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Sample records for anterior pituitary cells

  1. Prokaryotic adenylate cyclase toxin stimulates anterior pituitary cells in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin, M.J.; Evans, W.S.; Rogol, A.D.; Weiss, A.A.; Thorner, M.O.; Orth, D.N.; Nicholson, W.E.; Yasumoto, T.; Hewlett, E.L.

    1986-08-01

    Bordetella pertussis synthesis a variety of virulence factors including a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase (AC) toxin. Treatment of anterior pituitary cells with this AC toxin resulted in an increase in cellular cAMP levels that was associated with accelerated exocytosis of growth hormone (GH), prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The kinetics of release of these hormones, however, were markedly different; GH and prolactin were rapidly released, while LH and ACTH secretion was more gradually elevated. Neither dopamine agonists nor somatostatin changes the ability of AC toxin to generate cAMP (up to 2 h). Low concentrations of AC toxin amplified the secretory response to hypophysiotrophic hormones. The authors conclude that bacterial AC toxin can rapidly elevate cAMP levels in anterior pituitary cells and that it is the response that explains the subsequent acceleration of hormone release.

  2. Folliculostellate Cells Are Required for Laminin Release from Gonadotrophs in Rat Anterior Pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anterior pituitary gland is organized tissue comprising hormone-producing cells and folliculostellate (FS) cells. FS cells interconnect to form a meshwork, and their cytoplasmic processes are anchored by a basement membrane containing laminin. Recently, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture that reproduces this FS cell architecture. In this study of the novel function of FS cells, we used transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein in FS cells for the 3D culture. Anterior pituitary cells were cultured with different proportions of FS cells (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20%). Anterior pituitary cells containing 5–20% FS cells formed round/oval cell aggregates, whereas amorphous cell aggregates were formed in the absence of FS cells. Interestingly, immunohistochemistry showed laminin-immunopositive cells instead of extracellular laminin deposition in FS cell-deficient cell aggregates. Double-immunostaining revealed that these laminin-immunopositive cells were gonadotrophs. Laminin mRNA expression did not differ in relation to the presence or absence of FS cells. When anterior pituitary cells with no FS cells were cultured with FS cell-conditioned medium, the proportion of laminin-immunopositive cells was lower than in control. These results suggest that a humoral factor from FS cells is required for laminin release from gonadotrophs

  3. Substance P enhances the proliferation of rat anterior pituitary cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The undecapeptide substanceP(SP) was shown to be intimately involved in both the structural and functional aspects of the anterior pituitary.Yet,in addition to its influences on hormonal secretion,SP may well possess more actions in this master gland.The present study was ftherefore aimed to investigate the effect of SP on the proliferation of rat anterior pituitary cells in primary culture,It was found that SP could dose-dependently increase the incorporation of tritiated thymidine(3H-TdR) into cultured anterior pituitary cells.Other mammalian tachykinins such as neurokinin A and neurokinin B had similar effect but to varying degrees.The equipotent analogue of SP,Norleucine11-SP(Nle11-SP),also acted likewise.with its action antagonizable by spantide,a SP receptor blocker.To further characterize the nature of cells responsive to the challenge of SP,immunocytochemical staining against S-100 protein and some adenohypophyseal hormones was performed alone or plus autoradiography.The results showed that the percentage of S-100 proteinimmunorective cells was apparently elevated by the addtion of Nle11-Sp for 48h,which indicates a preferential proliferation of folliculo-stellate cells under the regime .This was confirmed by increases in immunocytochemical or autoradiographical labelling indices of anterior pituitary Substance P and anterior pituitary cell proliferation.Cells treated similarly.Taken together,These results reveal that the trophic action of SP observed previously in other tissues is also present at least in cultured rat anterior pituitary cells.with responding cells being predominantly folliculo-stellate cells as typified by S-100 proteinimmunoreactivity.Therefore,an intra-pituitary trophicaction of SP in vivo could be anticipated.

  4. Uptake of triiodothyroacetic acid and its effect on thyrotropin secretion in cultured anterior pituitary cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Everts (Maria); T.J. Visser (Theo); E.P.C.M. Moerings (Ellis); R. Docter (Roel); H. van Toor (Hans); A.M. Tempelaars; E.P. Krenning (Eric); G. Hennemann; M. de Jong (Marion)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe uptake of [125I]triiodothyroacetic acid ([125I]Triac) in anterior pituitary cells was investigated and compared with that of [125I]T3. Furthermore, the effects of Triac, T3, and T4 on TSH release were compared. Cells isolated from adult male Wistar rats

  5. Functional maturation of growth hormone cells in the anterior pituitary gland of the fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Nogami, Haruo; Hisano, Setsuji

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have disclosed the molecular mechanisms responsible for the phenotype determination of the anterior pituitary cell types. However, as far as growth hormone (GH) cells are concerned, particular extra-cellular cues are required for the initiation of GH and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-receptor gene production in addition to the expression of the cell type specific transcription factor, pit-1. The glucocorticoids play a principal role in the functional maturation of nascent GH cell...

  6. High-Cholesterol Diet Disrupts the Levels of Hormones Derived from Anterior Pituitary Basophilic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Zhang, X; Liu, Z; Yuan, Z; Song, Y; Shao, S; Zhou, X; Yan, H; Guan, Q; Gao, L; Zhang, H; Zhao, J

    2016-03-01

    Emerging evidence shows that elevated cholesterol levels are detrimental to health. However, it is unclear whether there is an association between cholesterol and the pituitary. We investigated the effects of a high-cholesterol diet on pituitary hormones using in vivo animal studies and an epidemiological study. In the animal experiments, rats were fed a high-cholesterol or control diet for 28 weeks. In rats fed the high-cholesterol diet, serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; also known as thyrotrophin), luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) produced by the basophilic cells of the anterior pituitary were elevated in a time-dependent manner. Among these hormones, TSH was the first to undergo a significant change, whereas adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), another hormone produced by basophilic cells, was not changed significantly. As the duration of cholesterol feeding increased, cholesterol deposition increased gradually in the pituitary. Histologically, basophilic cells, and especially thyrotrophs and gonadotrophs, showed an obvious increase in cell area, as well as a potential increase in their proportion of total pituitary cells. Expression of the β-subunit of TSH, FSH and LH, which controls hormone specificity and activity, exhibited a corresponding increase. In the epidemiological study, we found a similar elevation of serum TSH, LH and FSH and a decrease in ACTH in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Significant positive correlations existed between serum total cholesterol and TSH, FSH or LH, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that the high-cholesterol diet affected the levels of hormones derived from anterior pituitary basophilic cells. This phenomenon might contribute to the pituitary functional disturbances described in hypercholesterolaemia.

  7. Expression of the cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-2 in developing rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Syaidah, Rahimi; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Ramadhani, Dini; Jindatip, Depicha; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    In the anterior pituitary gland, folliculo-stellate cells and five types of hormone-producing cells are surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM) essential for these cells to perform their respective roles. Syndecans-type I transmembrane cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans act as major ECM coreceptors via their respective heparan sulfate chains and efficiently transduce intracellular signals through the convergent action of their transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. The syndecans comprise four family members in vertebrates: syndecan-1, -2, -3 and -4. However, whether syndecans are produced in the pituitary gland or whether they have a role as a coreceptor is not known. We therefore used (1) reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction to analyze the expression of syndecan genes and (2) immunohistochemical techniques to identify the cells that produce the syndecans in the anterior pituitary gland of adult rat. Syndecan-2 mRNA expression was clearly detected in the corticotropes of the anterior pituitary gland. Moreover, the expression of syndecan-2 in the developing pituitary gland had a distinct temporospatial pattern. To identify the cells expressing syndecan-2 in the developing pituitary gland, we used double-immunohistochemistry for syndecan-2 and the cell markers E-cadherin (immature cells) and Ki-67 (proliferating cells). Some E-cadherin- and Ki-67-immunopositive cells expressed syndecan-2. Therefore, syndecan-2 expression occurs in developmentally regulated patterns and syndecan-2 probably has different roles in adult and developing anterior pituitary glands.

  8. A SELF-PRIMING EFFECT OF LHRH ON LH SECRETION IN DISPERSED ANTERIOR PITUITARY CELLS OF ADULT MALE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUZhi-Chao; GUOJing; GUOJian

    1989-01-01

    LHRH self-priming effect is simply defmed as an enhancement of LH response to LHRH, i. e., a second challenge with LHRH elicits more LH secretion as compared to the first challenge. The present study is to observe whether this phenomenon exists in perfused anterior pituitary (AP) cells of adult male rat. Dispersed AP cells of adult SD

  9. Isolation of dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Yoshida, Saishu; Higuchi, Masashi; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kanno, Naoko; Yashiro, Takashi; Tateno, Kozue; Osako, Shunji; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2014-07-01

    S100β-protein-positive cells in the anterior pituitary gland appear to possess multifunctional properties. Because of their pleiotropic features, S100β-positive cells are assumed to be of a heterogeneous or even a non-pituitary origin. The observation of various markers has allowed these cells to be classified into populations such as stem/progenitor cells, epithelial cells, astrocytes and dendritic cells. The isolation and characterization of each heterogeneous population is a prerequisite for clarifying the functional character and origin of the cells. We attempt to isolate two of the subpopulations of S100β-positive cells from the anterior lobe. First, from transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the S100β protein promoter, we fractionate GFP-positive cells with a cell sorter and culture them so that they can interact with laminin, a component of the extracellular matrix. We observe that one morphological type of GFP-positive cells possesses extended cytoplasmic processes and shows high adhesiveness to laminin (process type), whereas the other is round in shape and exhibits low adherence to laminin (round type). We successfully isolate cells of the round type from the cultured GFP-positive cells by taking advantage of their low affinity to laminin and then measure mRNA levels of the two cell types by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The resultant data show that the process type expresses vimentin (mesenchymal cell marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte marker). The round type expresses dendritic cell markers, CD11b and interleukin-6. Thus, we found a method for isolating dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells by means of their property of adhering to laminin.

  10. Identification of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) target cells and effects of dexamethasone on binding in anterior pituitary using a fluorescent analog of CRF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, J; Billestrup, Nils; Perrin, M;

    1986-01-01

    A fluorescein-conjugated bioactive analog of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was synthesized and used to label cells that have high affinity CRF-binding sites. Of cultured bovine anterior pituitary cells, 6.1 +/- 0.6% were visible by fluorescence microscopy after incubation with the analog. ...

  11. Influence of leptin on luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone secreted from cultured rat anterior pituitary cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuebing Qiao; Xiuyan Ma; Huixian Cui

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leptin may regulate reproductive function via release of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y. However, it is unknown whether this regulatory effect is limited to the hypothalamus. OBJECTIVE: To detect the effect of different dosages of leptin on luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion from in vitro cultured rat anterior pituitary cells. DESIGN: Contrast study based on cells. SETTING: This study was performed in the Basic Institute of Chengde Medical College, Chengde City, Hebei Province, China from March to June 2007. MATERIALS: Eighteen female Wistar rats of three months of age, weighing 200-220 g, and of clean grade were used. Leptin was provided by Peprotech Company, DMEM culture medium by Invitrogen Company, and the radioimmunological kit by Beijing Zhongshan Jinqiao Biotechnology Co., Ltd. METHODS: Three glandular organs were regarded as one group for culture of anterior pituitary cells. In the control group, saline was added to the culture medium instead of leptin. In the leptin group, leptin was prepared into different concentrations of 1×10-12, 1×10-11, 1×10-9, 1×10-7, and 1×10-6 mol/L for stimulation of cultured cells. The culture supernatant was obtained at three hours after additional of saline/leptin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Contents of LH and FSH were detected by radioimmunology. RESULTS: Following leptin stimulation, LH release increased with increasing concentrations of leptin up to 1×10-9 mol/L, where LH release peaked. LH release then progressively decreased with increasing leptin concentrations (P<0.01). LH release in the leptin (1×10-12, 1×10-11, 1×10-7, and 1×10-6 mol/L) groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). FSH content in the leptin (1×10-11, 1×10-9, and 1×10-7 mol/L) groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Leptin can directly affect pituitary tissue to promote the secretion of LH and FSH in a dose-dependent manner.

  12. Live Staining and Isolation of Specific Hormone-Producing Cells from Rat Anterior Pituitary by Cytochemistry with Lectins and Cholera Toxin B Subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anterior pituitary glands contain five types of hormone-producing cells. Distinguishing and isolating specific types of living cells are essential for studying their function. Although many such attempts have been made, the results have been disappointing. In the present study, we labeled specific types of living hormone-producing cells by using potential differences in sugar chains on the cell surfaces. Cytochemical analysis with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit revealed that PNA, S-WGA, and cholera toxin B subunit recognized sugar chains specific to prolactin cells, ACTH cells, and GH cells, respectively, and that UEA-I recognized most of prolactin cells and GH cells. Next, fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to isolate GH cells labeled by fluoresceinated cholera toxin B. The purity of the GH cell fraction estimated by immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR for cell type-specific genes was more than 98%, which was higher than that reported in earlier studies, including those using transgenic animals. We conclude that cytochemistry with lectins and cholera toxin B subunit is a straightforward, acceptable method of isolating specific types of anterior pituitary cells and that the cells isolated by this method can serve as useful materials in the study of anterior pituitary cells

  13. Immunocharacteristics of oestrogen and androgen target cells in the anterior pituitary gland of the chick as embryo demonstrated by a combined method of autoradiography and immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of oestrogen and androgen target cells in the anterior pituitary gland of the chick embryo on days 10, 12 and 15 of incubation was studied 1 h after the injection of tritium-labelled steroid hormone using the thaw-mount autoradiographic technique. Oestradiol target cells were localized in the caudal zone that corresponds to the so-called 'caudal lobe', while androgen target cells were found throughout the rostral and caudal lobes of the anterior gland. With a combined autoradiography and immunohistochemistry technique, most of the oestrogen target cells showed immunoreactivity to turkey LH antiserum but not to adrenocorticotrophin (1-24) and β-thyrotrophin antisera. In contrast, androgen target cells did not show positive immunoreactivity to the three antisera used. The results suggested a direct and early involvement of oestrogens but not of androgens in the feedback regulation of pituitary gonadotrophin secretion in the chick embryo. (U.K.)

  14. The level of expression of the rat growth hormone gene in liver tumor cells is at least eight orders of magnitude less than that in anterior pituitary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivarie, R D; Schacter, B S; O'Farrell, P H

    1983-01-01

    Rat liver hepatoma cells (HTC) which express liver-specific gene products were assayed for the expression of the rat growth hormone (rGH) gene, which is normally expressed in anterior pituitary somatotrophs. The combination of immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis provided a highly sensitive assay for rGH synthesis at levels as low as one part in 10(9) of cell protein synthesis (or four molecules of rGH per cell). No rGH expression was detected at this level. The lack of...

  15. α-transforming growth factor secreted by untransformed bovine anterior pituitary cells in culture. I. Purification from conditioned medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 6-kDa α-transforming growth factor (TGF) was purified 100,000-fold to homogeneity from the culture fluid conditioned by normal bovine anterior pituitary-derived cells. Initial purification of the acid-soluble TGF from concentrated conditioned medium was achieved by Bio-Gel P-60 gel filtration (apparent molecular mass of 9 kDa). After the Bio-Gel step, three different steps of reverse-phase fast-protein liquid chromatography on the same Pharmacia C18 column, using linear acetonitrile gradients, gave complete purification. The ion-pairing agents used in the three consecutive steps were: 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid, 0.13% heptafluorobutyric acid, and again, 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid at a shallower gradient. Homogeneity was confirmed by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, where TGF visualization was facilitated by autoradiography of 125I-TGF. The 125I-TGF bound to epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors and after elution ran identically to the starting material. The molecular mass of TGF is 6 kDa by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 6.6 kDa by amino acid analysis. The amino acid composition of bovine TGF is similar to that of rat or human αTGF and distinct from epidermal growth factor. Colony-stimulating activity was lost after purification, but the TGF retained its ability to stimulate thymidine uptake by quiescent cells. This mitogenic activity could be blocked completely by anti-EGF-receptor monoclonal antibodies, indicating that the activity was mediated through the EGF-receptor

  16. Modulation of the tyrosine kinase receptor Ret/glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signaling: a new player in reproduction induced anterior pituitary plasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillou, Anne; Romanò, Nicola; Bonnefont, Xavier; Le Tissier, Paul; Mollard, Patrice; Martin, Agnès O

    2011-02-01

    During gestation, parturition, and lactation, the endocrine axis of the dam must continually adapt to ensure the continual and healthy development of offspring. The anterior pituitary gland, which serves as the endocrine interface between the brain and periphery, undergoes adaptations that contribute to regulation of the reproductive axis. Growth factors and their receptors are potential candidates for intrapituitary and paracrine factors to participate in the functional and anatomical plasticity of the gland. We examined the involvement of the growth factor glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its receptor tyrosine kinase rearranged during transfection (Ret) in the physiological functional and anatomical plasticity of the anterior pituitary gland. We found that variations in both expression and subcellular localization of Ret during gestation and lactation are temporally correlated with changes in pituitary gland function. We showed that Ret/GDNF signaling could endorse two different functional roles depending on the physiological status. At the end of lactation and after weaning, Ret was colocalized with markers of apoptosis. We found that Ret could therefore act as a physiological dependence receptor capable of inducing apoptosis in the absence of GDNF. In addition, we identified the follicullostellate cell as a probable source for intrapituitary GDNF and proposed GDNF as a potential physiological modulator of endocrine cell function. During all stages studied, we showed that acute application of GDNF to pituitary slices was able to modulate both positively and negatively intracellular calcium activity. Altogether our results implicate Ret/GDNF as a potent pleiotropic factor able to influence pituitary physiology during a period of high plasticity. PMID:21239429

  17. α-transforming growth factor secreted by untransformed bovine anterior pituitary cells in culture. II. Identification using a sequence-specific monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Untransformed bovine anterior pituitary cells cultured in serum-free defined medium secrete an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like peptide with an amino acid composition similar to rat or human α-transforming growth factor (αTGF). To further characterize the bovine pituitary αTGF, it was compared to a human αTGF partially purified from the conditioned medium of a human melanoma cell line. An anti-αTGF monoclonal antibody, MF9, was produced from hybridomas derived from mice immunized with a 17-residue synthetic peptide corresponding to the carboxyl-terminal sequence of rat αTGF. The hybridoma supernatants were initially screened for the ability to immunoprecipitate 125I-peptide and then tested for recognition of human αTGF. Only 2 of 36 antipeptide antibodies recognized the native αTGF. The binding of 125I-peptide to MF9 was displaced by human αTGF but not by EGF. Bovine pituitary αTGF also displaced the binding of 125I-peptide to MF9 in a similar manner to human αTGF. Both iodinated human and bovine pituitary αTGF were immunoprecipitated by MF9 whereas 125I-EGF was not. Tryptic digests of both 125I-αTGFs chromatographed to give a single, indistinguishable peak of iodinated material on a reverse-phase C18 high performance liquid chromatography column when eluted with two different solvent systems, suggesting the generation of a single and identical tyrosine-containing tryptic peptide from both αTGFs. The comparisons of the bovine pituitary and human melanoma αTGF using a sequence-specific monoclonal antibody and peptide mapping suggest that these αTGFs are related and that αTGF production is not limited to transformed or fetal sources

  18. Expression of chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in folliculostellate (FS) cells of the rat anterior pituitary gland: the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis induces interconnection of FS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Ilmiawati, Cimi; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2012-04-01

    The anterior pituitary gland is composed of five types of hormone-producing cells plus folliculostellate (FS) cells, which do not produce classical anterior pituitary hormones. FS cells are interconnected by cytoplasmic processes and encircle hormone-producing cells or aggregate homophilically. Using living-cell imaging of primary culture, we recently reported that some FS cells precisely extend their cytoplasmic processes toward other FS cells and form interconnections with them. These phenomena suggest the presence of a chemoattractant factor that facilitates the interconnection. In this study, we attempted to discover the factor that induces interconnection of FS cells and succeeded in identifying chemokine (CXC)-L12 and its receptor CXCR4 as potential candidate molecules. CXCL12 is a chemokine of the CXC subfamily. It exerts its effects via CXCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is a potent chemoattractant for many types of neural cells. First, we revealed that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are expressed by FS cells in rat anterior pituitary gland. Next, to clarify the function of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in FS cells, we observed living anterior pituitary cells in primary culture with specific CXCL12 inhibitor or CXCR4 antagonist and noted that extension of cytoplasmic processes and interconnection of FS cells were inhibited. Finally, we examined FS cell migration and invasion by using Matrigel matrix assays. CXCL12 treatment resulted in markedly increased FS cell migration and invasion. These data suggest that FS cells express chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 and that the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis evokes interconnection of FS cells.

  19. Blood, pituitary, and brain renin-angiotensin systems and regulation of secretion of anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1993-07-01

    In addition to increasing blood pressure, stimulating aldosterone and vasopressin secretion, and increasing water intake, angiotensin II affects the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. Some of these effects are direct. There are angiotensin II receptors on lactotropes and corticotropes in rats, and there may be receptors on thyrotropes and other secretory cells. Circulating angiotensin II reaches these receptors, but angiotensin II is almost certainly generated locally by the pituitary renin-angiotensin system as well. There are also indirect effects produced by the effects of brain angiotensin II on the secretion of hypophyseotropic hormones. In the anterior pituitary of the rat, the gonadotropes contain renin, angiotensin II, and some angiotensin-converting enzyme. There is debate about whether these cells also contain small amounts of angiotensinogen, but most of the angiotensinogen is produced by a separate population of cells and appears to pass in a paracrine fashion to the gonadotropes. An analogous situation exists in the brain. Neurons contain angiotensin II and probably renin, but most angiotensin-converting enzyme is located elsewhere and angiotensinogen is primarily if not solely produced by astrocytes. Angiotensin II causes secretion of prolactin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) when added to pituitary cells in vitro. Paracrine regulation of prolactin secretion by angiotensin II from the gonadotropes may occur in vitro under certain circumstances, but the effects of peripheral angiotensin II on ACTH secretion appear to be mediated via the brain and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). In the brain, there is good evidence that locally generated angiotensin II causes release of norepinephrine that in turn stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone-secreting neurons, increasing circulating luteinizing hormone. In addition, there is evidence that angiotensin II acts in the arcuate nuclei to increase the secretion of dopamine into the portal

  20. Short-Chain Fatty Acids Inhibit Growth Hormone and Prolactin Gene Transcription via cAMP/PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway in Dairy Cow Anterior Pituitary Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Fa Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs play a key role in altering carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, influence endocrine pancreas activity, and as a precursor of ruminant milk fat. However, the effect and detailed mechanisms by which SCFAs mediate bovine growth hormone (GH and prolactin (PRL gene transcription remain unclear. In this study, we detected the effects of SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate on the activity of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway, GH, PRL, and Pit-1 gene transcription in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells (DCAPCs. The results showed that SCFAs decreased intracellular cAMP levels and a subsequent reduction in PKA activity. Inhibition of PKA activity decreased CREB phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription. Furthermore, PTX blocked SCFAs- inhibited cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. These data showed that the inhibition of GH and PRL gene transcription induced by SCFAs is mediated by Gi activation and that propionate is more potent than acetate and butyrate in inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription. In conclusion, this study identifies a biochemical mechanism for the regulation of SCFAs on bovine GH and PRL gene transcription in DCAPCs, which may serve as one of the factors that regulate pituitary function in accordance with dietary intake.

  1. Pituitary cells in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Shellenberger, K.; Grindeland, R.

    1994-01-01

    Cells of the mammalian pituitary gland synthesize and secrete several protein hormones which regulate a number of organ systems throughout the body. These include the musculoskeletal, immune, vascular and endocrine systems. Since changes occur in these tissues as a result of spaceflight, and since pituitary growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) play a role in the control of these systems on earth, we have focused attention over the last 10 years on GH and PRL cell function during and after spaceflight. The cumulative results of 4 spaceflight missions and several mimicked microgravity experiments establish 1) that production and release of biologically active GH and PRL is repeatedly and significantly attenuated (usually >50%) and 2) that changes in cell morphology also occur. In this paper we describe our results within the framework of methodologies and approaches frequently used to study pituitary cell function on earth. In so doing we hope to develop future flight experiments aimed at uncovering possible microgravity 'sensing systems' within the pituitary cell.

  2. ZBTB20 is required for anterior pituitary development and lactotrope specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dongmei; Ma, Xianhua; Cai, Jiao; Luan, Jing; Liu, An-Jun; Yang, Rui; Cao, Yi; Zhu, Xiaotong; Zhang, Hai; Chen, Yu-Xia; Shi, Yuguang; Shi, Guang-Xia; Zou, Dajin; Cao, Xuetao; Grusby, Michael J; Xie, Zhifang; Zhang, Weiping J

    2016-01-01

    The anterior pituitary harbours five distinct hormone-producing cell types, and their cellular differentiation is a highly regulated and coordinated process. Here we show that ZBTB20 is essential for anterior pituitary development and lactotrope specification in mice. In anterior pituitary, ZBTB20 is highly expressed by all the mature endocrine cell types, and to some less extent by somatolactotropes, the precursors of prolactin (PRL)-producing lactotropes. Disruption of Zbtb20 leads to anterior pituitary hypoplasia, hypopituitary dwarfism and a complete loss of mature lactotropes. In ZBTB20-null mice, although lactotrope lineage commitment is normally initiated, somatolactotropes exhibit profound defects in lineage specification and expansion. Furthermore, endogenous ZBTB20 protein binds to Prl promoter, and its knockdown decreases PRL expression and secretion in a lactotrope cell line MMQ. In addition, ZBTB20 overexpression enhances the transcriptional activity of Prl promoter in vitro. In conclusion, our findings point to ZBTB20 as a critical regulator of anterior pituitary development and lactotrope specification. PMID:27079169

  3. Excitatory and inhibitory effects of prolactin release activated by nerve stimulation in rat anterior pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Li-Zhi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A series of studies showed the presence of substantial amount of nerve fibers and their close relationship with the anterior pituitary gland cells. Our previous studies have suggested that aside from the classical theory of humoral regulation, the rat anterior pituitary has direct neural regulation on adrenocorticotropic hormone release. In rat anterior pituitary, typical synapses are found on every type of the hormone-secreting cells, many on lactotrophs. The present study was aimed at investigating the physiological significance of this synaptic relationship on prolactin release. Methods The anterior pituitary of rat was sliced and stimulated with electrical field in a self-designed perfusion chamber. The perfusate was continuously collected in aliquots and measured by radioimmunoassay for prolactin levels. After statistic analysis, differences of prolactin concentrations within and between groups were outlined. Results The results showed that stimulation at frequency of 2 Hz caused a quick enhancement of prolactin release, when stimulated at 10 Hz, prolactin release was found to be inhibited which came slower and lasted longer. The effect of nerve stimulation on prolactin release is diphasic and frequency dependent. Conclusions The present in vitro study offers the first physiological evidence that stimulation of nerve fibers can affect prolactin release in rat anterior pituitary. Low frequency stimulation enhances prolactin release and high frequency mainly inhibits it.

  4. Effects of arachidonic acid and 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine on prolactin secretion from anterior pituitary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoratto, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The role of two lipids, arachidonic acid and 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, as modulators or prolactin secretion has been examined. Stimulators of phospholipase A{sub 2} activity, melittin and mastoparan, were found to increase prolactin release. Melittin also caused release of previously incorporated {sup 3}H-arachidonic acid and this effect was associated with loss of radiolabel from the phospholipid fraction. Exogenous arachidonic acid also stimulated prolactin secretion. Conversely, inhibitors of phospholipase A{sub 2} activity, dibromoacetophenone and U10029A, decreased basal and stimulated prolactin release. Prolactin release could also be lowered by ETYA, BW755C and NDGA, inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism. In the second series of experiments the effects of the biologically active phospholipid 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (platelet activating factor, PAF) on prolactin release were examined. PAF is an ether-linked phospholipid known to stimulate granule release in a variety of cell types including both inflammatory and noninflammatory cells. PAF increased release of prolactin from dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells; stimulation was not due to cell lysis. PAF-induced prolactin release could be blocked by the dopaminergic agonists apomorphine and bromocriptine as well as by two PAF receptor antagonists, SRI 63-072 and L-652-731.

  5. β-Hydroxybutyric Sodium Salt Inhibition of Growth Hormone and Prolactin Secretion via the cAMP/PKA/CREB and AMPK Signaling Pathways in Dairy Cow Anterior Pituitary Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shou-Peng Fu; Wei Wang(College of William and Mary); Bing-Run Liu; Huan-Min Yang; Hong Ji; Zhan-Qing Yang; Bin Guo; Ju-Xiong Liu; Jian-Fa Wang

    2015-01-01

    β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) regulates the synthesis and secretion of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL), but its mechanism is unknown. In this study, we detected the effects of BHBA on the activities of G protein signaling pathways, AMPK-α activity, GH, and PRL gene transcription, and GH and PRL secretion in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells (DCAPCs). The results showed that BHBA decreased intracellular cAMP levels and a subsequent reduction in protein kinase A (PKA) activity. Inhibit...

  6. Pertussis toxin modifies the characteristics of both the inhibitory GTP binding proteins and the somatostatin receptor in anterior pituitary tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of pertussis toxin treatment on the characteristics of somatostatin receptors in the anterior pituitary tumor cell line AtT-20 were examined. Pertussis toxin selectively catalyzed the ADP ribosylation of the alpha subunits of the inhibitory GTP binding proteins in AtT-20 cells. Toxin treatment abolished somatostatin inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity and somatostatin stimulation of GTPase activity. To examine the effects of pertussis toxin treatment on the characteristics of the somatostatin receptor, the receptor was labeled by the somatostatin analog [125I]CGP 23996. [125I]CGP 23996 binding to AtT-20 cell membranes was saturable and within a limited concentration range was to a single high affinity site. Pertussis toxin treatment reduced the apparent density of the high affinity [125I]CGP 23996 binding sites in AtT-20 cell membranes. Inhibition of [125I]CGP 23996 binding by a wide concentration range of CGP 23996 revealed the presence of two binding sites. GTP predominantly reduced the level of high affinity sites in control membranes. Pertussis toxin treatment also diminished the amount of high affinity sites. GTP did not affect [125I]CGP 23996 binding in the pertussis toxin-treated membranes. The high affinity somatostatin receptors were covalently labeled with [125I] CGP 23996 and the photoactivated crosslinking agent n-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azidobenzoate. No high affinity somatostatin receptors, covalently bound to [125I]CGP 23996, were detected in the pertussis toxin-treated membranes. These results are most consistent with pertussis toxin uncoupling the inhibitory G proteins from the somatostatin receptor thereby converting the receptor from a mixed population of high and low affinity sites to only low affinity receptors

  7. Expression and activity of acid-sensing ion channels in the mouse anterior pituitary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyang Du

    Full Text Available Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs are proton-gated cation channels that are expressed in the nervous system and play an important role in fear learning and memory. The function of ASICs in the pituitary, an endocrine gland that contributes to emotions, is unknown. We sought to investigate which ASIC subunits were present in the pituitary and found mRNA expression for all ASIC isoforms, including ASIC1a, ASIC1b, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, ASIC3 and ASIC4. We also observed acid-evoked ASIC-like currents in isolated anterior pituitary cells that were absent in mice lacking ASIC1a. The biophysical properties and the responses to PcTx1, amiloride, Ca2+ and Zn2+ suggested that ASIC currents were mediated predominantly by heteromultimeric channels that contained ASIC1a and ASIC2a or ASIC2b. ASIC currents were also sensitive to FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe amide, suggesting that FMRFamide-like compounds might endogenously regulate pituitary ASICs. To determine whether ASICs might regulate pituitary cell function, we applied low pH and found that it increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These data suggest that ASIC channels are present and functionally active in anterior pituitary cells and may therefore influence their function.

  8. Intracellular mechanisms involved in copper-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Cu-GnRH) complex-induced cAMP/PKA signaling in female rat anterior pituitary cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewska, Alina; Zielinska-Gorska, Marlena; Wolinska-Witort, Ewa; Siawrys, Gabriela; Baran, Marta; Kotarba, Grzegorz; Biernacka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The copper-gonadotropin-releasing hormone molecule (Cu-GnRH) is a GnRH analog, which preserves its amino acid sequence, but which contains a Cu(2+) ion stably bound to the nitrogen atoms including that of the imidazole ring of Histidine(2). A previous report indicated that Cu-GnRH was able to activate cAMP/PKA signaling in anterior pituitary cells in vitro, but raised the question of which intracellular mechanism(s) mediated the Cu-GnRH-induced cAMP synthesis in gonadotropes. To investigate this mechanism, in the present study, female rat anterior pituitary cells in vitro were pretreated with 0.1 μM antide, a GnRH antagonist; 0.1 μM cetrorelix, a GnRH receptor antagonist; 0.1 μM PACAP6-38, a PAC-1 receptor antagonist; 2 μM GF109203X, a protein kinase C inhibitor; 50 mM PMA, a protein kinase C activator; the protein kinase A inhibitors H89 (30 μM) and KT5720 (60 nM); factors affecting intracellular calcium activity: 2.5 mM EGTA; 2 μM thapsigargin; 5 μM A23187, a Ca(2+) ionophore; or 10 μg/ml cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor. After one of the above pretreatments, cells were incubated in the presence of 0.1 μM Cu-GnRH for 0.5, 1, and 3 h. Radioimmunoassay analysis of cAMP confirmed the functional link between Cu-GnRH stimulation and cAMP/PKA signal transduction in rat anterior pituitary cells, demonstrating increased intracellular cAMP, which was reduced in the presence of specific PKA inhibitors. The stimulatory effect of Cu-GnRH on cAMP production was partly dependent on GnRH receptor activation. In addition, an indirect and Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism might be involved in intracellular adenylate cyclase stimulation. Neither activation of protein kinase C nor new protein synthesis was involved in the Cu-GnRH-induced increase of cAMP in the rat anterior pituitary primary cultures. Presented data indicate that conformational changes of GnRH molecule resulting from cooper ion coordination affect specific pharmacological properties of Cu

  9. Laminin in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat. Laminin in the gonadotrophic cells correlates with their functional state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Albrechtsen, R; Wewer, U M

    1987-01-01

    laminin and tubulin. After treatment with estrogen, which is known to suppress the function of the gonadotrophic cells, virtually no cytoplasmic laminin was found. Ultrastructurally, the number of light bodies in the gonadotrophic cells diminished significantly, from approximately 3 to 8 per cell to 0...... to 1 per cell in a given section. In contrast, after castration, the number of laminin positive cells increased to a number above that found in the normal adult male rat, and the number of light bodies increased two to four times. Based on these results, it appears that the presence of cytoplasmic...

  10. In Vivo and In Vitro Arsenic Exposition Induces Oxidative Stress in Anterior Pituitary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchetti, Sonia A; Bianchi, María S; Duvilanski, Beatriz H; Cabilla, Jimena P

    2016-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is at the top of toxic metalloids. Inorganic arsenic-contaminated water consumption is one of the greatest environmental health threats worldwide. Human iAs exposure has been associated with cancers of several organs, neurological disorders, and reproductive problems. Nevertheless, there are no reports describing how iAs affects the anterior pituitary gland. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in iAs-mediated anterior pituitary toxicity both in vivo and in vitro. We showed that iAs administration (from 5 to 100 ppm) to male rats through drinking water increased messenger RNA expression of several oxidative stress-responsive genes in the anterior pituitary gland. Serum prolactin levels diminished, whereas luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were only affected at the higher dose tested. In anterior pituitary cells in culture, 25 µmol/L iAs significantly decreased prolactin release in a time-dependent fashion, whereas LH levels remained unaltered. Cell viability was significantly reduced mainly by apoptosis evidenced by morphological and phosphatidylserine externalization studies. This process is characterized by early depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Expression of some key oxidative stress-responsive genes, such as heme oxygenase-1 and metallothionein-1, was also stimulated by iAs exposure. The antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine prevented iAs-induced effects on the expression of oxidative stress markers, prolactin release, and apoptosis. In summary, the present work demonstrates for the first time that iAs reduces prolactin release both in vivo and in vitro and induces apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells, possibly resulting from imbalanced cellular redox status.

  11. Thyroxine 5'-deiodinase in human anterior pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagaki, Y; Yoshida, K; Ikeda, H; Kaise, K; Kaise, N; Yamamoto, M; Sakurada, T; Yoshinaga, K

    1990-08-01

    The activity of T4 5'-monodeiodinase (5'D) in the pituitary was measured in 12 patients with pituitary adenoma (3 patients with acromegaly, 2 with prolactinoma, 1 with Cushing's disease, 1 with TSH-producing tumor, and 5 with nonfunctioning tumor) and, as a control, in a patient who died of parotid cancer. The pituitaries, obtained at operation or autopsy, were homogenized in 0.1 mol/L potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, and centrifuged at 800 x g. Supernatants were incubated with [125I]T4 and 20 mmol/L dithiothreitol (DTT) at 37C for 90 min. T4 5'-D was measured by the release of 125I- with the ion exchange method. The activity of T4 5'-D in the pituitaries from patients with prolactinoma and parotid cancer was dependent on protein concentration, incubation time, incubation temperature, and T4 concentration, and was labile to prior heating at 70 C for 30 min. T4 5'-D was not inhibited by 1 mmol/L propylthiouracil, but was inhibited 95% by 0.1 mmol/L iopanoic acid. The apparent Km and maximum velocity for T4 5'-D in homogenates of prolactinoma at 20 mmol/L DTT were 11 nmol/L and 1.54 pmol/mg protein.h, respectively. This reaction followed sequential-type reaction kinetics when the DTT concentration was varied. All other homogenates of pituitary tumors, except two nonfunctioning tumors, also demonstrated T4 5'-D activity. These results indicate that 1) the human pituitary express a low Km and PTU-insensitive T4 5'-D activity which is very similar to the type II enzyme activity in the rat pituitary; and 2) various types of pituitary tumor cells contain T4 5'-D activity.

  12. Dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel activity related to prolactin, growth hormone, and luteinizing hormone release from anterior pituitary cells in culture: interactions with somatostatin, dopamine, and estrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, we determined the activity of voltage-dependent dihydropyridine (DHP)-sensitive Ca2+ channels related to PRL, GH, and LH secretion in primary cultures of pituitary cells from male or female rats. We investigated their modulation by 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and their involvement in dopamine (DA) and somatostatin (SRIF) inhibition of PRL and GH release. BAY-K-8644 (BAYK), a DHP agonist which increases the opening time of already activated channels, stimulated PRL and GH secretion in a dose-dependent manner. The effect was more pronounced on PRL than on GH release. BAYK-evoked hormone secretion was further amplified by simultaneous application of K+ (30 or 56 mM) to the cell cultures; in parallel, BAYK-induced 45Ca uptake by the cells was potentiated in the presence of depolarizing stimuli. In contrast, BAYK was unable to stimulate LH secretion from male pituitary cells, but it potentiated LHRH- as well as K+-induced LH release; it had only a weak effect on LH secretion from female cell cultures. Basal and BAYK-induced pituitary hormone release were blocked by the Ca2+ channel antagonist nitrendipine. Under no condition did BAYK affect the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides or cAMP formation. Pretreatment of female pituitary cell cultures with E2 (10(-9) M) for 72 h enhanced LH and PRL responses to BAYK, but was ineffective on GH secretion. DA (10(-7) M) inhibited basal and BAYK-induced PRL release from male or female pituitary cells treated or not treated with E2 (10(-9) M). SRIF (10(-9) and 10(-8) M) reversed BAYK-evoked GH release to the same extent in cell cultures derived from male or female animals. It was ineffective on BAYK-induced PRL secretion in the absence of E2, but antagonized it after E2 pretreatment. The effect was dependent upon the time of steroid treatment and was specific, since 17 alpha-estradiol was inactive

  13. Bioprocessing in Microgravity: Applications of Continuous Flow Electrophoresis to Rat Anterior Pituitary Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Salada, T.; Cenci, R.; Krishnan, K.; Seaman, G. V. F.; Snyder, R.; Matsumiya, H.; Nagaoka, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this report we describe the results of a continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE) experiment done on STS-65 in which we tested the idea that intracellular growth hormone (GH) particles contained in a cell lysate prepared from cultured rat anterior pituitary cells in microgravity might have different electrophoretic mobilities from those in a synchronous ground control cell lysate. Collectively, the results suggested that CFE processing in microgravity was better than on earth; more samples could be processed at a time (6 x) and more variant forms of GH molecules could be resolved as well. We had also hoped to carry out a pituitary cell CFE experiment, but failure of the hardware required that the actual cell electrophoresis trials be done on earth shortly after Shuttle landing. Data from these experiments showed that space-flown cells possessed a higher electrophoretic mobility than ground control cells, thereby offering evidence for the idea that exposure of cultured cells to microgravity can change their net surface charge-density especially when the cells are fed. Collectively, the results from this pituitary cell experiment document the advantage of using coupled cell culture and CFE techniques in the microgravity environment.

  14. β-Hydroxybutyric Sodium Salt Inhibition of Growth Hormone and Prolactin Secretion via the cAMP/PKA/CREB and AMPK Signaling Pathways in Dairy Cow Anterior Pituitary Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Peng Fu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA regulates the synthesis and secretion of growth hormone (GH and prolactin (PRL, but its mechanism is unknown. In this study, we detected the effects of BHBA on the activities of G protein signaling pathways, AMPK-α activity, GH, and PRL gene transcription, and GH and PRL secretion in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells (DCAPCs. The results showed that BHBA decreased intracellular cAMP levels and a subsequent reduction in protein kinase A (PKA activity. Inhibition of PKA activity reduced cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting GH and PRL transcription and secretion. The effects of BHBA were attenuated by a specific Gαi inhibitor, pertussis toxin (PTX. In addition, intracellular BHBA uptake mediated by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1 could trigger AMPK signaling and result in the decrease in GH and PRL mRNA translation in DCAPCs cultured under low-glucose and non-glucose condition when compared with the high-glucose group. This study identifies a biochemical mechanism for the regulatory action of BHBA on GH and PRL gene transcription, translation, and secretion in DCAPCs, which may be one of the factors that regulate pituitary function during the transition period in dairy cows.

  15. β-Hydroxybutyric sodium salt inhibition of growth hormone and prolactin secretion via the cAMP/PKA/CREB and AMPK signaling pathways in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shou-Peng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Bing-Run; Yang, Huan-Min; Ji, Hong; Yang, Zhan-Qing; Guo, Bin; Liu, Ju-Xiong; Wang, Jian-Fa

    2015-01-01

    β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) regulates the synthesis and secretion of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL), but its mechanism is unknown. In this study, we detected the effects of BHBA on the activities of G protein signaling pathways, AMPK-α activity, GH, and PRL gene transcription, and GH and PRL secretion in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells (DCAPCs). The results showed that BHBA decreased intracellular cAMP levels and a subsequent reduction in protein kinase A (PKA) activity. Inhibition of PKA activity reduced cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting GH and PRL transcription and secretion. The effects of BHBA were attenuated by a specific Gαi inhibitor, pertussis toxin (PTX). In addition, intracellular BHBA uptake mediated by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) could trigger AMPK signaling and result in the decrease in GH and PRL mRNA translation in DCAPCs cultured under low-glucose and non-glucose condition when compared with the high-glucose group. This study identifies a biochemical mechanism for the regulatory action of BHBA on GH and PRL gene transcription, translation, and secretion in DCAPCs, which may be one of the factors that regulate pituitary function during the transition period in dairy cows. PMID:25690038

  16. μ- and m-calpain expression and activity changes following diethylstilbestrol injection in the rat anterior pituitary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijiang Zhao; Zhongfang Shi; Fang Yuan; Guilin Li; Yazhuo Zhang; Zhongcheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about changes in calpain activity in the pituitary gland.In the present study,μ- and m-calpain activity changes were detected in the rat anterior pituitary following intraperitoneal injection of diethylstilbestrol.Double-immunofluorescence labeling confirmed colocalization of μ - and m-calpain in prolactin-secreting cells (lactotrophs).Western blot analysis revealed significantly increased expression of both calpains,which accompanied upregulated cytosol and membrane zymographic activities at 12 weeks following diethylstilbestrol injection,compared with rats injected with sunflower oil.Moreover,following estrogen injection,pituitary gland pathological damage gradually worsened with increasing time.Results demonstrated that estrogen regulated calpain expression and activity,and both calpains participated in the pathophysiological processes of the pituitary gland.Ubiquitous calpain expression could serve as an effective target for anti-estrogen drugs.

  17. Butyrate increases intracellular calcium levels and enhances growth hormone release from rat anterior pituitary cells via the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and 43.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Consolata Miletta

    Full Text Available Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB, which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous agonist for the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR, GPR41 and 43, on non-stimulated and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH-stimulated hGH secretion. Furthermore, we investigated the potential role of GPR41 and 43 on the generation of butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ signal and its ultimate impact on hGH secretion. To study this, wt-hGH was transfected into a rat pituitary tumour cell line stably expressing the human GHRH receptor. Treatment with butyrate promoted hGH synthesis and improved basal and GHRH-induced hGH-secretion. By acting through GPR41 and 43, butyrate enhanced intracellular free cytosolic Ca2+. Gene-specific silencing of these receptors led to a partial inhibition of the butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ rise resulting in a decrease of hGH secretion. This study suggests that butyrate is a metabolic intermediary, which contributes to the secretion and, therefore, to the metabolic actions of GH during fasting.

  18. Diabetes Insipidus and Anterior Pituitary Insufficiency Due to Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Arduç

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastases from breast cancer to the pituitary gland are uncommon. We present a 35-year-old woman with diabetes insipidus and anterior pituitary insufficiency resulting from breast cancer metastases to the pituitary gland. The patient presented with reduced consciousness, fatigue, polyuria, and polydipsia. Hypernatremia (sodium: 154 mmol/L, hypostenuria (urine density: 1001, and hypopituitarism were present on laboratory evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed heterogeneous pituitary gland, thickened pituitary stalk (8mm, and loss of normal hyperintense signal of the posterior pituitary. Based on the clinical, laboratory, and MRI findings, the patient was diagnosed with diabetes insipidus and anterior pituitary insufficiency due to pituitary metastases from breast cancer. She received desmopressin, L-thyroxine, and prednisolone, which resulted in improvement of her symptoms and laboratory results. The patient, who also received Gamma Knife radiosurgery and chemotherapy, died six months later due to disseminated metastases. Although pituitary metastasis is rare, it should be kept in mind in patients with breast cancer since early detection and treatment can improve symptoms of patients.

  19. Prolactin kinase activity in bovine anterior pituitary sub-cellular fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, J R; Brooks, C L

    1999-01-25

    Bovine anterior pituitary cells phosphorylate prolactin (PRL). We describe the phosphorylation of endogenous and exogenous bPRL in highly enriched subcellular fractions of bovine anterior pituitary using [gamma-32P]-ATP. 32P-labeling of endogenous and exogenous bPRL occurred in all subcellular membrane fractions, but most significantly in the fraction enriched for secretory granules. Zn2+ (0.8 mM), Cu2+ (0.8 mM), and Mn2+ (9.8 mM) increased bPRL phosphorylation by 268, 214, and 154%, respectively, relative to basal phosphorylation with no added cations. Neither Mg2+ (10 mM) nor Ca2+ (0.9 mM) increased bPRL phosphorylation above basal levels. Phosphorylation was dependent on the concentration of Zn2+ with an apparent Km of 570 microM. bPRL phosphorylation occurred over a wide pH range of 5.9-8.3, with the greatest activity at pH of 6.7 or greater. Phosphorylation of bPRL was time-dependent. The apparent Kms of the bPRL kinase for exogenous bPRL and ATP were 15.3 and 267 microM, respectively. bPRL incorporation of 32P was unaffected by the presence of calcium and calmodulin, cAMP, phosphotidylserine and diolein, or spermine. From these results we conclude that in vitro phosphorylation of bPRL occurs under physiological conditions that would be found in pituitary cells. PMID:10195699

  20. Effect of monthly administration of GHRH (fragment 1-29) with osmotic pump on the rat anterior pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motylewska, Ewelina; Mełeń-Mucha, Gabriela; Mucha, Sławomir; Pawlikowski, Marek

    2005-01-01

    Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH) is the main factor, which regulates GH secretion and somatotrope proliferation. However, its chronic effect on anterior pituitary gland is still unknown. It is known that excessive GHRH secretion in patients with gastroenteropancreatic tumors secreting GHRH results in acromegaly and somatotrope hyperplasia. In mice transgenic for GHRH somatotrope tumors develop. Thus, the aim of this paper was to examine the effect of GHRH chronic administration on somatotrope secretion, their percentage and cell proliferation in anterior pituitary gland in rats. The experiment was performed on male Fischer 344 rats weighing 200+/-20 g. The animals were divided into two groups: group I-controls (13 rats) received solvent for GHRH (5% ethanol in demineralized water); group II (10 rats) received GHRH (Growth Hormone Releasing Factor, fragment 1-29 amide) at a dose of 5 microg/day. The substances were given for 1 month via osmotic pump (ALZET), which were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal region under ketamin anesthesia. After 4 weeks all rats were decapitated and the blood was collected. In the microscopic preparations of anterior pituitary gland the morphology of pituitary (Herlant staining) and the percentage of somatotrope cells and proliferation index based on PCNA staining were assessed. It was found that the chronic treatment with GHRH caused a statistically significant increase in serum rGH concentration and in percentage of somatotropes, but did not change proliferation index and did not induce pathological changes in the morphology of the anterior pituitary gland when compared to the control group. Summing up, monthly GHRH administration did not induce somatotrope adenomas but it caused serum GH level elevation, what seems to depend partially on the increase of somatotrope number.

  1. Pituitary stem cells: candidates and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Farshad; Cusimano, Michael; Zuccato, Jeff A; Mohammed, Safraz; Rotondo, Fabio; Horvath, Eva; Syro, Luis V; Kovacs, Kalman; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2013-09-01

    The pituitary is the master endocrine gland of the body. It undergoes many changes after birth, and these changes may be mediated by the differentiation of pituitary stem cells. Stem cells in any tissue source must display (1) pluripotent capacity, (2) capacity for indefinite self-renewal, and (3) a lack of specialization. Unlike neural stem cells identified in the hippocampus and subventricular zone, pituitary stem cells are not associated with one specific cell type. There are many major candidates that are thought to be potential pituitary stem cell sources. This article reviews the evidence for each of the major cell types and discuss the implications of identifying a definitive pituitary stem cell type. PMID:23423660

  2. Retroviral transfer of a human tyrosine hydroxylase cDNA in various cell lines: regulated release of dopamine in mouse anterior pituitary AtT-20 cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Horellou, P; Guibert, B; Leviel, V; Mallet, J

    1989-01-01

    Little is known about the molecular events mediating neurotransmitter release, a crucial step in synaptic transmission. In this paper, the biosynthesis and release of L-beta-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and dopamine were analyzed in three heterologous cell lines after retroviral-mediated gene transfer of tyrosine hydroxylase (EC 1.14.16.2), the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis. A recombinant retrovirus encoding human tyrosine hydroxylase type I as well as neomycin-resist...

  3. Lack of correlation between Ki-67 labelling index and tumor size of anterior pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen detected by the monoclonal antibody MIB-1 and its Labeling Index (LI) is considered a marker of normal and abnormal cell proliferation. Pituitary adenomas are generally well differentiated neoplasms, even if in about one third of cases they are invasive of surrounding tissues. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between Ki-67 labelling index and tumor size of pituitary adenomas extimated by means CT and MRI and confirmed at operation. Using the monoclonal antibody MIB-1, we evaluated the expression of Ki-67 in 121 anterior pituitary adenomas consecutively operated on in a 48-month period. In relation to neuroradiological (CT and MRI) and surgically verified tumor size, we identified 24 microadenomas, 27 intrasellar macroadenomas, 34 intra-suprasellar macroadenomas, and 36 intra-supra-parasellar macroadenomas. The adenomas were non-infiltrating (76 cases) and infiltrating (45 cases) adenomas. The wall of the cavernous sinus (CS) was infiltrated in 18 cases. Forty-eight adenomas were non-functioning and 73 functioning. The overall mean ± SD Ki-67 LI was 2.72 ± 2.49% (median 1.6). It was 2.59 ± 1.81 in microadenomas, 2.63 ± 3.45 in intrasellar macroadenomas, 1.91 ± 2.11 in intra-suprasellar macroadenomas, and 3.29 ± 5.45 in intra-supra-parasellar macroadenomas (p = 0.27). It was 3.73 ± 5.13% in infiltrating and 2.03 ± 2.41% in non-infiltrating adenomas (p = 0.02), and 5.61 ± 7.19% in CS-infiltrating versus 2.09 ± 2.37% in CS-non-infiltrating adenomas (p = 0.0005). Our preliminary results seem to exclude significative correlations between Ki-67 LI and tumor size of anterior pituitary adenomas, even if this index can be considered a useful marker in the determination of the infiltrative behaviour of these tumors

  4. Glucocorticoids Inhibit CRH/AVP-Evoked Bursting Activity of Male Murine Anterior Pituitary Corticotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Peter J; Tabak, Joël; Ruth, Peter; Bertram, Richard; Shipston, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Corticotroph cells from the anterior pituitary are an integral component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which governs the neuroendocrine response to stress. Corticotrophs are electrically excitable and fire spontaneous single-spike action potentials and also display secretagogue-induced bursting behavior. The HPA axis function is dependent on effective negative feedback in which elevated plasma glucocorticoids result in inhibition at the level of both the pituitary and the hypothalamus. In this study, we have used an electrophysiological approach coupled with mathematical modeling to investigate the regulation of spontaneous and CRH/arginine vasopressin-induced activity of corticotrophs by glucocorticoids. We reveal that pretreatment of corticotrophs with 100 nM corticosterone (CORT; 90 and 150 min) reduces spontaneous activity and prevents a transition from spiking to bursting after CRH/arginine vasopressin stimulation. In addition, previous studies have identified a role for large-conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels in the generation of secretagogue-induced bursting in corticotrophs. Using the dynamic clamp technique, we demonstrated that CRH-induced bursting can be switched to spiking by subtracting a fast BK current, whereas the addition of a fast BK current can induce bursting in CORT-treated cells. In addition, recordings from BK knockout mice (BK(-/-)) revealed that CORT can also inhibit excitability through BK-independent mechanisms to control spike frequency. Thus, we have established that glucocorticoids can modulate multiple properties of corticotroph electrical excitability through both BK-dependent and BK-independent mechanisms. PMID:27254001

  5. Antiapoptotic factor humanin is expressed in normal and tumoral pituitary cells and protects them from TNF-α-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Gottardo

    Full Text Available Humanin (HN is a 24-amino acid peptide with cytoprotective action in several cell types such as neurons and testicular germ cells. Rattin (HNr, a homologous peptide of HN expressed in several adult rat tissues, also has antiapoptotic action. In the present work, we demonstrated by immunocytochemical analysis and flow cytometry the expression of HNr in the anterior pituitary of female and male adult rats as well as in pituitary tumor GH3 cells. HNr was localized in lactotropes and somatotropes. The expression of HNr was lower in females than in males, and was inhibited by estrogens in pituitary cells from both ovariectomized female and orquidectomized male rats. However, the expression of HNr in pituitary tumor cells was not regulated by estrogens. We also evaluated HN action on the proapoptotic effect of TNF-α in anterior pituitary cells assessed by the TUNEL method. HN (0.5 µM per se did not modify basal apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells but completely blocked the proapoptotic effect of TNF-α in total anterior pituitary cells, lactotropes and somatotropes from both female and male rats [corrected]. Also, HN inhibited the apoptotic effect of TNF-α on pituitary tumor cells. In summary, our results demonstrate that HNr is present in the anterior pituitary gland, its expression showing sexual dimorphism, which suggests that gonadal steroids may be involved in the regulation of HNr expression in this gland. Antiapoptotic action of HN in anterior pituitary cells suggests that this peptide could be involved in the homeostasis of this gland. HNr is present and functional in GH3 cells, but it lacks regulation by estrogens, suggesting that HN could participate in the pathogenesis of pituitary tumors.

  6. The pituitary growth hormone cell in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Wesley C.; Grindeland, R.

    1989-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH), produced and secreted from specialized cells in the pituitary gland, controls the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. It is also probably involved in the regulation of proper function of bone, muscle and immune systems. The behavior of the GH cell system was studied by flying either isolated pituitary cells or live rats. In the latter case, pituitary GH cells are prepared on return to earth and then either transplanted into hypophysectomized rats or placed into cell culture so that function of GH cells in-vivo vs. in-vitro can be compared. The results from three flights to date (STS-8, 1983; SL-3, 1985; Cosmos 1887, 1987) established that the ability of GH cells to release hormone, on return to earth, is compromised. The mechanism(s) responsible for this attenuation response is unknown. However, the data are sufficiently positive to indicate that the nature of the secretory defect resides directly within the GH cells.

  7. Anterior Pituitary Leptin Expression Changes in Different Reproductive States: Stimulation, in vitro, by Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)

    OpenAIRE

    Akhter, Noor; Johnson, Brandy W.; Crane, Christopher; Iruthayanathan, Mary; Zhou, Yi-Hong; Kudo, Akihiko; Childs, Gwen V

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to learn more about the changes in expression of rat anterior pituitary (AP) leptin during the estrous cycle. QRT-PCR assays of cycling rat AP leptin mRNA showed 2—fold increases from metestrus to diestrus followed by an 86% decrease on the morning of proestrus. Percentages of leptin cells increased in proestrus and pregnancy to 55–60% of AP cells. Dual labeling for leptin proteins and growth hormone (GH) or gonadotropins, showed that the rise in leptin protein-bearing...

  8. Feeding Frequency Affects Cultured Rat Pituitary Cells in Low Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Salada, T.; Cenci, R.; Krishnan, K.; Mukai, C.; Nagaoka, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this report, we describe the results of a rat pituitary cell culture experiment done on STS-65 in which the effect of cell feeding on the release of the six anterior pituitary hormones was studied. We found complex microgravity related interactions between the frequency of cell feeding and the quantity and quality (i.e. biological activity) of some of the six hormones released in flight. Analyses of growth hormone (GH) released from cells into culture media on different mission days using gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography yielded qualitatively similar results between ground and flight samples. Lack of cell feeding resulted in extensive cell clumping in flight (but not ground) cultures. Vigorous fibroblast growth occurred in both ground and flight cultures fed 4 times. These results are interpreted within the context of autocrine and or paracrine feedback interactions. Finally the payload specialist successfully prepared a fresh trypsin solution in microgravity, detached the cells from their surface and reinserted them back into the culture chamber. These cells reattached and continued to release hormone in microgravity. In summary, this experiment shows that pituitary cells are microgravity sensitive and that coupled operations routinely associated with laboratory cel1 culture can also be accomplished in low gravity.

  9. Dynamics of anterior pituitary immunoreactive gonadotrophs in moulted hens supplemented with protein, symbiotic and probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, H; Rahman, Z U

    2016-06-01

    The present work delineates redistribution patterns of the hormone-producing cells of the anterior pituitary, after the phase of moulting. Two hundred single comb White Leghorn hens at the end of their first production cycle (Age = 70 week) were purchased from the commercial poultry farm and were induced to moult by high-dietary zinc (3 g/kg feed/day) after 1 week of acclimatization, at the experimental research station, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The moulted birds were equally (n = 50) and randomly allocated to their respective groups as G1 (control; CP (Crude protein) 16%, no supplement), G2 (CP18%, no other supplement), G3 (CP16%, symbiotic at does rate of 85 mg/l in drinking water daily) and G4 (CP16%, probiotic at dose rate of 85 mg/l in drinking water daily). Ten birds were slaughtered in each group at 5% and at peak of post-moult production stage to collect their pituitary glands. An earlier post-moult production recovery, sustained and lengthier production span was seen in the G2 as compared to all other groups. The lowest production and an earlier production decline were seen in G1. The cell diameter and area of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) gonadotroph increased (p ≤ 0.01) in G2 and G3 as compared to G1. The FSH gonadotroph nucleus diameter and area did increase (p ≤ 0.01) in G2 and G3, while LH gonadotroph nucleus diameter and area decreased (p ≤ 0.01) in G2 and G3 as compared to G1. The increased FSH and LH gonadotroph diameter in protein and symbiotic supplemented birds is accountable for the increased egg production in these groups. PMID:26335931

  10. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript gene (CART1) expression through CRH type 1 receptor (CRHR1) in chicken anterior pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Chunheng; Cai, Guoqing; Huang, Long; Deng, Qiuyang; Lin, Dongliang; Cui, Lin; Wang, Yajun; Li, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide(s) is generally viewed as neuropeptide(s) and can control food intake in vertebrates, however, our recent study revealed that CART1 peptide is predominantly expressed in chicken anterior pituitary, suggesting that cCART1 peptide is a novel pituitary hormone in chickens and its expression is likely controlled by hypothalamic factor(s). To test this hypothesis, in this study, we examined the spatial expression of CART1 in chicken anterior pituitary and investigated the effect of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on pituitary cCART1 expression. The results showed that: 1) CART1 is expressed in both caudal and cephalic lobes of chicken anterior pituitary, revealed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), western blot and immuno-histochemical staining; 2) CRH potently stimulates cCART1 mRNA expression in cultured chick pituitary cells, as examined by qPCR, and this effect is blocked by CP154526 (and not K41498), an antagonist specific for chicken CRH type I receptor (cCRHR1), suggesting that cCRHR1 expressed on corticotrophs mediates this action; 3) the stimulatory effect of CRH on pituitary cCART1 expression is inhibited by pharmacological drugs targeting the intracellular AC/cAMP/PKA, PLC/IP3/Ca(2+), and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. This finding, together with the functional coupling of these signaling pathways to cCRHR1 expressed in CHO cells demonstrated by luciferase reporter assay systems, indicates that these intracellular signaling pathways coupled to cCRHR1 can mediate CRH action. Collectively, our present study offers the first substantial evidence that hypothalamic CRH can stimulate pituitary CART1 expression via activation of CRHR1 in a vertebrate species.

  11. Optogenetically enhanced pituitary corticotroph cell activity post-stress onset causes rapid organizing effects on behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Thiemann, Theresa; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Herget, Ulrich; Ryu, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    The anterior pituitary is the major link between nervous and hormonal systems, which allow the brain to generate adequate and flexible behaviour. Here, we address its role in mediating behavioural adjustments that aid in coping with acutely threatening environments. For this we combine optogenetic manipulation of pituitary corticotroph cells in larval zebrafish with newly developed assays for measuring goal-directed actions in very short timescales. Our results reveal modulatory actions of corticotroph cell activity on locomotion, avoidance behaviours and stimulus responsiveness directly after the onset of stress. Altogether, the findings uncover the significance of endocrine pituitary cells for rapidly optimizing behaviour in local antagonistic environments. PMID:27646867

  12. Combined use of vasopressin and synthetic hypothalamic releasing factors as a new test of anterior pituitary function.

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, P. J.; Wiles, P G; Davies, J. A.; Prentice, C R

    1986-01-01

    Nine normal volunteers and 15 patients with pituitary disorders were given a combined test of anterior pituitary function using four hypothalamic releasing factors and arginine vasopressin. Rapid sequential intravenous infusions of human corticotrophin releasing factor 100 micrograms, growth hormone releasing factor 100 micrograms, luteinising hormone releasing hormone 100 micrograms, and thyrotrophin releasing hormone 200 micrograms were administered. Arginine vasopressin (10 pressor units) ...

  13. Establishment and culture optimization of a new type of pituitary immortalized cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokubu, Yuko [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Asashima, Makoto [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Life Science Center of TARA, The University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken 305-8577 (Japan); Kurisaki, Akira, E-mail: akikuri@hotmail.com [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Biotechnology Research Institute for Drug Discovery, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    The pituitary gland is a center of the endocrine system that controls homeostasis in an organism by secreting various hormones. The glandular anterior pituitary consists of five different cell types, each expressing specific hormones. However, their regulation and the appropriate conditions for their in vitro culture are not well defined. Here, we report the immortalization of mouse pituitary cells by introducing TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes. The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed a thyrotroph-specific thyroid stimulating hormone beta (Tshb). After optimization of the culture conditions, these immortalized cells proliferated and maintained morphological characteristics similar to those of primary pituitary cells under sphere culture conditions in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with N2, B27, basic FGF, and EGF. These cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators and induced the expression of Tshb mRNA. Moreover, transplantation of the immortalized cell line into subcutaneous regions and kidney capsules of mice further increased Tshb expression. These results suggest that immortalization of pituitary cells with TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes is a useful method for generating proliferating cells for the in vitro analysis of pituitary regulatory mechanisms. - Highlights: • Mouse pituitary cell lines were immortalized by introducing TERT, E6, and E7. • The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed thyroid stimulating hormone beta. • The cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators, and induced Tshb.

