca2+. Gene-specific silencing of these receptors led to a partial inhibition of the butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ rise resulting in a decrease of hGH secretion. This study suggests that butyrate is a metabolic intermediary, which contributes to the secretion and, therefore, to the metabolic actions of GH during fasting.

  6. MR of pituitary micro-adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the time, rationales to look for pituitary micro-adenomas are based on endocrinal disorder. MRI is often helpful to confirm diagnosis. It gives information about micro-adenomas size and localisation. If conventional sequence are inadequate, a dynamic sequence has then to be performed after Gadolinium injection. Any disorder observed from the pituitary gland must be correlated with the clinical observation and results from biochemistry analysis. False positive happens quite open because of gland morphological variation, incidentalomas and partial volumes. MRI offers the possibility to follow-up treated micro-adenomas evolution especially to detect recurrence. (author)

  7. Pituitary adenoma: A case report with special emphasis on approach to diagnosis

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    Shaista M Vasenwala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary tumors are common in sellar area. The prevalence of clinically apparent pituitary lesions is estimated to comprise approximately 10% of all intracranial lesions, while incidental pituitary tumors are detected in approximately 11% of individuals at autopsy. Pituitary tumors are mostly found to be benign adenomas, however pituitary carcinoma has been reported to comprise about 0.5% of pituitary tumors. Pituitary adenomas are associated with an immense diversity in their endocrine manifestations secondary to hypo or hyperfunction of pituitary gland and ophthalmological manifestations due to mass effect. Progress in the diagnostic examination of pituitary adenomas and advances in the treatment of these tumors offers excellent prospects for a successful therapeutic outcome. We hereby discuss a case of pituitary macro-adenoma in a young adult male and review the recent advances in the classification and diagnosis of pituitary adenoma.

  8. Pituitary stem cells: candidates and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Farshad; Cusimano, Michael; Zuccato, Jeff A; Mohammed, Safraz; Rotondo, Fabio; Horvath, Eva; Syro, Luis V; Kovacs, Kalman; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2013-09-01

    The pituitary is the master endocrine gland of the body. It undergoes many changes after birth, and these changes may be mediated by the differentiation of pituitary stem cells. Stem cells in any tissue source must display (1) pluripotent capacity, (2) capacity for indefinite self-renewal, and (3) a lack of specialization. Unlike neural stem cells identified in the hippocampus and subventricular zone, pituitary stem cells are not associated with one specific cell type. There are many major candidates that are thought to be potential pituitary stem cell sources. This article reviews the evidence for each of the major cell types and discuss the implications of identifying a definitive pituitary stem cell type. PMID:23423660

  9. Hyperprolactinemia associated to calcification of the pituitary stalk: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA MIRIAM DA COSTA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the authors report the case of a female patient with 24 years of age with hyperprolactinemia, who presented a pituitary stalk calcification as seen by CT scan. Once other possible etiologies were excluded, we concluded that the calcification was probably related to hyperprolactinemia caused by interruption of the input of dopamine to the pituitary gland.

  10. Hyperprolactinemia associated to calcification of the pituitary stalk: case report

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA MIRIAM DA COSTA; CREMONESE RAFAEL; PIZARRO CRISTINA

    1998-01-01

    In this work, the authors report the case of a female patient with 24 years of age with hyperprolactinemia, who presented a pituitary stalk calcification as seen by CT scan. Once other possible etiologies were excluded, we concluded that the calcification was probably related to hyperprolactinemia caused by interruption of the input of dopamine to the pituitary gland.

  11. Use of micro-positron emission tomography with (18)F-fallypride to measure the levels of dopamine receptor-D2 and (18)F-FDG as molecular imaging tracer in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of Fischer-344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Gui, Songbai; Cao, Lei; Gao, Hua; Bai, Jiwei; Li, Chuzhong; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine receptor-D2 (DRD2) is the most important drug target in prolactinoma. The aim of this current study was to investigate the role of using micro-positron emission tomography (micro-PET) with (18)F-fallypride and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) as molecular imaging tracer in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of Fischer-344 (F344) rats and detect the difference of the levels of DRD2 in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of F344 rat prolactinoma models. Female F344 rat prolactinoma models were established by subcutaneous administration of 15 mg 17β-estradiol for 8 weeks. The growth of tumors was monitored by the small-animal magnetic resonance imaging and micro-PET. A series of molecular biological experiments were also performed 4 and 6 weeks after pump implantation. The micro-PET molecular imaging with (18)F-fallypride revealed a decreased expression of DRD2 in F344 rat prolactinoma models, but the micro-PET molecular imaging with (18)F-FDG presented an increased uptake in the prolactinoma compared with the pituitary gland. A decreasing trend of levels of DRD2 in F344 rat prolactinoma models was also detected by molecular biological experiments. From this, we can conclude that micro-PET with (18)F-fallypride and (18)F-FDG can be used to assess tumorigenesis of the prolactinomas in vivo and molecular imaging detection of DRD2 level in prolactinoma may be an indication of treatment effect in the animal experiment. PMID:27103832

  12. Use of micro-positron emission tomography with 18F-fallypride to measure the levels of dopamine receptor-D2 and 18F-FDG as molecular imaging tracer in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of Fischer-344 rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Gui, Songbai; Cao, Lei; Gao, Hua; Bai, Jiwei; Li, Chuzhong; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine receptor-D2 (DRD2) is the most important drug target in prolactinoma. The aim of this current study was to investigate the role of using micro-positron emission tomography (micro-PET) with 18F-fallypride and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) as molecular imaging tracer in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of Fischer-344 (F344) rats and detect the difference of the levels of DRD2 in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of F344 rat prolactinoma models. Female F344 rat prolactinoma models were established by subcutaneous administration of 15 mg 17β-estradiol for 8 weeks. The growth of tumors was monitored by the small-animal magnetic resonance imaging and micro-PET. A series of molecular biological experiments were also performed 4 and 6 weeks after pump implantation. The micro-PET molecular imaging with 18F-fallypride revealed a decreased expression of DRD2 in F344 rat prolactinoma models, but the micro-PET molecular imaging with 18F-FDG presented an increased uptake in the prolactinoma compared with the pituitary gland. A decreasing trend of levels of DRD2 in F344 rat prolactinoma models was also detected by molecular biological experiments. From this, we can conclude that micro-PET with 18F-fallypride and 18F-FDG can be used to assess tumorigenesis of the prolactinomas in vivo and molecular imaging detection of DRD2 level in prolactinoma may be an indication of treatment effect in the animal experiment. PMID:27103832

  13. Regression of pituitary macroadenoma after intratumoral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pituitary apoplexy syndrome is rarely recognized, whereas it can be the first sign of a nonfunctioning adenoma. It is caused by degenerative changes of vascular origin, necrotic and/or hemorrhagic, which can involve a normal gland or a pituitary tumor. It can be found in 0.6% to 9% of all pituitary tumors. Regression of the tumor mass can occasionally occur in patients after pituitary apoplexy. The authors present a case of pituitary macroadenoma regression as the result of hemorrhage into the tumor in a patient with clinical signs of pituitary apoplexy. Three MR examinations (at intervals of three and nine months) revealed the evolution of a hemorrhage within the tumor as well as an evident decrease in adenoma size. Because of the complete regression of clinical symptoms and hormonal inactivity of the tumor, the previously planned surgery was not performed. It is important to remember the possibility of pituitary apoplexy, also in nonfunctioning adenomas. Conservative treatment should be considered when the clinical symptoms of pituitary apoplexy resolve in a patient with a nonfunctioning adenoma. (author)

  14. Development of the hypothalamus and pituitary in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2012-07-01

    The living monotremes (platypus and echidnas) are distinguished by the development of their young in a leathery-shelled egg, a low and variable body temperature and a primitive teat-less mammary gland. Their young are hatched in an immature state and must deal with the external environment, with all its challenges of hypothermia and stress, as well as sourcing nutrients from the maternal mammary gland. The Hill and Hubrecht embryological collections have been used to follow the structural development of the monotreme hypothalamus and its connections with the pituitary gland both in the period leading up to hatching and during the lactational phase of development, and to relate this structural maturation to behavioural development. In the incubation phase, development of the hypothalamus proceeds from closure of the anterior neuropore to formation of the lateral hypothalamic zone and putative medial forebrain bundle. Some medial zone hypothalamic nuclei are emerging at the time of hatching, but these are poorly differentiated and periventricular zone nuclei do not appear until the first week of post-hatching life. Differentiation of the pituitary is also incomplete at hatching, epithelial cords do not develop in the pars anterior until the first week, and the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract does not appear until the second week of post-hatching life. In many respects, the structure of the hypothalamus and pituitary of the newly hatched monotreme is similar to that seen in newborn marsupials, suggesting that both groups rely solely on lateral hypothalamic zone nuclei for whatever homeostatic mechanisms they are capable of at birth/hatching. PMID:22512474

  15. Surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas via the trans-sphenoidal route in Uzbekistan

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    Zamira Khalimova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas, noncancerous tumors that occur in the pituitary gland, represent from 7% to 24% of all primary intracranial neoplasms. Worldwide the trans-sphenoidal approach is the preferred and more widely spread one. The work was initiated to study early and late complications in patients undergoing surgical treatment for pituitary adenomas via the trans-sphenoidal route at the Neuroendocrinology Department with pituitary neurosurgery, Center for the Scientific and Clinical Study of Endocrinology, Uzbekistan Public Health Ministry.

  16. Pituitary abscess: a case report and review of the literature

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    Apostolos K A Karagiannis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary abscess is a rare life-threating entity that is usually misdiagnosed as a pituitary tumor with a definite diagnosis only made postoperatively. Over the last several decades, advances in healthcare have led to a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality due to pituitary abscess. We report a case of a 34-year-old woman who was admitted to our department for investigation of a pituitary mass and with symptoms of pituitary dysfunction, headaches and impaired vision. During her admission, she developed meningitis-like symptoms and was treated with antibiotics. She eventually underwent transsphenoidal surgery for excision of the pituitary mass. A significant amount of pus was evident intraoperatively; however, no pathogen was isolated. Six months later, the patient was well and had full recovery of the anterior pituitary function. Her menses returned, and she was only on treatment with desmopressin for diabetes insipidus that developed postoperatively.

  17. Use of micro-positron emission tomography with 18F-fallypride to measure the levels of dopamine receptor-D2 and 18F-FDG as molecular imaging tracer in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of Fischer-344 rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li P

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ping Li,1–3,* Songbai Gui,2,* Lei Cao,2 Hua Gao,1 Jiwei Bai,2 Chuzhong Li,1 Yazhuo Zhang1 1Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Cerebral Vascular Disease Research Center, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Dopamine receptor-D2 (DRD2 is the most important drug target in prolactinoma. The aim of this current study was to investigate the role of using micro-positron emission tomography (micro-PET with 18F-fallypride and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG as molecular imaging tracer in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of Fischer-344 (F344 rats and detect the difference of the levels of DRD2 in the pituitary glands and prolactinomas of F344 rat prolactinoma models. Female F344 rat prolactinoma models were established by subcutaneous administration of 15 mg 17β-estradiol for 8 weeks. The growth of tumors was monitored by the small-animal magnetic resonance imaging and micro-PET. A series of molecular biological experiments were also performed 4 and 6 weeks after pump implantation. The micro-PET molecular imaging with 18F-fallypride revealed a decreased expression of DRD2 in F344 rat prolactinoma models, but the micro-PET molecular imaging with 18F-FDG presented an increased uptake in the prolactinoma compared with the pituitary gland. A decreasing trend of levels of DRD2 in F344 rat prolactinoma models was also detected by molecular biological experiments. From this, we can conclude that micro-PET with 18F-fallypride and 18F-FDG can be used to assess tumorigenesis of the prolactinomas in vivo and molecular imaging detection of DRD2 level in prolactinoma may be an indication of treatment effect in the animal experiment. Keywords: pituitary prolactin, dopamine agonists, prolactinoma

  18. Dosimetric factors associated with pituitary function after Gamma Knife Surgery (GKS) of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Gamma Knife Surgery (GKS) can be an adjunctive option to surgery in the case of pituitary adenomas. The effect of dosimetric variables on the incidence of new anterior pituitary deficits after GKS requires better definition. Materials and methods: This retrospective study considered 130 patients with a follow up after GKS >6 months. The diagnosis was nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) in 68 patients and secreting pituitary adenoma (SPA) in 62 patients. Median margin dose was 15/25 Gy for NFPA and SPA, respectively. The endocrinological median follow-up was 60 months. Hypopituitarism was defined as a new pituitary deficit in (at least) one of the three hormonal axes (hypogonadism, hypothyroidism and hypoadrenalism). The predictive value of clinical/dosimetric parameters was tested by univariate/multivariate analyses. Results: Sixteen patients (12.3%) showed a new pituitary deficit in one or more axes. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the mean dose to the stalk/pituitary and the amount of healthy tissue within the high dose region were strong independent predictors of pituitary dysfunction; their best cut-off values were around 15.7 Gy, 7.3 Gy and 1.4 cm3, respectively. Conclusions: Our data showed a dose-dependent incidence of new hormonal deficits after GKS for pituitary adenoma. During planning definition, the risk of hypopituitarism could be reduced using the outlined safe dose–volume values.

  19. Experimental Modification of Rat Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function During and After Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Salada, T.; Nye, P.; Grossman, E. J.; Lane, P. K.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Space-flown rats show a number of flight-induced changes in the structure and function of pituitary Growth Hormone (GH) cells after in vitro postflight testing. To evaluate the possible effects of microgravity on GH cells themselves, freshly dispersed rat anterior pituitary gland cells were seeded into vials containing serum +/- 1 micron HydroCortisone (HC) before flight. Five different cell preparations were used: the entire mixed-cell population of various hormone-producing cell types, cells of density less than 1.071 g/sq cm (band 1), cells of density greater than 1.071 g/sq cm (band 2), and cells prepared from either the dorsal or ventral part of the gland. Relative to ground control samples, bioactive GH released from dense cells during flight was reduced in HC-free medium but was increased in HC-containing medium. Band I and mixed cells usually showed opposite HC-dependent responses. Release of bioactive GH from ventral flight cells was lower; postflight responses to GH-releasing hormone challenge were reduced, and the cytoplasmic area occupied by GH in the dense cells was greater. Collectively, the data show that the chemistry and cellular makeup of the culture system modifies the response of GH cells to microgravity. As such, these cells offer a system to identify gravisensing mechanisms in secretory cells in future microgravity research.

  20. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Norman Beatty; Luis Medina-Garcia; Mayar Al Mohajer; Zangeneh, Tirdad T.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s). Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should...

  1. Contemporary issues in the evaluation and management of pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekic, S; Stojanovic, M; Popovic, V

    2015-12-01

    Pituitary adenomas are common benign monoclonal neoplasms accounting for about 15% of intracranial neoplasms. Data from postmortem studies and imaging studies suggest that 1 of 5 individuals in the general population may have pituitary adenoma. Some pituitary adenomas (mainly microadenomas which have a diameter of less than 1 cm) are exceedingly common and are incidentally diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for an unrelated reason (headache, vertigo, head trauma). Most microadenomas remain clinically occult and stable in size, without an increase in tumor cells and without local mass effects. However, some pituitary adenomas grow slowly, enlarge by expansion and become demarcated from normal pituitary (macroadenomas have a diameter greater than 1 cm). They may be clinically silent or secrete anterior pituitary hormones in excess such as prolactin, growth hormone (GH), or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causing diseases like prolactinoma, acromegaly, Cushing's disease or rarely thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or gonadotropins (LH, FSH). The incidence of the various subtypes of pituitary adenoma varies but the most common is prolactinoma. Clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), which do not secrete hormones often cause local mass symptoms and represent one-third of pituitary adenomas. Given the high prevalence of pituitary adenomas and their heterogeneity (different tumor subtypes), it is critical that clinicians have a thorough understanding of the potential abnormalities in pituitary function and prognostic factors for behavior of pituitary adenomas in order to timely implement specific treatment modalities. Regarding pathogenesis of these tumors genetics, epigenetics and signaling pathways are the focus of current research yet our understanding of pituitary tumorigenesis remains incomplete. Although several genes and signaling pathways have been identified as important factors in the development of pituitary tumors, current

  2. Long-term application of diethylstilbestrol upregulates expressions of μ- and m-calpains in pituitary intermediate lobe of female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijiang Zhao; Fang Yuan; Guilin Li; Zhongfang Shi; Yun Cui; Yazhuo Zhang; Zhongcheng Wang

    2007-01-01

    distribution of adrenocorticotropin.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ①Expression of PRL of pituitary anterior lobe, expressions of μ- and m-calpains of pituitary intermediate lobe and distribution of adrenocorticotropin. ②Morphological observation of pituitary tissue.RESULTS: All 21 rats were involved in the final analysis. ①Results of immunohistochemical examination: Morphological changes of neoplasia in DES group were strongly positive to PRL, and this suggested that formation of prolactin adenoma was observed in pituitary tissue. As compared with vehicle control group, expression of adrenoeorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was increased in both DES group and DES + vehicle control group. In addition, expressions of U – and μ-calpains in pituitary intermediate lobe were higher in DES group than that in vehicle control group. Otherwise, expressions of m-calpains in pituitary intermediate lobe was decreased in DES + vehicle control group, but expression of μ-calpains was still increased. ② Morphological observation of pituitary tissue: Gland tubes were orderly arranged in rats in vehicle control group. Anterior pituitary gland in rats of DES group demonstrated an apparent disappearance of gland tubes and a relatively large-scaled vasculature formation, namely the vascular lake lined by tightly arranged endothelial cells. Local integrated tumor cell arrangements were also detected. In addition, the border between the IL and the anterior lobe was locally blurred. The definite tumor-like changes in pituitary tissues were confirmed in 6 of 7 female Wistar rats in DES group, and one spontaneous occurrence of tumor formation was found in vehicle control group. In DES + vehicle control group, DES withdrawal led to the subtile emergence of gland tube cavity, although tumor-like cells still existed in 4 of 7 rats, suggesting occurrence of the tumor regression due to the withdrawal of DES. CONCLUSION: A long-term application of DES can enhance the expressions of ubiquitours neutral cysteine

  3. Expression studies of neuronatin in prenatal and postnatal rat pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Naoko; Higuchi, Masashi; Yoshida, Saishu; Yako, Hideji; Chen, Mo; Ueharu, Hiroki; Nishimura, Naoto; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    The pituitary gland, an indispensable endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes pituitary hormones, develops with the support of many factors. Among them, neuronatin (NNAT), which was discovered in the neonatal mouse brain as a factor involved in neural development, has subsequently been revealed to be coded by an abundantly expressing gene in the pituitary gland but its role remains elusive. We analyze the expression profile of Nnat and the localization of its product during rat pituitary development. The level of Nnat expression was high during the embryonic period but remarkably decreased after birth. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that NNAT appeared in the SOX2-positive stem/progenitor cells in the developing pituitary primordium on rat embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5) and later in the majority of SOX2/PROP1 double-positive cells on E13.5. Thereafter, during pituitary embryonic development, Nnat expression was observed in some stem/progenitor cells, proliferating cells and terminally differentiating cells. In postnatal pituitaries, NNAT-positive cells decreased in number, with most coexpressing Sox2 or Pit1, suggesting a similar role for NNAT to that during the embryonic period. NNAT was widely localized in mitochondria, peroxisomes and lysosomes, in addition to the endoplasmic reticulum but not in the Golgi. The present study thus demonstrated the variability in expression of NNAT-positive cells in rat embryonic and postnatal pituitaries and the intracellular localization of NNAT. Further investigations to obtain functional evidence for NNAT are a prerequisite. PMID:26613603

  4. The various MRI patterns of pituitary apoplexy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to describe the various MRI features, in correlation to surgical and pathological findings, in patients who presented with pituitary apoplexy (PA). Eleven patients presenting with PA, were evaluated with various MR protocols including spin-echo (SE) T1-weighted sequences in 9 of 11 patients, post gadolinium SE T1-weighted sequences in only 8 of 11 patients, and with T2-weighted SE sequences in 2 of 11 patients. All patients had transsphenoidal pituitary surgery after MR studies. The severity of presenting symptoms ranged from headaches to coma. Ten patients had pituitary macroadenoma; one had a non-hemorrhagic metastatic lesion into a non-adenomatous pituitary gland. Of the 11 patients, one was studied at the acute stage of PA (1 day after onset), 9 at the subacute period (3-15 days after onset), and one at the late stage (5 months after onset). Images compatible with intratumoral hemorrhage were found in all macroadenomas, whereas the metastatic pituitary lesion did not show evidence of bleeding. All gadolinium-enhanced studies showed partial tumoral enhancement. The SE T2-weighted studies demonstrated areas of low and high signal intensities in keeping with the presence of blood degradation contents. Pituitary apoplexy present with different MR features, including hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic characteristics on T1-weighted images. Gadolinium-enhanced images do not provide complementary diagnostic information when the presence of blood is assessed on plain images. (orig.)

  5. Purification and cultivation of human pituitary growth hormone secreting cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    A multiphase study was conducted to examine the properties of growth hormone cells. Topics investigated included: (1) to determine if growth hormone (GH) cells contained within the rat pituitary gland can be separated from the other hormone producing cell types by continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE); (2) to determine what role, if any, gravity plays in the electrophoretic separation of GH cells; (3) to compare in vitro GH release from rat pituitary cells previously exposed to microgravity conditions vs release from cells not exposed to microgravity; (4) to determine if the frequency of different hormone producing pituitary cell types contained in cell suspensions can be quantitated by flow cytometry; and (5) to determine if GH contained within the human post mortem pituitary gland can be purified by CFE. Specific experimental procedures and results are included.

  6. Metastatic pituitary carcinoma: a case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG Shang-fu; He, Xin; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Gong, Jing; YE Yun-xia

    2013-01-01

    Background As a kind of rare tumor, metastatic pituitary carcinoma is very difficult to diagnose clinically and is easy to be misdiagnosed. This article aims to discuss the clinical manifestations and histopathological features of this tumor. Methods The clinical presentations, histopathological features and immunophenotype were studied in one case of poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinoma metastatic to pituitary gland, and related literature was reviewed. Results A 47-year-old woman mainl...

  7. Pituitary metastasis from breast cancer presenting as diabetes insipidus

    OpenAIRE

    Gormally, Joseph F; Izard, Michael A.; Robinson, Bruce G.; Boyle, Frances M

    2014-01-01

    An 83-year-old woman developed pituitary metastasis while being treated for metastatic breast cancer. She presented with visual disturbance and headache followed by thirst, nocturia and polyuria. A visual field defect was present. MRI revealed a sellar mass consistent with metastasis to the pituitary gland. She was successfully treated with radiotherapy to the sella and had improvement of her visual symptoms and visual field defect. She then required ongoing treatment for diabetes insipidus. ...

  8. Pituitary Apoplexy Presented with Optic Neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Owji

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a 40-years-old woman presented with visual loss in the right eye since two days ago. The patient complained of headache with gradual onset in the right parietal area since 2 years ago. The headache pattern did not alter.The left eye was normal but the vision in the right eye was 50 cm finger counting. Marcus Gunn pupil could be observed during swinging-flashlight test in the right eye. According to these findings, the first diagnosis was optic neuritis which was corroborated with visual evoked potential (the latency of P100 was 122. According to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, there was a big cystic tumor in sella turcica extended to the suprasellar region (Figure 1-A. It had a large liquid component. Optic chiasm was under pressure and was displaced (Figure 1-B. A faint enhancement was seen after the injection (Figure 1-C.The patient was operated with the transnasal-transsphenoidal approach. Blood and fibrin were among the small monomorphic round cells andfibro-connective tissue of the pituitary gland. Considering the bleeding inside the pituitary tumor, the final diagnosis was pituitary apoplexy. After recovery from the operation the symptoms were removed.Pituitary apoplexy presents with headache, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia, and mental alterations which is caused by infarction or sudden bleeding inside the pituitary tumor.1In our review of literature, 3 patients afflicted with pituitary apoplexy presented with optic neuritis were reported.In a study conducted by Petersen et al., all three patients referred to them suffered from unilateral visual loss and headache. They were examined with the early diagnosis of optic neuritis. After taking a Brain Computerized tomography (CT scan, pituitary adenoma together with the formation of cyst were detected in patients. After transsphenoidal adenomectomy, the patient regained full vision. Therefore, the correct diagnosis of these patients, who had been incorrectly diagnosed with

  9. Radioimmunoassay of pituitary and hypothalamic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimunoassay (RIA) systems have been developed to quantitate virtually every hormone available in pure form. This exquisitely sensitive technique has revolutionized the fields of endocrine physiology and clinical endocrinology. Bioassay techniques which have been employed for many years are not sufficiently sensitive to measure accurately all the anterior pituitary hormones in plasma; the development of RIAs in biologic fluids and tissues has permitted studies which have greatly expanded our knowledge of the factors involved in an anterior pituitary hormone synthesis, metabolism, and action. A chapter on the general principles of RIAs for anterior pituitary hormones would have the disadvantage of being repetitive, several excellent reviews on this topic being already available in the literature. In view of these points, this chapter, in addition to quoting many papers from the literature describing the technical procedures of pituitary hormone RIAs in several animal species, will focus on some aspects thought to be of peculiar interest. More space will be given to the second part of the chapter, on the RIA detection of hypophysiotropic neurohormones. This is an expanding field on endocrinology, particularly after the recent recognition of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). Besides a description of the general problems related to the assay of hypophysiotropic peptides and a critical assessment of available techniques, the significance of determinations of these peptides in brain areas or biologic fluid as an index of neuronal function will be considered

  10. The pituitary growth hormone cell in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Wesley C.; Grindeland, R.

    1989-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH), produced and secreted from specialized cells in the pituitary gland, controls the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. It is also probably involved in the regulation of proper function of bone, muscle and immune systems. The behavior of the GH cell system was studied by flying either isolated pituitary cells or live rats. In the latter case, pituitary GH cells are prepared on return to earth and then either transplanted into hypophysectomized rats or placed into cell culture so that function of GH cells in-vivo vs. in-vitro can be compared. The results from three flights to date (STS-8, 1983; SL-3, 1985; Cosmos 1887, 1987) established that the ability of GH cells to release hormone, on return to earth, is compromised. The mechanism(s) responsible for this attenuation response is unknown. However, the data are sufficiently positive to indicate that the nature of the secretory defect resides directly within the GH cells.

  11. MRI of pituitary adenomas in acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenomas causing acromegaly represent at least a quarter of pituitary adenomas. We studied 12 patients presenting with active acromegaly due to a pituitary adenoma with a 1.5 T superconductive MRI unit. All had T1-weighted sagittal and coronal sections before and after Gd-DTPA; six had coronal T2-weighted images. Surgical correlation was obtained in seven patients. Histologically, there were eight growth hormone (GH)-secreting and three mixed [GH and prolactin (PRL) secreting[ adenomas, and one secreting GH, PRL and follicle-stimulating hormone. Macroadenomas (10) were more frequent than microadenomas (2). No correlation was found between serum GH and tumour size. There were nine adenomas in the lateral part of the pituitary gland; seven showed lateral or infrasellar invasion. Homogeneous, isointense signal on T1-and T2-weighted images was observed in six cases. Heterogeneous adenomas had cystic or necrotic components. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Pituitary Disorders Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of drugs can help relieve pituitary problems. Prolactinomas, for example, respond well to a dopamine agonist ... is caused by the treatment you have for pituitary tumors. Surgery or radiation therapy, for example, can lead ...

  13. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N;

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained...

  14. Role of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in the control of the response to stress and infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCann S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The release of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH from the corticotrophs is controlled principally by vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH. Oxytocin may augment the release of ACTH under certain conditions, whereas atrial natriuretic peptide acts as a corticotropin release-inhibiting factor to inhibit ACTH release by direct action on the pituitary. Glucocorticoids act on their receptors within the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland to suppress the release of vasopressin and CRH and the release of ACTH in response to these neuropeptides. CRH neurons in the paraventricular nucleus also project to the cerebral cortex and subcortical regions and to the locus ceruleus (LC in the brain stem. Cortical influences via the limbic system and possibly the LC augment CRH release during emotional stress, whereas peripheral input by pain and other sensory impulses to the LC causes stimulation of the noradrenergic neurons located there that project their axons to the CRH neurons stimulating them by alpha-adrenergic receptors. A muscarinic cholinergic receptor is interposed between the alpha-receptors and nitric oxidergic interneurons which release nitric oxide that activates CRH release by activation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and epoxygenase. Vasopressin release during stress may be similarly mediated. Vasopressin augments the release of CRH from the hypothalamus and also augments the action of CRH on the pituitary. CRH exerts a positive ultrashort loop feedback to stimulate its own release during stress, possibly by stimulating the LC noradrenergic neurons whose axons project to the paraventricular nucleus to augment the release of CRH.

  15. Histiocytosis mimicking a pineal gland tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an unusual case of isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system. A 19-year-old man presented with an incomplete ocular palsy. MRI revealed a solitary mass in the pineal gland with marked contrast enhancement. Complete microsurgical excision was followed by local radiotherapy. Histological examination revealed histiocytosis. Unifocal brain involvement by histiocytosis X is rare with few cases in the literature; the most commonly involved areas are the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  16. Histiocytosis mimicking a pineal gland tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizewski, E.R.; Forsting, M. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Essen (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    We report an unusual case of isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system. A 19-year-old man presented with an incomplete ocular palsy. MRI revealed a solitary mass in the pineal gland with marked contrast enhancement. Complete microsurgical excision was followed by local radiotherapy. Histological examination revealed histiocytosis. Unifocal brain involvement by histiocytosis X is rare with few cases in the literature; the most commonly involved areas are the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  17. Female orgasm but not male ejaculation activates the pituitary. A PET-neuro-imaging study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh, Hieu Kim; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; Holstege, Gert

    2013-01-01

    The pituitary gland plays an important role in basic survival mechanisms by releasing fluctuating amounts of hormones into the bloodstream, depending on the circumstances the individual finds itself. However, despite these changes in pituitary hormonal production, neuroimaging studies have never bee

  18. Metastatic pituitary carcinoma in a patient with acromegaly: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sreenan, Seamus

    2012-01-01

    Asymptomatic pituitary abnormalities occur in about 10% of cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans, but metastatic carcinoma of the pituitary gland is rare: 133 cases have been reported. Two thirds secreted either prolactin or adrenocorticotropic hormone, and another 24% were non-secreting.