  14. Establishment and culture optimization of a new type of pituitary immortalized cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pituitary gland is a center of the endocrine system that controls homeostasis in an organism by secreting various hormones. The glandular anterior pituitary consists of five different cell types, each expressing specific hormones. However, their regulation and the appropriate conditions for their in vitro culture are not well defined. Here, we report the immortalization of mouse pituitary cells by introducing TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes. The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed a thyrotroph-specific thyroid stimulating hormone beta (Tshb). After optimization of the culture conditions, these immortalized cells proliferated and maintained morphological characteristics similar to those of primary pituitary cells under sphere culture conditions in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with N2, B27, basic FGF, and EGF. These cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators and induced the expression of Tshb mRNA. Moreover, transplantation of the immortalized cell line into subcutaneous regions and kidney capsules of mice further increased Tshb expression. These results suggest that immortalization of pituitary cells with TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes is a useful method for generating proliferating cells for the in vitro analysis of pituitary regulatory mechanisms. - Highlights: • Mouse pituitary cell lines were immortalized by introducing TERT, E6, and E7. • The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed thyroid stimulating hormone beta. • The cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators, and induced Tshb

  15. Calcitonin receptor binding in the hen anterior pituitary during an oviposition cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Nakagawa-Mizuyachi, Kaori; Kawashima, Mitsuo

    2011-10-01

    The equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d) ) and the maximum binding capacity (B(max) ) of calcitonin (CT) receptor in the plasma membrane of the anterior pituitary in hens were examined by Scatchard analysis of specific binding of (125) I-labeled chicken CT. Values of K(d) and B(max) of CT receptor were smaller in laying hens than in non-laying hens. A decrease in the K(d) and B(max) value of CT receptor was observed in the anterior pituitary after the injection of estradiol-17β and progesterone into nonlaying hens, but not changed after the injection of 5α-dihydrotestosterone. During an oviposition cycle, the K(d) and the B(max) value decreased 3 h before oviposition. In non-laying hens, neither the K(d) nor the B(max) value changed during a full day period. The present study suggests that the CT action on the anterior pituitary may increase 3 h before oviposition by the effect of estradiol-17β and progesterone in laying hens. PMID:21951904

  16. Molecular Morphology of Pituitary Cells, from Conventional Immunohistochemistry to Fluorescein Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yoshiyuki Osamura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In situ hybridization (ISH at the electron microscopic (EM level is essential for elucidating the intracellular distribution and role of mRNA in protein synthesis. EM-ISH is considered to be an important tool for clarifying the intracellular localization of mRNA and the exact site of pituitary hormone synthesis on the rough endoplasmic reticulum. A combined ISH and immunohistochemistry (IHC under EM (EM-ISH&IHC approach has sufficient ultrastructural resolution, and provides two-dimensional images of the subcellular localization of pituitary hormone and its mRNA in a pituitary cell. The advantages of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots, Qdots and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM enable us to obtain three-dimensional images of the subcellular localization of pituitary hormone and its mRNA. Both EM-ISH&IHC and ISH & IHC using Qdots and CLSM are useful for understanding the relationships between protein and mRNA simultaneously in two or three dimensions. CLSM observation of rab3B and SNARE proteins such as SNAP-25 and syntaxin has revealed that both rab3B and SNARE system proteins play important roles and work together as the exocytotic machinery in anterior pituitary cells. Another important issue is the intracellular transport and secretion of pituitary hormone. We have developed an experimental pituitary cell line, GH3 cell, which has growth hormone (GH linked to enhanced yellow fluorescein protein (EYFP. This stable GH3 cell secretes GH linked to EYFP upon stimulation by Ca2+ influx or Ca2+ release from storage. This GH3 cell line is useful for the real-time visualization of the intracellular transport and secretion of GH. These three methods from conventional immunohistochemistry and fluorescein imaging allow us to consecutively visualize the process of transcription, translation, transport and secretion of anterior pituitary hormone.

  17. NG2 targets tumorigenic Rb inactivation in Pit1-lineage pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Toru; Nakano-Tateno, Tae; Ezzat, Shereen; Asa, Sylvia L

    2016-05-01

    The proteoglycan neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2) is expressed by oligodendrocyte progenitors, pericytes, and some cancerous cells where it is implicated in tumor development. We examined mice with NG2-driven pRb inactivation. Unexpectedly, NG2-Cre:pRb(flox/flox) mice developed pituitary tumors with high penetrance. Adenohypophysial neoplasms developed initially as multifocal lesions; by 1 year, large tumors showed brain invasion. Immunohistochemistry identified these as Pit1-lineage neoplasms, with variable immunoreactivity for growth hormone, prolactin, thyrotropin, and α-subunit of glycoprotein hormones. Other than modest hyperprolactinemia, circulating hormone levels were not elevated. To determine the role of NG2 in the pituitary, we investigated NG2 expression. Immunoreactivity was identified in anterior and posterior lobes but not in the intermediate lobe of the mouse pituitary; in the adenohypophysis, folliculostellate cells had the strongest NG2 immunoreactivity but showed no proliferation in response to Rb inactivation. Pit1-positive adenohypophysial cells were positive for NG2, but corticotroph and gonadotroph cells were negative. RT-PCR revealed NG2 expression in normal human pituitary and human pituitary tumors; immunohistochemistry localized NG2 in nontumorous human adenohypophysis with strongest positivity in folliculostellate cells, and in tumors of all types except corticotrophs. Functional studies in GH4 mammosomatotrophs showed that NG2 increases prolactin (PRL), reduces growth hormone (GH) expression, and enhances cell adhesion without influencing proliferation. In conclusion, NG2-driven pRb inactivation results in pituitary tumors that mimic endocrinologically inactive Pit1-lineage human pituitary tumors. This model identifies a role for NG2 in pituitary cell-type-specific functions and unmasks a protective role from Rb inactivation in folliculostellate cells; it can be used for further research, including preclinical testing of novel therapies

  18. Electrophoretic separation of kidney and pituitary cells on STS-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. R.; Nachtwey, D. S.; Barlow, G. H.; Cleveland, C.; Lanham, J. W.; Farrington, M. A.; Hatfield, J. M.; Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R.; Lewis, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Specific secretory cells were separated from suspensions of cultured primary human embryonic cells and rat pituitary cells in microgravity conditions, with an objective of isolating the subfractions of kidney cells that produce the largest amount of urakinase, and the subfractions of rat pituitary cells that secrete growth hormones (GH), prolactin (PRL), and other hormones. It is inferred from the experimental observations that the surface charge distributions of the GH-containing cells differ from those of the PRL-containing cells, which is explained by the presence of secretory products on the surface of pituitary cells. For kidney cells, the electrophoretic mobility distributions in flight experiments were spread more than the ground controls.

  19. Nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase is differentially regulated by nuclear and non-nuclear estrogen pathways in anterior pituitary gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena P Cabilla

    Full Text Available 17β-estradiol (E2 regulates hormonal release as well as proliferation and cell death in the pituitary. The main nitric oxide receptor, nitric oxide sensitive- or soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC, is a heterodimer composed of two subunits, α and β, that catalyses cGMP formation. α1β1 is the most abundant and widely expressed heterodimer, showing the greater activity. Previously we have shown that E2 decreased sGC activity but exerts opposite effects on sGC subunits increasing α1 and decreasing β1 mRNA and protein levels. In the present work we investigate the mechanisms by which E2 differentially regulates sGC subunits' expression on rat anterior pituitary gland. Experiments were performed on primary cultures of anterior pituitary cells from adult female Wistar rats at random stages of estrous cycle. After 6 h of E2 treatment, α1 mRNA and protein expression is increased while β1 levels are down-regulated. E2 effects on sGC expression are partially dependent on de novo transcription while de novo translation is fully required. E2 treatment decreased HuR mRNA stabilization factor and increased AUF1 p37 mRNA destabilization factor. E2-elicited β1 mRNA decrease correlates with a mRNA destabilization environment in the anterior pituitary gland. On the other hand, after 6 h of treatment, E2-BSA (1 nM and E2-dendrimer conjugate (EDC, 1 nM were unable to modify α1 or β1 mRNA levels, showing that nuclear receptor is involved in E2 actions. However, at earlier times (3 h, 1 nM EDC causes a transient decrease of α1 in a PI3k-dependent fashion. Our results show for the first time that E2 is able to exert opposite actions in the anterior pituitary gland, depending on the activation of classical or non-classical pathways. Thus, E2 can also modify sGC expression through membrane-initiated signals bringing to light a new point of regulation in NO/sGC pathway.

  20. Purification and cultivation of human pituitary growth hormone secreting cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    A multiphase study was conducted to examine the properties of growth hormone cells. Topics investigated included: (1) to determine if growth hormone (GH) cells contained within the rat pituitary gland can be separated from the other hormone producing cell types by continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE); (2) to determine what role, if any, gravity plays in the electrophoretic separation of GH cells; (3) to compare in vitro GH release from rat pituitary cells previously exposed to microgravity conditions vs release from cells not exposed to microgravity; (4) to determine if the frequency of different hormone producing pituitary cell types contained in cell suspensions can be quantitated by flow cytometry; and (5) to determine if GH contained within the human post mortem pituitary gland can be purified by CFE. Specific experimental procedures and results are included.

  1. Evolving radiological features of hypothalamo-pituitary lesions in adult patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makras, P. [Athens General Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Athens (Greece); Athens General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Samara, C.; Antoniou, M.; Nikolakopoulou, Z. [Athens Hospital, 9. Pulmonary Department, Athens (Greece); Zetos, A. [General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Athens (Greece); Papadogias, D.; Piaditis, G.; Kaltsas, G.A. [Athens General Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Athens (Greece); Toloumis, G. [Athens General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Andreakos, E.; Kontogeorgos, G.

    2006-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare, systemic disease caused by monoclonal expansion of dendritic cells that shows a particular predilection for the hypothalamic-pituitary system (HPS). We studied the function (anterior and posterior pituitary hormonal secretion) and morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the HPS in 17 adult patients (seven males, median age 35 years, range 18-59 years) with multisystem LCH. We also evaluated the evolution of structural HPS abnormalities in relation to pituitary function and response to treatment in 12 of these patients during a median follow-up period of 3.75 years (range 1.5-10 years). Of the 17 patients, 14 (82%) had abnormal HPS imaging, and 12 (70%) had more than one area involved. Lack of the bright spot of the posterior pituitary lobe was typically found in all patients with the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus (DI). Eight patients (47%) had infundibular enlargement, six (35%) pituitary infiltration, four (24%) partially or completely empty sella, three (18%) hypothalamic involvement, and two (12%) infundibular atrophy. DI was found in 16 patients (94%) and anterior pituitary hormonal deficiency (APHD) in 10 patients (59%); two patients had single (12%) and 8 (47%) multiple APHD. During the follow-up period there was improvement of the initially demonstrated HPS pathology in seven (47%) patients, and five (33%) of them had received at least one form of treatment. APHD and DI persisted in all patients except in one in whom established gonadotrophin deficiency recovered. In summary, DI and APHD are very common in patients with multisystem LCH and are almost always associated with abnormal HPS imaging. (orig.)

  2. Evolving radiological features of hypothalamo-pituitary lesions in adult patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare, systemic disease caused by monoclonal expansion of dendritic cells that shows a particular predilection for the hypothalamic-pituitary system (HPS). We studied the function (anterior and posterior pituitary hormonal secretion) and morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the HPS in 17 adult patients (seven males, median age 35 years, range 18-59 years) with multisystem LCH. We also evaluated the evolution of structural HPS abnormalities in relation to pituitary function and response to treatment in 12 of these patients during a median follow-up period of 3.75 years (range 1.5-10 years). Of the 17 patients, 14 (82%) had abnormal HPS imaging, and 12 (70%) had more than one area involved. Lack of the bright spot of the posterior pituitary lobe was typically found in all patients with the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus (DI). Eight patients (47%) had infundibular enlargement, six (35%) pituitary infiltration, four (24%) partially or completely empty sella, three (18%) hypothalamic involvement, and two (12%) infundibular atrophy. DI was found in 16 patients (94%) and anterior pituitary hormonal deficiency (APHD) in 10 patients (59%); two patients had single (12%) and 8 (47%) multiple APHD. During the follow-up period there was improvement of the initially demonstrated HPS pathology in seven (47%) patients, and five (33%) of them had received at least one form of treatment. APHD and DI persisted in all patients except in one in whom established gonadotrophin deficiency recovered. In summary, DI and APHD are very common in patients with multisystem LCH and are almost always associated with abnormal HPS imaging. (orig.)

  3. Properties of rat anterior pituitary vasopressin receptors: relation to adenylate cyclase and the effect of corticotropin-releasing factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaillard, R C; Schoenenberg, P; Favrod-Coune, C A; Muller, A F; Marie, J. (ed.); Bockaert, J.; Jard, S

    1984-01-01

    Crude plasma membrane fractions were prepared from female Wistar rat anterior pituitaries. These fractions contained a single population of specific 3H-labeled [8-lysine]vasopressin [( 3H]vasopressin) binding sites with a dissociation of constant (Kd) of 8 +/- 2 X 10(-9) M and maximal binding capacity of 244 +/- 45 fmol/mg of protein. The Kd values for a series of vasopressin structural analogues with selective vasopressor or antidiuretic activities were determined together with the correspon...

  4. Changes in pituitary growth hormone cells prepared from rats flown on Spacelab 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R.; Hymer, W. C.; Farrington, M.; Fast, T.; Hayes, C.; Motter, K.; Patil, L.; Vasques, M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of exposure to microgravity on pituitary gland was investigated by examining cells isolated from anterior pituitaries of rats flown on the 7-day Spacelab 3 mission and, subsequently, cultured for 6 days. Compared with ground controls, flight cells contained more intracellular growth hormone (GH); however, the flight cells released less GH over the 6-day culture period and after implantation into hypophysectomized rats than did the control cells. Compared with control rats, glands from large rats (400 g) contained more somatotrophs (44 percent compared with 37 percent in control rats); small rats (200 g) showed no difference. No major differences were found in the somatotroph ultrastructure (by TEM) or in the pattern of the immunoactive GH variants. However, high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of culture media indicated that flight cells released much less of a biologically active high-molecular weight GH variant, suggesting that space flight may lead to secretory dysfunction.

  5. Somatomammotrophic cells in GH-secreting and PRL-secreting human pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, M; Brina, M; Spada, A; Giannattasio, G

    1989-11-01

    A morphological study has been carried out on 20 GH-secreting adenomas removed from acromegalic normoprolactinemic patients, on 29 PRL-secreting adenomas removed from hyperprolactinemic patients without signs of acromegaly and on one normal human anterior pituitary gland collected at autopsy. The protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopic technique has been utilized in order to verify the presence of mixed cells producing both GH and PRL (somatomammotrophs) in these pituitary tissues. In the normal pituitary a considerable number of somatomammotrophs (15-20%) was found, thus supporting the idea that these cells are normal components of the human anterior pituitary gland. In 10 GH-secreting adenomas and in 10 PRL-secreting adenomas somatomammotrophs were present in a variable number (from 4 to 20% of the whole cell population in GH adenomas and from 1 to 47% in PRL tumors). It can be concluded therefore that these cells, largely present in all GH/PRL-secreting adenomas, can also be found in GH-secreting and PRL-secreting tumors without clinical evidence of a mixed secretion. Adenomatous somatomammotrophs displayed ultrastructural features of adenomatous somatotrophs and mammotrophs (prominent Golgi complexes, abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, irregular nuclei). The size and the number of granules were variable. In some cells GH and PRL were stored in distinct secretory granules, in others in mixed granules or both in mixed and distinct granules, thus suggesting that in adenomatous somatomammotrophs the efficiency of the mechanisms of sorting of the two hormones varies from one cell to another.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Functional Characteristics of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Pituitary Adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megnis, Kaspars; Mandrika, Ilona; Petrovska, Ramona; Stukens, Janis; Rovite, Vita; Balcere, Inga; Jansone, Laima Sabine; Peculis, Raitis; Pirags, Valdis; Klovins, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are one of the most common endocrine and intracranial neoplasms. Although they are theoretically monoclonal in origin, several studies have shown that they contain different multipotent cell types that are thought to play an important role in tumor initiation, maintenance, and recurrence after therapy. In the present study, we isolated and characterized cell populations from seven pituitary somatotroph, nonhormonal, and lactotroph adenomas. The obtained cells showed characteristics of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells as observed by cell morphology, cell surface marker CD90, CD105, CD44, and vimentin expression, as well as differentiation to osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. They are capable of growth and passaging under standard laboratory cell culture conditions and do not manifest any hormonal cell characteristics. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are present in pituitary adenomas regardless of their clinical manifestation and show no considerable expression of somatostatin 1-5 and dopamine 2 receptors. Most likely obtained cells are a part of tissue-supportive cells in pituitary adenoma microenvironment. PMID:27340409

  7. Experimental Modification of Rat Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function During and After Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Salada, T.; Nye, P.; Grossman, E. J.; Lane, P. K.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Space-flown rats show a number of flight-induced changes in the structure and function of pituitary Growth Hormone (GH) cells after in vitro postflight testing. To evaluate the possible effects of microgravity on GH cells themselves, freshly dispersed rat anterior pituitary gland cells were seeded into vials containing serum +/- 1 micron HydroCortisone (HC) before flight. Five different cell preparations were used: the entire mixed-cell population of various hormone-producing cell types, cells of density less than 1.071 g/sq cm (band 1), cells of density greater than 1.071 g/sq cm (band 2), and cells prepared from either the dorsal or ventral part of the gland. Relative to ground control samples, bioactive GH released from dense cells during flight was reduced in HC-free medium but was increased in HC-containing medium. Band I and mixed cells usually showed opposite HC-dependent responses. Release of bioactive GH from ventral flight cells was lower; postflight responses to GH-releasing hormone challenge were reduced, and the cytoplasmic area occupied by GH in the dense cells was greater. Collectively, the data show that the chemistry and cellular makeup of the culture system modifies the response of GH cells to microgravity. As such, these cells offer a system to identify gravisensing mechanisms in secretory cells in future microgravity research.

  8. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Pituitary Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapochnik, Melanie; Nieto, Leandro Eduardo; Fuertes, Mariana; Arzt, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    During the last years, progress has been made on the identification of mechanisms involved in anterior pituitary cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Oncogene activation, tumor suppressor gene inactivation, epigenetic changes, and microRNAs deregulation contribute to the initiation of pituitary tumors. Despite the high prevalence of pituitary adenomas, they are mostly benign, indicating that intrinsic mechanisms may regulate pituitary cell expansion. Senescence is characterized by an irreversible cell cycle arrest and represents an important protective mechanism against malignancy. Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is an oncogene involved in early stages of pituitary tumor development, and also triggers a senescence response by activating DNA-damage signaling pathway. Cytokines, as well as many other factors, play an important role in pituitary physiology, affecting not only cell proliferation but also hormone secretion. Special interest is focused on interleukin-6 (IL-6) because its dual function of stimulating pituitary tumor cell growth but inhibiting normal pituitary cells proliferation. It has been demonstrated that IL-6 has a key role in promoting and maintenance of the senescence program in tumors. Senescence, triggered by PTTG activation and mediated by IL-6, may be a mechanism for explaining the benign nature of pituitary tumors. PMID:26718581

  9. Aromatase inhibition abolishes courtship behaviours in the ring dove (Streptopelia risoria) and reduces androgen and progesterone receptors in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, M D C; Sharp, P J; Lea, R W

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine in the ring dove, the effects of aromatase inhibition on the expression of aggressive courtship and nest-soliciting behaviours in relation to the distribution of cells containing immunoreactive androgen (AR) and progesterone (PR) receptor in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Isolated sexually experienced ring doves were transferred in opposite sex pairs to individual breeding cages, and then injected with the aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole (four males and four females), or saline vehicle (four males and four females) for 3 days at 12 hourly intervals. Saline-injected control males displayed aggressive courtship behaviours (bow-cooing and hop-charging) and nest-soliciting throughout the study, and control females displayed nest-soliciting. By day 3, fadrozole treatment resulted in the disappearance of all these behaviours and in a decrease or disappearance of AR and PR in the anterior pituitary gland, and in the nucleus preopticus paraventricularis magnocellularis (PPM), nucleus preopticus medialis (POM), nucleus hypothalami lateralis posterioris (PLH), and ventral, lateral and dorsal nucleus tuberalis in the hypothalamus (VTu, LTu, DTu). In the nucleus preopticus anterior (POA), fadrozole treatment decreased AR in both sexes and decreased PR in females but not in males. Cells containing co-localized nuclear AR and PR were found in all hypothalamic areas examined, and in the anterior pituitary gland. Fadrozole is suggested to reduce the local availability of estrogen required indirectly for the induction of AR, and except in cells containing PR in the male POA, for the direct induction of PR. It is suggested that aggressive courtship behaviour is terminated by "cross talk" between aromatase-independent PR and aromatase-dependent AR co-localized in neurons in the POA. Aromatase-independent PR may increase in the male POA in response to visual cues provided by a partner. Aromatase-dependent PR in the POM, and basal

  10. Purification and cultivation of human pituitary growth hormone secreting cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Efforts were directed towards maintenance of actively secreting human pituitary growth hormone cells (somatotrophs) in vitro. The production of human growth hormone (hGH) by this means would be of benefit for the treatment of certain human hypopituitary diseases such as dwarfism. One of the primary approaches was the testing of agents which may logically be expected to increase hGH release. The progress towards this goal is summarized. Results from preliminary experiments dealing with electrophoresis of pituitary cell for the purpose of somatotroph separation are described.

  11. Influence of apricot kernels on blood plasma levels of selected anterior pituitary hormones in male and female rabbits in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Michalcová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is represented in the family Rosacea more precisely in an apricot kernels and an almonds. There are a lot of components such as trace elements, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, esters, phenols, terpenoids, except cyanogenic glycoside in the seeds. It is known that bioregulators can modulate the activity of specific enzymes and hormones very exactly at low levels and in a short time. The aim of our study was examine the effects of selected doses (0, 60, 300, 420 mg/kg b.w. of apricot kernels in feed on the plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones in young male and female rabbits in vivo. A sensitive, biochemical method, ELISA was used to determine the hormones prolactin (PRL, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. 28-day application of apricot kernels did not affect the concentration of PRL, LH, FSH in blood plasma of males. No significant (P≤0.05 differences in case of PRL and LH levels in the blood plasma of females were found. On the other hand a significant (P≤0.05 inhibition of FSH release induced by kernels at the doses 300, 420 mg/kg was found. Our results indicate that apricot kernels could affect secretion of anterior pituitary hormone FSH in female rabbits.

  12. Electrophoretic separation of kidney and pituitary cells on STS-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. R.; Nachtwey, D. S.; Barlow, G. H.; Cleveland, C.; Lanham, J. W.; Farrington, M. A.; Hatfield, J. M.; Hymer, W. C.; Todd, P.; Wilfinger, W.; Grindeland, R.; Lewis, M. L.

    A Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES) was used on Space Shuttle flight STS-8 to separate specific secretory cells from suspensions of cultured primary human embryonic kidney cells and rat pituitary cells. The objectives were to isolate the subfractions of kidney cells that produce the largest amounts of urokinase (plasminogen activator), and to isolate the subfractions of rat pituitary cells that secrete growth hormone, prolactin, and other hormones. Kidney cells were separated into more than 32 fractions in each of two electrophoretic runs. Electrophoretic mobility distributions in flight experiments were spread more than the ground controls. Multiple assay methods confirmed that all cultured kidney cell fractions produced some urokinase, and five to six fractions produced significantly more urokinase than the other fractions. Several fractions also produced tissue plasminogen activator. The pituitary cells were separated into 48 fractions in each of the two electrophoretic runs, and the amounts of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) released into the medium for each cell fraction were determined. Cell fractions were grouped into eight mobility classes and immunocytochemically assayed for the presence of GH, PRL, ACTH, LH, TSH, and FSH. The patterns of hormone distribution indicate that the specialized cells producing GH and PRL are isolatable due to the differences in electrophoretic mobilities.

  13. Central diabetes insipidus as a very late relapse limited to the pituitary stalk in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shunsuke; Shinkoda, Yuichi; Hazeki, Daisuke; Imamura, Mari; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Kawakami, Kiyoshi; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2016-07-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and relapse are frequently seen in multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). We present two females with multifocal LCH who developed CDI 9 and 5 years after the initial diagnosis, respectively, as a relapse limited to the pituitary stalk. Combination chemotherapy with cytarabine reduced the mass in the pituitary stalk. Although CDI did not improve, there has been no anterior pituitary hormone deficiency (APHD), neurodegenerative disease in the central nervous system (ND-CNS) or additional relapse for 2 years after therapy. It was difficult to predict the development of CDI in these cases. CDI might develop very late in patients with multifocal LCH, and therefore strict follow-up is necessary, especially with regard to symptoms of CDI such as polydipsia and polyuria. For new-onset CDI with LCH, chemotherapy with cytarabine might be useful for preventing APHD and ND-CNS. PMID:27089406

  14. Expression of growth hormone (GH)-releasing factor gene in GH-producing pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, I; Inokuchi, K; Hasegawa, O; Sugihara, H; Minami, S

    1992-02-01

    Pituitary cells synthesize various neuropeptides that influence pituitary hormone secretion. GH-releasing factor (GRF) may also be produced by normal or pituitary tumor cells. We examined GRF gene expression in pituitary tumors. Standard techniques for the analysis of GRF gene expression did not appear to be suitable. Highly sensitive reverse transcription coupled to polymerase chain reaction was used. Specimens of pituitary adenoma were obtained by transsphenoidal adenomectomy from six patients with acromegaly and three patients with no clinical evidence of pituitary hormone overproduction; non-functioning adenoma. Pituitary glands were collected at autopsy from three patients who died from nonendocrine disorders. A specific GRF gene transcript was detected in five out of six GH-producing pituitary adenomas, whereas this was not found in three separate specimens of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma or anterior and posterior pituitary tissue. The data suggest that GRF is synthesized as an intrinsic product in human GH-producing pituitary adenoma.

  15. Purification and Cultivation of Human Pituitary Growth Hormones Secreting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Todd, P.; Grindeland, R.; Lanham, W.; Morrison, D.

    1985-01-01

    The rat and human pituitary gland contains a mixture of hormone producing cell types. The separation of cells which make growth hormone (GH) is attempted for the purpose of understanding how the hormone molecule is made within the pituitary cell; what form(s) it takes within the cell; and what form(s) GH assumes as it leaves the cell. Since GH has a number of biological targets (e.g., muscle, liver, bone), the assessment of the activities of the intracellular/extracellular GH by new and sensitive bioassays. GH cells contained in the mixture was separated by free flow electrophoresis. These experiments show that GH cells have different electrophoretic mobilities. This is relevant to NASA since a lack of GH could be a prime causative factor in muscle atrophy. Further, GH has recently been implicated in the etiology of motion sickness in space. Continous flow electrophoresis experiment on STS-8 showed that GH cells could be partially separated in microgravity. However, definitive cell culture studies could not be done due to insufficient cell recoveries.

  16. Stem cells in the canine pituitary gland and in pituitary adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Sarah J; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Hanson, Jeanette M; Penning, Louis C; Meij, Björn P

    2013-01-01

    Cushing's disease (CD) or pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs, with an estimated prevalence of 1 or 2 in 1000 dogs per year. It is caused by an adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting adenoma in the pars distalis or pars intermedia of the pituitary gland. The pituit

  17. Single-cell qPCR on dispersed primary pituitary cells -an optimized protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Trude M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of false positives is a potential problem in single-cell PCR experiments. This paper describes an optimized protocol for single-cell qPCR measurements in primary pituitary cell cultures following patch-clamp recordings. Two different cell harvesting methods were assessed using both the GH4 prolactin producing cell line from rat, and primary cell culture from fish pituitaries. Results Harvesting whole cells followed by cell lysis and qPCR performed satisfactory on the GH4 cell line. However, harvesting of whole cells from primary pituitary cultures regularly produced false positives, probably due to RNA leakage from cells ruptured during the dispersion of the pituitary cells. To reduce RNA contamination affecting the results, we optimized the conditions by harvesting only the cytosol through a patch pipette, subsequent to electrophysiological experiments. Two important factors proved crucial for reliable harvesting. First, silanizing the patch pipette glass prevented foreign extracellular RNA from attaching to charged residues on the glass surface. Second, substituting the commonly used perforating antibiotic amphotericin B with β-escin allowed efficient cytosol harvest without loosing the giga seal. Importantly, the two harvesting protocols revealed no difference in RNA isolation efficiency. Conclusion Depending on the cell type and preparation, validation of the harvesting technique is extremely important as contaminations may give false positives. Here we present an optimized protocol allowing secure harvesting of RNA from single cells in primary pituitary cell culture following perforated whole cell patch clamp experiments.

  18. IN VITRO CELL CULTURE AND HORMONE RADIOIMMUNOASSAY OF HUAMAN PITUITARY ADENOMAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆汉魁; 林祥通; 等

    1994-01-01

    Tissues from 30 human pituitary adenomas are monolayer-cell-cultured in vitro.Hormone secretion of GH,PRL,TSH,LH and FSH by cells into medium is detected by radioimmunoassay .The pattern and amount of hormone(s0 in the medium are used to determine the nature of the cells and thus to establish functional classification of pituitary adenomas.The results show that cell culture technique provides and easy and suitable mode for investigating the nature of pituitary adenomas.Hormone radioimmunoassay of culture medium is precise and reliable and represents the whole adenoma tissue.Further studies can lead to clearer understandngs of the pathology of pituitary adenomas.

  19. Prolactin anterior pituitary expression and circulating levels are reduced in obese and diabetic rats: role of TGF-β and TNF-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemini, María; Ruiz-Herrera, Xarubet; Ledesma-Colunga, María G; Díaz-Lezama, Nundehui; De Los Ríos, Ericka A; López-Barrera, Fernando; Méndez, Isabel; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Macotela, Yazmín; Clapp, Carmen

    2015-05-01

    The levels of the hormone prolactin (PRL) are reduced in the circulation of patients with Type 2 diabetes and in obese children, and lower systemic PRL levels correlate with an increased prevalence of diabetes and a higher risk of metabolic syndrome. The secretion of anterior pituitary (AP) PRL in metabolic diseases may be influenced by the interplay between transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), which inhibit and can stimulate AP PRL synthesis, respectively, and are known contributors to insulin resistance and metabolic complications. Here, we show that TGF-β and TNF-α antagonize the effect of each other on the expression and release of PRL by the GH4C1 lactotrope cell line. The levels of AP mRNA and circulating PRL decrease in high-fat diet-induced obese rats in parallel with increased and reduced AP levels of TGF-β and TNF-α mRNA, respectively. Likewise, AP expression and circulating levels of PRL are reduced in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and are associated with higher AP expression and protein levels of TGF-β and TNF-α. The opposing effects of the two cytokines on cultured AP cells, together with their altered expression in the AP of obese and diabetic rats suggest they are linked to the reduced PRL production and secretion characteristics of metabolic diseases.

  20. Light bodies in human pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1987-01-01

    Light bodies are large cytoplasmic granules originally described in the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland. In order to determine whether similar bodies occur in the human anterior pituitary gland, 89 pituitary adenomas and periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases were examined by...... cells in periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases. These results show that some human pituitary adenomas may contain light bodies identical to those seen in gonadotrophs of rat pituitary....... transmission electron microscopy. Double membrane bound bodies with filamentous internal structure identical to rodent light bodies were identified in 10 hormone-producing adenomas: 5 PRL, 1 PRL-GH, 2 GH, and 2 ACTH-producing tumours. No light bodies were found in the remaining 79 tumours nor in the pituitary...

  1. Effect of THIP and SL 76002, two clinically experimented GABA-mimetic compounds, on anterior pituitary GABA receptors and prolactin secretion in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apud, J.A.; Masotto, C.; Racagni, G.

    1987-03-02

    In the present study, the ability of three direct GABA agonists, muscimol, THIP and SL 76002 to displace /sup 3/H-GABA binding from anterior pituitary and medio-basal hypothalamus membranes was evaluated. Further, the effect of both THIP and SL 76002 on baseline prolactin levels or after stimulation of hormone release with haloperidol has been also studied. Either muscimol, THIP or SL 76002 have shown to posses 7-, 7- and 3-fold higher affinity, respectively, for the central nervous system than for the anterior pituitary /sup 3/H-GABA binding sites. Moreover, THIP and SL 76002 have demonstrated to be respectively, 25- and 1000- fold less potent than muscimol in inhibiting /sup 3/H- GABA binding at the level of the anterior pituitary and about 25- and 2700-fold less potent at the level of the medio-basal hypothalamus. Under basal conditions, either THIP or SL 76002 were ineffective to reduce prolactin release. However, after stimulation of prolactin secretion through blockade of the dopaminergic neurotransmission with haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), both THIP (10 mg/kg) and SL 76002 (200 mg/kg) significantly counteracted the neuroleptic-induced prolactin rise with a potency which is in line with their ability to inhibit /sup 3/H-GABA binding in the anterior pituitary. The present results indicate that both compounds inhibit prolactin release under specific experimental situations probably through a GABAergic mechanism. In view of the endocrine effects of these GABA-mimetic compounds, the possibility arises for an application of these type of drugs in clinical neuroendocrinology. 35 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Regulation of pituitary hormones and cell proliferation by components of the extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paez-Pereda

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix is a three-dimensional network of proteins, glycosaminoglycans and other macromolecules. It has a structural support function as well as a role in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The extracellular matrix conveys signals through membrane receptors called integrins and plays an important role in pituitary physiology and tumorigenesis. There is a differential expression of extracellular matrix components and integrins during the pituitary development in the embryo and during tumorigenesis in the adult. Different extracellular matrix components regulate adrenocorticotropin at the level of the proopiomelanocortin gene transcription. The extracellular matrix also controls the proliferation of adrenocorticotropin-secreting tumor cells. On the other hand, laminin regulates the production of prolactin. Laminin has a dynamic pattern of expression during prolactinoma development with lower levels in the early pituitary hyperplasia and a strong reduction in fully grown prolactinomas. Therefore, the expression of extracellular matrix components plays a role in pituitary tumorigenesis. On the other hand, the remodeling of the extracellular matrix affects pituitary cell proliferation. Matrix metalloproteinase activity is very high in all types of human pituitary adenomas. Matrix metalloproteinase secreted by pituitary cells can release growth factors from the extracellular matrix that, in turn, control pituitary cell proliferation and hormone secretion. In summary, the differential expression of extracellular matrix components, integrins and matrix metalloproteinase contributes to the control of pituitary hormone production and cell proliferation during tumorigenesis.

  3. Effect of angiotensin II, catecholamines and glucocorticoid on corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-induced ACTH release in pituitary cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami,Kazuharu

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of angiotensin II, catecholamines and glucocorticoid on CRF-induced ACTH release were examined using rat anterior pituitary cells in monolayer culture. Synthetic ovine CRF induced a significant ACTH release in this system. Angiotensin II produced an additive effect on CRF-induced ACTH release. The ACTH releasing activity of CRF was potentiated by epinephrine and norepinephrine. Dopamine itself at 0.03-30 ng/ml did not show any significant effect on ACTH release, but it inhibited CRF-induced ACTH release. Corticosterone at 10(-7 and 10(-6M inhibited CRF-induced ACTH release. These results indicate that angiotensin II, catecholamines and glucocorticoid modulate ACTH release at the pituitary level.

  4. Electrophoretic separation of cells and particles from rat pituitary and rat spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Wesley C.

    1993-01-01

    There are 3 parts to the IML-2 TX-101 experiment. Part 1 is a pituitary cell culture experiment. Part 2 is a pituitary cell separation experiment using the Japanese free flow electrophoresis unit (FFEU). Part 3 is a pituitary secretory granule separation experiment using the FFEU. The objectives of this three part experiment are: (1) to determine the kinetics of production of biologically active growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) in rat pituitary GH and PRL cells in microgravity (micro-g); (2) to investigate three mechanisms by which a micro-g-induced lesion in hormone production may occur; and (3) to determine the quality of separations of pituitary cells and organelles by continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE) in micro-g under conditions where buoyancy-induced convection is eliminated.

  5. TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell HP75 facilitates cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Pan, Suxia; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Huanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), a regulatory protein composed of 59 amino acids, has been suggested to be involved in pathogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, invasion, migration and apoptosis in multiple malignant tumors. This study thus investigated the effect of TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell line HP75 on cell apoptosis and related pathways. RNA interference approach was used to knock down the expression of TFF3 protein. The gene silencing was validated by RNA denaturing gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. The effect of TFF3 knockout on cell apoptosis was analyzed by Western blotting and flow cytometry. TFF3 protein level in pituitary adenoma was about 3.61 ± 0.48 folds of that in normal tissues (P TFF3, the apoptotic ration was significantly elevated (P TFF3 protein knockout can facilitate apoptosis of human pituitary adenoma HP75 cells via mitochondrial pathway.

  6. TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell HP75 facilitates cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Pan, Suxia; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Huanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), a regulatory protein composed of 59 amino acids, has been suggested to be involved in pathogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, invasion, migration and apoptosis in multiple malignant tumors. This study thus investigated the effect of TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell line HP75 on cell apoptosis and related pathways. RNA interference approach was used to knock down the expression of TFF3 protein. The gene silencing was validated by RNA denaturing gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. The effect of TFF3 knockout on cell apoptosis was analyzed by Western blotting and flow cytometry. TFF3 protein level in pituitary adenoma was about 3.61 ± 0.48 folds of that in normal tissues (P TFF3, the apoptotic ration was significantly elevated (P TFF3 protein knockout can facilitate apoptosis of human pituitary adenoma HP75 cells via mitochondrial pathway. PMID:26823779

  7. Cellular and molecular specificity of pituitary gland physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Castro, Carolina; Renner, Ulrich; Haedo, Mariana R; Stalla, Gunter K; Arzt, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The anterior pituitary gland has the ability to respond to complex signals derived from central and peripheral systems. Perception of these signals and their integration are mediated by cell interactions and cross-talk of multiple signaling transduction pathways and transcriptional regulatory networks that cooperate for hormone secretion, cell plasticity, and ultimately specific pituitary responses that are essential for an appropriate physiological response. We discuss the physiopathological and molecular mechanisms related to this integrative regulatory system of the anterior pituitary gland and how it contributes to modulate the gland functions and impacts on body homeostasis. PMID:22298650

  8. The HMG-box transcription factor Sox4b is required for pituitary expression of gata2a and specification of thyrotrope and gonadotrope cells in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Yobhana; Lopez, Mauricio; Mavropoulos, Anastasia; Motte, Patrick; Martial, Joseph A; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Muller, Marc

    2012-06-01

    The pituitary is a complex gland comprising different cell types each secreting specific hormones. The extensive network of signaling molecules and transcription factors required for determination and terminal differentiation of specific cell types is still not fully understood. The SRY-like HMG-box (SOX) transcription factor Sox4 plays important roles in many developmental processes and has two homologs in zebrafish, Sox4a and Sox4b. We show that the sox4b gene is expressed in the pituitary anlagen starting at 24 h after fertilization (hpf) and later in the entire head region including the pituitary. At 48 hpf, sox4b mRNA colocalizes with that for TSH (tshβ), glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα), and the Zn finger transcription factor Gata2a. Loss of Sox4b function, using morpholino knockdown or expression of a dominant-negative Sox4 mutant, leads to a drastic decrease in tshβ and gsuα expression and reduced levels of gh, whereas other anterior pituitary gland markers including prl, slβ, pomc, and lim3 are not affected. Sox4b is also required for expression of gata2a in the pituitary. Knockdown of gata2a leads to decreased tshβ and gsuα expression at 48 hpf, similar to sox4b morphants. Injection of gata2a mRNA into sox4b morphants rescued tshβ and gsuα expression in thyrotrope cells. Finally, sox4b or gata2a knockdown causes a significant decrease of gonadotropin expression (lhβ and fshβ) at 4 d after fertilization. In summary, our results indicate that Sox4b is expressed in zebrafish during pituitary development and plays a crucial role in the differentiation of thyrotrope and gonadotrope cells through induction of gata2a expression in the developing pituitary.

  9. Forkhead Box O1 is present in quiescent pituitary cells during development and is increased in the absence of p27 Kip1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sreeparna; Farris, Corrie L; Kabat, Brock E; Jung, Deborah O; Ellsworth, Buffy S

    2012-01-01

    Congenital pituitary hormone deficiencies have been reported in approximately one in 4,000 live births, however studies reporting mutations in some widely studied transcription factors account for only a fraction of congenital hormone deficiencies in humans. Anterior pituitary hormones are required for development and function of several glands including gonads, adrenals, and thyroid. In order to identify additional factors that contribute to human congenital hormone deficiencies, we are investigating the forkhead transcription factor, FOXO1, which has been implicated in development of several organs including ovary, testis, and brain. We find that FOXO1 is present in the nuclei of non-dividing pituitary cells during embryonic development, consistent with a role in limiting proliferation and/or promoting differentiation. FOXO1 is present in a subset of differentiated cells at e18.5 and in adult with highest level of expression in somatotrope cells. We detected FOXO1 in p27(Kip1)-positive cells at e14.5. In the absence of p27(Kip1) the number of pituitary cells containing FOXO1 is significantly increased at e14.5 suggesting that a feedback loop regulates the interplay between FOXO1 and p27(Kip1). PMID:23251696

  10. Forkhead Box O1 is present in quiescent pituitary cells during development and is increased in the absence of p27 Kip1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeparna Majumdar

    Full Text Available Congenital pituitary hormone deficiencies have been reported in approximately one in 4,000 live births, however studies reporting mutations in some widely studied transcription factors account for only a fraction of congenital hormone deficiencies in humans. Anterior pituitary hormones are required for development and function of several glands including gonads, adrenals, and thyroid. In order to identify additional factors that contribute to human congenital hormone deficiencies, we are investigating the forkhead transcription factor, FOXO1, which has been implicated in development of several organs including ovary, testis, and brain. We find that FOXO1 is present in the nuclei of non-dividing pituitary cells during embryonic development, consistent with a role in limiting proliferation and/or promoting differentiation. FOXO1 is present in a subset of differentiated cells at e18.5 and in adult with highest level of expression in somatotrope cells. We detected FOXO1 in p27(Kip1-positive cells at e14.5. In the absence of p27(Kip1 the number of pituitary cells containing FOXO1 is significantly increased at e14.5 suggesting that a feedback loop regulates the interplay between FOXO1 and p27(Kip1.

  11. Effects of RHC 80267, a diglyceride lipase inhibitor, on prolactin secretion and calcium uptake in GH3 pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the diglyceride lipase inhibitor RHC 80267 on the prolactin secretory process was examined in clonal anterior pituitary GH3 cells. This compound reduced basal prolactin secretion as well as secretion induced by TRH and phospholipase C but not that induced by phorbol myristate acetate. Although exogenous phospholipase C increased diglyceride, no increase in the products of diglyceride lipase was detected. Moreover, low doses of RHC 80267 were observed to effectively block potassium-stimulated 45calcium influx. It is unlikely that RHC 80267 inhibits prolactin release solely by inhibiting diglyceride lipase. These data suggest blockage of plasma membrane calcium channels as an alternate mechanism for the inhibitory actions of RHC 80267 on intact GH3 cells. These observations may have implications for RHC 80267 action in other cell types

  12. Contemporary issues in the evaluation and management of pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekic, S; Stojanovic, M; Popovic, V

    2015-12-01

    Pituitary adenomas are common benign monoclonal neoplasms accounting for about 15% of intracranial neoplasms. Data from postmortem studies and imaging studies suggest that 1 of 5 individuals in the general population may have pituitary adenoma. Some pituitary adenomas (mainly microadenomas which have a diameter of less than 1 cm) are exceedingly common and are incidentally diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for an unrelated reason (headache, vertigo, head trauma). Most microadenomas remain clinically occult and stable in size, without an increase in tumor cells and without local mass effects. However, some pituitary adenomas grow slowly, enlarge by expansion and become demarcated from normal pituitary (macroadenomas have a diameter greater than 1 cm). They may be clinically silent or secrete anterior pituitary hormones in excess such as prolactin, growth hormone (GH), or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causing diseases like prolactinoma, acromegaly, Cushing's disease or rarely thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or gonadotropins (LH, FSH). The incidence of the various subtypes of pituitary adenoma varies but the most common is prolactinoma. Clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), which do not secrete hormones often cause local mass symptoms and represent one-third of pituitary adenomas. Given the high prevalence of pituitary adenomas and their heterogeneity (different tumor subtypes), it is critical that clinicians have a thorough understanding of the potential abnormalities in pituitary function and prognostic factors for behavior of pituitary adenomas in order to timely implement specific treatment modalities. Regarding pathogenesis of these tumors genetics, epigenetics and signaling pathways are the focus of current research yet our understanding of pituitary tumorigenesis remains incomplete. Although several genes and signaling pathways have been identified as important factors in the development of pituitary tumors, current

  13. Contemporary issues in the evaluation and management of pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekic, S; Stojanovic, M; Popovic, V

    2015-12-01

    Pituitary adenomas are common benign monoclonal neoplasms accounting for about 15% of intracranial neoplasms. Data from postmortem studies and imaging studies suggest that 1 of 5 individuals in the general population may have pituitary adenoma. Some pituitary adenomas (mainly microadenomas which have a diameter of less than 1 cm) are exceedingly common and are incidentally diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for an unrelated reason (headache, vertigo, head trauma). Most microadenomas remain clinically occult and stable in size, without an increase in tumor cells and without local mass effects. However, some pituitary adenomas grow slowly, enlarge by expansion and become demarcated from normal pituitary (macroadenomas have a diameter greater than 1 cm). They may be clinically silent or secrete anterior pituitary hormones in excess such as prolactin, growth hormone (GH), or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causing diseases like prolactinoma, acromegaly, Cushing's disease or rarely thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or gonadotropins (LH, FSH). The incidence of the various subtypes of pituitary adenoma varies but the most common is prolactinoma. Clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), which do not secrete hormones often cause local mass symptoms and represent one-third of pituitary adenomas. Given the high prevalence of pituitary adenomas and their heterogeneity (different tumor subtypes), it is critical that clinicians have a thorough understanding of the potential abnormalities in pituitary function and prognostic factors for behavior of pituitary adenomas in order to timely implement specific treatment modalities. Regarding pathogenesis of these tumors genetics, epigenetics and signaling pathways are the focus of current research yet our understanding of pituitary tumorigenesis remains incomplete. Although several genes and signaling pathways have been identified as important factors in the development of pituitary tumors, current

  14. A GRFa2/Prop1/stem (GPS cell niche in the pituitary.

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    Montse Garcia-Lavandeira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adult endocrine pituitary is known to host several hormone-producing cells regulating major physiological processes during life. Some candidates to progenitor/stem cells have been proposed. However, not much is known about pituitary cell renewal throughout life and its homeostatic regulation during specific physiological changes, such as puberty or pregnancy, or in pathological conditions such as tumor development. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified in rodents and humans a niche of non-endocrine cells characterized by the expression of GFRa2, a Ret co-receptor for Neurturin. These cells also express b-Catenin and E-cadherin in an oriented manner suggesting a planar polarity organization for the niche. In addition, cells in the niche uniquely express the pituitary-specific transcription factor Prop1, as well as known progenitor/stem markers such as Sox2, Sox9 and Oct4. Half of these GPS (GFRa2/Prop1/Stem cells express S-100 whereas surrounding elongated cells in contact with GPS cells express Vimentin. GFRa2+-cells form non-endocrine spheroids in culture. These spheroids can be differentiated to hormone-producing cells or neurons outlining the neuroectoderm potential of these progenitors. In vivo, GPSs cells display slow proliferation after birth, retain BrdU label and show long telomeres in its nuclei, indicating progenitor/stem cell properties in vivo. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest the presence in the adult pituitary of a specific niche of cells characterized by the expression of GFRa2, the pituitary-specific protein Prop1 and stem cell markers. These GPS cells are able to produce different hormone-producing and neuron-like cells and they may therefore contribute to postnatal pituitary homeostasis. Indeed, the relative abundance of GPS numbers is altered in Cdk4-deficient mice, a model of hypopituitarism induced by the lack of this cyclin-dependent kinase. Thus, GPS cells may display functional relevance in the

  15. Regulation of Intestinal Immune Response by Selective Removal of the Anterior, Posterior, or Entire Pituitary Gland in Trichinella spiralis Infected Golden Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Moreno-Méndoza, Norma; López-Griego, Lorena; López-Salazar, Valeria; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Carrero, Julio César; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been previously reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX) in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, and reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, as well as increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. However, to our knowledge, no findings have been published concerning the immune response following HYPOX during worm infection, particularly that which is caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of total or partial HYPOX on colonization of T. spiralis in the intestinal lumen, together with duodenal and splenic cytokine expression. Our results indicate that 5 days post infection, only neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL) reduces the number of intestinally recovered T. spiralis larvae. Using semiquantitative inmunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of all tested Th1 cytokines was markedly diminished, even in the duodenum of infected controls. In contrast, a high level of expression of these cytokines was noted in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Th2 cytokines (with the exception of IL-4) was apparent in the duodenum of control and sham infected hamsters, compared to animals with NIL surgeries, which showed an increase in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13. Histology of duodenal mucosa from NIL hamsters showed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria, which was related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the gastrointestinal immune responses to T. spiralis through various mechanisms. PMID:23555042

  16. Regulation of intestinal immune response by selective removal of the anterior, posterior, or entire pituitary gland in Trichinella spiralis infected golden hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Hernández-Cervantes

    Full Text Available The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been previously reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, and reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, as well as increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. However, to our knowledge, no findings have been published concerning the immune response following HYPOX during worm infection, particularly that which is caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of total or partial HYPOX on colonization of T. spiralis in the intestinal lumen, together with duodenal and splenic cytokine expression. Our results indicate that 5 days post infection, only neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL reduces the number of intestinally recovered T. spiralis larvae. Using semiquantitative inmunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of all tested Th1 cytokines was markedly diminished, even in the duodenum of infected controls. In contrast, a high level of expression of these cytokines was noted in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Th2 cytokines (with the exception of IL-4 was apparent in the duodenum of control and sham infected hamsters, compared to animals with NIL surgeries, which showed an increase in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13. Histology of duodenal mucosa from NIL hamsters showed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria, which was related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the gastrointestinal immune responses to T. spiralis through various mechanisms.

  17. Impact of environmental chemicals on the thyroid hormone function in pituitary rat GH3 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva

    2005-01-01

    -nonylphenol, 4-octylphenol), pesticides (prochloraz, iprodion, chlorpyrifos), PCB metabolites (OH-PCB 106, OH-PCB 121, OH-PCB 69) and brominated flame-retardants (tetrabromobisphenol A). The ED potential of a chemical was determined by its effect on the cell proliferation of TH-dependent rat pituitary GH3 cell...

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of thickened pituitary stalk proceeding to langerhans cell histiocytosis in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging has shown isolated pituitary stalk thickening in certain cases of idiopathic or secondary central diabetes insipidus (Dl) due to infiltrative processes. We present a 4-year-old boy who was initially diagnosed as having central Dl. The MRI showed isolated pituitary stalk thickening with prominent homogeneous contrast enhancement. The remaining findings on MRI were within normal limits. The patient's personal and family history and laboratory and clinical findings were unremarkable; therefore, he was initially diagnosed as having idiopathic Dl. Since central Dl and isolated pituitary stalk thickening may be considered to be the first manifestations of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, we decided to follow up the patient. After 5 months, following the initial diagnosis, on skeletal X-ray survey, the patient did indeed develop multiple lytic skull lesions which, on biopsy, were histologically typical bone lesions of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Copyright (2006) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  19. 老龄对下丘脑-垂体前叶功能的影响%Aging-related changes of hypothalamic-anterior pituitary function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余叶蓉

    2014-01-01

    The changes in hypothalamic-pituitary function in older people include the effects of aging per se on hypothalamic-pituitary physiology,such as age-related declines in GH-IFG-1 system and increased activity in CRH-ACTH axis,and the hormone hyposecretion due to anterior pituitary diseases in elderly,including fibrosis and vascular alterations.In considering changes in hypothalamic-pituitary function in older people,it is important to distinguish between what is age-related and what is disease-related.Symptoms associated with hypopituitarism are nonspecific and may be often attributed to normal aging and can be challenging in clinical practice.Furthermore,the benefits and safety of selective pituitary hormonal replacement,including growth hormone replacement,remain controversial in the elderly.The evidence for age-related changes in GH-IGF-1 system and CRH-ACTH axis and their clinical consequences are reviewed.The characteristics in the clinical approach to disease-related hypopituitarism in older person are also briefly discussed.%老年人下丘脑-垂体前叶的功能变化主要包括两方面,一是与正常老龄过程相关的下丘脑-垂体功能变化,如生长激素(GH)-胰岛素样生长因子Ⅰ(IGF-Ⅰ)轴活性降低以及CRH-ACTH轴功能活跃等;二是老年人垂体前叶本身亦可因疾病而出现激素分泌功能低下,如鞍区肿瘤、缺血、纤维化等所致垂体前叶功能受损.对于下丘脑-垂体前叶功能改变的老年患者,临床上需仔细分析判断系老龄伴随的生理现象,还是疾病所致的病理过程.国内外学术界对于正常老龄过程中出现的垂体前叶功能变化是否需要干预存在诸多争议,而老年人垂体前叶功能低下的临床表现缺乏特异性,极易与正常老龄的生理功能变化混淆而漏诊.本文将简述老龄相关的GH-IGF-Ⅰ轴以及CRH-ACTH轴功能变化及其临床意义,并讨论老年人垂体前叶功能减退临床诊治中需注意的问题.

  20. MR imaging of pituitary dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Inoue, Yusuke (Saitama Medical School, Kawagoe (Japan). Medical Center)

    1993-02-01

    Pituitary MR imaging was performed in 32 patients with clinically diagnosed pituitary dwarfism and 12 normal controls. The patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of pituitary dwarfism based on endocrinological data. The two patients with severe dwarfism showed transection of the pituitary stalk, ectopic posterior lobe and atrophy of the anterior lobe on MR imaging, while the 27 patients with mild dwarfism showed no abnormal MR findings of the pituitary gland. The former group corresponds to typical pituitary dwarfism and the latter to partial GH deficiency, which was recently proposed as another type of pituitary dwarfism. In conclusion, pituitary MR imaging may differentiate partial GH deficiency from typical (stalk-transected) pituitary dwarfism. (author).

  1. Effects of Prenatal Dexamethasone on the Rat Pituitary Gland and Gonadotropic Cells in Female Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, Nataša; Severs, Walter; Nestorović, Nataša; Jarić, Ivana; Manojlović-Stojanoski, Milica; Trifunović, Svetlana; Pendovski, Lazo; Milosević, Verica

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have a strong influence on growth and maturation of fetal organ systems, but overexposure to exogenous glucocorticoids may retard fetal growth and alter developmental processes in sensitive tissues. The aim of this study was to specifically determine whether prenatal exposure to dexamethasone (Dx) altered normal development and function of pituitary gonadotropic cells in neonatal, infant and peripubertal female offspring. On day 16 of pregnancy, rat dams received 1.0 mg Dx/kg body weight (BW) s.c., followed by 0.5 mg Dx/kg BW on days 17 and 18 of gestation. Control gravid females received the same volume of saline. Female offspring were sacrificed on days 5, 16 and 38 after delivery. The volume of the pituitary gland estimated using Cavalieri's principle was significantly reduced (p programming of the female reproductive system at the pituitary cellular level, which may be associated with impaired reproductive function. PMID:26950885

  2. Central diabetes insipidus: Is it Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the pituitary stalk? A diagnostic pitfall.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosch, H.; Grois, N.; Bökkerink, J.P.M.; Prayer, D.; Leuschner, I.; Minkov, M.; Gadner, H.

    2006-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare disorder that may be caused by a variety of diseases. In pediatric and adolescent patients the most common causes for CDI are Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and germinoma. To avoid a potentially hazardous biopsy of the hypothalamic pituitary region it

  3. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N;

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  4. Expression Analysis of the Hippo Cascade Indicates a Role in Pituitary Stem Cell Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Lodge

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The pituitary gland is a primary endocrine organ that controls major physiological processes. Abnormal development or homeostatic disruptions can lead to human disorders such as hypopituitarism or tumours. Multiple signalling pathways, including WNT, BMP, FGF and SHH regulate pituitary development but the role of the Hippo-YAP1/TAZ cascade is currently unknown. In multiple tissues, the Hippo kinase cascade underlies neoplasias; it influences organ size through the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis, and has roles in determining stem cell potential. We have used a sensitive mRNA in situ hybridisation method (RNAscope to determine the expression patterns of the Hippo pathway components during mouse pituitary development. We have also carried out immunolocalisation studies to determine when YAP1 and TAZ, the transcriptional effectors of the Hippo pathway, are active. We find that YAP1/TAZ are active in the stem/progenitor cell population throughout development and at postnatal stages, consistent with their role in promoting the stem cell state. Our results demonstrate for the first time the collective expression of major components of the Hippo pathway during normal embryonic and postnatal development of the pituitary gland.

  5. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA expression in pituitary adenomas: relationship to the endocrine phenotype of adenoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Radek

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA correlates to cell proliferation and for this reason it is commonly considered as one of proliferation markers. Since proliferation rate is an important factor determining the tumor aggressiveness, the evaluation of PCNA index (the percentage of PCNA-immunopositive nuclei in the investigated tumor sample is suggested as useful in predicting pituitary adenoma outcome. Seventy three unselected, surgically removed pituitary adenomas were immunostained with antibodies against the pituitary hormones or their subunits and against the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. The highest PCNA index was found in ACTH-immunopositive tumors without the manifestation of the Cushing's disease ("silent" corticotropinomas. This value was significantly different in comparison to other adenoma subtypes including corticotropinomas manifesting themselves by Cushing's disease. The lowest PCNA index was noticed in monohormonal GH-secreting tumors. The adenomas which express more than one hormone (plurihormonal adenomas seem to have a higher PCNA indices than monohormonal ones; the difference was significant in the case of mono- and plurihormonal prolactinomas. The recurrent tumors presented a higher mean PCNA index as compared to the primary tumors, although the difference was significant only in the case of prolactinomas. These findings suggest that the proliferative potential of pituitary adenomas is related to the tumor recurrence and hormone expression.

  6. Effects of whole- and partial-body irradiation on circulating anterior pituitary hormones and testosterone and the relationship of these hormones to drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doses within the range of 850 to 1500 rad given to the whole body, head, or lower-trunk region of male rats cause a marked depression in the rate of oxidative demethylation of drugs in the liver endoplasmic reticulum, 3 to 4 days after the irradiation. The V/sub max/ of the enzyme system is depressed and the K/sub m/ increased. Irradiation to the whole body, head, or lower trunk also causes a fall in the circulating levels of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) and the concentrations of these hormones are markedly reduced 3 to 4 days after the irradiation. Injections of testosterone or anterior pituitary extract effectively restore the activity of the liver enzyme system after irradiation of the head or lower trunk. It is concluded that whole-body irradiation causes inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver by a complex series of interrelated effects on the testis, anterior pituitary, and possibly the hypothalamus

  7. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadal steroids regulate transcription factor mRNA expression in primary pituitary and immortalized gonadotrope cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weiming; Grafer, Constance M; Kim, Jonathan; Halvorson, Lisa M

    2015-03-01

    Hormonal regulation of pituitary gonadotropin gene expression has been attributed to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-mediated stimulation of immediate early gene expression and gonadal steroid interactions with their respective nuclear receptors. A number of orphan nuclear receptors including steroidogenic factor 1, liver receptor homologue 1, dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1, and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factors I/II as well as the GATA family members, GATA2 and GATA4, have also been implicated in transcriptional regulation of the gonadotropin genes. We hypothesized that hormonally mediated changes in these latter transcription factors may provide an additional mechanism for mediating hormonal effects beyond the more classically appreciated pathways. In these studies, we demonstrate significant regulation of orphan nuclear receptor and GATA messenger RNA levels by GnRH, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, and progesterone in both cultured primary pituitary cells and gonadotrope-derived cell line, LβT2. These results advance our understanding of the complex mechanisms by which GnRH and steroid hormones achieve precise regulation of anterior pituitary function. PMID:25563755

  8. In vitro pituitary and thyroid cell proliferation assays and their relevance as alternatives to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Barae; Aarts, Jac M M J G; de Haan, Laura H J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Bovee, Toine F H; Murk, Albertinka J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the in vitro effect of eleven thyroid-active compounds known to affect pituitary and/or thyroid weights in vivo, using the proliferation of GH3 rat pituitary cells in the so-called "T-screen," and of FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells in a newly developed test denoted "TSH-screen" to gain insight into the relative value of these in vitro proliferation tests for an integrated testing strategy (ITS) for thyroid activity. Pituitary cell proliferation in the T-screen was stimulated by three out of eleven tested compounds, namely thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Of these three compounds, only T4 causes an increase in relative pituitary weight, and thus T4 was the only compound for which the effect in the in vitro assay correlated with a reported in vivo effect. As to the newly developed TSH-screen, two compounds had an effect, namely, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) induced and T4 antagonized FRTL-5 cell proliferation. These effects correlated with in vivo changes induced by these compounds on thyroid weight. Altogether, the results indicate that most of the selected compounds affect pituitary and thyroid weights by modes of action different from a direct thyroid hormone receptor (THR) or TSH receptor (TSHR)-mediated effect, and point to the need for additional in vitro tests for an ITS. Additional analysis of the T-screen revealed a positive correlation between the THR-mediated effects of the tested compounds in vitro and their effects on relative heart weight in vivo, suggesting that the T-screen may directly predict this THR-mediated in vivo adverse effect. PMID:23861076

  9. Caveolin-1 sensitizes rat pituitary adenoma GH3 cells to bromocriptine induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mu-Chiou

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolactinoma is the most frequent pituitary tumor in humans. The dopamine D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine has been widely used clinically to treat human breast tumor and prolactinoma through inhibition of hyperprolactinemia and induction of tumor cell apoptosis, respectively, but the molecular mechanism of bromocriptine induction of pituitary tumor apoptosis remains unclear. Caveolin-1 is a membrane-anchored protein enriched on caveolae, inverted flask-shaped invaginations on plasma membranes where signal transduction molecules are concentrated. Currently, caveolin-1 is thought to be a negative regulator of cellular proliferation and an enhancer of apoptosis by blocking signal transduction between cell surface membrane receptors and intracellular signaling protein cascades. Rat pituitary adenoma GH3 cells, which express endogenous caveolin-1, exhibit increased apoptosis and shrinkage after exposure to bromocriptine. Hence, the GH3 cell line is an ideal model for studying the molecular action of bromocriptine on prolactinoma. Results The expression of endogenous caveolin-1 in GH3 cells was elevated after bromocriptine treatment. Transiently expressed mouse recombinant caveolin-1 induced apoptosis in GH3 cells by enhancing the activity of caspase 8. Significantly, caveolin-1 induction of GH3 cell apoptosis was sensitized by the administration of bromocriptine. Phosphorylation of caveolin-1 at tyrosine 14 was enhanced after bromocriptine treatment, suggesting that bromocriptine-induced phosphorylation of caveolin-1 may contribute to sensitization of apoptosis in GH3 cells exposed to bromocriptine. Conclusion Our results reveal that caveolin-1 increases sensitivity for apoptosis induction in pituitary adenoma GH3 cells and may contribute to tumor shrinkage after clinical bromocriptine treatment.

  10. Characterization of human pituitary adenomas in cell cultures by light and electron microscopic morphology and immunolabeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Pásztor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and hormone production of pituitary adenoma cell cultures were compared in order to highlight their characteristic in vitro features. Cell suspensions were prepared from 494 surgical specimens. The 319 viable monolayer cultures were analyzed in detail by light microscopy and immunocytochemistry within two weeks of cultivation. Some cultures were further characterized by scanning, transmission and immunogold electron microscopy. The viability and detailed in vitro morphology of adenoma cells were found to be characteristic for the various types of pituitary tumors. The sparsely granulated growth hormone, the corticotroph and the acidophil stem cell adenomas provided the highest ratio of viable cultures. Occasionally, prolonged maintenance of cells resulted in long-term cultures. Furthermore, a variety of particular distributions of different hormone-containing granules were found in several cases. Both light microscopic and ultrastructural analyses proved that the primary cultures of adenoma cells retain their physiological features during in vitro cultivations. Our in vitro findings correlated with the routine histopathological examination. These results prove that monolayer cultures of pituitary adenoma cells can contribute to the correct diagnosis and are valid model systems for various oncological and neuroendocrinological studies.

  11. Correlation between electrical activity and ACTH/beta-endorphin secretion in mouse pituitary tumor cells

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    The electrical and secretory activities of mouse pituitary tumor cells (AtT-20/D-16v), which contain and release the ACTH/beta-endorphin family of peptides, were studied by means of intracellular recordings and radioimmunoassays. Injection of depolarizing current pulses evoked action potentials in all cells and the majority (82%) displayed spontaneous action potential activity. Action potentials were found to be calcium-dependent. Barium increased membrane resistance, action potential amplitu...

  12. Growth hormone-releasing factor induces c-fos expression in cultured primary pituitary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; Mitchell, R L; Vale, W;

    1987-01-01

    GH-releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin regulates the secretion and biosynthesis of GH as well as the proliferation of GH-producing cells. In order to further characterize the mitogenic effect of GRF, we studied the expression of the proto-oncogene c-fos in primary pituitary cells. Maximal...... and somatotroph proliferation, can also regulate the expression of c-fos proto-oncogene in primary somatotrophs....

  13. Expression of Neuropeptide Y in Human Pituitary Adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laizhao Chen; Jingjian Ma; Anchao Zheng; Honggang Zheng

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Neuropeptid e Y (NPY) acts as a neuroendocrine modulator in the anterior pituitary, and NPY mRNA and NPY-immunoreactivity have been detected in normal human anterior pituitaries. However, only a few studies of NPY expression in human pituitary adenomas have been published. Our study was conducted to determine whether or not adenomatous cells express NPY, to investigate the relationship between NPY expression and the subtypes of pituitary adenoma and to explore the clinical significance of NPY.METHODS The study included tissues from 58 patients with pituitary adenomas who underwent surgery because of their clinical diagnosis.Using a highly specific anti-NPY polyclonal antibody, immunohistochemical analysis was performed on the surgically removed pituitary adenomas. Six fresh specimens also were examined using immuno-electron microscopy. NPY was labeled with colloidal gold in order to study the distribution of NPY at the subcellular level.RESULTS The NPY expression level was significantly different among subgroups of pituitary adenomas (P<0.05). NPY was immuno-detected in 58.6% of all adenomas, in 91.7% of gonadotrophic adenomas and in 14.3% of prolactinomas. NPY expression was slightly lower in invasive pituitary adenomas compared to noninvasive adenomas, but the difference was not significant (t=1.81, P>0.05). Of particular interest was the finding that vascular endothelial cells showed positive NPY expression in some pituitary adenomas. Parts of strongly positive tumor cells were seen in channels formed without endothelial cells, but which contained some red blood cells in a formation similar to so-called vasculogenic mimicry. Immuno-electron microscopy demonstrated that 4 of the 6 fresh specimens displayed positive NPY staining with a high density of gold particles located mainly in the secretory granulas. In addition, gold particles were sparsely detected in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and cell matrix.CONCLUSION NPY exists in pituitary adenomas

  14. Adenosine A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of in vitro prolactin secretion from the rat anterior pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L.W. Picanço-Diniz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, we demonstrated biphasic purinergic effects on prolactin (PRL secretion stimulated by an adenosine A2 agonist. In the present study, we investigated the role of the activation of adenosine A1 receptors by (R-N6-(2-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA at the pituitary level in in vitro PRL secretion. Hemipituitaries (one per cuvette in five replicates from adult male rats were incubated. Administration of R-PIA (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 µM induced a reduction of PRL secretion into the medium in a U-shaped dose-response curve. The maximal reduction was obtained with 0.1 µM R-PIA (mean ± SEM, 36.01 ± 5.53 ng/mg tissue weight (t.w. treatment compared to control (264.56 ± 15.46 ng/mg t.w.. R-PIA inhibition (0.01 µM = 141.97 ± 15.79 vs control = 244.77 ± 13.79 ng/mg t.w. of PRL release was blocked by 1 µM cyclopentyltheophylline, a specific A1 receptor antagonist (1 µM = 212.360 ± 26.560 ng/mg t.w., whereas cyclopentyltheophylline alone (0.01, 0.1, 1 µM had no effect. R-PIA (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 µM produced inhibition of PRL secretion stimulated by both phospholipase C (0.5 IU/mL; 977.44 ± 76.17 ng/mg t.w. and dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM; 415.93 ± 37.66 ng/mg t.w. with nadir established at the dose of 0.1 µM (225.55 ± 71.42 and 201.9 ± 19.08 ng/mg t.w., respectively. Similarly, R-PIA (0.01 µM decreased (242.00 ± 24.00 ng/mg t.w. the PRL secretion stimulated by cholera toxin (0.5 mg/mL; 1050.00 ± 70.00 ng/mg t.w.. In contrast, R-PIA had no effect (468.00 ± 34.00 ng/mg t.w. on PRL secretion stimulation by pertussis toxin (0.5 mg/mL; 430.00 ± 26.00 ng/mg t.w.. These results suggest that inhibition of PRL secretion after A1 receptor activation by R-PIA is mediated by a Gi protein-dependent mechanism.

  15. Pituitary dysfunction in survivors of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage of anterior communicating artery and middle cerebral artery aneurysms: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinaki Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The data on incidence of hypopituitarism after SAH are conflicting. Furthermore, it is still not known whether there is any difference in hormonal deficiencies between SAH due to anterior communicating artery (A-com and middle cerebral artery (MCA aneurysms. Materials and Methods: This study includes both retrospective and prospective arms. The data collected included baseline demographic profile, clinical severity on admission to the hospital by the Hunt and Hess grading system and World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS grading, radiological severity of bleed by the Fisher′s classification, and treatment details. All the patients underwent detailed hormonal evaluation at baseline and 6 months in prospective group while at the end of 1 year in the retrospective group. Hormonal deficiencies between patients with A-com and MCA aneurysmal SAH were compared using appropriate statistical tests. Results: Of 60 patients studied, 47 patients (A-com: 28 and MCA: 19 were in the retrospective group, while 13 patients (A-com-9, MCA-4 were in the prospective group. The baseline data were comparable between the two groups. At or after 6 months follow-up, 19 (31.6% patients, 10 patients with A-com and 9 patients with MCA aneurysmal SAH, had some form of hormone deficiency. Furthermore, there was no difference in endocrine dysfunctions between the two groups. There was no correlation between the severity of hormonal deficiency and the clinical severity of SAH grade by Hunt and Hess and radiological grade of SAH by Fisher′s grade. Conclusion: Hormonal deficiencies are not uncommon in patients with SAH. There is no difference in hormonal deficiencies and severity of hypopituitarism in patients with SAH due to A-com and MCA bleed.

  16. Germ cell tumor located in the midline of the anterior neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirdopska, Tatyana; Terziev, Ivan; Hristova, Sv; Mladenovsky, W; Petkov, R

    2011-01-01

    Primary germ cell tumors involving midline of the anterior neck are extremely rare. Here we report a 68-year-old male who was operated due to a mass lesion in the anterior neck with infiltration of the isthmus of the thyroid gland. Histopathological examination revealed a germ cell tumor with extragonadal localization in the anterior neck infiltrating the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  17. Subcellular localization of pituitary enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    A cytochemical procedure is reported for identifying subcellular sites of enzymes hydrolyzing beta-naphthylamine substrates, and to study the sites of reaction product localization in cells of various tissues. Investigations using the substrate Leu 4-methoxy-8-naphthylamine, a capture with hexonium pararosaniline, and the final chelation of osmium have identified the hydrolyzing enzyme of rat liver cells; this enzyme localized on cell membranes with intense deposition in the areas of the parcanaliculi. The study of cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat showed the deposition of reaction product on cell membrane; and on the membranes of secretion granules contained within the cell. The deposition of reaction product on the cell membrane however showed no increase or decrease with changes in the physiological state of the gland and release of secretion granules from specific cells.

  18. Co-regulation of pituitary tumor cell adhesion and prolactin gene expression by glucocorticoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, P R; Delidow, B C

    1998-01-01

    Rat 235-1 pituitary tumor cells are lactotrophs producing high levels of prolactin (PRL). Dexamethasone (Dex, 100 nM) inhibits PRL gene expression in 235-1 cells by 50%, while simultaneously decreasing cell replication and cell-cell aggregation. To determine the time course of Dex action, we used a quantitative assay for cell-cell interaction, based on the number of single cells present before and after re-aggregation of dispersed cells. 235-1 cells were cultured in growth medium or medium plus 100 nM Dex for 1-4 days before assay. Control cells had 90% re-aggregation on all days of assay. Aggregation of Dex-treated cells decreased to 55% by day 4. Dex treatment also reduced cell numbers by 40%, but this decrease did not contribute to reduced aggregation. To determine the mechanism of Dex-inhibited cell-cell adhesion, we examined the expression of cadherins and catenins. Cadherin-related mRNAs (P- and N-cadherin probes) were detectable in 235-1 cells, but their levels were unchanged by Dex. A pancadherin antibody was unable to detect classical cadherins in these cells. Both alpha- and beta-catenins were detected by Western blotting and their levels were decreased by Dex. Unlike control aggregates, aggregates of Dex-treated cells were able to inhibit expression of PRL mRNA when added to monolayers of 235-1 cells. These data suggest that Dex influences cadherin function by inhibiting catenin expression and that this has the functional consequence of altering 235-1 cell-cell interactions. Overall the data show that Dex affects important aspects of lactotroph function other than PRL gene expression. These changes may include physical alterations in pituitary cell contacts that further support a change in functional state. PMID:9397162

  19. Sodium channel gating in clonal pituitary cells. The inactivation step is not voltage dependent

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    We have determined the time course of Na channel inactivation in clonal pituitary (GH3) cells by comparing records before and after the enzymatic removal of inactivation. The cells were subjected to whole- cell patch clamp, with papain included in the internal medium. Inactivation was slowly removed over the course of 10 min, making it possible to obtain control records before the enzyme acted. Papain caused a large (4-100x) increase in current magnitude for small depolarizations (near -40 mV...

  20. Effects of Estrogen and/or Progesterone on Morphology of Pituitary Luteinizing Hormone Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周寿康; 任惠民; 王健; 赵伟; 顾敦瑜; 谢衷明

    2001-01-01

    Objective To identify the morphological characteristics of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) cells after exogenous gonadal hormone treatment Methods Effects of various doses of estrogen, progesterone and their combination on morphological parameters, including the size and shape of pituitary LH cells, the size of endocellular vacuoles, were observed and measured by immuno-histochemistry and computer image analysis.Results Different kinds of gonadal hormones could recover the magnified LH cells to the normal level in ovariectomized rats. However, their final effects on the gonadotrophin levels and the cellular morphological characters of the LH cells were different. The low dose of estrogen elicited abundant hormone stored in the LH cells to an easy released status with a lot of different size of vacuoles. On the contrary, the high dose of estrogen inhibited the storage of LH, and the LH cells were filled with secretory granules and few vacuoles. The progesterone could promote the storage of LH in an uneasy released status. The administration of estrogen-progesterone combina tion not only inhibited the storage of LH, but also the release of LH. In this group,the LH cells containing a large amount of secretory granules and a few vacuoles showed a better uniform shape compared with those administrated with high dose of estrogen.Conclusion: Different kinds of gonadal hormones could reverse the excessive secretion of LH and recover the morphological change of LH cells to the normally physiological condition.

  1. The forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is necessary for pituitary luteinizing hormone expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbel, Jason H; Patterson, Elizabeth M; Owusu, Sarah A; Kabat, Brock E; Jung, Deborah O; Simmons, Jasmine; Hopkins, Torin; Ellsworth, Buffy S

    2012-01-01

    The pituitary gland regulates numerous physiological functions including growth, reproduction, temperature and metabolic homeostasis, lactation, and response to stress. Pituitary organogenesis is dependent on signaling factors that are produced in and around the developing pituitary. The studies described in this report reveal that the forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is not expressed in the developing mouse pituitary gland, but rather in the mesenchyme surrounding the pituitary gland, which is an essential source of signaling factors that regulate pituitary organogenesis. Loss of Foxd1 causes a morphological defect in which the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland protrudes through the cartilage plate that is developing ventral to the pituitary at embryonic days (e)14.5, e16.5, and e18.5. The number of proliferating pituitary cells is increased at e14.5 and e16.5. Loss of Foxd1 also results in significantly decreased levels of Lhb expression at e18.5. This decrease in Lhb expression does not appear to be due to a change in the number of gonadotrope cells in the pituitary gland. Previous studies have shown that loss of the LIM homeodomain factor, Lhx3, which is activated by the FGF signaling pathway, results in loss of LH production. Although there is a difference in Lhb expression in Foxd1 null mice, the expression pattern of LHX3 is not altered in Foxd1 null mice. These studies suggest that Foxd1 is indirectly required for normal Lhb expression and cartilage formation. PMID:23284914

  2. Effects of spaceflight on rat pituitary cell function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R.; Krasnov, I.; Viktorov, I.; Motter, K.; Mukherjee, P.; Shellenberger, K.; Vasques, M.

    1992-01-01

    The secretory capacity of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) cells prepared from rats flown in space on the 12.5 day mission of Cosmos 1887 and the 14 day mission of Cosmos 2044 was evaluated in several post-flight tests on earth. The results showed statistically significant and repeatable decrements in hormone release, especially when biological assays (rather than immunological assays) were used in the tests. Significant and repeatable intracellular changes in GH cells from the flight animals were also found; most important were increases in the GH-specific cytoplasmic staining intensities and cytoplasmic areas occupied by hormone. Tail suspension of rats for 14 days, an established model for mimicking musculo-skeletal changes seen in spaceflown rats, results in some changes in GH and PRL cell function that were similar to those from spaceflown animals. Our results add to a growing body of data that described deconditioning of physiological systems in spaceflight and provide insights into the time frame that might be required for readaptation of the GH/PRL cell system upon return to earth.

  3. Methylmercury inhibits prolactin release in a cell line of pituitary origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.L. Maués

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals, such as methylmercury, are key environmental pollutants that easily reach human beings by bioaccumulation through the food chain. Several reports have demonstrated that endocrine organs, and especially the pituitary gland, are potential targets for mercury accumulation; however, the effects on the regulation of hormonal release are unclear. It has been suggested that serum prolactin could represent a biomarker of heavy metal exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methylmercury on prolactin release and the role of the nitrergic system using prolactin secretory cells (the mammosomatotroph cell line, GH3B6. Exposure to methylmercury (0-100 μM was cytotoxic in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with an LC50 higher than described for cells of neuronal origin, suggesting GH3B6 cells have a relative resistance. Methylmercury (at exposures as low as 1 μM for 2 h also decreased prolactin release. Interestingly, inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by N-nitro-L-arginine completely prevented the decrease in prolactin release without acute neurotoxic effects of methylmercury. These data indicate that the decrease in prolactin production occurs via activation of the nitrergic system and is an early effect of methylmercury in cells of pituitary origin.

  4. MR findings in pituitary haemosiderosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosetto, P. [Institute of Neurology, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Zucchini, S.; Cicognani, A. [First Paediatric Clinic, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Cacciari, E. [First Paediatric Clinic, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)]|[Clinica Pediatrica 1, Bologna (Italy)

    1998-05-01

    A girl with Diamond-Blackfan syndrome and hypopituitarism was suspected of having pituitary haemosiderosis because of the clinical picture and the long history of blood transfusions. On T1-weighted MR images the pituitary exhibited a markedly hypointense anterior lobe (mimicking the empty sella), suggesting iron deposition, while on T2W MRI the low signal of the pituitary was surrounded by the high signal of the CSF. MR may be considered the examination of choice for detecting iron overload in the pituitary. (orig.) With 2 figs., 6 refs.

  5. In vitro impact of pegvisomant on growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Thomas; Zeiller, Caroline; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Défilles, Céline; Roche, Catherine; Blanchard, Marie-Pierre; Theodoropoulou, Marily; Graillon, Thomas; Pertuit, Morgane; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Enjalbert, Alain; Brue, Thierry; Barlier, Anne

    2016-07-01

    Pegvisomant (PEG), an antagonist of growth hormone (GH)-receptor (GHR), normalizes insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) oversecretion in most acromegalic patients unresponsive to somatostatin analogs (SSAs) and/or uncontrolled by transsphenoidal surgery. The residual GH-secreting tumor is therefore exposed to the action of circulating PEG. However, the biological effect of PEG at the pituitary level remains unknown. To assess the impact of PEG in vitro on the hormonal secretion (GH and prolactin (PRL)), proliferation and cellular viability of eight human GH-secreting tumors in primary cultures and of the rat somatolactotroph cell line GH4C1. We found that the mRNA expression levels of GHR were characterized in 31 human GH-secreting adenomas (0.086 copy/copy β-Gus) and the GHR was identified by immunocytochemistry staining. In 5/8 adenomas, a dose-dependent inhibition of GH secretion was observed under PEG with a maximum of 38.2±17% at 1μg/mL (Phuman primary tumors or GH4C1 cell line was observed. We conclude that PEG inhibits the secretion of GH and PRL in primary cultures of human GH(/PRL)-secreting pituitary adenomas without effect on cell viability or cell proliferation. PMID:27267119

  6. A giant benign clear cell hidradenoma on the anterior trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damlanur Sakiz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell hidroadenoma (CCA is a uncommon variant of bening cutaneous adnexial tumors. These tumors are clinically asymptomatic, solitary dermal nodules. they occur most frequently on the scalp, face, abdomen and the extremities. Growth is slow and malignant change is rare. 45- year-old woman presented us with a nodule with a central ulceration and a minimal hemoragic discharge on her anterior abdomen wall which had begun 4 years ago as a small nodular asymptomatic lesion. On dermatological examination there was a 6.5x4x5 cm non-tender, soft reddish purple nodule with lobular appearence and ulceration. In the laboratory investigations, all the hematologic and biochemical tests were normal. A CT scan demonstrated a cyctic tumor with lobulated countour with contrast enhancement. The lesion excised totally. In histopathological examination the tumor was composed of biphasic  smaller dark polygonal cells and larger clera cells and coarse nuclear chromatine. There were duct like structures. Immunohistochemical investigation was done for the suspicion of malignancy. Cytoplasm of clear cells and duct like structures showed PAS positive and d-Pas resistant staining. There was a positive reactivity to epithelial membrane antigen and carcinoembrionic antigen. The mitotic index in Ki 67 examination was low. All these findings confirmed the diagnosis of bening CCA. 

  7. Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane) Inhibits Cell Proliferation, Induces Apoptosis, and Decreases Hormone Levels and Secretion in Pituitary Tumor Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Matthew; Chen, Shenglin; Woodliff, Jeffrey; Kansra, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    Prolactinomas are the most prevalent functional pituitary adenomas. Dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) agonists, such as bromocriptine are the first line of therapy; however, drug intolerance/resistance to D2R agonists exists. Apart from D2R agonists, there is no established medical therapy for prolactinomas; therefore, identifying novel therapeutics is warranted. Curcumin, a commonly used food additive in South Asian cooking, inhibits proliferation of several tumor cell lines; however, its effect on...

  8. Regulation of GnRH receptors by progesterone and inhibin in ovine pituitary cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laws, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and the gonadal protein, inhibin, on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor number and binding affinity were investigated in vitro, using ovine pituitary cells in culture. Changes in GnRH binding were correlated with GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) release following pretreatment with P{sub 4} and inhibin. Ovine pituitary cells in culture were preincubated with P{sub 4} or porcine inhibin (I{sub P}) for 24 or 48 hours (h). Cells were collected and analyzed for GnRH binding using a radioligand-receptor assay. des-Gly{sup 10}-(D-Ala{sup 6})-LHRH-ethyl-amide was used as the radiolabeled GnRh superagonist analog (mono-{sup 125}I-GnRH-A) and as competing ligand. Treatment with P{sub 4} progressively decreased GnRH-A binding capacity by 44.3% and 71.8% of the control following pretreatment for 24 or 48 h, respectively. When P{sub 4} was removed from the cultures, GnRH-A binding capacity partially returned to control levels within 24 h. Decreased GnRH-A binding was closely correlated with the reduction in GnRH-stimulated LH release which was observed following 24 or 48 h pretreatment with P{sub 4}.

  9. Germ Cell Tumor Located in the Midline of the Anterior Neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana PIRDOPSKA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary germ cell tumors involving midline of the anterior neck are extremely rare. Here we report a 68-year-old male who was operated due to a mass lesion in the anterior neck with infiltration of the isthmus of the thyroid gland. Histopathological examination revealed a germ cell tumor with extragonadal localization in the anterior neck infiltrating the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  10. Chicken anterior pituitary extract induces multiple ovulate in the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus)%鸡垂体前叶提取物诱导鸡超数排卵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海棠; 赵晨; 李哲; 沙金; 周振明; 张易祥; 钱长嵩; 李赞东

    2003-01-01

    Chicken anterior pituitary extract (CAPE) and acetone-dried chicken anterior pituitary (ACAPE) were injected intraperitoneally into normal laying hens (‘ovulation-suppressed'following pretreatment with daily subcutaneous injection of PMSG) to induce multiple ovulations.The dose of PMSG,the effect of CAPE and ACAPE and the time required for induction of ovulation following injection of ovulation-inducing hormone were determined.The results revealed that (1) when 75 IU PMSG was administered daily,egg laying stopped in 33% of the treated hens within 6 days after the first injection.However,the percentage of hens showing the same effects changed significantly (over 95%) within 3 to 6 days when the amount of PMSG was increased to 100 IU;(2)the number of ovulated ova was 1.00±0.00,2.33±0.26,2.20±0.20 respectively after receiving 100 mg,200 mg and 300 mg;the number of ovulated ova was 2.00±0.00,2.86±0.48,3.00±1.50 respectively after receiving 10 mg,15 mg and 20 mg ACAPE;(3) The time from injection to ovulation in almost all hens was about 7.5 h except one hen ovulated about 6.5 h after receiving ACAPE [ActaZoologica Sinica 49(6):865-867,2003].

  11. Hedgehog signaling activation induces stem cell proliferation and hormone release in the adult pituitary gland

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Pyczek; Rolf Buslei; David Schult; Annett Hölsken; Michael Buchfelder; Ina Heß; Heidi Hahn; Anja Uhmann

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling is known to be essential during the embryonal development of the pituitary gland but the knowledge about its role in the adult pituitary and in associated tumors is sparse. In this report we investigated the effect of excess Hh signaling activation in murine pituitary explants and analyzed the HH signaling status of human adenopituitary lobes and a large cohort of pituitary adenomas. Our data show that excess Hh signaling led to increased proliferation of Sox2+ and Sox...

  12. Thyroid hormone uptake in cultured rat anterior pituitary cells: effects of energy status and bilirubin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W.J.S. Wassen (Frank); E.P.C.M. Moerings (Ellis); H. van Toor (Hans); G. Hennemann; M.E. Everts (Maria)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractTransport of thyroxine (T(4)) into the liver is inhibited in fasting and by bilirubin, a compound often accumulating in the serum of critically ill patients. We tested the effects of chronic and acute energy deprivation, bilirubin and its precursor biliverdi

  13. Pituitary and pulmonary abnormalities in an adult patient with Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary histiocytosis is an uncommon interstitial lung disease, which is infrequent in adults and is part of a spectrum of disorders characterized by monoclonal proliferation and infiltration of organs by Langerhans cells. Histiocytosis X affects only the lungs in more than 85% of the cases. We report a case of a 21-years-old male patient with Diabetes Insipidus (DI) and respiratory symptoms due to a spontaneous pneumothorax with favorable clinical evolution. High-resolution CT demonstrated bilateral nodular and cystic pulmonary lesions. MRI revealed a nodular widening of the pituitary stalk. An endoscopic trans bronchial biopsy was negative for Langerhans cells. After thoracoscopy with surgical biopsy of the lung the diagnosis of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis was confirmed. (author)

  14. Cyproheptadine-mediated inhibition of growth hormone and prolactin release from pituitary adenoma cells of acromegaly and gigantism in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, M; Fukushima, T; Yamaji, T

    1985-08-01

    The effect of cyproheptadine on growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (Prl) secretion from cultured pituitary adenoma cells of acromegaly and pituitary gigantism was studied. When varying doses of cyproheptadine ranging from 0.01 to 1 microM were added to the incubation media, GH secretion was consistently inhibited and a dose-response relationship was observed between the cyproheptadine concentrations and the amounts of GH released into the media. In pituitary adenomas which concurrently produced and secreted Prl, cyproheptadine likewise suppressed Prl release in a dose-related manner. This effect of cyproheptadine was not blocked by coincubation with serotonin. Similarly, coincubation with a dopaminergic antagonist, haloperidol, failed to reverse the inhibitory action produced by cyproheptadine. When coincubated with dopamine, cyproheptadine further inhibited GH and Prl secretion. These results suggest that cyproheptadine possesses a direct action on human somatotroph adenoma cells to inhibit GH and Prl secretion by an unknown mechanism that is different from serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. PMID:2994332

  15. Microgravity associated changes in pituitary growth hormone (GH) cells prepared from rats flown on Space Lab 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Farrington, M.; Hayes, C.; Grindeland, R.; Fast, T.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on the release of pituitary growth hormone (GH) in rats is studied. The pituitary glands from six adult rats exposed to microgravity are analyzed for in vitro and in vivo changes in pituitary growth hormone cells. The GH cell functions in the somatotrophs of flight rats are compared to a control group. The two assay procedures employed in the experiment are described. It is observed that intracellular levels of GH are two to three times greater in the flight rats than in the control group; however, the amount of GH released from the somatotrophs is 1.11 + or - 0.4 micrograms for the flight rats and 1.85 + or - 1.3 micrograms for the control rats.

  16. Kisspeptin-1 directly stimulates LH and GH secretion from goldfish pituitary cells in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, John P; Mar, Alan; Wlasichuk, Michael; Wong, Anderson O L

    2012-10-01

    It has been established that kisspeptin regulates reproduction via stimulation of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, which then induces pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) release. Kisspeptin also directly stimulates pituitary hormone release in some mammals. However, in goldfish, whether kisspeptin directly affects pituitary hormone release is controversial. In this study, synthetic goldfish kisspeptin-1((1-10)) (gKiss1) enhances LH and growth hormone (GH) release from primary cultures of goldfish pituitary cells in column perifusion. gKiss1 stimulation of LH and GH secretion were still manifested in the presence of the two native goldfish GnRHs, salmon (s)GnRH (goldfish GnRH-3) and chicken (c)GnRH-II (goldfish GnRH-2), but were attenuated by two voltage-sensitive calcium channel blockers, verapamil and nifedipine. gKiss-induced increases in intracellular Ca(2+) in Fura-2AM pre-loaded goldfish pars distalis cells were also inhibited by nifedipine. These results indicate that, in goldfish, (1) direct gKiss1 actions on pituitary LH and GH secretion exist, (2) these actions are independent of GnRH and (3) they involve Ca(2+) signalling. PMID:22885559

  17. Pituitary Morphology and Function in 43 Children with Central Diabetes Insipidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In pediatric central diabetes insipidus (CDI, etiology diagnosis and pituitary function monitoring are usually delayed. This study aimed to illustrate the importance of regular follow-up and pituitary function monitoring in pediatric CDI. Methods. The clinical, hormonal, and neuroradiological characteristics of children with CDI at diagnosis and during 1.5–2-year follow-up were collected and analyzed. Results. The study included 43 CDI patients. The mean interval between initial manifestation and diagnosis was 22.29 ± 3.67 months (range: 2–108 months. The most common complaint was polyuria/polydipsia. Causes included Langerhans cell histiocytosis, germinoma, and craniopharyngioma in 2, 5, and 4 patients; the remaining were idiopathic. No significant changes were found during the 1.5–2 years after CDI diagnosis. Twenty-three of the 43 cases (53.5% had ≥1 anterior pituitary hormone deficiency. Isolated growth hormone deficiency was the most frequent abnormality (37.5% and was not associated with pituitary stalk diameter. Multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were found in 8 cases with pituitary stalk diameter > 4.5 mm. Conclusion. Diagnosis of CDI is usually delayed. CDI with a pituitary stalk diameter > 4.5 mm carries a higher risk of multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. Long-term MRI and pituitary function follow-ups are necessary for children with idiopathic CDI.

  18. Pituitary Morphology and Function in 43 Children with Central Diabetes Insipidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wendong; Wang, Limin; Liu, Minghua; Li, Guimei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. In pediatric central diabetes insipidus (CDI), etiology diagnosis and pituitary function monitoring are usually delayed. This study aimed to illustrate the importance of regular follow-up and pituitary function monitoring in pediatric CDI. Methods. The clinical, hormonal, and neuroradiological characteristics of children with CDI at diagnosis and during 1.5–2-year follow-up were collected and analyzed. Results. The study included 43 CDI patients. The mean interval between initial manifestation and diagnosis was 22.29 ± 3.67 months (range: 2–108 months). The most common complaint was polyuria/polydipsia. Causes included Langerhans cell histiocytosis, germinoma, and craniopharyngioma in 2, 5, and 4 patients; the remaining were idiopathic. No significant changes were found during the 1.5–2 years after CDI diagnosis. Twenty-three of the 43 cases (53.5%) had ≥1 anterior pituitary hormone deficiency. Isolated growth hormone deficiency was the most frequent abnormality (37.5%) and was not associated with pituitary stalk diameter. Multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were found in 8 cases with pituitary stalk diameter > 4.5 mm. Conclusion. Diagnosis of CDI is usually delayed. CDI with a pituitary stalk diameter > 4.5 mm carries a higher risk of multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. Long-term MRI and pituitary function follow-ups are necessary for children with idiopathic CDI. PMID:27118970

  19. Occult Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma, a Thickened Pituitary Stalk and Diabetes Insipidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Etiologies of a thickened stalk include inflammatory, neoplastic, and idiopathic origins, and the underlying diagnosis may remain occult. We report a patient with a thickened pituitary stalk (TPS) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) whose diagnosis remained obscure until a skin lesion appeared. The patient presented with PTC, status postthyroidectomy, and I131 therapy. PTC molecular testing revealed BRAF mutant (V600E, GTC>GAG). She had a 5-year history of polyuria/polydipsia. Overnight dehydration study confirmed diabetes insipidus (DI). MRI revealed TPS with loss of the posterior pituitary bright spot. Evaluation showed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and low IGF-1. Chest X-ray and ACE levels were normal. Radiographs to evaluate for extrapituitary sites of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) were unremarkable. Germinoma studies were negative: normal serum and CSF beta-hCG, alpha-fetoprotein, and CEA. Three years later, the patient developed vulvar labial lesions followed by inguinal region skin lesions, biopsy of which revealed LCH. Reanalysis of thyroid pathology was consistent with concurrent LCH, PTC, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis within the thyroid. This case illustrates that one must be vigilant for extrapituitary manifestations of systemic diseases to diagnose the etiology of TPS. An activating mutation of the protooncogene BRAF is a potential unifying etiology of both PTC and LCH. PMID:27656301

  20. Secretion of human parathyroid hormone from rat pituitary cells infected with a recombinant retrovirus encoding preproparathyroid hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Hellerman, J G; Cone, R C; Potts, J T; Rich, A; Mulligan, R C; Kronenberg, H M

    1984-01-01

    In order to study the functions of precursors to secreted proteins, we expressed cloned DNA encoding human preproparathyroid hormone (preproPTH) in rat pituitary cells. We first constructed a recombinant plasmid containing human preproPTH cDNA and retroviral control signals. This recombinant plasmid was transfected into psi-2 cells, a packaging cell line that produces Moloney murine leukemia viral particles containing no retroviral RNA. The transfected psi-2 cells generated helper-free recomb...

  1. Pineal and Pituitary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registries Review Brain & CNS Tumors Signs & Symptoms Anatomy Neurons & Glial Cells Brain Meninges Spinal Cord Cranial Nerves Pineal and Pituitary Glands Abstracting, Coding, & Staging Topographic Sites Histological Types Grading Staging Multiple Primaries Malignant Transformation Coding Sequence ...

  2. High Throughput Method to Quantify Anterior-Posterior Polarity of T-Cells and Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Marriott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The virologic synapse (VS, which is formed between a virus-infected and uninfected cell, plays a central role in the transmission of certain viruses, such as HIV and HTLV-1. During VS formation, HTLV-1-infected T-cells polarize cellular and viral proteins toward the uninfected T-cell. This polarization resembles anterior-posterior cell polarity induced by immunological synapse (IS formation, which is more extensively characterized than VS formation and occurs when a T-cell interacts with an antigen-presenting cell. One measure of cell polarity induced by both IS or VS formation is the repositioning of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC relative to the contact point with the interacting cell. Here we describe an automated, high throughput system to score repositioning of the MTOC and thereby cell polarity establishment. The method rapidly and accurately calculates the angle between the MTOC and the IS for thousands of cells. We also show that the system can be adapted to score anterior-posterior polarity establishment of epithelial cells. This general approach represents a significant advancement over manual cell polarity scoring, which is subject to experimenter bias and requires more time and effort to evaluate large numbers of cells.

  3. Growth suppression of mouse pituitary corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells by curcumin: a model for treating Cushing's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Latha Yadav Bangaru

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pituitary corticotroph tumors secrete excess adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH resulting in Cushing's disease (CD. Standard treatment includes surgery and, if not successful, radiotherapy, both of which have undesirable side effects and frequent recurrence of the tumor. Pharmacotherapy using PPARgamma agonists, dopamine receptor agonists, retinoic acid or somatostatin analogs is still experimental. Curcumin, a commonly used food additive in South Asian cooking, has potent growth inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that curcumin inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in prolactin- and growth hormone-producing tumor cells. Subsequently, Schaaf et.al. confirmed our findings and also showed the in vivo effectiveness of curcumin to suppress pituitary tumorigenesis. However the molecular mechanism that mediate this effect of curcumin are still unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the mouse corticotroph tumor cells, AtT20 cells, we report that curcumin had a robust, irreversible inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and clonogenic property. The curcumin-induced growth inhibition was accompanied by decreased NFkappaB activity. Further, curcumin down-regulated the pro-survival protein Bcl-xL, depolarized the mitochondrial membrane, increased PARP cleavage, which led to apoptotic cell death. Finally, curcumin had a concentration-dependent suppressive effect on ACTH secretion from AtT20 cells. CONCLUSION: The ability of curcumin to inhibit NFkappaB and induce apoptosis in pituitary corticotroph tumor cells leads us to propose developing it as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of CD.

  4. Lycopene and Beta-Carotene Induce Growth Inhibition and Proapoptotic Effects on ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Natália F Haddad; Anderson J Teodoro; Felipe Leite de Oliveira; Nathália Soares; Rômulo Medina de Mattos; Fábio Hecht; Rômulo Sperduto Dezonne; Leandro Vairo; Regina Coeli Dos Santos Goldenberg; Flávia Carvalho Alcântara Gomes; Denise Pires de Carvalho; Gadelha, Mônica R.; Luiz Eurico Nasciutti; Leandro Miranda-Alves

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10-15% of intracranial tumors and result in morbidity associated with altered hormonal patterns, therapy and compression of adjacent sella turcica structures. The use of functional foods containing carotenoids contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the influence of different concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apopto...

  5. Effects of spaceflight on rat pituitary cell function: Preflight and flight experiment for pituitary gland study on COSMOS, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Wesley C.

    1990-01-01

    The secretory capacity of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) cells prepared from rats flown in space on the 12.5 day mission of Cosmos 1887 and the 14 day mission of Cosmos 2044 was evaluated in several post-flight tests on Earth. The results showed statistically significant and repeatable decrements in hormone release, especially when biological assays (rather than immunological assays) were used in the tests. Significant and repeatable intracellular changes in GH cells from the flight animals were also found; most important were increases in the GH-specific cytoplasmic staining intensities and cytoplasmic areas occupied by hormore. Tail suspension of rats for 14 days, an established model for mimicking musculo-skeletal changes seen in spaceflown rats, results in some changes in GH and PRL cell function that were similar to those from spaceflown animals. Our results add to a growing body of data that described deconditioning of physiological systems in spaceflight and provide insights into the time frame that might be required for readaptation of the GH/PRL cell system upon return to Earth.

  6. Prenatal expression of interleukin 1beta and interleukin 6 in the rat pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, J A; Carretero, J; Alonso, M I; Martín, C; Gato, A; Mano, A de la

    2008-12-01

    It is known that interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are expressed post-natally in normal and tumoral cells in the anterior pituitary, and that they play a role in both the liberation of different hormones and in the growth, proliferation and tumor formation of the pituitary gland. However, their expression and role during embryonic and fetal development remain unknown. We have performed an immunocytochemistry study of prenatal expression and distribution of IL-1beta and IL-6 in isolated embryonic rat Rathke's pouch prior to birth, more specifically between 13.5 and 19.5 days p.c. Western-blot analysis carried out on 19.5-day p.c. embryos showed positive immunolabelling for IL-1beta and IL-6. These interleukins were initially expressed simultaneously in the rostral and ventral portions of Rathke's pouch in 15.5-day p.c. embryos, and this expression progressed caudodorsally in later developmental stages, extending to most of the hypophysis before birth. The number of cells expressing these interleukins increased throughout this period: 48.22% of anterior pituitary cells expressed IL-6 in 19.5-day embryos, whilst IL-1beta was positive in 39.8% of the cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that some adenohypophyseal cells co-express both interleukins. Such findings represent the first step towards an understanding of the physiological role of these interleukins in anterior pituitary development. PMID:19041259

  7. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Homozygous GPR161 Mutation in a Family with Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Ender; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Pehlivan, Davut; Charng, Wu-Lin; Yaykasli, Kursat O.; Bayram, Yavuz; Gambin, Tomasz; Withers, Marjorie; Atik, Mehmed M.; Arslanoglu, Ilknur; Bolu, Semih; Erdin, Serkan; Buyukkaya, Ayla; Yaykasli, Emine; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is a rare, congenital anomaly of the pituitary gland characterized by pituitary gland insufficiency, thin or discontinuous pituitary stalk, anterior pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic positioning of the posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophysis). The clinical presentation of patients with PSIS varies from isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency to combined pituitary insufficiency and accompanying extrapituitary findings. Mutations in HESX1, LHX4, OTX2, SOX3, and PROKR2 have been associated with PSIS in less than 5% of cases; thus, the underlying genetic etiology for the vast majority of cases remains to be determined. Objective: We applied whole-exome sequencing (WES) to a consanguineous family with two affected siblings who have pituitary gland insufficiency and radiographic findings of hypoplastic (thin) pituitary gland, empty sella, ectopic neurohypophysis, and interrupted pitiutary stalk—characteristic clinical diagnostic findings of PSIS. Design and Participants: WES was applied to two affected and one unaffected siblings. Results: WES of two affected and one unaffected sibling revealed a unique homozygous missense mutation in GPR161, which encodes the orphan G protein–coupled receptor 161, a protein responsible for transducing extracellular signals across the plasma membrane into the cell. Conclusion: Mutations of GPR161 may be implicated as a potential novel cause of PSIS. PMID:25322266

  8. Induction of mammotroph development by a combination of epidermal growth factor, insulin, and estradiol-17β in rat pituitary tumor GH3 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kakeya, Tomoshi; TAKEUCHI, Sakae; Takahashi, Sumio

    2002-01-01

    Several reports have indicated that prolactin-secreting cells (PRL cells) are generated from growth hormone-secreting cells (GH cells). We have shown that treatment with a combination of epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin, and estradiol-17beta (E-2) induces the appearance of PRL cells in pituitary tumor GH3 cells. The aim of the present study was to clarify the involvement of mitosis in the cytogenesis of PRL cells in rat pituitary and GH3 cells. The effects of the treatment with EGF, ins...

  9. Inhibitors of the cytochrome P-450 enzymes block the secretagogue-induced release of corticotropin in mouse pituitary tumor cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Luini, A G; Axelrod, J

    1985-01-01

    A mouse pituitary tumor cell line (AtT-20) releases corticotropin (ACTH) in response to a number of secretagogues, including corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), beta-adrenergic agents, N6,O2'-dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (Bt2 cAMP), and potassium. The stimulation of ACTH secretion induced by the secretagogues can be blocked by inhibitors of the enzymes that generate (phospholipase A2) and metabolize (lipoxygenase and epoxygenase) arachidonic acid. The phospholipase A2 block...

  10. The forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is necessary for pituitary luteinizing hormone expression in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H Gumbel

    Full Text Available The pituitary gland regulates numerous physiological functions including growth, reproduction, temperature and metabolic homeostasis, lactation, and response to stress. Pituitary organogenesis is dependent on signaling factors that are produced in and around the developing pituitary. The studies described in this report reveal that the forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is not expressed in the developing mouse pituitary gland, but rather in the mesenchyme surrounding the pituitary gland, which is an essential source of signaling factors that regulate pituitary organogenesis. Loss of Foxd1 causes a morphological defect in which the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland protrudes through the cartilage plate that is developing ventral to the pituitary at embryonic days (e14.5, e16.5, and e18.5. The number of proliferating pituitary cells is increased at e14.5 and e16.5. Loss of Foxd1 also results in significantly decreased levels of Lhb expression at e18.5. This decrease in Lhb expression does not appear to be due to a change in the number of gonadotrope cells in the pituitary gland. Previous studies have shown that loss of the LIM homeodomain factor, Lhx3, which is activated by the FGF signaling pathway, results in loss of LH production. Although there is a difference in Lhb expression in Foxd1 null mice, the expression pattern of LHX3 is not altered in Foxd1 null mice. These studies suggest that Foxd1 is indirectly required for normal Lhb expression and cartilage formation.

  11. Non-pituitary origin sellar tumours mimicking pituitary macroadenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abele, T.A., E-mail: travaus@gmail.com [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States); Yetkin, Z.F.; Raisanen, J.M.; Mickey, B.E.; Mendelsohn, D.B. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Although the large majority of sellar tumours are pituitary adenomas, several other pituitary and non-pituitary origin tumours arise in the sellar and parasellar regions. Given their location, non-adenomatous lesions frequently mimic pituitary macroadenomas and can pose a diagnostic challenge for the radiologist. Distinguishing rare sellar lesions from the common macroadenoma helps to direct the correct surgical approach and reduce the risk of incomplete resection and/or complications such as cerebrospinal fluid leak with the potential for meningitis. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging features of non-pituitary-origin sellar tumours, focusing on characteristics that may distinguish them from pituitary macroadenomas. Lesions include meningioma, metastatic disease, epidermoid cyst, germinoma, chondrosarcoma, giant cell tumour, and giant aneurysm.

  12. Pituitary apoplexy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LH Prolactin TSH Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) Sodium Osmolarity in blood and urine ... The outlook is good for people who have long-term (chronic) pituitary deficiency that is diagnosed and ...

  13. Pituitary apoplexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Ranabir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is rare endocrine emergency which can occur due to infarction or haemorrhage of pituitary gland. This disorder most often involves a pituitary adenoma. Occasionally it may be the first manifestation of an underlying adenoma. There is conflicting data regarding which type of pituitary adenoma is prone for apoplexy. Some studies showed predominance of non-functional adenomas while some other studies showed a higher prevalence in functioning adenomas amongst which prolactinoma have the highest risk. Although pituitary apoplexy can occur without any precipitating factor in most cases, there are some well recognizable risk factors such as hypertension, medications, major surgeries, coagulopathies either primary or following medications or infection, head injury, radiation or dynamic testing of the pituitary. Patients usually present with headache, vomiting, altered sensorium, visual defect and/or endocrine dysfunction. Hemodynamic instability may be result from adrenocorticotrophic hormone deficiency. Imaging with either CT scan or MRI should be performed in suspected cases. Intravenous fluid and hydrocortisone should be administered after collection of sample for baseline hormonal evaluation. Earlier studies used to advocate urgent decompression of the lesion but more recent studies favor conservative approach for most cases with surgery reserved for those with deteriorating level of consciousness or increasing visual defect. The visual and endocrine outcomes are almost similar with either surgery or conservative management. Once the acute phase is over, patient should be re-evaluated for hormonal deficiencies.

  14. Pituitary metastasis as a presenting manifestation of silent systemic malignancy: A retrospective analysis of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dutta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pituitary metastasis as a presenting manifestation of silent systemic malignancy is rare. We describe four such cases. Materials and Methods: Four patients (0.7% of malignancy with pituitary metastasis out of 540 patients of sellar mass within a period of 10 years were analyzed for clinical, hormonal and radiological findings. Result: The age range of these patients was 39-60 years with lag time ranging from 2to 5 months. Pituitary pathology was presenting manifestation in all 4 patients including diabetes insipidus, ophthalmoplegia and variable anterior pituitary hormone deficiency. 2 patients had bronchogenic carcinoma and one each had squamous cell and adenocarcinoma with unknown primary. Diagnosis of pituitary metastasis was confirmed in three on pituitary mass histopathology and in one it was based on rapidly appearing mass in a short time. Conclusion: Rapidly appearing mass in the sellar region, short lag time,sudden onset of ophthalmoplegia, -symptoms and signs disproportionate to the size of mass, presence of diabetes insipidus and destroyed but normal sized sella should invoke the suspicion of pituitary metastasis.

  15. Pituitary Adenlylate Cyclase Activating Peptide Protects Adult Neural Stem Cells from a Hypoglycaemic milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Shiva; Lietzau, Grazyna; Lundberg, Mathias; Nathanson, David; Nyström, Thomas; Patrone, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Hypoglycaemia is a common side-effect of glucose-lowering therapies for type-2 diabetic patients, which may cause cognitive/neurological impairment. Although the effects of hypoglycaemia in the brain have been extensively studied in neurons, how hypoglycaemia impacts the viability of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) has been poorly investigated. In addition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of how hypoglycaemia regulates NSCs survival have not been characterized. Recent work others and us have shown that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist Exendin-4 stimulate NSCs survival against glucolipoapoptosis. The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro system where to study the effects of hypoglycaemia on NSC survival. Furthermore, we determine the potential role of PACAP and Exendin-4 in counteracting the effect of hypoglycaemia. A hypoglycaemic in vitro milieu was mimicked by exposing subventricular zone-derived NSC to low levels of glucose. Moreover, we studied the potential involvement of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress by quantifying protein levels of Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and mRNA levels of CHOP. We show that PACAP via PAC-1 receptor and PKA activation counteracts impaired NSC viability induced by hypoglycaemia. The protective effect induced by PACAP correlated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, Exendin-4 was ineffective. The results show that hypoglycaemia decreases NSC viability and that this effect can be substantially counteracted by PACAP via PAC-1 receptor activation. The data supports a potential therapeutic role of PAC-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of neurological complications, based on neurogenesis impairment by hypoglycaemia. PMID:27305000

  16. Lycopene and beta-carotene induce growth inhibition and proapoptotic effects on ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália F Haddad

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10-15% of intracranial tumors and result in morbidity associated with altered hormonal patterns, therapy and compression of adjacent sella turcica structures. The use of functional foods containing carotenoids contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the influence of different concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis, hormone secretion, intercellular communication and expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27(kip1 in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells, the AtT20 cells, incubated for 48 and 96 h with these carotenoids. We observed a decrease in cell viability caused by the lycopene and beta-carotene treatments; in these conditions, the clonogenic ability of the cells was also significantly decreased. Cell cycle analysis revealed that beta-carotene induced an increase of the cells in S and G2/M phases; furthermore, lycopene increased the proportion of these cells in G0/G1 while decreasing the S and G2/M phases. Also, carotenoids induced apoptosis after 96 h. Lycopene and beta-carotene decreased the secretion of ACTH in AtT20 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Carotenoids blocked the gap junction intercellular communication. In addition, the treatments increased the expression of phosphorylated connexin43. Finally, we also demonstrate decreased expression of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2 and increased expression of p27(kip1 in carotenoid-treated cells. These results show that lycopene and beta-carotene were able to negatively modulate events related to the malignant phenotype of AtT-20 cells, through a mechanism that could involve changes in the expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27(kip1; and suggest that these compounds might provide a novel pharmacological approach to the treatment of Cushing's disease.

  17. Changes in anterior chamber flare and cells following cataract surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, S. M.; Spalton, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    The laser flare cell meter allows rapid non-invasive quantification of aqueous flare and cells. In this prospective study laser photometry was used to document the recovery of the blood-aqueous barrier in 27 normal eyes following cataract surgery. Aqueous flare and cells were highest on the first postoperative day, declining rapidly in the first week and returning to preoperative levels by 3 months. In six eyes (22.2%) there was an increase in either flare and cells or flare alone during the ...

  18. Changes of anterior pituitary function in patients with central nervous system infection%中枢神经系统感染患者腺垂体机能的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉社; 史锡文; 马媛媛

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨中枢神经系统感染患者垂体前叶激素水平的变化及临床意义.方法 收治中枢神经系统感染患者45例,所有患者入院后行促肾上腺皮质激素(ACTH)、皮质醇、甲状腺功能三项、生长激素(GH)和胰岛素刺激因子-1(IGF-1)、性激素检测;在感染确诊后第3天和感染治愈后1个月,分别检测ACTH、皮质醇、促甲状腺激素(TSH)、游离三甲状腺原氨酸(FT3)、游离甲状腺素(FT4)、GH、IGF-1、泌乳素(PRL)、卵泡刺激素(FSH)、黄体生成素(LH).观察感染发生前和感染发生后上述激素水平的变化.结果 感染急性期出现垂体前叶机能减退者18例(40.00%),其中ACTH、皮质醇水平下降4例(8.89%);FT3、FT4水平下降5例(11.11%);GH水平下降7例(15.56%),5例(11.11%)伴有IGF-1水平下降;PRL水平下降2例(4.44%),其中1例(2.22%)伴有FSH、LH水平下降.感染治愈后1个月,18例患者中激素水平恢复正常16例(88.89%);2例(4.44%)皮质醇水平较感染急性期无明显变化.结论 中枢神经系统感染急性期可继发垂体机能减退,感染治愈后多数患者可逆转.%Objective To investigate changes and clinical significance of serum anterior pituitary hormone levels in patients with central nervous system infection.Methods Forty-five cases suffering from central nervous system infection at the department of Neurosurgery,Henan Provincial People' s Hospital were enrolled in this study.All of patients received the laboratory tests of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH),cortisol,thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH),free triiodothyronine (FT3),free tetraiodothyronine (FT4),growth hormone (GH),insulin-stimulation factor-1 (IGF-1),gonadal hormone within 24 h of admission.On the third day post-infection and one month after infection curing,ACTH,cortisol,TSH,FT3,FT4,GH,IGF-1,prolactin prolactin (PRL),follicle stimulating hormone (FSH),and luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined.Results During the acute

  19. Leucine-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity is localized in luteinizing hormone-producing cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hirohumi; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we used immunohistochemical techniques to determine the cell type of leucine-enkephalin (Leu-ENK)-immunoreactive cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary. Immunoreactive cells were scattered throughout the pars distalis except for the dorso-caudal portion. These cells were immuno-positive for luteinizing hormone (LH), but they were immuno-negative for adrenocorticotrophic, growth, and thyroid-stimulating hormones, as well as prolactin. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that Leu-ENK-like substance and LH co-localized within the same secretory granules. Leu-ENK secreted from gonadotrophs may participate in LH secretion in an autocrine fashion, and/or may participate in the release of sex steroids together with LH. PMID:24034715

  20. Leucine-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity is localized in luteinizing hormone-producing cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hirohumi; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we used immunohistochemical techniques to determine the cell type of leucine-enkephalin (Leu-ENK)-immunoreactive cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary. Immunoreactive cells were scattered throughout the pars distalis except for the dorso-caudal portion. These cells were immuno-positive for luteinizing hormone (LH), but they were immuno-negative for adrenocorticotrophic, growth, and thyroid-stimulating hormones, as well as prolactin. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that Leu-ENK-like substance and LH co-localized within the same secretory granules. Leu-ENK secreted from gonadotrophs may participate in LH secretion in an autocrine fashion, and/or may participate in the release of sex steroids together with LH.

  1. Is IGSF1 involved in human pituitary tumor formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucz, Fabio R; Horvath, Anelia D; Azevedo, Monalisa F; Levy, Isaac; Bak, Beata; Wang, Ying; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Gourgari, Evgenia; Manning, Allison D; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Bertollo; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Lodish, Maya; Hofman, Paul; Anderson, Yvonne C; Holdaway, Ian; Oldfield, Edward; Chittiboina, Prashant; Nesterova, Maria; Biermasz, Nienke R; Wit, Jan M; Bernard, Daniel J; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2015-02-01

    IGSF1 is a membrane glycoprotein highly expressed in the anterior pituitary. Pathogenic mutations in the IGSF1 gene (on Xq26.2) are associated with X-linked central hypothyroidism and testicular enlargement in males. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IGSF1 is involved in the development of pituitary tumors, especially those that produce growth hormone (GH). IGSF1 was sequenced in 21 patients with gigantism or acromegaly and 92 healthy individuals. Expression studies with a candidate pathogenic IGSF1 variant were carried out in transfected cells and immunohistochemistry for IGSF1 was performed in the sections of GH-producing adenomas, familial somatomammotroph hyperplasia, and in normal pituitary. We identified the sequence variant p.N604T, which in silico analysis suggested could affect IGSF1 function, in two male patients and one female with somatomammotroph hyperplasia from the same family. Of 60 female controls, two carried the same variant and seven were heterozygous for other variants. Immunohistochemistry showed increased IGSF1 staining in the GH-producing tumor from the patient with the IGSF1 p.N604T variant compared with a GH-producing adenoma from a patient negative for any IGSF1 variants and with normal control pituitary tissue. The IGSF1 gene appears polymorphic in the general population. A potentially pathogenic variant identified in the germline of three patients with gigantism from the same family (segregating with the disease) was also detected in two healthy female controls. Variations in IGSF1 expression in pituitary tissue in patients with or without IGSF1 germline mutations point to the need for further studies of IGSF1 action in pituitary adenoma formation.

  2. Is IGSF1 involved in human pituitary tumor formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucz, Fabio R; Horvath, Anelia D; Azevedo, Monalisa F; Levy, Isaac; Bak, Beata; Wang, Ying; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Gourgari, Evgenia; Manning, Allison D; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Bertollo; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Lodish, Maya; Hofman, Paul; Anderson, Yvonne C; Holdaway, Ian; Oldfield, Edward; Chittiboina, Prashant; Nesterova, Maria; Biermasz, Nienke R; Wit, Jan M; Bernard, Daniel J; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2015-02-01

    IGSF1 is a membrane glycoprotein highly expressed in the anterior pituitary. Pathogenic mutations in the IGSF1 gene (on Xq26.2) are associated with X-linked central hypothyroidism and testicular enlargement in males. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IGSF1 is involved in the development of pituitary tumors, especially those that produce growth hormone (GH). IGSF1 was sequenced in 21 patients with gigantism or acromegaly and 92 healthy individuals. Expression studies with a candidate pathogenic IGSF1 variant were carried out in transfected cells and immunohistochemistry for IGSF1 was performed in the sections of GH-producing adenomas, familial somatomammotroph hyperplasia, and in normal pituitary. We identified the sequence variant p.N604T, which in silico analysis suggested could affect IGSF1 function, in two male patients and one female with somatomammotroph hyperplasia from the same family. Of 60 female controls, two carried the same variant and seven were heterozygous for other variants. Immunohistochemistry showed increased IGSF1 staining in the GH-producing tumor from the patient with the IGSF1 p.N604T variant compared with a GH-producing adenoma from a patient negative for any IGSF1 variants and with normal control pituitary tissue. The IGSF1 gene appears polymorphic in the general population. A potentially pathogenic variant identified in the germline of three patients with gigantism from the same family (segregating with the disease) was also detected in two healthy female controls. Variations in IGSF1 expression in pituitary tissue in patients with or without IGSF1 germline mutations point to the need for further studies of IGSF1 action in pituitary adenoma formation. PMID:25527509

  3. Is IGSF1 involved in human pituitary tumor formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucz, Fabio R.; Horvath, Anelia D.; Azevedo, Monalisa F.; Levy, Isaac; Bak, Beata; Wang, Ying; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Gourgari, Evgenia; Manning, Allison D.; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Bertollo; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Lodish, Maya; Hofman, Paul; Anderson, Yvonne C; Holdaway, Ian; Oldfield, Edward; Chittiboina, Prashant; Nesterova, Maria; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Wit, Jan M.; Bernard, Daniel J.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2014-01-01

    IGSF1 is a membrane glycoprotein highly expressed in the anterior pituitary. Pathogenic mutations in the IGSF1 gene (on Xq26.2) are associated with X-linked central hypothyroidism and testicular enlargement in males. In this study we tested the hypothesis that IGSF1 is involved in the development of pituitary tumors, especially those that produce growth hormone (GH). IGSF1 was sequenced in 21 patients with gigantism or acromegaly and 92 healthy individuals. Expression studies with a candidate pathogenic IGSF1 variant were carried out in transfected cells and immunohistochemistry for IGSF1 was performed in sections from GH-producing adenomas, familial somatomammotroph hyperplasia and in normal pituitary. In two male patients, and in one female, with somatomammotroph hyperplasia from the same family, we identified the sequence variant p.N604T, which in silico analysis suggested could affect IGSF1 function. Of 60 female controls, two carried the same variant, and seven were heterozygous for other variants. Immunohistochemistry showed increase IGSF1 staining in the GH-producing tumor from the patient with the IGSF1 p.N604T variant compared to a GH-producing adenoma from a patient negative for any IGSF1 variants and to normal control pituitary tissue. The IGSF1 gene appears polymorphic in the general population. A potentially pathogenic variant identified in the germline of three patients with gigantism from the same family (segregating with the disease) was also detected in two healthy female controls. Variations in IGSF1 expression in pituitary tissue in patients with or without IGSF1 germline mutations point to the need for further studies of IGSF1 action in pituitary adenoma formation. PMID:25527509

  4. Computational Image Analysis Reveals Intrinsic Multigenerational Differences between Anterior and Posterior Cerebral Cortex Neural Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Winter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Time-lapse microscopy can capture patterns of development through multiple divisions for an entire clone of proliferating cells. Images are taken every few minutes over many days, generating data too vast to process completely by hand. Computational analysis of this data can benefit from occasional human guidance. Here we combine improved automated algorithms with minimized human validation to produce fully corrected segmentation, tracking, and lineaging results with dramatic reduction in effort. A web-based viewer provides access to data and results. The improved approach allows efficient analysis of large numbers of clones. Using this method, we studied populations of progenitor cells derived from the anterior and posterior embryonic mouse cerebral cortex, each growing in a standardized culture environment. Progenitors from the anterior cortex were smaller, less motile, and produced smaller clones compared to those from the posterior cortex, demonstrating cell-intrinsic differences that may contribute to the areal organization of the cerebral cortex.

  5. Pituitary adenomas in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Suzanne; Diamond, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Scientific advances are revealing the complexity of pituitary development, which is controlled by multiple transcription factors and signaling molecules. Unregulated pituitary cell growth, resulting in pituitary adenoma, is usually sporadic and results from monoclonal expansion of a single mutated cell. However, some adenomas develop as part of a genetic syndrome. Prolactinoma is the most common hormonally active pituitary adenoma in children. The non-functioning (non-secreting) pituitary adenoma is the second most common and often stains positive for GH, PRL, and/or TSH. While Cushing disease, resulting from an ACTH-secreting adenoma, commonly manifests as weight gain with growth deceleration in children, GH excess causes gigantism with rapid, accelerated growth inappropriate for the height of the family. TSH secreting pituitary adenomas are rare, and biochemical analysis will show an elevated thyroxine level with a non-suppressed or high TSH. Though the natural history of pituitary incidentalomas in children is unknown, adult practice guidelines are established. PMID:23957196

  6. Contribution of mdr1b-type P-glycoprotein to okadaic acid resistance in rat pituitary GH3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, V; Marwitz, J; Sieder, S; Ziemann, C; Hirsch-Ernst, K I; Quentin, I; Steinfelder, H J

    1999-08-01

    Okadaic acid as well as other, structurally different, inhibitors of serine/threonine phosphatases 1 and 2A induce apoptosis in pituitary GH3 cells. Incubation with stepwise raised concentrations of okadaic acid resulted in the isolation of cells that were increasingly less sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of this agent. After about 18 months cells were selected that survived at 300 nM okadaic acid, which is about 30 times the initially lethal concentration. This study revealed that a major pharmacokinetic mechanism underlying cell survival was the development of a P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. The increase in mRNA levels of the mdr1b P-glycoprotein isoform correlated with the extent of drug resistance. Functional assays revealed that increasing drug resistance was paralleled by a decreased accumulation of rhodamine 123, a fluorescent dye which is a substrate of mdr1-mediated efflux activity. Resistance could be abolished by structurally different chemosensitizers of P-glycoprotein function like verapamil and reserpine but not by the leukotriene receptor antagonist MK571 which is a modulator of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP). Okadaic acid resistance included cross-resistance to other cytotoxic agents that are substrates of mdr1-type P-glycoproteins, like doxorubicin and actinomycin D, but not to non-substrates of mdr1, e.g. cytosine arabinoside. Thus, functional as well as biochemical features support the conclusion that okadaic acid is a substrate of the mdr1-mediated efflux activity in rat pituitary GH3 cells. Maintenance of resistance after withdrawal of okadaic acid as well as metaphase spreads of 100 nM okadaic acid-resistant cells suggested a stable MDR genotype without indications for the occurrence of extrachromosomal amplifications, e.g. double minute chromosomes.

  7. High expression of pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 predicts poor prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEI, CAN; YANG, XIAOLIANG; XI, JUNHUA; WU, WEI; YANG, ZHENXING; WANG, WEI; TANG, ZHIGUO; YING, QUANSHENG; ZHANG, YANBIN

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG1) is a recently identified oncogene involved in the progression of malignant tumors; however, the expression level of PTTG1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and its potential value as a novel prognostic marker for ccRCC remains unclear. In this study, PTTG1 mRNA and protein levels were assessed in 44 paired ccRCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Further immunohistochemical analysis was implemented in 192 samples of ccRCC to evaluate the associations between PTTG1 levels and the clinical characteristics in ccRCC. Reverse transcription qPCR and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the PTTG1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in ccRCC compared to normal tissues. In addition, the PTTG1 protein level in 192 ccRCC samples was found to be significantly correlated with T stage, N classification, metastasis, recurrence and Fuhrman grade, whereas it was not associated with age and gender. Patients with low PTTG1 levels exhibited a better survival outcome compared to those with a higher PTTG1 level. PTTG1 expression and N stage were identified as independent prognostic factors for the overall survival of ccRCC patients. The results suggested that the overexpression of PTTG1 indicates a poor prognosis in ccRCC patients and, therefore, PTTG1 may serve as a novel prognostic marker for ccRCC. PMID:25798272

  8. Effects of pentosan polysulfate sodium on the estrogen-induced pituitary prolactinoma in Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Slawomir; Melen-Mucha, Gabriela; Stepien, Tomasz; Godlewski, Andrzej; Stepien, Henryk

    2002-01-01

    The development of estrogen-induced pituitary prolactinoma in Fischer 344 (F344) rats is associated with enhanced neovascularization. This type of tumor is a rich source of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which possesses strong mitogenic and angiogenic properties. Pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS) has been shown to exert antitumor activity by antagonizing the binding of bFGF to cell surface receptors. We have examined the effects of pentosan on tumor growth, hyperprolactinemia and angiogenesis in diethylstilbestrol-induced anterior pituitary adenoma in F344 rats. Chronic treatment with PPS did not cause any changes in the pituitary weight and serum prolactin concentration in comparison with untreated animals. The density of microvessels identified by CD-31 was also not affected by the tested drug. On the other hand, pentosan has been found to decrease cell proliferation evaluated by a number of PCNA-positive stained cell nuclei. Moreover, the TUNEL method has revealed an increased number of apoptotic bodies within the anterior pituitary after treatment with PPS. Despite the antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity of pentosan, the drug failed to inhibit tumor growth. This fact might be due to the lack of antiangiogenic activity of PPS in this experimental design.