  19. Pregnancy and pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezer, Andrea; Jallad, Raquel S; Machado, Marcio C; Fragoso, Maria C; Bronstein, Marcello D

    2016-09-01

    Infertility is frequent in patients harboring pituitary adenomas. The mechanisms involved include hypogonadism secondary to hormonal hypersecretion (prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol), stalk disconnection and pituitary damage. With the improvement of clinical and surgical treatment, pregnancy in women harboring pituitary adenomas turned into a reality. Pituitary hormonal hyper- and hyposecretion influences pregnancy outcomes, as well as pregnancy can interfere on pituitary tumors, especially in prolactinomas. We review literature about specific follow-up and management in pregnant women harboring prolactinomas, acromegaly, or Cushings disease and the impact of clinical and surgical treatment on each condition. PMID:26977888

  20. Studies on prolactin-secreting cells in aging rats of different strains. I. Alterations in pituitary histology and serum prolactin levels as related to ageing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van L.J.A.; Zwieten, van M.J.; Mattheij, J.A.M.; Kemenade, J.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Serum PRL levels and histologically tumor-free pituitary glands of 91 aging rats of the BN/BiRij strain, the WAG/Rij strain and their F1 hybrid were studied. In rats with pituitary glands without signs of hyperplasia, serum PRL levels were, in comparison to rats of 15-24 months, increased 25-29-mont

  1. Pituitary tumor visualized on x-ray CT in a girl with juvenile primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 7-year-old girl presented with decreased rate of growth (97.8 cm in height). Cranial X-ray showed the sella tunica enlarged. Cranial X-ray CT showed a pituitary tumor with extrasellar extension. Thyroid scintigraphy with I-123 showed normal location and morphology of the thyroid gland, although the uptake rate of I-123 was 1.4 % at 24 hr after scanning. From these imaging results, in addition to the laboratory findings, the patient was diagnosed as having primary hypothyroidism secondary to chronic atrophic thyroiditis. The pituitary tumor was supposed to be an enlarged or hyperplastic pituitary gland. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Feasibility of high-resolution pituitary MRI at 7.0 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the pituitary gland measures 3-8 mm, imaging with the highest possible spatial resolution is important for the detection of even smaller lesions such as those seen in Cushing's disease. In the current feasibility study, we tested a multi-sequence MRI protocol to visualize the pituitary gland in high resolution at 7.0 Tesla (7.0 T). Ten healthy volunteers were examined with a 7.0 T pituitary gland protocol. The protocol consisted of a T1-weighted magnetization-prepared inversion recovery (MPIR) turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence and a T2-weighted TSE sequence. Additionally, this protocol was tested in five patients with clinical and biochemical suspicion of a microadenoma. The dedicated protocol was successful in visualizing normal pituitary anatomy. At 7.0 T compared to 1.5 T, four times as many slices covered the pituitary gland in sagittal and coronal direction. In three patients, a lesion was diagnosed at 7.0 T, and was confirmed by histopathology to be a microadenoma. Head-to-head comparisons of 7.0 T with 1.5 T and 3.0 T are needed with larger samples of patients and with imaging times feasible for clinical settings. However, the current study suggests that high-resolution 7.0 T MRI of the pituitary gland may provide new perspectives when used as a second-line diagnostic examination in the specific context of Cushing's disease. (orig.)

  3. Feasibility of high-resolution pituitary MRI at 7.0 tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotte, Alexandra A.J. de; Kolk, Anja G. van der; Rutgers, Dik; Luijten, Peter R.; Hendrikse, Jeroen [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, Postbox 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zelissen, Pierre M.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Internal Medicine (Section of Endocrinology), Utrecht (Netherlands); Visser, Fredy [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Heidelberglaan 100, Postbox 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands)

    2014-08-15

    Since the pituitary gland measures 3-8 mm, imaging with the highest possible spatial resolution is important for the detection of even smaller lesions such as those seen in Cushing's disease. In the current feasibility study, we tested a multi-sequence MRI protocol to visualize the pituitary gland in high resolution at 7.0 Tesla (7.0 T). Ten healthy volunteers were examined with a 7.0 T pituitary gland protocol. The protocol consisted of a T1-weighted magnetization-prepared inversion recovery (MPIR) turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence and a T2-weighted TSE sequence. Additionally, this protocol was tested in five patients with clinical and biochemical suspicion of a microadenoma. The dedicated protocol was successful in visualizing normal pituitary anatomy. At 7.0 T compared to 1.5 T, four times as many slices covered the pituitary gland in sagittal and coronal direction. In three patients, a lesion was diagnosed at 7.0 T, and was confirmed by histopathology to be a microadenoma. Head-to-head comparisons of 7.0 T with 1.5 T and 3.0 T are needed with larger samples of patients and with imaging times feasible for clinical settings. However, the current study suggests that high-resolution 7.0 T MRI of the pituitary gland may provide new perspectives when used as a second-line diagnostic examination in the specific context of Cushing's disease. (orig.)

  4. Effects of gonadoliberin analogue triptorelin on the pituitary-testicular complex in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dygalo, N N; Shemenkova, T V; Kalinina, T S; Shishkina, G T

    2014-02-01

    Triptorelin, a synthetic analogue of neurohormone gonadoliberin (gonadotropin-releasing hormone, GnRH) administered daily to rats on postnatal days 5-7 suppressed the expression of GnRH receptor in the pituitary gland, but did not change functioning of the pituitary-testicular complex. Administration of triptorelin on postnatal days 12-14 (i.e. during the formation of pulsatile pattern of GnRH secretion and increasing levels of its mRNA receptor in the pituitary gland) had no effect on receptor expression, but increased the levels of luteinizing hormone mRNA in the pituitary gland and the weight of testes. At that time, blood levels of testosterone were lowered, which indicated disturbed pulsatile pattern of GnRH secretion. PMID:24771429

  5. Pregnancy and pituitary disorders: Challenges in diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir A Laway

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is associated with normal physiological changes in endocrine system that assists fetal survival as well as preparation of labor. The pituitary gland is one of the most affected organs in which major changes in anatomy and physiology take place. Due to overlapping clinical and biochemical features of pregnancy, sometimes the diagnosis of pituitary disorders may be challenging. It is important to know what normal parameters of changes occur in endocrine system in order to diagnose and manage complex endocrine problems in pregnancy. In our present review, we will focus on pituitary disorders that occur exclusively during pregnancy like Sheehan′s syndrome and lymphocytic hypophysitis and pre-existing pituitary disorders (like prolactinoma, Cushing′s disease and acromegaly, which poses significant challenge to endocrinologists.

  6. Immediate postoperative complications in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumul Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering the important role of pituitary gland in regulating various endocrine axes and its unique anatomical location, various postoperative complications can be anticipated resulting from surgery on pituitary tumors. We examined and categorized the immediate postoperative complications according to various tumor pathologies. Materials and Methods: We carried out a prospective study in 152 consecutive patients and noted various postoperative complications during neurosurgical intensive care unit stay (within 48 hrs of hospital stay in patients undergoing transsphenoidal removal of pituitary tumors. Results: In our series, various groups showed different postoperative complications out of which, cerebrospinal fluid leak was the commonest followed by diabetes insipidus, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and hematoma at operation site. Conclusion: Various immediate postoperative complications can be anticipated in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery even though, it is considered to be relatively safe.

  7. Guanine nucleotide regulation of dopamine receptor agonist affinity states in rat estradiol-induced pituitary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Paolo, T.; Falardeau, P.

    1987-08-31

    The authors have investigated dopamine (DA) receptor agonist high- and low-affinity states in female rate estradiol-induced prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary tumors and intact pituitary tissue. Estradiol treatment increased the anterior pituitary weight 9-fold and plasma prolactin levels 74-fold and these measures are correlated (R = 0.745, n = 73, p < 0.001). Competition for (/sup 3/H)-spiperone binding to the DA receptor by apomorphine was compared in normal and adenomatous pituitary tissue. The inhibition constants (Ki) and the proportions of the two apomorphine sites are unchanged in tumors compared to intact pituitary tissue. Guanosine 5'-(..beta..-..gamma..-imino)triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) causes complete conversion of the high into low affinity dopaminergic agonist site in normal pituitary and in tumors. These results suggest that rats with primary estradiol-induced pituitary tumors have normal and functional DA receptors. 9 references, 2 tables.

  8. Guanine nucleotide regulation of dopamine receptor agonist affinity states in rat estradiol-induced pituitary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have investigated dopamine (DA) receptor agonist high- and low-affinity states in female rate estradiol-induced prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary tumors and intact pituitary tissue. Estradiol treatment increased the anterior pituitary weight 9-fold and plasma prolactin levels 74-fold and these measures are correlated (R = 0.745, n = 73, p 3H]-spiperone binding to the DA receptor by apomorphine was compared in normal and adenomatous pituitary tissue. The inhibition constants (Ki) and the proportions of the two apomorphine sites are unchanged in tumors compared to intact pituitary tissue. Guanosine 5'-[β-γ-imino]triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) causes complete conversion of the high into low affinity dopaminergic agonist site in normal pituitary and in tumors. These results suggest that rats with primary estradiol-induced pituitary tumors have normal and functional DA receptors. 9 references, 2 tables

  9. Cervicoplastia anterior Anterior cervicoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Gomes Patrocínio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Muitos pacientes buscam correção estética da frouxidão da pele do pescoço, depósito de gordura na região submentoneana ou bandas de platisma. Em grande parte dos casos a ação medial, via cervicoplastia anterior é necessária. OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a casuística e avaliar os resultados e complicações com a técnica de cervicoplastia anterior no Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Relato de série. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Quarenta e dois pacientes, entre 39 e 65 anos de idade, sendo 40 (95,2% do sexo feminino e 2 (4,8% do masculino, foram submetidos a cervicoplastia anterior. Retrospectivamente foram avaliados resultados e complicações. RESULTADOS: Destes, 34 apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, 4 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo cirurgião, 3 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo paciente e 1 apresentou déficit estético necessitando cirurgia revisional. Ao estudo fotográfico, todos os pacientes apresentaram melhora do perfil cervical, redução das bandas de platisma e da frouxidão da pele, estabilização da musculatura cervical e acentuação do ângulo cervicomental, em graus variados. Houve complicação em 2 casos (discreto serohematoma e cicatriz um pouco alargada. CONCLUSÃO: A cervicoplastia, associada ou não à tração lateral pela ritidoplastia, é uma técnica que produz resultados satisfatórios na grande maioria dos casos.Many patients look for aesthetic correction of the laxity of neck skin, submandibular fat deposit or platisma bands. In a large part of the cases, medial action, through anterior cervicoplasty is necessary. AIM: To demonstrate the casuistic and to evaluate the results and complications with anterior cervicoplasty technique in the Otorhinolaryngology Service of the Federal University of Uberlândia. STUDY DESIGN: Serie report. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-two patients, between 39 and 65 years of age, being 40 (95

  10. Expression of Neuropeptide Y in Human Pituitary Adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laizhao Chen; Jingjian Ma; Anchao Zheng; Honggang Zheng

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Neuropeptid e Y (NPY) acts as a neuroendocrine modulator in the anterior pituitary, and NPY mRNA and NPY-immunoreactivity have been detected in normal human anterior pituitaries. However, only a few studies of NPY expression in human pituitary adenomas have been published. Our study was conducted to determine whether or not adenomatous cells express NPY, to investigate the relationship between NPY expression and the subtypes of pituitary adenoma and to explore the clinical significance of NPY.METHODS The study included tissues from 58 patients with pituitary adenomas who underwent surgery because of their clinical diagnosis.Using a highly specific anti-NPY polyclonal antibody, immunohistochemical analysis was performed on the surgically removed pituitary adenomas. Six fresh specimens also were examined using immuno-electron microscopy. NPY was labeled with colloidal gold in order to study the distribution of NPY at the subcellular level.RESULTS The NPY expression level was significantly different among subgroups of pituitary adenomas (P<0.05). NPY was immuno-detected in 58.6% of all adenomas, in 91.7% of gonadotrophic adenomas and in 14.3% of prolactinomas. NPY expression was slightly lower in invasive pituitary adenomas compared to noninvasive adenomas, but the difference was not significant (t=1.81, P>0.05). Of particular interest was the finding that vascular endothelial cells showed positive NPY expression in some pituitary adenomas. Parts of strongly positive tumor cells were seen in channels formed without endothelial cells, but which contained some red blood cells in a formation similar to so-called vasculogenic mimicry. Immuno-electron microscopy demonstrated that 4 of the 6 fresh specimens displayed positive NPY staining with a high density of gold particles located mainly in the secretory granulas. In addition, gold particles were sparsely detected in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and cell matrix.CONCLUSION NPY exists in pituitary adenomas

  11. Pituitary Disorders Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What ... Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What ...

  12. Double pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovazzo, D; Bianchi, A; Lugli, F; Milardi, D; Giampietro, A; Lucci-Cordisco, E; Doglietto, F; Lauriola, L; De Marinis, L

    2013-04-01

    Double pituitary adenomas represent up to 2.6 % of pituitary adenomas in large surgical series and up to 3.3 % of patients with Cushing's disease have been found to have double or multiple pituitary adenomas. We report the case of a 60-year-old male patient whose medical history began in 2002 with erectile dysfunction; hyperprolactinemia was found and MRI showed a 6-mm area of delayed enhancement in the lateral portion of the right pituitary lobe. Treatment with cabergoline was started with normalization of prolactin levels; the following MRI, performed in 2005 and 2008, showed shrinkage of the pituitary lesion. In 2005, the patient began to manifest weight gain, hypertension, and facial plethora, but no further evaluations were done. In January 2010, the patient came to our attention and underwent multiple tests that suggested Cushing's disease. A new MRI was negative. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling showed significant pituitary-to-peripheral ratio and, in May 2010, the patient underwent exploratory pituitary surgery with evidence of a 1-2-mm white-coloured midline area compatible with pituitary adenoma that was surgically removed. Post-operatively, the patient's clinical conditions improved with onset of secondary hypoadrenalism. The histologic examination confirmed a pituitary adenoma (immunostaining was found to be positive for ACTH and negative for prolactin). We report the case of an ACTH-producing microadenoma metachronous to a prolactin secreting microadenoma although not confirmed histologically, shrunk by medical treatment. A review of data in the literature regarding double or multiple pituitary adenomas has also been done. PMID:23325364

  13. Thyrotropinoma with Graves' disease detected by the fusion of indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyucu, Kursat; Alagoz, Engin; Arslan, Nuri; Taslipinar, Abdullah; Deveci, Mehmet Salih; Bolu, Erol

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma) is a rare benign endocrinological tumor which produces TSH in the pituitary gland. Herein, we presented a female patient having TSHoma with Graves' disease during and just after pregnancy that we found by indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy while investigating the patient for hyperthyroidism symptoms. PMID:27095865

  14. Thyrotropinoma with Graves’ disease detected by the fusion of indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyucu, Kursat; Alagoz, Engin; Arslan, Nuri; Taslipinar, Abdullah; Deveci, Mehmet Salih; Bolu, Erol

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma) is a rare benign endocrinological tumor which produces TSH in the pituitary gland. Herein, we presented a female patient having TSHoma with Graves’ disease during and just after pregnancy that we found by indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy while investigating the patient for hyperthyroidism symptoms. PMID:27095865

  15. Mucocele of the Glands of Blandin–Nuhn in Children: A Clinical, Histopathologic, and Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh R Joshi; Pendyala, Gowri S; Shantanu Choudhari; Jitendra Kalburge

    2012-01-01

    Background: The anterior lingual salivary glands (glands of Blandin-Nuhn) are mixed mucous and serous glands that are embedded within the musculature of anterior tongue ventrum. Aim: The present study was designed to describe the clinical and histopathological features. Material and Methods : We investigated the clinical and histopathologic features of 30 cases of mucocele of glands of Blandin-Nuhn. All the cases were seen in the department of pedodontics. Results: All the lesions were locate...

  16. Salivary gland doses from dental radiographic exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland doses incurred during dental radiography were measured by phantom dosimetry, and these dose data and data obtained during a two-week survey of Hiroshima and Nagasaki dental hospitals and clinics were used to estimate the respective doses to members of the populations of the two cities. The results obtained were used to supplement previously determined doses to the thyroid gland, lens, and pituitary gland from dental radiography. No significant differences in doses were observed by age, sex or city. Doses to the salivary glands during dental radiography are probably not sufficiently large to cause bias in assessments of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects. However, the steadily increasing use of dental radiography underscores the need for continued monitoring of dental radiography doses in the interests of these assessments. (author)

  17. Pituitary tumour clonality revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R N; Farrell, W E

    2004-01-01

    Allelotype analysis and X chromosome inactivation analysis in women enables the assessment of tissue clonality, and has demonstrated that the majority of sporadic human pituitary adenomas are monoclonal. This implies that these tumours arise from de novo somatic genetic change(s) in a single pituitary cell. However, clonality within any given tumour may be multiple or single, multiple tumours arising on the background of hyperplasia may be of identical or different clonality, multiple 'sporadic' tumours in a tissue may be of differing clonal origin, and finally morphology cannot predict genetic makeup. These general principles may also apply to the pituitary so it is simplistic to assume that monoclonality is inevitable and that pituitary tumours cannot be multiclonal in origin. Indeed, these observations would be entirely compatible with the initiating stimulus resulting in hyperplasia of specific cell subtypes in the pituitary giving rise to a number of different clones each with variable potential to develop into a discrete tumour depending on their rate of cell division/rate of apotosis. Stimuli might include pituitary-specific oncogenes, intrapituitary growth factors, or extrapituitary trophic factors (e.g. hypothalamic releasing hormones). PMID:15281347

  18. Diagnosis of pituitary adenoma with dynamic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen patients with pituitary adenomas topographically diagnosed by dynamic MRI between 1990 and 1995 are analyzed in this study. All patients were treated surgically and diagnosed pathologically. In all eight cases of macroadenomas, not only the normal glands, but also the adenomas were enhanced by Gd-DTPA (gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid). In three of eight cases, the normal glands could not be delineated, even by dynamic MRI. In five cases, the normal gland was recognized as an early enhancing area. In four of nine cases of microadenomas, the tumor was identified as a well-defined round area that enhanced later than normal tissue. In four other cases, a delayed enhancing area was vaguely dectable and proved to be the adenoma by histopathology. One of these cases was an ACTH producing adenoma. In the remaining case, three dynamic MRI study was performed, but no tumor was recognized preoperatively. This tumor was also an ACTH producing adenoma. These results suggest that, even by the dynamic MRI, sometimes the normal gland is not distinguishable from macroadenomas and furthermore, ACTH producing adenomas are still difficulty to diagnose preoperatively. (author)

  19. Advances in trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, D; Cavallo, L M; De Angelis, M; Villa, A; Somma, T; Esposito, F; Del Basso De Caro, M; Cappabianca, P

    2012-12-01

    Pituitary surgery is a continuous evolving speciality of the neurosurgeons' armamentarium, requiring precise anatomical knowledge, technical skills and integrated appreciation of the pituitary pathophysiology. Actually, it could be considered the result of a close cooperation between different specialists, i.e. the ophthalmologist, the neuroradiologist, the endocrinologist, the neurosurgeon, the pathologist, etc. In this teamwork environment each member plays his own role, offering his contribute to the final result; every effort is performed to provide patients with the best possible procedure, individually measured. The endoscopic pituitary surgery performed by means of a transsphenoidal approach perfectly fits this scenario, being though advocated as the result of an evolutionary process rather than a revolutionary one. The "pure" endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery - consisting of a whole procedure performed with the endoscope alone and without the use of any transsphenoidal retractor - offers some advantages due to the endoscope itself: a superior close-up view of the relevant anatomy, very important at the tumor/gland interface and an enlarged working angle are provided with an increased panoramic vision inside the surgical area. Results in terms of mass removal, relief of clinical symptoms, cure of the underlying disease and complication rate are similar to those reported in the major microsurgical series but patient compliance is by far better. PMID:23123578

  20. A novel thyroid stimulating hormone β-subunit isoform in human pituitary, peripheral blood leukocytes, and thyroid

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Jeremy S.; Klein, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is produced by the anterior pituitary and is used to regulate thyroid hormone output, which in turn controls metabolic activity. Currently, the pituitary is believed to be the only source of TSH used by the thyroid. Recent studies in mice from our laboratory have identified a TSH isoform that is expressed in the pituitary, in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), and in the thyroid. To determine whether a human TSH splice variant exists that is analogous to the ...

  1. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in the treatment of pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, C.; Theodorou, M.; Poullos, N.; Astner, S.T.; Geinitz, H.; Molls, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie; Stalla, G.K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Psychiatrie, Muenchen (Germany). Klinische Neuroendokrinologie; Meyer, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik; Nieder, C. [Nordland Hospital, Bodoe (Norway). Dept. of Oncology and Palliative Medicine; Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Grosu, A.L [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate tumor control and side effects associated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in the management of residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas. Patients and methods: We report on 37 consecutive patients with pituitary adenomas treated with FSRT at our department. All patients had previously undergone surgery. Twenty-nine patients had nonfunctioning, 8 had hormone-producing adenoma. The mean total dose delivered by a linear accelerator was 49.4 Gy (range 45-52.2 Gy), 5 x 1.8 Gy weekly. The mean PTV was 22.8 ccm (range 2.0-78.3 ccm). Evaluation included serial imaging tests, endocrinologic and ophthalmologic examination. Results: Tumor control was 91.9 % for a median follow-up time of 57 months (range 2-111 months). Before FSRT partial hypopituitarism was present in 41 % of patients, while 35 % had anterior panhypopituitarism. After FSRT pituitary function remained normal in 22 %, 43 % had partial pituitary dysfunction, and 35 % had anterior panhypopituitarism. Visual acuity was stable in 76 % of patients, improved in 19 %, and deteriorated in 5 %. Visual fields remained stable in 35 patients (95 %), improved in one and worsened in 1 patient (2.7 %). Conclusion: FSRT is an effective and safe treatment for recurrent or residual pituitary adenoma. Good local tumor control and preservation of adjacent structures can be reached, even for large tumors. (orig.)

  2. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in the treatment of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate tumor control and side effects associated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in the management of residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas. Patients and methods: We report on 37 consecutive patients with pituitary adenomas treated with FSRT at our department. All patients had previously undergone surgery. Twenty-nine patients had nonfunctioning, 8 had hormone-producing adenoma. The mean total dose delivered by a linear accelerator was 49.4 Gy (range 45-52.2 Gy), 5 x 1.8 Gy weekly. The mean PTV was 22.8 ccm (range 2.0-78.3 ccm). Evaluation included serial imaging tests, endocrinologic and ophthalmologic examination. Results: Tumor control was 91.9 % for a median follow-up time of 57 months (range 2-111 months). Before FSRT partial hypopituitarism was present in 41 % of patients, while 35 % had anterior panhypopituitarism. After FSRT pituitary function remained normal in 22 %, 43 % had partial pituitary dysfunction, and 35 % had anterior panhypopituitarism. Visual acuity was stable in 76 % of patients, improved in 19 %, and deteriorated in 5 %. Visual fields remained stable in 35 patients (95 %), improved in one and worsened in 1 patient (2.7 %). Conclusion: FSRT is an effective and safe treatment for recurrent or residual pituitary adenoma. Good local tumor control and preservation of adjacent structures can be reached, even for large tumors. (orig.)

  3. Pituitary and ovarian function in women with congenitally absent uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylikorkala, O; Viinikka, L

    1979-01-01

    Pituitary-ovarian function was studied in 2 women with congenital absence of the uterus and the vagina. Daily serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, estradiol-17beta, and progesterone were measured by radioimmunoassay for 1 month. Gonadotropins and ovarian steroids showed normal cyclic variations in both patients. Prolactin was persistently elevated in one of them, who also demonstrated 2 abnormally high testosterone values among 6 determinations. The pituitary gland was stimulated by intravenous leasing hormone (LRH-TRY). Gonadotropin and prolactin responses to LRH-TRH were normal. The lifelong absence of the uterus does not alter the function of the pituitary-ovarian axis. The relation of hyperprolactinemia to this syndrome must be ascertained in a greater number of patients. PMID:104214

  4. Pituitary Adenoma Segmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Egger, Jan; Kuhnt, Daniela; Freisleben, Bernd; Nimsky, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Sellar tumors are approximately 10-15% among all intracranial neoplasms. The most common sellar lesion is the pituitary adenoma. Manual segmentation is a time-consuming process that can be shortened by using adequate algorithms. In this contribution, we present a segmentation method for pituitary adenoma. The method is based on an algorithm we developed recently in previous work where the novel segmentation scheme was successfully used for segmentation of glioblastoma multiforme and provided an average Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 77%. This scheme is used for automatic adenoma segmentation. In our experimental evaluation, neurosurgeons with strong experiences in the treatment of pituitary adenoma performed manual slice-by-slice segmentation of 10 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cases. Afterwards, the segmentations were compared with the segmentation results of the proposed method via the DSC. The average DSC for all data sets was 77.49% +/- 4.52%. Compared with a manual segmentation that took, on the...

  5. A thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma as a cause of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alings, A M; Fliers, E; de Herder, W W; Hofland, L J; Sluiter, H E; Links, T P; van der Hoeven, J H; Wiersinga, W M

    1998-11-01

    We describe a patient with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) caused by a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma. The diagnosis TPP was based on the combination of episodes of reversible hypokalaemic paralysis, hyperthyroidism and electrophysiological findings. A thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma was diagnosed on the basis of endocrinological function tests and MRI of the pituitary gland. Before transsphenoidal resection of the adenoma, treatment with octreotide restored euthyroidism both clinically and biochemically. Immunocytochemistry of the pituitary adenoma was positive for TSH exclusively. Incubation with octreotide or quinagolide induced decreased TSH and alpha-subunit production by the cultured adenoma cells, in agreement with the pre-operative in vivo data. This paper is the first to describe in vivo and in vitro characteristics of a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma in a patient presenting with periodic paralysis. PMID:9854688

  6. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Pituitary 'incidentaloma': neuroradiological assessment and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, Vladimir; Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Potorac, Iulia; Zacharieva, Sabina; Bonneville, Jean-François; Beckers, Albert

    2016-10-01

    Pituitary incidentalomas are a by-product of modern imaging technology. The term 'incidentaloma' is neither a distinct diagnosis nor a pathological entity. Rather, it is a collective designation for different entities that are discovered fortuitously, requiring a working diagnosis based on the input of the radiologist, endocrinologist and often a neurosurgeon. In addition to pathological conditions affecting the pituitary gland, a thorough knowledge of the radiological characteristics of normal variants and technical artifacts is required to arrive at an accurate differential diagnosis. After careful radiological and hormonal evaluation, the vast majority of pituitary incidentalomas turn out to be non-functioning pituitary microadenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts (RCCs). Based on the low growth potential of non-functioning pituitary microadenomas and RCCs, periodic MRI surveillance is currently considered the optimal management strategy. Stricter follow-up is required for macroadenomas, as increases in size occur more frequently. PMID:27068689

  7. Anaesthetic management for caesarean section in a case of previously operated with residual pituitary tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerana N Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful anaesthetic management for caesarean section in a case with previous pituitary tumour resection, with residual tumour, is reported. The pituitary gland undergoes global hyperplasia during pregnancy. Functional pituitary tumours may exhibit symptomatic enlargement during pregnancy. Growth hormone secreting tumour is associated with acromegaly which has associated anaesthetic implications of difficult airway, systemic hypertension, and diabetes and electrolyte imbalance. Intracranial space occupying lesions can increase intra cranial pressure and compromise cerebral perfusion or cause herniation. We report management of this case.

  8. [Treatment of pituitary adenomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezosi, Emese; Nemes, Orsolya

    2009-09-27

    According to epidemiological studies, the prevalence of pituitary adenomas is 16.5% and the majority of them are "incidentalomas". The symptoms of pituitary disorders are often non-specific; disturbances of pituitary function, compression symptoms, hypophysis apoplexy or accidental findings may help the diagnosis. The hormonal evaluation of pituitary adenomas is different from the algorithm used in the disorders of peripheral endocrine organs. The first-line therapy of prolactinomas are the dopamine agonists, and the aims of the treatment are to normalize the prolactin level, restore fertility in child-bearing age, decrease tumor mass, save or improve the residual pituitary function and inhibit the relapse of the disease. The available dopamine agonists in Hungary are bromocriptine and quinagolide. In case of tumors with good therapeutic response, medical therapy can be withdrawn after 3-5 years; hyperprolactinemia will not recur in 2/3 of these patients. Neurosurgery is the primary therapy of GH-, ACTH-, TSH-producing and inactive adenomas. In the last decades, significant improvement has been reached in surgical procedures, resulting in low mortality rates. Acromegalic patients with unresectable tumors have a great benefit from somatostatin analog treatment. The growth hormone receptor antagonist pegvisomant is the newest modality for the treatment of acromegaly. The medical therapy of Cushing's disease is still based on the inhibition of steroid production. A new, promising somatostatin analog, pasireotide is evaluated in clinical trials. The rare TSH-producing tumor can respond to both dopamine agonist and somatostatin analog therapy. The application of conventional radiotherapy has decreased; radiotherapy is mainly used in the treatment of invasive, incurable or malignant tumors. Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact role of radiosurgery and fractionated stereotaxic irradiation in the treatment of pituitary tumors. PMID:19758960

  9. Gonadal steroid hormone receptors and sex differences in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, R J; Burgess, L H; Kerr, J E; O'Keefe, J A

    1994-12-01

    The rapid activation of stress-responsive neuroendocrine systems is a basic reaction of animals to perturbations in their environment. One well-established response is that of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In rats, corticosterone is the major adrenal steroid secreted and is released in direct response to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secreted from the anterior pituitary gland. ACTH in turn is regulated by the hypothalamic factor, corticotropin-releasing hormone. A sex difference exists in the response of the HPA axis to stress, with females reacting more robustly than males. It has been demonstrated that in both sexes, products of the HPA axis inhibit reproductive function. Conversely, the sex differences in HPA function are in part due to differences in the circulating gonadal steroid hormone milieu. It appears that testosterone can act to inhibit HPA function, whereas estrogen can enhance HPA function. One mechanism by which androgens and estrogens modulate stress responses is through the binding to their cognate receptors in the central nervous system. The distribution and regulation of androgen and estrogen receptors within the CNS suggest possible sites and mechanisms by which gonadal steroid hormones can influence stress responses. In the case of androgens, data suggest that the control of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus is mediated trans-synaptically. For estrogen, modulation of the HPA axis may be due to changes in glucocorticoid receptor-mediated negative feedback mechanisms. The results of a variety of studies suggest that gonadal steroid hormones, particularly testosterone, modulate HPA activity in an attempt to prevent the deleterious effects of HPA activation on reproductive function. PMID:7729815

  10. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Metastatic to the Pituitary: A Case Report and Discussion of Potential Diagnostic Value of Magnetic Resonance Elastography in Pituitary Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D Hughes, Joshua; Retzlaff, Amber; Sims, John; O'Brien, Erin; Giannini, Caterina; Huston, John; Van Gompel, Jamie J

    2016-07-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an exocrine gland tumor accounting for approximately 10%-15% of all epithelial salivary neoplasms and occurs most often in the parotid and submandibular glands. Metastatic pituitary tumors are rare, and there is only 1 previously reported case of parotid ACC metastatic to the pituitary. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based technique that measures the propagation of mechanically induced shear waves through a particular tissue to determine stiffness and offers a method to evaluate tissue consistency. We present the case of a 72-year-old woman with a remote history of parotid gland ACC and subsequent lung metastases presented after a fall that resulted in facial trauma. A non-contrast head computed tomography scan revealed a sellar/suprasellar mass, and follow-up MRI revealed a well-defined, enhancing 3.8-cm lesion. MRE showed the tumor to be firm. The tumor was resected through a transsphenoidal approach and was consistent with the MRE findings. Pathology returned as metastatic ACC. We report the second case of ACC metastatic to pituitary and the first firm pituitary tumor found by MRE and discuss the potential diagnostic value of MRE in pituitary lesions. PMID:27018011

  11. P2X receptor channels in endocrine glands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojilkovic, S. S.; Zemková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2013), s. 173-180. ISSN 2190-460X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ATP * purinergic P2X receptor channels * pituitary * endocrine glands Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  12. Pituitary: Secretory Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is caused by the excess secretion of growth hormone (GH). It can cause noticeable changes in your appearance, ... medication approved for acromegaly. Instead of suppressing excess GH production by the pituitary tumor, it works to stop the hormone from acting on the body, but does not ...

  13. Pituitary irradiation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alpha particle pituitary irradiation program continues to be a major research project at Donner Pavilion. A study to determine the incidence of hyperprolactinemia in a large series of acromegalic subjects was undertaken. The relationships between plasma levels of growth hormone and prolactin, sellar volume, duration of acromegaly, and age at time of evaluation were investigated

  14. Technetium-99m pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid imaging for pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors performed scintigraphy using 99mTc(V)-DMSA (Technetium-99m pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid) on patients with pituitary adenomas. Three non-functioning (100%), 2 GH-secreting (67%), 4 PRL-secreting (80%), and zero ACTH-secreting (0%) adenomas concentrated the 99mTc(V)-DMSA, but all 5 of the non-adenomatous lesions and 1 normal pituitary gland did not. There was no significant relationship between tumor-to-background ratios and tumor sizes, or the serum hormone level. The 99mTc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy showed an overall sensitivity of 69% (9/13) in detecting pituitary adenomas, which increased to 82% for non-functioning, GH-secreting and PRL-secreting adenomas. In conclusions, 99mTc(V)-DMSA was found to be a suitable radiotracer for detecting pituitary adenomas. But further studies are necessary to define the processes that concentrate 99mTc(V)-DMSA and their role in pituitary adenomas. (author)

  15. Histomorfologia do gânglio de Gasser, da rete mirabile carotídea e da hipófise de bovinos: estudo de 199 casos Histomorphology of the Gasserian ganglion, carotid rete mirabile and pituitary gland in cattle: a study of 199 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel R. Rech

    2006-06-01

    do número de células satélites ao redor dos neurônios do gânglio de Gasser e ocasional vacuolização e lipofuscinose neuronal. O exame histológico do complexo GRH é uma ferramenta importante e confiável no diagnóstico das principais encefalites em bovinos no Brasil.The complex of heterogenous tissues formed by the Gasserian ganglia, carotid rete mirabile and pituitary gland (GRH from 199 cattle were grossly and histologically evaluated. Twenty one of the GRH were from comfirmed cases of rabies, 19 were diagnosed as cases of meningoencephalitis caused by bovine herpesvirus-5 (BoHV-5, 11 were confirmed cases of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, 7 had pituitary abscesses, 17 had lesions of hepatic encephalopathy (status spongiosus attributable to chronic liver failure due to Senecio sp poisoning; and the remaining 124 GRH were from cattle which did not present neurological signs and died or were euthanatized due to various causes. No significant histologic changes were observed in the GRH from the 124 cattle which did not present neurological signs, in the GRH of the 17 cattle that had hepatic encephalopathy neither in the GRH of the 19 cattle diagnosed with BoHV-5 meningoencephalitis. Inflammatory changes were found in the Gasserian ganglia of 20 out of 21 cases of rabies and consisted of proliferation of sattelite cells, glial nodules and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate; degenerative changes included central chromatolysis, neuronal vacuolation, and neuronal death with neuronophagia. Characteristic eosinophilic intracytoplasmatic inclusion (Negri bodies were found in 19 out of 21 cases of rabies, neuritis of the fifth nerve in 11, and neurohypophysitis in 4 cases. The GRH from nine of the eleven cases of MCF had characteristic necrotizing arteritis affecting the arteries of the carotid rete mirabile. In seven cases pituitary abscesses were found; they were characterized by large aggregates of neutrophils admixed with cellular debris and surrounded by mononuclear

  16. Pituitary Tumors Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breasts Produce milk for nursing a baby Growth hormone (GH) Many areas of the body Control growth and metabolism Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Adrenal gland Produce cortisol, needed to handle ...

  17. Pituitary Morphology and Function in 43 Children with Central Diabetes Insipidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In pediatric central diabetes insipidus (CDI, etiology diagnosis and pituitary function monitoring are usually delayed. This study aimed to illustrate the importance of regular follow-up and pituitary function monitoring in pediatric CDI. Methods. The clinical, hormonal, and neuroradiological characteristics of children with CDI at diagnosis and during 1.5–2-year follow-up were collected and analyzed. Results. The study included 43 CDI patients. The mean interval between initial manifestation and diagnosis was 22.29 ± 3.67 months (range: 2–108 months. The most common complaint was polyuria/polydipsia. Causes included Langerhans cell histiocytosis, germinoma, and craniopharyngioma in 2, 5, and 4 patients; the remaining were idiopathic. No significant changes were found during the 1.5–2 years after CDI diagnosis. Twenty-three of the 43 cases (53.5% had ≥1 anterior pituitary hormone deficiency. Isolated growth hormone deficiency was the most frequent abnormality (37.5% and was not associated with pituitary stalk diameter. Multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were found in 8 cases with pituitary stalk diameter > 4.5 mm. Conclusion. Diagnosis of CDI is usually delayed. CDI with a pituitary stalk diameter > 4.5 mm carries a higher risk of multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. Long-term MRI and pituitary function follow-ups are necessary for children with idiopathic CDI.

  18. Pituitary Morphology and Function in 43 Children with Central Diabetes Insipidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wendong; Wang, Limin; Liu, Minghua; Li, Guimei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. In pediatric central diabetes insipidus (CDI), etiology diagnosis and pituitary function monitoring are usually delayed. This study aimed to illustrate the importance of regular follow-up and pituitary function monitoring in pediatric CDI. Methods. The clinical, hormonal, and neuroradiological characteristics of children with CDI at diagnosis and during 1.5–2-year follow-up were collected and analyzed. Results. The study included 43 CDI patients. The mean interval between initial manifestation and diagnosis was 22.29 ± 3.67 months (range: 2–108 months). The most common complaint was polyuria/polydipsia. Causes included Langerhans cell histiocytosis, germinoma, and craniopharyngioma in 2, 5, and 4 patients; the remaining were idiopathic. No significant changes were found during the 1.5–2 years after CDI diagnosis. Twenty-three of the 43 cases (53.5%) had ≥1 anterior pituitary hormone deficiency. Isolated growth hormone deficiency was the most frequent abnormality (37.5%) and was not associated with pituitary stalk diameter. Multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were found in 8 cases with pituitary stalk diameter > 4.5 mm. Conclusion. Diagnosis of CDI is usually delayed. CDI with a pituitary stalk diameter > 4.5 mm carries a higher risk of multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. Long-term MRI and pituitary function follow-ups are necessary for children with idiopathic CDI. PMID:27118970

  19. Immunohistochemical detection of dopamine D2 receptors in human pituitary adenomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Pawlikowski

    2010-01-01

    Thirty one pituitary adenomas and 3 samples of peritumoral anterior pituitary tissue were immunostained with an antibody raised against dopamine D2 receptor protein. The positive reactions were found in cell cytoplasm, a subpopulation of cell nuclei and the intratumoral blood vessels walls. As expected, the positive immunostaining was shown in cytoplasm and/or cell nuclei of all examined prolactinomas (7/7). In acromegaly the positive D2 staining occurred in 5/7 samples, in gonadotropinomas i...

  20. Bright pituitary stalk on MR T1-weighted image. Damming up phenomenon of the neurosecretory granules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Ichiro; Uokawa, Kyosuke; Horii, Naotoshi; Murakami, Norihiko; Azuma, Nobuyuki; Furuto-Kato, Sumiko; Yamashita, Kohsuke; Nakao, Satoshi; Kageyama, Naoki [Kishiwada City Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    Characteristic findings of the pituitary stalk on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, which suggest a damming-up phenomenon of neurosecretory granules, were reported. Neurosecretory granules containing vasopressin influence the signal intensity on MR T1-weighted image (T1WI). The normal posterior lobe of the pituitary gland appears as a bright signal on T1WI. The bright signal of the posterior lobe represents the normal content of neurosecretory granules and disappears in patients with central diabetes insipidus. The normal pituitary stalk appears as a low-intermediate intensity signal on sagittal and coronal T1WIs with 3 mm-slice thickness. The pituitary stalk appeared as a bright signal in 20 patients; 13 with pituitary adenoma, 4 with an intrasellar cystic lesion, one with cavernous sinus mass, and 2 with no abnormal MR findings. The pituitary stalk was not severed in any of the cases. The normal bright signal of the posterior lobe disappeared in 17 patients. No patients suffered from symptoms of central diabetes insipidus when the bright pituitary stalk appeared. It is suggested that the origin of the bright signal in the pituitary stalk is the damming up and accumulation of neurosecretory granules in the nerve fibers of the hypothalamohypophyseal tract obstructed by adenoma, postoperative scarring, cystic mass and so on. Probably, the damming-up phenomenon on MR imaging represents the functional integrity of the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system, and should be distinguished from an ectopic posterior lobe formation which is caused by stalk transection. (author)

  1. Non-pituitary origin sellar tumours mimicking pituitary macroadenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abele, T.A., E-mail: travaus@gmail.com [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States); Yetkin, Z.F.; Raisanen, J.M.; Mickey, B.E.; Mendelsohn, D.B. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Although the large majority of sellar tumours are pituitary adenomas, several other pituitary and non-pituitary origin tumours arise in the sellar and parasellar regions. Given their location, non-adenomatous lesions frequently mimic pituitary macroadenomas and can pose a diagnostic challenge for the radiologist. Distinguishing rare sellar lesions from the common macroadenoma helps to direct the correct surgical approach and reduce the risk of incomplete resection and/or complications such as cerebrospinal fluid leak with the potential for meningitis. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging features of non-pituitary-origin sellar tumours, focusing on characteristics that may distinguish them from pituitary macroadenomas. Lesions include meningioma, metastatic disease, epidermoid cyst, germinoma, chondrosarcoma, giant cell tumour, and giant aneurysm.

  2. Haemorrhagic pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a group of 69 patients with pituitary tumours, 12 were found to have evidence of intratumoral haemorrhage on MRI, characterized by high signal intensity on short TR/TE sequences. This was verified in all but 1 patient. The majority of the bleedings occurred in macroadenomas. Five (42%) were prolactinomas and 4 (33%) were non-functioning adenomas. There were 2 GH- and 1 ACTH-secreting tumours. All 5 patients with prolactinomas were on bromocriptine medication. Two of the patients had a clinical picture of pituitary apoplexy. The haemorrhage was not large enough to prompt surgery in any of the patients. However, surgical verification of the diagnosis was obtained in 5 cases, while 6 patients were examined with follow-up MRI. (orig.)

  3. Pituitary stalk tuberculoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalldecker, Graciela; Diez, Sabrina; Carabelli, Alejandra; Reynoso, Roxana; Rey, Raul; Hofmann, Nestor; Beresñak, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    Pituitary tuberculomas are exceptionally rare. Even with no evidence of systemic tuberculosis, it is important to recognize these lesions in the differential diagnosis of the intrasuprasellar tumors because they are curable. At present, in developed countries the frequency of intracranial tuberculomas of nervous system tumors is around 0.5-4%, whereas in under developed countries is 15-30%. It mainly affects children and young adults. In some cases, an accurate diagnosis may lead to an efficient medical therapy on the basis of biological, hormonal and imaging scans examinations. The case we studied shows the difficulties encountered in the diagnosis of a thickened stalk having normal pituitary image. It is to be highlighted the usage of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. PMID:12812306

  4. Hypothalamus, pituitary and thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation has been carried out due to the apparent disagreement between the very wide so called normal ranges of the serum levels of the thyroid hormones and the extreme sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary control system to minimal changes in thyroid hormone production. TRH (thyrotropin-releasing-hormone) infusion and injection studies have been performed using labelled compounds and radioassays and radioimmunoassays. (Auth.)

  5. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  6. Genetic disruption of dopamine production results in pituitary adenomas and severe prolactinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopamine release from tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons into the median eminence activates dopamine-D2 receptors in the pituitary gland where it inhibits lactotroph function. We have previously described genetic dopamine-deficient mouse models which lack the ability to synthesize dopamine. Because...

  7. Pituitary metastasis of pancreatic origin in a dog presenting with acute-onset blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo; Carrera, Inés; Dobromylskyj, Melanie; Patterson-Kane, Janet; Ortega, Maria; Wessmann, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary metastases have rarely been recorded in dogs, and to date, none of those reported have been of pancreatic origin. MRI findings are available for only one of those cases. Herein the authors present an 11 yr old English springer spaniel diagnosed with pituitary metastasis of pancreatic origin with a 24 hr history of blindness and only a single lesion on MRI. Neurologic and ophthalmologic examinations localized the lesion to the optic nerves, optic tracts, or optic chiasm. MRI showed a single lesion characterized by a well-circumscribed pituitary mass with extrasellar extension, causing compression of the optic chiasm. Signal intensity was unusual as enhancement could not be appreciated after contrast administration. The dog was euthanized without further diagnostic tests. Histopathologic examination revealed a poorly differentiated exocrine pancreatic carcinoma with widespread metastasis involving the pituitary gland. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first such case reported in a dog. Pituitary metastases should be included as a differential diagnosis for dogs presenting with acute-onset blindness and for single brain masses affecting the pituitary gland. PMID:24051261

  8. Multiple Pituitary Adenomas: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budan, Renata M.; Georgescu, Carmen E.

    2016-01-01

    PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science Core Collection databases were systematically searched for studies reporting synchronous double or multiple pituitary adenomas (MPA), a rare clinical condition, with a vague pathogenesis. Multiple adenomas of the pituitary gland are referred to as morphologically and/or immunocytochemically distinct tumors that are frequently small-sized and hormonally non-functional, to account for the low detection rate. There is no general agreement on how to classify MPA, various criteria, such as tumor contiguity, immunoreactivity, and clonality analysis are being used. Among the component tumors, prolactin (PRL)-immunopositive adenomas are highly prevalent, albeit mute in the majority of cases. The most frequent clinical presentation of MPA is Cushing’s syndrome, given the fact that in more than 50% of reported cases at least one lesion stains for adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). Plurihormonal hyperactivity may be diagnosed in a patient with MPA when more than one tumor is clinically active (e.g., ACTH and PRL) or in cases with at least one composite tumor (e.g., GH and PRL), to complicate the clinical scenario. Specific challenges associated with MPA include high surgical failure rates, enforcing second-look surgery in certain cases, and difficult preoperative neuroradiological imaging evaluation, with an overall sensitivity of only 25% for magnetic resonance imaging to detect distinct multiple tumors. Alternatively, minor pituitary imaging abnormalities may raise suspicion, as these are not uncommon. Postoperative immunohistochemistry is mandatory and in conjunction to electron microscopy scanning and testing for transcription factors (i.e., Pit-1, T-pit, and SF-1) accurately define and classify the distinct cytodifferentiation of MPA. PMID:26869991

  9. Diagnostic imaging of the pituitary gland in congenital hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high incidence of empty sella was found, by CT.HR and MR, in 18 patients with congenital hypothyroidism studied by plain skull radiographs, hormonal and radioimmunoassays and scintiscan. From a pathogenetic point of view, it is interesting to note that all patients had been given inadequate therapy for a long period. A significant incidence of cerebral atrophy was found in young congenital hypothyroid subjects. Radiographic examination is still useful, mainly in the screening of these lesions. In fact, morphologic and/or volumetric alterations of the sella, corresponded in all cases to the finding of an empty sella, as demonstrated by CT.HR and MR. Both these techniques have a high diagnostic accuracy in identifying the lesion. The contribution of imaging techniques is even greater in view of the fact that the clinical and biohumoral picture of empty sella is stiil ill-defined

  10. Genetics Home Reference: combined pituitary hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions combined pituitary hormone deficiency combined pituitary hormone deficiency Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Combined pituitary hormone deficiency is a condition that causes ...

  11. Anterior tarsaltunnelsyndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miliam, Palle B; Basse, Peter N

    2009-01-01

    Anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome is a rare entrapment neuropathy of the deep peroneal nerve beneath the extensor retinaculum of the ankle. It may be rare because it is underrecognized clinically.We present a case regarding a 29-year-old man, drummer, who for one and a half year experienced clinical...

  12. Alopecia universalis, hypothyroidism and pituitary hyperplasia: polyglandular autoimmune syndrome III in a patient in remission from treated Hodgkin lymphoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quintyne, K I

    2010-10-01

    We herein report a case of a 33-year-old man in remission from Hodgkin lymphoma, who presented with reduced potency and hair loss. Initial endocrine tests revealed autoimmune hypothyroidism. An MRI of his pituitary gland at onset revealed hyperplasia. He tolerated replacement endocrine therapy with good response, but with no improvement in his alopecia universalis. A repeat MRI, 6 months after his initial endocrine manipulation, showed resolution of his pituitary hyperplasia.

  13. A retrospective review of pituitary MRI findings in children on growth hormone therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with congenital hypopituitarism might have the classic triad of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, which consists of: (1) an interrupted or thin pituitary stalk, (2) an absent or ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP), and (3) anterior pituitary hypoplasia or aplasia. To examine the relationship between pituitary anatomy and the degree of hormonal dysfunction. This study involved a retrospective review of MRI findings in all children diagnosed with congenital growth hormone deficiency from 1988 to 2010 at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital. Of the 52 MRIs reviewed in 52 children, 26 children had normal pituitary anatomy and 26 had one or more elements of the classic triad. Fourteen of fifteen children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies had structural anomalies on MRI. Twelve of 37 children with isolated growth hormone deficiency had an abnormal MRI. Children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were more likely to have the classic triad than children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. A normal MRI was the most common finding in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. (orig.)

  14. Germ Cell Tumor Located in the Midline of the Anterior Neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana PIRDOPSKA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary germ cell tumors involving midline of the anterior neck are extremely rare. Here we report a 68-year-old male who was operated due to a mass lesion in the anterior neck with infiltration of the isthmus of the thyroid gland. Histopathological examination revealed a germ cell tumor with extragonadal localization in the anterior neck infiltrating the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  15. GH and Pituitary Hormone Alterations After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Züleyha; Tanrıverdi, Fatih; Ünlühızarcı, Kürşad; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a crucially important public health problem around the world, which gives rise to increased mortality and is the leading cause of physical and psychological disability in young adults, in particular. Pituitary dysfunction due to TBI was first described 95years ago. However, until recently, only a few papers have been published in the literature and for this reason, TBI-induced hypopituitarism has been neglected for a long time. Recent studies have revealed that TBI is one of the leading causes of hypopituitarism. TBI which causes hypopituitarism may be characterized by a single head injury such as from a traffic accident or by chronic repetitive head trauma as seen in combative sports including boxing, kickboxing, and football. Vascular damage, hypoxic insult, direct trauma, genetic predisposition, autoimmunity, and neuroinflammatory changes may have a role in the development of hypopituitarism after TBI. Because of the exceptional structure of the hypothalamo-pituitary vasculature and the special anatomic location of anterior pituitary cells, GH is the most commonly lost hormone after TBI, and the frequency of isolated GHD is considerably high. TBI-induced pituitary dysfunction remains undiagnosed and therefore untreated in most patients because of the nonspecific and subtle clinical manifestations of hypopituitarism. Treatment of TBI-induced hypopituitarism depends on the deficient anterior pituitary hormones. GH replacement therapy has some beneficial effects on metabolic parameters and neurocognitive dysfunction. Patients with TBI without neuroendocrine changes and those with TBI-induced hypopituitarism share the same clinical manifestations, such as attention deficits, impulsion impairment, depression, sleep abnormalities, and cognitive disorders. For this reason, TBI-induced hypopituitarism may be neglected in TBI victims and it would be expected that underlying hypopituitarism would aggravate the clinical picture of TBI itself

  16. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome in Chinese people: clinical characteristic analysis of 55 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Guo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS is characterized by the absence of pituitary stalk, pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic posterior pituitary. Due to the rarity of PSIS, clinical data are limited, especially in Chinese people. Herein, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with PSIS from our center over 10 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical manifestations and laboratory and MRI findings in 55 patients with PSIS. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients with PSIS, 48 (87.3% were male. The average age was 19.7±6.7 years and there was no familial case. A history of breech delivery was documented in 40 of 45 patients (88.9% and 19 of 55 patients (34.5% had a history of dystocia. Short stature was found in 47 of 55 patients (85.5% and bone age delayed 7.26±5.37 years. Secondary sex characteristics were poor or undeveloped in most patients. The prevalence of deficiencies in growth hormone, gonadotropins, corticotropin, and thyrotropin were 100%, 95.8%, 81.8%, 76.3%, respectively. Hyperprolactinemia was found in 36.4% of patients. Three or more pituitary hormone deficiencies were found in 92.7% of the patients. All patients had normal posterior pituitary function and absent pituitary stalk on imaging. The average height of anterior pituitary was 28 mm, documented anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Midline abnormalities were presented in 9.1% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features of our Chinese PSIS patients seem to be different from other reported patients in regarding to the higher degree of hypopituitarism and lower prevalence of midline defects. In addition, our patients were older at the time of case detection and the bone age was markedly delayed. We also had no cases of familial PSIS.

  17. Pituitary Prolactinoma Imaged by 99mTc-Sestamibi SPECT/CT in a Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu; Lv, Jing; Guo, Rui; Pan, Mengyi; Zhang, Yifan

    2016-06-01

    A 35-year-old woman who had undergone bilateral inferior parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism was referred to our hospital to evaluate the cause of irregular menses, galactorrhea, and paroxysmal headache. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 was then suspected for the high levels of plasma prolactin, parathyroid hormone, serum calcium, insulin, and related symptoms. A Tc-sestamibi SPECT/CT acquired to evaluate parathyroid glands unexpectedly revealed an increased accumulation in the pituitary gland, which was further confirmed by enhanced magnetic resonance imaging as a pituitary microadenoma. Bromocriptine treatment gradually reduced the prolactin level. PMID:26828146

  18. Transsphenoidal pituitary resection with intraoperative MR guidance: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Richard S., Jr.; Schwartz, Richard B.; Hsu, Liangge; Wong, Terence Z.; Black, Peter M.; Martin, Claudia; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    1999-05-01

    The use of intraoperative MR image guidance has the potential to improve the precision, extent and safety of transsphenoidal pituitary resections. At Brigham and Women's Hospital, an open-bore configuration 0.5T MR system (SIGNA SP, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) has been used to provide image guidance for nine transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma resections. The intraoperative MR system allowed the radiologist to direct the surgeon toward the sella turcica successfully while avoiding the cavernous sinus, optic chiasm and other sensitive structures. Imaging performed during the surgery monitored the extent of resection and allowed for removal of tumor beyond the surgeon's view in five cases. Dynamic MR imaging was used to distinguish residual tumor from normal gland and postoperative changes permitting more precise tumor localization. A heme-sensitive long TE gradient echo sequence was used to evaluate for the presence of hemorrhagic debris. All patients tolerated the procedure well without significant complications.

  19. Pituitary: Non-Secretory Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What ... Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What ...

  20. Pituitary dimensions and volume measurements in pregnancy and post partum. MR assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Our purpose was to clarify and further characterize the changes in height, length, width, volume, and shape in the normal pituitary gland and in width in the infundibulum during pregnancy and the first 6 months post partum. Material and Methods: Cranial MR imaging was performed in 78 women who were pregnant in the second or third trimester or who were post partum, and in 18 age-matched control subjects who were not pregnant. Volume measurements were performed in 2 ways; volume 1=1/2 x height x length x width; and volume 2=area (measured by trackball) x slice thickness. Results: Gland volume, height, width, length, and convexity, and infundibular width increased during pregnancy. The highest values were seen during the 3 days immediately post partum. When compared with volunteers, volumes 1 and 2 showed the largest increase (120%) among the parameters. Gland height showed the best correlation (r=0.94, p<0.00001) with gestational age. The mean height of the gland was 8.76 mm in the third trimester. None of the pregnant women had a gland height of above 10 mm during pregnancy. Only 2 subjects had gland heights of 10.04 and 10.2 mm during the 0-3 days post partum. After this first post-partum period of 3 days, the gland size, shape, and volume and the infundibular width returned to normal within 6 months. Conclusion: The pituitary gland enlarges in three dimensions throughout pregnancy. During pregnancy, the volume of the gland shows the highest percentage of increase compared to its length, height, and width. The maximum height of the gland does not exceed 10 mm during pregnancy but it may exceed 10 mm during the 3 days immediately post partum. (orig.)

  1. Metastatic pituitary carcinoma: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Shang-fu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background As a kind of rare tumor, metastatic pituitary carcinoma is very difficult to diagnose clinically and is easy to be misdiagnosed. This article aims to discuss the clinical manifestations and histopathological features of this tumor. Methods The clinical presentations, histopathological features and immunophenotype were studied in one case of poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinoma metastatic to pituitary gland, and related literature was reviewed. Results A 47-year-old woman mainly presented with faint, headache and blurred vision. CT scan demonstrated abnormal signals in suprasellar cistern. During the resection, the tumor could be seen locating in sellar region, the size of which was about 2 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm. Histopathological examination revealed that the structure of pituitary gland was damaged and the tumor was composed of atypical round or oval cells arranged in nest or glandular patterns, in which a number of enlarged plump tumor cells contained abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with eccentrical caryogenesis. The immunohistochemistry showed that epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, pan cytokeratin (PCK, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1 and cytokeratin 7 (CK7 were positive in tumor cells with Ki-67 labeling index being 15%, but chromogranin (CgA, cancer embryo antigen (CEA, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP, CD117, leukocyte common antigen (LCA, CD30, anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1 (ALK-1 were negative in tumor cells. After operation the patient received treatment with levothyroxine sodium and γ knife, but died 4 months later. Conclusion Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry can confirm the diagnosis of metastatic pituitary carcinoma and locate the primary lesion. Postoperative comprehensive therapy is necessary.

  2. Incidental pituitary uptake on whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT: a multicentre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kang, Sungmin; Seo, Ji-Hyoung; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Jaetae [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hui Joong [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Kyung Ah; Cho, Ihn Ho [Yeungnam University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Won, Kyung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of incidental pituitary uptake on whole-body {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and to investigate its clinical significance. The files of 40,967 patients who underwent whole-body FDG PET/CT were retrospectively reviewed. Quantification of pituitary metabolic activity was obtained by using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}). Hormone assays and pituitary MRIs were performed to assess pituitary lesions. Focally increased pituitary FDG uptake on PET/CT was found in 30 of 40,967 patients, accounting for an incidence of 0.073%. The mean SUV{sub max} of 30 patients was 8.9 {+-} 6.6 (range: 3.2-32.6). Histological diagnosis was obtained in three patients and included two growth hormone-secreting adenomas and one non-functioning adenoma. Hormone assays were performed on serum samples from 11 patients, 2 of whom were shown to have hypersecretion of pituitary hormone. MRI was performed on 19 patients. Abnormal MRI findings suggesting a pituitary mass were found in 18 of 19 cases (94.7%). The mean SUV{sub max} calculated without correction for partial volume effect for macroadenomas was significantly higher than the SUV{sub max} for microadenomas (11.5 {+-} 8.4 vs 4.8 {+-} 1.3; p < 0.05). There were no cases diagnosed with metastasis to the pituitary gland during clinical follow-up. Incidental pituitary FDG uptake was a very rare finding. Cases with incidental pituitary FDG uptake were diagnosed primarily with clinically non-functioning adenomas, and there were also a few functioning adenomas. Further evaluations, including hormone assays and pituitary MRI, are warranted when pituitary uptake is found on FDG PET/CT. (orig.)

  3. Anatomy of melancholia: focus on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis overactivity and the role of vasopressin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dinan, Timothy G

    2012-02-03

    Overactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis characterized by hypercortisolism, adrenal hyperplasia and abnormalities in negative feedback is the most consistently described biological abnormality in melancholic depression. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are the main secretagogues of the HPA\\/stress system. Produced in the parvicellular division of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus the release of these peptides is influenced by inputs from monoaminergic neurones. In depression, anterior pituitary CRH1 receptors are down-regulated and response to CRH infusion is blunted. By contrast, vasopressin V3 receptors on the anterior pituitary show enhanced response to AVP stimulation and this enhancement plays a key role in maintaining HPA overactivity.

  4. Changes in oxytocin and vasopressin content in posterior pituitary and hypothalamus following pantethine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, G L; Miaskowski, C; Haldar, J

    1990-01-01

    Pantethine, a cysteamine precursor, depletes somatostatin in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus and prolactin in the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus. This study investigated the effect of pantethine on oxytocin and arginine vasopressin content in the posterior pituitary and hypothalamus. Male Long-Evans rats were injected intraperitoneally with escalating doses of pantethine (i.e., 146.7 mg, 293.4 mg and 586.6 mg/100 gm body weight). Hormone content was determined by radioimmunoassay. Three hours after pantethine treatment, the oxytocin content in the posterior pituitary and the hypothalamus was markedly reduced with all doses of the drug. Vasopressin content in the posterior pituitary and hypothalamus was decreased but to a lesser extent than oxytocin and only with the highest dose of pantethine. Pantethine may act to reduce oxytocin and vasopressin content through intracellular conversion to cysteamine. The exact mechanism of action of pantethine on oxytocin and vasopressin remains to be elucidated. PMID:2402177

  5. Expression and Signal Transduction Pathways of Melatonin Receptors in the Pituitary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, Hana; Balík, Aleš; Stojilkovič, S.S.