  9. Tissue engineering of ligaments : A comparison of bone marrow stromal cells, anterior cruciate ligament, and skin fibroblasts as cell source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eijk, F; Riesle, J; Willems, WJ; Van Blitterswijk, CA; Verbout, AJ; Dhert, WJA

    2004-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery still has important problems to overcome, such as "donor site morbidity" and the limited choice of grafts in revision surgery. Tissue engineering of ligaments may provide a solution for these problems. Little is known about the optimal cell sou

  10. Effects of bromocriptine on serum prolactin levels, pituitary weight and immunoreactive prolactin cells in estradiol-treated ovariectomized rats: an experimental model of estrogen-dependent hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Ribeiro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the effects of bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist, on pituitary wet weight, number of immunoreactive prolactin cells and serum prolactin concentrations in estradiol-treated rats. Ovariectomized Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with sunflower oil vehicle or estradiol valerate (50 or 300 µg rat-1 week-1 for 2, 4 or 10 weeks. Bromocriptine (0.2 or 0.6 mg rat-1 day-1 was injected daily during the last 5 or 12 days of estrogen treatment. Data were compared with those obtained for intact control rats. Administration of both doses of estrogen increased serum prolactin levels. No difference in the number of prolactin cells in rats treated with 50 µg estradiol valerate was observed compared to intact adult animals. In contrast, rats treated with 300 µg estradiol valerate showed a significant increase in the number of prolactin cells (P<0.05. Therefore, the increase in serum prolactin levels observed in rats treated with 50 µg estradiol valerate, in the absence of morphological changes in the pituitary cells, suggests a "functional" estrogen-induced hyperprolactinemia. Bromocriptine decreased prolactin levels in all estrogen-treated rats. The administration of this drug to rats previously treated with 300 µg estradiol valerate also resulted in a significant decrease in pituitary weight and number of prolactin cells when compared to the group treated with estradiol alone. The general antiprolactinemic and antiproliferative pituitary effects of bromocriptine treatment reported here validate the experimental model of estrogen-induced hyperprolactinemic rats

  11. Pituitary Adenoma as a Rare Form of Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María León Blasco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas are benign tumors arising from one of the five cell types in the anterior pituitary. Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce hormones due to the lack of pituary adrenocorticotropic hormone or hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor. The case of a 37-year-old female patient who started developing muscle twitching in legs and arms, muscular weakness, fatigue, muscle aches, severe and throbbing hemicrania on the right side, among other symptoms, a year ago is presented. Several tests were performed (cortisol level, adrenocorticotropic hormone, calcium and phosphorus in blood and urine, magnetic resonance imaging of the skull, leading to the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma with isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency and secondary adrenal insufficiency. Treatment with steroids and calcium supplements ensured a satisfactory recovery.

  12. Internalization of FLAG-MOR in low or high receptor expressing mouse pituitary AtT20 cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Receptor endocytosis is a process that contributes to the desensitization of receptor mediated functional responses. We subcloned FLAG-tagged μopioid receptors (MOR)in mouse pituitary AtT20 cells and selected for a high and a low receptor expressing cell line. Using [3 H ]Naloxone binding to cell membranes,we were able to determine cell receptor number from Scatchard analysis. The high expressing cell line had 37,000 receptors/cell and the low expressing cell line had 8000 receptors/cell. Mouse AtT20 cells have endogenous calcium currents (ICa). (ICa) was reversibly inhibited by μ-opioid agonists in both cell lines. Inhibition of ICa by 1 μM DAMGO was 26 ±3% and 17 ±2% in high and low receptor cell lines, respectively. The selective MOR antagonist CTAP (1 μM)blocked DAMGO mediated inhibition of ICa .Endocytosis of FLAG-MOR was examined using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Opioid ligands of differing intrinsic efficacies were examined on FLAG-MOR endocytosis. Internalization of FLAG-MOR by 20 minute incubation at 37deg C following 10 μM DAMGO or 10 μM methadone binding at 4 deg C,resulted in an increase in intracellular immunoreactivity for high and low receptor expressing cells. Morphine (10 μM) and the opioid receptor antagonist,naloxone (1 μM), did not cause an increase in cytosolic immunoreactivity after a 20 minute incubation in either cell line. Comparison of time courses for receptor endocytosis and receptor mediated ICa desensitization for high and low receptor expressing cell lines will be discussed. Copyright (1998) Australian Neuroscience Society

  13. Expression and regulation of neuromedin B in pituitary corticotrophs of male melanocortin 2 receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Hiraku; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Shimizu, Chikara; Nagai, So; Nakamura, Akinobu; Kondo, Takuma; Chida, Dai; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2014-07-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls responses to stress, and has an important function in the regulation of various body processes. We previously created a mouse line deficient in the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R). MC2R-deficient mice (MC2R(-/-) mice) have high adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels because of undetectable corticosterone levels. Increased neuromedin B (NMB) expression was recently reported in the pituitary gland of adrenalectomized mice, a model for acute adrenal insufficiency. To investigate gene expression in the pituitary gland under chronic adrenal deficiency, we examined the pituitary gland of MC2R(-/-) mice, a model of chronic adrenal insufficiency. To understand the molecular background of pituitary cells under chronic adrenal deficiency, we first performed DNA microarray analyses using the pituitary glands of the MC2R(-/-) mice. The DNA microarray analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that NMB expression was higher in the MC2R(-/-) than in the wild-type (WT) mice. We detected NMB expression in the MC2R(-/-) pituitary corticotrophs by immunohistochemistry using the specific antibodies for ACTH and NMB. In addition, the plasma NMB concentration was significantly higher in the MC2R(-/-) mice than in the WT mice. Subcutaneous implantation of a sustained-release corticosterone pellet decreased the expression of NMB mRNA as well as pituitary proopiomelanocortin mRNA. In isolated anterior pituitary cells, NMB mRNA expression was increased by the administration of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and was suppressed by dexamethasone treatment. In this study, we first demonstrate NMB expression in corticotrophs and its regulation by CRH and glucocorticoids. Furthermore, corticotrophs seemed to secrete NMB into the systemic circulation. PMID:24742195

  14. Down-regulation of Leucine-rich Repeats and Immunoglobulin-like Domain Proteins (LRIG1-3) in HP75 Pituitary Adenoma Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Dongsheng; HAN Lin; SHU Kai; CHEN Jian; LEI Ting

    2007-01-01

    Three human leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) genes and proteins, named LRIG1-3, has been previously characterized and it was proposed that they may act as suppressors of tumor growth. The LRIG1 protein can inhibit the growth of tumors of glial cells and the down-regulation of the LRIG1 gene may be involved in the development and progression of the tumor. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a recently developed technique for quantitative assessment of specific RNA levels. In the current study, it was demonstrated that LRIG1-3 and EGFR mRNA was detected in human pituitary adenoma cell lines and a normal pituitary sample, with differences in the expression levels. Compared to the normal pituitary samples, the expression of LRIG1-3 in HP75 cell line was lower, but the expression of EGFR in HP75 cell line was higher. The results are consistent with LRIG1-3 being tumour suppressor genes, and LRIG genes decreasing the expression of EGFR. The ratio of EGFR/LRIG1 was increased at least 13-fold in HP75 cells compared with the normal pituitary cells, which was also the case for the ratio of EGFR/LRIG2 (14-fold increase in HP75) and EGFR/LRIG3 (11-fold increase in HP75). Further studies were needed to elucidate the explicit role of LRIG genes as negative regulators of oncogenesis in human pituitary adenoma.

  15. Effects of interleukin-1 beta on thyrotropin secretion and thyroid hormone uptake in cultured rat anterior pituitary cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W.J.S. Wassen (Frank); E.P.C.M. Moerings (Ellis); H. van Toor (Hans); E.A. de Vrey (Evelyn); G. Hennemann; M.E. Everts (Maria)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) on basal and TRH-induced TSH release, and the effects of IL-1 beta on the uptake of [125I]T3 and [125I]T4 and on nuclear binding of [125I]T3 were examined. Furthermore,

  16. The expansion of adult stem/progenitor cells and their marker expression fluctuations are linked with pituitary plastic adaptation during gestation and lactancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Alicia Maldré; Guido, Carolina Beatriz; Sosa, Liliana Del Valle; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Mukdsi, Jorge; Petiti, Juan Pablo; Torres, Alicia Ines

    2016-08-01

    Extensive evidence has revealed variations in the number of hormone-producing cells in the pituitary gland, which occur under physiological conditions such as gestation and lactancy. It has been proposed that new hormone-producing cells differentiate from stem cells. However, exactly how and when this takes place is not clear. In this work, we used immunoelectron microscopy to identify adult pituitary stem/progenitor cells (SC/P) localized in the marginal zone (MZ), and additionally, we detected GFRa2-, Sox2-, and Sox9-positive cells in the adenoparenchyma (AP) by fluorescence microscopy. Then, we evaluated fluctuations of SC/P mRNA and protein level markers in MZ and AP during gestation and lactancy. An upregulation in stemness markers was shown at term of gestation (AT) in MZ, whereas there were more progenitor cell markers in the middle of gestation and active lactancy. Concerning committed cell markers, we detected a rise in AP at beginning of lactancy (d1L). We performed a BrdU uptake analysis in MZ and AP cells. The highest level of BrdU uptake was observed in MZ AT cells, whereas in AP this was detected in d1L, followed by a decrease in both the MZ and AP. Finally, we detected double immunostaining for BrdU-GFRa2 in MZ AT cells and BrdU-Sox9 in the AP d1L cells. Taken together, we hypothesize that the expansion of the SC/P niche took place mainly in MZ from pituitary rats in AT and d1L. These results suggest that the SC niche actively participates in pituitary plasticity during these reproductive states, contributing to the origin of hormone cell populations. PMID:27302752

  17. Pituitary abscess: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos K A Karagiannis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary abscess is a rare life-threating entity that is usually misdiagnosed as a pituitary tumor with a definite diagnosis only made postoperatively. Over the last several decades, advances in healthcare have led to a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality due to pituitary abscess. We report a case of a 34-year-old woman who was admitted to our department for investigation of a pituitary mass and with symptoms of pituitary dysfunction, headaches and impaired vision. During her admission, she developed meningitis-like symptoms and was treated with antibiotics. She eventually underwent transsphenoidal surgery for excision of the pituitary mass. A significant amount of pus was evident intraoperatively; however, no pathogen was isolated. Six months later, the patient was well and had full recovery of the anterior pituitary function. Her menses returned, and she was only on treatment with desmopressin for diabetes insipidus that developed postoperatively.

  18. An unusual presentation of clear cell odontogenic carcinoma in mandibular anterior region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu M Ganvir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC is a rare, potentially aggressive odontogenic epithelial tumor with tendency for recurrence. It was first described as a clinicopathological entity in 1985 and to date only 73 cases has been reported in English literature. A case of CCOC in 64-year-old male patient in mandibular anterior region is presented which when recurred in soft tissue 5 years after wide surgical resection of mandible, revealed a biphasic pattern as against monophasic pattern of primary neoplasm and was unusually associated with primary squamous cell carcinoma, suggestive of hybrid tumor.

  19. Prenatal stress induces long-term effects in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis in adult male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Baquedano

    Full Text Available Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of gestation (45 minutes; 3 times/day. Only male offspring were used for this study and were sacrificed at 6 months of age. In prenatally stressed adults a decrease in markers of cell death and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary. This was associated with an increase in insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels, phosphorylation of CREB and calpastatin levels and inhibition of calpain -2 and caspase -8 activation. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were increased and levels of the pro-apoptotic factor p53 were reduced. In conclusion, prenatal restraint stress induces a long-term decrease in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis that might be at least partly mediated by an autocrine-paracrine IGF-I effect. These changes could condition the response of this axis to future physiological and pathophysiological situations.

  20. Prenatal Stress Induces Long-Term Effects in Cell Turnover in the Hippocampus-Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis in Adult Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquedano, Eva; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda; Lagunas, Natalia; Calmarza-Font, Isabel; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.; Frago, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of gestation (45 minutes; 3 times/day). Only male offspring were used for this study and were sacrificed at 6 months of age. In prenatally stressed adults a decrease in markers of cell death and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary. This was associated with an increase in insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels, phosphorylation of CREB and calpastatin levels and inhibition of calpain -2 and caspase -8 activation. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were increased and levels of the pro-apoptotic factor p53 were reduced. In conclusion, prenatal restraint stress induces a long-term decrease in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis that might be at least partly mediated by an autocrine-paracrine IGF-I effect. These changes could condition the response of this axis to future physiological and pathophysiological situations. PMID:22096592

  1. Mechanical stretch increases CCN2/CTGF expression in anterior cruciate ligament-derived cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → CCN2/CTGF localizes to the ligament-to-bone interface, but is not to the midsubstance region of human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). → Mechanical stretch induces higher increase of CCN2/CTGF gene expression and protein secretion in ACL interface cells compared with ACL midsubstance cells. → CCN2/CTGF treatment stimulates the proliferation of ACL interface cells. -- Abstract: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-to-bone interface serves to minimize the stress concentrations that would arise between two different tissues. Mechanical stretch plays an important role in maintaining cell-specific features by inducing CCN family 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF). We previously reported that cyclic tensile strain (CTS) stimulates α1(I) collagen (COL1A1) expression in human ACL-derived cells. However, the biological function and stress-related response of CCN2/CTGF were still unclear in ACL fibroblasts. In the present study, CCN2/CTGF was observed in ACL-to-bone interface, but was not in the midsubstance region by immunohistochemical analyses. CTS treatments induced higher increase of CCN2/CTGF expression and secretion in interface cells compared with midsubstance cells. COL1A1 expression was not influenced by CCN2/CTGF treatment in interface cells despite CCN2/CTGF stimulated COL1A1 expression in midsubstance cells. However, CCN2/CTGF stimulated the proliferation of interface cells. Our results suggest that distinct biological function of stretch-induced CCN2/CTGF might regulate region-specific phenotypes of ACL-derived cells.

  2. Mechanical stretch increases CCN2/CTGF expression in anterior cruciate ligament-derived cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Yoshiaki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan); Furumatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: matino@md.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan); Kubota, Satoshi; Kawata, Kazumi [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan); Ozaki, Toshifumi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan); Takigawa, Masaharu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan)

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} CCN2/CTGF localizes to the ligament-to-bone interface, but is not to the midsubstance region of human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). {yields} Mechanical stretch induces higher increase of CCN2/CTGF gene expression and protein secretion in ACL interface cells compared with ACL midsubstance cells. {yields} CCN2/CTGF treatment stimulates the proliferation of ACL interface cells. -- Abstract: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-to-bone interface serves to minimize the stress concentrations that would arise between two different tissues. Mechanical stretch plays an important role in maintaining cell-specific features by inducing CCN family 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF). We previously reported that cyclic tensile strain (CTS) stimulates {alpha}1(I) collagen (COL1A1) expression in human ACL-derived cells. However, the biological function and stress-related response of CCN2/CTGF were still unclear in ACL fibroblasts. In the present study, CCN2/CTGF was observed in ACL-to-bone interface, but was not in the midsubstance region by immunohistochemical analyses. CTS treatments induced higher increase of CCN2/CTGF expression and secretion in interface cells compared with midsubstance cells. COL1A1 expression was not influenced by CCN2/CTGF treatment in interface cells despite CCN2/CTGF stimulated COL1A1 expression in midsubstance cells. However, CCN2/CTGF stimulated the proliferation of interface cells. Our results suggest that distinct biological function of stretch-induced CCN2/CTGF might regulate region-specific phenotypes of ACL-derived cells.

  3. Dosimetric factors associated with pituitary function after Gamma Knife Surgery (GKS) of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Gamma Knife Surgery (GKS) can be an adjunctive option to surgery in the case of pituitary adenomas. The effect of dosimetric variables on the incidence of new anterior pituitary deficits after GKS requires better definition. Materials and methods: This retrospective study considered 130 patients with a follow up after GKS >6 months. The diagnosis was nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) in 68 patients and secreting pituitary adenoma (SPA) in 62 patients. Median margin dose was 15/25 Gy for NFPA and SPA, respectively. The endocrinological median follow-up was 60 months. Hypopituitarism was defined as a new pituitary deficit in (at least) one of the three hormonal axes (hypogonadism, hypothyroidism and hypoadrenalism). The predictive value of clinical/dosimetric parameters was tested by univariate/multivariate analyses. Results: Sixteen patients (12.3%) showed a new pituitary deficit in one or more axes. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the mean dose to the stalk/pituitary and the amount of healthy tissue within the high dose region were strong independent predictors of pituitary dysfunction; their best cut-off values were around 15.7 Gy, 7.3 Gy and 1.4 cm3, respectively. Conclusions: Our data showed a dose-dependent incidence of new hormonal deficits after GKS for pituitary adenoma. During planning definition, the risk of hypopituitarism could be reduced using the outlined safe dose–volume values.

  4. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Norman Beatty; Luis Medina-Garcia; Mayar Al Mohajer; Zangeneh, Tirdad T.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s). Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should...

  5. Acute pituitary apoplexy complicating a pituitary macroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febin Joseph

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition caused by either haemorrhage or infarction of the pituitary gland. In most cases, a pre-existing pituitary macroadenoma is present. Patients present with the clinical syndrome of headache, visual defects or ophthalmoplegia, altered state of consciousness and variable endocrine deficits.

  6. Effects of Carbenoxolone on the Canine Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Teshima

    Full Text Available Cushing's disease caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma is a common endocrine disease in dogs. A characteristic biochemical feature of corticotroph adenomas is their relative resistance to suppressive negative feedback by glucocorticoids. The abnormal expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD, which is a cortisol metabolic enzyme, is found in human and murine corticotroph adenomas. Our recent studies demonstrated that canine corticotroph adenomas also have abnormal expression of 11HSD. 11HSD has two isoforms in dogs, 11HSD type1 (HSD11B1, which converts cortisone into active cortisol, and 11HSD type2 (HSD11B2, which converts cortisol into inactive cortisone. It has been suggested that glucocorticoid resistance in corticotroph tumors is related to the overexpression of HSD11B2. Therefore it was our aim to investigate the effects of carbenoxolone (CBX, an 11HSD inhibitor, on the healthy dog's pituitary-adrenal axis. Dogs were administered 50 mg/kg of CBX twice each day for 15 days. During CBX administration, no adverse effects were observed in any dogs. The plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, and serum cortisol and cortisone concentrations were significantly lower at day 7 and 15 following corticotropin releasing hormone stimulation. After completion of CBX administration, the HSD11B1 mRNA expression was higher, and HSD11B2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the pituitaries. Moreover, proopiomelanocortin mRNA expression was lower, and the ratio of ACTH-positive cells in the anterior pituitary was also significantly lower after CBX treatment. In adrenal glands treated with CBX, HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 mRNA expression were both lower compared to normal canine adrenal glands. The results of this study suggested that CBX inhibits ACTH secretion from pituitary due to altered 11HSD expressions, and is potentially useful for the treatment of canine Cushing's disease.

  7. Inhibitory Smads and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) modulate anterior photoreceptor cell number during planarian eye regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sastre, Alejandro; Molina, Ma Dolores; Saló, Emili

    2012-01-01

    Planarians represent an excellent model to study the processes of body axis and organ re-specification during regeneration. Previous studies have revealed a conserved role for the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway and its intracellular mediators Smad1/5/8 and Smad4 in planarian dorsoventral (DV) axis re-establishment. In an attempt to gain further insight into the role of this signalling pathway in planarians, we have isolated and functionally characte-rized the inhibitory Smads (I-Smads) in Schmidtea mediterranea. Two I-Smad homologues have been identified: Smed-smad6/7-1 and Smed-smad6/7-2. Expression of smad6/7-1 was detected in the parenchyma, while smad6/7-2 was found to be ex-pressed in the central nervous system and the eyes. Neither single smad6/7-1 and smad6/7-2 nor double smad6/7-1,-2 silencing gave rise to any apparent disruption of the DV axis. However, both regenerating and intact smad6/7-2 (RNAi) planarians showed defects in eye morphogenesis and displayed small, rounded eyes that lacked the anterior subpopulation of photoreceptor cells. The number of pigment cells was also reduced in these animals at later stages of regeneration. In contrast, after low doses of Smed-bmp(RNAi), planarians regenerated larger eyes in which the anterior subpopulation of photoreceptor cells was expanded. Our results suggest that Smed-smad6/7-2 and Smed-bmp control the re-specification and maintenance of anterior photoreceptor cell number in S. mediterranea. PMID:22451003

  8. Hydrogen sulfide induces hyperpolarization and decreases the exocytosis of secretory granules of rat GH3 pituitary tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafina, Alsu N; Yakovlev, Aleksey V; Gaifullina, Aisylu Sh; Weiger, Thomas M; Hermann, Anton; Sitdikova, Guzel F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the membrane potential, action potential discharge and exocytosis of secretory granules in neurosecretory pituitary tumor cells (GH3). The H2S donor - sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) induced membrane hyperpolarization, followed by truncation of spontaneous electrical activity and decrease of the membrane resistance. The NaHS effect was dose-dependent with an EC50 of 152 μM (equals effective H2S of 16-19 μM). NaHS effects were not altered after inhibition of maxi conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels by tetraethylammonium or paxilline, but were significantly reduced after inhibition or activation of ATP-dependent potassium channels (KATP) by glibenclamide or by diazoxide, respectively. In whole-cell recordings NaHS increased the amplitude of KATP currents, induced by hyperpolarizing pulses and subsequent application of glibenclamide decreased currents to control levels. Using the fluorescent dye FM 1-43 exocytosis of secretory granules was analyzed in basal and stimulated conditions (high K(+) external solution). Prior application of NaHS decreased the fluorescence of the cell membrane in both conditions which links with activation of KATP currents (basal secretion) and activation of KATP currents and BK-currents (stimulated exocytosis). We suggest that H2S induces hyperpolarization of GH3 cells by activation of KATP channels which results in a truncation of spontaneous action potentials and a decrease of hormone release.

  9. The Marine Metabolite SZ-685C Induces Apoptosis in Primary Human Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma Cells by Inhibition of the Akt Pathway in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA is one of the most common types of pituitary adenoma. The marine anthraquinone derivative SZ-685C has been isolated from the secondary metabolites of the mangrove endophytic fungus Halorosellinia sp. (No. 1403 which is found in the South China Sea. Recent research has shown that SZ-685C possesses anticancer and tumor suppressive effects. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT assay to investigate the different effect of the marine compound SZ-685C on the proliferation of primary human NFPA cells, rat normal pituitary cells (RPCs and rat prolactinoma MMQ cell lines. Hoechst 33342 dye/propidium iodide (PI double staining and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Annexin V/PI (Annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis assays detected an enhanced rate of apoptosis in cells treated with SZ-685C. Enhanced expression levels of caspase 3 and phosphate and tensin homolog (PTEN were determined by Western blotting. Notably, the protein expression levels of Akt were decreased when the primary human NFPA cells were treated with SZ-685C. Here, we show that SZ-685C induces apoptosis of human NFPA cells through inhibition of the Akt pathway in vitro. The understanding of apoptosis has provided the basis for novel targeted therapies that can induce death in cancer cells or sensitize them to established cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy.

  10. The marine metabolite SZ-685C induces apoptosis in primary human nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma cells by inhibition of the Akt pathway in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Tan, Ting; Mao, Zhi-Gang; Lei, Ni; Wang, Zong-Ming; Hu, Bin; Chen, Zhi-Yong; She, Zhi-Gang; Zhu, Yong-Hong; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2015-03-01

    Nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is one of the most common types of pituitary adenoma. The marine anthraquinone derivative SZ-685C has been isolated from the secondary metabolites of the mangrove endophytic fungus Halorosellinia sp. (No. 1403) which is found in the South China Sea. Recent research has shown that SZ-685C possesses anticancer and tumor suppressive effects. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT assay) to investigate the different effect of the marine compound SZ-685C on the proliferation of primary human NFPA cells, rat normal pituitary cells (RPCs) and rat prolactinoma MMQ cell lines. Hoechst 33342 dye/propidium iodide (PI) double staining and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Annexin V/PI (Annexin V-FITC/PI) apoptosis assays detected an enhanced rate of apoptosis in cells treated with SZ-685C. Enhanced expression levels of caspase 3 and phosphate and tensin homolog (PTEN) were determined by Western blotting. Notably, the protein expression levels of Akt were decreased when the primary human NFPA cells were treated with SZ-685C. Here, we show that SZ-685C induces apoptosis of human NFPA cells through inhibition of the Akt pathway in vitro. The understanding of apoptosis has provided the basis for novel targeted therapies that can induce death in cancer cells or sensitize them to established cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy. PMID:25806467

  11. Single-Cell Phenotypic Characterization of Human Pituitary GHomas and Non-Functioning Adenomas Based on Hormone Content and Calcium Responses to Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senovilla, Laura; Núñez, Lucía; de Campos, José María; de Luis, Daniel A.; Romero, Enrique; García-Sancho, Javier; Villalobos, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Human pituitary tumors are generally benign adenomas causing considerable morbidity due to excess hormone secretion, hypopituitarism, and other tumor mass effects. Pituitary tumors are highly heterogeneous and difficult to type, often containing mixed cell phenotypes. We have used calcium imaging followed by multiple immunocytochemistry to type growth hormone secreting (GHomas) and non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Individual cells were typed for stored hormones and calcium responses to classic hypothalamic releasing hormones (HRHs). We found that GHomas contained growth hormone cells either lacking responses to HRHs or responding to all four HRHs. However, most GHoma cells were polyhormonal cells responsive to both thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and GH-releasing hormone. NFPAs were also highly heterogeneous. Some of them contained ACTH cells lacking responses to HRHs or polyhormonal gonadotropes responsive to LHRH and TRH. However, most NFPAs were made of cells storing no hormone and responded only to TRH. These results may provide new insights on the ontogeny of GHomas and NFPAs. PMID:26106585

  12. Expression for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in pituitary adenomas 38 cases for semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojie Lu; Kailai Chen; Weiyang Ji; Qing Wang; Bing Li; Jiang'an Li; Jiyong Sun

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:It has been reposed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ(PPAR γ)is highly expressed in lung cancer,colon cancer,and gastric cancer,as well as other tumors.OBJECTIVE:To study expression of PPAR γ in pituitary adenomas and analyze the role of PPAR γ in hormonal typing of pituitary adenomas.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:Semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry of pathological specimens.The experiment was conducted at the Department of Neurosurgery,Wuxi Second Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University between January 2002 and May 2005.MATERIALS:Surgical resection samples of pituitary adenomas from 38 cases(18 male and 20 female)were analyzed.Eight cases were determined to be invasive pituitary adenomas and 30 cases were non-invasive pituitary adenomas.Hormonal classification of the types of pituitary adenomas revealed somatotrophic adenomas in six cases,corticotrophic adenoma in five cases,prolactinomas in 13 cases,multi-hormone secreting adenomas in six cases,and eight cases of adenoma without altered endocrine function.Five autopsy specimens were collected dunng the same period from patients of matching age that died from unrelated diseases and were included as normal anterior pituitary controls.METHODS:Cell counts for positive immunohistochemical signals were recorded from histopathological sections.The percentage of positive cells was reported as a semi-quantitative analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The rate of PPAR γ positive cells in different types of adenoma was based on hormonal levels and invasiveness of pituitary tumor cells.RESULTS:All tumor biopsies were determined to express PPAR γ.T1le rate of PPAR γ-positive cells ranged between 8%-65% in the pituitary adenomas.According to hormonal type,PPAR γ expression did not vary between the groups.In addition.there was no significant difference in PPAR γ expression between the non-invasive and invasive pituitary adenomas.CONCLUSIONS:Human pituitary adenomas express PPAR γ,and this

  13. Sensitivity of laser flare photometry compared to slit-lamp cell evaluation in monitoring anterior chamber inflammation in uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, Ottavio; Papadia, Marina; Herbort, Carl P

    2010-10-01

    To study the sensitivity of laser flare photometry (LFP) in monitoring anterior chamber inflammation by correlating LFP measurements with slit-lamp evaluation of aqueous cells in HLA-B27-related uveitis in a prospective trial. Slit-lamp cell evaluation was correlated with LFP-measured flare in a masked fashion in HLA-B27-related uveitis patients receiving standard topical therapy. At the time of 50 and 90% LFP flare reduction, the corresponding reduction of cells was recorded and statistically compared using the sign test. Forty-three episodes (in 43 patients) of acute anterior HLA-B27-related uveitis were included. LFP flare reduction and slit-lamp cell reduction were strongly correlated. LFP was significantly more sensitive for both 50% (P = 0.001) and 90% (P = 0.02) LFP flare reduction in assessing the decrease of anterior chamber inflammation. LFP was superior to slit-lamp cell evaluation in monitoring anterior chamber inflammation in uveitis. Flare, becoming a quantitative parameter when measured by LFP, rather than cells, should be considered the gold standard to measure anterior chamber inflammation in uveitis. PMID:20686916

  14. [Familial pituitary tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, K; Saito, S

    1995-11-01

    Familial pituitary tumors are relatively rare. Most commonly, they occur as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). However, familial pituitary adenomas unrelated MEN 1 (familial pituitary adenomas) are extremely rare. In review of MEN 1 in Japan, 60% of the patients with MEN 1 had pituitary tumors. Only 45 cases of familial pituitary adenomas have been reported from 20 families. In our review of familial pituitary adenomas, 30 (67%) of 45 reported cases are acromegaly or gigantism. This incidence is much higher than 28% in MEN 1 patients with pituitary tumors. Allelic deletions at 11q13 were identified in MEN 1 associated pituitary adenomas and familial pituitary adenomas in two gigantism brothers. PMID:8538028

  15. The Pituitary in Gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Kovacs, Kalman T.; Stefaneanu, Lucia; Horvath, Eva; Kane, Laurie A.; Young, William F.; Lloyd, Ricardo V.; Randall, Raymond V.; Davis, Dudley H.

    1995-01-01

    To compare the pituitary pathology of gigantism to that of acromegaly, 19 surgically resected lesions were studied from 10 males and 9 females, ages 13-49 (mean, 19 yr) with excessive height (>/=95th percentile), onset of disease prior to puberty, elevated growth hormone (GH) levels despite glucose suppression, and a pathologically confirmed GH-producing pituitary mass. One patient had MEN-I. The lesions included 18 adenomas and 1 case of pure hyperplasia. The median, mean, and range of serum GH and prolactin (PRL) levels were 64, 235, 5-1000 ng/mL and 47, 146, 29-770 ng/mL, respectively. Of the 8 adenoma specimens accompanied by nontumoral pituitary (i.e., tissue wherein the presence of hyperplasia was assessable), 3 (37%) demonstrated both. Of the 18 tumors, 78% were macroadenomas and 22% were grossly invasive; their immunophenotypes included GH (5%), GH and PRL (19%), and GHPRL and a glycoprotein hormone, usually TSH and/or a-subunit (76%). Of the 10 adenoma-containing lesions subject to electron microscopy (EM), 2 consisted of GH cells alone; 2 of mammosomatotroph (MS) cells alone; 1 of GH and MS cells; 1 of GH and PRL cells; 2 of GH, PRL, and MS cells; 1 of GH, PRL, and glycoprotein cells; and 1 was a subtype 3 adenoma. Ultrastructurally, GH cells and/or MS cells predominated in these lesions. Immuno-EM of one CH and PRL cell and of one GH-PR-MS tumor showed GH and PRL to be present not only in single cells but within the same granules. Nine of 12 adenoma-associated lesions subject to combined in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunostaining showed double labeling for PRL (or GH) mRNA and for GH (or PRL), respectively, features indicating MS differentiation. In the 4 lesions exhibiting hyperplasia, either alone (1) or in association with adenoma (3), EM showed MS cells in 3, and immuno-EM as well as combined immunohistochemistry and ISH showed double labeling for GH and PRL in both of the 2 cases studied. In summary, although in terms of their tinctorial

  16. Antibodies to the estrogen receptor-α modulate rapid prolactin release from rat pituitary tumor cells through plasma membrane estrogen receptors

    OpenAIRE

    NORFLEET, ANDREA M.; Clarke, Charlotte H.; Gametchu, Bahiru; Watson, Cheryl S.

    2000-01-01

    Antibodies (Abs) raised against the estrogen receptor-α (ERα) were used to investigate the role of ERα proteins located at the plasma membrane in mediating the rapid, estrogen-stimulated secretion of prolactin (PRL) from rat pituitary GH3/B6/F10 cells. Exposure of the cells to 1 nM 17β-estradiol (E2) significantly increased PRL release after 3 or 6 min. When ERα Abs that bind specifically to ERα but are too large to diffuse into cells were tested for activity at the cell membrane, Ab R4, targ...

  17. Extranodal large B cell lymphoma of the anterior maxilla. Case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Brian; Webber, Mariel; Keinan, David

    2015-01-01

    In the oral cavity, lymphoproliferative disorders can manifest in various ways, often as an extranodal externalization. In the case presented here, it was a B cell lymphoma originating in the periapical bone of the anterior maxilla. X-ray revealed a periapical radiolucency associated with an intact tooth with no decay, fillings or history of trauma. The tooth tested non-vital. After root canal treatment, an apicoectomy was performed with a biopsy. The most common diagnosis would be of dental etiology. The pathology report revealed a non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma. Most often, this disease appears as localized dental or oral pathology. Non-specific signs and symptoms present in association with lymphoproliferative disorders include lymphadenopathy, trismus, pain, swelling, sinusitis, fever, sepsis, prosthetic instability and paresthesia. Early detection results in decreased morbidity and a better prognosis for the patient. PMID:25707167

  18. Hyperpolarization of the Membrane Potential Caused by Somatostatin in Dissociated Human Pituitary Adenoma Cells that Secrete Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Naohide; Shibuya, Naohiko; Ogata, Etsuro

    1986-08-01

    Membrane electrical properties and the response to somatostatin were examined in dissociated human pituitary adenoma cells that secrete growth hormone (GH). Under current clamp condition with a patch electrode, the resting potential was -52.4 ± 8.0 mV, and spontaneous action potentials were observed in 58% of the cells. Under voltage clamp condition an outward K+ current, a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ current, and a Ca2+ current were observed. Cobalt ions suppressed the Ca2+ current. The threshold of Ca2+ current activation was about -60 mV. Somatostatin elicited a membrane hyperpolarization associated with increased membrane permeability in these cells. The reversal potential of somatostatin-induced hyperpolarization was -78.4 ± 4.3 mV in 6 mM K+ medium and -97.2 ± 6.4 mV in 3 mM K+ medium. These reversal potential values and a shift with the external K+ concentration indicated that membrane hyperpolarization was caused by increased permeability to K+. The hyperpolarized membrane potential induced by somatostatin was -63.6 ± 5.9 mV in the standard medium. This level was subthreshold for Ca2+ and Na+ currents and was sufficient to inhibit spontaneous action potentials. Hormone secretion was significantly suppressed by somatostatin and cobalt ions. Therefore, we suggest that Ca2+ entering the cell through voltage-dependent channels are playing an important role for GH secretion and that somatostatin suppresses GH secretion by blocking Ca2+ currents. Finally, we discuss other possibilities for the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on GH secretion.

  19. Protocadherin-19 and N-cadherin interact to control cell movements during anterior neurulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sayantanee; Emond, Michelle R; Jontes, James D

    2010-11-29

    The protocadherins comprise the largest subgroup within the cadherin superfamily, yet their cellular and developmental functions are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate that pcdh 19 (protocadherin 19) acts synergistically with n-cadherin (ncad) during anterior neurulation in zebrafish. In addition, Pcdh 19 and Ncad interact directly, forming a protein-protein complex both in vitro and in vivo. Although both molecules are required for calcium-dependent adhesion in a zebrafish cell line, the extracellular domain of Pcdh 19 does not exhibit adhesive activity, suggesting that the involvement of Pcdh 19 in cell adhesion is indirect. Quantitative analysis of in vivo two-photon time-lapse image sequences reveals that loss of either pcdh 19 or ncad impairs cell movements during neurulation, disrupting both the directedness of cell movements and the coherence of movements among neighboring cells. Our results suggest that Pcdh 19 and Ncad function together to regulate cell adhesion and to mediate morphogenetic movements during brain development.

  20. Pineal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Concomitant With Pituitary Prolactinoma: Possible Correlation Between 2 Distinguished Pathologies: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Shin; Noh, Myung-Giun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2016-02-01

    This is the first reported case of pineal lymphoma with concomitant prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma.A 51-year-old male experienced worsening headaches accompanied by nausea, diplopia, and memory loss for 1 month. Cranial nerve examination revealed bilateral upward gaze limitation with convergence impairment, which is known as Parinaud syndrome. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the pineal gland with a coexisting mass within the enlarged sella fossa. Hormone analysis revealed hyperprolactinemia. The pineal mass was removed without injuring the hypothalamus, brain stem, or any neighboring vessels. Pathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the pineal gland. After further studies, the pineal lymphoma was determined to be a secondary tumor from a gastric primary tumor. The patient died 6 months after diagnosis due to systemic progression of DLBCL.Although the mechanistic link between hyperprolactinemia and lymphoma progression has not been clarified on a clinical basis, high prolactin levels may contribute to the rapid progression and therapeutic resistance of the lymphoma. PMID:26937937

  1. Pineal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Concomitant With Pituitary Prolactinoma: Possible Correlation Between 2 Distinguished Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Shin; Noh, Myung-Giun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This is the first reported case of pineal lymphoma with concomitant prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma. A 51-year-old male experienced worsening headaches accompanied by nausea, diplopia, and memory loss for 1 month. Cranial nerve examination revealed bilateral upward gaze limitation with convergence impairment, which is known as Parinaud syndrome. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the pineal gland with a coexisting mass within the enlarged sella fossa. Hormone analysis revealed hyperprolactinemia. The pineal mass was removed without injuring the hypothalamus, brain stem, or any neighboring vessels. Pathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the pineal gland. After further studies, the pineal lymphoma was determined to be a secondary tumor from a gastric primary tumor. The patient died 6 months after diagnosis due to systemic progression of DLBCL. Although the mechanistic link between hyperprolactinemia and lymphoma progression has not been clarified on a clinical basis, high prolactin levels may contribute to the rapid progression and therapeutic resistance of the lymphoma. PMID:26937937

  2. Pineal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Concomitant With Pituitary Prolactinoma: Possible Correlation Between 2 Distinguished Pathologies: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Shin; Noh, Myung-Giun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2016-02-01

    This is the first reported case of pineal lymphoma with concomitant prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma.A 51-year-old male experienced worsening headaches accompanied by nausea, diplopia, and memory loss for 1 month. Cranial nerve examination revealed bilateral upward gaze limitation with convergence impairment, which is known as Parinaud syndrome. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the pineal gland with a coexisting mass within the enlarged sella fossa. Hormone analysis revealed hyperprolactinemia. The pineal mass was removed without injuring the hypothalamus, brain stem, or any neighboring vessels. Pathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the pineal gland. After further studies, the pineal lymphoma was determined to be a secondary tumor from a gastric primary tumor. The patient died 6 months after diagnosis due to systemic progression of DLBCL.Although the mechanistic link between hyperprolactinemia and lymphoma progression has not been clarified on a clinical basis, high prolactin levels may contribute to the rapid progression and therapeutic resistance of the lymphoma.

  3. Automated detection of inflammatory cells in whole anterior chamber of a uveitis mouse from swept-source optical coherence tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Cell grading in a rodent anterior chamber is essential for anterior inflammation evaluation in preclinical vision research. This paper describes a computerized method for detection and counting of the anterior chamber cells from swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) images of a experimental rodent model of uveitis. The volumetric anterior segment OCT data is obtained from 100 kHz SS-OCT imaging of mouse eye in vivo. For the OCT cross-sections, each OCT structural image is de-speckled and binarized. After removal of cornea, iris, and crystalline lens structures connected to the binary image border, an area thresholding is then employed for each labeled region to isolate only celllike objects in the anterior chamber, followed by roundness estimation of the objects to identify potential cell candidates in the data. Eventually, the cell candidates are counted and graded as total number of cells in the anterior chamber.

  4. The effect of blocking angiogenesis on anterior cruciate ligament healing following stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Koji; Kawakami, Yohei; Mifune, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Tang, Ying; Cummins, James H; Greco, Nick; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Wang, Bing; Fu, Freddie H; Huard, Johnny

    2015-08-01

    Ruptured human anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) contain vascular stem cells capable of enhancing the healing of tendon grafts. In the current study we explored the role that neo-angiogenesis plays in ACL healing. ACL-derived CD34+ cells were isolated via Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) from the rupture sites of human ACLs. The cells were then virally transduced to express either vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or soluble FLT-1 (sFLT-1), which is an antagonist of VEGF. We established five groups: CD34+VEGF(100%), where 100% of the cells were transduced with VEGF, CD34+VEGF(25%), where only 25% of the cells were transduced with VEGF, CD34+, CD34+sFLT-1, and a No cells group. The CD34+sFLT1 group had a significant reduction in biomechanical strength compared to the CD34+ group at 4 and 8 weeks; whereas the biomechanical strength of the CD34+VEGF(25%) group was significantly greater than the CD34+ group at week 4; however, no difference was observed by week 8. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated a significantly lower number of isolectin B4 and hCD31 positive cells, markers associated with angiogenesis, in the CD34+sFLT1 group, and a higher number of isolectin B4 and hCD31 positive cells in the CD34+VEGF(100%) and CD34+VEGF(25%) groups compared to the CD34+ group. Graft maturation was significantly delayed in the CD34+sFLT1 group and accelerated in the CD34+VEGF(25%) group compared to the CD34+ group. In conclusion, blocking VEGF reduced angiogenesis, graft maturation and biomechanical strength following ACL reconstruction. Native expression of VEGF by the CD34+ cells improved tendon graft maturation and biomechanical strength; however, over-expression of VEGF impeded improvements in biomechanical strength.

  5. Inhibitory effect of resveratrol on the proliferation of GH3 pituitary-adenoma cells and voltage-dependent potassium current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Chu; Lanlan Wei; Chao Wang; Yu Cheng; Kongbin Yang; Baofeng Yang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Recent researches indicate that activation of potassium channel is likely to cause many kinds of cells to proliferate and differentiate;using chemical to block the potassium channel can restrain the proliferation of small lung-cancer cells.breast cancer.prostate cancer and human lymphocyte,etc.Previous researches proved that resveratrol(RE),a selective estrogen receptor modulator(SERM).could inhibit growth of GH3 calls,induce apoptosis,and resist tumor through interfering K+ channel.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of RE on Voltage-dependent K+ current [Ik(v)] and cell proliferation in GH3 pituitary-tumor cells.DESIGN:Observational contrast study.SETTING:Department of Neurosurgery.the First Clinical Hospital of Harbin Medical University;Department of Microbiology,Harbin Medical University;Department of Pharmacology,Harbin Medical University.MATERIALS: GH3 pituitary-tumor cell line of rats was purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC).RE and[3-(4,5-dimethylthiazo1-2-y1)-2.5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide](MTT)were obtained from Sigma Chemical CO,St Louis,USA;Ham's F-10 medium from Gibco BRL;Equine serum and fetal bovine serum from Hyclone Laboratories,Logan,UT;FACSCalibur flow cytometer from BD Company,USA.RE was dissolved in ethanol and stored at-20 ℃.It was diluted to different concentrations (10.50,100 μmol/L)with medium and extra cellular solution when needed.rhe final concentration of ethanol was Jess than 0.01%.METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Department of Microbiology and Pharmacology of Harbin Medical University from March 2005 to January 2006.①Cell preparation:Proliferating indexes affected by 10.50 and 100 μmol/L RE were measured with MTT,respectively.0.0001 volume fraction of ethan ol was added into control group.Inhibitory rate of cellular growth was calculated as the following formula:Inhibitory rate (%)=(1-A value in experimental group/A value in control group)x100%.The experiments mentioned above were

  6. Pituitary Disorders Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of drugs can help relieve pituitary problems. Prolactinomas, for example, respond well to a dopamine agonist ... is caused by the treatment you have for pituitary tumors. Surgery or radiation therapy, for example, can lead ...

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Enhancing Biologic Healing after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ki-Mo; Lim, Hong Chul; Bae, Ji Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using tendon grafts is the current gold standard for the treatment of ACL tears in active patients. However, many patients still experience residual knee instability, knee pain and progressive cartilage degeneration following ACL reconstruction. Recent developments in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based approaches for treating musculoskeletal injuries have led to the application of MSCs for enhancing healing after ACL injuries. The purpose of this article is to review recent pre-clinical and clinical studies using MSCs for the enhancement of biologic healing of ACL injuries. Because of the success of pre-clinical studies, MSC-based approaches are now thought to be promising treatment options for enhancing biologic healing of ACL grafts and restoring the functional properties to the levels of the native ACL, and ultimately improving clinical outcomes.

  8. Ammonia differentially suppresses the cAMP chemotaxis of anterior-like cells and prestalk cells in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ira N Feit; Erika J Medynski; Michael J Rothrock

    2001-06-01

    A drop assay for chemotaxis to cAMP confirms that both anterior-like cells (ALC) and prestalk cells (pst cells) respond to cAMP gradients. We present evidence that the chemotactic response of both ALC and pst cells is suppressed by ammonia, but a higher concentration of ammonia is required to suppress the response in pst cells. ALC show a chemotactic response to cAMP when moving on a substratum of prespore cells in isolated slug posteriors incubated under oxygen. ALC chemotaxis on a prespore cell substratum is suppressed by the same concentration of ammonia that suppresses ALC chemotaxis on the agar substratum in drop assays. Chemotaxis suppression is mediated by the unprotonated (NH3) species of ammonia. The observed suppression, by ammonia, of ALC chemotaxis to cAMP supports our earlier hypothesis that ammonia is the tip-produced suppressor of such chemotaxis. We discuss implications of ammonia sensitivity of pst cells and ALC with regard to the movement and localization of ALC and pst cells in the slug and to the roles played by ALC in fruiting body formation. In addition, we suggest that a progressive decrease in sensitivity to ammonia is an important part of the maturation of ALC into pst cells.

  9. Chemo-thermotherapy for radiation-induced squamous cell carcinoma in anterior chest wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Ken; Doi, Osamu; Higashiyama, Masahiko; Yokouchi, Hideki; Noguchi, Shinzaburo; Koyama, Hiroki (Osaka Prefectural Center for Adult Diseases (Japan))

    1992-09-01

    A 62 years-old woman had visited our hospital with the large and deep ulcer formation on the left anterior chest wall. A biopsy of the ulcerous lesion established the diagnosis of a squamous cell carcinoma which might be induced by the irradiation after mastectomy. Although a wide resection of the chest wall including left arm was performed, it was impossible to resect completely. After then, she had operations for local recurrence three times in three years. However, cure was not obtained, and residual lesions gradually enlarged and all layers of the anterior chest wall were replaced with tumor tissues. Conventional chemotherapy using futraful and mytomycin C was not effective. Therefore, we tried combined therapy with intravenous administration of cisplatin (CDDP) and vindesine (VDS), and local hyperthermia using radiofrequency (RF) wave. A total number of 11 courses of this treatment modality was carried out at once a week intervals. The tumor-temperature was maintained at the range of 40-43degC for 40 min in each treatment session. Chemotherapeutic agents were administered simultaneously with hyperthermia. After these treatment, the recurrent tumor was markedly reduced, and epithelization of the ulcer was recognized from the surrounding normal skin. The residual tumor was then resected completely. The operative wound was successfully closed by surrounding normal tissue mobilization. She is in good postoperative condition. We concluded that the chemo-thermotherapy is safe and promising therapeutic modality for such invasive squamous cell carcinoma, and the normal tissues are not affected. Furthermore, this approach will expand the scope of radical resection for such an uncontrollable tumor. (author).

  10. [Chemo-thermotherapy of radiation-induced squamous cell carcinoma in anterior chest wall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, K; Doi, O; Higashiyama, M; Yokouchi, H; Noguchi, S; Koyama, H

    1992-09-01

    A 62-year-old woman had visited our hospital with the large and deep ulcer formation on the left anterior chest wall. A biopsy of the ulcerous lesion established the diagnosis of a squamous cell carcinoma which might be induced by the irradiation after mastectomy. Although a wide resection of the chest wall including left arm was performed, it was impossible to resect completely. After then, she had operations for local recurrence for three times in three years. However, cure was not obtained, and residual lesions gradually enlarged and all layers of the anterior chest wall was replaced with tumor tissues. Conventional chemotherapy using ftorafur and mitomycin C was not effective. Therefore, we tried combined therapy with intravenous administration of cisplatin (CDDP) and vindesine (VDS), and local hyperthermia using radiofrequency (RF) wave. A total number of 11 courses of this treatment modality was carried out at once a week intervals. The tumor-temperature was maintained at the range of 40-43 degrees C for 40 min in each treatment session. Chemotherapeutic agents were administered simultaneously with hyperthermia. After these treatments, the recurrent tumor was markedly reduced, and epithelization of the ulcer was recognized from the surrounding normal skin. The residual tumor was then resected completely. The operative wound was successfully closed by surrounding normal tissue mobilization. She is in good postoperative condition. We concluded that the chemo-thermotherapy is safe and promising therapeutic modality for such invasive squamous cell carcinoma, and the normal tissues are not affected. Furthermore, this approach will expand the scope of radical resection for such an uncontrollable tumor.

  11. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Beatty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s. Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should immediately start empiric antibiotics and request a neurosurgical consult when pituitary abscess is suspected. Escherichia coli (E. coli causing intracranial infections are not well understood and are uncommon in adults. We present an interesting case of an immunocompetent male with a history of hypogonadism presenting with worsening headache and acute right eye vision loss. He was found to have a polymicrobial pituitary abscess predominantly involving E.   coli in addition to Actinomyces odontolyticus and Prevotella melaninogenica in the setting of an apoplectic pituitary prolactinoma. The definitive etiology of this infection was not determined but an odontogenic process was suspected. A chronic third molar eruption and impaction in close proximity to the pituitary gland likely led to contiguous spread of opportunistic oral microorganisms allowing for a polymicrobial pituitary abscess formation.

  12. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Norman; Medina-Garcia, Luis; Al Mohajer, Mayar; Zangeneh, Tirdad T

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s). Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should immediately start empiric antibiotics and request a neurosurgical consult when pituitary abscess is suspected. Escherichia coli (E. coli) causing intracranial infections are not well understood and are uncommon in adults. We present an interesting case of an immunocompetent male with a history of hypogonadism presenting with worsening headache and acute right eye vision loss. He was found to have a polymicrobial pituitary abscess predominantly involving E.   coli in addition to Actinomyces odontolyticus and Prevotella melaninogenica in the setting of an apoplectic pituitary prolactinoma. The definitive etiology of this infection was not determined but an odontogenic process was suspected. A chronic third molar eruption and impaction in close proximity to the pituitary gland likely led to contiguous spread of opportunistic oral microorganisms allowing for a polymicrobial pituitary abscess formation. PMID:27006841

  13. A pediatric case of pituitary macroadenoma presenting with pituitary apoplexy and cranial nerve involvement: case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçetin, Mustafa; Karacı, Mehmet; Toroslu, Ertuğ; Edebali, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas usually arise from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and are manifested with hormonal disorders or mass effect. Mass effect usually occurs in nonfunctional tumors. Pituitary adenomas may be manifested with visual field defects or rarely in the form of total oculomotor palsy. Visual field defect is most frequently in the form of bitemporal hemianopsia and superior temporal defect. Sudden loss of vision, papilledema and ophthalmoplegia may be observed. Pituitary apoplexy is defined as an acute clinical syndrome characterized with headache, vomiting, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia and clouding of consciousness. The problem leading to pituitary apoplexy may be decreased blood supply in the adenoma and hemorrhage following this decrease or hemorrhage alone. In this article, we present a patient who presented with fever, vomiting and sudden loss of vision and limited outward gaze in the left eye following trauma and who was found to have pituitary macroadenoma causing compression of the optic chiasma and optic nerve on the left side on cranial and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. The adhesion GPCR latrophilin - a novel signaling cascade in oriented cell division and anterior-posterior polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Jana; Prömel, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Although several signaling pathways in oriented cell division have been well characterized such as delta/notch inductions or wnt/frizzled-based anterior-posterior polarity, there is strong evidence for additional signal pathways controlling early anterior-posterior polarity decisions. The homolog of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor latrophilin, LAT-1 has been identified as a receptor essential for oriented cell division in an anterior-posterior direction of specific blastomeres in the early C. elegans embryo. We recently conducted a study aiming at clarifying the signals involved in LAT-1 function. We identified a Gs protein/adenylyl cyclase/cAMP pathway in vitro and demonstrated its physiological relevance in oriented cell division. By interaction with a Gs protein LAT-1 elevates cAMP levels. These data indicate that G-protein signaling in oriented cell division is not solely GPCR-independent. This commentary will discuss our findings in the context of the current knowledge of mechanisms controlling oriented cell division and anterior-posterior polarity. Further, we identify open questions which need to be addressed in the future.

  15. Pregnancy and pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezer, Andrea; Jallad, Raquel S; Machado, Marcio C; Fragoso, Maria C; Bronstein, Marcello D

    2016-09-01

    Infertility is frequent in patients harboring pituitary adenomas. The mechanisms involved include hypogonadism secondary to hormonal hypersecretion (prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol), stalk disconnection and pituitary damage. With the improvement of clinical and surgical treatment, pregnancy in women harboring pituitary adenomas turned into a reality. Pituitary hormonal hyper- and hyposecretion influences pregnancy outcomes, as well as pregnancy can interfere on pituitary tumors, especially in prolactinomas. We review literature about specific follow-up and management in pregnant women harboring prolactinomas, acromegaly, or Cushings disease and the impact of clinical and surgical treatment on each condition. PMID:26977888

  16. Interaction of co-expressed mu- and delta-opioid receptors in transfected rat pituitary GH(3) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N A; Prather, P L

    2001-04-01

    mu- and delta-Opioid agonists interact in a synergistic manner to produce analgesia in several animal models. Additionally, receptor binding studies using membranes derived from brain tissue indicate that interactions between mu- and delta-opioid receptors might be responsible for the observation of multiple opioid receptor subtypes. To examine potential interactions between mu- and delta-opioid receptors, we examined receptor binding and functional characteristics of mu-, delta-, or both mu- and delta-opioid receptors stably transfected in rat pituitary GH(3) cells (GH(3)MOR, GH(3)DOR, and GH(3)MORDOR, respectively). Saturation and competition binding experiments revealed that coexpression of mu- and delta-opioid receptors resulted in the appearance of multiple affinity states for mu- but not delta-opioid receptors. Additionally, coadministration of selective mu- and delta-opioid agonists in GH(3)MORDOR cells resulted in a synergistic competition with [(3)H][D-Pen(2,5)]enkephalin (DPDPE) for delta-opioid receptors. Finally, when equally effective concentrations of [D-Ala(2),N-MePhe(4),Gly-ol(5)]enkephalin (DAMGO) and two different delta-opioid agonists (DPDPE or 2-methyl-4a alpha-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,3,4,4a,5,12,12a alpha-octahydroquinolino-[2,3,3-g]-isoquinoline; TAN67) were coadministered in GH(3)MORDOR cells, a synergistic inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity was observed. These results strongly suggest that cotransfection of mu- and delta-opioid receptors alters the binding and functional characteristics of the receptors. Therefore, we propose that the simultaneous exposure of GH(3)MORDOR cells to selective mu- and delta-opioid agonists produces an interaction between receptors resulting in enhanced receptor binding. This effect is translated into an augmented ability of these agonists to inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity. Similar interactions occurring in neurons that express both mu- and delta-opioid receptors could explain observations of multiple

  17. Management of nonfunctioning pituitary incidentaloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Françoise; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Cazabat, Laure; Boulin, Anne; Cotton, François; Bonneville, Jean-François; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Vidal-Trécan, Gwénaelle; Chanson, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Prevalence of pituitary incidentaloma is variable: between 1.4% and 27% at autopsy, and between 3.7% and 37% on imaging. Pituitary microincidentalomas (serendipitously discovered adenoma 1cm in diameter) show increased size in 20-24% and 34-40% of cases at respectively 4 and 8years' follow-up. Radiologic differential diagnosis requires MRI centered on the pituitary gland. Initial assessment of nonfunctioning (NF) microincidentaloma is firstly clinical, the endocrinologist looking for signs of hypersecretion (signs of hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly or Cushing's syndrome), followed up by systematic prolactin and IGF-1 assay. Initial assessment of NF macroincidentaloma is clinical, the endocrinologist looking for signs of hormonal hypersecretion or hypopituitarism, followed up by hormonal assay to screen for hypersecretion or hormonal deficiency and by ophthalmologic assessment (visual acuity and visual field) if and only if the lesion is near the optic chiasm (OC). NF microincidentaloma of less than 5mm requires no surveillance; those of≥5mm are not operated on but rather monitored on MRI at 6months and then 2years. Macroincidentaloma remote from the OC is monitored on MRI at 1year, with hormonal exploration (for anterior pituitary deficiency), then every 2years. When macroincidentaloma located near the OC is managed by surveillance rather than surgery, MRI is recommended at 6months, with hormonal and visual exploration, then annual MRI and hormonal and visual assessment every 6months. Surgery is indicated in the following cases: evolutive NF microincidentaloma, NF macroincidentaloma associated with hypopituitarism or showing progression, incidentaloma compressing the OC, possible malignancy, non-compliant patient, pregnancy desired in the short-term, or context at risk of apoplexy.

  18. Giant Cell Tumor of Rib Arising Anteriorly as a Large Inframammary Mass: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sharma

    2012-01-01

    posteriorly. The rarity of this tumor poses diagnostic and therapeutic problems for physicians, especially when it is located in the anterior arc of the rib in close proximity to the breasts in female patients. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 32-year-old Asian female with a giant cell tumor of her anterior rib, presenting as a large inframammary mass. Computed tomography showed a tumor arising from the 7th rib anteriorly with marginal sclerosis, cortical destruction, and a soft tissue mass. She was treated with surgical resection, and the defect was reconstructed primarily. The surgical specimen measured 28.0 × 24.0 cm. The microscopic examination showed a large number of multinucleate giant cells scattered over the parenchyma. Patient recovered uneventfully and continues to be recurrence-free six years after surgical resection. Conclusion. We report the largest known case of giant cell tumor arising from the anterior aspect of a rib. We recommend including giant cell tumor in the differential diagnosis of chest wall masses especially in female patients, regardless of the size on clinical examination.

  19. Neuromedin B stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, C K; Patel, S A; Thompson, E L; Patterson, M; Curtis, A E; Amin, A; Chen, K; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Murphy, K G

    2013-11-10

    Neuromedin B (NMB) is a highly conserved bombesin-related peptide found in mammals. NMB mRNA is detected in the central nervous system (CNS) and is highly expressed in the rat hypothalamus, in particular the medial preoptic area and the arcuate nucleus. The mammalian bombesin family of receptors consists of three closely related G protein coupled receptors, BB1, BB2 and BB3. The BB1 receptor subtype has the highest affinity for NMB. NMB has well documented roles in the regulation of the thyroid axis and the stress axis in rats. However, there is little available data regarding the role of NMB in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. It is known that the NMB receptor is expressed in immortalised gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) releasing GT1-7 cells and murine forebrain GnRH neurons, and that anterior pituitary NMB-immunoreactivity is altered by changes in the sex steroid environment. The objective of these studies was thus to further investigate the effects of NMB on the HPG axis. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of NMB (10 nmol) to adult male rats significantly increased plasma luteinising hormone (LH) levels 30 min after injection (plasma LH ng/ml; saline 0.69±0.07, 10 nmol NMB 1.33±0.17, P<0.01). In vitro, NMB stimulated GnRH release from hypothalamic explants from male rats and from hypothalamic GT1-7 cells. NMB had no significant effect on LH release from anterior pituitary explants from male rats, or from pituitary LβT2 cells in vitro. These results suggest a previously unreported role for NMB in the stimulation of the HPG axis via hypothalamic GnRH. Further work is now required to determine the receptor mediating the effects of NMB on the reproductive axis and the physiological role of NMB in reproduction. PMID:24120470

  20. The effects of levofloxacin on rabbit anterior cruciate ligament cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yu; Chen, Biao; Qi, Yongjian [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Universite, Faculte de Medicine, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2011-11-15

    Articular cartilage, epiphyseal growth plate and tendons have been recognized as targets of fluoroquinolone-induced connective tissue toxicity. The effects of fluoroquinolones on ligament tissues are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of levofloxacin, a typical fluoroquinolone antibiotic drug, on rabbit anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) cells in vitro. Rabbit ACL cells were treated with levofloxacin at different concentrations (0, 14, 28, 56, 112 and 224 {mu}M) and were assessed to determine the possible cytotoxic effects of levofloxacin on ACL cells. Levofloxacin, with concentrations ranging from 28 to 224 {mu}M, induced dose-dependent ACL cell apoptosis. Characteristic markers of programmed cell death and degenerative changes were identified by electron microscopy in the ACL cells treated with 28 {mu}M of levofloxacin. Moreover, levofloxacin significantly increased the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) and MMP-13 and decreased the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) in a concentration-dependent manner; TIMP-3 and collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1A1) mRNA expression was not affected. Immunocytochemical analysis indicated that levofloxacin markedly increased the expression of active caspase-3 within a concentration range of 28 to 224 {mu}M, whereas a clear-cut decrease in Col1A1 expression was found with levofloxacin treatment concentrations of 112 and 224 {mu}M, compared to controls. Our data suggest that levofloxacin has cytotoxic effects on ACL cells characterized by enhanced apoptosis and decreased extracellular matrix, which suggest a potential adverse effect of fluoroquinolones. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Levofloxacin has cytotoxic effect on rabbit ACL cells in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Levofloxacin induces apoptosis in ACL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It decreases extracellular matrix by upregulation of matrix degrading enzymes. Black

  1. MRI of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios Nikiforos [University of Ioannina, Department of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2005-11-01

    In childhood, the MR characteristics of the normal pituitary gland are well established. During the first 2 months of life the adenohypophysis demonstrates high signal. Pituitary gland height (PGH) decreases during the 1st year of life and then increases, reaching a plateau after puberty. The magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) increases in both sexes up to the age of 20 years. On dynamic contrast-enhanced studies, the posterior pituitary lobe enhances simultaneously with the straight sinus, and the adenohypophysis later, but within 30 s. In genetically determined dysfunctional states, the adenohypophysis may be normal, hypoplastic, or enlarged. Pituitary enlargement, observed in Prop 1 gene mutations, is characterized by a mass interposed between the anterior and posterior lobes. An ectopic posterior lobe (EPP), associated with a hypoplastic or absent pituitary stalk, may be observed in patients with hypopituitarism. Tumors of the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) axis may be the origin of adenohypophyseal deficiencies. A small hypointense adenohypophysis is found in iron overload states and is often associated with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Absence of the posterior lobe bright signal, with or without a thick pituitary stalk or a mass at any site from the median eminence to the posterior pituitary lobe, may be found in diabetes insipidus. Hydrocephalus, suprasellar arachnoid cysts, hypothalamic hamartomas and craniopharyngiomas may result in central precocious puberty (CPP). Increased PGH in girls with idiopathic CPP is useful for its differential diagnosis from premature thelarche (PT). Pituitary adenomas, observed mainly in adolescents, present the same MR characteristics as those in adults. (orig.)