    Georgetown: Eurekah.com, 2006 - (Pandi-Perumal, S.; Cardinali, D.), s. 88-104 ISBN 1-58706-244-5 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5011105; GA AV ČR IAA5011103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : melatonin * gonadotropin-releasing hormone * anterior pituitary Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  6. Endoscopic pituitary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappabianca, Paolo; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; de Divitiis, Oreste; Solari, Domenico; Esposito, Felice; Colao, Annamaria

    2008-01-01

    Pituitary surgery is a continuous evolving speciality of the neurosurgeons' armamentarium, which requires precise anatomical knowledge, technical skills and integrated appreciation of the pituitary pathophysiology. What we consider "pure" endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery is a procedure performed through the nose and the sphenoid bone, with the endoscope alone throughout the whole approach to visualize the surgical target area and without the use of any transsphenoidal retractor. It offers some advantages due to the endoscope itself: a superior close-up view of the relevant anatomy and an enlarged working angle are provided with an increased panoramic vision inside the surgical area. Concerning results in terms of mass removal, relief of clinical symptoms, cure of the underlying disease and complication rate, they are, at least, similar to those reported in the major microsurgical series, but patient compliance is by far better. Furthermore transsphenoidal endoscopy brings advantages to the patient (less nasal traumatism, no nasal packing, less post-op pain and usually quick recovery), to the surgeon (wider and closer view of the surgical target area, increase of the scientific activity as from the peer-reviewed literature on the topic in the last 10 years, smoothing of interdisciplinary cooperation), to the institution (shorter post-op hospital stay, increase of the case load). Besides, further progress and technological advance are expected from the close cooperation between different technologies and industries. Continuing works in such field of "minimalism" will offer further possibilities to provide the surgeon with even more effectiveness and safety, and, on the other hand, the patient with improvement of results. PMID:18286374

  7. Hypothalamic-pituitary functions in patients with idiopathic pituitary dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, R; Jujo, K; Takano, K; Odagiri, E; Maeda, T; Suda, T; Demura, H; Shizume, K

    1975-04-01

    To investigate hypothalamic-pituitary functions and the primary site of the lesion in idiopathic pituitary dwarfism, various pituitary function tests, especially the pituitary hormone responses to the hypophysiotropic hormones were studied in 23 patients with idiopathic pituitary dwarfism. A few cases showed slight responses of GH to GH stimulation tests. Gonadotropin deficiencies were most frequently noted among pituitary hormones. The basal levels and the responses of plasma LH and FSH to LH-RH test were diminished markedly in all of the cases except in 5 cases with isolated GH deficiency. Responses of LH and FSH to LH-RH improved markedly after a long term administration of LH-RH for a period of one month in 2 patients with gonadotropin deficiency. As to TSH axis, half of the cases accompanied hypothyroidism. However, the responses of TSH to TRH were normal in all of the cases regardless of the thyroid function. The basal levels and the responses of plasma cortisol and 11-deoxycortisol to the rapid metopirone test were also impaired in about half of the cases. Basal levels of plasma prolactin were normal in all of the cases and the responses of prolactin to TRH were normal in cases with normal thyroid function, but slightly delayed in cases with hypothyroidism. It is concluded from the above observations that the incidences of various pituitary hormone deficiencies were quite high in this disorder and hypophysiotropic hormone deficiencies may cause pituitary hormone deficiencies. Therefore, it is suggested that the primary site of the lesion in this disorder might be at the hypothalamus. PMID:807471

  8. Molecular Morphology of Pituitary Cells, from Conventional Immunohistochemistry to Fluorescein Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yoshiyuki Osamura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In situ hybridization (ISH at the electron microscopic (EM level is essential for elucidating the intracellular distribution and role of mRNA in protein synthesis. EM-ISH is considered to be an important tool for clarifying the intracellular localization of mRNA and the exact site of pituitary hormone synthesis on the rough endoplasmic reticulum. A combined ISH and immunohistochemistry (IHC under EM (EM-ISH&IHC approach has sufficient ultrastructural resolution, and provides two-dimensional images of the subcellular localization of pituitary hormone and its mRNA in a pituitary cell. The advantages of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots, Qdots and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM enable us to obtain three-dimensional images of the subcellular localization of pituitary hormone and its mRNA. Both EM-ISH&IHC and ISH & IHC using Qdots and CLSM are useful for understanding the relationships between protein and mRNA simultaneously in two or three dimensions. CLSM observation of rab3B and SNARE proteins such as SNAP-25 and syntaxin has revealed that both rab3B and SNARE system proteins play important roles and work together as the exocytotic machinery in anterior pituitary cells. Another important issue is the intracellular transport and secretion of pituitary hormone. We have developed an experimental pituitary cell line, GH3 cell, which has growth hormone (GH linked to enhanced yellow fluorescein protein (EYFP. This stable GH3 cell secretes GH linked to EYFP upon stimulation by Ca2+ influx or Ca2+ release from storage. This GH3 cell line is useful for the real-time visualization of the intracellular transport and secretion of GH. These three methods from conventional immunohistochemistry and fluorescein imaging allow us to consecutively visualize the process of transcription, translation, transport and secretion of anterior pituitary hormone.

  9. Cranial nerve damage in patients after alpha (heavy)-particle radiation to the pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The records of 161 patients were reviewed to determine if radiation damage had occurred following cranial irradiation. All of these patients had received alpha-particle radiation to their pituitary glands for diabetic retinopathy. Extraocular muscle palsy developed in 11 of these patients, iridoplegia in six, and fifth nerve damage in six. All of the palsies developed within a short period following their irradiation, and a definite dose relationship was present. The estimated doses to the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth cranial nerves was calculated at a saggital plane 13 to 15 mm from the pituitary by using computer-drawn dosimetry charts for the respective aperture size

  10. The Technique and Dosimetry of Pituitary Implantation Using Sources of Y90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pituitary ablation by needle implantation of Y90 is finding increasing use in the treatment of breast and prostatic cancer, as well as diabetic retinopathy, Cushing's disease, acromegaly, and perhaps exophthalmos in Graves' disease. Yttrium-90 is the most suitable radioisotope when complete ablation of the gland is sought. This is because only β-particles are emitted, the maximum range (7mm) of which is comparable with the dimensions of the gland. The implantation of rods of standard activity into the gland, irrespective of its size, does not permit a standard dose level to be delivered to the gland and the method of implantation is to select the size and activity of the source to fit the dimensions of the gland in question. Thus consistency in procedure may be attempted from one implant to another. The shape of the gland and the mode of access to it is such that complete destruction may conveniently be obtained by implanting two.sources. Each source is a rod of sintered Y2O3, (2-mm diam., and of length cut to suit the individual gland length). The rod activity is also selected to suit the gland dimensions: typically, it is from 2 to 3 me. Radiation dose has been experimentally related to geometry and activity. Mix D wax is used as the tissue- equivalent absorber, film as the detector and a calibrated Sr90 source (which decays into Y90) as the standard. One outcome of this work is that the pituitary gland requires a radiation dose of between 100 000 and 200 000 rad for necrosis and ablation. (author)

  11. The Insulin and IGF-I Pathway in Endocrine Glands Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Malaguarnera; Alaide Morcavallo; Antonino Belfiore

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine cancers are a heterogeneous group of diseases that may arise from endocrine cells in any gland of the endocrine system. These malignancies may show an aggressive behavior and resistance to the common anticancer therapies. The etiopathogenesis of these tumors remains mostly unknown. The normal embryological development and differentiation of several endocrine glands are regulated by specific pituitary tropins, which, in adult life, control the function and trophism of the endocrine g...

  12. Intrasellar schwannoma mimicking pituitary adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sai Sudarsan Puduru

    2013-01-01

    Intrasellar location of schwannoma is extremely uncommon and 18 cases are documented in the literature till now. This report describes intrasellar schwannoma in a patient in whom the neuroimaging features were suggestive of a pituitary adenoma.

  13. Recent advances in pituitary research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study are to investigate the neuroendocrine, neuroanatomical, and other effects of irradiation on defined regions of the pituitary and to correlate the onset of specific hormonal changes with anatomical localization of the focal lesions as well as with dose and mode of heavy-ion delivery. Autopsy data from these experiments will be used in the development of a methodology for total pituitary destruction without producing localized or widespread radionecrosis of surrounding tissues

  14. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  15. Recent advances in pituitary research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of irradiation on defined regions of the pituitary with 12C from the Bevalac. From initial experiments using 250 MeV/amu carbon ions and with use of sensitive radioimmunoassay hormone measurements, effects on the in vivo secretion of the pituitary peptide hormones by high LET carbon ions have been demonstrated. A greater and more rapid hormonal ablative effect was observed for Lateral Bragg Peak (LBP) with combined peak doses of approximately 14,000 rad in the lateral margins of the pituitary than when either higher central doses (CBP) or lower spread peak doses (SBP) were employed. The in vivo differences observed at 38 days suggest that both dose and volume of irradiated tissues determine the magnitude of the effect on hormone secretion. The greater hormonal effect of Bragg peak lesions in the lateral lobes of the pituitary conforms to other anatomical data and confirms that spatial distribution of cells in the pituitary can be used as an in vivo means of confirming accurate localization of high LET irradiation in the pituitary

  16. Evaluation of the prolactin-secreting pituitary microadenomas by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the prolactin-secreting pituitary microadenomas by computed tomography. A group of four patients was studied by direct coronal contrasted high resolution computed tomography. The aim of the study was to analyse the sensitivity and contribution of the method for the diagnosis of prolactin secreting pituitary microadenomas. As an example of the normal radiologic pattern of the hypothalamic-hypophisial region, one patient with headache, without any endocrinological complain and normal prolactin levels was studied. Three patients with galactorrea and amenorrea, had prolactin levels above 100 ng/ml, which correlated with abnormalities in computed tomography. Five parameters were important in analising the pituitary region: density, height and upper margin of the pituitary, position of the infundibulum, and the floor of the sella. In three patients there were an abnormal focal pituitary density (two hypodensities and one hiperdensity). Two patients had abnormal pituitary height, and three had convexity of the upper margin of the gland. The infundibulum was deviated to the contralateral side of the tumor and thinning and depression of the floor of the sella were seen in all cases. (author)

  17. Usefulness of gamma knife pituitary surgery to control thalamic pain after treatment of thalamic malignant lymphoma and report of pathology of gamma knife lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utsuki Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe the first reported autopsy findings following gamma knife surgery for thalamic pain. A 62-year-old man presented with thalamic pain after treatment for thalamic malignant lymphoma. He was treated with narcotic drugs, but his pain was uncontrollable. Treatment using gamma knife surgery on the pituitary gland using a maximum dose of 180 Gy, led to the control of his intractable pain with lower doses of drugs. His death was pain-free and was caused by a recurrence of the tumor, six months after gamma knife surgery. An autopsy was performed and necrosis was present in the area of the pituitary gland where it borders the pituitary stalk. Half of the adenohypophysis was not necrotic, and necrosis was not found in the pituitary stalk.

  18. Histochemical study of the oviducal gland and analysis of the sperm storage tubules of Mustelus schmitti Springer, 1939 (Chondrichthyes, Triakidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Gabriela Elías

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The paired oviducal glands of immature and mature females of Mustelus schmitti were examined macro and microscopically. Findings indicate that these glands possessed the same zonation as in most chondrichthyans from anterior to posterior: club, papillary, baffle and terminal zones. The whole gland is composed by simple tubular glands that connect with transverse grooves all along the organ. The club zone presents a typical indian club shape with a simple columnar and ciliated epithe...

  19. Radiosurgery of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy and role of gamma knife (GK) in the treatment of various pituitary adenomas are described on author's experience and discussed with literature. GK subjects are 328 patients (M 126/F 202, av. age of 47.8 y) in author's hospital, and satisfactory follow-up (32-44 mo) for evaluation has been possible in 253 cases, who had tumors non-functional (129 cases), producing ACTH (23), HGH (70) and PRL (31). Stereotactic GK radiosurgery is done with navigation by Gamma Plan based on enhanced MRI images at various doses, and evaluation in the follow-up period is performed by hormonal levels and MRI which give efficacy of complete response (CR), partial response (PR), MR and standard deviation (SD)/ progressive disease (PD) on the tumor size. The overall tumor control rate is found to be 95-100%. Effectiveness (CR and PR) is found as high as 77.4% in PRL-producing tumor (marginal dose 14-32 Gy), 65% in non-functioning (15-25 Gy), 61% in ACTH (19-30 Gy) and 60% in GH (19-31 Gy), of which tendency is similar to that in literature. Even in ACTH-producing tumor, low ACTH and cortisol levels persisted with tendency of improved obese and hypertensive symptoms. GK radiosurgery has limitations in the tissue size and distance between the tumor and optic nerve/chiasm, but for the enough small tumor, it gives satisfactorily long term efficacy. (R.T.)

  20. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh;

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  1. A kinetic compartment model for evaluating salivary gland scintigraphies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The semi-quantitative analysis of salivary gland scintigraphy with (99m) Tc-pertechnetate has been used to evaluate salivary gland function. However, no objective parameters distinguishing abnormal from normal functions have been established thus far. We propose using a simple kinetic...... model applied to the four major salivary glands. This kinetic model is based on a two-compartment model and the assumption of first-order kinetics to characterize normal salivary gland function and other selected parameters to evaluate the normal function of salivary glands. METHODS: Thirty patients...... referred for (99m) Tc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy were studied. Dynamic imaging of the head in a fixed anterior projection was performed after an intravenous bolus injection of 150 MBq (99m) Tc-pertechnetate using a gamma scintillation camera. After 30 min, lemon juice was orally administered...

  2. Alterations in Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal/Thyroid Axes and Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone in the Patients with Primary Insomnia: A Clinical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Lan Xia; Gui-Hai Chen; Zhi-Hua Li; Song Jiang; Jianhua Shen

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-target gland axis is thought to be linked with insomnia, yet there has been a lack of further systematic studies to prove this. This study included 30 patients with primary insomnia (PI), 30 patients with depression-comorbid insomnia (DCI), and 30 healthy controls for exploring the alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal/thyroid axes' hormones and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to evaluate sleep quality i...

  3. MRI for the determination of pituitary iron overload in children and young adults with β-thalassaemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypogonadism, resulting from iron-induced pituitary dysfunction, is the most frequently reported complication in patients with β-thalassaemia major. The aim of this study was to evaluate pituitary Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) signal intensity reduction, on T2*-weighted images, as a marker of pituitary iron overload. Thirty patients (13 females and 17 males, mean age: 16.6 ± 4.1) with β-thalassaemia major on conventional treatment and 13 healthy volunteers (7 females and 6 males, mean age: 11 ± 4.51 years) were studied with T2*-weighted images of the anterior pituitary using a 1.5 T unit. Four thalassaemic patients (2 females and 2 males) had clinical hypogonadism and required hormonal replacement treatment. Results revealed a statistically significant reduction of pituitary signal intensity in the thalassaemia group compared to controls (p 2 = 0.443, p = 0.001), whereas ferritin levels and pituitary MRI values were moderately correlated (r = -0.56, r 2 = 0.32, p = 0.08) in adult thalassaemic patients. In conclusion, pituitary MRI indices as measured on T2*-weighted images seem to reflect pituitary iron overload and could, therefore, be used for a preclinical detection of patients who are in greater danger of developing hypogonadism

  4. Peculiarities of hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid function in children born from the Chornobyl NPP accident survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 168 children born to parents exposed after the Chernobyl accident were examined to study the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid system function in descendants of the Chernobyl survivors. Clinical, hormonal, ultrasound examinations and challenge test with tyroliberynum were conducted. Some abnormalities that might explain the functional strain of the hypothalamic-pituitary system were identified being of a great role in origination and progress of thyroid disease. The prolonged strain leads to decreased production of thyroid hormone, which causes an increased secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone. Under the influence of TSH the thyroid gland in the first stage becomes increased in its mass, which leads to the formation of endemic goiter. Stable and permanent thyroid gland enlargement often leads to formation of the nodular goiter and other proliferative processes, namely to carcinogenesis

  5. Anterior Hypopituitarism is Rare and Autoimmune Disease is Common in Adults with Idiopathic Central Diabetes Insipidus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Objective: Central diabetes insipidus is a rare clinical condition with a heterogenous aetiology. Up to 40% of cases are classified as idiopathic, though many of these are thought to have an autoimmune basis. Published data has suggested that anterior hypopituitarism is common in childhood onset idiopathic diabetes insipidus. We aimed to assess the incidence of anterior hypopituitarism in a cohort of adult patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Design and Patients: We performed a retrospective review of the databases of two pituitary investigation units. This identified 39 patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. All had undergone MRI scanning and dynamic pituitary testing (either insulin tolerance testing or GHRH\\/arginine and short synacthen testing) to assess anterior pituitary function. Results: One patient had partial growth hormone deficiency; no other anterior pituitary hormonal deficits were found. 33% had at least one autoimmune disease in addition to central diabetes insipidus. Conclusions: Our data suggest that anterior hypopituitarism is rare in adult idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Routine screening of these patients for anterior hypopituitarism may not therefore be indicated. The significant prevalence of autoimmune disease in this cohort supports the hypothesis that idiopathic diabetes insipidus may have an autoimmune aetiology.

  6. Usefulness of multiphase helical CT in the diagnosis of pituitary microadenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Ryo; Amano, Yasuo; Uchiyama, Nachiko; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Teramoto, Akira; Kumazaki, Tatsuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of multiphase helical CT (MHCT) in the diagnosis of pituitary microadenoma. Twenty-two patients with clinically suspected microadenoma were examined. Coronal pre-contrast CT was initially carried out. Three series of helical scanning using 1-mm collimation, 1-mm/s table speed, and 1-mm interval reconstruction covering the entire pituitary gland were performed with an intravenous injection of contrast medium. Immediately after MHCT, delayed CECT was performed. Twenty microadenomas (3-10 mm, mean: 5.5 mm) were surgically confirmed. MHCT could depict all 20 tumors, while pre-contrast CT and delayed CECT showed 4 and 12 of 20 tumors, respectively. MHCT was useful in the diagnosis of pituitary microadenoma owing to its high spatial resolution and extensive coverage. (author)

  7. Normal MR appearances of the posterior pituitary in central diabetes insipidus associated with septo-optic dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pituitary in children with central diabetes insipidus usually shows absence of the normal high signal within the posterior gland. The high signal of the normal posterior pituitary is thought to be due to the presence of intra- cellular storage granules of vasopressin. MR imaging has been advocated as a useful investigation to aid in the distinction between central diabetes insipidus and other causes of thirst and polydipsia. We report the case of an infant with central diabetes insipidus in association with septo-optic dysplasia in whom MR imaging showed normal appearances of the posterior pituitary. The mechanism of central diabetes insipidus in this case may be related to a failure of hypothalamic function affecting osmoreception, rather than to a deficiency of vasopressin. Normal MR appearances of the pituitary do not exclude central diabetes insipidus in infants with midline cerebral malformations. (orig.). With 1 fig

  8. Normal MR appearances of the posterior pituitary in central diabetes insipidus associated with septo-optic dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, L.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Liverpool Children`s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Qunibi, M.A. [Depts. of Radiology and Child Health, Royal Liverpool Children`s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Smith, C.S. [Depts. of Radiology and Child Health, Royal Liverpool Children`s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pituitary in children with central diabetes insipidus usually shows absence of the normal high signal within the posterior gland. The high signal of the normal posterior pituitary is thought to be due to the presence of intra- cellular storage granules of vasopressin. MR imaging has been advocated as a useful investigation to aid in the distinction between central diabetes insipidus and other causes of thirst and polydipsia. We report the case of an infant with central diabetes insipidus in association with septo-optic dysplasia in whom MR imaging showed normal appearances of the posterior pituitary. The mechanism of central diabetes insipidus in this case may be related to a failure of hypothalamic function affecting osmoreception, rather than to a deficiency of vasopressin. Normal MR appearances of the pituitary do not exclude central diabetes insipidus in infants with midline cerebral malformations. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  9. Er-Xian Decoction, a traditional Chinese herbal formula, intervening early in hypothalamic-pituitary axis of male rats with delayed puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Er-Xian Decoction (EXD is one of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM with unique effect on osteoporosis, menopausal syndrome and delayed puberty in China for many years. Objective: We aim to evaluate the potential activity of starting hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT axis of male rats with delayed puberty. Materials and Methods : Delayed puberty model of male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were established with soy isoflavones (90 mg·kg -1 and were treated by EXD extract at doses of 5, 10 g·kg -1 or Testosterone undecanoate (TU for 8 weeks. Body weight, body length, testis weight, T, E 2 and luteinizing hormone (LH in serum, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH in hypothalamus, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and LH in pituitary gland were determined by ELISA. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect LH in pituitary gland . Results: Soy isoflavones could significantly decrease body weight, body length, testicular organ coefficient T in serum, GnRH in hypothalamus, FSH and LH in pituitary gland. Both of EXD and TU could improve the condition. E 2 and LH in serum of all groups were non-significance of difference (P > 0.05. The immunohistochemical results were well consistent with LH in pituitary gland. Conclusion: The results of the present research indicate that EXD extract is effective to start the HPT axis in puberty and can significantly improve sexual developmental inhibition caused by soy isoflavones.

  10. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Patients With Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenomas: Results From a 15-Year Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and complications of stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFA). Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review of 62 patients with NFA undergoing radiosurgery between 1992 and 2004, of whom 59 (95%) underwent prior tumor resection. The median treatment volume was 4.0 cm3 (range, 0.8-12.9). The median treatment dose to the tumor margin was 16 Gy (range, 11-20). The median maximum point dose to the optic apparatus was 9.5 Gy (range, 5.0-12.6). The median follow-up period after radiosurgery was 64 months (range, 23-161). Results: Tumor size decreased for 37 patients (60%) and remained unchanged for 23 patients (37%). Two patients (3%) had tumor growth outside the prescribed treatment volume and required additional treatment (fractionated radiation therapy, n = 1; repeat radiosurgery, n 1). Tumor growth control was 95% at 3 and 7 years after radiosurgery. Eleven (27%) of 41 patients with normal (n = 30) or partial (n = 11) anterior pituitary function before radiosurgery developed new deficits at a median of 24 months after radiosurgery. The risk of developing new anterior pituitary deficits at 5 years was 32%. The 5-year risk of developing new anterior pituitary deficits was 18% for patients with a tumor volume of ≤4.0 cm3 compared with 58% for patients with a tumor volume >4.0 cm3 (risk ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval = 1.3-14.9, p = 0.02). No patient had a decline in visual function. Conclusions: Stereotactic radiosurgery is effective in the management of patients with residual or recurrent NFA, although longer follow-up is needed to evaluate long-term outcomes. The primary complication is hypopituitarism, and the risk of developing new anterior pituitary deficits correlates with the size of the irradiated tumor

  11. Genetically engineered mouse models of pituitary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    DavidACano; AlfonsoSoto-Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Animal models constitute valuable tools for investigating the pathogenesis of cancer as well as for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics approaches. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of pituitary tumor formation remain poorly understood, particularly in sporadic adenomas, thus making it a challenge to model pituitary tumors in mice. Nevertheless, genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of pituitary tumors have provided important insight into pituitary tumor biology. In this paper, w...

  12. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in pituitary tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Patnaik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is the bleeding into the subarachnoid space containing cerebrospinal fluid. The most common cause of SAH is trauma. Rupture of aneurysms, vascular anomalies, tumor bleeds and hypertension are other important etiologies. SAH in the setting of pituitary tumor can result from various causes. It can be due to intrinsic tumor related pathology, injury to surrounding the vessel during the operative procedure or due to an associated aneurysm. We discuss the pathological mechanisms and review relevant literature related to this interesting phenomenon. Early and accurate diagnosis of the cause of the SAH in pituitary tumors is important, as this influences the management.

  13. Imaging of giant pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present five proven giant pituitary adenomas studied by CT and MRI, and review the clinical and imaging findings. Our aim was to examine the radiologic appearances and to search for criteria useful in distinguishing these tumors from other sellar and suprasellar tumours, mainly craniopharyngioma. The main differences from small adenomas were high prevalence of macrocysts, a more invasive behaviour and a clinical picture dominated by mass effect rather than endocrine disturbance. Factors supporting the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma in a giant intra- and suprasellar mass include: infrasellar extension, absence of calcification and presence of low-signal cysts on T1-weighted images. (orig.) (orig.)

  14. The Spectrum of Pituitary Adenoma Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Hickstein, Dennis D.; Marshall, John C.; Chandler, William F.

    1986-01-01

    In 34 cases of pituitary adenoma hemorrhage at one institution, the clinical manifestations of adenoma hemorrhage depended upon the size of the adenoma, the presence of suprasellar extension, the amount of hemorrhage and the extent of pituitary glandular destruction. Recognition of the spectrum of acute, subacute and chronic pituitary adenoma hemorrhage should expedite diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Feeding Frequency Affects Cultured Rat Pituitary Cells in Low Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Salada, T.; Cenci, R.; Krishnan, K.; Mukai, C.; Nagaoka, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this report, we describe the results of a rat pituitary cell culture experiment done on STS-65 in which the effect of cell feeding on the release of the six anterior pituitary hormones was studied. We found complex microgravity related interactions between the frequency of cell feeding and the quantity and quality (i.e. biological activity) of some of the six hormones released in flight. Analyses of growth hormone (GH) released from cells into culture media on different mission days using gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography yielded qualitatively similar results between ground and flight samples. Lack of cell feeding resulted in extensive cell clumping in flight (but not ground) cultures. Vigorous fibroblast growth occurred in both ground and flight cultures fed 4 times. These results are interpreted within the context of autocrine and or paracrine feedback interactions. Finally the payload specialist successfully prepared a fresh trypsin solution in microgravity, detached the cells from their surface and reinserted them back into the culture chamber. These cells reattached and continued to release hormone in microgravity. In summary, this experiment shows that pituitary cells are microgravity sensitive and that coupled operations routinely associated with laboratory cel1 culture can also be accomplished in low gravity.

  16. NG2 targets tumorigenic Rb inactivation in Pit1-lineage pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Toru; Nakano-Tateno, Tae; Ezzat, Shereen; Asa, Sylvia L

    2016-05-01

    The proteoglycan neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2) is expressed by oligodendrocyte progenitors, pericytes, and some cancerous cells where it is implicated in tumor development. We examined mice with NG2-driven pRb inactivation. Unexpectedly, NG2-Cre:pRb(flox/flox) mice developed pituitary tumors with high penetrance. Adenohypophysial neoplasms developed initially as multifocal lesions; by 1 year, large tumors showed brain invasion. Immunohistochemistry identified these as Pit1-lineage neoplasms, with variable immunoreactivity for growth hormone, prolactin, thyrotropin, and α-subunit of glycoprotein hormones. Other than modest hyperprolactinemia, circulating hormone levels were not elevated. To determine the role of NG2 in the pituitary, we investigated NG2 expression. Immunoreactivity was identified in anterior and posterior lobes but not in the intermediate lobe of the mouse pituitary; in the adenohypophysis, folliculostellate cells had the strongest NG2 immunoreactivity but showed no proliferation in response to Rb inactivation. Pit1-positive adenohypophysial cells were positive for NG2, but corticotroph and gonadotroph cells were negative. RT-PCR revealed NG2 expression in normal human pituitary and human pituitary tumors; immunohistochemistry localized NG2 in nontumorous human adenohypophysis with strongest positivity in folliculostellate cells, and in tumors of all types except corticotrophs. Functional studies in GH4 mammosomatotrophs showed that NG2 increases prolactin (PRL), reduces growth hormone (GH) expression, and enhances cell adhesion without influencing proliferation. In conclusion, NG2-driven pRb inactivation results in pituitary tumors that mimic endocrinologically inactive Pit1-lineage human pituitary tumors. This model identifies a role for NG2 in pituitary cell-type-specific functions and unmasks a protective role from Rb inactivation in folliculostellate cells; it can be used for further research, including preclinical testing of novel therapies

  17. THYMOLIPOMA: A RARE, LARGE ANTERIOR MEDIASTINAL MASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premananth

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thymolipoma is a rare benign tumor of anterior mediastinum, described by Lange in 1916. 1 Less than 200 cases have been reported worldwide. 2 It accounts for 2% to 9% of thymic tumours. 3 We report a case of thymolipoma in a 37 year s old male patient, who pre sented with cough, dys p nea, chest pain for 2 months. CT THORAX revealed a large anterior mediastinal mass extending in to right hemithorax arising from thymus gland, with multiple areas of fat density, no significant mediastinal adenopathy, complete collap se of right middle and lower lobe suggestive of thymolipoma. CT guided biopsy suggestive of thymic neoplasm. The tumour was removed enbloc through surgery. Histopathological examination of large mass lesion confirmed thymolipoma. We report this case to emp hasize the importance of considering thymolipoma as a differential diagnosis of anterior mediastinal mass, although rare.

  18. Phacoemulsification in anterior megalophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Graham A; Hann, Joshua V; Braga-Mele, Rosa

    2006-07-01

    This case outlines the phacoemulsification technique used to overcome the challenge of the hyperdeep anterior chamber, weak zonules, abnormal anterior capsule, and large capsular bag. Key steps included trypan blue staining of the anterior capsule, a large capsulorhexis, prolapse of the nucleus into the anterior chamber with phacoemulsification anterior to the capsulorhexis, and a posterior chamber-placed iris-clip intraocular lens. Successful visual rehabilitation is achievable in these anatomically challenging eyes. PMID:16857490

  19. Childhood feedback pituitary tumor-like proliferation caused by primary hypothyroidism : a case report%儿童原发性甲状腺功能减退继发垂体反馈性瘤样增生1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪霞; 黄建勇

    2013-01-01

    Feedback pituitary tumor hyperplasia refers to the corresponding pituitary hormone cell hyperpla-sia and pituitary augmentation caused by the primary hypofunction of target gland. The incidence of feedback pituitary tumor-like proliferation caused by primary hypothyroidism is the highest,accounting for 33. 3% of all feedback tumor. Children are rare,but due to the involvement of growth and development,and easily misdiagnosed as pituitary adenomas. However,the clinical treatment of the two principles are completely different from each other. This article will report a case of feedback Pituitary tumor-like proliferation. Caused by primary hypothyroidism in recent years in our hospital. The clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, imaging features, diagnosis and treatment and prognosis of this case will be demonstrated in the report.

  20. Genetically engineered mouse models of pituitary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DavidACano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal models constitute valuable tools for investigating the pathogenesis of cancer as well as for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics approaches. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of pituitary tumor formation remain poorly understood, particularly in sporadic adenomas, thus making it a challenge to model pituitary tumors in mice. Nevertheless, genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs of pituitary tumors have provided important insight into pituitary tumor biology. In this paper, we review various GEMMs of pituitary tumors, highlighting their contributions and limitations, and discuss opportunities for research in the field.