  2. Cervicoplastia anterior Anterior cervicoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Gomes Patrocínio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Muitos pacientes buscam correção estética da frouxidão da pele do pescoço, depósito de gordura na região submentoneana ou bandas de platisma. Em grande parte dos casos a ação medial, via cervicoplastia anterior é necessária. OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a casuística e avaliar os resultados e complicações com a técnica de cervicoplastia anterior no Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Relato de série. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Quarenta e dois pacientes, entre 39 e 65 anos de idade, sendo 40 (95,2% do sexo feminino e 2 (4,8% do masculino, foram submetidos a cervicoplastia anterior. Retrospectivamente foram avaliados resultados e complicações. RESULTADOS: Destes, 34 apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, 4 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo cirurgião, 3 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo paciente e 1 apresentou déficit estético necessitando cirurgia revisional. Ao estudo fotográfico, todos os pacientes apresentaram melhora do perfil cervical, redução das bandas de platisma e da frouxidão da pele, estabilização da musculatura cervical e acentuação do ângulo cervicomental, em graus variados. Houve complicação em 2 casos (discreto serohematoma e cicatriz um pouco alargada. CONCLUSÃO: A cervicoplastia, associada ou não à tração lateral pela ritidoplastia, é uma técnica que produz resultados satisfatórios na grande maioria dos casos.Many patients look for aesthetic correction of the laxity of neck skin, submandibular fat deposit or platisma bands. In a large part of the cases, medial action, through anterior cervicoplasty is necessary. AIM: To demonstrate the casuistic and to evaluate the results and complications with anterior cervicoplasty technique in the Otorhinolaryngology Service of the Federal University of Uberlândia. STUDY DESIGN: Serie report. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-two patients, between 39 and 65 years of age, being 40 (95

  3. Endocrine disrupting effects of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane analogues on gonadotropin hormones in pituitary gonadotrope cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinghua; Yang, Ye; Xiong, Kang; Liu, Jing

    2014-05-01

    It has been shown that exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) analogues leads to disharmony of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). However, the effects and mechanisms of DDT analogues on the expression of gonadotropin genes (FSHβ, LHβ and Cgα), which is the rate-limiting step of FSH and LH biosynthesis, remain unknown. In this study, we assessed the effects of p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and methoxychlor (MXC) on gonadotropin genes expression and hormones synthesis in gonadotrope cells. p,p'-DDT and MXC at test concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-7)mol/L, stimulated gonadotropin genes expression and hormones synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was required for the induction of gonadotropin genes expression and hormones synthesis by p,p'-DDT or MXC exposure. This study showed for the first time that p,p'-DDT and MXC regulated gonadotropin genes expression and hormones synthesis through ERK pathway in gonadotrope cells.

  4. Functional recovery of anterior semicircular canal afferents following hair cell regeneration in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Richard; Highstein, Stephen M.; Carey, John P.; Xu, Jinping

    2002-01-01

    Streptomycin sulfate (1.2 g/kg i.m.) was administered for 5 consecutive days to 5-7-day-old white Leghorn chicks; this causes damage to semicircular canal hair cells that ultimately regenerate to reform the sensory epithelium. During the recovery period, electrophysiological recordings were taken sequentially from anterior semicircular canal primary afferents using an indentation stimulus of the canal that has been shown to mimic rotational stimulation. Chicks were assigned to an early (14-18 days; n = 8), intermediate (28-34 days; n = 5), and late (38-58 days; n = 4) period based on days after treatment. Seven untreated chicks, 15-67 days old, provided control data. An absence of background and indent-induced discharge was the prominent feature of afferents in the early period: only "silent" afferents were encountered in 5/8 experiments. In several of these chicks, fascicles of afferent fibers were seen extending up to the epithelium that was void of hair cells, and intra- and extracellular biocytin labeling revealed afferent processes penetrating into the supporting cell layer of the crista. In 3/8 chicks 74 afferents could be characterized, and they significantly differed from controls (n = 130) by having a lower discharge rate and a negligible response to canal stimulation. In the intermediate period there was considerable variability in discharge properties of 121 afferents, but as a whole the number of "silent" fibers in the canal nerve diminished, the background rate increased, and a response to canal stimulation detected. Individually biocytin-labeled afferents had normal-appearing terminal specializations in the sensory epithelium by 28 days poststreptomycin. In the late period, afferents (n = 58) remained significantly different from controls in background discharge properties and response gain. The evidence suggests that a considerable amount of variability exists between chicks in the return of vestibular afferent function following ototoxic injury and

  5. 原发性甲状腺功能减退症与垂体反应性增生%Pituitary Hyperplasia Secondary to Primary Hypothyroidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴洲

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary hyperplasia is a non-neoplastic increase in the absolute number of anterior pituitary cells.As a pathological diagnosis, pituitary hyperplasia is different from pituitary adenoma.Pituitary responsive hyperplasia secondary to primary hypothyroidism frequently occurs, which is subject to the misdiagnosis as prolactinoma or thyrotropin-releasing hormone adenoma.The hyperplasia can be reversed by thyroid hormone replacement therapy.The recognition of such pituitary disease in children, especially the clinical and imaging characteristics, helps to avoid unnecessary operation.%垂体增生是垂体前叶细胞绝对数量的非肿瘤性增多,它是一种病理学诊断,区别于垂体腺瘤.原发性甲状腺功能减退症所致垂体反应性增生较常见,这种垂体增生有可能被误诊为催乳素瘤、促甲状腺激素瘤等,但它通常能被甲状腺素替代治疗所逆转.尤其在儿童,注意识别这种垂体病变,了解其临床特征及影像学特点,可以避免不必要的手术.

  6. Ectopic Neurohypophysis in Patient with Pituitary Dwarfism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Kılınç

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic neurohypophysis is an anomaly of the Pituitary gland whichmay be associated with short stature due to Growth hormone deficiency.MRI is the modality of choice in diagnosing this condition. We present acase of pituitary dwarfism and ectopic neurohypophysis with clinical andradiological findings. 21 year-old male admitted with short stature. Allhormones, except prolactin, of anterior hypophysis were low. Bright spotwas ectopically located at level of median eminence on enhanced MRI ofhypophysis and stalk of hypophysis was not observed. Ectopicneurohypophysis may be present with pituitary dwarfism. Cranial MRI maybe useful to investigate related pathologies in such cases.

  7. Alzheimer caregiver stress: basal natural killer cell activity, pituitary-adrenal cortical function, and sympathetic tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, M; Hauger, R; Patterson, T L; Semple, S; Ziegler, M; Grant, I

    1997-01-01

    The association between Alzheimer caregiving and natural killer (NK) cell activity and basal plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, beta-endorphin, prolactin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and neuropeptide Y was determined in 100 spousal Alzheimer caregivers and 33 age- and gender-comparable control volunteers upon intake into a study of the psychological and physiologic impact of caregiving. The relationship between these physiologic measures and individual characteristics such as age, gender, medical status, severity of stress, severity of depressive symptoms, and caregiver burden was tested. In addition, the association between NK activity and alterations of the neuroendocrine measures was investigated. As compared to controls, the Alzheimer caregivers had similar levels of NK activity and of basal plasma neuroendocrine hormones and sympathetic measures. While older age and male gender status were associated with increased levels of ACTH, neither medical caseness, severity of life stress, nor severity of depressive symptoms was associated with alterations in any of the multiple physiologic domains. Classification of Alzheimer caregiver burden identified caregivers who were mismatched in terms of the amount of care they were required to provide and the amount of respite time received. The mismatched caregivers had significantly higher basal plasma ACTH but no change in other physiological measures, as compared to non-mismatched caregivers. NK activity was negatively correlated with plasma levels of neuropeptide Y but not with any of the other neuroendocrine measures. Based on this cross-sectional evaluation of NK activity and neuroendocrine and sympathetic measures, we conclude that most Alzheimer caregivers do not show evidence of altered basal physiology.

  8. Does a nonclassical signaling mechanism underlie an increase of estradiol-mediated gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor binding in ovine pituitary cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy L; Whitesell, Jennifer D; Cantlon, Jeremy D; Clay, Colin M; Nett, Terry M

    2011-10-01

    Estradiol-17beta (E2) is the major regulator of GnRH receptor (GnRHR) gene expression and number during the periovulatory period; however, the mechanisms underlying E2 regulation of the GNRHR gene remain undefined. Herein, we find that E2 conjugated to BSA (E2-BSA) mimics the stimulatory effect of E2 on GnRH binding in primary cultures of ovine pituitary cells. The time course for maximal GnRH analog binding was similar for both E2 and E2-BSA. The ability of E2 and E2-BSA to increase GnRH analog binding was blocked by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182,780. Also, increased GnRH analog binding in response to E2 and the selective ESR1 agonist propylpyrazole triol was blocked by expression of a dominant-negative form of ESR1 (L540Q). Thus, membrane-associated ESR1 is the likely candidate for mediating E2 activation of the GNRHR gene. As cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is an established target for E2 activation in gonadotrophs, we next explored a potential role for this protein as an intracellular mediator of the E2 signal. Consistent with this possibility, adenoviral-mediated expression of a dominant-negative form of CREB (A-CREB) completely abolished the ability of E2 to increase GnRH analog binding in primary cultures of ovine pituitary cells. Finally, the presence of membrane-associated E2 binding sites on ovine pituitary cells was demonstrated using a fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate of E2-BSA. We suggest that E2 regulation of GnRHR number during the preovulatory period reflects a membrane site of action and may proceed through a nonclassical signaling mechanism, specifically a CREB-dependent pathway.

  9. Unusual Complication of Pituitary Macroadenoma: A Case Report and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mohamed Said; AlBerawi, Mohamad Najm; Bozom, Issam Al; Shaikh, Nissar F.; Salem, Khalid Yacout

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 48 Final Diagnosis: Pituitary apoplexy complicated by cerebral infarction Symptoms: Disturbed conscious level • loss of vision Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Radiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Pituitary macroadenoma is a common benign tumor that usually presents with visual field defects or hormonal abnormalities. Cerebral infarction can be a complication of a large pituitary adenoma. We report a rare case of bilateral anterior cerebral arteries infarcts by a large pituitary macroadenoma with apoplexy. Case Report: A 48-year-old male patient presented with altered conscious level and sudden loss of vision for one-day duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a large seller and suprasellar hemorrhagic mass of pituitary origin, with associated bilateral areas of diffusion restriction in the frontal parasagittal regions, consistent with infarctions. Magnetic resonance angiography showed elevation and compression of A1 segment of both anterior cerebral arteries by the hemorrhagic pituitary macroadenoma. The patient underwent trans-sphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma, but unfortunately, ischemia was irreversible. Computed tomography (CT) done post-operatively showed hypodensity in the frontal and parietal parasagittal areas, which was also persistent in the follow up CT scans. The patient’s neurological function remained poor, with GCS of 8/15, in vegetative state. Conclusions: Vascular complications of the pituitary apoplexy, although uncommon, can be very severe and life threatening. Early detection of vascular compromise caused by hemorrhagic pituitary macroadenoma can prevent delay in intervention. Clinicians should also consider pituitary adenoma as a possible cause of stroke. PMID:27708253

  10. Expression of mRNA for voltage-dependent and inward-rectifying K channels in GH3/B6 cells and rat pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfsen, I; Hauber, H P; Schiemann, D; Bauer, C K; Schwarz, J R

    2000-03-01

    The expression of mRNA for voltage-dependent (Kv) and inward-rectifying K channels (Kir) was studied in clonal rat somato-mammotroph cells (GH3/B6 cells) and rat pituitary using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In GH3/B6 cells transcripts for 16 different Kv channel alpha-subunits (seven Shaker-related: Kv1.2, Kv1.4, Kv1.5, Kv2.1, Kv3.2, Kv4.1, Kv5.1; six EAG: eag1, erg1, erg2, elk1-elk3; three KCNQ: KCNQ1-KCNQ3) and for five different Kir channel alpha-subunits (Kir1.1, Kir2.3, Kir3.2, Kir3.3, Kir6.2) were found. In addition, transcripts for a short isoform of Kvbeta2 and transcripts for Kvbeta3 subunits were present. In rat pituitary transcripts for 21 different Kv channel alpha-subunits (11 Shaker-related: Kv1.3, Kv1.4, Kv1.6, Kv2.1, Kv2.2, Kv3.2, Kv3.4, Kv4.1, Kv4.2, Kv4.3, Kv6.1; seven EAG: eag1, erg1-erg3, elk1-elk3; three KCNQ: KCNQ1-KCNQ3) and nine Kir channel alpha-subunits (Kir1.1, Kir2.2, Kir3.1-Kir3.4, Kir4.1, Kir6.1, Kir6. 2) were found. In addition, all tested auxiliary subunits (Kvbeta1-Kvbeta3, minK, SUR1, SUR2) are expressed in the pituitary. The results indicate that the macroscopic K currents in GH3/B6 and pituitary cells are presumably mediated by K channels constructed by a larger number of K channel alpha-subunits and auxiliary beta-subunits than previously distinguished electrophysiologically and pharmacologically. PMID:10718922

  11. Somatostatin receptor ligands and resistance to treatment in pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Fleseriu, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Somatostatin (SST), an inhibitory polypeptide with two biologically active forms SST14 and SST28, inhibits GH, prolactin (PRL), TSH, and ACTH secretion in the anterior pituitary gland. SST also has an antiproliferative effect inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Such actions are mediated through five G-protein-coupled somatostatin receptors (SSTR): SSTR1-SSTR5. In GH-secreting adenomas, SSTR2 expression predominates, and somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs; octreotide and lanreotide) directed to SSTR2 are presently the mainstays of medical therapy. However, about half of patients show incomplete biochemical remission, but the definition of resistance per se remains controversial. We summarize here the determinants of SRL resistance in acromegaly patients, including clinical, imaging features as well as molecular (mutations, SSTR variants, and polymorphisms), and histopathological (granulation pattern, and proteins and receptor expression) predictors. The role of SSTR5 may explain the partial responsiveness to SRLs in patients with adequate SSTR2 density in the cell membrane. In patients with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, i.e. Cushing's disease (CD), SSTR5 is the most abundant receptor expressed and tumors show low SSTR2 density due to hypercortisolism-induced SSTR2 down-regulation. Clinical studies with pasireotide, a multireceptor-targeted SRL with increased SSTR5 activity, lead to approval of pasireotide for treatment of patients with CD. Other SRL delivery modes (oral octreotide), multireceptor-targeted SRL (somatoprim) or chimeric compounds targeting dopamine D2 receptors and SSTR2 (dopastatin), are briefly discussed. PMID:24647046

  12. The influence of the pituitary tumor transforming gene-1 (PTTG-1 on survival of patients with small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer

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    Geddert Helene

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PTTG-1 (pituitary tumor transforming gene is a novel oncogene that is overexpressed in tumors, such as pituitary adenoma, breast and gastrointestinal cancers as well as in leukemia. In this study, we examined the role of PTTG-1 expression in lung cancer with regard to histological subtype, the correlation of PTTG-1 to clinical parameters and relation on patients' survival. Methods Expression of PTTG-1 was examined immunohistochemically on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 136 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC and 91 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, retrospectively. The intensity of PTTG-1 expression as well as the proportion of PTTG-1 positive cells within a tumor was used for univariate and multivariate analysis. Results PTTG-1 expression was observed in 64% of SCLC tumors and in 97.8% of NSCLC tumors. In patients with SCLC, negative or low PTTG-1 expression was associated with a shorter mean survival time compared with patients with strong PTTG-1 expression (265 ± 18 days vs. 379 ± 66 days; p = 0.0291. Using the Cox regression model for multivariate analysis, PTTG-1 expression was a significant predictor for survival next to performance status, tumor stage, LDH and hemoglobin. In contrast, in patients with NSCLC an inverse correlation between survival and PTTG-1 expression was seen. Strong PTTG-1 expression was associated with a shorter mean survival of 306 ± 58 days compared with 463 ± 55 days for those patients with no or low PTTG-1 intensities (p = 0.0386. Further, PTTG-1 expression was associated with a more aggressive NSCLC phenotype with an advanced pathological stage, extensive lymph node metastases, distant metastases and increased LDH level. Multivariate analysis using Cox regression confirmed the prognostic relevance of PTTG-1 expression next to performance status and tumor stage in patients with NSCLC. Conclusion Lung cancers belong to the group of tumors expressing

  13. Electrotonic Coupling in the Pituitary Supports the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in a Sex Specific Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göngrich, Christina; García-González, Diego; Le Magueresse, Corentin; Roth, Lena C.; Watanabe, Yasuhito; Burks, Deborah J.; Grinevich, Valery; Monyer, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Gap junctions are present in many cell types throughout the animal kingdom and allow fast intercellular electrical and chemical communication between neighboring cells. Connexin-36 (Cx36), the major neuronal gap junction protein, synchronizes cellular activity in the brain, but also in other organs. Here we identify a sex-specific role for Cx36 within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at the level of the anterior pituitary gland (AP). We show that Cx36 is expressed in gonadotropes of the AP sustaining their synchronous activity. Cx36 ablation affects the entire downstream HPG axis in females, but not in males. We demonstrate that Cx36-mediated coupling between gonadotropes in the AP supports gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced secretion of luteinizing hormone. Furthermore, we provide evidence for negative feedback regulation of Cx36 expression in the AP by estradiol. We thus, conclude that hormonally-controlled plasticity of gap junction communication at the level of the AP constitutes an additional mechanism affecting female reproduction. PMID:27587994

  14. Electrotonic Coupling in the Pituitary Supports the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in a Sex Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Göngrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gap junctions are present in many cell types throughout the animal kingdom and allow fast intercellular electrical and chemical communication between neighboring cells. Connexin-36 (Cx36, the major neuronal gap junction protein, synchronizes cellular activity in the brain, but also in other organs. Here we identify a sex-specific role for Cx36 within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis at the level of the anterior pituitary gland (AP. We show that Cx36 is expressed in gonadotropes of the AP sustaining their synchronous activity. Cx36 ablation affects the entire downstream HPG axis in females, but not in males. We demonstrate that Cx36-mediated coupling between gonadotropes in the AP supports gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced secretion of luteinizing hormone. Furthermore, we provide evidence for negative feedback regulation of Cx36 expression in the AP by estradiol. We thus conclude that hormonally-controlled plasticity of gap junction communication at the level of the AP constitutes an additional mechanism affecting female reproduction.

  15. Electrotonic Coupling in the Pituitary Supports the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in a Sex Specific Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göngrich, Christina; García-González, Diego; Le Magueresse, Corentin; Roth, Lena C; Watanabe, Yasuhito; Burks, Deborah J; Grinevich, Valery; Monyer, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Gap junctions are present in many cell types throughout the animal kingdom and allow fast intercellular electrical and chemical communication between neighboring cells. Connexin-36 (Cx36), the major neuronal gap junction protein, synchronizes cellular activity in the brain, but also in other organs. Here we identify a sex-specific role for Cx36 within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis at the level of the anterior pituitary gland (AP). We show that Cx36 is expressed in gonadotropes of the AP sustaining their synchronous activity. Cx36 ablation affects the entire downstream HPG axis in females, but not in males. We demonstrate that Cx36-mediated coupling between gonadotropes in the AP supports gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced secretion of luteinizing hormone. Furthermore, we provide evidence for negative feedback regulation of Cx36 expression in the AP by estradiol. We thus, conclude that hormonally-controlled plasticity of gap junction communication at the level of the AP constitutes an additional mechanism affecting female reproduction. PMID:27587994

  16. Immunocytochemical localization of secretory phospholipase A(2)-like protein in the pituitary gland and surrounding tissue of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Y; Kikuyama, S; Hayashi, H; Hanaoka, Y; Sakai, M; Tanaka, S

    2001-05-01

    Previously, we obtained a protein that has considerable amino acid sequence homology with secretory phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) from a bullfrog pituitary fraction obtained during the purification of thyrotropin (TSH). Subsequently, partial amino acid sequence (N-terminal 45 amino acid residues) analysis revealed this protein to be identical to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of otoconin-22, the major protein of aragonitic otoconia in the Xenopus saccule. In this study we developed an antibody against the N-terminal peptide of the bullfrog protein and applied it for immunocytochemical study of the pituitary and its surrounding tissue. Western blotting analysis showed that this antibody recognizes a 20.4-kD protein that has a molecular mass close to that of otoconin-22. Immunohistochemical reaction with the antibody was not found in any anterior pituitary cells but was intense in the monolayer epithelial cells of the endolymphatic sac surrounding the pituitary gland, which is a major storage site of calcium carbonate in amphibians. An electron microscopic study revealed that the cuboidal cells in the endolymphatic sac contained large, polymorphic secretory granules in their apical cytoplasm. Immunogold particles indicating the presence of a PLA(2)-like protein were observed predominately in these secretory granules. These findings support the view that this PLA(2)-like protein obtained during purification of TSH was derived from the endolymphatic sac adhering to the pituitary and that this protein is a bullfrog otoconin. (J Histochem Cytochem 49:631-637, 2001) PMID:11304801

  17. [A case of pituitary adenoma progressing to pituitary apoplexy on the occasion of cerebral angiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, T; Kagawa, S; Goto, H; Yoshioka, K; Hosoya, T

    1996-05-01

    A case of pituitary adenoma which had progressed from subclinical pituitary apoplexy to subacute pituitary apoplexy on the occasion of cerebral angiography is reported. A 29-year-old man, complaining of bitemporal hemianopsia, was admitted to our department. Plain skull X-p revealed enlargement and double floor of the sella turcica. No abnormal calcification was revealed. CT demonstrated an isodensity mass with a diameter of 4 x 4 cm, and with ring enhancement in the suprasellar region. The mass extended from the intrasellar region to the suprasellar region and had a signal of high intensity on T1-weighted images. Endocrinological examination revealed hyperprolactinemia with a serum level of 422 ng/ml and normal reaction of anterior pituitary hormones. On 3rd March, digital subtraction angiography with 5F catheter was performed with the patient under sedation. The contrast medium was ioxaglic acid (Hexabrix 320). A volume of 6 ml with a speed of 4 ml per second was injected for the internal carotid angiogram. A total volume of 60 ml was used. Serum saline with 10 unit per ml of heparin sodium was also used for flushing. During angiography, the patient's blood pressure was 125/60-115/60mm Hg. DSA revealed upward displacement of the proximal portion of the anterior cerebral artery, pocket formation, and staining of the tumor capsule. Six hours later, he complained of retroorbital headache. Next morning, he noticed complete lack of left visual acuity. On 7th March, right visual acuity degenerated to blindness. CT revealed that the mass had increased its density. With bifrontal osteoplastic craniotomy, the tumor with marked intratumoral hemorrhage was resected. Its histology was chromophobe adenoma. The patient's right visual acuity improved rapidly. On the occasion of cerebral angiography, we could observe that subclinical pituitary apoplexy deteriorated to subacute pituitary apoplexy. Rosenbaum postulated that injection of contrast media increased intravascular

  18. Stem cell-dependent formation of a functional anterior regeneration pole in planarians requires Zic and Forkhead transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogg, Matthias C; Owlarn, Suthira; Pérez Rico, Yuvia A; Xie, Jianlei; Suzuki, Yoko; Gentile, Luca; Wu, Wei; Bartscherer, Kerstin

    2014-06-15

    Planarians can regenerate their head within days. This process depends on the direction of adult stem cells to wound sites and the orchestration of their progenitors to commit to appropriate lineages and to arrange into patterned tissues. We identified a zinc finger transcription factor, Smed-ZicA, as a downstream target of Smed-FoxD, a Forkhead transcription factor required for head regeneration. Smed-zicA and Smed-FoxD are co-expressed with the Wnt inhibitor notum and the Activin inhibitor follistatin in a cluster of cells at the anterior-most tip of the regenerating head - the anterior regeneration pole - and in surrounding stem cell progeny. Depletion of Smed-zicA and Smed-FoxD by RNAi abolishes notum and follistatin expression at the pole and inhibits head formation downstream of initial polarity decisions. We suggest a model in which ZicA and FoxD transcription factors synergize to control the formation of Notum- and Follistatin-producing anterior pole cells. Pole formation might constitute an early step in regeneration, resulting in a signaling center that orchestrates cellular events in the growing tissue. PMID:24704339

  19. Stem cell-dependent formation of a functional anterior regeneration pole in planarians requires Zic and Forkhead transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogg, Matthias C; Owlarn, Suthira; Pérez Rico, Yuvia A; Xie, Jianlei; Suzuki, Yoko; Gentile, Luca; Wu, Wei; Bartscherer, Kerstin

    2014-06-15

    Planarians can regenerate their head within days. This process depends on the direction of adult stem cells to wound sites and the orchestration of their progenitors to commit to appropriate lineages and to arrange into patterned tissues. We identified a zinc finger transcription factor, Smed-ZicA, as a downstream target of Smed-FoxD, a Forkhead transcription factor required for head regeneration. Smed-zicA and Smed-FoxD are co-expressed with the Wnt inhibitor notum and the Activin inhibitor follistatin in a cluster of cells at the anterior-most tip of the regenerating head - the anterior regeneration pole - and in surrounding stem cell progeny. Depletion of Smed-zicA and Smed-FoxD by RNAi abolishes notum and follistatin expression at the pole and inhibits head formation downstream of initial polarity decisions. We suggest a model in which ZicA and FoxD transcription factors synergize to control the formation of Notum- and Follistatin-producing anterior pole cells. Pole formation might constitute an early step in regeneration, resulting in a signaling center that orchestrates cellular events in the growing tissue.

  20. Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults; Deficiencia progressiva dos hormonios adeno-hipofisarios apos radioterapia em adultos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Rafaela A.; Vaisman, Mario [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Endocrinologia]. E-mail: rafaela_loureiro@hotmail.com

    2004-10-01

    Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients. (author)

  1. The influence of the pituitary tumor transforming gene-1 (PTTG-1) on survival of patients with small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background PTTG-1 (pituitary tumor transforming gene) is a novel oncogene that is overexpressed in tumors, such as pituitary adenoma, breast and gastrointestinal cancers as well as in leukemia. In this study, we examined the role of PTTG-1 expression in lung cancer with regard to histological subtype, the correlation of PTTG-1 to clinical parameters and relation on patients' survival. Methods Expression of PTTG-1 was examined immunohistochemically on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded...

  2. Guanine nucleotide regulation of dopamine receptor agonist affinity states in rat estradiol-induced pituitary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Paolo, T.; Falardeau, P.

    1987-08-31

    The authors have investigated dopamine (DA) receptor agonist high- and low-affinity states in female rate estradiol-induced prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary tumors and intact pituitary tissue. Estradiol treatment increased the anterior pituitary weight 9-fold and plasma prolactin levels 74-fold and these measures are correlated (R = 0.745, n = 73, p < 0.001). Competition for (/sup 3/H)-spiperone binding to the DA receptor by apomorphine was compared in normal and adenomatous pituitary tissue. The inhibition constants (Ki) and the proportions of the two apomorphine sites are unchanged in tumors compared to intact pituitary tissue. Guanosine 5'-(..beta..-..gamma..-imino)triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) causes complete conversion of the high into low affinity dopaminergic agonist site in normal pituitary and in tumors. These results suggest that rats with primary estradiol-induced pituitary tumors have normal and functional DA receptors. 9 references, 2 tables.

  3. Pituitary prolactin adenoma with Toxoplasma gondii infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓晖; 李青; 程虹; 阎庆国; 黄高昇

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To report two recent cases of pituitary adenoma associated with Toxoplasma gondii (T.Gondii) infection.Methods: Histological changes were observed in H & E and PAS staining sections microscopically.Immunohistochemistry was performed to classify the pituitary tumors and to confirm the diagnosis of T.gondii.Results: The cases were 43- and 19-year-old females, in which the latter one was a recurring case, and radiology examination showed that tumors existed in sellar region.Microscopically, the tumors consisted of small homogenous polygonal or round cells with abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm.Immunohistochemistry revealed they were prolactin-producing adenomas.Interestingly, we found toxoplasma infection in the tumor tissues, being confirmed by T.gondii sepicific antibody immunohistochemistry.Conclusion: The association of pituitary adenoma with toxoplasma raises the possibility that T.gondii may be involved in the development of certain cases of pituitary adenoma.

  4. Morphometric changes of corneal endothelial cells following intracameral air for micro perforation of the Descemet Membrane during big-bubble deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashbala Khattak

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: The presence of air inside the anterior chamber for a short term may not cause further endothelial cell loss and can be safely performed to prevent postoperative Descemet Membrane detachment in case of micro perforations.

  5. Multi-cellular rosettes in the mouse visceral endoderm facilitate the ordered migration of anterior visceral endoderm cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Trichas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The visceral endoderm (VE is a simple epithelium that forms the outer layer of the egg-cylinder stage mouse embryo. The anterior visceral endoderm (AVE, a specialised subset of VE cells, is responsible for specifying anterior pattern. AVE cells show a stereotypic migratory behaviour within the VE, which is responsible for correctly orientating the anterior-posterior axis. The epithelial integrity of the VE is maintained during the course of AVE migration, which takes place by intercalation of AVE and other VE cells. Though a continuous epithelial sheet, the VE is characterised by two regions of dramatically different behaviour, one showing robust cell movement and intercalation (in which the AVE migrates and one that is static, with relatively little cell movement and mixing. Little is known about the cellular rearrangements that accommodate and influence the sustained directional movement of subsets of cells (such as the AVE within epithelia like the VE. This study uses an interdisciplinary approach to further our understanding of cell movement in epithelia. Using both wild-type embryos as well as mutants in which AVE migration is abnormal or arrested, we show that AVE migration is specifically linked to changes in cell packing in the VE and an increase in multi-cellular rosette arrangements (five or more cells meeting at a point. To probe the role of rosettes during AVE migration, we develop a mathematical model of cell movement in the VE. To do this, we use a vertex-based model, implemented on an ellipsoidal surface to represent a realistic geometry for the mouse egg-cylinder. The potential for rosette formation is included, along with various junctional rearrangements. Simulations suggest that while rosettes are not essential for AVE migration, they are crucial for the orderliness of this migration observed in embryos. Our simulations are similar to results from transgenic embryos in which Planar Cell Polarity (PCP signalling is disrupted

  6. Cathepsin L Plays a Major Role in Cholecystokinin Production in Mouse Brain Cortex and in Pituitary AtT-20 Cells: Protease Gene Knockout and Inhibitor Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinfeld, Margery C.; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Foulon, Thierry; Cadel, Sandrine; Kitagawa, Kouki; Toneff, Thomas; Reinheckel, Thomas; Peters, Christoph; Hook, Vivian

    2009-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide neurotransmitter whose production requires proteolytic processing of the proCCK precursor to generate active CCK8 neuropeptide in brain. This study demonstrates the significant role of the cysteine protease cathepsin L for CCK8 production. In cathepsin L knockout (KO) mice, CCK8 levels were substantially reduced in brain cortex by an average of 75%. To evaluate the role of cathepsin L in producing CCK in the regulated secretory pathway of neuroendocrine cells, pituitary AtT-20 cells that stably produce CCK were treated with the specific cathepsin L inhibitor, CLIK-148. CLIK-148 inhibitor treatment resulted in decreased amounts of CCK secreted from the regulated secretory pathway of AtT-20 cells. CLIK-148 also reduced cellular levels of CCK9 (Arg-CCK8), consistent with CCK9 as an intermediate product of cathepsin L, shown by the decreased ratio of CCK9/CCK8. The decreased CCK0/CCK8 ratio also suggests a shift in the production to CCK8 over CCK9 during inhibition of cathepsin L. During reduction of the PC1/3 processing enzyme by siRNA, the ratio of CCK9/CCK8 was increased, suggesting a shift to the cathepsin L pathway for production of CCK9. The changes in ratios of CCK9 compared to CCK8 are consistent with dual roles of the cathepsin L protease pathway that includes aminopeptidase B to remove NH2-terminal Arg or Lys, and the PC1/3 protease pathway. These results suggest that cathepsin L functions as a major protease responsible for CCK8 production in mouse brain cortex, and participates with PC1/3 for CCK8 production in pituitary cells. PMID:19589362

  7. RNAi-mediated knockdown of pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG1) suppresses the proliferation and invasive potential of PC3 human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, S.Q. [Department of Urology and Center of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Institute of Urology, Peking University and Department of Urology, First Hospital, Peking University, Beijing (China); Liao, Q.J.; Wang, X.W. [Department of Urology and Center of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xin, D.Q. [Institute of Urology, Peking University and Department of Urology, First Hospital, Peking University, Beijing (China); Chen, S.X.; Wu, Q.J.; Ye, G. [Department of Urology and Center of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2012-08-10

    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG1) is a proto-oncogene that promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis in numerous cell types and is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors. We have demonstrated that PTTG1 expression was up-regulated in both human prostate cancer specimens and prostate cancer cell lines. For a more direct assessment of the function of PTTG1 in prostate tumorigenesis, RNAi-mediated knockdown was used to selectively decrease PTTG1 expression in PC3 human prostate tumor cells. After three weeks of selection, colonies stably transfected with PTTG1-targeted RNAi (the knockdown PC3 cell line) or empty vector (the control PC3 cell line) were selected and expanded to investigate the role of PTTG1 expression in PC3 cell growth and invasion. Cell proliferation rate was significantly slower (28%) in the PTTG1 knockdown line after 6 days of growth as indicated by an MTT cell viability assay (P < 0.05). Similarly, a soft agar colony formation assay revealed significantly fewer (66.7%) PTTG1 knockdown PC3 cell colonies than control colonies after three weeks of growth. In addition, PTTG1 knockdown resulted in cell cycle arrest at G1 as indicated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The PTTG1 knockdown PC3 cell line also exhibited significantly reduced migration through Matrigel in a transwell assay of invasive potential, and down-regulation of PTTG1 could lead to increased sensitivity of these prostate cancer cells to a commonly used anticancer drug, taxol. Thus, PTTG1 expression is crucial for PC3 cell proliferation and invasion, and could be a promising new target for prostate cancer therapy.

  8. RNAi-mediated knockdown of pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG1) suppresses the proliferation and invasive potential of PC3 human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG1) is a proto-oncogene that promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis in numerous cell types and is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors. We have demonstrated that PTTG1 expression was up-regulated in both human prostate cancer specimens and prostate cancer cell lines. For a more direct assessment of the function of PTTG1 in prostate tumorigenesis, RNAi-mediated knockdown was used to selectively decrease PTTG1 expression in PC3 human prostate tumor cells. After three weeks of selection, colonies stably transfected with PTTG1-targeted RNAi (the knockdown PC3 cell line) or empty vector (the control PC3 cell line) were selected and expanded to investigate the role of PTTG1 expression in PC3 cell growth and invasion. Cell proliferation rate was significantly slower (28%) in the PTTG1 knockdown line after 6 days of growth as indicated by an MTT cell viability assay (P < 0.05). Similarly, a soft agar colony formation assay revealed significantly fewer (66.7%) PTTG1 knockdown PC3 cell colonies than control colonies after three weeks of growth. In addition, PTTG1 knockdown resulted in cell cycle arrest at G1 as indicated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The PTTG1 knockdown PC3 cell line also exhibited significantly reduced migration through Matrigel in a transwell assay of invasive potential, and down-regulation of PTTG1 could lead to increased sensitivity of these prostate cancer cells to a commonly used anticancer drug, taxol. Thus, PTTG1 expression is crucial for PC3 cell proliferation and invasion, and could be a promising new target for prostate cancer therapy

  9. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N;

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained...... increased amounts of cholecystokinin, the concentrations being extremely high in two: 8281 and 13,453 pmol per gram as compared with less than 30 pmol per gram in normal pituitary glands. The cholecystokinin concentrations were moderately increased in adenomas from another 12 patients, of whom 5 had Cushing...

  10. Nitric oxide and guanylate cyclase signalling are differentially involved in gonadotrophin (LH) release responses to two endogenous GnRHs from goldfish pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meints, A N; Pemberton, J G; Chang, J P

    2012-08-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity is present in goldfish gonadotrophs. The present study investigated whether two native goldfish gonadotrophin-releasing hormones (GnRHs), salmon (s)GnRH and chicken (c)GnRH-II, use NOS/nitric oxide (NO) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/cyclic (c)GMP/protein kinase G (PKG) signalling to stimulate maturational gonadotrophin [teleost gonadotrophin-II, luteinising hormone (LH)] release. In cell column perifusion experiments with dispersed goldfish pituitary cells, the application of three NOS inhibitors (aminoguanidine hemisulphate, 1400W and 7-nitroindazole) and two NO scavengers [2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) and rutin hydrate] reduced sGnRH-elicited, but not cGnRH-II-induced, LH increases. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) increased NO production in goldfish pituitary cells in static incubation. SNP-stimulated LH release in column perifusion was attenuated by PTIO and the sGC inhibitor 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-oneon (ODQ), and additive to responses elicited by cGnRH-II, but not sGnRH. ODQ and the PKG inhibitor KT5823 decreased sGnRH- and cGnRH-II-stimulated LH release. Similarly, the LH response to dibutyryl cGMP was reduced by KT5823. These results indicate that, although only sGnRH uses the NOS/NO pathway to stimulate LH release, both GnRHs utilise sGC/PKG to increase LH secretion. PMID:22487215

  11. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) contributes to the proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells in murine bone marrow via PACAP-specific receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhifang; Ohtaki, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Jun; Miyamoto, Kazuyuki; Murai, Norimitsu; Sasaki, Shun; Matsumoto, Minako; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Hiraizumi, Yutaka; Numazawa, Satoshi; Shioda, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, encoded by adcyap1) plays an important role in ectodermal development. However, the involvement of PACAP in the development of other germ layers is still unclear. This study assessed the expression of a PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1) gene and protein in mouse bone marrow (BM). Cells strongly expressing PAC1(+) were large in size, had oval nuclei, and merged with CD34(+) cells, suggesting that the former were hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Compared with wild-type mice, adcyap1(-/-) mice exhibited lower multiple potential progenitor cell populations and cell frequency in the S-phase of the cell cycle. Exogenous PACAP38 significantly increased the numbers of colony forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM) with two peaks in semi-solid culture. PACAP also increased the expression of cyclinD1 and Ki67 mRNAs. These increases were completely and partially inhibited by the PACAP receptor antagonists, PACAP6-38 and VIP6-28, respectively. Little or no adcyap1 was expressed in BM and the number of CFU-GM colonies was similar in adcyap1(-/-) and wild-type mice. However, PACAP mRNA and protein were expressed in paravertebral sympathetic ganglia, which innervate tibial BM, and in the sympathetic fibers of BM cavity. These results suggested that sympathetic nerve innervation may be responsible for PACAP-regulated hematopoiesis in BM, mainly via PAC1. PMID:26925806

  12. Pituitary Apoplexy Presented with Optic Neuritis

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    Mahsa Owji

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a 40-years-old woman presented with visual loss in the right eye since two days ago. The patient complained of headache with gradual onset in the right parietal area since 2 years ago. The headache pattern did not alter.The left eye was normal but the vision in the right eye was 50 cm finger counting. Marcus Gunn pupil could be observed during swinging-flashlight test in the right eye. According to these findings, the first diagnosis was optic neuritis which was corroborated with visual evoked potential (the latency of P100 was 122. According to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, there was a big cystic tumor in sella turcica extended to the suprasellar region (Figure 1-A. It had a large liquid component. Optic chiasm was under pressure and was displaced (Figure 1-B. A faint enhancement was seen after the injection (Figure 1-C.The patient was operated with the transnasal-transsphenoidal approach. Blood and fibrin were among the small monomorphic round cells andfibro-connective tissue of the pituitary gland. Considering the bleeding inside the pituitary tumor, the final diagnosis was pituitary apoplexy. After recovery from the operation the symptoms were removed.Pituitary apoplexy presents with headache, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia, and mental alterations which is caused by infarction or sudden bleeding inside the pituitary tumor.1In our review of literature, 3 patients afflicted with pituitary apoplexy presented with optic neuritis were reported.In a study conducted by Petersen et al., all three patients referred to them suffered from unilateral visual loss and headache. They were examined with the early diagnosis of optic neuritis. After taking a Brain Computerized tomography (CT scan, pituitary adenoma together with the formation of cyst were detected in patients. After transsphenoidal adenomectomy, the patient regained full vision. Therefore, the correct diagnosis of these patients, who had been incorrectly diagnosed with

  13. Engrafted human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived anterior specified neural progenitors protect the rat crushed optic nerve.

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    Leila Satarian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs is a common occurrence in several eye diseases. This study examined the functional improvement and protection of host RGCs in addition to the survival, integration and neuronal differentiation capabilities of anterior specified neural progenitors (NPs following intravitreal transplantation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NPs were produced under defined conditions from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs and transplanted into rats whose optic nerves have been crushed (ONC. hiPSCs were induced to differentiate into anterior specified NPs by the use of Noggin and retinoic acid. The hiPSC-NPs were labeled by green fluorescent protein or a fluorescent tracer 1,1' -dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI and injected two days after induction of ONC in hooded rats. Functional analysis according to visual evoked potential recordings showed significant amplitude recovery in animals transplanted with hiPSC-NPs. Retrograde labeling by an intra-collicular DiI injection showed significantly higher numbers of RGCs and spared axons in ONC rats treated with hiPSC-NPs or their conditioned medium (CM. The analysis of CM of hiPSC-NPs showed the secretion of ciliary neurotrophic factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor. Optic nerve of cell transplanted groups also had increased GAP43 immunoreactivity and myelin staining by FluoroMyelin™ which imply for protection of axons and myelin. At 60 days post-transplantation hiPSC-NPs were integrated into the ganglion cell layer of the retina and expressed neuronal markers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The transplantation of anterior specified NPs may improve optic nerve injury through neuroprotection and differentiation into neuronal lineages. These NPs possibly provide a promising new therapeutic approach for traumatic optic nerve injuries and loss of RGCs caused by other diseases.

  14. Nesfatin-1 regulates the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ronald; Shepperd, Erin; Thiruppugazh, Vetri; Lohan, Sneha; Grey, Caleb L; Chang, John P; Unniappan, Suraj

    2012-10-01

    Nesfatin-1 is an anorexigen in goldfish. In the present study, we provide novel data indicating the presence and regulatory effects of nesfatin-1 on the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis of goldfish. Nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2)/nesfatin-1-like immunoreactive (ir) cells are present in the hypothalamus and in the pituitary, suggesting a hypophysiotropic role for nesfatin-1. NUCB2/nesfatin-1-like ir cells colocalize gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the nucleus lateralis tuberis posterioris and the nucleus anterior tuberis of the goldfish hypothalamus. The presence of nesfatin-1 with GnRH in these two nuclei implicated in pituitary hormone release suggests a role for nesfatin-1 on gonadotropin secretion. A single i.p. injection of synthetic goldfish nesfatin-1 (50 ng/g body wt) resulted in an acute decrease (∼75%) in the expression of hypothalamic chicken GnRH-II and salmon GnRH mRNAs at 15 min postinjection in goldfish. Meanwhile, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) beta and follicle-stimulating hormone beta mRNAs were also inhibited (∼80%), but only at 60 min postinjection. Nesfatin-1 administration also resulted in a significant reduction (∼60%) in serum LH levels at 60 min postadministration. Nesfatin-1-like immunoreactivity was also found in the follicle cells, but not the oocytes, in zebrafish and goldfish ovaries. Incubation of zebrafish follicles with nesfatin-1 resulted in a significant reduction in basal germinal vesicle breakdown (∼50%) during the oocyte maturation. In addition, nesfatin-1 also attenuated the stimulatory effects of maturation-inducing hormone on germinal vesicle breakdown. Together, the current results indicate that nesfatin-1 is a metabolic hormone with an inhibitory tone on fish reproduction. Nesfatin-1 appears to elicit this suppressive effect through actions on all three tissues in the fish HPO axis. PMID:22895855

  15. Influence of maternal dexamethasone treatment on morphometric characteristics of pituitary GH cells and body weight in near-term rat fetuses.

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    V Milosević

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH and glucocorticoids have a powerful influence on controlling fetal growth, differentiation and maturation of numerous tissues. In the present study, the effect of maternal dexamethasone (Dx treatment on GH cells and body weight in 19- and 21-day-old rat fetuses was investigated using immunocytochemical and morphometric methods. Pregnant female rats received daily injections of 1.0-0.5-0.5 mg Dx/kg b.w. on days 16-18 of pregnancy (experimental group, while the control group received an equal volume of saline. Dx treatment of pregnant rats enhanced immunostaining intensity and significantly increased (p<0.05 GH nuclear and cell volume, as well as volume density and number of GH cells per square millimeter in 19-day-old fetuses compared to the controls. In 21-day-old fetuses after maternal Dx administration, immunoreactivity, volume density and number of GH cells remained significantly increased (p<0.05. Dx treatment of pregnant rats resulted in marked body weight reduction of 21-day-old but not 19 days old fetuses in comparison with the corresponding controls. The presented results demonstrate that maternal Dx application has pronounced effect on morphometric parameters of GH cells of 19- and 21-day-old fetuses. Also, in near-term rat fetuses body weight was largely independent of pituitary GH cell activity.

  16. What Are Pituitary Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too little makes you sluggish. If a pituitary tumor makes too much TSH, it can cause hyperthyroidism (an overactive thyroid gland). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also known as corticotropin ) causes ...

  17. EFFECTS OF CAGING DENSITY ON PITUITARY AND TESTICLE RELATED RESPONSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of caging density on pituitary and testicle related responses A significant negative correlation between the incidence of testicular interstitial cell tumors (ICT) and of pituitary tumors (PT) in control male F344 rats is reported associated with the number of ani...

  18. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in the treatment of pituitary adenomas

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    Kopp, C.; Theodorou, M.; Poullos, N.; Astner, S.T.; Geinitz, H.; Molls, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie; Stalla, G.K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Psychiatrie, Muenchen (Germany). Klinische Neuroendokrinologie; Meyer, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik; Nieder, C. [Nordland Hospital, Bodoe (Norway). Dept. of Oncology and Palliative Medicine; Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Grosu, A.L [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate tumor control and side effects associated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in the management of residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas. Patients and methods: We report on 37 consecutive patients with pituitary adenomas treated with FSRT at our department. All patients had previously undergone surgery. Twenty-nine patients had nonfunctioning, 8 had hormone-producing adenoma. The mean total dose delivered by a linear accelerator was 49.4 Gy (range 45-52.2 Gy), 5 x 1.8 Gy weekly. The mean PTV was 22.8 ccm (range 2.0-78.3 ccm). Evaluation included serial imaging tests, endocrinologic and ophthalmologic examination. Results: Tumor control was 91.9 % for a median follow-up time of 57 months (range 2-111 months). Before FSRT partial hypopituitarism was present in 41 % of patients, while 35 % had anterior panhypopituitarism. After FSRT pituitary function remained normal in 22 %, 43 % had partial pituitary dysfunction, and 35 % had anterior panhypopituitarism. Visual acuity was stable in 76 % of patients, improved in 19 %, and deteriorated in 5 %. Visual fields remained stable in 35 patients (95 %), improved in one and worsened in 1 patient (2.7 %). Conclusion: FSRT is an effective and safe treatment for recurrent or residual pituitary adenoma. Good local tumor control and preservation of adjacent structures can be reached, even for large tumors. (orig.)

  19. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in the treatment of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate tumor control and side effects associated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in the management of residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas. Patients and methods: We report on 37 consecutive patients with pituitary adenomas treated with FSRT at our department. All patients had previously undergone surgery. Twenty-nine patients had nonfunctioning, 8 had hormone-producing adenoma. The mean total dose delivered by a linear accelerator was 49.4 Gy (range 45-52.2 Gy), 5 x 1.8 Gy weekly. The mean PTV was 22.8 ccm (range 2.0-78.3 ccm). Evaluation included serial imaging tests, endocrinologic and ophthalmologic examination. Results: Tumor control was 91.9 % for a median follow-up time of 57 months (range 2-111 months). Before FSRT partial hypopituitarism was present in 41 % of patients, while 35 % had anterior panhypopituitarism. After FSRT pituitary function remained normal in 22 %, 43 % had partial pituitary dysfunction, and 35 % had anterior panhypopituitarism. Visual acuity was stable in 76 % of patients, improved in 19 %, and deteriorated in 5 %. Visual fields remained stable in 35 patients (95 %), improved in one and worsened in 1 patient (2.7 %). Conclusion: FSRT is an effective and safe treatment for recurrent or residual pituitary adenoma. Good local tumor control and preservation of adjacent structures can be reached, even for large tumors. (orig.)

  20. Diffuse large B-cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma in a 65-year-old woman presenting with hypopituitarism and recovering after chemotherapy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hyer Steve L; Kenchaiah Manohara

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Diffuse large B-cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma may involve the pituitary either as a primary central nervous system lymphoma or, more frequently, as metastasis from systemic lymphoma leading to hypopituitarism. A partial recovery of pituitary function after treatment with chemotherapy has previously been described but complete recovery with cessation of all hormone supplements is excessively rare. We report a patient presenting with anterior hypopituitarism with subsequent ...

  1. Studies on prolactin-secreting cells in aging rats of different strains. I. Alterations in pituitary histology and serum prolactin levels as related to ageing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van L.J.A.; Zwieten, van M.J.; Mattheij, J.A.M.; Kemenade, J.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Serum PRL levels and histologically tumor-free pituitary glands of 91 aging rats of the BN/BiRij strain, the WAG/Rij strain and their F1 hybrid were studied. In rats with pituitary glands without signs of hyperplasia, serum PRL levels were, in comparison to rats of 15-24 months, increased 25-29-mont

  2. Neuroendocrine disorders: pituitary imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faje, Alexander; Tritos, Nicholas A; Swearingen, Brooke; Klibanski, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Significant advances in pituitary imaging have taken place in the past several decades, including the introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This imaging modality has vastly improved our ability to detect and characterize sellar masses and more accurately characterize the extent and spread of lesions in and around the sella. Intraoperative MRI may help improve the completeness of resection of sellar masses. Other imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography (CT), and CT angiography, have an important role in specific cases. Interventional methods, including bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling, may establish the pituitary origin of corticotropin (ACTH) excess in patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. Pituitary imaging should be obtained in patients with pituitary hormone excess, hypopituitarism, or mass effect in the sella. Despite rapid advances in pituitary imaging, there are several diagnostic challenges remaining. Future research may help improve the radiographic detection of small sellar lesions, such as ACTH-secreting adenomas causing Cushing's disease, accurately characterize the type and extent of sellar pathologies, and provide prognostic information regarding their growth potential. PMID:27430447

  3. Pituitary apoplexy presenting as isolated third cranial nerve palsy with ptosis : two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won-Jin; Joo, Sung-Pil; Kim, Tae-Sun; Seo, Bo-Ra

    2009-02-01

    Pituitary apoplexy is a clinical syndrome caused by an acute ischemic or hemorrhagic vascular accident involving a pituitary adenoma or an adjacent pituitary gland. Pituitary apoplexy may be associated with a variety of neurological and endocrinological signs and symptoms. However, isolated third cranial nerve palsy with ptosis as the presenting sign of pituitary apoplexy is very rare. We describe two cases of pituitary apoplexy presenting as sudden-onset unilateral ptosis and diplopia. In one case, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass in the pituitary fossa with signs of hemorrhage, upward displacement of the optic chiasm, erosion of the sellar floor and invasion of the right cavernous sinus. In the other case, MRI showed a large area of insufficient enhancement in the anterior pituitary consistent with pituitary infarction or Sheehan's syndrome. We performed neurosurgical decompression via a transsphenoidal approach. Both patients showed an uneventful recovery. Both cases of isolated third cranial nerve palsy with ptosis completely resolved during the early postoperative period. We suggest that pituitary apoplexy should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with isolated third cranial nerve palsy with ptosis and that prompt neurosurgical decompression should be considered for the preservation of third cranial nerve function. PMID:19274125

  4. Hypothalamic-pituitary vascularization in pituitary stalk transection syndrome: is the pituitary stalk really transected? The role of gadolinium-DTPA with spin-echo T1 imaging and turbo-FLASH technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genovese, E. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Maghnie, M. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Beluffi, G. [Dept. of Radiodiagnosis, Section of Pediatric Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Villa, A. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Sammarchi, L. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Severi, F. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Campani, R. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    We examined 14 patients, aged 10-25 years, with idiopathic hypopituitarism. All presented an ectopic posterior pituitary at the median eminence with a hypoplastic anterior pituitary on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eight patients had isolated growth hormone deficit (IGHD) and six had multiple hormone deficits (MPHD). Unenhanced MRI showed the pituitary stalk, which was extremely thin, in only three patients, while T1-weighted images obtained after intravenous injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) showed a thin pituitary stalk in seven patients (six with IGHD and one with MPHD), demonstrating a preserved vascular component of the stalk. MRI with Gd-DTPA was more sensitive than unenhanced MRI in detecting the pituitary stalk in patients with hypopituitarism with an ectopic posterior pituitary: the stalk was demonstrated in 50 % of the cases (seven patients), versus 21.4 % (three patients) by unenhanced MRI. The dynamic study of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis performed with turbo-FLASH sequences after bolus injection of Gd-DTPA showed the residual anterior pituitary to have arterial enhancement times, which suggests that an arterial system compensates for the absent or diminished blood supply from the portal system, independent of stalk detection. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Anterior Mediastinal Mass in a Young Marijuana Smoker: A Rare Case of Small-Cell Lung Cancer

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    Jiten P. Kothadia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of cannabis is embedded within many societies, mostly used by the young and widely perceived to be safe. Increasing concern regarding the potential for cannabis to cause mental health effects has dominated cannabis research, and the potential adverse respiratory effects have received relatively little attention. We report a rare case of 22-year-old man who presented with bilateral neck lymphadenopathy, fatigue, and sore throat without significant medical or family history. The patient had smoked one marijuana joint three times a week for three years but no cigarettes. Chest CT demonstrated a large anterior mediastinal mass compressing the superior vena cava and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. A final diagnosis of small-cell lung cancer was reached. Although rare, a small-cell lung cancer in this patient should alert the physician that cannabis smoking may be a risk factor for lung cancer.

  6. Long-term application of diethylstilbestrol upregulates expressions of μ- and m-calpains in pituitary intermediate lobe of female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijiang Zhao; Fang Yuan; Guilin Li; Zhongfang Shi; Yun Cui; Yazhuo Zhang; Zhongcheng Wang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During formation of prolactin neoplasia, how cells and its structure in adenohypophysis affect prolactin cells should be further studied. Intermediate lobe can be regarded as a driving region to release prolactin (PRL) and may promote formation of prolactin neoplasia in pituitary anterior lobe. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of diethylstilbestrol (DES) on the expressions of μ and m-calpains in pituitary intermediate lobe of female Wistar rats. DESIGN: Observational contrast animal study. SETTING: Beijing Neurosurgical Institute.MATERIALS: A total of 21 female Wistar rats, 3 weeks old weighing 70 - 80 g were housed with free access to tap water and standard pellet food. They were kept in a CL-grade condition, at (24±1) ℃ and a humidity of (55±5)%, and with a 12 hours day-night cycle. Caprine anti-μ- and m-calpains antibodies were provided by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, CA, USA; rabbit-anti-PRL antibodies by Dako, Denmark; rabbit-anti-ACTH antibody by Boster Company, Wuhan.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in Pathophysiological Department and Animal Laboratory, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute from August 2006 to January 2007. ①Rats were randomly divided into groups with 7 in each group, including vehicle control group, in which rats were injected intraperitoneally with sun-flower seed oil (1 Ml/kg, twice a week) for 16 weeks; DES group, where animals were administered with DES (5 mg/kg, twice a week) for 16 weeks; DES + vehicle control group, in which DES was administered for 12 weeks at the same dose with those in DES group, and then was discontinued and replaced by sun-flower seed oil (1 Ml/kg, twice a week) for the following 4 weeks. ②At 16 weeks later, pituitary tissue was dealt with HE staining and PRL immunohistochemical examination to observe evoke of tumor; meanwhile, immunohistochemical examination was used to observe expression of PRL of pituitary anterior lobe, expressions ofμ- and m-calpains of pituitary intermediate lobe and

  7. Outcome After Pituitary Radiosurgery for Thalamic Pain Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes after pituitary radiosurgery in patients with post-stroke thalamic pain syndrome. Methods and Materials: From 2002 to 2006, 24 patients with thalamic pain syndrome underwent pituitary radiosurgery at Tokyo Women's Medical University and were followed at least 12 months thereafter. The radiosurgical target was defined as the pituitary gland and its connection with the pituitary stalk. The maximum dose varied from 140 to 180 Gy. Mean follow-up after treatment was 35 months (range, 12-48 months). Results: Initial pain reduction, usually within 48 h after radiosurgery, was marked in 17 patients (71%). However, in the majority of cases the pain recurred within 6 months after treatment, and at the time of the last follow-up examination durable pain control was marked in only 5 patients (21%). Ten patients (42%) had treatment-associated side effects. Anterior pituitary abnormalities were marked in 8 cases and required hormonal replacement therapy in 3; transient diabetes insipidus was observed in 2 cases, transient hyponatremia in 1, and clinical deterioration due to increase of the numbness severity despite significant reduction of pain was seen once. Conclusions: Pituitary radiosurgery for thalamic pain results in a high rate of initial efficacy and is accompanied by acceptable morbidity. It can be used as a primary minimally invasive management option for patients with post-stroke thalamic pain resistant to medical therapy. However, in the majority of cases pain recurrence occurs within 1 year after treatment

  8. Evaluation of pituitary adenomas by multidirectional multislice dynamic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Multidetector-row CT is a new technology with a short scanning time. Multislice dynamic CT (MSDCT) in various directions can be obtained using the multidetector-row CT with multiplanar reformatting (MPR) technique. Material and Methods: We evaluated the initial results of sagittal and coronal MSDCT images reconstructed by MPR (MSDCT-MPR) in 3 pituitary adenoma patients with a pacemaker. Results: In a patient with microadenoma, the maximum contrast between the normal anterior pituitary gland and the adenoma occurred approximately 50 s after the start of the contrast medium injection. A microadenoma was depicted as a less enhanced area relative to normal pituitary tissue. The macroadenomas were depicted as a less enhanced mass with cavernous sinus invasion in 1 patient and as a non-uniformly enhanced mass in another patient. Bone destruction and incomplete opening of the sellar floor during previous surgery were clearly detected in 2 patients with macroadenomas. These pituitary adenomas were removed via the transnasal route based on information from the MSDCT-MPR images only. The findings were verified surgically. Conclusion: The MSDCT-MPR provided the information needed for surgery with good image quality in the 3 patients with pacemakers. MSDCT-MPR appears to be a useful technique for patients with a pituitary adenoma in whom MR imaging is not available. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of the MSDCT-MPR technique being used to demonstrate pituitary disorders

  9. Pituitary Adenoma Segmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Egger, Jan; Kuhnt, Daniela; Freisleben, Bernd; Nimsky, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Sellar tumors are approximately 10-15% among all intracranial neoplasms. The most common sellar lesion is the pituitary adenoma. Manual segmentation is a time-consuming process that can be shortened by using adequate algorithms. In this contribution, we present a segmentation method for pituitary adenoma. The method is based on an algorithm we developed recently in previous work where the novel segmentation scheme was successfully used for segmentation of glioblastoma multiforme and provided an average Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 77%. This scheme is used for automatic adenoma segmentation. In our experimental evaluation, neurosurgeons with strong experiences in the treatment of pituitary adenoma performed manual slice-by-slice segmentation of 10 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cases. Afterwards, the segmentations were compared with the segmentation results of the proposed method via the DSC. The average DSC for all data sets was 77.49% +/- 4.52%. Compared with a manual segmentation that took, on the...

  10. Purification of an equine apotransferrin variant (thyromedin) essential for thyroid hormone dependent growth of GH1 rat pituitary tumor cells in chemically defined culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbasku, D A; Stewart, B H; Pakala, R; Eby, J E; Sato, H; Roscoe, J M

    1991-01-01

    Pituitary tumor cells require thyroid hormones for growth in vivo [Sorrentino, J. M., Kirkland, W. L., & Sirbasku, D. A. (1976) J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 56, 1155-1158]. In vitro, GH1 rat pituitary tumor cells were studied in a serum-free defined medium (PCM-10) formulated with Ham's F12 and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's media (1:1, v/v) supplemented with 2.2 g/L sodium bicarbonate, 15 mM 4-(2-hydroxy-ethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (pH 7.2), 10 micrograms/mL human transferrin, 50 microM ethanolamine, 10 micrograms/mL insulin, 10 ng/mL selenous acid, 0.1 nM 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and 500 micrograms/mL bovine serum albumin and in the same medium without T3 (PCM-0). The cells only grew in PCM-10 when low concentrations of horse serum were added. Attempts to replace the serum factor requirement with known growth factors and adhesion proteins were unsuccessful. The Mr 65,000-72,000 serum factor regulating T3-induced growth (thyromedin) was purified to homogeneity and identified as equine transferrin R and/or D by amino acid sequencing. The ED50 in PCM-10 was 17-40 micrograms/mL (260-620 nM) while in PCM-0 half-maximum growth was not achieved at 200 micrograms/mL. Concentrations of 75 micrograms/mL in PCM-10 caused 80% of serum-stimulated growth rate. Removal of iron from thyromedin, and assay in iron salts reduced PCM-10, increased the specific activity 110-270-fold to ED50 150 ng/mL (2.3 nM); at 1.0 micrograms/mL, growth in PCM-10 was 16-fold greater than in PCM-0. Iron saturation of thyromedin caused total loss of biological activity. We conclude that the horse transferrin variant isolated in this report is active as apotransferrin. PMID:1988026

  11. Combinations of physiologic estrogens with xenoestrogens alter calcium and kinase responses, prolactin release, and membrane estrogen receptor trafficking in rat pituitary cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Cheryl S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xenoestrogens such as alkylphenols and the structurally related plastic byproduct bisphenol A have recently been shown to act potently via nongenomic signaling pathways and the membrane version of estrogen receptor-α. Though the responses to these compounds are typically measured individually, they usually contaminate organisms that already have endogenous estrogens present. Therefore, we used quantitative medium-throughput screening assays to measure the effects of physiologic estrogens in combination with these xenoestrogens. Methods We studied the effects of low concentrations of endogenous estrogens (estradiol, estriol, and estrone at 10 pM (representing pre-development levels, and 1 nM (representing higher cycle-dependent and pregnancy levels in combinations with the same levels of xenoestrogens in GH3/B6/F10 pituitary cells. These levels of xenoestrogens represent extremely low contamination levels. We monitored calcium entry into cells using Fura-2 fluorescence imaging of single cells. Prolactin release was measured by radio-immunoassay. Extracellular-regulated kinase (1 and 2 phospho-activations and the levels of three estrogen receptors in the cell membrane (ERα, ERβ, and GPER were measured using a quantitative plate immunoassay of fixed cells either permeabilized or nonpermeabilized (respectively. Results All xenoestrogens caused responses at these concentrations, and had disruptive effects on the actions of physiologic estrogens. Xenoestrogens reduced the % of cells that responded to estradiol via calcium channel opening. They also inhibited the activation (phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinases at some concentrations. They either inhibited or enhanced rapid prolactin release, depending upon concentration. These latter two dose-responses were nonmonotonic, a characteristic of nongenomic estrogenic responses. Conclusions Responses mediated by endogenous estrogens representing different life stages are

  12. Pou2f3/Skn-1a Is Necessary for the Generation or Differentiation of Solitary Chemosensory Cells in the Anterior Nasal Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmoto, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; YAMASHITA, Junpei; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Hirota, Junji; Matsumoto, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Solitary chemosensory cells in the non-neuronal epithelium of the anterior nasal cavity have bitter taste cell-like molecular characteristics and are involved in the detection of noxious substances. Here, we demonstrate that Pou2f3/Skn-1a, which is necessary for generation of sweet, umami, and bitter taste cells, is also necessary for the generation or differentiation of solitary chemosensory cells.

  13. Dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis predicts some aspects of the behavioral response to chronic fluoxetine: association with hippocampal cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid eKhemissi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In depressed patients, antidepressant resistance has been associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The scope of this study was to try to create HPA-related antidepressant resistance in mice and to investigate adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a putative mechanism of antidepressant resistance. Mice were subjected to a 9 week Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress (UCMS. After a 2 weeks drug-free period, mice were segregated in two groups, according to the percentage of corticosterone suppression after dexamethasone injection: High suppression (HS and Low suppression (LS mice. From the 5thweek onwards, fluoxetine at a dose of 15 mg/kg (i.p. was administered daily and at the end of 8th week, a battery of behavioral tests assessing the emotional, cognitive, and motor aspects of UCMS-induced depressive-like behavior was applied. Results show that fluoxetine-induced antidepressant effects were observed with higher amplitude in HS when compared to LS on various behavioral phenotypes, like coat state, novelty suppression of feeding, splash test and nest test. The same profile was found concerning the immunohistochimical analysis of ki-67 positive cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, which is a marker of neuronal proliferation, but not for doublecortin labelling. This suggests that the failure of fluoxetine to induce antidepressant effects may be associated to the poor ability of the compound to stimulate cell proliferation in the hippocampus.