  1. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF THE PITUITARY METASTASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连伟; 任祖渊; 苏长保

    2004-01-01

    Thee cases of pituitary metastases were reported. They all had operations and the pathological examination confirming the diagnosis. The clinical features of diabetes insipidus and extraocular nerve palsy were presented. In two cases, the original tumors were bronchioloalveolar carcinoma; in the other one, the original tumor was unknown. All three cases had poor outcome. These cases illustrate the fact that a pituitary metastasis can closely mimic a pituitary benign tumor, such as pituitary adenoma. Especially in the presence of suggestive symptoms such as diabetes insipidus and/or cranical nerve paralysis, the possibility of metastatic disease in the differential diagnosis of a pituitary mass should always be considered.

  2. MR imaging of hemorrhagic pituitary apoplexy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pituitary apoplexy (stroke) may be ischemic or hemorrhagic. The authors studied three patients with hemorrhagic pituitary apoplexy. MR imaging is an accurate and noninvasive method that easily identifies areas of pituitary hemorrhage more than 48 hours old. Surgical planning based on MR imaging findings has been less successful than diagnosis based on MR imaging. In two patients a subfrontal approach was chosen because MR imaging suggested suprasellar extension, although none was found at operation. They hypothesize that pituitary hemmorrhage may act as a mass, creating alterations in cerebrospinal fluid or blood flow in the pituitary stalk and hypothamlamus that may exaggerate the suprasellar extension

  3. Pituitary cretinism in two sisters.

    OpenAIRE

    Kohno, H.; Watanabe, N.; Ootsuka, M; Kajiwara, M; Gohya, N

    1980-01-01

    Two sisters with cretinism are reported. Each showed low levels of serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In the elder sister, serum TSH did not increase after administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. We conclude that cretinism in these 2 sisters was due to TSH deficiency. This is the second report of 'familial' pituitary cretinism (TSH-deficient congenital hypothyroidism).

  4. Metastatic pituitary carcinoma in a patient with acromegaly: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenan Seamus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Asymptomatic pituitary abnormalities occur in about 10% of cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans, but metastatic carcinoma of the pituitary gland is rare: 133 cases have been reported. Two thirds secreted either prolactin or adrenocorticotropic hormone, and another 24% were non-secreting. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian man lived for 30 years after the diagnosis of a pituitary tumor whose clinical and biochemical features were those of acromegaly and hypogonadism. Radiotherapy, totaling 7300 rad, was administered to the sella over two courses. Growth hormone levels normalized, but he developed both thyroid and adrenal insufficiency, and replacement therapy was commenced. Fourteen years later, growth hormone levels again became elevated, and bromocriptine was commenced but led to side effects that could not be tolerated. An attempted surgical intervention failed, and octreotide and pergolide were used in succession. Twenty-seven years after the diagnosis, a mass from an excisional biopsy of below the angle of the mandible proved to be metastatic pituitary carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for synaptophysin, growth hormone, and prolactin. One year later, an octreotide scan showed uptake at the sella, neck, and spleen. Our patient declined further active oncology treatment. Conclusions Metastatic pituitary carcinoma associated with acromegaly is particularly rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the eighth such case and is the first report of growth hormone and prolactin present in the metastatic mass.

  5. Opposite influence of light and blindness on pituitary-gonadal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBellastella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some environmental factors may influence the pituitary-gonadal function. Among these, light plays an important role in animal and in humans. The effect of light on the endocrine system is mediated by the pineal gland, through the modulation of melatonin secretion. In fact, melatonin secretion is stimulated by darkness and suppressed by light, thus its circadian rhythm peaks at night. Light plays a favourable action on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis likely inhibiting melatonin secretion, even if the exogenous melatonin administration does not seem to impair the hormonal secretions of this axis. The basal and rhythmic pituitary-gonadal hormone secretions is regulated by a central clock gene and some independent clock genes present in the peripheral tissues. Light is able to induce the expression of some of these genes, thus playing an important role in regulating the hormonal secretions of pituitary -gonadal axis and the sexual and reproductive function in animals and humans. The lack of light stimulus in blind subjects induces increased plasma melatonin concentrations with a free-running rhythm of secretion, which impairs the hormonal secretions of pituitary-gonadal axis, causing disorders of reproductive processes in both sexes.

  6. Immunohistochemical detection of dopamine D2 receptors in human pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlikowski, Marek

    2010-09-30

    Thirty one pituitary adenomas and 3 samples of peritumoral anterior pituitary tissue were immunostained with an antibody raised against dopamine D2 receptor protein. The positive reactions were found in cell cytoplasm, a subpopulation of cell nuclei and the intratumoral blood vessels walls. As expected, the positive immunostaining was shown in cytoplasm and/or cell nuclei of all examined prolactinomas (7/7). In acromegaly the positive D2 staining occurred in 5/7 samples, in gonadotropinomas in 6/8 and in plurihormonal adenomas 2/4. The lowest expression was observed in corticotropinomas (1/5). These findings corroborate with the well known efficacy of D2 agonists in the treatment of prolactinomas and somatotropinomas, and support the rationale of the therapeutic trials with these compounds in gonadotropinomas. Moreover, the presence of D2 receptors in intratumoral blood vessels walls constitutes the possibility of the anti-angiogenic action of D2 agonists in pituitary adenomas. PMID:21071344

  7. Immunohistochemical detection of dopamine D2 receptors in human pituitary adenomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pawlikowski

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Thirty one pituitary adenomas and 3 samples of peritumoral anterior pituitary tissue were immunostained with an antibody raised against dopamine D2 receptor protein. The positive reactions were found in cell cytoplasm, a subpopulation of cell nuclei and the intratumoral blood vessels walls. As expected, the positive immunostaining was shown in cytoplasm and/or cell nuclei of all examined prolactinomas (7/7. In acromegaly the positive D2 staining occurred in 5/7 samples, in gonadotropinomas in 6/8 and in plurihormonal adenomas 2/4. The lowest expression was observed in corticotropinomas (1/5. These findings corroborate with the well known efficacy of D2 agonists in the treatment of prolactinomas and somatotropinomas, and support the rationale of the therapeutic trials with these compounds in gonadotropinomas. Moreover, the presence of D2 receptors in intratumoral blood vessels walls constitutes the possibility of the anti-angiogenic action of D2 agonists in pituitary adenomas.

  8. Identification and characterization of a pituitary corticotropin-releasing factor binding protein by chemical cross-linking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishimura, E; Billestrup, Nils; Perrin, M;

    1987-01-01

    A corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) binding protein has been identified based on the chemical cross-linking of ovine [Nle21,m-125I-Tyr32]CRF (125I-oCRF) to bovine anterior pituitary membranes using disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS). The apparent molecular weight of the cross-linked complex...

  9. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  10. Mammary Glands: Developmental Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mammary gland progresses from the accumulation of a few cells in the embryonic ectoderm to a highly arborescent tubulo-alveolar gland capable of secreting a highly nutritious product for consumption. Throughout this progression, various changes occur during each developmental stage: prenatal, pr...

  11. Multi drug resistant tuberculosis presenting as anterior mediastinal mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmarth Chandane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the mediastinal lymphatic glands is a common presentation of intrathoracic tuberculosis (TB in children. However, usually, the mediastinal TB nodes enlarge to 2.8 ± 1.0 cm. In this report, we describe a case of anterior mediastinal lymphnode TB seen as huge mass (7 cm on computed tomography (CT thorax without respiratory or food pipe compromise despite anterior mediastinum being an enclosed space. CT guided biopsy of the mass cultured Mycobacterium TB complex which was resistant to isoniazide, rifampicin, streptomycin ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and pyrazinamide. Hence, we report primary multi drug resistant TB presenting as anterior mediastinal mass as a rare case report.

  12. Accessory thyroid in the anterior mediastinum: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of accessory thyroid in the anterior mediastinum, physically separated from the thyroid gland, is reported. The mediastinal thyroid was incidentally discovered during the preoperative evaluation of a patient with breast carcinoma. The extreme rarity of the case is outlined

  13. Actinomycosis of Submandibular Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actinomycosis is defined as a chronic, specific, suppurative, granulomatous disease caused mainly by the anaerobic, gram positive organism, Actinomyces israelii. Actinomycosis in the salivary gland is a rare disease that is caused by an inhabitant of the normal flora. We report the case of the actinomycosis of submandibular gland. A 53-year old man presented with the swelling on left submandiblar area. The lesion was not painful but had been increasing for about 10 days. In the CT view, the internal portion of the mass showed homogeneous moderate signal. The mass had continuities with the inferior portion of the left enlarged submandibular gland. In the MRI, there was a mass that showed a buldging pattern inferiorly in the left submandibular gland without bony invasion sign. The biopsy shows the colony of special organism. Many filaments are discovered with clubbed ends diffused from center of colony. We diagnosed this disease as actinomycosis in the submandibular gland by the postoperational biopsy.

  14. Evolving radiological features of hypothalamo-pituitary lesions in adult patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makras, P. [Athens General Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Athens (Greece); Athens General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Samara, C.; Antoniou, M.; Nikolakopoulou, Z. [Athens Hospital, 9. Pulmonary Department, Athens (Greece); Zetos, A. [General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Athens (Greece); Papadogias, D.; Piaditis, G.; Kaltsas, G.A. [Athens General Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Athens (Greece); Toloumis, G. [Athens General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Andreakos, E.; Kontogeorgos, G.

    2006-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare, systemic disease caused by monoclonal expansion of dendritic cells that shows a particular predilection for the hypothalamic-pituitary system (HPS). We studied the function (anterior and posterior pituitary hormonal secretion) and morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the HPS in 17 adult patients (seven males, median age 35 years, range 18-59 years) with multisystem LCH. We also evaluated the evolution of structural HPS abnormalities in relation to pituitary function and response to treatment in 12 of these patients during a median follow-up period of 3.75 years (range 1.5-10 years). Of the 17 patients, 14 (82%) had abnormal HPS imaging, and 12 (70%) had more than one area involved. Lack of the bright spot of the posterior pituitary lobe was typically found in all patients with the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus (DI). Eight patients (47%) had infundibular enlargement, six (35%) pituitary infiltration, four (24%) partially or completely empty sella, three (18%) hypothalamic involvement, and two (12%) infundibular atrophy. DI was found in 16 patients (94%) and anterior pituitary hormonal deficiency (APHD) in 10 patients (59%); two patients had single (12%) and 8 (47%) multiple APHD. During the follow-up period there was improvement of the initially demonstrated HPS pathology in seven (47%) patients, and five (33%) of them had received at least one form of treatment. APHD and DI persisted in all patients except in one in whom established gonadotrophin deficiency recovered. In summary, DI and APHD are very common in patients with multisystem LCH and are almost always associated with abnormal HPS imaging. (orig.)

  15. Evolving radiological features of hypothalamo-pituitary lesions in adult patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare, systemic disease caused by monoclonal expansion of dendritic cells that shows a particular predilection for the hypothalamic-pituitary system (HPS). We studied the function (anterior and posterior pituitary hormonal secretion) and morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the HPS in 17 adult patients (seven males, median age 35 years, range 18-59 years) with multisystem LCH. We also evaluated the evolution of structural HPS abnormalities in relation to pituitary function and response to treatment in 12 of these patients during a median follow-up period of 3.75 years (range 1.5-10 years). Of the 17 patients, 14 (82%) had abnormal HPS imaging, and 12 (70%) had more than one area involved. Lack of the bright spot of the posterior pituitary lobe was typically found in all patients with the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus (DI). Eight patients (47%) had infundibular enlargement, six (35%) pituitary infiltration, four (24%) partially or completely empty sella, three (18%) hypothalamic involvement, and two (12%) infundibular atrophy. DI was found in 16 patients (94%) and anterior pituitary hormonal deficiency (APHD) in 10 patients (59%); two patients had single (12%) and 8 (47%) multiple APHD. During the follow-up period there was improvement of the initially demonstrated HPS pathology in seven (47%) patients, and five (33%) of them had received at least one form of treatment. APHD and DI persisted in all patients except in one in whom established gonadotrophin deficiency recovered. In summary, DI and APHD are very common in patients with multisystem LCH and are almost always associated with abnormal HPS imaging. (orig.)

  16. E2F1 Induces Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene (PTTG1) Expression in Human Pituitary Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Cuiqi; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Bannykh, Serguei; Gutman, Shiri; Melmed, Shlomo

    2009-01-01

    Rb/E2F is dysregulated in murine and human pituitary tumors. Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG1), a securin protein, is required for pituitary tumorigenesis, and PTTG1 deletion attenuates pituitary tumor development in Rb+/− mice. E2F1 and PTTG1 were concordantly overexpressed in 29 of 46 Rb+/− murine pituitary tissues and also in 45 of 80 human pituitary tumors (P < 0.05). E2F1 specifically bound the hPTTG1 promoter as assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and biotin-streptavidin p...

  17. The Insulin and IGF-I Pathway in Endocrine Glands Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Malaguarnera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine cancers are a heterogeneous group of diseases that may arise from endocrine cells in any gland of the endocrine system. These malignancies may show an aggressive behavior and resistance to the common anticancer therapies. The etiopathogenesis of these tumors remains mostly unknown. The normal embryological development and differentiation of several endocrine glands are regulated by specific pituitary tropins, which, in adult life, control the function and trophism of the endocrine gland. Pituitary tropins act in concert with peptide growth factors, including the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs, which are considered key regulators of cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. While pituitary TSH is regarded as tumor-promoting factor for metastatic thyroid cancer, the role of other pituitary hormones in endocrine cancers is uncertain. However, multiple molecular abnormalities of the IGF system frequently occur in endocrine cancers and may have a role in tumorigenesis as well as in tumor progression and resistance to therapies. Herein, we will review studies indicating a role of IGF system dysregulation in endocrine cancers and will discuss the possible implications of these findings for tumor prevention and treatment, with a major focus on cancers from the thyroid, adrenal, and ovary, which are the most extensively studied.

  18. Computed tomography of pituitary microadenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung-Il; Katto, Keiichi; Tanaka, Teruhiko; Kosaka, Shiro; Kaimori, Mitsuhiro (Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan))

    1983-08-01

    Thirteen pituitary microadenomas detected by Delta Scan 2020 are presented, and their CT findings are analyzed in points of size, shape, limit, density and contrast enhancement. All are demonstrated as a round, well defined and homogeneous mass, and are enhanced by contrast medium. The average size is 6.2 by 7.6 mm in diameter. Two of them are prolactinoma, and are treated by Bromocriptine. The prolactinomas vanished on CT scan, 6 months after administration of Bromocriptine. Eleven of them are nonfunctioning. Five are operated and the others are followed by CT scan. In detection of pituitary microadenoma, overlapping scanning with thin-slice is necessary and coronal scanning is often helpful. The adenoma greater than 5 mm in diameter may be detectable.

  19. Endocrinological and MRI features of pituitary adenomas with marked xanthogranulomatous reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, Hiroshi; Haraoka, Jo [Tokyo Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo (Japan); Shibuya, Makoto [Tokyo Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Ibaraki Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Ohtsuka, Kuninori; Ikeda, Yukio [Tokyo Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Hachioji Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The study aims to describe the endocrinological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the rarely reported xanthogranulomas associated with pituitary adenoma. Of 231 consecutive pituitary adenomas treated surgically, those with xanthogranulomatous reaction on histology were reviewed. Five patients (2.2%) had an adenoma with marked xanthogranulomatous reaction. They were all nonfunctioning macroadenomas and presented with anterior pituitary insufficiencies. On MRI, all adenomas showed mixed signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images with heterogeneous gadolinium enhancement, reflecting their complex histological features: Cholesterol clefts typically showed T1 high- and T2 low-signal intensities. Preoperative diagnosis was difficult in a case predominantly featuring xanthogranuloma. Although none of them had episodes of pituitary apoplexy, hemosiderin deposits and cysts with xanthochromic-like fluid were observed in five and four cases, respectively. Xanthogranulomatous reaction may develop in macroadenomas, probably triggered by hemorrhagic processes despite no apoplectic episodes. They typically exhibit complex mixed signal intensity on MRI, particularly T1 high- and T2 low-signal intensities, and patients present with pituitary dysfunction. (orig.)

  20. Endocrinological and MRI features of pituitary adenomas with marked xanthogranulomatous reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims to describe the endocrinological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the rarely reported xanthogranulomas associated with pituitary adenoma. Of 231 consecutive pituitary adenomas treated surgically, those with xanthogranulomatous reaction on histology were reviewed. Five patients (2.2%) had an adenoma with marked xanthogranulomatous reaction. They were all nonfunctioning macroadenomas and presented with anterior pituitary insufficiencies. On MRI, all adenomas showed mixed signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images with heterogeneous gadolinium enhancement, reflecting their complex histological features: Cholesterol clefts typically showed T1 high- and T2 low-signal intensities. Preoperative diagnosis was difficult in a case predominantly featuring xanthogranuloma. Although none of them had episodes of pituitary apoplexy, hemosiderin deposits and cysts with xanthochromic-like fluid were observed in five and four cases, respectively. Xanthogranulomatous reaction may develop in macroadenomas, probably triggered by hemorrhagic processes despite no apoplectic episodes. They typically exhibit complex mixed signal intensity on MRI, particularly T1 high- and T2 low-signal intensities, and patients present with pituitary dysfunction. (orig.)

  1. Differentiation of pituitary adenomas from other sellar and parasellar tumors by {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, Koji [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Medical Center; Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Isao [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-04-01

    Pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid [{sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA] scintigraphy was evaluated for the differentiation of pituitary adenomas, especially non-functioning adenomas, from other sellar and parasellar lesions. Diffuse {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA accumulation within the tumor was found in seven of seven non-functioning, three of four growth hormone-secreting, and seven of eight prolactin-secreting adenomas, but only partial accumulation in only two of 16 non-pituitary adenomas and normal pituitary glands. There were no significant relationship between tumor-to-background ratios and tumor size or serum hormone level. {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy showed overall sensitivity of 81% (17/21 cases) for detecting pituitary adenomas, in particular 100% for non-functioning adenomas. {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA may be useful for detecting pituitary adenomas, especially non-functioning adenomas, and for the differentiation of non-functioning pituitary adenomas from other sellar and parasellar lesions. (author)

  2. Differentiation of pituitary adenomas from other sellar and parasellar tumors by 99mTc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid [99mTc(V)-DMSA] scintigraphy was evaluated for the differentiation of pituitary adenomas, especially non-functioning adenomas, from other sellar and parasellar lesions. Diffuse 99mTc(V)-DMSA accumulation within the tumor was found in seven of seven non-functioning, three of four growth hormone-secreting, and seven of eight prolactin-secreting adenomas, but only partial accumulation in only two of 16 non-pituitary adenomas and normal pituitary glands. There were no significant relationship between tumor-to-background ratios and tumor size or serum hormone level. 99mTc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy showed overall sensitivity of 81% (17/21 cases) for detecting pituitary adenomas, in particular 100% for non-functioning adenomas. 99mTc(V)-DMSA may be useful for detecting pituitary adenomas, especially non-functioning adenomas, and for the differentiation of non-functioning pituitary adenomas from other sellar and parasellar lesions. (author)

  3. Gamma knife radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježková, Jana; Marek, Josef

    2016-09-01

    Pituitary adenomas are frequently occurring intracranial neoplasms. The aim of the treatment of pituitary adenomas is to normalize hormonal hypersecretion, to preserve the normal pituitary function, to reserve or treat impaired pituitary function and to control tumor growth and its mechanical effects on the surrounding structures. Treatment modalities include surgical, medical and radiation therapy. Radiosurgery is mainly used as a secondary line treatment after surgery for residual or recurrent tumors. The antiproliferative effect is achieved by LKG irradiation in more than 90% of patients. Regarding the functioning pituitary adenomas, the manifestation of the treatment effect is slow and depends mainly on the type of adenoma. Gamma knife irradiation is safe when the maximal doses to pituitary and infundibulum are respected. PMID:26899535

  4. [Hyperthyroidism caused by a TSH producing pituitary adenoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasch, F; Knosp, S E; Steinbach, R; Wogritsch, S; Hurtl, I; Greifeneder, M; Holm, C; Najemnik, C; Dudczak, R

    1999-01-01

    Elevated levels of free triiodothyronine (fT3) of 8.8 ng/dl (normal range 2.0 to 4.2) and free thyroxin (fT4) of 3.5 pg/ml (0.8 to 1.7) were found in the course of an examination of a 53-year old patient due to a planned hysterectomy. As thyrotropin (TSH) also was elevated with 5.8 mU/l (0.4 to 4.5), these findings corresponded to an inappropriate secretion of TSH (IST). Additional examinations revealed a blunted rise of TSH secretion after i.v. injection of 200 micrograms thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) as well as lacking suppression of TSH secretion after oral doses of 75 micrograms T3 during one week. alpha-TSH levels with 3.7 micrograms/l were elevated in comparison to a matched normal sample just as the molar ratio alpha-TSH/TSH with 6.95 and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with 175 nmol/l and showed an absence of inhibition in the T3 suppression test. These results were suggestive of neoplastic inappropriate secretion of TSH (nIST) due to a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. In concordance, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a 1 cm tumor in the sella. The adenoma could also be visualized by 111In-octreotide and 123I-epidepride scintigraphies of the pituitary gland. After transsphenoidal resection, histological examination of the tumor resulted in the finding of a TSH-secreting adenoma. Postoperative TSH levels were not detectable, indicating the complete removal of the adenoma. Levels of fT3 and fT4 were slightly below normal with 1.9 pg/ml and 0.7 ng/dl, respectively. A control scintigraphy with 111In-octreotide following an equivocal MRI showed no uptake in the pituitary. PMID:10230475

  5. Lectin Histochemical Study of Vasculogenesis During Rat Pituitary Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s The aim of this study was to investigate glycoconjugates distribution patterns as well as their changes during the course of pituitary portal vasculogenesis and angiogenesis.Materials and MethodsFormalin fixed paraffin sections of 10 to 20 days of Sprague Dawly rat fetuses were processed for histochemical studies using four different horseradish peroxidase (HRP conjugated lectins. Orange peel fungus (OFA, Vicica villosa (VVA, Glycine max (SBA and Wistaria floribunda (WFA specific for α-L-Fucose, D-Gal, α, ß-D-GalNAc and D- GalNAc terminal sugars of glycoconjugates respectively.ResultsOur finding indicated that adenohypophysal cells reacted with OFA on gestational day 10 (E10 and increased progressively to E14. Staining intensity did not change from days 14 to17, then after increased following days to E20 significantly (P< 0.05. A few cells around Rathke’s pouch reacted with VVA on E13, increased to E14 and decreased significantly afterward (P< 0.05. Reaction of some cells around Rathke’s pouch reacted with SBA on E14. This visible reaction was the same as E18 and decreased later (P< 0.05. Many cells around Rathke’s pouch reacted with WFA on E13 and increased on E 14 and E15 and decreased thereafter (P< 0.05.ConclusionReactions of OFA and other tested lectins with endothelial cells around Rathke’s pouch and developing pars distalis were different. These results suggest that embryonic origin of hypophiseal pituitary portal (HPP system endothelial cells are not the same and our finding also indicated that glycoconjugates with terminal sugars α-L-Fucose, D-Gal, α, ß-D-GalNAc may play critical role(s in cell interactions and tissue differentiations such as vasculogensis and angiogenesis as well as other developmental precursors in formation of the pituitary gland.

  6. Purification and Cultivation of Human Pituitary Growth Hormones Secreting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Todd, P.; Grindeland, R.; Lanham, W.; Morrison, D.

    1985-01-01

    The rat and human pituitary gland contains a mixture of hormone producing cell types. The separation of cells which make growth hormone (GH) is attempted for the purpose of understanding how the hormone molecule is made within the pituitary cell; what form(s) it takes within the cell; and what form(s) GH assumes as it leaves the cell. Since GH has a number of biological targets (e.g., muscle, liver, bone), the assessment of the activities of the intracellular/extracellular GH by new and sensitive bioassays. GH cells contained in the mixture was separated by free flow electrophoresis. These experiments show that GH cells have different electrophoretic mobilities. This is relevant to NASA since a lack of GH could be a prime causative factor in muscle atrophy. Further, GH has recently been implicated in the etiology of motion sickness in space. Continous flow electrophoresis experiment on STS-8 showed that GH cells could be partially separated in microgravity. However, definitive cell culture studies could not be done due to insufficient cell recoveries.

  7. MRI for the determination of pituitary iron overload in children and young adults with {beta}-thalassaemia major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoforidis, Athanasios [Thalassaemia Unit, ' Hippokration' Hospital, 49 Konstantinoupoleos str., 54642 Thessaloniki (Greece)]. E-mail: christoforidis@doctors.org.uk; Haritandi, Afroditi [Radiology Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA Hospital, 54636 Thessaloniki (Greece); Perifanis, Vassilios [Thalassaemia Unit, ' Hippokration' Hospital, 49 Konstantinoupoleos str., 54642 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsatra, Ioanna [Thalassaemia Unit, ' Hippokration' Hospital, 49 Konstantinoupoleos str., 54642 Thessaloniki (Greece); Athanassiou-Metaxa, Miranda [Thalassaemia Unit, ' Hippokration' Hospital, 49 Konstantinoupoleos str., 54642 Thessaloniki (Greece); Dimitriadis, Athanasios S. [Radiology Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA Hospital, 54636 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2007-04-15

    Hypogonadism, resulting from iron-induced pituitary dysfunction, is the most frequently reported complication in patients with {beta}-thalassaemia major. The aim of this study was to evaluate pituitary Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) signal intensity reduction, on T2*-weighted images, as a marker of pituitary iron overload. Thirty patients (13 females and 17 males, mean age: 16.6 {+-} 4.1) with {beta}-thalassaemia major on conventional treatment and 13 healthy volunteers (7 females and 6 males, mean age: 11 {+-} 4.51 years) were studied with T2*-weighted images of the anterior pituitary using a 1.5 T unit. Four thalassaemic patients (2 females and 2 males) had clinical hypogonadism and required hormonal replacement treatment. Results revealed a statistically significant reduction of pituitary signal intensity in the thalassaemia group compared to controls (p < 0.001). Moreover, hypogonadal patients had significantly decreased MRI values compared to thalassaemic patients without hypogonadism (p = 0.017). Relatively decreased adeno-hypophyseal MRI signal intensity was recorded in pubertal thalassaemic patients. A significant negative correlation was observed between pituitary MRI values and age (r = -0.67, r {sup 2} = 0.443, p = 0.001), whereas ferritin levels and pituitary MRI values were moderately correlated (r = -0.56, r {sup 2} = 0.32, p = 0.08) in adult thalassaemic patients. In conclusion, pituitary MRI indices as measured on T2*-weighted images seem to reflect pituitary iron overload and could, therefore, be used for a preclinical detection of patients who are in greater danger of developing hypogonadism.

  8. A heritable predisposition to pituitary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Couldwell, William T.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are prevalent in the general population, with a frequency of nearly 1 in 5. The cause of most pituitary tumors remains unknown, although a genetic contribution is recognized for some. We analyzed the Utah Population Data Base (UPDB), a resource combining a computerized genealogy of the Utah population with a statewide tumor registry, to investigate familial clustering of pituitary tumors. We analyzed the genetic relationships among 741 individuals diagnosed with benign or mal...

  9. Visual outcome after fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy of benign anterior skull base tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astradsson, Arnar; Wiencke, Anne Katrine; Munck af Rosenschold, Per; Engelholm, Svend-Aage; Ohlhues, Lars; Roed, Henrik; Juhler, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    meningiomas and 100, 98.2 and 94.9% for pituitary adenomas, respectively. Patients with an impaired visual field function pre-FSRT were more likely to experience worsened function (p = 0.016). We found that RION, was a relatively uncommon event, in a large prospective cohort of patients that were......To determine visual outcome including the occurrence of radiation induced optic neuropathy (RION) as well as tumor control after fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) of benign anterior skull base meningiomas or pituitary adenomas. Thirty-nine patients treated with FSRT for anterior...... skull base meningiomas and 55 patients treated with FSRT for pituitary adenomas between January 1999 and December 2009 with at least 2 years follow-up were included. Patients were followed up prospectively with magnetic resonance imaging scans, visual acuity and visual field examinations. RION was found...

  10. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery to remove part or all of your thyroid gland. This operation is called thyroidectomy . You probably ... in just a few weeks. If you had thyroid cancer, you may need to have radioactive iodine ...

  11. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000293.htm Thyroid gland removal - discharge To use the sharing features ... surgery. This will make your scar show less. Thyroid Hormone Replacement You may need to take thyroid ...

  12. Thyroid gland removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small thyroid growth ( nodule or cyst) A thyroid gland that is so overactive it is dangerous ( thyrotoxicosis ) Cancer of the thyroid Noncancerous (benign) tumors of the thyroid that are causing symptoms Thyroid ...

  13. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adrenal tumors that appear malignant. What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal? In the past, ... of procedure and the patients overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain Shorter hospital stay Quicker ...

  14. A Rare Cause of Hypopituitarism: Pituitary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şazi İmamoğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary tuberculosis is a rare condition that can present with hypopituitarism even without any evidence of systemic tuberculosis and is easily confused with pituitary adenomas. Headache and hypopituitarism are the most common presenting symptoms. We report the case of pituitary tuberculosis in a 39-year-old male patient who presented with panhypopituitarism. Although it is rare and difficult to diagnose, pituitary tuberculosis should be considered in every nonfunctional sellar masses, especially in fairly small ones with unexpected hypopituitarism. Turk Jem 2012; 16: 26-8

  15. Characteristics of radiation-induced pituitary-thyroid functional disturbance in relation to pituitary and thyroid tumors in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acute response of the rat thyroid gland to head-neck x-irradiation at the maximal tumor inductive dose is mainly manifested by a depression of serum thyroxine level. This acute disturbance normalizes within 8 weeks after x-irradiation. In unirradiated animals, thyroid necrotic changes appear that are age related. In head-neck x-irradiated rats, however, such changes show an apparent peak at one week after treatment. Thereafter, it subsides to the level indistinguishable from the controls. Except for an enlarged nucleus that occurs at one year after x-irradiation, no other histologic features can distinguish radiation necrosis from spontaneous necrosis. After x-irradiation, increase and decrease in serum thyrotropin (TSH) level is observed. The TSH elevation is apparently associated with decreased thyroxine. However, rats with TSH depression had a normal thyroxine level. Thus, it is suggested that the set-point of the thyrostat has changed as a result of head-neck x-irradiation. One year after x-irradiation, increased TSH is needed to maintain the thyroxine level in the x-irradiated rats similar to that of controls. At the same time, the thyroid gland was smaller than the controls, although the degree of necrosis was not different from controls. Increased TSH level is maintained in the x-irradiated rats that do not have endocrine neoplasms. Other than medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, the thyroid and/or pituitary neoplasms obliterate the functional aspects of the pituitary-thyroid axis. The results are inconsistent with thyroxine-TSH levels

  16. Characteristics of radiation-induced pituitary-thyroid functional disturbance in relation to pituitary and thyroid tumors in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acute response of the rat thyroid gland to head-neck x irradiation at the maximal tumor inductive dose is mainly manifested by a depression of serum thyroxine level. This acute disturbance normalizes within 8 weeks after x irradiation. In unirradiated animals, thyroid necrotic changes appear that are age related. In head-neck x irradiated rats, however, such changes show an apparent peak at one week after treatment. Thereafter, it subsides to the level indistinguishable from the controls. Except for an enlarged nucleus that occurs at one year after x irradiation, no other histologic features can distinguish radiation necrosis from spontaneous necrosis. Acutely after x irradiation, increase and decrease in serum thyrotropin (TSH) level is observed. The TSH elevation is apparently associated with decreased thyroxine. However, rats with TSH depression had a normal thyroxine level. Thus, it is suggested the set-point of the thyrostat has changed as a result of head-neck x irradiation. One year after x irradiation, increased TSH is needed to maintain the thyroxine level in the x-irradiated rats similar to that of controls. At the same time, the thyroid gland was smaller than the controls, although the degree of necrosis was not different from controls. Increased TSH level is maintained in the x irradiated rats that do not have encocrine neoplasms. Other than medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, the thyroid and/or pituitary neoplasms obliterate the functional aspects of the pituitary-thyroid axis. The results are inconsistent thyroxine-TSH levels. Radiation-induced thyroid neoplasms were observed

  17. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    understood. The mouse is a widely used model of mammary gland development, both directly by studying the mouse mammary epithelial cells themselves and indirectly, by studying development, morphogenesis, differentiation and carcinogenesis of xenotransplanted human breast epithelium in vivo. While in early...... develops and is maintained, significant discrepancies exist between the mouse and human gland which should be taken into consideration in current and future models of mammary stem cell biology....

  18. Tablets or scalpel: Pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Imran Siddiqi, MBBS, MRCP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. Pituitary hyperplasia and pituitary masses cannot be reliably differentiated on imaging alone, despite significant improvement in imaging quality in recent years.

  19. Androgen Receptors Expression in Pituitary of Male Viscacha in relation to Growth and Reproductive Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Palmira Filippa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the androgen receptors (AR expression in pituitary pars distalis (PD of male viscachas in relation to growth and reproductive cycle. AR were detected by immunocytochemistry and quantified by image analysis. Pituitary glands from fetus, immature, prepubertal, and adult viscachas during their reproductive cycle were used. In the fetal PD, the immunoreactivity (ir was mainly cytoplasmic. In immature and prepubertal animals, AR-ir was cytoplasmic (ARc-ir and nuclear (ARn-ir in medial region. In adult animals, ARn-ir cells were numerous at caudal end. AR regionalization varied between the PD zones in relation to growth. In immature animals, the ARn-ir increased whereas the cytoplasmic expression decreased in relation to the fetal glands. The percentage of ARc-ir cells increased in prepubertal animals whereas the nuclear AR expression was predominant in adult viscachas. The AR expression changed in adults, showing minimum percentage in the gonadal regression period. The variation of nuclear AR expression was directly related with testosterone concentration. These results demonstrated variations in the immunostaining pattern, regionalization, and number of AR-ir cells throughout development, growth, and reproductive cycle, suggesting the involvement of AR in the regulation of the pituitary activity of male viscacha.

  20. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  1. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  2. Diagnosis of pituitary microadenoma : significance of T2-weighted MR image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the significance of T2-weighted MR imaging(T2WI) in the diagnosis of pituitary microadenoma. We retrospectively evaluated the MR imaging findings of 30 cases of pituitary microadenoma. Diagnosis was made on the basis of surgery, serum hormonal level, and the presence of mass lesion on MR (T1WI and T2WI), and conventional as well as dynamic contrast enhanced T1WI images were obtained. In each MR sequence, signal intensity and detectability of the tumor were evaluated. We also determined whether diagnosis was possible on both T1WI and T2WI. In eight cases, histopathologic findings (cellularity, fibrosis, and cystic change) were correlated with T2 signal intensity of the tumor. T2WI, T1WI, and dynamic and conventional enhanced T1WI detected the tumor in 21 cases (70%), 21 cases (70%), 28 cases (93.3%), and 22 cases (73.3%), respectively. On T2WI, pituitary microadenomas showed a high signal in 18 cases (60%), an iso-signal in nine (30%), and a low signal in three (10%) compared with normal pituitary gland. In 20 cases (66.7%), diagnosis of pituitary microadenoma was possible on both T1WI and T2WI, but in one case, the tumor was detected only on T2WI. Three cases with fibrosis, as seen on histopathologic examination showed an iso or low signal on T2WI. T2WI is useful in the diagnosis of pituitary microadenoma Decreased signal intensity on T2WI may suggest fibrosis

  3. FoxA4 Favours Notochord Formation by Inhibiting Contiguous Mesodermal Fates and Restricts Anterior Neural Development in Xenopus Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgan, Sabrina; Castro Colabianchi, Aitana Manuela; Monti, Renato José; Boyadjián López, Laura Elena; Aguirre, Cecilia E.; Stivala, Ernesto González; López, Silvia L.

    2014-01-01

    In vertebrates, the embryonic dorsal midline is a crucial signalling centre that patterns the surrounding tissues during development. Members of the FoxA subfamily of transcription factors are expressed in the structures that compose this centre. Foxa2 is essential for dorsal midline development in mammals, since knock-out mouse embryos lack a definitive node, notochord and floor plate. The related gene foxA4 is only present in amphibians. Expression begins in the blastula –chordin and –noggin expressing centre (BCNE) and is later restricted to the dorsal midline derivatives of the Spemann's organiser. It was suggested that the early functions of mammalian foxa2 are carried out by foxA4 in frogs, but functional experiments were needed to test this hypothesis. Here, we show that some important dorsal midline functions of mammalian foxa2 are exerted by foxA4 in Xenopus. We provide new evidence that the latter prevents the respecification of dorsal midline precursors towards contiguous fates, inhibiting prechordal and paraxial mesoderm development in favour of the notochord. In addition, we show that foxA4 is required for the correct regionalisation and maintenance of the central nervous system. FoxA4 participates in constraining the prospective rostral forebrain territory during neural specification and is necessary for the correct segregation of the most anterior ectodermal derivatives, such as the cement gland and the pituitary anlagen. Moreover, the early expression of foxA4 in the BCNE (which contains precursors of the whole forebrain and most of the midbrain and hindbrain) is directly required to restrict anterior neural development. PMID:25343614

  4. Microgravity associated changes in pituitary growth hormone (GH) cells prepared from rats flown on Space Lab 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Farrington, M.; Hayes, C.; Grindeland, R.; Fast, T.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on the release of pituitary growth hormone (GH) in rats is studied. The pituitary glands from six adult rats exposed to microgravity are analyzed for in vitro and in vivo changes in pituitary growth hormone cells. The GH cell functions in the somatotrophs of flight rats are compared to a control group. The two assay procedures employed in the experiment are described. It is observed that intracellular levels of GH are two to three times greater in the flight rats than in the control group; however, the amount of GH released from the somatotrophs is 1.11 + or - 0.4 micrograms for the flight rats and 1.85 + or - 1.3 micrograms for the control rats.

  5. A novel OTX2 gene frameshift mutation in a child with microphthalmia, ectopic pituitary and growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonero, Antonella; Delvecchio, Maurizio; Primignani, Paola; Caputo, Roberto; Bargiacchi, Sara; Penco, Silvana; Mauri, Lucia; Andreucci, Elena; Faienza, Maria Felicia; Cavallo, Luciano

    2016-05-01

    OTX2 mutations are reported in patients with eye maldevelopment and in some cases with brain or pituitary abnormalities. We describe a child carrying a novel OTX2 heterozygous mutation. She presented microphthalmia, absence of retinal vascularization, vitreal spots and optic nerve hypoplasia in the right eye and mild macular dystrophy in the left eye. Midline brain structures and cerebral parenchyma were normal, except for the ectopic posterior pituitary gland. OTX2 sequencing showed a heterozygous c.402del mutation. Most of OTX2 mutations are nonsense or frameshift introducing a premature termination codon and resulting in a truncated protein. More rarely missense mutations occur. Our novel OTX2 mutation (c.402del) is a frameshift mutation (p.S135Lfs*43), never reported before, causing a premature codon stop 43 amino-acids downstream, which is predicted to generate a premature truncation. The mutation was associated with microphthalmia and ectopic posterior pituitary. PMID:26974134

  6. Saturable triiodothyronine-binding sites in the pituitary nuclei of salmonid teleost fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-affinity, limited-capacity, 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3)-binding sites were established by in vitro saturation analysis in cell nuclei of the pituitary gland of arctic charr. The sites were extracted from the purified nuclei using 0.4 M NaCl and incubated with [125I]T3 in the presence of 0.2 M NaCl. T3 saturable binding attained equilibrium after 18-24 hr of incubation at 4 degrees. The association constant ranged from 6.7 to 20.1 liters.mol-1 x 10(9), indicating a T3 affinity greater than that for T3-binding sites in rainbow trout liver. The maximal binding capacity ranged from 0.93 to 2.05 10(-13) mol.mg DNA-1, representing a mean site abundance corresponding to 60% of that for nuclei from trout liver. Thyroxine (T4) completely displaced [125I]T3 in the pituitary nuclei of arctic charr and T3 completely displaced [125I]T4 in the pituitary nuclei of rainbow trout, suggesting that in salmonids both T4 and T3 bind to the same single class of sites. However, the site affinity for T4 was approximately 20-50x less than that for T3. The possible roles of these sites in pituitary function as well as their relationship to other nuclear T3-binding sites in salmonid fish are discussed

  7. Regulation mechanisms of pituitary-thyroid axis in normal subjects and patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory mechanism of the pituitary-thyroid axis in normal subjects and patients with Graves' disease was investigated using a highly sensitive TSH assay based on the immunoradiometric assay. All of the normal subjects had detectable TSH values within the range 0.35 to 6.0 μU/ml. No negative correlations between TSH and free thyroid hormones existed in normal subjects. Patients with thyroid carcinoma who seemed to have normal pituitary-thyroid function showed a rapid increase of TSH after total thyroidectomy. On the other hand, while untreated patients with Graves' disease all had undetectable TSH values, these patients took 1 to 3.5 months longer to normalize their TSH values than to normalize free thyroid hormones on antithyroid drug therapy. During the recovery phase by the treatment with decrease of antithyroid drug or supplement of T4 from iatrogenic hypothyroid state after treatment for Graves' disease and thyroid carcinoma, normalization of TSH levels was delayed than that of free thyroid hormones. Patients with Graves' disease in remission showed an extremely positive correlation between basal and peak TSH levels in TRH test, and a negative correlation between basal TSH and FT4. In conclusion, an individual patient may have a different set point concerning the regulatory mechanism of the pituitary-thyroid axis, and the persistence of the hyperthyroid state would seem to have caused some reversible dysfunction of the pituitary gland. (author)

  8. Pituitary metastasis of lung neuroendocrine carcinoma: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Pedro Freire; Mathez, Andréia Latanza Gomes; Pedretti, Denize Borges; Abucham, Julio

    2015-12-01

    Metastasis to the pituitary gland is an unusual situation in clinical practice, but the frequency thereof is increasing due to the increased survival of cancer patients, and greater availability of imaging. In most cases, they are found between the sixth and seventh decades of life, as determined in image examination of patients with known malignant neoplasm, but, generally, asymptomatic with respect to pituitary involvement. The most common primary sites are breast in women and lung in men. We present the case of a 64-year-old patient with clinical visual changes, polyuria, polydipsia, and decreased level of consciousness whose tests showed pan-hypopituitarism, hypernatremia and low urine specific gravity, and extensive mass in sellar region. Diabetes insipidus was confirmed and treated, corticotrophic and thyroid deficits were corrected and then the patient underwent resection by transsphenoidal surgery. The histopathological and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed pituitary metastasis of lung neuroendocrine tumor. Subsequently, a chest CT scan showed pulmonary mass consistent with primary neoplasm. Despite the water and electrolyte correction and intravenous glucocorticoid replacement, the patient continued to show decreased level of consciousness due to compression of the brain stem by the pituitary mass, evolving to death. The purpose is to call attention to the differential diagnosis of invasive lesions of the sellar region, mainly in individuals over 50 years and/or when associated with diabetes insipidus, as it may be a case of metastasis, although there is no known primary neoplasm. PMID:26677090

  9. Pituitary Gigantism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present a rare case of gigantism. Case Report: A 25-year-old lady presented with increased statural growth and enlarged body parts noticed since the age of 14 years, primary amenorrhea, and frontal headache for the last 2 years.She has also been suffering from non-inflammatory low back pain with progressive kyphosis and pain in the knees, ankles, and elbows for the last 5 years. There was no history of visual disturbance, vomiting, galactorrhoea, cold intolerance. She had no siblings. Family history was non-contributory.Blood pressure was normal. Height 221 cm, weight 138 kg,body mass index (BMI28. There was coarsening of facial features along with frontal bossing and prognathism, large hands and feet, and small goitre. Patient had severe kyphosis and osteoarthritis of knees. Confrontation perimetry suggested bitemporal hemianopia. Breast and pubic hair were of Tanner stage 1. Serum insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF1 was 703 ng/ml with all glucose suppressedgrowth hormone (GHvalues of >40 ng/ml. Prolactin was 174 ng/ml. Basal serum Lutenising Hormone (LH, follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH was low. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, liver and renal function tests, basal cortisol and thyroid profile, Calcium, phosphorus and Intact Parathyroid hormone (iPTH were normal.Computed tomographyscan of brain showed large pituitary macroadenoma. Automated perimetry confirmed bitemporal hemianopia. A diagnosis of gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary macroadenoma with hypogonadotrophichypogonadism was made. Debulking pituitary surgery followed by somatostatin analogue therapy with gonadal steroid replacement had been planned, but the patient refused further treatment.

  10. Fat-suppressed dynamic MR imaging for the postoperative evaluation of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of the early post operative evaluation of pituitary adenomas with fat-suppressed MR imaging was studied. Thirty patients with pituitary adenoma, who underwent trans-sphenoidal surgery were analyzed. These include 22 with macroadenoma (3 recurrent cases) and 8 with microadenoma (2 recurrent cases). In all cases after adenoma resection, fat tissue was placed into the sella turcica to prevent postoperative cerebro-spinal fluid leakage and infections. T1-weighted and Gd DTPA-enhanced MR images were obtained using a 1.5-T superconductive MRI system (Shimadzu Co., Ltd.) by a standard technique and also by a fat suppression technique (chemical shift selective presaturation: CHESS) after surgery. It was difficult to discriminate between hematoma, fat tissue and pituitary posterior lobe on T1-weighted images within 1 month after surgery because of high-signal intensity. However, these regions could be distinguished one another by the CHESS technique. Normal pituitary anterior lobe could be identified in 86% of macroadenoma cases using Gd CHESS dynamic study, whereas it was identified only in 23% by standard technique. Normal anterior lobe was identified in 100% of microadenoma cases using Gd CHESS dynamic study. The residual tumors were found to invade into the supra sella or cavernous sinus, and these lesions could be distinguished from the surrounding tissue by the CHESS dynamic study in 83%, whereas only 33% could be distinguished by the standard technique. Although the fat tissue showed a time-sequence decrease in volume, high-signal intensity sometimes lasted long in association with degenerative granulation. In conclusion, CHESS dynamic MR Imaging study is useful for detection of the normal pituitary lobe and residual adenomas after trans-sphenoidal surgery. (author)

  11. Radiation Therapy of Pituitary Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation treatment results were analyzed in a retrospective analysis of 47 patients with pituitary adenoma treated with radiation alone or combined with surgery from 1974 through 1987 at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology of Kyung Hee University. The 5-year overall survival rates for all patients was 80.4%. Radiation therapy was effective for improving visual symptoms and headache, but could not normalize amenorrhea and galactorrhoea. There was no difference of survival rate between radiation alone and combination with surgery. Prognostic factors such as age, sex, disease type, visual field, headache and surgical treatment were statistically no significant in survival rates of these patients

  12. NMR characterization of pituitary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve patients (5 male, 7 female, mean age 37.9 +- 20) with pituitary tumors were extensively evaluated with NMR imaging using a 1.5K gauss resistive magnet. Saturation recovery (SR), inversion recovery (IR) and spin echo (SE) pulse sequences were used for qualitative characterization of the lesions. T/sub 1/ calculations were also performed for brain and pituitary. Tumor histology and endocrine status were correlated with NMR data. All tumors were large with suprasellar extension (6 with prolactin secretion, 6 without). Pituitary T/sub 1/'s ranged from .2 to .64, the mean T/sub 1/ being longer than that of brain (Brain = .4 +- .04; Pit = .48 +- .14). 3 patients with histological evidence of homogeneous adenomas had long T/sub 1/'s (0.58 +- .05). 3 patients with evidence of recent or old hemorhage into the pituitary had much shorter T/sub 1/'s (0.29 +- .12). There was no relationship between prolactin secretion and T/sub 1/. Qualitative T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ information can be obtained by using a combination of SR, IR, and SE images. Using this method in the patients, homogeneous adenomas had similar T/sub 1/'s and longer T/sub 2/'s compared to the brain, while patients with bleeds had shorter T/sub 1/'s and T/sub 2/'s. Image T/sub 1/ characteristics correlated well with the calculated T/sub 1/ values. The range of T/sub 1/ (and potentially T/sub 2/) values which occur in apparently similar lesions are most likely due to anatomical and pathophysiological variations in these lesions. It may be ultimately possible to separate different types of pathological processes based on NMR image T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ characteristics after careful comparative studies of NMR and histological data are completed. The combination of calculated T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ with image T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ information may also be useful in further characterization of lesions

  13. Angioscan exploration of morphology of pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabarin, A.; David, J.P.; Drouillard, J. and others

    1987-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the morphologic study of pituitary due to the availability of angioscan programs. An exceptional case is presented of a persistent intrasellar trigeminal artery associated with prolactinoma. Based on technological progress in CT scan imaging the place of angiographic explorations in the investigation of pituitary adenoma is reconsidered.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville, Jean-Francois; Bonneville, Fabrice; Cattin, Francoise [University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Besancon (France)

    2005-03-01

    Today, MR is the only method needed for the morphological investigation of endocrine-active pituitary adenomas. In acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome, the therapeutic attitude is directly dictated by MR data. We present the MR aspect of pituitary adenomas according to size, sex, age, endocrine activity and a few particular conditions such as hemorrhagic pituitary adenomas, pituitary adenomas during pregnancy, cavernous sinus invasion and postsurgical changes. When an intrasellar mass extending out of the sella turcica is detected, the goal of the MR examination is to indicate precisely the origin of the tumor, its extension in relation to the various surrounding structures, its structure and its enhancement in order to help in the differential diagnosis. Demonstration of very small pituitary adenomas remains a challenge. When SE T1- and Turbo SE T2-weighted sequences are non-diagnostic, enhanced imaging becomes mandatory; half-dose gadolinium injection, delayed sequence, dynamic imaging can be of some help. (orig.)

  15. The effect of chemoradiation therapy on pituitary-thyroid system function in children suffering Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functional status of the thyroid gland was evaluated in 63 children with Hodgkin's disease, aged 4-15 years, before, in the course of and 5 years after chemoradiation therapy. Thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the blood were assayed. The disease was shown to disrupt the pituitary-thyroid system leading to hypothyroidism development which progressed as the disease advanced. While chemotherapy brought the balance between the peripheral thyroid hormone levels and TSH back to normal, thyroid function decrease again following radiotherapy of the neck. The most pronounced and persistent failure of the pituitary-thyroid system was registered with the total target dose of 30 Gy and higher. Irradiation in a dose of 20 Gy caused less disruption and the function was spontaneously restored within 12 months after the treatment

  16. Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in a terrier dog:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahdieh Rezaei; Sara Rostami; Mehdi Saberi; Dariush Vosugh

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism in a 10-year-old, female, terrier dog. The animal was admitted due to polyphagia, weight gain, polyuria, polydipsia, hair loss, exercise intolerance and panting at rest. On physical examination, abdominal distention, truncal and bilaterally symmetric alopecia, thin hypotonic skin, comedones, bruising, hyperpigmentation and calcinosis cutis on the dorsal midline were observed. Hematologic investigations showed stress leukogram, high serum alkaline phosphatase activity, mild to moderate alanine aminotransferase activity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia. Mild generalized interstitial lung patterns and hepatomegaly were detected in the radiographs. Bilaterally symmetric normal-sized adrenal glands were also diagnosed in ultrasonography. Diagnosis of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was confirmed with low-dose dexamethasone suppression test. The dog was successfully treated with mitotane.

  17. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Meena, Sanjay; Saini, Pramod; Singh, Vivek; Kumar, Ramakant; Trikha, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder dislocations are the most common major joint dislocations encountered in the emergency departments. Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and of these, bilateral posterior shoulder dislocations are more prevalent than bilateral anterior shoulder dislocations. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. We present a case of 24-year-old male who sustained bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following minor trauma, with associated greater tuberosity fracture on one side...

  18. Identification of spectrin as a calmodulin-binding component in the pituitary gonadotrope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is a hypothalamic decapeptide which stimulates the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary. Ca2+ fulfills the requirements of a second messenger for this system. Inhibition of calmodulin will inhibit GnRH stimulated LH release. The aim of the present studies has been to identify the locus of action of calmodulin within the pituitary. By use of an 125I-calmodulin gel overlayer assay, five major Ca2+-dependent 125I-calmodulin labelled components of subunit Mr > 205,000; 200,000; 135,000; 60,000; and 52,000 have been identified. This labeling was found to be phenothiazine-sensitive. Ca2+-independent binding that was observed appears to be due to hydrophobic interactions of calmodulin with acid-soluble proteins, principally histones. Subcellular fractionation revealed that the Ca2+-dependent calmodulin-binding components are localized primarily in the cytosolic fraction. Separation of dispersed anterior pituitary cells through a linear Metrizamide gradient yielded gonadotrope-enriched fractions, which were found to contain all five 125I-calmodulin binding components corresponding to the major bands in the pituitary homogenate. The calmodulin-binding component levels do not appear to be differentially regulated by steroids. The calmodulin binding component with a Mr > 205,000 has been identified as spectrin. Spectrin-like immunoreactivity and 125I-calmodulin-binding activity in pituitary tissue homogenates co-migrated in various percentage acrylamide gels with avian erythrocyte spectrin. Spectrin was detected in a gonadotrope-enriched fraction by immunoblotting, and confirmed in gonadotropes by indirect immunofluorescence of cultured pituitary cells in which spectrin- and LH-immunoreactivity co-localized

  19. Mucocele of the glands of Blandin-Nuhn in children: A clinical, histopathologic, and retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh R Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The anterior lingual salivary glands (glands of Blandin-Nuhn are mixed mucous and serous glands that are embedded within the musculature of anterior tongue ventrum. Aim: The present study was designed to describe the clinical and histopathological features. Material and Methods : We investigated the clinical and histopathologic features of 30 cases of mucocele of glands of Blandin-Nuhn. All the cases were seen in the department of pedodontics. Results: All the lesions were located on the ventral surface of the tongue. Lesions were situated at the midline in 24 patients and laterally in 6 patients. All the lesions were surgically treated. There was female predominance, and most patients were younger than 15 years. Conclusion : Histopathological examination showed extravasation type of mucocele, suggesting that trauma may be a frequent initiating factor. All the patients were younger than 15 years.

  20. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  1. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy

  2. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.;

    2004-01-01

    Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases of...... these tumors are associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Association with EBV may also be observed in sporadic cases, and detection of EBV gene products may aid their diagnosis. Immunohistology may be employed to resolve the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas......, comprising malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas...

  3. Identification of candidate genes for human pituitary development by EST analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Huasheng

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pituitary is a critical neuroendocrine gland that is comprised of five hormone-secreting cell types, which develops in tandem during the embryonic stage. Some essential genes have been identified in the early stage of adenohypophysial development, such as PITX1, FGF8, BMP4 and SF-1. However, it is likely that a large number of signaling molecules and transcription factors essential for determination and terminal differentiation of specific cell types remain unidentified. High-throughput methods such as microarray analysis may facilitate the measurement of gene transcriptional levels, while Expressed sequence tag (EST sequencing, an efficient method for gene discovery and expression level analysis, may no-redundantly help to understand gene expression patterns during development. Results A total of 9,271 ESTs were generated from both fetal and adult pituitaries, and assigned into 961 gene/EST clusters in fetal and 2,747 in adult pituitary by homology analysis. The transcription maps derived from these data indicated that developmentally relevant genes, such as Sox4, ST13 and ZNF185, were dominant in the cDNA library of fetal pituitary, while hormones and hormone-associated genes, such as GH1, GH2, POMC, LHβ, CHGA and CHGB, were dominant in adult pituitary. Furthermore, by using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, Sox4 was found to be one of the main transcription factors expressed in fetal pituitary for the first time. It was expressed at least at E12.5, but decreased after E17.5. In addition, 40 novel ESTs were identified specifically in this tissue. Conclusion The significant changes in gene expression in both tissues suggest a distinct and dynamic switch between embryonic and adult pituitaries. All these data along with Sox4 should be confirmed to further understand the community of multiple signaling pathways that act as a cooperative network that regulates maturation of the pituitary. It was also suggested that EST

  4. Beyond the brain-Peripheral kisspeptin signaling is essential for promoting endometrial gland development and function

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia León; Daniela Fernadois; Alexandra Sull; Judith Sull; Michele Calder; Kanako Hayashi; Moshmi Bhattacharya; Stephen Power; George A. Vilos; Vilos, Angelos G.; Manuel Tena-Sempere; Babwah, Andy V.

    2016-01-01

    Uterine growth and endometrial gland formation (adenogenesis) and function, are essential for fertility and are controlled by estrogens and other regulators, whose nature and physiological relevance are yet to be elucidated. Kisspeptin, which signals via Kiss1r, is essential for fertility, primarily through its central control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, but also likely through peripheral actions. Using genetically modified mice, we addressed the contributions of central and p...

  5. Radioiodine and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takavar A

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of a precise amount of activity in thyroid gland radioiodine (¹³¹I therapy is of prime importance. Several methods for this purpose have been suggested and used over many years. In this paper, a method for required ¹³¹I activity calculation for each case has been proposed. Major factors affecting ¹³¹I calculation such as gland volume, integral dose, and prescription index have been described. Using the method, ¹³¹I activity or any other radioisotope activity required for a certain case can be determined with a good estimate.

  6. Salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Andersen, L J; Christensen, M;

    1998-01-01

    The prognosis of salivary gland carcinomas is difficult to assess. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates (T and sialosyl-T antigens, Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens) have been shown to be of value in predicting prognosis for carcinomas in other locations. We studied the prognostic significance of the...... expression of these structures in a retrospective study of 133 patients with salivary gland carcinomas, using immunohistochemistry and a panel of well-defined monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Sialosyl-Tn, T and sialosyl-T antigens were not correlated with prognosis...

  7. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-directed induction of the CREM gene in the thyroid gland participates in the long-term desensitization of the TSH receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Lalli, E.; Sassone-Corsi, P

    1995-01-01

    Thyroid gland function is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis via the secretion of TSH, according to environmental, developmental, and circadian stimuli. TSH modulates both the secretion of thyroid hormone and gland trophism through interaction with a specific guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptor (TSH receptor; TSH-R), which elicits the activation of the cAMP-dependent signaling pathway. After TSH stimulation, the levels of TSH-R RNA are known to decrease dramatically ...

  8. Carbonic anhydrase generates a pH gradient in Bombyx mori silk glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domigan, L J; Andersson, M; Alberti, K A; Chesler, M; Xu, Q; Johansson, J; Rising, A; Kaplan, D L

    2015-10-01

    Silk is a protein of interest to both biological and industrial sciences. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, forms this protein into strong threads starting from soluble silk proteins using a number of biochemical and physical cues to allow the transition from liquid to fibrous silk. A pH gradient has been measured along the gland, but the methodology employed was not able to precisely determine the pH at specific regions of interest in the silk gland. Furthermore, the physiological mechanisms responsible for the generation of this pH gradient are unknown. In this study, concentric ion selective microelectrodes were used to determine the luminal pH of B. mori silk glands. A gradient from pH 8.2 to 7.2 was measured in the posterior silk gland, with a pH 7 throughout the middle silk gland, and a gradient from pH 6.8 to 6.2 in the beginning of the anterior silk gland where silk processing into fibers occurs. The small diameter of the most anterior region of the anterior silk gland prevented microelectrode access in this region. Using a histochemical method, the presence of active carbonic anhydrase was identified in the funnel and anterior silk gland of fifth instar larvae. The observed pH gradient collapsed upon addition of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor methazolamide, confirming an essential role for this enzyme in pH regulation in the B. mori silk gland. Plastic embedding of whole silk glands allowed clear visualization of the morphology, including the identification of four distinct epithelial cell types in the gland and allowed correlations between silk gland morphology and silk stages of assembly related to the pH gradient. B. mori silk glands have four different epithelial cell types, one of which produces carbonic anhydrase. Carbonic anhydrase is necessary for the mechanism that generates an intraluminal pH gradient, which likely regulates the assembly of silk proteins and then the formation of fibers from soluble silk proteins. These new insights into native silk

  9. [Ultrasound evaluation of fetal adrenal gland volume. The role of fetal adrenal glands in the pathogenesis of preterm labor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Arkadiusz; Karwasik-Kajszczarek, Katarzyna; Dymanowska-Dyjak, Izabela; Kondracka, Adrianna; Kwaśniewska, Anna

    2014-02-01

    Preterm labor remains to be one of the most important challenges of contemporary perinatology and constitutes the main reason of perinatal mortality and prematurity of neonates. Studies on preterm labor have confirmed the mutual interactions of several different hormonal systems while the activation of hypothalamic- pituitary- adrenal axis seems to have the greatest influence. It has been also suggested that size and mass of fetal adrenal glands may be associated with the risk of preterm labor. Several authors have shown that the evaluation of fetal adrenal gland volume may be a useful marker of fetal growth during pregnancy. Technological advancements enabled the development of three-dimensional ultrasound evaluation (3D) of the fetal adrenal glands, facilitating a more precise evaluation of their volume. Also, it seems to have higher sensitivity and specificity than two-dimensional ultrasonography (2D). Studies have confirmed a direct relationship between fetal adrenal gland size and the onset of preterm labor within at least 1 week since the ultrasound exam. They have also suggested that in a physiological pregnancy the relation between fetal zone and the whole organ remains constant throughout the pregnancy. Disruption of these proportions and fetal zone enlargement are considered to be a marker of labor cascade and preterm labor with significantly higher sensitivity and specificity than ultrasound evaluation of the cervical length and assessment of the fetal fibronectin concentration. PMID:24745160

  10. Tuberculous abscess of the thyroid gland : A case report of CT demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of tuberculous abscess of thyroid gland in 32-years old female. On CT scan, multiple peripheral enhancing low density abscess were found in the right thyroid gland. Abscess cavity with skin and subcutaneous manifestations were also noted in the right anterior neck. This was confirmed as chronic granulomatous caseous necrosis and acid-fast bacilli were identified by Ziehl-Neelsen stain

  11. Morphological Characteristics and Embryological Development of Pineal Gland and Experimental Grafting Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Turgut; Aysegul Uysal; Mine Yurtseven

    2003-01-01

    The pineal gland is a major neuroendocrine organ both in human and animals and its principal product is melatonin. It has been implicated in a number of physiological functions (circadian rhytms, sleep, reproduction, and immune system). It is notable that transplantation of the pineal gland into different anatomical locations (the third or fourth cerebral ventricle, hypothalamus, cortical cerebral tissue, and anterior chamber of the eye) appears to evoke a degree of functional recovery. The p...