  14. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulate murine neural progenitor cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Eugene; May, Victor; Braas, Karen M; Shutz, Kristin C; Mao-Draayer, Yang

    2008-11-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NPC) have gained wide interest over the last decade from their therapeutic potential, either through transplantation or endogenous replacement, after central nervous system (CNS) disease and damage. Whereas several growth factors and cytokines have been shown to promote NPC survival, proliferation, or differentiation, the identification of other regulators will provide much needed options for NPC self-renewal or lineage development. Although previous studies have shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) can regulate stem/progenitor cells, the responses appeared variable. To examine the direct roles of these peptides in NPCs, postnatal mouse NPC cultures were withdrawn from epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblastic growth factor (FGF) and maintained under serum-free conditions in the presence or absence of PACAP27, PACAP38, or VIP. The NPCs expressed the PAC1(short)null receptor isoform, and the activation of these receptors decreased progenitor cell apoptosis more than 80% from TUNEL assays and facilitated proliferation more than fivefold from bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) analyses. To evaluate cellular differentiation, replicate control and peptide-treated cultures were examined for cell fate marker protein and transcript expression. In contrast with previous work, PACAP peptides downregulated NPC differentiation, which appeared consistent with the proliferation status of the treated cells. Accordingly, these results demonstrate that PACAP signaling is trophic and can maintain NPCs in a multipotent state. With these attributes, PACAP may be able to promote endogenous NPC self-renewal in the adult CNS, which may be important for endogenous self-repair in disease and ageing processes.

  15. Pituitary: Secretory Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is caused by the excess secretion of growth hormone (GH). It can cause noticeable changes in your appearance, ... medication approved for acromegaly. Instead of suppressing excess GH production by the pituitary tumor, it works to stop the hormone from acting on the body, but does not ...

  16. Pituitary irradiation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alpha particle pituitary irradiation program continues to be a major research project at Donner Pavilion. A study to determine the incidence of hyperprolactinemia in a large series of acromegalic subjects was undertaken. The relationships between plasma levels of growth hormone and prolactin, sellar volume, duration of acromegaly, and age at time of evaluation were investigated

  17. The anterior lens capsule used as support material in RPE cell-transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolini, J; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Wiencke, A K;

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the use of an ocular basement membrane as support material for transplanted porcine RPE cells.......To investigate the use of an ocular basement membrane as support material for transplanted porcine RPE cells....

  18. Pituitary adenoma: a radiotherapeutic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platta, Christopher S; Mackay, Christopher; Welsh, James S

    2010-08-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10% to 20% of all central nervous system neoplasms whereas autopsy series have suggested that the incidence of pituitary adenoma in the general population may approach 25%. Several treatment modalities are used in the treatment of pituitary adenomas, including observation, surgery, medical intervention, and radiotherapy. The treatment modality employed depends greatly on the type of pituitary adenoma and presenting symptoms. This review will discuss the biology of pituitary adenomas and the current management principles for the treatment of prolactinomas, Cushing disease, acromegaly, and nonsecretory adenomas, with an emphasis on the published radiotherapeutic literature.

  19. Cell Fusion along the Anterior-Posterior Neuroaxis in Mice with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasa R Sankavaram

    Full Text Available It is well documented that bone marrow-derived cells can fuse with a diverse range of cells, including brain cells, under normal or pathological conditions. Inflammation leads to robust fusion of bone marrow-derived cells with Purkinje cells and the formation of binucleate heterokaryons in the cerebellum. Heterokaryons form through the fusion of two developmentally differential cells and as a result contain two distinct nuclei without subsequent nuclear or chromosome loss.In the brain, fusion of bone marrow-derived cells appears to be restricted to the complex and large Purkinje cells, raising the question whether the size of the recipient cell is important for cell fusion in the central nervous system. Purkinje cells are among the largest neurons in the central nervous system and accordingly can harbor two nuclei.Using a well-characterized model for heterokaryon formation in the cerebellum (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis - a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we report for the first time that green fluorescent protein-labeled bone marrow-derived cells can fuse and form heterokaryons with spinal cord motor neurons. These spinal cord heterokaryons are predominantly located in or adjacent to an active or previously active inflammation site, demonstrating that inflammation and infiltration of immune cells are key for cell fusion in the central nervous system. While some motor neurons were found to contain two nuclei, co-expressing green fluorescent protein and the neuronal marker, neuron-specific nuclear protein, a number of small interneurons also co-expressed green fluorescent protein and the neuronal marker, neuron-specific nuclear protein. These small heterokaryons were scattered in the gray matter of the spinal cord.This novel finding expands the repertoire of neurons that can form heterokaryons with bone marrow-derived cells in the central nervous system, albeit in low numbers, possibly leading to a novel therapy for spinal cord

  20. The Marine Metabolite SZ-685C Induces Apoptosis in Primary Human Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma Cells by Inhibition of the Akt Pathway in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Wang; Ting Tan; Zhi-Gang Mao; Ni Lei; Zong-Ming Wang; Bin Hu; Zhi-Yong Chen; Zhi-Gang She; Yong-Hong Zhu; Hai-Jun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is one of the most common types of pituitary adenoma. The marine anthraquinone derivative SZ-685C has been isolated from the secondary metabolites of the mangrove endophytic fungus Halorosellinia sp. (No. 1403) which is found in the South China Sea. Recent research has shown that SZ-685C possesses anticancer and tumor suppressive effects. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT assay) to investigate the different effect of the marine compound SZ-6...

  1. Quantitative determination of angiotensin II binding sites in rat brain and pituitary gland by autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israel, A.; Correa, F.M.A.; Niwa, M.; Saavedra, J.M. (National Inst. of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1984-11-26

    Rat brain and pituitary angiotensin II (AII) binding sites were quantitated by incubation of tissue sections with /sup 125/I-(Sar/sup 1/) AII, Ultrofilm radioautography, computerized densitometry, and comparison with /sup 125/I-standards at appropriate film exposure times. The highest number of AII binding sites was found in anterior pituitary and the circumventricular organs, organon subfornicalis and organon vasculosum laminae terminalis.

  2. Diagnostic pitfalls of hyperprolactinemia: the importance of sequential pituitary imaging

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAGUCHI, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Tominaga, Teiji

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to confirm whether the serum prolactin cut-off value is definitive to distinguish prolactinoma and non-functioning pituitary adenoma with hyperprolactinemia. We retrospectively reviewed patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma, including gonadotroph cell adenoma, null cell adenoma and prolactinoma who were surgically treated at Kohnan hospital between June 2005 and March 2012. The patients without endocrinological/neurological symptom and with th...

  3. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasharma, K; Li, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generation and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, w...

  4. Inhibitory Effects of Anti-VEGF Antibody on the Growth and Angiogenesis of Estrogen-induced Pituitary Prolactinoma in Fischer 344 Rats: Animal Model of VEGF-targeted Therapy for Human Endocrine Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrogen-induced pituitary prolactin-producing tumors (PRLoma) in F344 rats express a high level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) associated with marked angiogenesis and angiectasis. To investigate whether tumor development in E2-induced PRLoma is inhibited by anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (G6-31), we evaluated tumor growth and observed the vascular structures. With simultaneous treatment with G6-31 for the latter three weeks of the 13-week period of E2 stimulation (E2+G6-31 group), the following inhibitory effects on the PRLoma were observed in the E2+G6-31 group as compared with the E2-only group. In the E2+G6-31 group, a tendency to reduction in pituitary weight was observed and significant differences were observed as (1) reductions in the Ki-67-positive anterior cells, (2) increases in TUNEL-positive anterior cells, and (3) repair of the microvessel count by CD34-immunohistochemistry. The characteristic “blood lakes” in PRLomas were improved and replaced by repaired microvascular structures on 3D observation using confocal laser scanning microscope. These inhibitory effects due to anti-VEGF antibody might be related to the autocrine/paracrine action of VEGF on the tumor cells, because VEGF and its receptor are co-expressed on the tumor cells. Thus, our results demonstrate that anti-VEGF antibody exerted inhibitory effects on pituitary tumorigenesis in well-established E2 induced PRLomas

  5. delta-Opioid receptors are more efficiently coupled to adenylyl cyclase than to L-type Ca(2+) channels in transfected rat pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, P L; Song, L; Piros, E T; Law, P Y; Hales, T G

    2000-11-01

    Opioid receptors often couple to multiple effectors within the same cell. To examine potential mechanisms that contribute to the specificity by which delta-receptors couple to distinct intracellular effectors, we stably transfected rat pituitary GH(3) cells with cDNAs encoding for delta-opioid receptors. In cells transfected with a relatively low delta-receptor density of 0.55 pmol/mg of protein (GH(3)DOR), activation of delta-receptors produced inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity but was unable to alter L-type Ca(2+) current. In contrast, activation of delta-receptors in a clone that contained a higher density of delta-receptors (2.45 pmol/mg of protein) and was also coexpressed with mu-opioid receptors (GH(3)MORDOR), resulted in not only the expected inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity but also produced inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) current. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether these observations resulted from differences in delta-opioid receptor density between clones or interaction between delta- and mu-opioid receptors to allow the activation of different G proteins and signaling to Ca(2+) channels. Using the delta-opioid receptor alkylating agent SUPERFIT, reduction of available delta-opioid receptors in GH(3)MORDOR cells to a density similar to that of delta-opioid receptors in the GH(3)DOR clone resulted in abolishment of coupling to Ca(2+) channels, but not to adenylyl cyclase. Furthermore, although significantly greater amounts of all G proteins were activated by delta-opioid receptors in GH(3)MORDOR cells, delta-opioid receptor activation in GH(3)DOR cells resulted in coupling to the identical pattern of G proteins seen in GH(3)MORDOR cells. These findings suggest that different threshold densities of delta-opioid receptors are required to activate critical amounts of G proteins needed to produce coupling to specific effectors and that delta-opioid receptors couple more efficiently to adenylyl cyclase than to L-type Ca(2

  6. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-05-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and ..cap alpha..-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin.

  7. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and α-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin

  8. Effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin on the pituitary-gonadal axis of female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asuquo OR; Oko OOK; Brownson ES; Umoetuk GB; Utin IS

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin (S. mombin) on the histology of the anterior pituitary, ovary and uterus; and on the serum sex hormones of adult female Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups of six rats per group. The animals in the treatment groups were administered orally ethanolic extract of S. mombin leaves at the doses of 250, 350 and 500 mg/kg body weight daily for fourteen days. Rats in the control group received distilled water. The body weights of the rats were determined at the beginning and end of the experiment. Histological analysis of pituitary, ovary and uterus was carried out. Hormonal assay for estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH were done using Enzyme-Linked Immunoabsorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: There was significant (P<0.05) decrease in relative organ weights of extract-treated rats compared to the control. Pituitary showed accumulation and aggregation of cells in experimental animals. Uteri of treated groups showed thickening of endometrial lining and presence of cysts, ovarian tissues were damaged. Furthermore, the extract caused reduction in serum concentration of sex hormones of the treated animals relative to the control. Conclusion: This study suggests that ethanolic extract of S. mombin leaf may have antifertility property, confirming its use as a local contraceptive.

  9. Increased number of TH-immunoreactive cells in the ventral tegmental area after deep brain stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, J A D; Hescham, S; Adriaanse, B; Campos, F L; Steinbusch, H W M; Rutten, B P F; Temel, Y; Jahanshahi, A

    2015-09-01

    Dopamine (DA) has been long implicated with the processes of memory. In long-term memory, the hippocampus and ventral tegmental area (VTA) use DA to enhance long-term potentiation, while prefrontal DA D1 receptors are involved in working memory. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of specific brain areas have been shown to affect memory impairments in animal models. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DBS could reverse memory impairments by increasing the number of dopaminergic cells in the VTA. Rats received DBS at the level of the mammillothalamic tract, the anterior nucleus of the thalamus, and entorhinal cortex before euthanasia. These regions are part of the so-called memory circuit. Brain sections were processed for c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunocytochemistry in the VTA and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). c-Fos, TH and c-Fos/TH immunoreactive cells were analyzed by means of stereology and confocal microscopy. Our results showed that DBS of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus induced substantial higher numbers of TH-immunoreactive cells in the VTA, while there were no significant differences between the experimental groups in the number of TH immunoreactive cells in the SNc, c-Fos immunoreactive cells and c-Fos/TH double-labeled cells in both the SNc and VTA. Our findings suggest a phenotypic switch, or neurotransmitter respecification, of DAergic cells specifically in the VTA which may be induced by DBS in the anterior nucleus of the thalamus.

  10. The Injection of Air/Oxygen Bubble into the Anterior Chamber of Rabbits as a Treatment for Hyphema in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Ayintap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the changes of partial oxygen pressure (PaO2 in aqueous humour after injecting air or oxygen bubble into the anterior chamber in sickle cell hyphema. Methods. Blood samples were taken from the same patient with sickle cell disease. Thirty-two rabbits were divided into 4 groups. In group 1 (n=8, there was no injection. Only blood injection constituted group 2 (n=8, both blood and air bubble injection constituted group 3 (n=8, and both blood and oxygen bubble injection constituted group 4 (n=8. Results. The PaO2 in the aqueous humour after 10 hours from the injections was 78.45 ± 9.9 mmHg (Mean ± SD for group 1, 73.97 ± 8.86 mmHg for group 2, 123.35 ± 13.6 mmHg for group 3, and 306.47 ± 16.5 mmHg for group 4. There was statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 2, when compared with group 3 and group 4. Conclusions. PaO2 in aqueous humour was increased after injecting air or oxygen bubble into the anterior chamber. We offer to leave an air bubble in the anterior chamber of patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies and hyphema undergoing an anterior chamber washout.

  11. Iodination of [Tyr11]somatostatin yields a super high affinity ligand for somatostatin receptors in GH4C1 pituitary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GH4C1 cells are a clonal strain of rat pituitary tumor cells which contain high affinity receptors for the inhibitory neuropeptide somatostatin (SRIF). In contrast to other peptides that bind to specific receptors on these cells, receptor-bound [125I-Tyr1]SRIF does not undergo rapid endocytosis. Rather, partial degradation to 125I-tyrosine occurs concomitantly with the dissociation of [125I-Tyr1]SRIF from cell surface receptors. In this study we characterize the binding, biological activity and receptor-mediated degradation of [125I-Tyr11]SRIF, a SRIF analog that is radiolabeled in the center of the molecule. The binding of trace concentrations of [125I-Tyr11]SRIF (less than 50 pM) required 6 hr to reach equilibrium at 37 degrees compared with the 60 min required for [125I-Tyr1]SRIF. Analysis of the kinetics of [125I- Tyr11]SRIF binding showed that the rate constant for association (kon = 1.7 x 10(8) M-8min-1) was similar to that for [125I-Tyr1]SRIF (0.8 x 10(8) M-1min-1). However, the two radioligands exhibited markedly different dissociation kinetics; the koff for [125I-Tyr11]SRIF was 0.002 min-1 compared with the value of 0.02 min-1 for [125I-Tyr1] SRIF. In agreement with its much slower rate of dissociation, [125I-Tyr11]SRIF bound to the SRIF receptor with higher affinity (Kd = 70 pM) than did [125I-Tyr1]SRIF (Kd = 350 pM). However, the apparent ED50 for [I-Tyr11]SRIF to inhibit cAMP accumulation (1.9 +/- 0.4 nM) was greater than the ED50 for SRIF (0.19 +/- 0.04 nM). The low potency of [I-Tyr11]SRIF probably resulted from the fact that subsaturating concentrations of this peptide did not achieve equilibrium binding during the 30-min incubation used to assay biological activity. As previously reported for [125I-Tyr1]SRIF, receptor-bound [125I-Tyr11]SRIF was not internalized and was released from the cells as a mixture of intact [125I-Tyr11]SRIF (30%) and the degradation product 125I-tyrosine

  12. Regional myocardial function after intracoronary bone marrow cell injection in reperfused anterior wall infarction - a cardiovascular magnetic resonance tagging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnesen Harald

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trials have brought diverse results of bone marrow stem cell treatment in necrotic myocardium. This substudy from the Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Acute Myocardial Infarction trial (ASTAMI explored global and regional myocardial function after intracoronary injection of autologous mononuclear bone marrow cells (mBMC in acute anterior wall myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR tagging was performed 2-3 weeks and 6 months after revascularization in 15 patients treated with intracoronary stem cell injection (mBMC group and in 13 controls without sham injection. Global and regional left ventricular (LV strain and LV twist were correlated to cine CMR and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE. Results In the control group myocardial function as measured by strain improved for the global LV (6 months: -13.1 ± 2.4 versus 2-3 weeks: -11.9 ± 3.4%, p = 0.014 and for the infarct zone (-11.8 ± 3.0 versus -9.3 ± 4.1%, p = 0.001, and significantly more than in the mBMC group (inter-group p = 0.027 for global strain, respectively p = 0.009 for infarct zone strain. LV infarct mass decreased (35.7 ± 20.4 versus 45.7 ± 29.5 g, p = 0.024, also significantly more pronounced than the mBMC group (inter-group p = 0.034. LV twist was initially low and remained unchanged irrespective of therapy. Conclusions LGE and strain findings quite similarly demonstrate subtle differences between the mBMC and control groups. Intracoronary injection of autologous mBMC did not strengthen regional or global myocardial function in this substudy. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00199823

  13. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  14. Epidermal growth factor and ras regulate gene expression in GH4 pituitary cells by separate, antagonistic signal transduction pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, C.A.; Gutierrez-Hartmann, A. [Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This report discusses the role of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) in promoting activation of the rat prolactin promoter in neuroendocrine cells via a Ras-independent mechanism. It also discusses the role of phosphotransferases in mediating EGF response. 32 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Serotonin interferes with Ca2+ and PKC signaling to reduce gonadotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated GH secretion in goldfish pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Wong, Anderson O L; Chang, John P

    2008-10-01

    In goldfish, two endogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH), salmon GnRH (sGnRH) and chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II), are thought to stimulate growth hormone (GH) release via protein kinase C (PKC) and subsequent increases in intracellular Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)](i)). In contrast, the signaling mechanism for serotonin (5-HT) inhibition of GH secretion is still unknown. In this study, whether 5-HT inhibits GH release by actions at sites along the PKC and Ca(2+) signal transduction pathways leading to hormone release were examined in primary cultures of goldfish pituitary cells. Under static incubation and column perifusion conditions, 5-HT reduced basal, as well as sGnRH- and cGnRH-II-stimulated, GH secretion. 5-HT also suppressed GH responses to two PKC activators but had no effect on the GH-releasing action of the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin. Ca(2+)-imaging studies with identified somatotropes revealed that 5-HT did not alter basal [Ca(2+)](i) but attenuated the magnitude of the [Ca(2+)](i) responses to the two GnRHs. Prior treatment with 5-HT and cGnRH-II reduced the magnitude of the [Ca(2+)](i) responses induced by depolarizing levels of K(+). Similar inhibition, however, was not observed with prior treatment of 5-HT and sGnRH. These results suggest that 5-HT, by direct actions at the somatotrope level, interferes with PKC and Ca(2+) signaling pathways to reduce the GH-releasing effect of GnRH. 5-HT action may occur at the level of PKC activation or its downstream signaling events prior to the subsequent rise in [Ca(2+)](i.). The differential Ca(2+) responses by depolarizing doses of K(+) is consistent with our previous findings that sGnRH and cGnRH-II are coupled to overlapping and yet distinct Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms. PMID:18723020

  16. Visual outcome after fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy of benign anterior skull base tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astradsson, Arnar; Wiencke, Anne Katrine; Munck af Rosenschold, Per;

    2014-01-01

    To determine visual outcome including the occurrence of radiation induced optic neuropathy (RION) as well as tumor control after fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) of benign anterior skull base meningiomas or pituitary adenomas. Thirty-nine patients treated with FSRT for anterior ...

  17. Localization of amylin-like immunoreactivity in melanocyte-stimulating hormone-containing cells of the pars intermedia but not those of the pars distalis in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hirohumi; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

    2016-04-01

    Immunohistochemical techniques were employed to investigate the distribution of amylin-like immunoreactivity in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary. Amylin-immunoreactive cells were observed in the pars intermedia, and these cells were found to be immunoreactive for α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH) as well. In contrast, αMSH-immunoreactive cells in the pars distalis were immuno-negaitive for amylin. These light microscopic findings were confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. Amylin-immunoreactive signals were located on the haloes of presumable secretory granules in association with αMSH-immunoreactive signals in the amylin-positive cells. However, in the pars distalis, the αMSH-positive cells did not contain amylin-immunoreactive secretory granules. Western blot analysis of axolotl pituitary extracts revealed the labeling of a protein band at approximately 10.5-kDa by the anti-rat amylin serum, which was not labeled by the anti-αMSH antibody. These findings indicate that amylin secreted from MSH-producing cells in the pars intermedia may modulate MSH secretion in an autocrine fashion and may participate in MSH functions such as fatty homeostasis together with MSH. PMID:26797189

  18. Localization of amylin-like immunoreactivity in melanocyte-stimulating hormone-containing cells of the pars intermedia but not those of the pars distalis in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hirohumi; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

    2016-04-01

    Immunohistochemical techniques were employed to investigate the distribution of amylin-like immunoreactivity in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary. Amylin-immunoreactive cells were observed in the pars intermedia, and these cells were found to be immunoreactive for α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH) as well. In contrast, αMSH-immunoreactive cells in the pars distalis were immuno-negaitive for amylin. These light microscopic findings were confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. Amylin-immunoreactive signals were located on the haloes of presumable secretory granules in association with αMSH-immunoreactive signals in the amylin-positive cells. However, in the pars distalis, the αMSH-positive cells did not contain amylin-immunoreactive secretory granules. Western blot analysis of axolotl pituitary extracts revealed the labeling of a protein band at approximately 10.5-kDa by the anti-rat amylin serum, which was not labeled by the anti-αMSH antibody. These findings indicate that amylin secreted from MSH-producing cells in the pars intermedia may modulate MSH secretion in an autocrine fashion and may participate in MSH functions such as fatty homeostasis together with MSH.

  19. Proliferative and anti-proliferative effects of dietary levels of phytoestrogens in rat pituitary GH3/B6/F10 cells - the involvement of rapidly activated kinases and caspases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Cheryl S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytoestogens are a group of lipophillic plant compounds that can have estrogenic effects in animals; both tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic effects have been reported. Prolactin-secreting adenomas are the most prevalent form of pituitary tumors in humans and have been linked to estrogen exposures. We examined the proliferative effects of phytoestrogens on a rat pituitary tumor cell line, GH3/B6/F10, originally subcloned from GH3 cells based on its ability to express high levels of the membrane estrogen receptor-α. Methods We measured the proliferative effects of these phytoestrogens using crystal violet staining, the activation of several mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and their downstream targets via a quantitative plate immunoassay, and caspase enzymatic activities. Results Four phytoestrogens (coumestrol, daidzein, genistein, and trans-resveratrol were studied over wide concentration ranges. Except trans-resveratrol, all phytoestrogens increased GH3/B6/F10 cell proliferation at some concentration relevant to dietary levels. All four phytoestrogens attenuated the proliferative effects of estradiol when administered simultaneously. All phytoestrogens elicited MAPK and downstream target activations, but with time course patterns that often differed from that of estradiol and each other. Using selective antagonists, we determined that MAPKs play a role in the ability of these phytoestrogens to elicit these responses. In addition, except for trans-resveratrol, a serum removal-induced extrinsic apoptotic pathway was blocked by these phytoestrogens. Conclusion Phytoestrogens can block physiological estrogen-induced tumor cell growth in vitro and can also stimulate growth at high dietary concentrations in the absence of endogenous estrogens; these actions are correlated with slightly different signaling response patterns. Consumption of these compounds should be considered in strategies to control endocrine tumor cell

  20. Pituitary gland volume in patients with schizophrenia, subjects at ultra high-risk of developing psychosis and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Dorte; Krogh, Jesper; Mondelli, Valeria;

    2013-01-01

    A larger pituitary size is thought to reflect a greater activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may be related to an increase in the number and size of corticotroph cells. Some studies, but not all, indicate that pituitary volume increases before or at the onset...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: combined pituitary hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions combined pituitary hormone deficiency combined pituitary hormone deficiency Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Combined pituitary hormone deficiency is a condition that causes ...

  2. A retrospective review of pituitary MRI findings in children on growth hormone therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Sarah L.; Lawrence, Sarah [University of Ottawa, Division of Endocrinology, Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa (Canada); Laffan, Eoghan [Children' s University Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Dublin 1 (Ireland)

    2012-07-15

    Patients with congenital hypopituitarism might have the classic triad of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, which consists of: (1) an interrupted or thin pituitary stalk, (2) an absent or ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP), and (3) anterior pituitary hypoplasia or aplasia. To examine the relationship between pituitary anatomy and the degree of hormonal dysfunction. This study involved a retrospective review of MRI findings in all children diagnosed with congenital growth hormone deficiency from 1988 to 2010 at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital. Of the 52 MRIs reviewed in 52 children, 26 children had normal pituitary anatomy and 26 had one or more elements of the classic triad. Fourteen of fifteen children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies had structural anomalies on MRI. Twelve of 37 children with isolated growth hormone deficiency had an abnormal MRI. Children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were more likely to have the classic triad than children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. A normal MRI was the most common finding in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. (orig.)

  3. A retrospective review of pituitary MRI findings in children on growth hormone therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with congenital hypopituitarism might have the classic triad of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, which consists of: (1) an interrupted or thin pituitary stalk, (2) an absent or ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP), and (3) anterior pituitary hypoplasia or aplasia. To examine the relationship between pituitary anatomy and the degree of hormonal dysfunction. This study involved a retrospective review of MRI findings in all children diagnosed with congenital growth hormone deficiency from 1988 to 2010 at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital. Of the 52 MRIs reviewed in 52 children, 26 children had normal pituitary anatomy and 26 had one or more elements of the classic triad. Fourteen of fifteen children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies had structural anomalies on MRI. Twelve of 37 children with isolated growth hormone deficiency had an abnormal MRI. Children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were more likely to have the classic triad than children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. A normal MRI was the most common finding in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. (orig.)

  4. Expression of Neuropeptide Y and Its Relationship with Molecular and Morphological Changes in Human Pituitary Adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ruichao; Li, Mu; Chang, Binge; Chen, Laichao; Ma, Jingjian

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on molecular and histological changes in human pituitary adenomas. The localization of NPY and its expression at the protein, messenger RNA (mRNA), and receptor levels were investigated here in different subcategories of pituitary adenomas. Immunohistochemical staining was performed in all cases to assess expression of NPY. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to study the mRNA expression of NPY. NPY subcellular localization was observed using immunoelectron microscopy in cytoplasm, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and cell matrix in four of the six cases of pituitary adenoma. NPY protein expression was observed in 59.6% of 57 cases of pituitary adenoma and in 2 cases of pituitary hyperplasia. mRNA expression of NPY was observed in all 57 cases of pituitary adenoma and in 2 cases of pituitary hyperplasia. Significantly different levels of expression were observed across different subcategories of pituitary adenoma. mRNA expression of Y1R and Y2R was observed across all subcategories of pituitary adenomas, and a positive correlation was observed between NPY and Y2R. In conclusion, evidence is provided here for the expression of NPY and its receptors, Y1R and Y2R, in human pituitary adenoma, and the levels of expression were found to differ across different subcategories. Differences in expression of Y2R in human pituitary adenomas were found to have remarkable statistical significance.

  5. Giant repeater F-wave in patients with anterior horn cell disorders. Role of motor unit size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I K; el-Abd, M A

    1997-01-01

    Conventional F-wave responses as well as single motor unit F-wave responses together with the volitionally recruited motor unit action potentials (MUAP) were studied in hand and feet muscles of 10 healthy subjects and 32 patients with anterior horn cell disorders. The amplitude of the largest F-wave (Fl) was significantly greater in the affected patients compared with healthy subjects. Giant repeater F-wave responses "up to 4 mV" were recorded in muscles having volitionally recruited giant MUAPs. Although, the group mean percentage of motor unit F-wave responses per stimulation in all tested orthodromic MUAPs was significantly decreased in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, the group mean percentage of motor unit F-wave responses per stimulation in all tested orthodromic MUAPs that gave motor unit F-wave response was significantly increased compared with healthy subjects. The responding orthodromic MUAP gave identical motor unit F-wave response, even for complex polyphasic units. Enhanced monosynaptic (H-) reflex, proximal axon reflex (A-wave), and repetitive muscle response as possible explanations for the giant F-wave responses could be discounted. The electrophysiologic behavior of the giant late responses described here fits well with the criteria of F-waves modulated by newly formed distal (and or proximal) axonal branching.

  6. Anterior cruciate ligament tears treated with percutaneous injection of autologous bone marrow nucleated cells: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Centeno CJ

    2015-07-01

    =0.25, the mean LEFS change was an increase of 23.3 (P=0.03, and mean reported improvement was 86.7%. Conclusion: Based on this small case series, autologous bone marrow concentrate shows promise in the treatment of grade 1, 2, and possibly grade 3 ACL tears without retraction. Further investigation using a controlled study design is warranted. Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament injury, regenerative therapy, bone marrow concentrate, mesenchymal stem cells, knee instability

  7. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome in Chinese people: clinical characteristic analysis of 55 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Guo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS is characterized by the absence of pituitary stalk, pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic posterior pituitary. Due to the rarity of PSIS, clinical data are limited, especially in Chinese people. Herein, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with PSIS from our center over 10 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical manifestations and laboratory and MRI findings in 55 patients with PSIS. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients with PSIS, 48 (87.3% were male. The average age was 19.7±6.7 years and there was no familial case. A history of breech delivery was documented in 40 of 45 patients (88.9% and 19 of 55 patients (34.5% had a history of dystocia. Short stature was found in 47 of 55 patients (85.5% and bone age delayed 7.26±5.37 years. Secondary sex characteristics were poor or undeveloped in most patients. The prevalence of deficiencies in growth hormone, gonadotropins, corticotropin, and thyrotropin were 100%, 95.8%, 81.8%, 76.3%, respectively. Hyperprolactinemia was found in 36.4% of patients. Three or more pituitary hormone deficiencies were found in 92.7% of the patients. All patients had normal posterior pituitary function and absent pituitary stalk on imaging. The average height of anterior pituitary was 28 mm, documented anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Midline abnormalities were presented in 9.1% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features of our Chinese PSIS patients seem to be different from other reported patients in regarding to the higher degree of hypopituitarism and lower prevalence of midline defects. In addition, our patients were older at the time of case detection and the bone age was markedly delayed. We also had no cases of familial PSIS.

  8. Dissociation between the effects of somatostatin (SS) and octapeptide SS-analogs on hormone release in a small subgroup of pituitary- and islet cell tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Hofland (Leo); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); H.A. Visser-Wisselaar (Heleen); C. van Uffelen; M. Waaijers (Marlijn); J. Zuyderwijk; P. Uitterlinden (Piet); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); J.M. Kros (Johan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of somatostatin (SS-14 and/or SS-28) and of the three octapeptide SS-analogs that are available for clinical use (octreotide, BIM-23014 and RC-160) on hormone release by primary cultures of 15 clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFA), 7

  9. Acromegaloidism Associated with Pituitary Incidentaloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, B S; Dharmalingam, M; Kalra, P

    2015-06-01

    Acromegaloidism with pituitary microadenoma has not been previously reported. We present a case of a 28-year old male with typical features of acromegaly for 11 years.with a pituitary tumor. He had characteristic acromegaloid facial features, clubbing of hands and feet, enlargement of fingers and toes. The natural history of the disease is reviewed and the differential diagnosis is discussed. PMID:26710410

  10. Human pituitary tissue secretes a potent growth factor for chondrocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, S; Friesen, H G

    1986-01-01

    We report the secretion from human pituitary tumor fragments in organ culture of a potent mitogen for chondrocyte proliferation. Primary human pituitary cell and organ cultures were established from pituitary fragments obtained from patients with acromegaly, prolactinomas, and nonfunctional adenomas. The conditioned culture medium contained a mitogenic factor(s) that stimulated rabbit fetal chondrocyte proliferation, causing up to an 8-fold increase in cell number when added to Ham's F-10 medium in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum. Blood leaking into the surgical field after the adenomectomy is known to contain very high concentrations of pituitary hormones. Serum samples, obtained from this venous "ooze" collected at the site of pituitary surgery, also were found to contain chondrocyte growth-promoting activity. Some venous serum samples stimulated chondrocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent manner down to a 1:10 dilution of 1 microliter serum, indicating that the material being secreted was very potent indeed. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and analytical gel isoelectric focusing of culture media or serum samples from the pituitary fossa demonstrated that the growth factor secreted from the pituitary tumor fragments as well as from the venous serum is similar, if not identical, to chondrocyte growth factor (mol wt, 43,000; pI 7.6-7.9) purified from human pituitaries collected at autopsy. These results suggest that the chondrocyte growth-promoting factor(s) may not only be secreted by pituitary tumor fragments but by normal human pituitary tissue as well.

  11. Pituitary stalk lesion in a 13-year-old female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilbermint, Mihail; Ramnitz, Mary S; Lodish, Maya B; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Patronas, Nicholas J; Quezado, Martha M; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2014-03-01

    Germinomas presenting with a pituitary stalk lesion and panhypopituitarism are rare in children, and their definite diagnosis is challenging. An invasive diagnostic approach, such as a transsphenoidal biopsy, is often required prior to establishing a treatment regimen. A 13-year-old female presented with 1 year of secondary amenorrhea, fatigue, and progressive thirst with polyuria. Laboratory work-up revealed panhypopituitarism (central hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency and central diabetes insipidus). α-Fetoprotein and β-human chorionic gonadotropin were not elevated in serum nor in cerebrospinal fluid. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary region showed an enhancing infundibular lesion, extending into the hypothalamus, and infiltrating the pituitary gland. A transsphenoidal biopsy of the infundibular lesion confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma (germ-cell tumor). After appropriate hormone replacement therapy, chemotherapy and low-dose radiation therapy, the patient achieved complete resolution of the pituitary stalk lesion on the MRI.

  12. Pituitary stalk lesion in a 13-year-old female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilbermint, Mihail; Ramnitz, Mary S.; Lodish, Maya B.; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Quezado, Martha M.

    2016-01-01

    Germinomas presenting with a pituitary stalk lesion and panhypopituitarism are rare in children, and their definite diagnosis is challenging. An invasive diagnostic approach, such as a transsphenoidal biopsy, is often required prior to establishing a treatment regimen. A 13-year-old female presented with 1 year of secondary amenorrhea, fatigue, and progressive thirst with polyuria. Laboratory work-up revealed panhypopituitarism (central hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency and central diabetes insipidus). α-Fetoprotein and β-human chorionic gonadotropin were not elevated in serum nor in cerebrospinal fluid. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary region showed an enhancing infundibular lesion, extending into the hypothalamus, and infiltrating the pituitary gland. A transsphenoidal biopsy of the infundibular lesion confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma (germ-cell tumor). After appropriate hormone replacement therapy, chemotherapy and low-dose radiation therapy, the patient achieved complete resolution of the pituitary stalk lesion on the MRI. PMID:24129100

  13. Effects of Mechanical Stretch on Cell Proliferation and Matrix Formation of Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Fibroblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ling; Zhu, Rui; Li, Hongguo; Xue, Yingsen; Liu, Xincheng

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and fibroblasts are two major seed cells for ligament tissue engineering. To understand the effects of mechanical stimulation on these cells and to develop effective approaches for cell therapy, it is necessary to investigate the biological effects of various mechanical loading conditions on cells. In this study, fibroblasts and MSCs were tested and compared under a novel Uniflex/Bioflex culture system that might mimic mechanical strain in ligament tissue. The cells were uniaxially or radially stretched with different strains (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 Hz. The cell proliferation and collagen production were compared to find the optimal parameters. The results indicated that uniaxial stretch (15% at 0.5 Hz; 10% at 1.0 Hz) showed positive effects on fibroblast. The uniaxial strains (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 0.5 Hz and 10% strain at 1.0 Hz were favorable for MSCs. Radial strain did not have significant effect on fibroblast. On the contrary, the radial strains (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 0.1 Hz had positive effects on MSCs. This study suggested that fibroblasts and MSCs had their own appropriate mechanical stimulatory parameters. These specific parameters potentially provide fundamental knowledge for future cell-based ligament regeneration. PMID:27525012

  14. Chronic ethanol consumption depresses hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in aged rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolan, C.J.; Bestervelt, L.L.; Mousigian, C.A.; Maimansomsuk, P.; Yong Cai; Piper, W.N. (Univ of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

    1991-01-01

    In separate experiments, nine (n=20) and fifteen (n=12) month old rats were treated with either 6% ethanol or 12% sucrose in the drinking water to examine the effect of chronic ethanol consumption on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of aged rats. Blood was collected and plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. Adrenal glands were cleaned, quartered and used to test in vitro responsiveness to ACTH. Anterior pituitary glands from all 15 month old rats and one half of the nine month old rats were collected, frozen and extracted for measurement of tissue ACTH concentration. The remaining anterior pituitary glands from the nine month old rats were challenged with corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) to test in vitro responsiveness. In nine month old rats, chronic ethanol consumption decreased plasma ACTH and corticosterone. Pituitary ACTH concentrations were unchanged in treated nine month old rats, but the amount of pituitary ACTH released in response to CRH was decreased in rats consuming ethanol. In vitro responsiveness of the adrenal gland to ACTH in nine month old rats consuming ethanol was unchanged. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone concentrations were also decreased in 15 month old rats chronically consuming ethanol. No differences were noted in responsiveness of the adrenal gland or in the amount of pituitary ACTH due to ethanol consumptions in 15 month old rats.

  15. Ontogeny and the developing change of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone cells of chicken embryos%鸡胚胎腺垂体卵泡刺激素细胞的发育及其变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玉琴; 刘英; 袁学军; 刘靖闻; 陈慧; 吴瑜瑜

    2012-01-01

    应用免疫组织化学方法,对发育的第3.5~20.5天鸡胚腺垂体卵泡刺激素(FSH)细胞的发生及其在发育过程中的变化规律进行了研究。结果,鸡胚发育的中期(第10.5天),可观察到少量明显的FSH细胞分布于腺垂体后叶,随着胚胎的发育,FSH细胞数量显著增加(P〈0.05),发育的第16.5天FSH细胞数量增加到了整个孵化期的最大值,分布于垂体后叶的腹侧,前叶仅有少量零散的FSH细胞;在发育的第18.5天至出生期FSH细胞数量显著减少。早期FSH细胞体积小、细胞浆少、细胞核大,单个或团状分布,随着胚龄的增加,细胞体积增大、细胞浆增多、细胞浆浓染。结果表明,鸡胚胎腺垂体FSH细胞发生于胚胎发育的中期,细胞的增殖和分化过程发生在胚胎发育的中后期;FSH细胞分布于垂体后叶腹侧。%The present study is to determine ontogeny of chick embryonic pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) cells and their change during developing embryos.The pituitary glands were collected on day 3.5 to 20.5 of incubation,respectively.The expression and distribution of pituitary FSH cells were then detected by the immunohistochemical method.The experimental results demonstrated that scattered and clarity immunopositive FSH cells were first detected in caudal lobe of pituitary gland on day 10.5,and then dramatically increased(P0.05).FSH cells increased to a peak on day 16.5,and distributed caudal lobe,only scattered FSH cells distributed cephalic lobe of pituitary gland.On day 18.5 FSH cells decreased.In the early stage,the volume of FSH cells was smaller,there was less cytoplasmic and bigger nuclear,and light staining;in the mid-incubation and later,the volume become bigger,the cells became intensive staining.These results suggested that the ontogeny of FSH cells is in the middle stage and that the proliferation and differentiation of FSH cells occur during middle and late stage.

  16. Diffuse large B-cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma in a 65-year-old woman presenting with hypopituitarism and recovering after chemotherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyer Steve L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Diffuse large B-cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma may involve the pituitary either as a primary central nervous system lymphoma or, more frequently, as metastasis from systemic lymphoma leading to hypopituitarism. A partial recovery of pituitary function after treatment with chemotherapy has previously been described but complete recovery with cessation of all hormone supplements is excessively rare. We report a patient presenting with anterior hypopituitarism with subsequent complete and sustained recovery of pituitary function after successful treatment of the lymphoma. Case presentation A 65-year-old Caucasian woman with lethargy, loss of appetite and peripheral edema was found to have anterior hypopituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no mass lesions in the pituitary although a positron emission tomography scan showed abnormal pituitary activity. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed multiple intra-abdominal lymph nodes, which on histology proved diagnostic of diffuse large B-cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma. She received six cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy, after which she achieved a complete metabolic response at all known previous sites of the disease, confirmed by positron emission tomography scanning. Concomitant with the tumor response, there was full recovery of adrenal, thyroid and gonadal axes which has persisted at 10 months follow-up. Conclusion Although rare, it is important to recognize lymphomatous infiltration of the pituitary as a potentially reversible cause of hypopituitarism.

  17. Anatomy of melancholia: focus on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis overactivity and the role of vasopressin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dinan, Timothy G

    2012-02-03

    Overactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis characterized by hypercortisolism, adrenal hyperplasia and abnormalities in negative feedback is the most consistently described biological abnormality in melancholic depression. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are the main secretagogues of the HPA\\/stress system. Produced in the parvicellular division of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus the release of these peptides is influenced by inputs from monoaminergic neurones. In depression, anterior pituitary CRH1 receptors are down-regulated and response to CRH infusion is blunted. By contrast, vasopressin V3 receptors on the anterior pituitary show enhanced response to AVP stimulation and this enhancement plays a key role in maintaining HPA overactivity.

  18. Decreased hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone content and pituitary responsiveness in hypothyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Katakami, H; Downs, T R; Frohman, L A

    1986-01-01

    The effects of thyroidectomy (Tx) and thyroxine replacement (T4Rx) on pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion and hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GRH) concentration were compared to define the mechanism of hypothyroid-associated GH deficiency. Thyroidectomized rats exhibited a complete loss of pulsatile GH secretion with extensive reduction in GRH responsiveness and pituitary GH content. Cultured pituitary cells from Tx rats exhibited reduced GRH sensitivity, maximal GH responsiveness, and...

  19. STAT3 upregulation in pituitary somatotroph adenomas induces growth hormone hypersecretion

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Cuiqi; Jiao, Yonghui; Wang, Renzhi; Ren, Song-Guang; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Melmed, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary somatotroph adenomas result in dysregulated growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion and acromegaly; however, regulatory mechanisms that promote GH hypersecretion remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence that STAT3 directly induces somatotroph tumor cell GH. Evaluation of pituitary tumors revealed that STAT3 expression was enhanced in human GH-secreting adenomas compared with that in nonsecreting pituitary tumors. Moreover, STAT3 and GH expression were concordant in a somatotroph adenoma...

  20. Integrative proteomics and transcriptomics revealed that activation of the IL-6R/JAK2/STAT3/MMP9 signaling pathway is correlated with invasion of pituitary null cell adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Yu, Sheng-Yuan; Li, Chu-Zhong; Li, Zhen-Ye; Zhang, Ya-Zhuo

    2016-11-15

    Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are a highly heterogeneous group, but few studies have explored the invasion mechanism of specific subtypes of NFPAs. The objective of this study was to investigate the differential molecular expression patterns and the critical biological signaling pathways involved in the invasion of pituitary null cell adenomas (PNCAs) through integrative proteomics and transcriptomics. A total of 1160 genes and 283 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in invasive and non-invasive PNCAs. The differentially expressed molecules related to invasion were enriched in 15 canonical signaling pathways, 15 clusters of diseases or biological functions and 5 upstream molecules. Among them, the majority of the differentially expressed molecules were found to be involved in transport of molecule, migration of cells and cell movement. Notably, IL-6 was a significantly activated upstream regulator, and the IL6R/JAK2/STAT3 cascade was found to play a critical role in acute phase response signaling, which was the most significant canonical signaling pathway. Furthermore, we validated the overexpression of IL-6R, JAK2, STAT3, p-STAT3 and MMP9 in invasive PNCAs. Our data suggest that overactivation of the IL-6R/JAK2/STAT3/MMP9 pathway is critical for the invasion of PNCAs. PMID:27465831

  1. Influence of two different resection techniques (conventional liver resection versus anterior approach of liver metastases from colorectal cancer on hematogenous tumor cell dissemination – prospective randomized multicenter trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahbari NN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical hepatic resection remains the treatment of choice for patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer despite the use of alternative therapeutic strategies. Although this procedure provides long-term survival in a significant number of patients, 50–75% of the patients develop intra- and/or extrahepatic recurrence. One possible reason for tumor recurrence may be intraoperative hematogenous tumor cell dissemination due to mechanical manipulation of the tumor during hepatic resection. Surgical technique may have an influence on hematogenous tumor cell spread. We hypothesize that hematogenous tumor cell dissemination may be reduced by using the anterior approach technique compared to conventional liver resection. Methods/Design This is a multi-centre prospective randomized controlled, superiority trial to compare two liver resection techniques of liver metastases from colorectal cancer. 150 patients will be included and randomized intraoperatively after surgical exploration just prior to resection. The primary objective is to compare the anterior approach with the conventional liver resection technique with regard to intraoperative haematogenous tumor cell dissemination. As secondary objectives we examine five year survival rates (OS and DFS, blood loss, duration of operation, requirement of blood transfusions, morbidity rate, prognostic relevance of tumor cell detection in blood and bone marrow and the comparison of tumor cell detection by different detection methods. Conclusion This trial will answer the question whether there is an advantage for the anterior approach technique compared to the conventional resection group with regard to tumor cell dissemination. It will also add further information about prognostic differences, safety, advantages and disadvantages of each technique. Trial registration Current controlled trials – ISRCTN45066244

  2. Changes in oxytocin and vasopressin content in posterior pituitary and hypothalamus following pantethine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, G L; Miaskowski, C; Haldar, J

    1990-01-01

    Pantethine, a cysteamine precursor, depletes somatostatin in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus and prolactin in the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus. This study investigated the effect of pantethine on oxytocin and arginine vasopressin content in the posterior pituitary and hypothalamus. Male Long-Evans rats were injected intraperitoneally with escalating doses of pantethine (i.e., 146.7 mg, 293.4 mg and 586.6 mg/100 gm body weight). Hormone content was determined by radioimmunoassay. Three hours after pantethine treatment, the oxytocin content in the posterior pituitary and the hypothalamus was markedly reduced with all doses of the drug. Vasopressin content in the posterior pituitary and hypothalamus was decreased but to a lesser extent than oxytocin and only with the highest dose of pantethine. Pantethine may act to reduce oxytocin and vasopressin content through intracellular conversion to cysteamine. The exact mechanism of action of pantethine on oxytocin and vasopressin remains to be elucidated. PMID:2402177

  3. Elevated plasma levels of the pituitary hormone Cthrc1 in individuals with red hair but not in patients with solid tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine W Duarte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies report that Cthrc1 is expressed in various cancer cells. The present study sought to identify which cells in tumors and remodeling tissues express Cthrc1 and investigate the range of circulating human Cthrc1 levels in health and disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Highly specific monoclonal antibodies were generated to detect Cthrc1 by ELISA in plasma and in tissues by immunohistochemistry. In human colon, gastric, breast, endometrial, pancreatic, kidney, lung and skin cancer, Cthrc1 was expressed by activated stromal cells and not the cancer cells themselves. Similarly, conditions evoking tissue remodeling, such as wound repair or angiotensin II-mediated hypertension, induced Cthrc1 expression in interstitial and adventitial fibroblasts and perivascular stromal cells. Levels of Cthrc1 in plasma from healthy subjects were near the lower detection limit except for individuals with red hair, who had up to several hundred fold higher levels. Elevated Cthrc1 was also found in patients with diabetes, inflammatory conditions, and infections, but not solid tumors. Transgenic mouse studies suggested that Cthrc1 expression by stromal cells does not contribute to circulating levels. In human pituitaries, Cthrc1 was expressed in the anterior and intermediate lobes with unencapsulated Cthrc1 accumulations typically surrounded by chromophobe cells. CONCLUSIONS: We identify Cthrc1 as a marker for activated stromal cells. Cthrc1 is a pituitary hormone with significantly elevated levels in subjects carrying variant alleles of the melanocortin-1 receptor as wells as in patients with inflammatory conditions.

  4. Dural enhancement in pituitary macroadenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattin, F. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Besancon (France); Dept. of Neuroradiology, Jean Minjoz Hospital, Besancon (France); Bonneville, F.; Andrea, I.; Barrali, E.; Bonneville, J.F. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Besancon (France)

    2000-07-01

    We describe the normal dural enhancement patterns of the sellar region and determine whether the duramater is affected by pituitary macroadenomas. Dural enhancement appeared to be usually abnormal in 20 patients with pituitary macroadenoma compared with 20 control patients, mainly at the planum sphenoidale and carotid sulcus. However dural changes are subtle and their recognition requires knowledge of the normal enhancement patterns. Dural changes, reported in a variety of inflammatory and infectious dural diseases and after surgery, are not specific and may be also seen in pituitary macroadenomas. (orig.)

  5. A semi-dominant mutation in the general splicing factor SF3a66 causes anterior-posterior axis reversal in one-cell stage C. elegans embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R Keikhaee

    Full Text Available Establishment of anterior-posterior polarity in one-cell stage Caenorhabditis elegans embryos depends in part on astral microtubules. As the zygote enters mitosis, these microtubules promote the establishment of a posterior pole by binding to and protecting a cytoplasmic pool of the posterior polarity protein PAR-2 from phosphorylation by the cortically localized anterior polarity protein PKC-3. Prior to activation of the sperm aster, the oocyte Meiosis I and II spindles assemble and function, usually at the future anterior pole, but these meiotic spindle microtubules fail to establish posterior polarity through PAR-2. Here we show that a semi-dominant mutation in the general splicing factor SF3a66 can lead to a reversed axis of AP polarity that depends on PAR-2 and possibly on close proximity of oocyte meiotic spindles with the cell cortex. One possible explanation is that reduced levels of PKC-3, due to a general splicing defect, can result in axis reversal due to a failure to prevent oocyte meiotic spindle microtubules from interfering with AP axis formation.

  6. Spinogenesis and pruning in the anterior ventral inferotemporal cortex of the macaque monkey: an intracellular injection study of layer III pyramidal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy N. Elston

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cortical pyramidal cells grow and mature at different rates in visual, auditory and prefrontal cortex of the macaque monkey. In particular, differences across the areas have been reported in both the timing and magnitude of growth, branching, spinogenesis and pruning in the basal dendritic trees of cells in layer III. Presently available data suggest that these different growth profiles reflect the type of functions performed by these cells in the adult brain. However, to date, studies have focussed on only a relatively few cortical areas. In the present investigation we quantified the growth of the dendritic trees of layer III pyramidal cells in the anterior ventral portion of cytoarchitectonic area TE (TEav to better comprehend developmental trends in the cerebral cortex. We quantified the growth and branching of the dendrities, and spinogenesis and pruning of spines, from post-natal day 2 (PND2 to four and a half years of age. We found that the dendritic trees increase in size from PND2 to 7 months of age and thereafter become smaller. The dendritic trees became increasingly more branched from PND2 into adulthood. There was a 2-fold increase in the number of spines in the basal dendritic trees of pyramidal cells from PND2 to 3½ months of age and then a 10% net decrease in spine number into adulthood. Thus, the growth profile of layer III pyramidal cells in the anterior ventral portion of the inferotemporal cortex differs to that in other cortical areas associated with visual processing.

  7. EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-a AND THEIR RECEPTOR IN HUMAN PITUITARY TUMORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the role of growth factor autocrine stimulation in the pathogenesis of human pituitary tumors. Methods: The expression of EGF, TGF-a and EGFR were studied by immunohisto-chemical method on paraffin-embedded sections of 30 cases pituitary tumor. Results: EGFR and its ligands EGF, TGF-a expressed in majority of pituitary tumors. The expression of EGFR and its ligands varied with cells' intensity, density and type. Conclusion: The EGF autocrine stimulating exerted in the pituitary tumor development process, that tyrosine kinases inhibitors may be useful for pituitary tumors treatment.

  8. Signaling pathway networks mined from human pituitary adenoma proteomics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Xianquan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We obtained a series of pituitary adenoma proteomic expression data, including protein-mapping data (111 proteins, comparative proteomic data (56 differentially expressed proteins, and nitroproteomic data (17 nitroproteins. There is a pressing need to clarify the significant signaling pathway networks that derive from those proteins in order to clarify and to better understand the molecular basis of pituitary adenoma pathogenesis and to discover biomarkers. Here, we describe the significant signaling pathway networks that were mined from human pituitary adenoma proteomic data with the Ingenuity pathway analysis system. Methods The Ingenuity pathway analysis system was used to analyze signal pathway networks and canonical pathways from protein-mapping data, comparative proteomic data, adenoma nitroproteomic data, and control nitroproteomic data. A Fisher's exact test was used to test the statistical significance with a significance level of 0.05. Statistical significant results were rationalized within the pituitary adenoma biological system with literature-based bioinformatics analyses. Results For the protein-mapping data, the top pathway networks were related to cancer, cell death, and lipid metabolism; the top canonical toxicity pathways included acute-phase response, oxidative-stress response, oxidative stress, and cell-cycle G2/M transition regulation. For the comparative proteomic data, top pathway networks were related to cancer, endocrine system development and function, and lipid metabolism; the top canonical toxicity pathways included mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative phosphorylation, oxidative-stress response, and ERK/MAPK signaling. The nitroproteomic data from a pituitary adenoma were related to cancer, cell death, lipid metabolism, and reproductive system disease, and the top canonical toxicity pathways mainly related to p38 MAPK signaling and cell-cycle G2/M transition regulation. Nitroproteins from a

  9. Anterior Hypopituitarism is Rare and Autoimmune Disease is Common in Adults with Idiopathic Central Diabetes Insipidus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Objective: Central diabetes insipidus is a rare clinical condition with a heterogenous aetiology. Up to 40% of cases are classified as idiopathic, though many of these are thought to have an autoimmune basis. Published data has suggested that anterior hypopituitarism is common in childhood onset idiopathic diabetes insipidus. We aimed to assess the incidence of anterior hypopituitarism in a cohort of adult patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Design and Patients: We performed a retrospective review of the databases of two pituitary investigation units. This identified 39 patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. All had undergone MRI scanning and dynamic pituitary testing (either insulin tolerance testing or GHRH\\/arginine and short synacthen testing) to assess anterior pituitary function. Results: One patient had partial growth hormone deficiency; no other anterior pituitary hormonal deficits were found. 33% had at least one autoimmune disease in addition to central diabetes insipidus. Conclusions: Our data suggest that anterior hypopituitarism is rare in adult idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Routine screening of these patients for anterior hypopituitarism may not therefore be indicated. The significant prevalence of autoimmune disease in this cohort supports the hypothesis that idiopathic diabetes insipidus may have an autoimmune aetiology.

  10. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh;

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  11. Heat Shock Protein Beta-1 Modifies Anterior to Posterior Purkinje Cell Vulnerability in a Mouse Model of Niemann-Pick Type C Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chan; Elrick, Matthew J; Dell'Orco, James M; Qin, Zhaohui S; Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Shakkottai, Vikram G; Lieberman, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Selective neuronal vulnerability is characteristic of most degenerative disorders of the CNS, yet mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly characterized. Many forms of cerebellar degeneration exhibit an anterior-to-posterior gradient of Purkinje cell loss including Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC) disease, a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by progressive neurological deficits that often begin in childhood. Here, we sought to identify candidate genes underlying vulnerability of Purkinje cells in anterior cerebellar lobules using data freely available in the Allen Brain Atlas. This approach led to the identification of 16 candidate neuroprotective or susceptibility genes. We demonstrate that one candidate gene, heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1), promoted neuronal survival in cellular models of NPC disease through a mechanism that involved inhibition of apoptosis. Additionally, we show that over-expression of wild type HSPB1 or a phosphomimetic mutant in NPC mice slowed the progression of motor impairment and diminished cerebellar Purkinje cell loss. We confirmed the modulatory effect of Hspb1 on Purkinje cell degeneration in vivo, as knockdown by Hspb1 shRNA significantly enhanced neuron loss. These results suggest that strategies to promote HSPB1 activity may slow the rate of cerebellar degeneration in NPC disease and highlight the use of bioinformatics tools to uncover pathways leading to neuronal protection in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27152617

  12. Heat Shock Protein Beta-1 Modifies Anterior to Posterior Purkinje Cell Vulnerability in a Mouse Model of Niemann-Pick Type C Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Chung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Selective neuronal vulnerability is characteristic of most degenerative disorders of the CNS, yet mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly characterized. Many forms of cerebellar degeneration exhibit an anterior-to-posterior gradient of Purkinje cell loss including Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC disease, a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by progressive neurological deficits that often begin in childhood. Here, we sought to identify candidate genes underlying vulnerability of Purkinje cells in anterior cerebellar lobules using data freely available in the Allen Brain Atlas. This approach led to the identification of 16 candidate neuroprotective or susceptibility genes. We demonstrate that one candidate gene, heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1, promoted neuronal survival in cellular models of NPC disease through a mechanism that involved inhibition of apoptosis. Additionally, we show that over-expression of wild type HSPB1 or a phosphomimetic mutant in NPC mice slowed the progression of motor impairment and diminished cerebellar Purkinje cell loss. We confirmed the modulatory effect of Hspb1 on Purkinje cell degeneration in vivo, as knockdown by Hspb1 shRNA significantly enhanced neuron loss. These results suggest that strategies to promote HSPB1 activity may slow the rate of cerebellar degeneration in NPC disease and highlight the use of bioinformatics tools to uncover pathways leading to neuronal protection in neurodegenerative disorders.

  13. MR of the pituitary in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome: size determination and imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is an unusual genetic disorder characterized by short stature, obesity, hypogonadism, hypotonia, cognitive impairment, and dysmorphic facies. There is an interstitial deletion of the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 in about 70% of patients. Some of these clinical features suggest a central hypothalamic/pituitary dysfunction, and recent investigations have demonstrated a marked impairment in spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion. We studied 15 GH-deficient PWS patients by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether there was a diminution in the gross morphological size of the anterior pituitary gland, the site of GH synthesis. We also set out to catalog the pertinent imaging findings in this patient population. Our results indicate that this is the first report documenting pituitary size by MRI in PWS patients. No statistically significant difference was found in the height of the anterior pituitary gland in PWS patients compared with either normal children or children with isolated GH deficiency. An interesting imaging finding is that three of 15 patients (20%) demonstrated complete absence of the posterior pituitary bright spot (PPBS), and a fourth patient demonstrated a small PPBS. These observations reflect an objective physiologic disturbance in the hypothalamus. The clinical and radiologic implications of these findings are discussed. (orig.)

  14. MR of the pituitary in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome: size determination and imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L. [Dept. of Radiology, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY (United States); Angulo, M. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Div. of Endocrinology and Genetics, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY (United States); Price, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY (United States); Taneja, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is an unusual genetic disorder characterized by short stature, obesity, hypogonadism, hypotonia, cognitive impairment, and dysmorphic facies. There is an interstitial deletion of the proximal long arm of chromosome 15 in about 70% of patients. Some of these clinical features suggest a central hypothalamic/pituitary dysfunction, and recent investigations have demonstrated a marked impairment in spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion. We studied 15 GH-deficient PWS patients by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether there was a diminution in the gross morphological size of the anterior pituitary gland, the site of GH synthesis. We also set out to catalog the pertinent imaging findings in this patient population. Our results indicate that this is the first report documenting pituitary size by MRI in PWS patients. No statistically significant difference was found in the height of the anterior pituitary gland in PWS patients compared with either normal children or children with isolated GH deficiency. An interesting imaging finding is that three of 15 patients (20%) demonstrated complete absence of the posterior pituitary bright spot (PPBS), and a fourth patient demonstrated a small PPBS. These observations reflect an objective physiologic disturbance in the hypothalamus. The clinical and radiologic implications of these findings are discussed. (orig.)

  15. MRI for the determination of pituitary iron overload in children and young adults with β-thalassaemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypogonadism, resulting from iron-induced pituitary dysfunction, is the most frequently reported complication in patients with β-thalassaemia major. The aim of this study was to evaluate pituitary Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) signal intensity reduction, on T2*-weighted images, as a marker of pituitary iron overload. Thirty patients (13 females and 17 males, mean age: 16.6 ± 4.1) with β-thalassaemia major on conventional treatment and 13 healthy volunteers (7 females and 6 males, mean age: 11 ± 4.51 years) were studied with T2*-weighted images of the anterior pituitary using a 1.5 T unit. Four thalassaemic patients (2 females and 2 males) had clinical hypogonadism and required hormonal replacement treatment. Results revealed a statistically significant reduction of pituitary signal intensity in the thalassaemia group compared to controls (p 2 = 0.443, p = 0.001), whereas ferritin levels and pituitary MRI values were moderately correlated (r = -0.56, r 2 = 0.32, p = 0.08) in adult thalassaemic patients. In conclusion, pituitary MRI indices as measured on T2*-weighted images seem to reflect pituitary iron overload and could, therefore, be used for a preclinical detection of patients who are in greater danger of developing hypogonadism

  16. Clinical features and differential diagnosis of pituitary tumours with emphasis on acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, J V; Jackson, I M

    1995-04-01

    Pituitary adenomas are frequently encountered, benign intracranial tumours. Clinically classified according to their capacity to produce and secrete hormones, pituitary tumours are diagnosed from the clinical manifestations and biochemical findings of specific pituitary hormone overproduction or of impaired pituitary function due to pressure on normal pituitary cells, the pituitary stalk or the hypothalamus. Additionally, the tumour may result in neurological manifestations due to its effect as an intracranial space-occupying lesion. Pituitary adenomas may present acutely with pituitary apoplexy after intrapituitary haemorrhage or infarction. The subsequent hypofunction of the pituitary with concomitant neurological sequelae of an expanding intracranial mass are often associated with excruciating headache, diplopia and visual field defects. Gradually developing neurological deficits or secondary endocrine failure over several years may precede the recognition of non-secretory tumours (30-40% of pituitary adenomas) as well as some of the hormone-producing adenomas, especially when they expand beyond the confines of the sella turcica. Asymptomatic masses occur in the pituitary in 5-27% of unselected autopsy series. About 10-20% of pituitaries imaged as part of a brain study contain lesions 'consistent with a pituitary adenoma', with about half being pituitary adenomas ('incidentalomas'). Many advocate screening such cases for a wide spectrum of pituitary function abnormalities. Clinical judgement should be utilized to determine the extent of the work-up and the frequency of follow-up. Acromegaly, a clinical syndrome caused by excess growth hormone secretion, accounts for one-sixth of resected pituitary tumours. This disorder leads to chronic progressive disability and a shortened life span, with approximately 50% of untreated acromegalic patients experiencing premature death. The prevalence of acromegaly has been estimated to range from 50 to 70 per million, with the

  17. Clinical features and differential diagnosis of pituitary tumours with emphasis on acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, J V; Jackson, I M

    1995-04-01

    Pituitary adenomas are frequently encountered, benign intracranial tumours. Clinically classified according to their capacity to produce and secrete hormones, pituitary tumours are diagnosed from the clinical manifestations and biochemical findings of specific pituitary hormone overproduction or of impaired pituitary function due to pressure on normal pituitary cells, the pituitary stalk or the hypothalamus. Additionally, the tumour may result in neurological manifestations due to its effect as an intracranial space-occupying lesion. Pituitary adenomas may present acutely with pituitary apoplexy after intrapituitary haemorrhage or infarction. The subsequent hypofunction of the pituitary with concomitant neurological sequelae of an expanding intracranial mass are often associated with excruciating headache, diplopia and visual field defects. Gradually developing neurological deficits or secondary endocrine failure over several years may precede the recognition of non-secretory tumours (30-40% of pituitary adenomas) as well as some of the hormone-producing adenomas, especially when they expand beyond the confines of the sella turcica. Asymptomatic masses occur in the pituitary in 5-27% of unselected autopsy series. About 10-20% of pituitaries imaged as part of a brain study contain lesions 'consistent with a pituitary adenoma', with about half being pituitary adenomas ('incidentalomas'). Many advocate screening such cases for a wide spectrum of pituitary function abnormalities. Clinical judgement should be utilized to determine the extent of the work-up and the frequency of follow-up. Acromegaly, a clinical syndrome caused by excess growth hormone secretion, accounts for one-sixth of resected pituitary tumours. This disorder leads to chronic progressive disability and a shortened life span, with approximately 50% of untreated acromegalic patients experiencing premature death. The prevalence of acromegaly has been estimated to range from 50 to 70 per million, with the

  18. The clinical pathologic research of invasive pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the pathological morphologic characteristics of invasive pituitary tumor and the affect of vascularization to the tumor's invasion. Methods: One hundred and thirty cases of pituitary adenoma patients were divided into two groups, including invasive pituitary adenomas and non-invasive pituitary adenomas, and the clinical data of two groups were analysed and compared. Results : The difference was statistically significant between the invasive group and the non-invasive group in the incidence rate of pathological morphologic characteristics such as high nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, cell pleomorphism, nuclear atypia and nucleoli appearance (P<0.05); there were nuclear atypia and nucleolus margination in the invasive group through electron microscopy. And there was statistical significant difference in rate of MVD expression which was higher in the invasive group than that of noninvasive group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The pathological morphologic characteristics of pituitary tumor and the high expression of MVD are significantly reference valuable in tumor aggression diagnosis, which provides valuable indicators for early clinical diagnosis of tumor invasion. (authors)

  19. Pituitary androgen receptor signalling regulates prolactin but not gonadotrophins in the male mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura O'Hara

    Full Text Available Production of the androgen testosterone is controlled by a negative feedback loop within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis. Stimulation of testicular Leydig cells by pituitary luteinising hormone (LH is under the control of hypothalamic gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH, while suppression of LH secretion by the pituitary is controlled by circulating testosterone. Exactly how androgens exert their feedback control of gonadotrophin secretion (and whether this is at the level of the pituitary, as well as the role of AR in other pituitary cell types remains unclear. To investigate these questions, we exploited a transgenic mouse line (Foxg1 Cre/+; AR fl/y which lacks androgen receptor in the pituitary gland. Both circulating testosterone and gonadotrophins are unchanged in adulthood, demonstrating that AR signalling is dispensable in the male mouse pituitary for testosterone-dependent regulation of LH secretion. In contrast, Foxg1 Cre/+; AR fl/y males have a significant increase in circulating prolactin, suggesting that, rather than controlling gonadotrophins, AR-signalling in the pituitary acts to suppress aberrant prolactin production in males.