  12. Cranial nerve damage in patients after alpha (heavy)-particle radiation to the pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The records of 161 patients were reviewed to determine if radiation damage had occurred following cranial irradiation. All of these patients had received alpha-particle radiation to their pituitary glands during the period when this form of therapy was given for diabetic retinopathy. Extraocular muscle palsy developed in 11 of these patients, iridoplegia in six, and fifth nerve damage in six. All of the palsies developed within a short period following their irradiation, and a definite dose relationship was present. The dose rate was approximately 100 rads/min for all cases. Fractionation varied but it is known for all cases

  13. Pituitary dysfunction after traumatic brain injury: a clinical and pathophysiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriverdi, Fatih; Schneider, Harald Jörn; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Masel, Brent E; Casanueva, Felipe F; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a growing public health problem worldwide and is a leading cause of death and disability. The causes of TBI include motor vehicle accidents, which are the most common cause, falls, acts of violence, sports-related head traumas, and war accidents including blast-related brain injuries. Recently, pituitary dysfunction has also been described in boxers and kickboxers. Neuroendocrine dysfunction due to TBI was described for the first time in 1918. Only case reports and small case series were reported until 2000, but since then pituitary function in TBI victims has been investigated in more detail. The frequency of hypopituitarism after TBI varies widely among different studies (15-50% of the patients with TBI in most studies). The estimates of persistent hypopituitarism decrease to 12% if repeated testing is applied. GH is the most common hormone lost after TBI, followed by ACTH, gonadotropins (FSH and LH), and TSH. The underlying mechanisms responsible for pituitary dysfunction after TBI are not entirely clear; however, recent studies have shown that genetic predisposition and autoimmunity may have a role. Hypopituitarism after TBI may have a negative impact on the pace or degree of functional recovery and cognition. What is not clear is whether treatment of hypopituitarism has a beneficial effect on specific function. In this review, the current data related to anterior pituitary dysfunction after TBI in adult patients are updated, and guidelines for the diagnosis, follow-up strategies, and therapeutic approaches are reported. PMID:25950715

  14. Central diabetes insipidus as a very late relapse limited to the pituitary stalk in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shunsuke; Shinkoda, Yuichi; Hazeki, Daisuke; Imamura, Mari; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Kawakami, Kiyoshi; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2016-07-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and relapse are frequently seen in multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). We present two females with multifocal LCH who developed CDI 9 and 5 years after the initial diagnosis, respectively, as a relapse limited to the pituitary stalk. Combination chemotherapy with cytarabine reduced the mass in the pituitary stalk. Although CDI did not improve, there has been no anterior pituitary hormone deficiency (APHD), neurodegenerative disease in the central nervous system (ND-CNS) or additional relapse for 2 years after therapy. It was difficult to predict the development of CDI in these cases. CDI might develop very late in patients with multifocal LCH, and therefore strict follow-up is necessary, especially with regard to symptoms of CDI such as polydipsia and polyuria. For new-onset CDI with LCH, chemotherapy with cytarabine might be useful for preventing APHD and ND-CNS. PMID:27089406

  15. Submandibular gland excision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Line Kanstrup; Møller, Martin Nue

    2013-01-01

    cosmetic result and all scars were ≤6 on the Vancouver Scar Scale. Problems with scarring were more common if there had beenpostoperative infection. We continue to use the lateral transcervical approach as standard in our institution for patients who cannot be managed by gland-sparing procedures....

  16. Expression for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in pituitary adenomas 38 cases for semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojie Lu; Kailai Chen; Weiyang Ji; Qing Wang; Bing Li; Jiang'an Li; Jiyong Sun

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:It has been reposed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ(PPAR γ)is highly expressed in lung cancer,colon cancer,and gastric cancer,as well as other tumors.OBJECTIVE:To study expression of PPAR γ in pituitary adenomas and analyze the role of PPAR γ in hormonal typing of pituitary adenomas.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:Semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry of pathological specimens.The experiment was conducted at the Department of Neurosurgery,Wuxi Second Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University between January 2002 and May 2005.MATERIALS:Surgical resection samples of pituitary adenomas from 38 cases(18 male and 20 female)were analyzed.Eight cases were determined to be invasive pituitary adenomas and 30 cases were non-invasive pituitary adenomas.Hormonal classification of the types of pituitary adenomas revealed somatotrophic adenomas in six cases,corticotrophic adenoma in five cases,prolactinomas in 13 cases,multi-hormone secreting adenomas in six cases,and eight cases of adenoma without altered endocrine function.Five autopsy specimens were collected dunng the same period from patients of matching age that died from unrelated diseases and were included as normal anterior pituitary controls.METHODS:Cell counts for positive immunohistochemical signals were recorded from histopathological sections.The percentage of positive cells was reported as a semi-quantitative analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The rate of PPAR γ positive cells in different types of adenoma was based on hormonal levels and invasiveness of pituitary tumor cells.RESULTS:All tumor biopsies were determined to express PPAR γ.T1le rate of PPAR γ-positive cells ranged between 8%-65% in the pituitary adenomas.According to hormonal type,PPAR γ expression did not vary between the groups.In addition.there was no significant difference in PPAR γ expression between the non-invasive and invasive pituitary adenomas.CONCLUSIONS:Human pituitary adenomas express PPAR γ,and this

  17. Imaging of the pituitary: Recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chaudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary lesions, albeit relatively infrequent, can significantly alter the quality of life. This article highlights the role of advanced imaging modalities in evaluating pituitary-hypothalamic axis lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the examination of choice for evaluating hypothalamic-pituitary-related endocrine diseases. Advanced MR techniques discussed in this article include dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, 3T MRI, magnetization transfer (MT imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, proton MR spectroscopy, fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, intraoperative MRI, and intraoperative real-time ultrasonography.

  18. Management of incidental pituitary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas F. Marko

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary incidentalomas are common lesions for which neurosurgical referrals may become progressively more frequent, given the increasing application of neuroimaging. The initial evaluation of a patient with radiographic evidence of an incidentaloma should focus on addressing two questions: (1 is the lesion causing neurological symptoms, and (2 is the lesion hormonally active? The answers to these two questions provide a framework for subsequent clinical management. The initial patient assessment should include a detailed history and physical examination, including the bedside assessment of visual fields. High-quality MRI imaging is essential, and formal visual field testing should be obtained in patients where the lesion abuts or compresses the optic apparatus. The initial biochemical workup is intended to assess potential pituitary hypo- or hyperfunction and should include measurement of serum levels of prolactin, insulin-like growth factor type-1, free thyroxine, testosterone, and an assessment of axis hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis function. Additional testing may include serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone levels. Neurologically-asymptomatic patients without endocrine dysfunction can be managed with observation at regular intervals, including MRI imaging at 6 months and 1 year and then annually for a period of 3 years. Follow-up biochemical assessment is not necessary in the absence of clinical symptoms or radiographic enlargement of the lesion. After 3 years the follow-up interval may be prolonged, although closer follow-up may be indicated for patients with lesions C1 cm. Most patients who either present with or who subsequently develop neurologic or endocrinologic symptoms should be considered for surgery as the first-line therapy.

  19. Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania M; Chiamolera, Maria I; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C; Wondisford, Fredic E

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis determines the set point of thyroid hormone (TH) production. Hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates the synthesis and secretion of pituitary thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH), which acts at the thyroid to stimulate all steps of TH biosynthesis and secretion. The THs thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) control the secretion of TRH and TSH by negative feedback to maintain physiological levels of the main hormones of the HPT axis. Reduction of circulating TH levels due to primary thyroid failure results in increased TRH and TSH production, whereas the opposite occurs when circulating THs are in excess. Other neural, humoral, and local factors modulate the HPT axis and, in specific situations, determine alterations in the physiological function of the axis. The roles of THs are vital to nervous system development, linear growth, energetic metabolism, and thermogenesis. THs also regulate the hepatic metabolism of nutrients, fluid balance and the cardiovascular system. In cells, TH actions are mediated mainly by nuclear TH receptors (210), which modify gene expression. T3 is the preferred ligand of THR, whereas T4, the serum concentration of which is 100-fold higher than that of T3, undergoes extra-thyroidal conversion to T3. This conversion is catalyzed by 5'-deiodinases (D1 and D2), which are TH-activating enzymes. T4 can also be inactivated by conversion to reverse T3, which has very low affinity for THR, by 5-deiodinase (D3). The regulation of deiodinases, particularly D2, and TH transporters at the cell membrane control T3 availability, which is fundamental for TH action. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1387-1428, 2016. PMID:27347897

  20. Effects of spaceflight on rat pituitary cell function: Preflight and flight experiment for pituitary gland study on COSMOS, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Wesley C.

    1990-01-01

    The secretory capacity of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) cells prepared from rats flown in space on the 12.5 day mission of Cosmos 1887 and the 14 day mission of Cosmos 2044 was evaluated in several post-flight tests on Earth. The results showed statistically significant and repeatable decrements in hormone release, especially when biological assays (rather than immunological assays) were used in the tests. Significant and repeatable intracellular changes in GH cells from the flight animals were also found; most important were increases in the GH-specific cytoplasmic staining intensities and cytoplasmic areas occupied by hormore. Tail suspension of rats for 14 days, an established model for mimicking musculo-skeletal changes seen in spaceflown rats, results in some changes in GH and PRL cell function that were similar to those from spaceflown animals. Our results add to a growing body of data that described deconditioning of physiological systems in spaceflight and provide insights into the time frame that might be required for readaptation of the GH/PRL cell system upon return to Earth.

  1. Postirradiation sarcomatous transformation of a pituitary adenoma: a combined pituitary tumor. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case is reported in which a fibrosarcoma developed 20 years after irradiation of a pituitary chromophobe adenoma. This rare lesion, like most of the other documented postirradiation pituitary sarcomas, was a combination of fibrosarcoma and pituitary adenoma. These lesions tend to behave in a characteristic fashion, with onset after a long latent interval following irradiation, growth to a large size, and failure to metastasize

  2. Functional role of estrogen in pituitary tumor pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Anthony P.; Fernando, Manory; Melmed, Shlomo

    2002-01-01

    Pituitary hyperplasia and lactotroph replication are induced by estrogen. The product of the pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) exhibits in vitro and in vivo transforming activity and induces basic bFGF secretion, thereby modulating pituitary angiogenesis and tumor formation. We demonstrated previously that pituitary pttg is induced by estrogen and bFGF, the latter being expressed in a concordant fashion with pttg in experimental and human pituitary adenomas. We now elucidate the role o...

  3. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) ... and Recovery Coping With an ACL Injury About ACL Injuries A torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is ...

  4. Metabolic effect of 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine in cultured growth hormone-producing rat pituitary tumor cells. Evidence for a unique mechanism of thyroid hormone action.

    OpenAIRE

    St Germain, D L

    1985-01-01

    Physiologic levels of 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) are generally believed to have minimal metabolic effects in the pituitary gland and other tissues. In the present studies, the regulatory role of rT3 and other thyroid hormones on iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase (I5'D) activity was studied in a growth hormone-producing rat pituitary tumor cell line (GH3 cells). I5'D activity was thiol-dependent and displayed nonlinear reaction kinetics suggesting the presence of two enzymatic processes, one hav...

  5. Value of radiologic imaging of the thymus gland in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiologic imaging in myasthenia gravis is used for the evaluation of pathologic changes of the thymus gland. Computed tomography can demonstrate tumors of the anterior mediastinum in nearly 90% and is therefore superior to conventional radiography.Because of the variety of size and shape of the normal thymus gland, differentiation between normal thymus, follicular hyperplasia and thymoma is rarely possible especially in younger patients. In elderly patients with myasthenia gravis and involution of the thymus gland tumors of the thymus are reliably detected by computed tomography, whereas the ability of computed tomography to predict the histological diagnosis is poor even with intravenous administration of contrast media. (orig.)

  6. Morphological, Histological and Histochemical Study of the Lingual Salivary Glands of the Little Egret, Egretta garzetta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to study the morphological, histological and histochemical characterizations of the lingual salivary glands of the little egret, Egretta garzetta. The glands are composed of two posterior entities at the base of the tongue and one anterior entity on the dorsal surface of the free lingual part. These glands are made of mucoserous cells that elaborate sialomucins, sulfomucins and proteins, but they are devoid of glycogen and neutral mucosubstances. The findings of the present study were compared with those reported for other birds in correlation with their phylogeny and feeding habits. (author)

  7. Pituitary macroadenomas: reviews of 60 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed 60 cases of patients with pituitary macroadenomas who were submitted to magnetic resonance imaging evaluations at private institutions in Niteroi and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the advantages of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. Macroprolactinomas were the most prevalent tumors. We also observed four growth-hormone (GH) secreting macroadenomas with clinical signs of acromegaly, and one GH- and prolactin-secreting macroadenoma. Seven patients presented pituitary apoplexy and hyperintense signal on T1-W images before contrast medium (gadolinium) administration suggestive of intratumoral bleeding. The follow-up of 15 cases demonstrated a reduction in the size of the tumor after surgery, clinical treatment or radiotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging is important for the study of pituitary macroadenomas, particularly before surgery, as it shows the involvement of adjacent structures, specially the cavernous sinus, optic chiasm and pituitary stalk compression. (author)

  8. Pituitary prolactin adenoma with Toxoplasma gondii infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓晖; 李青; 程虹; 阎庆国; 黄高昇

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To report two recent cases of pituitary adenoma associated with Toxoplasma gondii (T.Gondii) infection.Methods: Histological changes were observed in H & E and PAS staining sections microscopically.Immunohistochemistry was performed to classify the pituitary tumors and to confirm the diagnosis of T.gondii.Results: The cases were 43- and 19-year-old females, in which the latter one was a recurring case, and radiology examination showed that tumors existed in sellar region.Microscopically, the tumors consisted of small homogenous polygonal or round cells with abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm.Immunohistochemistry revealed they were prolactin-producing adenomas.Interestingly, we found toxoplasma infection in the tumor tissues, being confirmed by T.gondii sepicific antibody immunohistochemistry.Conclusion: The association of pituitary adenoma with toxoplasma raises the possibility that T.gondii may be involved in the development of certain cases of pituitary adenoma.

  9. Metastases from a pituitary adenoma: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few cases of pituitary adenoma with metastases have been reported. We report a case with histologically benign intracranial and cauda equina metastases. We compare it to the others in the literature. (orig.)

  10. Metastases from a pituitary adenoma: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucaud, L. de; Dousset, V.; Viaud, B.; Caille, J.M. [Service de Neuroradiologie, CHU Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Caillaud, P.; Guerin, J. [Service de Neurochirurgie, CHU Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)

    1999-10-01

    Few cases of pituitary adenoma with metastases have been reported. We report a case with histologically benign intracranial and cauda equina metastases. We compare it to the others in the literature. (orig.)

  11. Identification of metastases in the pituitary stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of metastasis in the pituitary stalk are presented. In both cases, presenting with diabetes insipidus, the demonstration of a small (under 1 cm) metastasis in the pituitary stalk was possible using a current generation scanner. Patients with known primary tumors presenting with a diabetes insipidus should be examined by CT before therapy with antidiuretic hormone is initiated. In cases of visible metastasis, a specific therapy together with the hormone-substitution should be discussed. (orig.)

  12. Pituitary carcinoma with different hormone expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao LU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To introduce the experience of diagnosing and treating one case of pituitary carcinoma with distinct hormone expressions in primary and metastatic lesions and to improve understanding of this disease.  Methods Retrospective study was performed to analyze the clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, histopathologic findings, and treatment information of the patient. Immunohistochemical staining was done to both primary and metastatic lesions.  Results The patient presented with eye pain and discomfort 4 months posterior to pituitary adenoma surgery. Head MRI showed multiple abnormal intracranial signals, irregular pituitary contour, and abnormal enhancements of the sellar region. PET-CT scan showed multiple hypermetabolic lesions. After the first surgery, histological study of the pituitary tumor showed disseminated tumor cells. The cells were round-shaped or polygonal, with mild atypia, moderate amount of eosinophilic plasma and round-shaped nuclei with fine chromatin and unconspicuous nucleoli; mitosis was abundant, while necrosis was absent. The tumor cells expressed P53, chromogranin A (CgA, with scattered expression for growth hormone (GH and a Ki-67 index of 80% by immunohistochemistry. The first pathologic diagnosis was atypical pituitary adenoma. The parietal tumor cells infiltrated parenchymal after the tumor recurrence. Immunohistochemistry findings were different from the first one. The tumor cells expressed GH diffusely, with a decreased Ki-67 index of 75%. The second pathologic diagnosis was metastatic pituitary carcinoma.  Conclusions Pituitary carcinoma is a rare malignant pituitary tumor. Diagnosis relies on radiology and pathology. Surgical resection and radiochemotherapy are the current treatment of choice but yield poor response. General prognosis of the disease is poor. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.01.013

  13. Melatonin Inhibition of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone-induced Calcium Signaling and Hormone Secretion in neonatal Pituitary Gonadotrophs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, Hana; Balík, Aleš; Mazna, Petr

    Enfield: Science Publishers, 2008 - (Haldar, C.; Singaravel, M.; Pandi-Perumal, S.), s. 59-82 ISBN 978-1-57808-518-7 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110702; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/07/0681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : melatonin * gonadotropin-releasing hormone * anterior pituitary Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  14. Neuromedin B stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, C K; Patel, S A; Thompson, E L; Patterson, M; Curtis, A E; Amin, A; Chen, K; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Murphy, K G

    2013-11-10

    Neuromedin B (NMB) is a highly conserved bombesin-related peptide found in mammals. NMB mRNA is detected in the central nervous system (CNS) and is highly expressed in the rat hypothalamus, in particular the medial preoptic area and the arcuate nucleus. The mammalian bombesin family of receptors consists of three closely related G protein coupled receptors, BB1, BB2 and BB3. The BB1 receptor subtype has the highest affinity for NMB. NMB has well documented roles in the regulation of the thyroid axis and the stress axis in rats. However, there is little available data regarding the role of NMB in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. It is known that the NMB receptor is expressed in immortalised gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) releasing GT1-7 cells and murine forebrain GnRH neurons, and that anterior pituitary NMB-immunoreactivity is altered by changes in the sex steroid environment. The objective of these studies was thus to further investigate the effects of NMB on the HPG axis. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of NMB (10 nmol) to adult male rats significantly increased plasma luteinising hormone (LH) levels 30 min after injection (plasma LH ng/ml; saline 0.69±0.07, 10 nmol NMB 1.33±0.17, P<0.01). In vitro, NMB stimulated GnRH release from hypothalamic explants from male rats and from hypothalamic GT1-7 cells. NMB had no significant effect on LH release from anterior pituitary explants from male rats, or from pituitary LβT2 cells in vitro. These results suggest a previously unreported role for NMB in the stimulation of the HPG axis via hypothalamic GnRH. Further work is now required to determine the receptor mediating the effects of NMB on the reproductive axis and the physiological role of NMB in reproduction. PMID:24120470

  15. Pituitary tumor transforming gene-1 haplotypes and risk of pituitary adenoma: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinfang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that pituitary adenoma results from accumulation of multiple genetic and/or epigenetic aberrations, which may be identified through association studies. As pituitary tumor transforming gene-1 (PTTG1/securin plays a critical role in promoting genomic instability in pituitary neoplasia, the present study explored the association of PTTG1 haplotypes with the risk of pituitary adenoma. Methods We genotyped five PTTG1 haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNP by PCR-RFLP assays in a case-control study, which included 280 Han Chinese patients diagnosed with pituitary adenoma and 280 age-, gender- and geographically matched Han Chinese controls. Haplotypes were reconstructed according to the genotyping data and linkage disequilibrium status of the htSNPs. Results No significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of the htSNPs were observed between pituitary adenoma patients and controls, indicating that none of the individual PTTG1 SNPs examined in this study is associated with the risk of pituitary adenoma. In addition, no significant association was detected between the reconstructed PTTG1 haplotypes and pituitary adenoma cases or the controls. Conclusions Though no significant association was found between PTTG1 haplotypes and the risk of pituitary adenoma, this is the first report on the association of individual PTTG1 SNPs or PTTG1 haplotypes with the risk of pituitary adenoma based on a solid study; it will provide an important reference for future studies on the association between genetic alterations in PTTG1 and the risk of pituitary adenoma or other tumors.

  16. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  17. Anterior knee pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patellofemoral syndrome; Chondromalacia patella; Runner's knee; Patellar tendinitis; Jumper's knee ... or playing soccer). You have flat feet. Anterior knee pain is more ... skiers, bicyclists, and soccer players who exercise often ...

  18. Anterior knee pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or playing soccer). You have flat feet. Anterior knee pain is more common in: People who are overweight People who have had a dislocation, fracture, or other injury to the kneecap Runners, jumpers, ...

  19. Distribution of a prolactinlike material in human eccrine sweat glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A M; Robertson, M T; Jones, C J

    1989-07-01

    Because prolactin has been implicated in the transport of electrolytes in several mammalian tissues, we have looked for the presence of prolactin in human eccrine sweat glands where a primary isotonic secretion, rich in sodium chloride, is produced and subsequently modified by recovery of some sodium and chloride in excess of water. Sweat glands were microdissected from skin biopsies and then fixed overnight in phosphate-buffered 4% formaldehyde. The fixed tissue was dehydrated (to 95%) in ethanol and then embedded in glycol methacrylate. Sections were cut (5 microns) and immunostained with antihuman prolactin (NIDDK IC2) and the specifically-bound antibody was visualized using a biotinylated second antibody and Vector ABC reagents. Prolactinlike immunoreactivity was localized in the clear cells of the secretory coil and, to a much lesser extent, in the basal layer of duct cells. In many of the clear cells, the immunoreactive material appeared as a lateral strip and occasionally, in favorable sections, as a horseshoe of reaction product a few microns in from the apical and lateral membranes. In a subset of clear cells, with more euchromatic nuclei and a long, thin cellular profile, the immunostaining was more intense and was localized in a more juxtanuclear position. Controls for endogenous peroxidase, and those using normal serum or antihuman prolactin serum preabsorbed with purified human prolactin, gave no peroxidase localization in the tissue. These results are important because 1) they represent the first demonstration of prolactin or a prolactinlike substance in the sweat gland, 2) the prolactinlike material was localized to clear cells that are thought to be responsible for much of the fluid secretion, 3) the necessity for prolactin or pituitary extract in primary cultures of sweat gland epithelium is potentially explained, although not fully understood, and 4) it means that further studies concerned with the possible influence of prolactin on ion transport

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES AND MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF HUMAN FETAL THYMUS GLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Havila Hasini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thymus is one of the central lymphoid organs. It plays an important role in the differentiation, selection and maturation of T-lymphocytes. In the recent years morphology and morphometry of the thymus gland in the newborn is gaining significance as it demonstrates great variability between individual infants and in the same infant at different times. Materials and methods: In the present study 45 thymus specimens from aborted human fetuses of 16 to 40 weeks gestational age and both sexes were studied by autopsy for morphological and morphometric features. The morphometric parameters were measured using pachymeter. Results: The thymus gland was located in the superior mediastinum. 60% (27/45 specimens showed cervical extensions. Brachiocephalic vein anterior to thymus was observed in 3 cases which is an important anomaly to be observed in thymectomy procedure. Thymuses were greyish pink to greyish brown in colour. Variations were also observed in the number of lobes of glands in which one is single lobed, most of the glands are bilobed and few are trilobed. There is progressive increase in all morphometric dimensions of the thymus in relation to gestational age. Most of the specimens were less than 4cm in length. Half of the specimens were below 2cm in width and other half were 2.0 to 5.0 cm in width. For 90% of the specimens thickness of the organ was less than 0.5cm. The thymus gland was 0.2% of fetal body weight. Conclusion: The morphological observations of thymus gland shows great variations which has to be considered in thymectomy. In addition to anthropometric parameters of fetus, morphometric parameters of thymus glands present significant relation to the gestational age of fetuses. It is possible to determine the thymic morphometric parameters in relation to gestational age.

  1. Progesterone metabolism by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of the rat during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolites of [3H]progesterone were quantitated from incubations of hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of rats during different stages of pregnancy. The hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and a section of uterus from five rats on Days 1, 8, 15, and 21 of pregnancy were incubated individually with [3H]progesterone and analyzed for metabolite formation by reverse isotopic dilution analysis. The radioactive metabolites present were 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (5 alpha-DHP), 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one, 20 alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 20 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3-one, and 5 alpha-pregnane-3 alpha, 20 alpha-diol. The major metabolite formed by the hypothalamus and pituitary was 5 alpha-DHP. In the pituitary samples, formation of 5 alpha-DHP was decreased on Days 15 and 21 of pregnancy compared to Day 1, and formation of 20 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3-one was decreased on Day 21 compared to Day 1. In the uterine samples, 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one was the major metabolite formed at all stages of pregnancy. The formation of all metabolic products of progesterone by the uterus was increased on Day 21 compared to Days 1, 8, and 15 of pregnancy. No changes in the formation of progesterone metabolites were observed in the hypothalamic samples during pregnancy. It is concluded that there are different profiles in the in vitro metabolism of [3H]progesterone by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of the rat during the course of pregnancy

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of visual cortex activation in patients with anterior visual pathway lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiufeng Song; Guohua Wang; Tong Zhang; Lei Feng; Peng An; Yueli Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the secondary visual cortex functional disorder in patients with glaucoma and large pituitary adenoma by functional magnetic resonance imaging, and to determine the correlation between visual field defect and primary visual cortex activation. Results showed that single eye stimulation resulted in bilateral visual cortex activation in patients with glaucoma or large pituitary adenoma. Compared with the normal control group, the extent and intensity of visual cortex activation was decreased after left and right eye stimulation, and functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed a correlation between visual field defects and visual cortex activation in patients with glaucoma and large pituitary adenoma. These functional magnetic resonance imaging data suggest that anterior optic pathway lesions can cause secondary functional disorder of the visual cortex, and that visual defects are correlated with visual cortex activation.

  3. Pituitary progesterone receptor expression and plasma gonadotrophin concentrations in the reproductively dysfunctional mutant restricted ovulator chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocón-Grove, Olga M; Maddineni, Sreenivasa; Hendricks, Gilbert L; Elkin, Robert G; Proudman, John A; Ramachandran, Ramesh

    2007-04-01

    Female mutant restricted ovulator (RO) chickens of the White Leghorn strain carry a naturally occurring single nucleotide mutation in the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) gene. Due to this mutation, RO hens fail to express a functional VLDLR protein on the oocyte membrane, which results in an impaired uptake of circulating yolk precursor macromolecules. Mutant RO hens subsequently develop hyperlipidemia and generally fail to lay eggs due to follicular atresia. Since RO hens also reportedly have three-fold higher basal plasma estrogen concentrations, combined with four-fold lower levels of circulating progesterone as compared to wild-type (WT) hens, we hypothesized that RO hens would have an increased abundance of pituitary progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA and PR isoforms A and B as well as alterations in circulating gonadotrophin levels. Quantitative PCR assays revealed significantly greater (Pestradiol, but lower circulating progesterone levels. Collectively, elevated circulating estrogen and/or decreased progesterone levels may have contributed to the upregulation of PR mRNA and PR isoforms A and B in the RO hen pituitary gland. Lastly, in order to gain a more complete understanding of why RO hens are reproductively dysfunctional, a model is proposed that links humoral and ovarian factors to observed and putative changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. PMID:16677794

  4. A comparison between the equine and bovine hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kolk, J H; Fouché, N; Gross, J J; Gerber, V; Bruckmaier, R M

    2016-07-01

    In this review, we address the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis with special emphasis on the comparison between the bovine and equine species. The pars intermedia of the pituitary gland is particularly well developed in horses and cattle. However, its function is not well appreciated in cattle yet. The Wulzen's cone of the adenohypophysis is a special feature of ruminants. Total basal cortisol concentration is much higher in horses than that in cows with similar free cortisol fractions. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) concentrations in equine pituitary venous blood are lower compared with other species, whereas plasma ACTH concentrations in cows are higher than those in horses. A CRF challenge test induced a more pronounced cortisol response in horses compared with cattle, whereas regarding ACTH challenge testing, the opposite seems true. Based on data from literature, the bovine species is characterized by relatively high basal blood CRF and ACTH and low cortisol and glucose concentrations. Obviously, further lowering of blood cortisol in cattle is easily prevented by the high sensitivity to ACTH, and as a consequence, subsequent increased gluconeogenesis prevents imminent hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia is less likely in horses given their high muscle glycogen content and their relatively high cortisol concentration. When assessing HPA axis reactivity, response patterns to exogenous ACTH or CRH might be used as a reliable indicator of animal welfare status in cows and horses, respectively, although it is emphasized that considerable caution should be exercised in using measures of HPA activity solely to assess animal welfare. PMID:27345307

  5. β-lipotropin is the major opioid-like peptide of human pituitary and rat pars distalis: lack of significant β-endorphin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-Lipotropin is the predominant opioid peptide of the human pituitary and rat pars distalis and is present in concentrations essentially equimolar with corticotropin. When freshly obtained nonfrozen rat anterior pituitaries were homogenized with 0.2 M HCl, approximately 98% of the immunoreactivity detected utilizing an antiserum that crossreacts equally with β-lipotropin and β-endorphin coeluted with 125I-labeled human β-lipotropin upon molecular sieve chromatography. The remainder of the activity eluted with synthetic human β-endorphin. Similar results were obtained for human pituitary. HCl homogenization of thawed tissue or homogenization of fresh tissue with acetic acid yielded substantially greater concentrations of β-endorphin and decreased concentrations of β-lipotropin. In human subjects, acute anterior pituitary stimulation using either insulin-induced hypoglycemia or vasopressin administration was associated with increased plasma β-lipotropin and corticotropin levels. At the time of peak concentrations, no significant levels of β-endorphin were detectable. These data indicate the lack of significant amounts of β-endorphin in human pituitary. Additionally, there appears to be no specific intrapituitary conversion of β-lipotropin to β-endorphin

  6. Accumulation of radioactivity in rat brain and peripheral tissues including salivary gland after intravenous administration of {sup 14}C-D-aspartic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Kazuhiro; Fukushima, Takeshi; Santa, Tomofumi; Homma, Hiroshi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Sugihara, Juko; Kodama, Hirohiko; Yoshikawa, Masayoshi

    1997-03-01

    After the intravenous administration of {sup 14}C-D-aspartic acid (Asp) into Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 7-week-old), the distribution and elimination of radioactivity was investigated by the whole body autoradiography. High radioactivities were detected in pineal gland, pituitary gland and salivary gland at 30 min after administration. The other tissues detected were liver, lung, adrenal gland, pancreas and spleen where D-Asp was reported to occur naturally. After 24 hr, the radioactivities were still detected at high levels in the pineal, pituitary and salivary glands. The data suggested the natural occurrence of D-Asp in salivary gland. After careful examination utilizing fluorescent derivatization and chiral separation by high-performance liquid chromatography, the presence of D-Asp was, for the first time, demonstrated in salivary gland in situ, the concentration of which was 7.85 {+-} 1.0 nmol/g. The administration of {sup 14}C-L-Asp was also carried out. The data suggested that D-Asp in the circulating blood is one of the sources of the tissue D-Asp. (author)

  7. Molecular effects of novel mutations in Hesx1/HESX1 associated with human pituitary disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brickman, J M; Clements, M; Tyrell, R;

    2001-01-01

    The homeobox gene Hesx1/HESX1 has been implicated in the establishment of anterior pattern in the central nervous system (CNS) in a number of vertebrate species. Its role in pituitary development has been documented through loss-of-function studies in the mouse. A homozygous missense point mutation...... resulting in a single amino acid substitution, Arg160Cys (R160C), is associated with a heritable form of the human condition of septo-optic dysplasia (SOD). We have examined the phenotype of affected members in this pedigree in more detail and demonstrate for the first time a genetic basis for midline...