  20. Genetically engineered mouse models of pituitary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    DavidACano; AlfonsoSoto-Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Animal models constitute valuable tools for investigating the pathogenesis of cancer as well as for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics approaches. However, the pathogenic mechanisms of pituitary tumor formation remain poorly understood, particularly in sporadic adenomas, thus making it a challenge to model pituitary tumors in mice. Nevertheless, genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of pituitary tumors have provided important insight into pituitary tumor biology. In this paper, w...

  1. Imaging of giant pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present five proven giant pituitary adenomas studied by CT and MRI, and review the clinical and imaging findings. Our aim was to examine the radiologic appearances and to search for criteria useful in distinguishing these tumors from other sellar and suprasellar tumours, mainly craniopharyngioma. The main differences from small adenomas were high prevalence of macrocysts, a more invasive behaviour and a clinical picture dominated by mass effect rather than endocrine disturbance. Factors supporting the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma in a giant intra- and suprasellar mass include: infrasellar extension, absence of calcification and presence of low-signal cysts on T1-weighted images. (orig.) (orig.)

  2. Growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma with admixed gangliocytoma and ganglioglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukes, Alistair; Allan, Rodney; Rawson, Robert; Buckland, Michael E

    2016-09-01

    Pituitary adenomas are the most common tumours found in the sellar region and, when both functioning and non-functioning adenomas are combined, account for 7-15% of primary brain tumours in adults. Rarely, admixed or discrete groups of cells comprising two or more tumour subtypes are seen; the so-called 'collision tumour'. We present a case of a 54-year-old-woman with a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma admixed with both ganglioglioma and gangliocytoma. The possible mechanisms by which this may occur include a pre-existing gangliocytoma promoting the development of pituitary adenoma by hypersecretion of releasing hormones or aberrant migration of hypothalamic neurons in early embryogenesis. PMID:27068013

  3. The Spectrum of Pituitary Adenoma Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Hickstein, Dennis D.; Marshall, John C.; Chandler, William F.

    1986-01-01

    In 34 cases of pituitary adenoma hemorrhage at one institution, the clinical manifestations of adenoma hemorrhage depended upon the size of the adenoma, the presence of suprasellar extension, the amount of hemorrhage and the extent of pituitary glandular destruction. Recognition of the spectrum of acute, subacute and chronic pituitary adenoma hemorrhage should expedite diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Computed tomography in pituitary abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, W.; Scharphuis, T.; Distelmaier, P.

    1986-06-01

    This is a report on a rare case of a recurring abscess in the pituitary gland. Diagnosis was extremely difficult to establish preoperatively. This is demonstrated via various radiological methods. Anamnesis and clinical disease pattern are important assisting factors in diagnosis.

  5. A Rare Corticotroph-Secreting Tumor with Coexisting Prolactin and Growth Hormone Staining Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian Kannan; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Weil, Robert J.; Betul Hatipoglu

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas can express and secrete different hormones. Expression of pituitary hormones in nonneoplastic pituitary cells is regulated by different transcription factors. Some pituitary adenomas show plurihormonal expression. The most commonly reported plurihormonal adenomas are composed of somatotrophs, lactotrophs, thyrotrophs and gonadotrophs. Pituitary adenomas composed of both corticotroph and somatolactotroph secreting cells are not common because transcription factors regulating...

  6. A thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma as a cause of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alings, A M; Fliers, E; de Herder, W W; Hofland, L J; Sluiter, H E; Links, T P; van der Hoeven, J H; Wiersinga, W M

    1998-11-01

    We describe a patient with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) caused by a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma. The diagnosis TPP was based on the combination of episodes of reversible hypokalaemic paralysis, hyperthyroidism and electrophysiological findings. A thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma was diagnosed on the basis of endocrinological function tests and MRI of the pituitary gland. Before transsphenoidal resection of the adenoma, treatment with octreotide restored euthyroidism both clinically and biochemically. Immunocytochemistry of the pituitary adenoma was positive for TSH exclusively. Incubation with octreotide or quinagolide induced decreased TSH and alpha-subunit production by the cultured adenoma cells, in agreement with the pre-operative in vivo data. This paper is the first to describe in vivo and in vitro characteristics of a thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma in a patient presenting with periodic paralysis. PMID:9854688

  7. Identification and characterization of a pituitary corticotropin-releasing factor binding protein by chemical cross-linking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishimura, E; Billestrup, Nils; Perrin, M;

    1987-01-01

    A corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) binding protein has been identified based on the chemical cross-linking of ovine [Nle21,m-125I-Tyr32]CRF (125I-oCRF) to bovine anterior pituitary membranes using disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS). The apparent molecular weight of the cross-linked complex...

  8. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome.

  9. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome. PMID:26585365

  10. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF THE PITUITARY METASTASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连伟; 任祖渊; 苏长保

    2004-01-01

    Thee cases of pituitary metastases were reported. They all had operations and the pathological examination confirming the diagnosis. The clinical features of diabetes insipidus and extraocular nerve palsy were presented. In two cases, the original tumors were bronchioloalveolar carcinoma; in the other one, the original tumor was unknown. All three cases had poor outcome. These cases illustrate the fact that a pituitary metastasis can closely mimic a pituitary benign tumor, such as pituitary adenoma. Especially in the presence of suggestive symptoms such as diabetes insipidus and/or cranical nerve paralysis, the possibility of metastatic disease in the differential diagnosis of a pituitary mass should always be considered.

  11. MR imaging of hemorrhagic pituitary apoplexy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pituitary apoplexy (stroke) may be ischemic or hemorrhagic. The authors studied three patients with hemorrhagic pituitary apoplexy. MR imaging is an accurate and noninvasive method that easily identifies areas of pituitary hemorrhage more than 48 hours old. Surgical planning based on MR imaging findings has been less successful than diagnosis based on MR imaging. In two patients a subfrontal approach was chosen because MR imaging suggested suprasellar extension, although none was found at operation. They hypothesize that pituitary hemmorrhage may act as a mass, creating alterations in cerebrospinal fluid or blood flow in the pituitary stalk and hypothamlamus that may exaggerate the suprasellar extension

  12. Bilateral Carotid-Cavernous Fistulas: An Uncommon Cause of Pituitary Enlargement and Hypopituitarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechan, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are rare, pathologic communications of the carotid artery and the venous plexus of the cavernous sinus. They can develop spontaneously in certain at risk individuals or following traumatic head injury. Typical clinical manifestations include headache, proptosis, orbital pain, and diplopia. We report a case of bilateral carotid-cavernous fistulas associated with these symptoms and also with pituitary enlargement and hypopituitarism, which improved following surgical intervention. Arterialization of the cavernous sinus and elevated portal pressure may interfere with normal venous drainage and the conveyance of inhibiting and releasing hormones from the hypothalamus, resulting in pituitary enlargement and hypopituitarism. This condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypopituitarism associated with anterior pituitary enlargement.

  13. [Two autopsy cases of primary pituitary carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, K; Suzuki, T; Masuda, Y; Masugi, Y; Teramoto, A; Ohama, E

    1988-05-01

    We studied two autopsy cases of primary pituitary carcinoma. Case-1. A 45 year old female was admitted on Oct. 4 1978, with a complaint of right homonymous hemianopsia. And diagnosis was pituitary adenoma. Partial removal of pituitary tumor was performed on Oct. 23 1978. She died on Dec. 5 1978 due to bleeding of gastrointestinal tract. Autopsy disclosed a pituitary carcinoma invading the left hypothalamus, mamillary body, optic and V cranial nerves, and mid brain as well as sphenoid bone. No extracranial metastasis was noted. Case-2. A 44 year old female with a history of acromegaly for 6 years was admitted with a complaint of headache on May 8 1976. She was diagnosed as having pituitary adenoma. The subtotal removal of pituitary tumor was performed on May 21 1976 and followed by 4500 rad irradiation. At this time, pathological diagnosis was eosinophilic adenoma. Seven years later, she complained of progressive right hearing disturbance, dysarthria and ataxic gait 1983. The second subtotal removal of pituitary tumor was performed with a diagnosis of recurrence of pituitary adenoma on Oct. 7 1983. After the operation, she complicated sepsis and died on Jan. 14 1984. An autopsy disclosed a pituitary carcinoma from residual pituitary gland, continuously extending to the subarachnoid space of the pons, and invading right cerebello-pontine angle and cerebellum. The histological examination revealed pituitary carcinoma with high pleomorphism and glioblastoma multiform-like feature were within the tumor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. CT evaluation of the normal pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct coronal computed tomography with 1.5mm contiguous scanning was done in total 95 cases, who had no clinical evidence of pituitary and hypothalamic disease. The evaluation of pituitary height, width, upper surface contour and density was done and the pituitary stalk was also evaluated. The results as follow : 1. Total 95 cases were 45 males and 50 females. 2. The average height of normal pituitary gland was 5.72 ± 1.44 mm in female and 5.37 ± 1.17 mm in male. There was no significant difference of pituitary height between male and female (ρ > 0.1). 3. The pituitary height was decreased according to the increased age both in male and female except prepubertal age. 4. The group between 15-30 year old age showed significantly increased pituitary height comparing to the remained age group both in male and female (ρ 0.1). 8. The focal low density of normal pituitary gland was noted in only 8.4% and its size was always below 3mm. 9. The pituitary stalk can be seen in 94.7% by direct coronal CT scanning and it was located at the midline. The width of pituitary stalk was always smaller than internal carotid artery and basilar artery. 10. There were no significant difference in pituitary height and width according to the menopause or the marriage

  15. The ETS domain transcriptional repressor Anterior open inhibits MAP kinase and Wingless signaling to couple tracheal cell fate with branch identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviglia, Sara; Luschnig, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Cells at the tips of budding branches in the Drosophila tracheal system generate two morphologically different types of seamless tubes. Terminal cells (TCs) form branched lumenized extensions that mediate gas exchange at target tissues, whereas fusion cells (FCs) form ring-like connections between adjacent tracheal metameres. Each tracheal branch contains a specific set of TCs, FCs, or both, but the mechanisms that select between the two tip cell types in a branch-specific fashion are not clear. Here, we show that the ETS domain transcriptional repressor anterior open (aop) is dispensable for directed tracheal cell migration, but plays a key role in tracheal tip cell fate specification. Whereas aop globally inhibits TC and FC specification, MAPK signaling overcomes this inhibition by triggering degradation of Aop in tip cells. Loss of aop function causes excessive FC and TC specification, indicating that without Aop-mediated inhibition, all tracheal cells are competent to adopt a specialized fate. We demonstrate that Aop plays a dual role by inhibiting both MAPK and Wingless signaling, which induce TC and FC fate, respectively. In addition, the branch-specific choice between the two seamless tube types depends on the tracheal branch identity gene spalt major, which is sufficient to inhibit TC specification. Thus, a single repressor, Aop, integrates two different signals to couple tip cell fate selection with branch identity. The switch from a branching towards an anastomosing tip cell type may have evolved with the acquisition of a main tube that connects separate tracheal primordia to generate a tubular network. PMID:23444354

  16. Pituitary tumor evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertson, B.; Binney, S.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes research on the following: the structure of {sup 10}B{sub 10}-ovine corticotropin releasing hormone and {sup 10}B{sub 10}-growth hormone releasing hormone; the BNCT effect on AtT-20 cell {sup 10}B{sub 10}-CRH incubations in vitro; BNCT effects on GH{sub 4}C{sub 1} cell {sup 10}B{sub 10} growth hormone releasing factor incubation in vitro; and competitive inhibition of AtT-20 cell BNCT effect.

  17. Toxic effects of methoxychlor administered subcutaneously on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, A; Cabaleiro, T; Caride, A; Esquifino, A I

    2008-05-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of methoxychlor MTX at the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in adult male rats. This global objective comprises three major aims: (1) to analyze the possible differential MTX effects in norepinephrine and serotonin concentration an in serotoninergic metabolism in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus and median eminence; (2) to evaluate effects induced by MTX exposure on gonadotropins and testosterone; 93 to elucidate whether the regulatory interactions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis are modified by this pesticide. Animals were administered subcutaneously 25mg/kg/day of MTX for 1 month. MTX increased norepinephrine and serotonin content in anterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.05), but decreased serotonin concentration in posterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.05). MTX diminished serotonin turnover in anterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.01) and decreased plasma LH (P < or = 0.001) and testosterone (P < or = 0.05) levels but those of FSH remained unmodified. We can conclude that MTX exposure: (1) could exert differential effects in norepinephrine and serotonin concentration an in serotoninergic metabolism in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus and median eminence, being the anterior hypothalamus the most sensitive region to the pesticide; (2) could inhibit LH and testosterone secretion without changing FSH; (3) four potential pathways might be involved in MTX effects on testosterone secretion (changing LH secretion; modifying serotonin and norepinephrine at the hypothalamic level; alterating the direct neural pathway between brain and testes; and/or by a direct effect in testes).

  18. E2F1 Induces Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene (PTTG1) Expression in Human Pituitary Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Cuiqi; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Bannykh, Serguei; Gutman, Shiri; Melmed, Shlomo

    2009-01-01

    Rb/E2F is dysregulated in murine and human pituitary tumors. Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG1), a securin protein, is required for pituitary tumorigenesis, and PTTG1 deletion attenuates pituitary tumor development in Rb+/− mice. E2F1 and PTTG1 were concordantly overexpressed in 29 of 46 Rb+/− murine pituitary tissues and also in 45 of 80 human pituitary tumors (P < 0.05). E2F1 specifically bound the hPTTG1 promoter as assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and biotin-streptavidin p...

  19. Pituitary function in patients with newly diagnosed untreated systemic lupus erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Koller, M.; Templ, E; M. Riedl; Clodi, M; Wagner, O; Smolen, J.; Luger, A

    2004-01-01

    Methods: 11 patients with SLE and 9 healthy controls were tested for their total anterior pituitary gland reserve by simultaneous injection of corticotropin-, growth hormone- (GH), thyrotropin-, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Serum concentrations of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), cortisol, GH, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), PRL, luteinising hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured at baseline and after injection. Baseline values of oestradiol, testostero...

  20. Advance in diagnosis and therapy of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome%垂体柄中断综合征诊治进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦; 郭清华; 母义明

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome(PSIS) is a rare disease characterized by different degrees of anterior pituitary hormone deficiency.The typical imaging finding is a thin or absent pituitary stalk,often associated with an ectopic posterior pituitary and a hypoplastic anterior pituitary.The cause is still unkown.Dynamic contrastenhanced MRI helps to confirm the diagnosis.Replacement of multiple anterior pituitary hormones is the key of the treatment.Doctors should have a thorough understanding of the disease and give patients efficacious treatment and a better prognosis would be obtained.%垂体柄中断综合征(PSIS)是以不同程度的垂体前叶激素分泌缺乏为主要临床表现的罕见疾病,其影像学特征为垂体柄缺如或纤细,常合并垂体后叶高信号异位、垂体前叶发育不良.目前病因仍不明确.鞍区动态增强MRI有助于明确诊断.各种垂体前叶激素替代是有效治疗手段.医生应加强认识、积极治疗,以改善患者预后.

  1. PI3K signalling in GnRH actions on dispersed goldfish pituitary cells: relationship with PKC-mediated LH and GH release and regulation of long-term effects on secretion and total cellular hormone availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Joshua G; Orr, Michael E; Stafford, James L; Chang, John P

    2014-09-01

    Goldfish pituitary cells are exposed to two GnRHs, salmon (s)GnRH and chicken (c)GnRH-II. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase C (PKC) both participate in acute sGnRH- and cGnRH-II-stimulated LH and GH release. Using goldfish pituitary cells, we examined the relationship between PI3K and PKC in acute LH and GH secretion, and PI3K involvement in chronic hormone release and total LH and GH availability. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 did not affect PKC agonists-induced LH or GH release, and PKC agonists did not alter PI3K p85 phosphorylation, suggesting PKC activation is not upstream of PI3K in acute hormone release. In 2, 6, 12 and 24h treatments, LY294002 did not affect LH release but stimulated total LH availability at 6h. sGnRH stimulatory actions on LH release and total availability at 12 and 24h, and cGnRH-II effects on these parameters at 6h were inhibited by LY294002. LY294002 enhanced basal GH release at 2 and 6h, but reduced total GH at 12 and 24h. Increased GH release was seen following 6, 12 and 24h of sGnRH, and 2, 6 and 24h of cGnRH-II treatment but total GH availability was only elevated by 24h cGnRH-II treatment. Whereas LY294002 inhibited GH release responses to sGnRH at 12h and cGnRH-II at 6h, it attenuated cGnRH-II-elicited, but not sGnRH-induced, effects on total GH. These results indicate that PI3K differentially modulates long-term basal and GnRH-stimulated hormone release, and total hormone availability, in a time-, cell-type-, and GnRH isoform-selective manner. PMID:24681225

  2. Computed tomography of pituitary microadenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung-Il; Katto, Keiichi; Tanaka, Teruhiko; Kosaka, Shiro; Kaimori, Mitsuhiro (Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan))

    1983-08-01

    Thirteen pituitary microadenomas detected by Delta Scan 2020 are presented, and their CT findings are analyzed in points of size, shape, limit, density and contrast enhancement. All are demonstrated as a round, well defined and homogeneous mass, and are enhanced by contrast medium. The average size is 6.2 by 7.6 mm in diameter. Two of them are prolactinoma, and are treated by Bromocriptine. The prolactinomas vanished on CT scan, 6 months after administration of Bromocriptine. Eleven of them are nonfunctioning. Five are operated and the others are followed by CT scan. In detection of pituitary microadenoma, overlapping scanning with thin-slice is necessary and coronal scanning is often helpful. The adenoma greater than 5 mm in diameter may be detectable.

  3. CONGENITAL ANTERIOR TIBIOFEMURAL SUBLUXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahla

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anterior tibiofemoral subluxation is an extremely rare disorder. All reported cases accompanied by other abnormalities and syndromes. A 16-year-old high school girl referred to us with bilateral anterior tibiofemoral subluxation as the knees were extended and reduced at more than 30 degrees flexion. Deformities were due to tightness of the iliotibial band and biceps femuris muscles and corrected by surgical release. Associated disorders included bilateral anterior shoulders dislocation, short metacarpals and metatarsals, and right calcaneuvalgus deformity.

  4. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Meena, Sanjay; Saini, Pramod; Singh, Vivek; Kumar, Ramakant; Trikha, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder dislocations are the most common major joint dislocations encountered in the emergency departments. Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and of these, bilateral posterior shoulder dislocations are more prevalent than bilateral anterior shoulder dislocations. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. We present a case of 24-year-old male who sustained bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following minor trauma, with associated greater tuberosity fracture on one side...

  5. Colloid cyst of the pituitary gland: Case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The sellar and parasellar region is an area where many heterogenous neoplastic, inflammatory, developmental and vascular pathologies can occur. Differentiation among various diseases may be not easy, because many of these lesions could mimic the clinical, endocrinologic and radiologic features of pituitary adenomas, which can be the cause of possible misdiagnosis. Case Report: We report a case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a persistent headache for the last 5 - 6 years and visual disturbances. Endocrine system examinations disclosed only insignificant hyperprolactinaemia. The MRI revealed an hypointense area - its presentation was similar to that of pituitary adenoma. The correct diagnosis, i.e. a colloid cyst of the pituitary gland, was made intraoperatively. Conclusions: Colloid cyst of the pituitary gland is a very rare pathology but it must be considered if there is an hypointense area between the anterior and posterior pituitary lobe in MR imaging without contrast enhancement and if the patient presents with headaches, hypopituitarism and hyperprolactinaemia. (authors)

  6. Endocrinological and MRI features of pituitary adenomas with marked xanthogranulomatous reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, Hiroshi; Haraoka, Jo [Tokyo Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo (Japan); Shibuya, Makoto [Tokyo Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Ibaraki Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Ohtsuka, Kuninori; Ikeda, Yukio [Tokyo Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Hachioji Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The study aims to describe the endocrinological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the rarely reported xanthogranulomas associated with pituitary adenoma. Of 231 consecutive pituitary adenomas treated surgically, those with xanthogranulomatous reaction on histology were reviewed. Five patients (2.2%) had an adenoma with marked xanthogranulomatous reaction. They were all nonfunctioning macroadenomas and presented with anterior pituitary insufficiencies. On MRI, all adenomas showed mixed signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images with heterogeneous gadolinium enhancement, reflecting their complex histological features: Cholesterol clefts typically showed T1 high- and T2 low-signal intensities. Preoperative diagnosis was difficult in a case predominantly featuring xanthogranuloma. Although none of them had episodes of pituitary apoplexy, hemosiderin deposits and cysts with xanthochromic-like fluid were observed in five and four cases, respectively. Xanthogranulomatous reaction may develop in macroadenomas, probably triggered by hemorrhagic processes despite no apoplectic episodes. They typically exhibit complex mixed signal intensity on MRI, particularly T1 high- and T2 low-signal intensities, and patients present with pituitary dysfunction. (orig.)

  7. Endocrinological and MRI features of pituitary adenomas with marked xanthogranulomatous reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims to describe the endocrinological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the rarely reported xanthogranulomas associated with pituitary adenoma. Of 231 consecutive pituitary adenomas treated surgically, those with xanthogranulomatous reaction on histology were reviewed. Five patients (2.2%) had an adenoma with marked xanthogranulomatous reaction. They were all nonfunctioning macroadenomas and presented with anterior pituitary insufficiencies. On MRI, all adenomas showed mixed signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images with heterogeneous gadolinium enhancement, reflecting their complex histological features: Cholesterol clefts typically showed T1 high- and T2 low-signal intensities. Preoperative diagnosis was difficult in a case predominantly featuring xanthogranuloma. Although none of them had episodes of pituitary apoplexy, hemosiderin deposits and cysts with xanthochromic-like fluid were observed in five and four cases, respectively. Xanthogranulomatous reaction may develop in macroadenomas, probably triggered by hemorrhagic processes despite no apoplectic episodes. They typically exhibit complex mixed signal intensity on MRI, particularly T1 high- and T2 low-signal intensities, and patients present with pituitary dysfunction. (orig.)

  8. Maternal stress affects postnatal growth and the pituitary expression of prolactin in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pengfei; Ishige, Atsushi; Murakami, Yu; Nakata, Hideyuki; Oka, Jun-Ichiro; Munakata, Kaori; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nishimura, Ko; Watanabe, Kenji

    2011-03-01

    Maternal stress exerts long-lasting psychiatric and somatic on offspring, which persist into adulthood. However, the effect of maternal stress on the postnatal growth of pups has not been widely reported. In this study, we found that maternal immobilization stress (IS) during lactation resulted in low body weight of male mouse offspring, which persisted after weaning. Despite free access to chow, IS induced maternal malnutrition and decreased the serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in the mothers and in the pups. mRNA expression analysis of anterior pituitary hormones in the pups revealed that growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL), but no other hormones, were decreased by IS. Expression of the pituitary transcription factor PIT1 and isoforms of PITX2, which are essential for the development and function of GH-producing somatotropes and PRL-producing lactotropes, was decreased, whereas that of PROP1, which is critical for the earlier stages of pituitary development, was unchanged. Immunohistochemistry also showed a decrease in pituitary PRL protein expression. These results suggest that stress in a postpartum mother has persistent effects on the body weight of the offspring. Reduced PRL expression in the offspring's pituitary gland may play a role in these effects.

  9. Rheumatic manifestations of pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, S; Kleinberg, D L

    2001-10-01

    Pituitary tumors may cause rheumatologic problems as a result of under production or overproduction of one pituitary hormone. Excessive growth hormone causes destruction of cartilage by a direct action. Facial and acral changes and arthralgias may be some of the first symptoms of acromegaly. The arthritis associated with acromegaly is often devastating. Carpal tunnel syndrome is very common in patients with acromegaly. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) has indirect effects via the action of glucocorticoid on bones, muscles, and the immune system. Proximal muscle weakness is a characteristic feature of Cushing's syndrome. Patients with Cushing's syndrome commonly have osteopenia and osteoporosis that lead to an increase in bone fractures. Avascular necrosis is associated with exogenous steroid administration. The effects of too much glucocorticoid or too rapid withdrawal can be severe. Gonadotropins act via the gonadal steroids and protect bone mass from loss. Prolactin is less involved in rheumatologic disease; the data for which are limited in humans. Pituitary tumors can have manifestations similar to rheumatologic disorders and should be included in the differential diagnosis of these diseases.

  10. Effect of pituitary-specific transcription factory small interfering RNA on biological behaviors of growth hormone pituitary adenoma GH3 cells in rats%靶向垂体特异转录因子-1的小干扰RNA对大鼠生长激素垂体腺瘤GH3细胞生物学行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范月超; 张慧; 李锦晓; 梅鹏金; 郑骏年; 雷霆

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察小干扰RNA (siRNA)抑制大鼠垂体生长激素腺瘤细胞(GH3)中垂体特异转录因子-1(Pit-1)的基因表达对其生物学行为的影响.方法 设计合成针对Pit-1基因的siRNA,经脂质体包裹转染GH3细胞.采用Western blot、逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)法测定经siRNA转染24 h后;Pit-1蛋白和Pit-1 mRNA表达;用细胞计数试剂盒(CCK-8)细胞增殖-毒性检测法检测细胞生长增殖的变化;用流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡的改变;制备Transwell小室测定GH3细胞体外侵袭能力的变化.结果 siRNA显著地抑制Pit-1蛋白和Pit-1 mRNA的表达水平,分别降低58.18%和75.82%;CCK-8法结果显示siRNA组细胞增长率明显低于与阴性对照组;流式细胞仪分析显示,siRNA组细胞凋亡率[(9.250 00±0.996 95)%]较阴性对照组[(2.893 30±0.665 16)%]增加;,siRNA组穿过Matrigel胶及滤膜的细胞数[(92.91±53.25)个],与阴性对照组[(7.50±7.95)个]比较侵袭力明显减弱,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 Pit-1 siRNA能够有效地抑制GH3细胞的生长、促进其凋亡,降低侵袭力.%Objective To observe the effects of pituitary-specific transcription factory (Pit-1)small interfering RNA (siRNA) on biological behaviors of growth hormone pituitary adenoma GH3 cells in rats.Methods Design and synthesis of the Pit-1 gene of siRNA,mixed with liposome transfection of GH3 cells.Using protein immunoblot assay (Western blotting),reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the determination,after siRNA translated 24 h,of Pit-1 protein and Pit-1 mRNA expression ; with cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) cell proliferation-toxicity test in the detection of cell growth increment change; by flow cytometry for detection of apoptosis changes ; system preparation of Transwell cell determination of GH3 cells in vitro invasion ability changes.Results SiRNA significantly inhibited Pit-1 protein and the Pit-1 mRNA the expression level

  11. Gamma knife radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježková, Jana; Marek, Josef

    2016-09-01

    Pituitary adenomas are frequently occurring intracranial neoplasms. The aim of the treatment of pituitary adenomas is to normalize hormonal hypersecretion, to preserve the normal pituitary function, to reserve or treat impaired pituitary function and to control tumor growth and its mechanical effects on the surrounding structures. Treatment modalities include surgical, medical and radiation therapy. Radiosurgery is mainly used as a secondary line treatment after surgery for residual or recurrent tumors. The antiproliferative effect is achieved by LKG irradiation in more than 90% of patients. Regarding the functioning pituitary adenomas, the manifestation of the treatment effect is slow and depends mainly on the type of adenoma. Gamma knife irradiation is safe when the maximal doses to pituitary and infundibulum are respected. PMID:26899535

  12. MRI for the determination of pituitary iron overload in children and young adults with {beta}-thalassaemia major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoforidis, Athanasios [Thalassaemia Unit, ' Hippokration' Hospital, 49 Konstantinoupoleos str., 54642 Thessaloniki (Greece)]. E-mail: christoforidis@doctors.org.uk; Haritandi, Afroditi [Radiology Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA Hospital, 54636 Thessaloniki (Greece); Perifanis, Vassilios [Thalassaemia Unit, ' Hippokration' Hospital, 49 Konstantinoupoleos str., 54642 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsatra, Ioanna [Thalassaemia Unit, ' Hippokration' Hospital, 49 Konstantinoupoleos str., 54642 Thessaloniki (Greece); Athanassiou-Metaxa, Miranda [Thalassaemia Unit, ' Hippokration' Hospital, 49 Konstantinoupoleos str., 54642 Thessaloniki (Greece); Dimitriadis, Athanasios S. [Radiology Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA Hospital, 54636 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2007-04-15

    Hypogonadism, resulting from iron-induced pituitary dysfunction, is the most frequently reported complication in patients with {beta}-thalassaemia major. The aim of this study was to evaluate pituitary Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) signal intensity reduction, on T2*-weighted images, as a marker of pituitary iron overload. Thirty patients (13 females and 17 males, mean age: 16.6 {+-} 4.1) with {beta}-thalassaemia major on conventional treatment and 13 healthy volunteers (7 females and 6 males, mean age: 11 {+-} 4.51 years) were studied with T2*-weighted images of the anterior pituitary using a 1.5 T unit. Four thalassaemic patients (2 females and 2 males) had clinical hypogonadism and required hormonal replacement treatment. Results revealed a statistically significant reduction of pituitary signal intensity in the thalassaemia group compared to controls (p < 0.001). Moreover, hypogonadal patients had significantly decreased MRI values compared to thalassaemic patients without hypogonadism (p = 0.017). Relatively decreased adeno-hypophyseal MRI signal intensity was recorded in pubertal thalassaemic patients. A significant negative correlation was observed between pituitary MRI values and age (r = -0.67, r {sup 2} = 0.443, p = 0.001), whereas ferritin levels and pituitary MRI values were moderately correlated (r = -0.56, r {sup 2} = 0.32, p = 0.08) in adult thalassaemic patients. In conclusion, pituitary MRI indices as measured on T2*-weighted images seem to reflect pituitary iron overload and could, therefore, be used for a preclinical detection of patients who are in greater danger of developing hypogonadism.

  13. [Old phenotype and new genotypes. Pituitary adenomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, C; Jedidi, H; Petrossians, P; Krzesinski, F; Daly, A; Beckers, A

    2015-11-01

    Gigantism and acromegaly, usually caused by a pituitary adenoma linked inappropriate secretion of growth hormone (GH), are generally considered as very rare diseases, even if, according to some authors, their cumulative prevalence is about 1/5000. Starting from the historical case of a giant from Liège we shall describe the different types of GH pituitary adenomas and their pathophysiology. We shall particularly discuss rare forms of inherited GH secreting pituitary adenomas like the FIPA (familial inherited isolated pituitary adenomas) and the X-LAG (X linked acrogigantism), both described for the first time in Liège, in 2000 and 2014, respectively.

  14. [Old phenotype and new genotypes. Pituitary adenomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, C; Jedidi, H; Petrossians, P; Krzesinski, F; Daly, A; Beckers, A

    2015-11-01

    Gigantism and acromegaly, usually caused by a pituitary adenoma linked inappropriate secretion of growth hormone (GH), are generally considered as very rare diseases, even if, according to some authors, their cumulative prevalence is about 1/5000. Starting from the historical case of a giant from Liège we shall describe the different types of GH pituitary adenomas and their pathophysiology. We shall particularly discuss rare forms of inherited GH secreting pituitary adenomas like the FIPA (familial inherited isolated pituitary adenomas) and the X-LAG (X linked acrogigantism), both described for the first time in Liège, in 2000 and 2014, respectively. PMID:26738269

  15. Temozolomide treatment of a pituitary carcinoma and two pituitary macroadenomas resistant to conventional therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, H D; Hansen, S; Hagen, C;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aggressive pituitary tumours may be difficult to treat. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating cytostaticum. In a small number of cases, TMZ therapy has been reported to reduce pituitary tumour size and hormone hypersecretion. DESIGN: We present three patients with pituitary tumours treated...

  16. Enhanced nestin expression and small blood vessels in human pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Millan, María Inés; Berner, Silvia Inés; Luque, Guillermina María; De Bonis, Cristian; Sevlever, Gustavo; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia; Cristina, Carolina

    2013-09-01

    The role of angiogenesis in human pituitary tumor progression is questioned. Our aim was to characterize the morphologic changes that occur in the vasculature of pituitary adenomas, in correlation with the expression of nestin, a protein found in endothelial cells of newly formed vessels of developing organs. We also evaluated the relation of angiogenic markers and nestin with Ki-67 index. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin embedded samples of 47 pituitary adenomas and six normal pituitaries. We determined microvessel density (number of CD31+ or CD34+ vessels per square millimetre), vascular area (cumulative area occupied by vessels), average vessel size, and further classified vessels as small ( 100 μm2). We correlated the above parameters with nestin expression and Ki-67 index. Lower vascular area compared to normal tissue was found in adenomas (p vessels than control pituitaries (p controls, so that nestin positive area was significantly higher in tumors. Furthermore, nestin area correlated positively with the % of small vessels. Ki-67 correlated neither with vascular area nor with nestin expression. In human pituitary tumors there was a predominance of small capillaries in correlation with increased expression of the progenitor marker nestin. We suggest that angiogenesis is an active process in these tumors, in spite of their low total vascular area when compared to normal pituitaries.

  17. Identification of estradiol/ERα-regulated genes in the mouse pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Joon; Gieske, Mary C; Trudgen, Kourtney L; Hudgins-Spivey, Susan; Kim, Beob Gyun; Krust, Andree; Chambon, Pierre; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Blalock, Eric; Ko, CheMyong

    2011-09-01

    Estrogen acts to prime the pituitary prior to the GnRH-induced LH surge by undiscovered mechanisms. This study aimed to identify the key components that mediate estrogen action in priming the pituitary. RNA extracted from the pituitaries of metestrous (low estrogen) and proestrus (high estrogen) stage mice, as well as from ovariectomized wild-type and estrogen receptor α (ERα) knockout mice treated with 17β-estradiol (E(2)) or vehicle, was used for gene expression microarray. Microarray data were then aggregated, built into a functional electronic database, and used for further characterization of E(2)/ERα-regulated genes. These data were used to compile a list of genes representing diverse biological pathways that are regulated by E(2) via an ERα-mediated pathway in the pituitary. This approach substantiates ERα regulation of membrane potential regulators and intracellular vesicle transporters, among others, but not the basic components of secretory machinery. Subsequent characterization of six selected genes (Cacna1a, Cacna1g, Cited1, Abep1, Opn3, and Kcne2) confirmed not only ERα dependency for their pituitary expression but also the significance of their expression in regulating GnRH-induced LH secretion. In conclusion, findings from this study suggest that estrogen primes the pituitary via ERα by equipping pituitary cells with critical cellular components that potentiate LH release on subsequent GnRH stimulations.

  18. Tablets or scalpel: Pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Imran Siddiqi, MBBS, MRCP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. Pituitary hyperplasia and pituitary masses cannot be reliably differentiated on imaging alone, despite significant improvement in imaging quality in recent years.

  19. Uveítes anteriores associadas a doenças sistêmicas Anterior uveitis associated to systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Pavão Dimantas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As uveítes anteriores são caracterizadas pela inflamação preponderante do segmento anterior do olho. Hiperemia conjuntival, reação de câmara anterior com células e "flare", precipitados ceráticos e sinéquias posteriores são sinais que compõem o quadro inflamatório. Aspectos clínicos de algumas doenças sistêmicas envolvidas na etiologia das uveítes anteriores serão abordados neste artigo.Anterior uveitis describes a disease predominantly limited to the anterior segment of the eye. Conjunctival hyperemia, anterior chamber cell and flare, keratic precipitates, and iris abnormalities including posterior synechiae characterize the inflammation. This article discusses clinical aspects of the systemic diseases that cause anterior uveitis with review of the literature.

  20. Proliferation, bcl-2 expression and angiogenesis in pituitary adenomas: relationship to tumour behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, H E; Nagy, Zs.; Gatter, K C; Esiri, M M; Wass, J A H; Harris, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    The prediction of pituitary tumour behaviour, in terms of response to treatment from which can be derived optimal management strategies, is a challenge that has been approached using several different means. Angiogenesis in other tumour types has been shown to be correlated with poor response to treatment and tumour recurrence. The aim of this paper is to assess the role of measurements of cell proliferation and angiogenesis in predicting pituitary tumour behaviour. The proliferative capacity...

  1. Neuronal localization of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 in the adrenal medulla and growth-inhibitory effect on chromaffin cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Hannibal, J; Wulff, B S;

    1995-01-01

    medulla showed PACAP38 immunoreactivity in a widely distributed network of delicate nerve fibers surrounding the chromaffin cells. In a primary culture system, PACAP38 inhibited growth factor-stimulated DNA synthesis by 90% in neonatal and adult rat chromaffin cells with half-maximal inhibition at 4 and 0...... cells, 100 nM PACAP38 and 1 microM corticosterone added together abolished proliferation completely (99.8% inhibition). Finally, PACAP38 increased cell survival but showed little neurite-promoting activity in the chromaffin cells. Our data suggest that neurally derived PACAP38, in conjunction...

  2. Clinicopathologic analysis of pituitary adenoma: a single institute experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hwa Jin; Kim, Hanna; Kwak, Yoon Jin; Seo, Jeong Wook; Paek, Sun Ha; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Yun, Jung Min; Kim, Da Seu Ran; Kang, Peter; Park, Peom; Park, Sung-Hye

    2014-03-01

    Pituitary adenoma (PA) is a common benign neuroendocrine tumor; however, the incidence and proportion of hormone-producing PAs in Korean patients remain unknown. Authors analyzed 506 surgically resected and pathologically proven pituitary lesions of the Seoul National University Hospital from 2006 to 2011. The lesions were categorized as: PAs (n = 422, 83.4%), Rathke's cleft cysts (RCCs) (n = 54, 10.6%), inflammatory lesions (n = 8, 1.6%), meningiomas (n = 4), craniopharyngiomas (n = 4), granular cell tumors (n = 1), metastatic renal cell carcinomas (n = 2), germinomas (n = 1), ependymomas (n = 1), and unsatisfactory specimens (n = 9, 1.8%). PAs were slightly more prevalent in women (M: F = 1:1.17) with a mean age of 48.8 yr (9-80 yr). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that prolactin-producing PAs (16.6%) and growth hormone-producing adenomas (9.2%) were the most common functional PAs. Plurihormonal PAs and nonfunctioning (null cell) adenomas were found in 14.9% and 42.4% of patients with PAs, respectively. The recurrence rate of PAs was 11.1%, but nearly 0% for the remaining benign lesions such as RCCs. 25.4% of patients with PAs were treated by gamma-knife after surgery due to residual tumors or regrowth of residual tumor. In conclusion, the pituitary lesions and the proportions of hormone-producing PAs in Korean patients are similar to those of previous reports except nonfunctioning (null cell) PAs, which are unusually frequent. PMID:24616591

  3. Enhancement of tendon-to-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells genetically modified with bFGF/BMP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biao; Li, Bin; Qi, Yong-Jian; Ni, Qu-Bo; Pan, Zheng-Qi; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liao-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Many strategies, including various growth factors and gene transfer, have been used to augment healing after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The biological environment regulated by the growth factors during the stage of tendon-bone healing was considered important in controlling the integrating process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) genetically modified with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on healing after ACL reconstruction. BMSCs were infected with an adenoviral vector encoding BMP2 (AdBMP2) or bFGF (AdbFGF). Then, the infected BMSCs were surgically implanted into the tendon-bone interface. At 12 weeks postoperatively, the formation of abundant cartilage-like cells, smaller tibial bone tunnel and significantly higher ultimate load and stiffness levels, through histological analysis, micro-computed tomography and biomechanical testing, were observed. In addition, the AdBMP2-plus-AdbFGF group had the smallest bone tunnel and the best mechanical properties among all the groups. The addition of BMP2 or bFGF by gene transfer resulted in better cellularity, new bone formation and higher mechanical property, which contributed to the healing process after ACL reconstruction. Furthermore, the co-application of these two genes was more powerful and efficient than either single gene therapy. PMID:27173013

  4. Enhancement of tendon-to-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells genetically modified with bFGF/BMP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biao; Li, Bin; Qi, Yong-Jian; Ni, Qu-Bo; Pan, Zheng-Qi; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liao-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Many strategies, including various growth factors and gene transfer, have been used to augment healing after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The biological environment regulated by the growth factors during the stage of tendon-bone healing was considered important in controlling the integrating process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) genetically modified with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on healing after ACL reconstruction. BMSCs were infected with an adenoviral vector encoding BMP2 (AdBMP2) or bFGF (AdbFGF). Then, the infected BMSCs were surgically implanted into the tendon-bone interface. At 12 weeks postoperatively, the formation of abundant cartilage-like cells, smaller tibial bone tunnel and significantly higher ultimate load and stiffness levels, through histological analysis, micro-computed tomography and biomechanical testing, were observed. In addition, the AdBMP2-plus-AdbFGF group had the smallest bone tunnel and the best mechanical properties among all the groups. The addition of BMP2 or bFGF by gene transfer resulted in better cellularity, new bone formation and higher mechanical property, which contributed to the healing process after ACL reconstruction. Furthermore, the co-application of these two genes was more powerful and efficient than either single gene therapy. PMID:27173013

  5. Allogeneic versus autologous derived cell sources for use in engineered bone-ligament-bone grafts in sheep anterior cruciate ligament repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Vasudevan D; Behbahani-Nejad, Nilofar; Horine, Storm V; Olsen, Tyler J; Smietana, Michael J; Wojtys, Edward M; Wellik, Deneen M; Arruda, Ellen M; Larkin, Lisa M

    2015-03-01

    The use of autografts versus allografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is controversial. The current popular options for ACL reconstruction are patellar tendon or hamstring autografts, yet advances in allograft technologies have made allogeneic grafts a favorable option for repair tissue. Despite this, the mismatched biomechanical properties and risk of osteoarthritis resulting from the current graft technologies have prompted the investigation of new tissue sources for ACL reconstruction. Previous work by our lab has demonstrated that tissue-engineered bone-ligament-bone (BLB) constructs generated from an allogeneic cell source develop structural and functional properties similar to those of native ACL and vascular and neural structures that exceed those of autologous patellar tendon grafts. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of our tissue-engineered ligament constructs fabricated from autologous versus allogeneic cell sources. Our preliminary results demonstrate that 6 months postimplantation, our tissue-engineered auto- and allogeneic BLB grafts show similar histological and mechanical outcomes indicating that the autologous grafts are a viable option for ACL reconstruction. These data indicate that our tissue-engineered autologous ligament graft could be used in clinical situations where immune rejection and disease transmission may preclude allograft use.

  6. Growth hormone receptor expression and function in pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lene R; Kristiansen, Mikkel T; Rasmussen, Lars M;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Hypopituitarism, in particular GH deficiency, is prevalent in patients with clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) both before and after surgery. The factors regulating the growth of pituitary adenomas in general and residual tumour tissue in particular are not...... transcription 5) phosphorylation was measured by Western blot analysis as an index of GHR signalling; cell proliferation was evaluated by [H3]-thymidine incorporation and glycoprotein hormone production analysed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). RESULTS: All adenomas investigated expressed the GHR, but there was no...... detection of STAT5 phosphorylation. Overall, GH and IGF-I administration did not significantly stimulate cell proliferation in vitro, although some individual adenomas exhibited a proliferative response to various extents. GH also did not significantly influence glycoprotein hormone secretion in vitro...

  7. Fat-suppressed dynamic MR imaging for the postoperative evaluation of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of the early post operative evaluation of pituitary adenomas with fat-suppressed MR imaging was studied. Thirty patients with pituitary adenoma, who underwent trans-sphenoidal surgery were analyzed. These include 22 with macroadenoma (3 recurrent cases) and 8 with microadenoma (2 recurrent cases). In all cases after adenoma resection, fat tissue was placed into the sella turcica to prevent postoperative cerebro-spinal fluid leakage and infections. T1-weighted and Gd DTPA-enhanced MR images were obtained using a 1.5-T superconductive MRI system (Shimadzu Co., Ltd.) by a standard technique and also by a fat suppression technique (chemical shift selective presaturation: CHESS) after surgery. It was difficult to discriminate between hematoma, fat tissue and pituitary posterior lobe on T1-weighted images within 1 month after surgery because of high-signal intensity. However, these regions could be distinguished one another by the CHESS technique. Normal pituitary anterior lobe could be identified in 86% of macroadenoma cases using Gd CHESS dynamic study, whereas it was identified only in 23% by standard technique. Normal anterior lobe was identified in 100% of microadenoma cases using Gd CHESS dynamic study. The residual tumors were found to invade into the supra sella or cavernous sinus, and these lesions could be distinguished from the surrounding tissue by the CHESS dynamic study in 83%, whereas only 33% could be distinguished by the standard technique. Although the fat tissue showed a time-sequence decrease in volume, high-signal intensity sometimes lasted long in association with degenerative granulation. In conclusion, CHESS dynamic MR Imaging study is useful for detection of the normal pituitary lobe and residual adenomas after trans-sphenoidal surgery. (author)

  8. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... knee. It prevents the knee from bending out. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is in the middle of the knee. ...

  9. Pituitary Gigantism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present a rare case of gigantism. Case Report: A 25-year-old lady presented with increased statural growth and enlarged body parts noticed since the age of 14 years, primary amenorrhea, and frontal headache for the last 2 years.She has also been suffering from non-inflammatory low back pain with progressive kyphosis and pain in the knees, ankles, and elbows for the last 5 years. There was no history of visual disturbance, vomiting, galactorrhoea, cold intolerance. She had no siblings. Family history was non-contributory.Blood pressure was normal. Height 221 cm, weight 138 kg,body mass index (BMI28. There was coarsening of facial features along with frontal bossing and prognathism, large hands and feet, and small goitre. Patient had severe kyphosis and osteoarthritis of knees. Confrontation perimetry suggested bitemporal hemianopia. Breast and pubic hair were of Tanner stage 1. Serum insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF1 was 703 ng/ml with all glucose suppressedgrowth hormone (GHvalues of >40 ng/ml. Prolactin was 174 ng/ml. Basal serum Lutenising Hormone (LH, follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH was low. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, liver and renal function tests, basal cortisol and thyroid profile, Calcium, phosphorus and Intact Parathyroid hormone (iPTH were normal.Computed tomographyscan of brain showed large pituitary macroadenoma. Automated perimetry confirmed bitemporal hemianopia. A diagnosis of gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary macroadenoma with hypogonadotrophichypogonadism was made. Debulking pituitary surgery followed by somatostatin analogue therapy with gonadal steroid replacement had been planned, but the patient refused further treatment.

  10. The Analysis of Intracellular and Intercellular Calcium Signaling in Human Anterior Lens Capsule Epithelial Cells with Regard to Different Types and Stages of the Cataract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Gosak

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated how modifications of the Ca2+ homeostasis in anterior lens epithelial cells (LECs are associated with different types of cataract (cortical or nuclear and how the progression of the cataract (mild or moderate affects the Ca2+ signaling. We systematically analyzed different aspects of intra- and inter-cellular Ca2+ signaling in the human LECs, which are attached to surgically isolated lens capsule (LC, obtained during cataract surgery. We monitored the temporal and spatial changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration after stimulation with acetylcholine by means of Fura-2 fluorescence captured with an inverted microscope. In our analysis we compared the features of Ca2+ signals in individual cells, synchronized activations, spatio-temporal grouping and the nature of intercellular communication between LECs. The latter was assessed by using the methodologies of the complex network theory. Our results point out that at the level of individual cells there are no significant differences when comparing the features of the signals with regard either to the type or the stage of the cataract. On the other hand, noticeable differences are observed at the multicellular level, despite inter-capsule variability. LCs associated with more developed cataracts were found to exhibit a slower collective response to stimulation, a less pronounced spatio-temporal clustering of LECs with similar signaling characteristics. The reconstructed intercellular networks were found to be sparser and more segregated than in LCs associated with mild cataracts. Moreover, we show that spontaneously active LECs often operate in localized groups with quite well aligned Ca2+ activity. The presence of spontaneous activity was also found to affect the stimulated Ca2+ responses of individual cells. Our findings indicate that the cataract progression entails the impairment of intercellular signaling thereby suggesting the functional importance of altered Ca2

  11. Pituitary gigantism causing diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, N S; Kirk, J M

    1999-01-01

    Although growth hormone excess (acromegaly) in association with glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus is well documented in adult medicine, it is much less common in the paediatric age group. We report the case of a 13 year-old boy who presented with tall stature secondary to a large growth hormone secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland. Random growth hormone was 630 mIU/l and did not suppress during an oral glucose tolerance test. Following debulking of the tumour, he developed diabetic ketoacidosis requiring insulin treatment, but after further surgery glucose handling returned to normal. He has been started on testosterone to arrest further increase in height. PMID:10614552

  12. Mild pituitary phenotype in 3- and 12-month-old Aip-deficient male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoq, Anne-Lise; Zizzari, Philippe; Hage, Mirella; Decourtye, Lyvianne; Adam, Clovis; Viengchareun, Say; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Geoffroy, Valérie; Lombès, Marc; Tolle, Virginie; Guillou, Anne; Karhu, Auli; Kappeler, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe; Kamenický, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene predispose humans to pituitary adenomas, particularly of the somatotroph lineage. Mice with global heterozygous inactivation of Aip (Aip(+/-)) also develop pituitary adenomas but differ from AIP-mutated patients by the high penetrance of pituitary disease. The endocrine phenotype of these mice is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the endocrine phenotype of Aip(+/-) mice by assessing the somatic growth, ultradian pattern of GH secretion and IGF1 concentrations of longitudinally followed male mice at 3 and 12 months of age. As the early stages of pituitary tumorigenesis are controversial, we also studied the pituitary histology and somatotroph cell proliferation in these mice. Aip(+/-) mice did not develop gigantism but exhibited a leaner phenotype than wild-type mice. Analysis of GH pulsatility by deconvolution in 12-month-old Aip(+/-) mice showed a mild increase in total GH secretion, a conserved GH pulsatility pattern, but a normal IGF1 concentration. No pituitary adenomas were detected up to 12 months of age. An increased ex vivo response to GHRH of pituitary explants from 3-month-old Aip(+/-) mice, together with areas of enlarged acini identified on reticulin staining in the pituitary of some Aip(+/-) mice, was suggestive of somatotroph hyperplasia. Global heterozygous Aip deficiency in mice is accompanied by subtle increase in GH secretion, which does not result in gigantism. The absence of pituitary adenomas in 12-month-old Aip(+/-) mice in our experimental conditions demonstrates the important phenotypic variability of this congenic mouse model. PMID:27621108

  13. Metastatic pituitary carcinoma: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Shang-fu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background As a kind of rare tumor, metastatic pituitary carcinoma is very difficult to diagnose clinically and is easy to be misdiagnosed. This article aims to discuss the clinical manifestations and histopathological features of this tumor. Methods The clinical presentations, histopathological features and immunophenotype were studied in one case of poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinoma metastatic to pituitary gland, and related literature was reviewed. Results A 47-year-old woman mainly presented with faint, headache and blurred vision. CT scan demonstrated abnormal signals in suprasellar cistern. During the resection, the tumor could be seen locating in sellar region, the size of which was about 2 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm. Histopathological examination revealed that the structure of pituitary gland was damaged and the tumor was composed of atypical round or oval cells arranged in nest or glandular patterns, in which a number of enlarged plump tumor cells contained abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with eccentrical caryogenesis. The immunohistochemistry showed that epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, pan cytokeratin (PCK, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1 and cytokeratin 7 (CK7 were positive in tumor cells with Ki-67 labeling index being 15%, but chromogranin (CgA, cancer embryo antigen (CEA, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP, CD117, leukocyte common antigen (LCA, CD30, anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1 (ALK-1 were negative in tumor cells. After operation the patient received treatment with levothyroxine sodium and γ knife, but died 4 months later. Conclusion Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry can confirm the diagnosis of metastatic pituitary carcinoma and locate the primary lesion. Postoperative comprehensive therapy is necessary.

  14. Ontogeny and the developing change of pituitary glycoprotein hormone α subunit(PGHα) cells of chicken embryos%鸡胚胎腺垂体糖蛋白激素α亚单位细胞的发育及其变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玉琴; 刘英; 崔胜

    2011-01-01

    The present study was to determine ontogeny of chick embryonic pituitary glycoprotein hormoneα subunit(PGHα cells) and their change during the development of embryos.The pituitary glands were collected on day 3.5 to 20.5 of incubation,respectively.The expression and distribution of pituitary PGHα cells were then detected by the immunohistochemical method.The experimental results demonstrated that scattered and clarity immunopositive PGHα cells were first detected in cephalic lobe and caudal lobe of pituitary gland on day 6.5 of incubation,and then dramatically increased(P0.05) and distributed throughout the whole cephalic lobe,caudal lobe and pars tubercles of pituitary gland during the embryonic periods.In the early stage,the volume of PGHα cells was small with less cytoplasmic and bigger nuclear,and light staining as well;in the mid and later-incubation,the volume of cells became bigger with intensive staining.These results suggested that the ontogeny of PGHα cells is in the early stage,and the proliferation and differentiation of PGHα cells occur during the middle and late stages.%应用免疫组织化学方法,对第3.5~20.5天鸡胚腺垂体糖蛋白激素α亚单位(PGHα)细胞的发生及其在发育过程中的变化规律进行了研究。结果,鸡胚发育的早期(第6.5天),可观察到少量明显的PGHα细胞分布于腺垂体前、后叶,随着胚胎的发育,PGHα细胞数量显著增加(P〈0.05),分布于腺垂体前、后叶和结节部,且后叶PGHα细胞数多于前叶。早期PGHα细胞体积小、细胞浆少、细胞核大,随着胚龄的增加,细胞体积增大、细胞浆增多、细胞浆浓染。结果表明,鸡胚腺垂体PGHα细胞发生于胚胎发育的早期,细胞的增殖和分化过程发生在胚胎发育的中后期。

  15. The Enigma behind Pituitary and Sella Turcica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umarevathi Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pituitary gland’s role as a functional matrix for sella turcica has not been suggested in orthodontic literature. This paper is an attempt to correlate the role of pituitary gland in the development of sella turcica. A case report of dwarfism associated with hypopituitarism is presented to highlight the above hypothesis.

  16. Angioscan exploration of morphology of pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabarin, A.; David, J.P.; Drouillard, J. and others

    1987-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the morphologic study of pituitary due to the availability of angioscan programs. An exceptional case is presented of a persistent intrasellar trigeminal artery associated with prolactinoma. Based on technological progress in CT scan imaging the place of angiographic explorations in the investigation of pituitary adenoma is reconsidered.

  17. MR differentiation of craniopharyngioma from pituitary macroadenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Jee Young; Lee, Jeong Whee; Jeh, Soo Kyung; Park, Hae Kwan; Lee, Kyung Jin; Hahn, Seong Tae [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    We wanted to determine the differential points between craniopharyngioma and pituitary macroadenoma on MRI. The MRI findings in twenty seven patients (age range: 14-67 years, mean age: 46 years, 17 males and 10 females) with pathologically proven craniopharyngioma and twenty four patients (age range: 23-64 years, mean age: 54 years, 8 males and 16 females) with pathologically proven pituitary macroadenoma were analyzed retrospectively by two radiologists. We analyzed the location, the contour of the mass, the presence of high signal intensity on the T1 weighted images, the thickness of the enhancing wall, separation between the mass and the pituitary gland, and the presence of attachment or compression to the midbrain. On MRI, craniopharyngiomas showed a suprasellar location, high signal intensity on the T1 weighted images and a larger suprasellar portion. After contrast enhancement, the separation of the mass from the pituitary gland is more distinct than that of the pituitary macroadenomas. The craniopharyngiomas showed the presence of attachment or compression to the midbrain. The pituitary macroadenomas had a larger intra-or infrasellar portion than that of the craniopharyngiomas, and they also showed a thicker enhancing wall after contrast enhancement. The location, contour of the mass, presence of high signal intensity on T1 weighted images, thickness of the enhancing wall, separation of the mass from the pituitary gland and the presence of attachment or compression to midbrain are useful differential points between craniophayngioma and pituitary macroadenoma on MRI.

  18. Shedding light on canine pituitary dwarfism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, A.M.W.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary dwarfism, associated with growth hormone deficiency, is an autosomal, recessively inherited disorder in shepherd dogs. Due to the serious nature of pituitary dwarfism and lack of efficient treatment, it is preferable to prevent dwarfs from being born by applying a correct breeding policy.

  19. Dendritic cells and macrophages in the pituitary and the gonads. Evidence for their role in the fine regulation of the reproductive endocrine response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, A; Allaerts, W; Leenen, PJM; Schoemaker, J; Drexhage, HA

    1997-01-01

    Blood monocytes are able to mature into macrophages as well as into dendritic cells, Dendritic cells and macrophages have mainly been studied for their function in the immune response, e.g. in the presentation of antigens to lymphocytes and in the phagocytosis/degradation of unwanted material. The c

  20. Effects of hyperprolactinemia on toxicological parameters and proliferation of islet cells in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ose, Keiko; Miyata, Kaori; Yoshioka, Kaoru; Okuno, Yasuyoshi

    2009-04-01

    Prolactin has a wide variety of biological effects. Consequences of hyperprolactinemia on islet B cell proliferation as well as general toxicological parameters were here examined using anterior pituitary-grafted rats. Three or six anterior pituitary glands were implanted under single renal capsules of F344 male rats and left there for 13 weeks afterward. Clinical observation along with measurement of body weight and food consumption was conducted during the observation period, and subsequently hematology, blood biochemistry, gross pathology, organ weights and histopathology were examined. In addition, the proliferation rate of islet B cells was measured by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) labeling technique. Serum prolactin concentrations at week 13 were 36, 70, 75 and 105 ng/ml in the sham-operated, 3-pituitary-grafted groups from male or female donors, and 6-pituitary-grafted group from male donors, respectively. Higher cholinesterase and total cholesterol values, lower trigriceride and leutenizing hormones (LH) values, and higher adrenal weights compared to those in the sham-operated group were apparent in the 3- and/or 6-pituitary-grafted groups. Also, the study revealed that mammary gland structure was transformed with change of differentiation from a male to a female acinar pattern. Furthermore a specific increase of islet cell proliferation rate was found, positively correlated with serum prolactin concentration. These findings suggest that elevation of serum prolactin level over 13 weeks induces islet cell proliferation and changes in toxicological parameters, including cholinesterase activity, elements of lipid metabolism and histopathology/morphology of the adrenals and mammary glands in male rats. PMID:19336972

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville, Jean-Francois; Bonneville, Fabrice; Cattin, Francoise [University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Besancon (France)

    2005-03-01

    Today, MR is the only method needed for the morphological investigation of endocrine-active pituitary adenomas. In acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome, the therapeutic attitude is directly dictated by MR data. We present the MR aspect of pituitary adenomas according to size, sex, age, endocrine activity and a few particular conditions such as hemorrhagic pituitary adenomas, pituitary adenomas during pregnancy, cavernous sinus invasion and postsurgical changes. When an intrasellar mass extending out of the sella turcica is detected, the goal of the MR examination is to indicate precisely the origin of the tumor, its extension in relation to the various surrounding structures, its structure and its enhancement in order to help in the differential diagnosis. Demonstration of very small pituitary adenomas remains a challenge. When SE T1- and Turbo SE T2-weighted sequences are non-diagnostic, enhanced imaging becomes mandatory; half-dose gadolinium injection, delayed sequence, dynamic imaging can be of some help. (orig.)

  2. Dual pathways of calcium entry in spike and plateau phases of luteinizing hormone release from chicken pituitary cells: sequential activation of receptor-operated and voltage-sensitive calcium channels by gonadotropin-releasing hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J.S.; Wakefield, I.K.; King, J.A.; Mulligan, G.P.; Millar, R.P.

    1988-04-01

    It has previously been shown that, in pituitary gonadotrope cells, the initial rise in cytosolic Ca2+ induced by GnRH is due to a Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores. This raises the possibility that the initial transient spike phase of LH release might be fully or partially independent of extracellular Ca2+. We have therefore characterized the extracellular Ca2+ requirements, and the sensitivity to Ca2+ channel blockers, of the spike and plateau phases of secretion separately. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+ the spike and plateau phases were inhibited by 65 +/- 4% and 106 +/- 3%, respectively. Both phases exhibited a similar dependence on concentration of extracellular Ca2+. However, voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel blockers D600 and nifedipine had a negligible effect on the spike phase, while inhibiting the plateau phase by approximately 50%. In contrast, ruthenium red, Gd3+ ions, and Co2+ ions inhibited both spike and plateau phases to a similar extent as removal of extracellular Ca2+. A fraction (35 +/- 4%) of spike phase release was resistant to removal of extracellular Ca2+. This fraction was abolished after calcium depletion of the cells by preincubation with EGTA in the presence of calcium ionophore A23187, indicating that it depends on intracellular Ca2+ stores. Neither absence of extracellular Ca2+, nor the presence of ruthenium red or Gd3+ prevented mobilization of 45Ca2+ from intracellular stores by GnRH. We conclude that mobilization of intracellular stored Ca2+ is insufficient by itself to account for full spike phase LH release.