  8. Airway Gland Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdicombe, Jonathan H; Wine, Jeffrey J

    2015-10-01

    Submucosal glands contribute to airway surface liquid (ASL), a film that protects all airway surfaces. Glandular mucus comprises electrolytes, water, the gel-forming mucin MUC5B, and hundreds of different proteins with diverse protective functions. Gland volume per unit area of mucosal surface correlates positively with impaction rate of inhaled particles. In human main bronchi, the volume of the glands is ∼ 50 times that of surface goblet cells, but the glands diminish in size and frequency distally. ASL and its trapped particles are removed from the airways by mucociliary transport. Airway glands have a tubuloacinar structure, with a single terminal duct, a nonciliated collecting duct, then branching secretory tubules lined with mucous cells and ending in serous acini. They allow for a massive increase in numbers of mucus-producing cells without replacing surface ciliated cells. Active secretion of Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) by serous cells produces most of the fluid of gland secretions. Glands are densely innervated by tonically active, mutually excitatory airway intrinsic neurons. Most gland mucus is secreted constitutively in vivo, with large, transient increases produced by emergency reflex drive from the vagus. Elevations of [cAMP]i and [Ca(2+)]i coordinate electrolyte and macromolecular secretion and probably occur together for baseline activity in vivo, with cholinergic elevation of [Ca(2+)]i being mainly responsive for transient increases in secretion. Altered submucosal gland function contributes to the pathology of all obstructive diseases, but is an early stage of pathogenesis only in cystic fibrosis. PMID:26336032

  9. Mortality in patients with pituitary disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sherlock, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Pituitary disease is associated with increased mortality predominantly due to vascular disease. Control of cortisol secretion and GH hypersecretion (and cardiovascular risk factor reduction) is key in the reduction of mortality in patients with Cushing\\'s disease and acromegaly, retrospectively. For patients with acromegaly, the role of IGF-I is less clear-cut. Confounding pituitary hormone deficiencies such as gonadotropins and particularly ACTH deficiency (with higher doses of hydrocortisone replacement) may have a detrimental effect on outcome in patients with pituitary disease. Pituitary radiotherapy is a further factor that has been associated with increased mortality (particularly cerebrovascular). Although standardized mortality ratios in pituitary disease are falling due to improved treatment, mortality for many conditions are still elevated above that of the general population, and therefore further measures are needed. Craniopharyngioma patients have a particularly increased risk of mortality as a result of the tumor itself and treatment to control tumor growth; this is a key area for future research in order to optimize the outcome for these patients.

  10. Concomitant pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the clinical, radiological and surgical findings in patients with both pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst. We retrospectively selected patients with both lesions from the 374 patients in whom a sellar/juxtasellar lesion was detected on MRI at 1.5 tesla. All patients received intravenous contrast medium. Concomitant pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst were found in eight patients (2.1 %). The frequency of the combination was 3.5 % of pituitary adenomas and 11 % of Rathke's cleft cysts. Symptoms were always due to the adenoma, secreting adrenocorticotrophin in two patients and growth hormone in six. The adenoma was larger in five patients, and the cyst in three. The cysts gave variable signal. The adenoma was adjacent to the cyst in seven patients, and enclosed it in the other patient. As a result of experience with MRI, concomitant pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst are now known not to be as rare as thought previously. When a nonenhancing cyst-like structure is demonstrated in a patient with pituitary adenoma, the possibility of a coexisting Rathke's cleft cyst should be considered. (orig.)

  11. Zinc influences on brain development, pituitary an thyroidfunction iniodine-deficient pregnant and neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoxia Yang; Jianchao Bian; Xin Wang; Haiming Wang; Yongping Liu; Shuzhen Wang; Zhichun Mu; Xinluan Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn) has been shown to greatly influence brain development. Zn supplements may reduce injury to cell membranes of the thyroid gland due to iodine deficiency. OBJECTIVE: To establish an iodine deficiency rat model using low-iodine food, which was supplemented with compound Zn and Zn gluconate, to observe the effects of Zn on brain development, as well as pituitary gland and thyroid gland function in iodine-deficient rats. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized grouping study of neural development was performed in the central laboratory of Shandong Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease from 1998 to 1999. MATERIALS: A total of 270 Wistar, female rats, one month after weaning, were used in this study, including 150 pregnant and 120 neonatal rats. Rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal control, model, iodine, compound Zn, iodine and compound Zn, and zinc gluconate. Each group contained 25 pregnant rats and 20 nenoatal rats. METHODS: The pregnant rats and 20 neonatal rats, and well as the normal group, were fed standard chow and allowed free access to tap water (containing 5 μ g/L iodine and 1 mg/L Zn). The remaining five groups were fed low-iodine chow. However, the model group received distilled water, the iodine group received potassium-iodide distilled water (containing 300 μ g/L iodine), the compound Zn group received distilled water and intragastrically administrated 10 mL/kg compound Zn solution, once per day, the iodine and compound Zn group received distilled water with 300 p g/L iodine and intragastrically administrated 10 mL/kg compound Zn solution, once per day. All treatments lasted 90 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All pregnant rats were sacrificed on the day 21 of pregnancy. Body mass, number and rate of fetal absorption, as well as fetal death and malformation, were determined. Thyroid and pituitary gland weights were measured, as well as serum levels of thyroid hormone, gonadotropin, and sex hormones. In the

  12. Multiple intracranial aneurysms following radiation therapy for pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rare case is reported in which multiple cerebral aneurysm occurred after radiotherapy. A female aged 51 was hospitalized with a chief complaint of consciousness disorder. The patient was discharged from the hospital 1 year before, after undergoing subtotal extirpation of a tumor through the transsphenoidal sinus in a case of pituitary adenoma, and post-operative radiotherapy (topical 50 Gy). Mild hyperlipidemia associated with hypothyroidism was observed by blood biochemical test during hospitalization. Multiple cerebral infarction was observed by CT scanning and MR imaging. Conservative treatment including intensified endocrine-supplementing treatment was performed. Thyroid gland function and hyperlipidemia improved, but the consciousness disorder occurred suddenly 6 weeks after hospitalization. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and hydrocephalus were observed by CT scanning. Cerebral angiography detected a saccular aneurysm in the trifuraction of the right middle cerebral artery, 3 fusiform aneurysms in the periphery of the right middle cerebral artery, 2 fusiform aneurysms in the posterior cerebral artery. These findings were not observed at the initial hospitalization but were unexceptionally confined to all the irradiation fields. The patient died 8 weeks after hospitalization, and no autoptic findings was obtained. We presumed that radiation vasculopathy, caused by radiation therapy done one year previously, had led to the occurrence of multiple cerebral aneurysms. We think that hyperlipidemia may have acted as an exacerbating factor responsible for these aneurysms. (author)

  13. Gonadotrophin subunit and GnRH receptor gene expression in the pars distalis of the equine pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Julie; Westcott, Karen; Tortonese, Domingo J

    2009-02-01

    In the horse, pronounced changes in fertility occur annually in response to photoperiod. However, the mechanisms regulating gonadotrophin synthesis and release in this species remain unclear. Here, we investigated the expression of gonadotrophin subunits and GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) mRNA in the pituitary glands of Thoroughbred horses during the breeding (BS) and non-breeding (NBS) season. Seasonal effects on the prevalence of gonadotrophs in the pars distalis were also examined. GnRH-R and common alpha-, LHbeta- and FSHbeta-subunit mRNA contents were determined by Northern analysis and the prevalence of LH-gonadotrophs assessed by immunohistochemistry in pituitaries from sexually active females (mares) in the BS, and sexually inactive mares in the NBS. These variables were then measured in castrated male horses (geldings). In mares, pituitary content of FSHbeta mRNA was significantly higher in the NBS (P0.05). These results reveal robust seasonal effects on common alpha-subunit and FSHbeta gene expression in the pituitary of the mare, in the absence of detectable changes in the content of LHbeta or GnRH-R mRNA. PMID:19114046

  14. Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas: an endocrinologist`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Halloran, D.J.; Shalet, S.M. [Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    A brief review is given of the clinical management of patients with pituitary adenomas such as prolactinomas, adenomasin acromegoly and Leushin`s disease, and non-functioning pituitary adenomas. In particular the complications of radiotherapy are explored. (UK).

  15. Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeet Kumar; Ansari, Ms

    2014-09-01

    Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum (CAUD) may be found all along the anterior urethra and may present itself at any age, from infant to adult. Most children with this condition present with difficulty in initiating micturition, dribbling of urine, poor urinary stream, or urinary tract infection. A careful history will reveal that these children never had a good urinary stream since birth, and the telltale sign is a cystic swelling of the penile urethra. In this paper, we present two cases of CAUD that were managed by excision of the diverticulum with primary repair. PMID:26328174

  16. 原发性甲状腺功能减退症与垂体反应性增生%Pituitary Hyperplasia Secondary to Primary Hypothyroidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴洲

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary hyperplasia is a non-neoplastic increase in the absolute number of anterior pituitary cells.As a pathological diagnosis, pituitary hyperplasia is different from pituitary adenoma.Pituitary responsive hyperplasia secondary to primary hypothyroidism frequently occurs, which is subject to the misdiagnosis as prolactinoma or thyrotropin-releasing hormone adenoma.The hyperplasia can be reversed by thyroid hormone replacement therapy.The recognition of such pituitary disease in children, especially the clinical and imaging characteristics, helps to avoid unnecessary operation.%垂体增生是垂体前叶细胞绝对数量的非肿瘤性增多,它是一种病理学诊断,区别于垂体腺瘤.原发性甲状腺功能减退症所致垂体反应性增生较常见,这种垂体增生有可能被误诊为催乳素瘤、促甲状腺激素瘤等,但它通常能被甲状腺素替代治疗所逆转.尤其在儿童,注意识别这种垂体病变,了解其临床特征及影像学特点,可以避免不必要的手术.

  17. Mutation and genomic amplification of the PIK3CA proto-oncogene in pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murat, C.B.; Braga, P.B.S.; Fortes, M.A.H.Z. [Laboratório de Endocrinologia Celular e Molecular (LIM-25), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bronstein, M.D. [Unidade de Neuroendocrinologia, Serviço de Endocrinologia, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Corrêa-Giannella, M.L.C.; Giorgi, R.R. [Laboratório de Endocrinologia Celular e Molecular (LIM-25), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-13

    The tumorigenesis of pituitary adenomas is poorly understood. Mutations of the PIK3CA proto-oncogene, which encodes the p110-α catalytic subunit of PI3K, have been reported in various types of human cancers regarding the role of the gene in cell proliferation and survival through activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Only one Chinese study described somatic mutations and amplification of the PIK3CA gene in a large series of pituitary adenomas. The aim of the present study was to determine genetic alterations of PIK3CA in a second series that consisted of 33 pituitary adenomas of different subtypes diagnosed by immunohistochemistry: 6 adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting microadenomas, 5 growth hormone-secreting macroadenomas, 7 prolactin-secreting macroadenomas, and 15 nonfunctioning macroadenomas. Direct sequencing of exons 9 and 20 assessed by qPCR was employed to investigate the presence of mutations and genomic amplification defined as a copy number ≥4. Previously identified PIK3CA mutations (exon 20) were detected in four cases (12.1%). Interestingly, the Chinese study reported mutations only in invasive tumors, while we found a PIK3CA mutation in one noninvasive corticotroph microadenoma. PIK3CA amplification was observed in 21.2% (7/33) of the cases. This study demonstrates the presence of somatic mutations and amplifications of the PIK3CA gene in a second series of pituitary adenomas, corroborating the previously described involvement of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the tumorigenic process of this gland.

  18. Mutation and genomic amplification of the PIK3CA proto-oncogene in pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tumorigenesis of pituitary adenomas is poorly understood. Mutations of the PIK3CA proto-oncogene, which encodes the p110-α catalytic subunit of PI3K, have been reported in various types of human cancers regarding the role of the gene in cell proliferation and survival through activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Only one Chinese study described somatic mutations and amplification of the PIK3CA gene in a large series of pituitary adenomas. The aim of the present study was to determine genetic alterations of PIK3CA in a second series that consisted of 33 pituitary adenomas of different subtypes diagnosed by immunohistochemistry: 6 adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting microadenomas, 5 growth hormone-secreting macroadenomas, 7 prolactin-secreting macroadenomas, and 15 nonfunctioning macroadenomas. Direct sequencing of exons 9 and 20 assessed by qPCR was employed to investigate the presence of mutations and genomic amplification defined as a copy number ≥4. Previously identified PIK3CA mutations (exon 20) were detected in four cases (12.1%). Interestingly, the Chinese study reported mutations only in invasive tumors, while we found a PIK3CA mutation in one noninvasive corticotroph microadenoma. PIK3CA amplification was observed in 21.2% (7/33) of the cases. This study demonstrates the presence of somatic mutations and amplifications of the PIK3CA gene in a second series of pituitary adenomas, corroborating the previously described involvement of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the tumorigenic process of this gland

  19. Patient reported outcome in posttraumatic pituitary deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Marianne; Stochholm, Kirstine; Janukonyté, Jurgita;

    2015-01-01

    with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in relation to deficiencies identified upon pituitary assessment. DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study. Participants were Danish patients with a head trauma diagnosis recorded in the Danish Board of Health diagnostic code registry...... were observed with declining total testosterone concentrations (men), but not free testosterone concentrations or any other hormone concentrations. Total testosterone was not independently related to impaired QoL and fatigue, after adjustment for demographics, and treatment with antidiabetics, opioids......, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants. CONCLUSIONS: Only a very limited relationship between pituitary hormone deficiencies and QoL/fatigue was demonstrated. Due to the dominating influence of concurrent comorbidities, pituitary deficiencies were not independently related to QoL/fatigue. Causality is still to be...

  20. Pituitary tumors in patients with MEN1 syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Syro, Luis V.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Kalman Kovacs; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Francisco J. Londoño; Ortiz, Leon D.; Fabio Rotondo; Eva Horvath; Humberto Uribe

    2012-01-01

    We briefly review the characteristics of pituitary tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is an autosomal-dominant disorder most commonly characterized by tumors of the pituitary, parathyroid, endocrine-gastrointestinal tract, and pancreas. A MEDLINE search for all available publications regarding multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and pituitary adenomas was undertaken. The prevalence of pituitary tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia...

  1. The pituitary - Aging and spaceflown rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Decrements in growth hormone (GH) release we observed in two spaceflight experiments and four tail-suspended rat studies mimic age-associated changes in the mammalian pituitary GH system seen by Meites and others. The spaceflight data suggest that formation of high molecular weight bioactive disulfide-linked aggregates of the 20 and 22K monomeric GH forms may be reduced in microgravity, thereby, reducing target tissue activity. Correlative studies to confirm spaceflight as a model for pituitary GH system aging should include: (1) investigation of mechanisms of intracellular hormone packaging, (2) consequences to biological activity of the hormone molecule, and (3) study of intracellular microtubule dynamics.

  2. MR findings in three pituitary abscesses. Case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present MR findings in 3 surgically proved cases of pituitary abscess. All lesions were seen as a sellar cystic mass with a thin rim of enhancement. In addition, the pituitary stalk was thickened in 2 cases in which central diabetes insipidus developed. These findings may be suggestive of pituitary abscess. (orig.)

  3. Pathobiology and oncogenesis of pituitary corticotroph adenomas in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanson, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) or Cushing's disease is a common endocrinopathy in the elderly dog caused by a pituitary adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) producing tumor (corticotroph adenoma) of unknown pathogenesis. Surgical removal of the pituitary tumor is applied as routine tr

  4. Recurrent oculomotor palsy due to haemorrhage in pituitary adenoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, S.

    1980-01-01

    Haemorrhage in pituitary adenoma is an unusual cause of recurrent oculomotor palsy. Three episodes of right oculomotor palsy are reported from a patient having haemorrhage in pituitary adenoma. Early operation and decompression of haemorrhagic pituitary adenoma should be performed so that vision may be preserved and recovery of oculomotor palsy be assured.

  5. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms will go away. This improvement will often last for years. Alternative Names A/P repair; Vaginal wall repair; Anterior and/ ... writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ... Institutes of Health Page last updated: 23 August 2016

  6. [Toxic anterior segment syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornut, P-L; Chiquet, C

    2011-01-01

    Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) is a general term used to describe acute, sterile postoperative inflammation due to a non-infectious substance that accidentally enters the anterior segment at the time of surgery and mimics infectious endophthalmitis. TASS most commonly occurs acutely following anterior segment surgery, typically 12-72h after cataract extraction. Anterior segment inflammation is usually quite severe with hypopyon. Endothelial cell damage is common, resulting in diffuse corneal edema. No bacterium is isolated from ocular samples. The causes of TASS are numerous and difficult to isolate. Any device or substance used during the surgery or in the immediate postoperative period may be implicated. The major known causes include: preservatives in ophthalmic solutions, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices, bacterial endotoxin, and intraocular lens-induced inflammation. Clinical features of infectious and non-infectious inflammation are initially indistinguishable and TASS is usually diagnosed and treated as acute endophthalmitis. It usually improves with local steroid treatment but may result in chronic elevation of intraocular pressure or irreversible corneal edema due to permanent damage of trabecular meshwork or endothelial cells. PMID:21176994

  7. Gene expression profiling analysis of MENX-associated rat pituitary adenomas contributes to understand molecular mechanisms of human pituitary adenomas

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, HONGZHI; XU, CHUAN; SUN, NINGYANG; ZHOU, YINTING; Yu, Xiaofei; Yan, Xue; ZHANG, QIUJUAN

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to screen potential genes associated with pituitary adenomas to obtain further understanding with regard to the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas. The microarray GSE23207 dataset, containing 16 pituitary adenoma samples from multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome-associated rats and 5 normal pituitary tissue samples, was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. The Linear Models for Microarray Data package was used to identify the differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) ...

  8. Temporal and spatial requirements for Nodal-induced anterior mesendoderm and mesoderm in anterior neurulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsar, Ngawang; Coughlin, Alicia; Clay-Wright, Jessica A; Borg, Bethanie R; Kindt, Lexy M; Liang, Jennifer O

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish with defective Nodal signaling have a phenotype analogous to the fatal human birth defect anencephaly, which is caused by an open anterior neural tube. Previous work in our laboratory found that anterior open neural tube phenotypes in Nodal signaling mutants were caused by lack of mesendodermal/mesodermal tissues. Defects in these mutants are already apparent at neural plate stage, before the neuroepithelium starts to fold into a tube. Consistent with this, we found that the requirement for Nodal signaling maps to mid-late blastula stages. This timing correlates with the timing of prechordal plate mesendoderm and anterior mesoderm induction, suggesting these tissues act to promote neurulation. To further identify tissues important for neurulation, we took advantage of the variable phenotypes in Nodal signaling-deficient sqt mutant and Lefty1-overexpressing embryos. Statistical analysis indicated a strong, positive correlation between a closed neural tube and presence of several mesendoderm/mesoderm-derived tissues (hatching glands, cephalic paraxial mesoderm, notochord, and head muscles). However, the neural tube was closed in a subset of embryos that lacked any one of these tissues. This suggests that several types of Nodal-induced mesendodermal/mesodermal precursors are competent to promote neurulation. genesis 54:3-18, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26528772

  9. Ultrasonography of thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chu Wan; Lee, Kwan Seh; Chung, Yong In; Lee, Kyung Hi; Lee, Mun Ho; Koh, Chang Soon; Kim, Byung Kook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    The fundamental requirement for ultrasound in thyroid disease is to differentiate cystic masses from solid ones. But with the advance in scan equipment and technique the more detailed information about the lesion, echogenicity, internal echo pattern and surroundings casts but a faint on the clues to give more specific categorical or histological diagnosis of the lesions. Authors reviewed 186 cases of ultrasonography of thyroid gland performed from March to September, 1979 at Seoul National University Hospital and concluded that; 1. Differentiation of solid mass from cystic one is easily and readily made but a few of solid masses appear as cystic ones in ultrasonogram because of inappropriate scan technique. 2. Categorical or histological diagnosis is still beyond the scope of our knowledge but some clues suggest that only accumulation of data will solve the problem in the future.

  10. Ultrasonography of thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental requirement for ultrasound in thyroid disease is to differentiate cystic masses from solid ones. But with the advance in scan equipment and technique the more detailed information about the lesion, echogenicity, internal echo pattern and surroundings casts but a faint on the clues to give more specific categorical or histological diagnosis of the lesions. Authors reviewed 186 cases of ultrasonography of thyroid gland performed from March to September, 1979 at Seoul National University Hospital and concluded that; 1. Differentiation of solid mass from cystic one is easily and readily made but a few of solid masses appear as cystic ones in ultrasonogram because of inappropriate scan technique. 2. Categorical or histological diagnosis is still beyond the scope of our knowledge but some clues suggest that only accumulation of data will solve the problem in the future.

  11. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... confirm the diagnosis. It may also show other knee injuries. First aid for an ACL injury may include: ...

  12. Pituitary human growth hormone: small-scale purification method and application to radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human growth hormone (hGH) extracted from pituitary glands is often heterogeneous, presenting, besides the native isohormone - B (IH-B) up to four different isohormones. To obtain more homogeneous preparations, essential for reproduceble radioligand assay results, the original method was modified, on a small scale, and by adding bacteriostatic and enzime inhibiting agents to all buffers (NaN3, EDTA, Trasylol) in order to minimize isohormone formation. After 3 to 4 homogeneizations and extractions of the frozen glands (10-20), hGH is precipitated, by 50% ammonium sulphate immediatly purified by Sephadex G 100 molecular sieve chromatography and hGH fractions are lyophilized. The whole process is completed in one week. Using 20 hypophises, 1.3 mg/gland was obtained. Several labellings with 125-I were performed using this purified hGH stored for more than one year. Two labelling techniques were employed: the classical method which uses 50 μg of Chloramine T and the stoichiometric iodination, which uses limiting amounts of chloramine T. For this preparation only 1.5 μg Chloramine T were necessary to achieve the desired specific activity. (author)

  13. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  14. Pituitary tumors following fallout radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two pituitary tumors were diagnosed in a small population of Marshallese accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in 1954. Endocrinologic findings in the exposed population, are reported and the possible relation of the tumors to radiation exposure and thyroid disease is discussed

  15. Pituitary tumor secondary to primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 20-year-old female patient had primary hypothyroidism with a chief complaint of hypermenorrhea. She was found to have sellar dilation on cranial plain x-rays and was suspected of having pituitary tumor on cranial CT. When she was given levothyroxine, the thyroid function returned to normal and CT revealed disappearance of the tumor. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. HYPONATREMIA AFTER TRANSSPHENIODAL SURGERY OF PITUITARY ADENOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶蔚; 任祖渊; 苏长保; 王任直; 杨义; 马文斌

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To clarify the frequency, presentation, associated factors, treatment and outcome of hy-ponatremia after transsphenoidal surgery of pituitary adenomas.Methods. Retrospectively reviewed the database of 183 patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgeryof pituitary adenomas between January 1999 and June 2000 in our department.Result.s. 38.8% (71/183) had postoperative hyponatremia. Among them, 59.2% (42/71) appeared onthe 4th to 7th day postoperatively. 59.2% (42/71) presented with nausea, vomiting, headache, dizzi-ness, confusion and weakness. Hyponatremia was related to age, tumor size and adenoma type, but notrelated to sex and degree of resection. Treatment consisted of salt replacement and mild fluid restrictionin 4 patients and salt and fluid replacement in 67 patients. Hyponatremia resolved within 16 days in allthe patients.Conclusions. Hyponatremia often appeared about 7 days after transsphenoidal surgery of pituitary ade-nomas, especially in elderly and patients with macroadenomas and huge pituitary adenomas. The principleof treatment was salt and fluid replacement.

  17. Pituitary Stone or Calcified Pituitary Tumor? Three Cases and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentli, Farida; Safer-Tabi, Amel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pituitary stone or pituitary calculus is a scientific enigma characterized by a large calcification in the pituitary sella. It can be discovered incidentally or in a patient with endocrine and/or neurological problems. Its mechanism is not understood. In this article, we described three patients harboring a large pituitary calcification. Case Presentation: The first case was observed in a 27-year-old woman who consulted for secondary amenorrhea. The second case concerned a woman who consulted for infertility, and the third one was observed in an 11-year and nine-month-old girl who was sent to our department for short stature. Clinical examination was normal in both adults. The pediatric case had dwarfism with lack of pubertal development. Hormonal assessment showed hyperprolactinemia in both women and thyrotroph and somatotroph deficits in the child. Radiologic exploration discovered pituitary calcifications measuring 10, 11, and 45 mm without any cystic or solid mass. Conclusions: Radiological findings pleaded for a pituitary stone, but calcified adenomas in women, and calcified craniopharyngioma in the pediatric case could not be excluded, as our three patients were not operated on. PMID:26401144

  18. Meibomian gland imaging: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanne L. Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The meibomian glands of the upper and lower eyelids play a valuable role in secreting the lipidlayer of the tear film. Disturbances in meibomian gland function may result in altered secretion andvariations in tear composition which may lead to meibomian gland dysfunction and evaporativedry eye, leading to ocular discomfort. To diagnose and monitor the structural and functionalchanges occurring within the glands of the eyelids, various imaging techniques are available.Some of the methods used to evaluate the tears and therefore the meibum within the tears includeevaporimetry, interferometry, tear osmolarity and meibometry. With these techniques, changesin the lipid layer of the tear film can be quantified and alterations in meibomian gland functionassessed. Meibography is an additional method that can be used; it has the unique feature ofallowing the assessment of meibomian gland morphology during ocular surface disease processes.The aim of this review is to create an improved understanding of the meibomian glands and theways that they may be investigated in order to expand on the treatment methods available.

  19. Nesfatin-1 regulates the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ronald; Shepperd, Erin; Thiruppugazh, Vetri; Lohan, Sneha; Grey, Caleb L; Chang, John P; Unniappan, Suraj

    2012-10-01

    Nesfatin-1 is an anorexigen in goldfish. In the present study, we provide novel data indicating the presence and regulatory effects of nesfatin-1 on the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis of goldfish. Nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2)/nesfatin-1-like immunoreactive (ir) cells are present in the hypothalamus and in the pituitary, suggesting a hypophysiotropic role for nesfatin-1. NUCB2/nesfatin-1-like ir cells colocalize gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the nucleus lateralis tuberis posterioris and the nucleus anterior tuberis of the goldfish hypothalamus. The presence of nesfatin-1 with GnRH in these two nuclei implicated in pituitary hormone release suggests a role for nesfatin-1 on gonadotropin secretion. A single i.p. injection of synthetic goldfish nesfatin-1 (50 ng/g body wt) resulted in an acute decrease (∼75%) in the expression of hypothalamic chicken GnRH-II and salmon GnRH mRNAs at 15 min postinjection in goldfish. Meanwhile, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) beta and follicle-stimulating hormone beta mRNAs were also inhibited (∼80%), but only at 60 min postinjection. Nesfatin-1 administration also resulted in a significant reduction (∼60%) in serum LH levels at 60 min postadministration. Nesfatin-1-like immunoreactivity was also found in the follicle cells, but not the oocytes, in zebrafish and goldfish ovaries. Incubation of zebrafish follicles with nesfatin-1 resulted in a significant reduction in basal germinal vesicle breakdown (∼50%) during the oocyte maturation. In addition, nesfatin-1 also attenuated the stimulatory effects of maturation-inducing hormone on germinal vesicle breakdown. Together, the current results indicate that nesfatin-1 is a metabolic hormone with an inhibitory tone on fish reproduction. Nesfatin-1 appears to elicit this suppressive effect through actions on all three tissues in the fish HPO axis. PMID:22895855

  20. Effects of memantine alone and with acute 'binge' cocaine on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Yuferov, V P; Spangler, R; Maggos, C E; Ho, A; Kreek, M J

    1998-07-01

    The effects of memantine, a non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist used in the management of dementia, and its coadministration with acute 'binge' pattern cocaine on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity were investigated in the rat. Measurements 3 h after injections showed that memantine alone at 20 mg kg(-1) (i.p.), but not 10 mg kg(-1), increased corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA levels in the hypothalamus and both adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels in the blood, and decreased type I CRF receptor mRNA in the anterior pituitary. Our previous studies have shown that acute 'binge' cocaine increases CRF mRNA levels in the hypothalamus. In this study, pretreatment with memantine (10 and 20 mg kg(-1), i.p.) did not alter the up-regulation of hypothalamic CRF mRNA induced by acute 'binge' cocaine (3 x 15 mg kg(-1), i.p.). Of interest, pretreatment with memantine at 10 mg kg(-1), which alone had no effect on corticosterone levels, caused a greater elevation of corticosterone levels in combination with 'binge' cocaine than acute 'binge' cocaine alone, indicating that memantine does not attenuate 'binge' cocaine-stimulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. These results indicate that both memantine and acute 'binge' cocaine stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity by activating CRF neurons in the hypothalamus. PMID:9718269