  3. Six-month angiographic study of immediate autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell implantation on acute anterior wall myocardial infarction using a mini-pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Yuen, Chun-Man; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chang, Li-Teh; Yen, Chia-Hung; Chiang, Chiang-Hua; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Pei, Sung-Nan; Chua, Sarah; Bhasin, Anuj; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated six-month angiographic results of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMNC) transplantation immediately following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a mini-pig model.AMI was induced by left anterior descending artery ligation. Twenty-four mini-pigs were equally divided into group 1 [AMI plus saline injection in infarcted area (IA)], group 2 (AMI plus BMMNC transplantation into non-IA), group 3 (AMI plus BMMNC implantation into IA), and group 4 (sham control). One-week cultured BMMNCs (3.0 x 10(7)) were immediately transplanted following AMI induction. Angiographic studies over 6 months demonstrated that mitral regurgitation (MR) was lower in groups 3 and 4 than in groups 1 and 2 (all P < 0.01). Wall motion scores and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were higher in groups 3 and 4 than in groups 1 and 2 (all P < 0.05). Collateral circulation was higher in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2 ( P < 0.01). The wall thickness of the IA was higher, whereas the heart weight was lower in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2 (all P < 0.01).Immediate autologous BMMNC transplantation into IA is superior to saline-treated only or BMMNC transplantation into non-IA following AMI for reducing MR and improving LVEF. PMID:19367032

  4. JAK2V617F/STAT5 signaling pathway promotes cell proliferation through activation of Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xu-Liang [Department of Hematology, Heping Hospital of Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi 046000 (China); Department of Hematology, Xiangya Hospital of Centre-South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Wei, Wu; Xu, Hong-Liang; Zhang, Mei-Xiang; Qin, Xiao-Qi; Shi, Wen-Zhi; Jiang, Zhi-Ping [Department of Hematology, Heping Hospital of Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi 046000 (China); Chen, Yi-Jian [Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital, GanNan Medical University, GanZhou 341000 (China); Chen, Fang-Ping, E-mail: xychenfp@2118.cn [Department of Hematology, Xiangya Hospital of Centre-South University, Changsha 410008 (China)

    2010-08-06

    Research highlights: {yields} AG490, a member of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, could inhibit the JAK2V617F/STAT5 signaling pathway in HEL cell which harbor JAK2V617F mutation. {yields} Inhibition of the JAK2V617F/STAT5 signaling pathway inhibited the growth of HEL cells. {yields} JAK2V617F mutation promotes cell proliferation through activation of PTTG1 expression. {yields} JAK2V617F/STAT5 signaling pathway regulate PTTG1 expression at transcriptional level. -- Abstract: Gain-of-function mutations of JAK2 play crucial roles in the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms; however, the underlying downstream events of this activated signaling pathway are not fully understood. Our experiment was designed and performed to address one aspect of this issue. Here we report that AG490, a potent JAK2V617F kinase inhibitor, effectively inhibits the proliferation of HEL cells. Interestingly, AG490 also decreases the expression of PTTG1, a possible target gene of the aberrant signaling pathway, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the promoter activity analyses reveal that the inhibition of the PTTG1 expression is affected at the transcriptional level. Thus, our results suggest that the JAK2V617F/STAT5 signaling pathway promotes cell proliferation through the transcriptional activation of PTTG1.

  5. Heterogeneity of secretory granules of silent pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1988-01-01

    Silent pituitary adenomas were compared with hormonally active tumors taking into account the size, number, and ultrastructural characteristics of secretory granules (SG). The study group (a total of 79 primary pituitary adenomas) comprised 27 silent, 21 growth hormone (GH)-producing-, 16 prolactin...... (PRL)-producing-, 5 GH-PRL-producing- and 10 adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing adenomas. The SG of silent adenomas were significantly smaller than SG in endocrine active adenomas. All hormonally inactive tumors also contained small (mean, 94 nm) specific cytoplasmic granules, designated...... "silent adenoma granules" (SIG). The fine structural features of the SIG included: a flocculent, granular material occupying an eccentric position in a larger vesicle limited by a double membrane. In the silent adenomas this particular granule was present in up to 90% of the adenoma cells and constituted...

  6. Aqueous exposure to Aroclor 1254 modulates the mitogenic response of Atlantic salmon anterior kidney T-cells: Indications of short- and long-term immunomodulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exist as persistent organic pollutants in numerous river systems in the United States. Unfortunately, some of these rivers are sites of active Atlantic salmon restoration programs, and polychlorinated biphenyls have been implicated as ancillary factors contributing to failed salmon restoration. Here, we investigate the immediate and chronic effects of intermediate duration aqueous PCB exposure (1 or 10 μg L-1 Aroclor 1254) on the mitogen-stimulated lymphoproliferative response of Atlantic salmon anterior kidney leukocytes (AKLs). A short-term study was designed to examine immunomodulation in Atlantic salmon smolts immediately following 21 days of aqueous exposure, while a long-term study evaluated chronic impacts in the mitogen response in parr 15 months post-exposure as larvae. The proliferative response of AKLs to the mitogens concanavalin A (CON A), phytohemaglutinnin-P (PHA-P), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and lipopolysaccharide were used as an indice of immunomodulation. The proliferative response to the T-cell mitogens CON A and PHA-P was significantly increased in the 10 μg L-1 group (n = 10; P = 0.043 and 0.002, respectively) immediately following exposure of smolts. Additionally, The PHA-P response was significantly increased in the 1 μg L-1 exposure group (n = 10, P = 0.036). In fish treated as larvae and tested 15 months later, the PHA-P sensitive populations exhibited elevated proliferation in the 1 and 10 μg L-1 groups (n = 12, P -1 treated groups. These results demonstrate an immunomodulatory effect of PCBs on T-cell mitogen sensitive populations of lymphocytes in Atlantic salmon as well as long-term immunomodulation in PHA-P and PWM sensitive populations

  7. Pituitary dysfunction after traumatic brain injury: a clinical and pathophysiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriverdi, Fatih; Schneider, Harald Jörn; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Masel, Brent E; Casanueva, Felipe F; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a growing public health problem worldwide and is a leading cause of death and disability. The causes of TBI include motor vehicle accidents, which are the most common cause, falls, acts of violence, sports-related head traumas, and war accidents including blast-related brain injuries. Recently, pituitary dysfunction has also been described in boxers and kickboxers. Neuroendocrine dysfunction due to TBI was described for the first time in 1918. Only case reports and small case series were reported until 2000, but since then pituitary function in TBI victims has been investigated in more detail. The frequency of hypopituitarism after TBI varies widely among different studies (15-50% of the patients with TBI in most studies). The estimates of persistent hypopituitarism decrease to 12% if repeated testing is applied. GH is the most common hormone lost after TBI, followed by ACTH, gonadotropins (FSH and LH), and TSH. The underlying mechanisms responsible for pituitary dysfunction after TBI are not entirely clear; however, recent studies have shown that genetic predisposition and autoimmunity may have a role. Hypopituitarism after TBI may have a negative impact on the pace or degree of functional recovery and cognition. What is not clear is whether treatment of hypopituitarism has a beneficial effect on specific function. In this review, the current data related to anterior pituitary dysfunction after TBI in adult patients are updated, and guidelines for the diagnosis, follow-up strategies, and therapeutic approaches are reported. PMID:25950715

  8. tamoxifen对大鼠垂体前叶细胞增殖的抑制作用%The inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on the proliferation of the anterior pituitary cell of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉珍; 张庆红; 张万会; 朱运龙; 赵玉峰

    2002-01-01

    目的观察雌激素受体阻断剂tamoxifen对大鼠垂体前叶细胞增殖的影响.方法应用大鼠垂体前叶细胞原代培养和3H-TdR参入法检测细胞增殖,用电镜观察细胞形态学的改变.结果 tamoxifen能抑制大鼠垂体前叶细胞增殖,0.1 μmolL-1 tamoxifen的抑制作用可被雌激素反转.1 μmol*L-1 tamoxifen作用48 h, 细胞出现典型的凋亡改变.结论 tamoxifen抑制大鼠垂体前叶细胞增殖,并诱导细胞发生凋亡.

  9. Persistence of intrasellar trigeminal artery and simultaneous pituitary adenoma: description of two cases and their importance for the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marcio Carlos; Kodaira, Sergio; Musolino, Nina Rosa Castro

    2014-08-01

    Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most frequent embryonic communication between the carotid and vertebrobasilar systems. However, hormonal changes or the association of PTA with other sellar lesions, such as pituitary adenomas, are extremely rare. The aim of the present study was to report two patients with intrasellar PTA and simultaneous pituitary adenoma in order to emphasize the importance of differential diagnoses for sellar lesions. Case 1. A female patient, 41 years old, was admitted with a history of chronic headache (> 20 years). Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a rounded lesion in the left portion of the pituitary gland suggestive of adenoma (most likely clinically non-functioning adenoma). In addition to this lesion, the MRI demonstrated ecstasy of the right internal carotid artery and imaging suggestive of an intrasellar artery that was subsequently confirmed by an angio-MRI of the cerebral vessels as PTA. Case 2. A female patient, 42 years old, was admitted with a history of amenorrhea and galactorrhea in 1994. Laboratorial investigation revealed hyperprolactinemia. Pituitary MRI showed a small hyposignal area in the anterior portion of pituitary gland suggestive of a microadenoma initiated by a dopaminergic agonist. Upon follow-up, aside from the first lesion, the MRI showed a well delineated rounded lesion inside the pituitary gland, similar to a vessel. Angio-MRI confirmed a left primitive PTA. Failure to recognize these anomalous vessels within the sella might lead to serious complications during transsphenoidal surgery. Therefore, although their occurrence is uncommon, a working knowledge of vascular lesions in the sella turcica or pituitary gland is important for the differential diagnosis of pituitary lesions, especially pituitary adenomas. PMID:25211451

  10. Lectin Histochemical Study of Vasculogenesis During Rat Pituitary Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s The aim of this study was to investigate glycoconjugates distribution patterns as well as their changes during the course of pituitary portal vasculogenesis and angiogenesis.Materials and MethodsFormalin fixed paraffin sections of 10 to 20 days of Sprague Dawly rat fetuses were processed for histochemical studies using four different horseradish peroxidase (HRP conjugated lectins. Orange peel fungus (OFA, Vicica villosa (VVA, Glycine max (SBA and Wistaria floribunda (WFA specific for α-L-Fucose, D-Gal, α, ß-D-GalNAc and D- GalNAc terminal sugars of glycoconjugates respectively.ResultsOur finding indicated that adenohypophysal cells reacted with OFA on gestational day 10 (E10 and increased progressively to E14. Staining intensity did not change from days 14 to17, then after increased following days to E20 significantly (P< 0.05. A few cells around Rathke’s pouch reacted with VVA on E13, increased to E14 and decreased significantly afterward (P< 0.05. Reaction of some cells around Rathke’s pouch reacted with SBA on E14. This visible reaction was the same as E18 and decreased later (P< 0.05. Many cells around Rathke’s pouch reacted with WFA on E13 and increased on E 14 and E15 and decreased thereafter (P< 0.05.ConclusionReactions of OFA and other tested lectins with endothelial cells around Rathke’s pouch and developing pars distalis were different. These results suggest that embryonic origin of hypophiseal pituitary portal (HPP system endothelial cells are not the same and our finding also indicated that glycoconjugates with terminal sugars α-L-Fucose, D-Gal, α, ß-D-GalNAc may play critical role(s in cell interactions and tissue differentiations such as vasculogensis and angiogenesis as well as other developmental precursors in formation of the pituitary gland.

  11. Management of incidental pituitary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas F. Marko

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary incidentalomas are common lesions for which neurosurgical referrals may become progressively more frequent, given the increasing application of neuroimaging. The initial evaluation of a patient with radiographic evidence of an incidentaloma should focus on addressing two questions: (1 is the lesion causing neurological symptoms, and (2 is the lesion hormonally active? The answers to these two questions provide a framework for subsequent clinical management. The initial patient assessment should include a detailed history and physical examination, including the bedside assessment of visual fields. High-quality MRI imaging is essential, and formal visual field testing should be obtained in patients where the lesion abuts or compresses the optic apparatus. The initial biochemical workup is intended to assess potential pituitary hypo- or hyperfunction and should include measurement of serum levels of prolactin, insulin-like growth factor type-1, free thyroxine, testosterone, and an assessment of axis hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis function. Additional testing may include serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone levels. Neurologically-asymptomatic patients without endocrine dysfunction can be managed with observation at regular intervals, including MRI imaging at 6 months and 1 year and then annually for a period of 3 years. Follow-up biochemical assessment is not necessary in the absence of clinical symptoms or radiographic enlargement of the lesion. After 3 years the follow-up interval may be prolonged, although closer follow-up may be indicated for patients with lesions C1 cm. Most patients who either present with or who subsequently develop neurologic or endocrinologic symptoms should be considered for surgery as the first-line therapy.

  12. Imaging of the pituitary: Recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chaudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary lesions, albeit relatively infrequent, can significantly alter the quality of life. This article highlights the role of advanced imaging modalities in evaluating pituitary-hypothalamic axis lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the examination of choice for evaluating hypothalamic-pituitary-related endocrine diseases. Advanced MR techniques discussed in this article include dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, 3T MRI, magnetization transfer (MT imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, proton MR spectroscopy, fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, intraoperative MRI, and intraoperative real-time ultrasonography.

  13. A possible new syndrome with growth-hormone secreting pituitary adenoma, colonic polyposis, lipomatosis, lentigines and renal carcinoma in association with familial testicular germ cell malignancy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Phuong L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germ-cell testicular cancer has not been definitively linked to any known hereditary cancer susceptibility disorder. Familial testicular cancer in the presence of other findings in affected and unaffected family members might indicate a previously-unidentified hereditary cancer syndrome. Case presentation The patient was diagnosed with a left testicular seminoma at age 28, and treated with left orchiectomy followed by adjuvant cobalt radiation. His family history is significant for testicular seminoma in his son, bladder cancer in his sister, and lipomatosis in his father. His evaluation as part of an etiologic study of familial testicular cancer revealed multiple colon polyps (adenomatous, hyperplastic, and hamartomatous first found in his 50 s, multiple lipomas, multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions, left kidney cancer diagnosed at age 64, and a growth-hormone producing pituitary adenoma with associated acromegaly diagnosed at age 64. The patient underwent genetic testing for Cowden syndrome (PTEN gene, Carney complex (PRKAR1A gene, and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1 gene; no deleterious mutations were identified. Discussion The constellation of benign and malignant neoplasms in the context of this patient's familial testicular cancer raised the possibility that these might be manifestations of a known hereditary susceptibility cancer syndrome; however, genetic testing for the three syndromes that were most likely to explain these findings did not show any mutation. Alternatively, this family's phenotype might represent a novel neoplasm susceptibility disorder. This possibility cannot be evaluated definitively on the basis of a single case report; additional observations and studies are necessary to investigate this hypothesis further.

  14. MRI Imaging Features of Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome%垂体柄阻断综合征的MRI表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦雨; 冯逢; 有慧; 李明利; 金征宇

    2011-01-01

    目的 讨论垂体柄阻断综合征的MRI特点.资料与方法 回顾性分析临床及MRI诊断的18例垂体柄阻断综合征患儿的影像及临床资料.结果 18例患者垂体前叶明显变薄,垂体柄缺如16例,2例垂体柄纤细,垂体后叶短T1信号未见,下丘脑漏斗处有短T1信号.实验室检查均有生长激素和(或)其他激素的缺乏.结论 垂体柄阻断综合征多发生于男性,有典型的MRI表现.%Purpose To study the MRI features of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome.Materials and Methods The MRI findings of the patients with PSIS proved by clinically and MRI were analyzed retrospectively. Results All the subjects were male.Atrophy or aplasia of anterior pituitary, heterotopia of posterior pituitary were found in all the cases. Absence (n=16) and marked thinning (n=2) of the pituitary stalk were identified. Growth hormone deficiency and (or) multiple pituitary hormone deficiency were confirmed by blood laboratory tests. Conclusions PSIS is male-predominant and the MRI findings are characteristic of stalk absence or thinning with anterior pituitary atrophy and neurohypophysis heterotopia.

  15. Metalloproteinases ADAM12 and MMP-14 are associated with cavernous sinus invasion in pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junwen; Voellger, Benjamin; Benzel, Julia; Schlomann, Uwe; Nimsky, Christopher; Bartsch, Jörg W; Carl, Barbara

    2016-09-15

    Invasion of tumor cells critically depends on cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Enzymes capable of modulating these interactions belong to the proteinase families of ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) and MMP (matrix metalloprotease) proteins. Our objective is to examine their expression levels and evaluate the relationship between expression levels and cavernous sinus invasion in pituitary adenomas. Tissue samples from 35 patients with pituitary adenomas were analyzed. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was employed to assess mRNA expression levels for ADAM and MMP genes. Protein levels were examined using immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. Correlation analyses between expression levels and clinical parameters were performed. By silencing ADAM12 and MMP-14 with siRNA in a mouse pituitary adenoma cell line (TtT/GF), their cellular effects were investigated. In our study, nine women and 26 men were included, with a mean age of 53.1 years (range 15-84 years) at the time of surgery. There were 19 cases with cavernous sinus invasion. The proteins ADAM12 and MMP-14 were significantly up-regulated in invasive adenomas compared to noninvasive adenomas. Both human isoforms of ADAM12 (ADAM12L and ADAM12s) were involved in tumor invasion; moreover, ADAM12L was found to correlate positively with Ki-67 proliferation index in pituitary adenomas. In TtT/GF pituitary adenoma cells, silencing of ADAM12 and MMP-14 significantly inhibited cell invasion and migration, respectively, whereas only silencing of ADAM12 suppressed cell proliferation. We conclude that ADAM12 and MMP-14 are associated with cavernous sinus invasion in pituitary adenomas, which qualifies these proteins in diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27144841

  16. Characterization of dopamine D2 receptors in the pituitary of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopamine receptors in the pituitary of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, were characterized using [3H]spiperone as radioligand. Specific binding of [3H]spiperone to pituitary membranes reached equilibrium within 60 min of incubation. The binding of the radioligand was tissue specific since the amount of binding was linear with pituitary membrane content in the incubations. In addition, pituitary membranes were observed to bind considerably more [3H]spiperone, compared to membrane preparation of various other tissues. Saturation experiments revealed the presence of a single class of high affinity/low capacity binding sites. The binding characteristics, estimated by Scatchard analysis, were: Kd = 3.2 +/- 0.5 x 10(-9) M and Bmax = 105 +/- 5 fmol/mg protein. Specific binding was displaceable with dopamine and with various specific D2 agonists and antagonists. The nature of displacement curves resembles those observed in studies on mammalian dopamine receptors. Binding experiments with cell fractions, obtained after centrifugation of dispersed pituitary cells over a Percoll density gradient, showed that most [3H]spiperone binding was obtained in an enriched gonadotropic cell fraction. This observation indicates that the receptor characteristics, estimated with the [3H]spiperone assay, are representative for dopamine receptors on the gonadotropic cells

  17. Human growth hormone and prolactin secreting pituitary adenomas analyzed by in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, R V; Cano, M; Chandler, W F; Barkan, A L; Horvath, E; Kovacs, K

    1989-03-01

    Acidophilic pituitary adenomas commonly produce growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL), according to studies employing immunohistochemical and ultrastructural methods. To examine this question, in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes was done on routinely processed tissues received in the pathology laboratory to analyze for the presence of GH and PRL messenger RNA (mRNA) in 4 normal pituitaries, 10 prolactinomas, and 16 GH-secreting adenomas. Most acidophilic cells in normal pituitaries expressed either GH or PRL hormone and the respective mRNAs, but GH mRNA and PRL hormone were also detected in some of the same cells. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of prolactinoma had cells with only PRL mRNA in their tumors, while most (14 of 16) patients with a clinical diagnosis of acromegaly or gigantism had both GH and PRL mRNAs in their tumors. The GH adenomas varied in these studies. In situ hybridization was helpful in characterizing the adenoma from a patient with acromegaly who had immunoreactive PRL, but no immunoreactive GH in the resected tumor; in situ hybridization analysis revealed mRNAs for both GH and PRL in the same tumor cells. Our findings indicate that pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegaly commonly express PRL mRNA. It is concluded that in situ hybridization provides new information about the clinical biology and the histopathologic classification of pituitary adenomas. PMID:2466405

  18. Inflammatory Pseudotumor of the Pituitary Gland Mimicking a Pituitary Adenoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Da Mi; Yu, In Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Han Kyu [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son Hyun Jin [Dept. of Pathology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    A 38-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with diplopia. The patient had a relatively well-defined pituitary mass with high cellularity as well as weaker enhancement on imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), than a typical pituitary adenoma. The distinction between a pseudotumor and an invasive neoplasm is very difficult before biopsy. In this case report, we discuss the characteristic imaging features of a fibrosing inflammatory pseudotumor of the pituitary gland

  19. Functional role of estrogen in pituitary tumor pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Anthony P.; Fernando, Manory; Melmed, Shlomo

    2002-01-01

    Pituitary hyperplasia and lactotroph replication are induced by estrogen. The product of the pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) exhibits in vitro and in vivo transforming activity and induces basic bFGF secretion, thereby modulating pituitary angiogenesis and tumor formation. We demonstrated previously that pituitary pttg is induced by estrogen and bFGF, the latter being expressed in a concordant fashion with pttg in experimental and human pituitary adenomas. We now elucidate the role o...

  20. Angiotensin II in the brain and pituitary: contrasting roles in the regulation of adenohypophyseal secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1989-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AII) is present in gonadotropes in rats, and there are AII receptors on lactotropes and corticotropes. AII may be a paracrine mediator that stimulates the secretion of prolactin and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) at the level of the pituitary, but additional research is needed to define its exact role. Angiotensinogen may also reach the gonadotropes via a paracrine route. On the other hand, there is considerable evidence that brain AII stimulates the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) by increasing the secretion of LH-releasing hormone, and that this effect is due to AII-mediated release of norepinephrine from noradrenergic nerve terminals in the preoptic region of the hypothalamus. In addition, brain AII inhibits the secretion of prolactin, probably by increasing the release of dopamine into the portal hypophyseal vessels. Circulating AII stimulates the secretion of a third anterior pituitary hormone, ACTH, by acting on one or more of the circumventricular organs to increase the secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone.

  1. Anaplastic astrocytoma 14 years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Masaru; Misumi, Syuuzou; Kurosaki, Syuuhei; Shibasaki, Takashi; Ohye, Chihiro (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    A case of anaplastic astrocytoma following radiotherapy for growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma is presented with a review of the literature. A 43 year old female was admitted with signs of acromegaly and hypertension. An eosinophilic pituitary adenoma was subtotally removed by transsphenoidal approach, followed by 60 Gy irradiation using a 2x2 cm lateral field. Fourteen years later at the age of 57, she suffered from headache, recent-memory disturbance and uncinate fits. CT scan and MRI disclosed ring-like enhanced mass lesion in the left temporal lobe, corresponding to the previous irradiated field. {sup 18}F-FDG PET showed hypermetabolism at the lesion. Left frontotemporal craniotomy was performed, and a reddish gray gelatinous tumor containing necrotic center and cyst was partially removed. Histologically, the tumor consisted of hypercellular astrocytic cells with perivascular pseudorosette. Coagulation necrosis at the center of the tumor, and hyalinosis and fibrosis of the blood vessels in and around the tumor, which might have been caused by the antecedent radiotherapy, were recognized. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were given, however, she expired 13 months after the operation. Seven cases, including ours, of malignant glioma following radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma were reported in the literature. A total dose of irradiation varies from 45 to 95 Gy with a mean of 50 Gy. The period of latency before tumor occurrence ranges from 5 to 22 years with a mean of 10 years. The differentiation of radiation-induced gliomas from radionecrosis of the brain is also discussed. (author).

  2. Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeet Kumar; Ansari, Ms

    2014-09-01

    Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum (CAUD) may be found all along the anterior urethra and may present itself at any age, from infant to adult. Most children with this condition present with difficulty in initiating micturition, dribbling of urine, poor urinary stream, or urinary tract infection. A careful history will reveal that these children never had a good urinary stream since birth, and the telltale sign is a cystic swelling of the penile urethra. In this paper, we present two cases of CAUD that were managed by excision of the diverticulum with primary repair. PMID:26328174

  3. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagami, Alessandro S; Edvinsson, Lars; Goadsby, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) is found in human trigeminocervical complex and can trigger migraine. PACAP levels were measured using a sensitive radioimmunoassay. Stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) in cat elevated PACAP levels in cranial blood. Patients...

  4. Pituitary diseases : long-term clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaauw, Agatha Apolonia van der

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes various studies during the long-term follow-up of patients after treatment for pituitary diseases. The focus of this thesis is acromegaly, growth hormone deficiency, sleep and quality of life. Various aspects are described.

  5. Metastases from a pituitary adenoma: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few cases of pituitary adenoma with metastases have been reported. We report a case with histologically benign intracranial and cauda equina metastases. We compare it to the others in the literature. (orig.)

  6. Metastases from a pituitary adenoma: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucaud, L. de; Dousset, V.; Viaud, B.; Caille, J.M. [Service de Neuroradiologie, CHU Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Caillaud, P.; Guerin, J. [Service de Neurochirurgie, CHU Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)

    1999-10-01

    Few cases of pituitary adenoma with metastases have been reported. We report a case with histologically benign intracranial and cauda equina metastases. We compare it to the others in the literature. (orig.)

  7. Relationship between NF-κB, MMP-9, and MICA expression in pituitary adenomas reveals a new mechanism of pituitary adenomas immune escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Li, Zhenzhu; Chang, Yingwei; Ma, Lixin; Xu, Wenhu; Li, Meng; Li, Jianmin; Zhang, Wensheng; Sun, Qikai; An, Xiaojing; Li, Zefu

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the expression levels of NF-κB, MMP-9, and MICA and their relationship between each other in pituitary adenomas as a histological basis for the study of the expression and shedding mechanism of MICA and mechanism of immune escape of pituitary adenomas. Our study indicated that MICA, MMP-9 and NF-κB mRNA and protein levels were more highly expressed in pituitary adenomas than healthy tissues. The expression levels of NF-κB, MMP-9, and MICA were positively related in patients with pituitary adenomas. In conclusion, the activation of NF-κB can up-regulate the expression of MICA and induce the expression of MMP-9, which hydrolyzes MICA into sMICA to promote tumor immune escape. The interactions of NF-κB, MMP-9, and MICA play an important role in the development of pituitary adenomas, and MMP-9 could be used as a new target for inhibiting tumor cell immune escape.

  8. Primary immune thrombocytopenia accompanied by pituitary apoplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takahiro; Mochinaga, Hiromi; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    An 83-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a severe headache and purpura. She had previously been diagnosed with idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) and achieved complete remission with steroid therapy. Steroid therapy had been completed one week prior to the current admission. The recurrence of severe thrombocytopenia (ITP and improvements in the pituitary hemorrhage. Intracranial hemorrhage, which is the most serious bleeding manifestation in ITP, is relatively uncommon. Pituitary apoplexy in ITP is extremely rare. PMID:27498733

  9. Double pituitary adenomas: six surgical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, T; Horiguchi, H; Xu, B; Li, C; Hino, A; Sakaki, M; Kannuki, S; Yamada, S

    1999-05-01

    While double pituitary adenomas have been found in approximately 1% of autopsy pituitaries, those in surgically resected material have been only rarely reported. We report herein 6 cases of double pituitary adenomas, which consisted of two histologically and/or immunohistochemically different areas among approximately 450 surgical specimens. Five out of 6 patients were men and the age was ranged between 18 and 61 years old. All these 6 patients presented acromegaly or acrogigantism and hyperprolactinemia was noted in 3 patients. In 2 patients (cases 1 and 2) the two adenomas belonged to different adenoma groups (GH-PRL-TSH group and FSH/LH group), while in the remaining 4 patients (cases 3-6) the two adenomas belonged to the same group (GH-PRL-TSH group). Thus, in all patients at least one of the two adenomas was GH-producing adenoma. Reasons for a high incidence of GH-producing adenomas in surgically resected double pituitary adenomas may include the presence of a variety of histologic subtypes among GH-producing adenomas and the advantage of cytokeratin immunostaining to distinguish these subtypes. In regard to pathogenesis of double pituitary adenomas, adenomas in cases 1 and 2 may be of multicentric occurrence, while those in cases 3-6 may occur through different clonal proliferation within originally one adenoma, resulting in diverse phenotypic expressions. Since there were patients with familial MEN 1 (case 2) and familial pituitary adenoma unrelated MEN 1 (case 3), genetic background should be also considered. Double pituitary adenomas in surgically resected material may not be so infrequent. Further molecular analysis will provide new insights into understanding the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas and their mechanisms of multidirectional phenotypic diffrentiation.

  10. Identification of metastases in the pituitary stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of metastasis in the pituitary stalk are presented. In both cases, presenting with diabetes insipidus, the demonstration of a small (under 1 cm) metastasis in the pituitary stalk was possible using a current generation scanner. Patients with known primary tumors presenting with a diabetes insipidus should be examined by CT before therapy with antidiuretic hormone is initiated. In cases of visible metastasis, a specific therapy together with the hormone-substitution should be discussed. (orig.)

  11. Increased CD40 ligand in patients with acute anterior uveitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øgard, Carsten; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Krogh, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory response in acute anterior uveitis (AU) is believed to be primarily mediated by autoreactive T-cells. We wanted to evaluate whether the T-cell activation marker CD40 ligand is involved in the AU immunopathogenesis.......The inflammatory response in acute anterior uveitis (AU) is believed to be primarily mediated by autoreactive T-cells. We wanted to evaluate whether the T-cell activation marker CD40 ligand is involved in the AU immunopathogenesis....

  12. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of visual cortex activation in patients with anterior visual pathway lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiufeng Song; Guohua Wang; Tong Zhang; Lei Feng; Peng An; Yueli Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the secondary visual cortex functional disorder in patients with glaucoma and large pituitary adenoma by functional magnetic resonance imaging, and to determine the correlation between visual field defect and primary visual cortex activation. Results showed that single eye stimulation resulted in bilateral visual cortex activation in patients with glaucoma or large pituitary adenoma. Compared with the normal control group, the extent and intensity of visual cortex activation was decreased after left and right eye stimulation, and functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed a correlation between visual field defects and visual cortex activation in patients with glaucoma and large pituitary adenoma. These functional magnetic resonance imaging data suggest that anterior optic pathway lesions can cause secondary functional disorder of the visual cortex, and that visual defects are correlated with visual cortex activation.

  13. Aryl‐hydrocarbon receptor activity modulates prolactin expression in the pituitary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Tyler B.; Brannick, Katherine E.; Raetzman, Lori T., E-mail: raetzman@life.illinois.edu

    2012-11-15

    Pituitary tumors account for 15% of intracranial neoplasms, however the extent to which environmental toxicants contribute to the proliferation and hormone expression of pituitary cells is unknown. Aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) interacting protein (AIP) loss of function mutations cause somatotrope and lactotrope adenomas in humans. AIP sequesters AhR and inhibits its transcriptional function. Because of the link between AIP and pituitary tumors, we hypothesize that exposure to dioxins, potent exogenous ligands for AhR that are persistent in the environment, may predispose to pituitary dysfunction through activation of AhR. In the present study, we examined the effect of AhR activation on proliferation and endogenous pituitary hormone expression in the GH3 rat somatolactotrope tumor cell line and the effect of loss of AhR action in knockout mice. GH3 cells respond to nM doses of the reversible AhR agonist β-naphthoflavone with a robust induction of Cyp1a1. Although mRNA levels of the anti-proliferative signaling cytokine TGFbeta1 are suppressed upon β-naphthoflavone treatment, we did not observe an alteration in cell proliferation. AhR activation with β-naphthoflavone suppresses Ahr expression and impairs expression of prolactin (PRL), but not growth hormone (GH) mRNA in GH3 cells. In mice, loss of Ahr similarly leads to a reduction in Prl mRNA at P3, while Gh is unaffected. Additionally, there is a significant reduction in pituitary hormones Lhb and Fshb in the absence of Ahr. Overall, these results demonstrate that AhR is important for pituitary hormone expression and suggest that environmental dioxins can exert endocrine disrupting effects at the pituitary. -- Highlights: ► AhR signaling suppresses Prl mRNA expression. ► AhR signaling does not influence pituitary proliferation in culture. ► AhR is necessary for Prl, Lhb and Fshb expression at postnatal day 3.

  14. FMRF-amide-like immunoreactivity in brain and pituitary of the hagfish Eptatretus burgeri (Cyclostomata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jirikowski, G; Erhart, G; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J;

    1984-01-01

    the hypothalamus to the olfactory system and caudally to the medulla oblongata. FMRF-amide-like immunoreactivity was also found in cells of the adenohypophysis. These observations suggest that the hagfish possesses a brain FMRF-amide-like transmitter system and pituitary cells containing FMRF-amide-like material...

  15. Enhancement of Tendon–Bone Healing for Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL Reconstruction Using Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Infected with BMP-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyi Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At present, due to the growing attention focused on the issue of tendon–bone healing, we carried out an animal study of the use of genetic intervention combined with cell transplantation for the promotion of this process. Here, the efficacy of bone marrow stromal cells infected with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 on tendon–bone healing was determined. A eukaryotic expression vector containing the BMP-2 gene was constructed and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs were infected with a lentivirus. Next, we examined the viability of the infected cells and the mRNA and protein levels of BMP-2-infected bMSCs. Gastrocnemius tendons, gastrocnemius tendons wrapped by bMSCs infected with the control virus (bMSCs+Lv-Control, and gastrocnemius tendons wrapped by bMSCs infected with the recombinant BMP-2 virus (bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 were used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL in New Zealand white rabbits. Specimens from each group were harvested four and eight weeks postoperatively and evaluated using biomechanical and histological methods. The bMSCs were infected with the lentivirus at an efficiency close to 100%. The BMP-2 mRNA and protein levels in bMSCs were significantly increased after lentiviral infection. The bMSCs and BMP-2-infected bMSCs on the gastrocnemius tendon improved the biomechanical properties of the graft in the bone tunnel; specifically, bMSCs infected with BMP-2 had a positive effect on tendon–bone healing. In the four-week and eight-week groups, bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group exhibited significantly higher maximum loads of 29.3 ± 7.4 N and 45.5 ± 11.9 N, respectively, compared with the control group (19.9 ± 6.4 N and 21.9 ± 4.9 N (P = 0.041 and P = 0.001, respectively. In the eight-week groups, the stiffness of the bMSCs+Lv-BMP-2 group (32.5 ± 7.3 was significantly higher than that of the bMSCs+Lv-Control group (22.8 ± 7.4 or control groups (12.4 ± 6.0 (p = 0.036 and 0.001, respectively. Based on the

  16. The endocrine-immune network during taeniosis by Taenia solium: The role of the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that sex hormones play an important role during Taenia solium infection; however, to our knowledge no studies exist concerning the immune response following complete or lobe-specific removal of the pituitary gland during T. solium infection. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze in hamsters, the effects of lack of pituitary hormones on the duodenal immune response, and their impact on T. solium establishment and development. Thus, in order to achieve this goal, we perform anterior pituitary lobectomy (AL, n = 9), neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL, n = 9) and total hypophysectomy (HYPOX, n = 8), and related to the gut establishment and growth of T. solium, hematoxylin-eosin staining of duodenal tissue and immunofluorescence of duodenal cytokine expression and compared these results to the control intact (n = 8) and control infected group (n = 8). Our results indicate that 15 days post-infection, HYPOX reduces the number and size of intestinally recovered T. solium adults. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of duodenal IFN-γ and IL-12 Th1 cytokines was mildly expressed in the infected controls, in contrast with the high level of expression of these cytokines in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, the duodenum of HYPOX animals showed an increase in the expression of Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-6, when compared to control hamsters. Histological analysis of duodenal mucosa from HYPOX hamsters revealed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria and related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that lobe-specific pituitary hormones affect differentially the T. solium development and the gut immune response. PMID:26481692

  17. The endocrine-immune network during taeniosis by Taenia solium: The role of the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that sex hormones play an important role during Taenia solium infection; however, to our knowledge no studies exist concerning the immune response following complete or lobe-specific removal of the pituitary gland during T. solium infection. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze in hamsters, the effects of lack of pituitary hormones on the duodenal immune response, and their impact on T. solium establishment and development. Thus, in order to achieve this goal, we perform anterior pituitary lobectomy (AL, n = 9), neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL, n = 9) and total hypophysectomy (HYPOX, n = 8), and related to the gut establishment and growth of T. solium, hematoxylin-eosin staining of duodenal tissue and immunofluorescence of duodenal cytokine expression and compared these results to the control intact (n = 8) and control infected group (n = 8). Our results indicate that 15 days post-infection, HYPOX reduces the number and size of intestinally recovered T. solium adults. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of duodenal IFN-γ and IL-12 Th1 cytokines was mildly expressed in the infected controls, in contrast with the high level of expression of these cytokines in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, the duodenum of HYPOX animals showed an increase in the expression of Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-6, when compared to control hamsters. Histological analysis of duodenal mucosa from HYPOX hamsters revealed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria and related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that lobe-specific pituitary hormones affect differentially the T. solium development and the gut immune response.

  18. Identification of the receptors for somatostatin (SST) and cortistatin (CST) in chickens and investigation of the roles of cSST28, cSST14, and cCST14 in inhibiting cGHRH1-27NH2-induced growth hormone secretion in cultured chicken pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fengyan; Huang, Guian; Gao, Shunyu; Li, Juan; Yan, Zhenxin; Wang, Yajun

    2014-03-25

    Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are proposed to mediate the actions of somatostatin (SST) and its related peptide, cortistatin (CST), in vertebrates. However, the identity, functionality, and tissue expression of these receptors remain largely unknown in most non-mammalian vertebrates including birds. In this study, five SSTRs (named cSSTR1, cSSTR2, cSSTR3, cSSTR4, cSSTR5) were cloned from chicken brain by RT-PCR. Using a pGL3-CRE-luciferase reporter system, we demonstrated that activation of each cSSTR expressed in CHO cells by cSST28, cSST14 and cCST14 treatment could inhibit forskolin-induced luciferase activity of CHO cells, indicating the functional coupling of all cSSTRs to Gi protein(s). Interestingly, cSSTR1-4 expressed in CHO cells could be activated by cSST28, cSST14 and cCST14 with high potencies, suggesting that they may function as the receptors common for these peptides. In contrast, cSSTR5 could be potently activated by cSST28 only, indicating that it is a cSST28-specific receptor. Using RT-PCR, wide expression of cSSTRs was detected in chicken tissues including pituitary. In accordance with their expression in pituitary, cSST28, cSST14, and cCST14 were demonstrated to inhibit basal and novel cGHRH1-27NH2-induced GH secretion in cultured chicken pituitary cells dose-dependently (0-10nM) by Western blot analysis, suggesting the involvement of cSSTR(s) common for these peptides in mediating their inhibitory actions. Collectively, our study establishes a molecular basis to elucidate the roles of SST/CST in birds and provide insights into the roles of SST/CST in vertebrates, such as their conserved actions on pituitary.

  19. Molecular effects of novel mutations in Hesx1/HESX1 associated with human pituitary disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brickman, J M; Clements, M; Tyrell, R;

    2001-01-01

    The homeobox gene Hesx1/HESX1 has been implicated in the establishment of anterior pattern in the central nervous system (CNS) in a number of vertebrate species. Its role in pituitary development has been documented through loss-of-function studies in the mouse. A homozygous missense point mutation...... resulting in a single amino acid substitution, Arg160Cys (R160C), is associated with a heritable form of the human condition of septo-optic dysplasia (SOD). We have examined the phenotype of affected members in this pedigree in more detail and demonstrate for the first time a genetic basis for midline...

  20. Intracranial hemorrhage from undetected aneurysmal rupture complicating transphenoidal pituitary adenoma resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Tarun; Uy, Edilfavia Mae; Rai, Mridula; Kannan, Subramanian; Senatus, Patrick

    2011-08-01

    We report a case of a 39-year-old man who presented with a nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma which extended into the suprasellar region. He underwent a transcranial resection of the tumor followed eight months later by transsphenoidal surgery for the residual tumor. Postoperatively he developed massive subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. A cerebral angiogram revealed a leaking anterior communicating artery aneurysm which was not seen on the computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography before the surgery. Complications of transsphenoidal surgery, particularly vascular hemorrhagic complications, and risk of rupture of undetected aneurysms are discussed.

  1. β-lipotropin is the major opioid-like peptide of human pituitary and rat pars distalis: lack of significant β-endorphin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-Lipotropin is the predominant opioid peptide of the human pituitary and rat pars distalis and is present in concentrations essentially equimolar with corticotropin. When freshly obtained nonfrozen rat anterior pituitaries were homogenized with 0.2 M HCl, approximately 98% of the immunoreactivity detected utilizing an antiserum that crossreacts equally with β-lipotropin and β-endorphin coeluted with 125I-labeled human β-lipotropin upon molecular sieve chromatography. The remainder of the activity eluted with synthetic human β-endorphin. Similar results were obtained for human pituitary. HCl homogenization of thawed tissue or homogenization of fresh tissue with acetic acid yielded substantially greater concentrations of β-endorphin and decreased concentrations of β-lipotropin. In human subjects, acute anterior pituitary stimulation using either insulin-induced hypoglycemia or vasopressin administration was associated with increased plasma β-lipotropin and corticotropin levels. At the time of peak concentrations, no significant levels of β-endorphin were detectable. These data indicate the lack of significant amounts of β-endorphin in human pituitary. Additionally, there appears to be no specific intrapituitary conversion of β-lipotropin to β-endorphin

  2. Gamma irradiation effects on human growth hormone producing pituitary adenoma tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation-induced effects on pituitary cell morphology and secretion of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) have been analysed using an in vitro system. Specimens for organ culture were were obtained from three patients with pituitary tumours causing acromegaly but with different clinical activity of disease. Specimens were followed in vitro 1 h - 6 days after single-dose gamma irradiation (60Co) with 70 100 and 150 Gy, respectively. These doses are used in clinical work for the stereotactic radiosuregery of pituitary adenomas. Considerable fluctuations in hormone secretion/release occurred during the first 24h after irradiation. All three tumours showed individual differences concern ing irradiation-induced morphological damage. Only a minor variation occurred between specimens from the same tumour. An individual sensitivity to irradiation of pituitary tumours in vitro is documented. The great number of surviving pituitary tumour cells one week after irradiation-many with an intact ultrastructure and containing hormone granules-indicated an initial high degree of radioresistance. (author)

  3. Histopathologic changes of hypothalamus and pituitary in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yan; Meng Fan-yu; Hu Zhen-hua; Liu Fang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the histopathologic changes of hypothalamus and pituitary in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Methods: Rat model of PCOS was established in 6 immature female SD rats and another 6 immature rats treated with placebo were as control. The tissues of hypothalamus and pituitary were obtained and observed by light microscope and transmission electron microscope.Results: Light microscopy revealed little difference in morphology of neurons in arcuate nucleus or basophilic cells in pituitary between PCOS rats and normal rats. Electron microscopic examination showed that, compared with those in normal rats, GnRH neurons in PCOS rats were larger and fuller, with Golgi complex and mitochondria increased. The mitochondria were small, round and swelling. More high-density secretory granules and bright vesicles were observed in the cytoplasm. The Golgi complex near nucleus in pituitary gonadotropin cell in PCOS rats was fractured and expanded, and there were increased number mitochondria and different sizes of the higher electron density secretory granules in the cytoplasm. Conclusion: The morphological alterations in hypothalamus and pituitary could play a very important role in the development of PCOS.

  4. Resistance to dopamine agonists and somatostatin analogues in pituitary tumors: focus on cytoskeleton involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika ePeverelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary tumors, that origin from excessive proliferation of a specific subtype of pituitary cell, are mostly benign tumors, but may cause significant morbidity in affected patients, including visual and neurologic manifestations from mass-effect, or endocrine syndromes caused by hormone hypersecretion. Dopamine (DA receptor DRD2 and somatostatin (SS receptors (SSTRs represent the main targets of pharmacological treatment of pituitary tumors since they mediate inhibitory effects on both hormone secretion and cell proliferation, and their expression is retained by most of these tumors. Although long acting DA and SS analogs are currently used in the treatment of prolactin (PRL- and growth hormone (GH-secreting pituitary tumors, respectively, clinical practice indicates a great variability in the frequency and entity of favourable responses. The molecular basis of the pharmacological resistance are still poorly understood, and several potential molecular mechanisms have been proposed, including defective expression or genetic alterations of DRD2 and SSTRs, or an impaired signal transduction. Recently, a role for cytoskeleton protein filamin A (FLNA in DRD2 and SSTRs receptors expression and signalling in PRL- and GH- secreting tumors, respectively, has been demonstrated, first revealing a link between FLNA expression and responsiveness of pituitary tumors to pharmacological therapy. This review provides an overview of the known molecular events involved in SS and DA resistance, focusing on the role played by FLNA.

  5. An autocrine role for pituitary GABA: Activation of GABA-B receptors and regulation of growth hormone levels

    OpenAIRE

    Gamel-Didelon, Katia; Corsi, C.; Pepeu, G.; Jung, H.; Gratzl, M; Mayerhofer, Artur

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a local factor involved in the regulation of endocrine organs. Examples of such functions are documented in the pancreas, but recent results suggest that GABA may act in a similar way in the pituitary, in which GABA receptors are expressed and pituitary growth hormone (GH) cells provide a source of GABA. We hypothesised that GABA secreted in somatotropes may act as an autoregulatory signaling m...

  6. The expression of estrogen receptor genes in diethylstilbestrol-induced pituitary prolactinoma in rats%雌激素受体基因在乙菧酚诱发的大鼠催乳素瘤中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐春; 李江源; 黄兆坚

    2001-01-01

    目的 研究雌激素受体(ER)α、ERβ和断裂的雌激素受体产物-1(TERP-1)在乙酚(DES)诱发的大鼠催乳素瘤中的表达。方法 雌性Wistar大鼠摘除卵巢后皮下植入含DES 20 mg的硅胶管,以空白硅胶管作对照。8周后处死动物,用放免法测定大鼠血清催乳素水平,观察大鼠垂体组织学改变,并用免疫组化方法检测催乳素染色阳性细胞,用逆转录-聚合酶链反应分析垂体组织中ERα、ERβ和TERP-1 mRNA的转录水平。结果 实验组大鼠血清催乳素水平、垂体重量和垂体组织催乳素阳性细胞计数均明显高于对照组(P<0.001),ERα、ERβ和TERP-1 mRNA在两组大鼠垂体组织中均有转录,其中ERα和TERP-1 mRNA在实验组中的转录水平比在对照组高(P<0.001和P<0.05)。结论 雌激素可以通过雌激素受体直接影响垂体催乳素细胞。正常的雌激素受体与异常的雌激素受体的共同存在提示雌激素调节作用的异质性,它们之间的相互关系及与垂体肿瘤发生的关系,有待于进一步阐明。%Objective To examine the expressions of estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ) and pituitary-specific truncated estrogen receptor product-1 (TERP-1) in diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced prolactinoma of rats. Methods Ovariectomised Wistar rats were subcutaneously implanted with an implant containing 20 mg DES. Rats were implanted with a blank implant as controls. Eight weeks later, serum prolactin level of rats was measured by RIA. Prolactin immunoreactive cells of anterior pituitary were detected by immunohistochemistry assay. ERα, ERβ and TERP-1 mRNAs in pituitaries were examined by RT-PCR. Results Serum prolactin levels, pituitary weights and pituitary prolactin immunoreactive cell countings in experimental group rats were all obviously higher than those in control group (P<0.001 respectively). ERα, ERβ and TERP-1 mRNAs were all transcripted in DES

  7. Concomitant pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the clinical, radiological and surgical findings in patients with both pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst. We retrospectively selected patients with both lesions from the 374 patients in whom a sellar/juxtasellar lesion was detected on MRI at 1.5 tesla. All patients received intravenous contrast medium. Concomitant pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst were found in eight patients (2.1 %). The frequency of the combination was 3.5 % of pituitary adenomas and 11 % of Rathke's cleft cysts. Symptoms were always due to the adenoma, secreting adrenocorticotrophin in two patients and growth hormone in six. The adenoma was larger in five patients, and the cyst in three. The cysts gave variable signal. The adenoma was adjacent to the cyst in seven patients, and enclosed it in the other patient. As a result of experience with MRI, concomitant pituitary adenoma and Rathke's cleft cyst are now known not to be as rare as thought previously. When a nonenhancing cyst-like structure is demonstrated in a patient with pituitary adenoma, the possibility of a coexisting Rathke's cleft cyst should be considered. (orig.)

  8. Mortality in patients with pituitary disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sherlock, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Pituitary disease is associated with increased mortality predominantly due to vascular disease. Control of cortisol secretion and GH hypersecretion (and cardiovascular risk factor reduction) is key in the reduction of mortality in patients with Cushing\\'s disease and acromegaly, retrospectively. For patients with acromegaly, the role of IGF-I is less clear-cut. Confounding pituitary hormone deficiencies such as gonadotropins and particularly ACTH deficiency (with higher doses of hydrocortisone replacement) may have a detrimental effect on outcome in patients with pituitary disease. Pituitary radiotherapy is a further factor that has been associated with increased mortality (particularly cerebrovascular). Although standardized mortality ratios in pituitary disease are falling due to improved treatment, mortality for many conditions are still elevated above that of the general population, and therefore further measures are needed. Craniopharyngioma patients have a particularly increased risk of mortality as a result of the tumor itself and treatment to control tumor growth; this is a key area for future research in order to optimize the outcome for these patients.

  9. ATP-induced [Ca2+]i changes and depolarization in GH3 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Hae Sook; Park, Kyu Sang; Cha, Seung Kyu; Kong, In Deok; Lee, Joong Woo

    2000-01-01

    Extracellular ATP is a neurotransmitter and mediates a variety of responses. In the endocrine system, there are data suggesting a physiological role for ATP in Ca2+ signalling and hormone secretion. However, the ATP receptor subtype involved has not been clearly elucidated in GH3 cells, a rat anterior pituitary cell line.BzATP- and ATP-induced [Ca2+]i responses had EC50 values of 18 and 651 μM, respectively. The maximal response to ATP was only 59±8% of that for BzATP. The BzATP-induced [Ca2+...

  10. Components of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways are not mis-expressed in pituitary tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Machado Colli

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways are involved in the genesis of multiple tumors; however, their role in pituitary tumorigenesis is mostly unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated gene and protein expression of Wnt pathways in pituitary tumors and whether these expression correlate to clinical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genes of the WNT canonical pathway: activating ligands (WNT11, WNT4, WNT5A, binding inhibitors (DKK3, sFRP1, β-catenin (CTNNB1, β-catenin degradation complex (APC, AXIN1, GSK3β, inhibitor of β-catenin degradation complex (AKT1, sequester of β-catenin (CDH1, pathway effectors (TCF7, MAPK8, NFAT5, pathway mediators (DVL-1, DVL-2, DVL-3, PRICKLE, VANGL1, target genes (MYB, MYC, WISP2, SPRY1, TP53, CCND1; calcium dependent pathway (PLCB1, CAMK2A, PRKCA, CHP; and planar cell polarity pathway (PTK7, DAAM1, RHOA were evaluated by QPCR, in 19 GH-, 18 ACTH-secreting, 21 non-secreting (NS pituitary tumors, and 5 normal pituitaries. Also, the main effectors of canonical (β-catenin, planar cell polarity (JNK, and calcium dependent (NFAT5 Wnt pathways were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: There are no differences in gene expression of canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways between all studied subtypes of pituitary tumors and normal pituitaries, except for WISP2, which was over-expressed in ACTH-secreting tumors compared to normal pituitaries (4.8x; p = 0.02, NS pituitary tumors (7.7x; p = 0.004 and GH-secreting tumors (5.0x; p = 0.05. β-catenin, NFAT5 and JNK proteins showed no expression in normal pituitaries and in any of the pituitary tumor subtypes. Furthermore, no association of the studied gene or protein expression was observed with tumor size, recurrence, and progressive disease. The hierarchical clustering showed a regular pattern of genes of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathways randomly distributed throughout the dendrogram. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reinforce previous reports

  11. Fetal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Dopamine Receptor D2 and Increases Pituitary Weight and Prolactin Production via Epigenetic Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangisetty, Omkaram; Wynne, Olivia; Jabbar, Shaima; Nasello, Cara; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicated that alcohol exposure during the fetal period increases the susceptibility to tumor development in mammary and prostate tissues. Whether fetal alcohol exposure increases the susceptibility to prolactin-producing tumor (prolactinoma) development in the pituitary was studied by employing the animal model of estradiol-induced prolactinomas in Fischer 344 female rats. We employed an animal model of fetal alcohol exposure that simulates binge alcohol drinking during the first two trimesters of human pregnancy and involves feeding pregnant rats with a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol during gestational day 7 to day 21. Control rats were pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet or fed ad libitum with rat chow diet. Adult alcohol exposed and control female offspring rats were used in this study on the day of estrus or after estrogen treatment. Results show that fetal alcohol-exposed rats had increased levels of pituitary weight, pituitary prolactin (PRL) protein and mRNA, and plasma PRL. However, these rats show decreased pituitary levels of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) mRNA and protein and increased pituitary levels of D2R promoter methylation. Also, they show elevated pituitary mRNA levels of DNA methylating genes (DNMT1, DNMT3b, MeCP2) and histone modifying genes (HDAC2, HDAC4, G9a). When fetal alcohol exposed rats were treated neonatally with a DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza deoxycytidine and/or a HDAC inhibitor trichostatin-A their pituitary D2R mRNA, pituitary weights and plasma PRL levels were normalized. These data suggest that fetal alcohol exposure programs the pituitary to increase the susceptibility to the development of prolactinomas possibly by enhancing the methylation of the D2R gene promoter and repressing the synthesis and control of D2R on PRL-producing cells. PMID:26509893

  12. Fetal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Dopamine Receptor D2 and Increases Pituitary Weight and Prolactin Production via Epigenetic Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkaram Gangisetty

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicated that alcohol exposure during the fetal period increases the susceptibility to tumor development in mammary and prostate tissues. Whether fetal alcohol exposure increases the susceptibility to prolactin-producing tumor (prolactinoma development in the pituitary was studied by employing the animal model of estradiol-induced prolactinomas in Fischer 344 female rats. We employed an animal model of fetal alcohol exposure that simulates binge alcohol drinking during the first two trimesters of human pregnancy and involves feeding pregnant rats with a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol during gestational day 7 to day 21. Control rats were pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet or fed ad libitum with rat chow diet. Adult alcohol exposed and control female offspring rats were used in this study on the day of estrus or after estrogen treatment. Results show that fetal alcohol-exposed rats had increased levels of pituitary weight, pituitary prolactin (PRL protein and mRNA, and plasma PRL. However, these rats show decreased pituitary levels of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R mRNA and protein and increased pituitary levels of D2R promoter methylation. Also, they show elevated pituitary mRNA levels of DNA methylating genes (DNMT1, DNMT3b, MeCP2 and histone modifying genes (HDAC2, HDAC4, G9a. When fetal alcohol exposed rats were treated neonatally with a DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza deoxycytidine and/or a HDAC inhibitor trichostatin-A their pituitary D2R mRNA, pituitary weights and plasma PRL levels were normalized. These data suggest that fetal alcohol exposure programs the pituitary to increase the susceptibility to the development of prolactinomas possibly by enhancing the methylation of the D2R gene promoter and repressing the synthesis and control of D2R on PRL-producing cells.

  13. MRI of pituitary adenomas in acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marro, B. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Zouaoui, A. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Sahel, M. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Crozat, N. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Gerber, S. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Sourour, N. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Sag, K. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France); Marsault, C. [Service de Neuroradiologie, Batiment Babinsky, Hopital Salpetriere, 47, Bd de l`Hopital, F-75013 Paris (France)

    1997-06-01

    Adenomas causing acromegaly represent at least a quarter of pituitary adenomas. We studied 12 patients presenting with active acromegaly due to a pituitary adenoma with a 1.5 T superconductive MRI unit. All had T1-weighted sagittal and coronal sections before and after Gd-DTPA; six had coronal T2-weighted images. Surgical correlation was obtained in seven patients. Histologically, there were eight growth hormone (GH)-secreting and three mixed [GH and prolactin (PRL) secreting] adenomas, and one secreting GH, PRL and follicle-stimulating hormone. Macroadenomas (10) were more frequent than microadenomas (2). No correlation was found between serum GH and tumour size. There were nine adenomas in the lateral part of the pituitary gland; seven showed lateral or infrasellar invasion. Homogeneous, isointense signal on T1- and T2-weighted images was observed in six cases. Heterogeneous adenomas had cystic or necrotic components. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas: an endocrinologist`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Halloran, D.J.; Shalet, S.M. [Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    A brief review is given of the clinical management of patients with pituitary adenomas such as prolactinomas, adenomasin acromegoly and Leushin`s disease, and non-functioning pituitary adenomas. In particular the complications of radiotherapy are explored. (UK).

  15. Pituitary tumors in patients with MEN1 syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Syro, Luis V.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Kalman Kovacs; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Francisco J. Londoño; Ortiz, Leon D.; Fabio Rotondo; Eva Horvath; Humberto Uribe

    2012-01-01

    We briefly review the characteristics of pituitary tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is an autosomal-dominant disorder most commonly characterized by tumors of the pituitary, parathyroid, endocrine-gastrointestinal tract, and pancreas. A MEDLINE search for all available publications regarding multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and pituitary adenomas was undertaken. The prevalence of pituitary tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia...

  16. High dose radiotherapy for pituitary tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mead, K.W. (Queensland Radium Inst., Herston (Australia))

    1981-11-01

    The results of treatment of 120 pituitary tumours are presented. Based on this experience operable chromophobe adenomas are now treated with 5,000 rads in 4 weeks and inoperable ones receive an additional central dose to 7,500 rads. Pituitary Cushing's tumours are given 10,000 rads in 5 weeks using small fields and acromegalics 5,000 rads to the whole sella and 7,500 to its lower half. The absence of complications at these dose levels is attributed to the use of small fields and the precise application of treatment.

  17. Brain serotonin and pituitary-adrenal functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Berger, P.; Barchas, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    It had been concluded by Scapagnini et al. (1971) that brain serotonin (5-HT) was involved in the regulation of the diurnal rhythm of the pituitary-adrenal system but not in the stress response. A study was conducted to investigate these findings further by evaluating the effects of altering brain 5-HT levels on the daily fluctuation of plasma corticosterone and on the response of the pituitary-adrenal system to a stressful or noxious stimulus in the rat. In a number of experiments brain 5-HT synthesis was inhibited with parachlorophenylalanine. In other tests it was tried to raise the level of brain 5-HT with precursors.

  18. The pituitary - Aging and spaceflown rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Decrements in growth hormone (GH) release we observed in two spaceflight experiments and four tail-suspended rat studies mimic age-associated changes in the mammalian pituitary GH system seen by Meites and others. The spaceflight data suggest that formation of high molecular weight bioactive disulfide-linked aggregates of the 20 and 22K monomeric GH forms may be reduced in microgravity, thereby, reducing target tissue activity. Correlative studies to confirm spaceflight as a model for pituitary GH system aging should include: (1) investigation of mechanisms of intracellular hormone packaging, (2) consequences to biological activity of the hormone molecule, and (3) study of intracellular microtubule dynamics.

  19. MR of pituitary micro-adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the time, rationales to look for pituitary micro-adenomas are based on endocrinal disorder. MRI is often helpful to confirm diagnosis. It gives information about micro-adenomas size and localisation. If conventional sequence are inadequate, a dynamic sequence has then to be performed after Gadolinium injection. Any disorder observed from the pituitary gland must be correlated with the clinical observation and results from biochemistry analysis. False positive happens quite open because of gland morphological variation, incidentalomas and partial volumes. MRI offers the possibility to follow-up treated micro-adenomas evolution especially to detect recurrence. (author)

  20. Pituitary adenoma in Carney complex: an immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and immunoelectron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtkaya-Yapicier, O; Scheithauer, B W; Carney, J A; Kovacs, K; Horvath, E; Stratakis, C A; Vidal, S; Vella, A; Young, W F; Atkinson, J L D; Lloyd, R V; Kontogeorgos, G

    2002-01-01

    First described in 1985, Carney complex is a rare, heritable disorder featuring abnormal skin pigmentation, cardiac and cutaneous myxoma, melanotic schwannoma of psammomatous type, and endocrine abnormalities, including pituitary adenomas. Patients with the latter present with elevated growth hormone (GH) levels and acromegaly or gigantism. Prolactin (PRL) elevation may also be seen. The authors have investigated 2 resected pituitary adenomas from patients with Carney complex. One, a 19-year-old female acromegalic with elevated GH, IgF-1, and PRL levels, had a mammosomatotroph adenoma immunoreactive for GH and PRL. Ultrastructurally, GH and PRL were present in the same secretory granules. The second patient, a 27-year-old acromegalic, had a sparsely granulated GH cell adenoma that by immuno-electron microscopy revealed GH immunoreactivity only. The lack of morphologic similarity between the 2 adenomas indicatesthat pituitary tumors in patients with Carney complex may not exhibit the same phenotype. PMID:12537759

  1. Pituitary adenomas in mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L;

    1992-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human GH-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs, lactotrophs, and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both GH and PRL, by 8 months of age. We now report that GRH transgenic mice 10-24 months of age develop pituita...

  2. Pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas develop in old mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L;

    1990-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both growth hormone and prolactin, by 8 months of age. We now report for the first time that old GRH-transgenic m...

  3. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a second wick down distally to prevent transitional cell carcinoma spillage. In this case it's probably not ... pulled the bladder off of the anterior abdominal wall and off of the pubic bone, the pubic ...

  4. CARTILAGE-LIKE PHENOMENON IN THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To detect histological characteristic of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL). Methods. In each of 20 skeletally mature male mongrels and 4 men, the ACL and MCL were examined by standard hematoxylin-eosin procedure and toluidine blue staining for histologic observation. Results. The fibroblasts in medial collateral are elongated to spindle shape and aligned in a row between the bundles of collagenous fibers. Toluidine blue staining is negative. The anterior cruciate ligament demonstrated more heterogenous cell types and arrangement. It had three major cell forms:spindle, round and ovoid type, which were shorter but greater than the cells in medial collateral ligament. Toluidine blue staining was positive in anterior cruciate ligament. Most cells in anterior cruciate ligament were enclosed within lacunae. Conclusion. This study suggests that the ACL has different histological characteristics from MCL, and is more cartilage-like in nature.

  5. CARTILAGE-LIKE PHENOMENON IN THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋青; 林共周; 典绵域; 崔国庆; 滕华建

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To detect histological characteristic of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL). Methods. In each of 20 skeletally mature male mongrels and 4 men, the ACL and MCL were examined by standard hematoxylin-eosin procedure and toluidine blue staining for histologic observation. Results. The fibroblasts in medial collateral are elongated to spindle shape and aligned in a row between the bundles of collagenous fibers. Toluidine blue staining is negative. The anterior cruciate ligament demonstrated more heterogenous cell types and arrangement. It had three major cell forms: spindle, round and ovoid type,which were shorter but greater than the cells in medial collateral ligament. Toluidine blue staining was positive in anterior cruciate ligament. Most cells in anterior cruciate ligament were enclosed within lacunae. Conclusion. This study suggests that the ACL has different histological characteristics from MCL, and is more cartilage-like in nature.

  6. Diagnostic imaging of the pituitary gland in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt-Meijer, R.H. van der

    2006-01-01

    Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) is a frequently encountered endocrinopathy in dogs. Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy is an effective treatment of PDH in dogs. However, for pituitary surgery to be successful information about the size of the pituitary gland and the exact location of the

  7. Pathobiology and oncogenesis of pituitary corticotroph adenomas in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanson, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) or Cushing's disease is a common endocrinopathy in the elderly dog caused by a pituitary adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) producing tumor (corticotroph adenoma) of unknown pathogenesis. Surgical removal of the pituitary tumor is applied as routine tr

  8. Recurrent oculomotor palsy due to haemorrhage in pituitary adenoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, S.

    1980-01-01

    Haemorrhage in pituitary adenoma is an unusual cause of recurrent oculomotor palsy. Three episodes of right oculomotor palsy are reported from a patient having haemorrhage in pituitary adenoma. Early operation and decompression of haemorrhagic pituitary adenoma should be performed so that vision may be preserved and recovery of oculomotor palsy be assured.

  9. The Coexistence of an Intrasellar Adenoma, Lymphocytic Hypophysitis, and Primary Pituitary Lymphoma in a Patient with Acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Hernan Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concomitant presence of three histopathologically different entities in the pituitary gland is a rare occurrence. Most publications identify at least two distinct pathologies, mainly, a pituitary adenoma coexisting with a second intrasellar lesion. We present a case of a 71-year-old female referred for evaluation and treatment of acromegaly. Questioning revealed she was experiencing facial palsy, visual disturbances, and syncopal spells for several weeks. When laboratory evaluation showed elevated somatomedin (IGF-I levels and an oral glucose tolerance test failed to demonstrate any suppression of her growth hormone (GH values, an MRI of the pituitary revealed a sellar mass. A presumptive diagnosis of pituitary adenoma was established. The patient underwent transsphenoidal resection of the sellar mass, which proved to be a large B-cell lymphoma (Stage I-E associated with areas of adenoma and lymphocytic hypophysitis.

  10. The anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  11. Immunohistochemical Localization of AT1a, AT1b, and AT2 Angiotensin II Receptor Subtypes in the Rat Adrenal, Pituitary, and Brain with a Perspective Commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Premer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II increases blood pressure and stimulates thirst and sodium appetite in the brain. It also stimulates secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal zona glomerulosa and epinephrine from the adrenal medulla. The rat has 3 subtypes of angiotensin II receptors: AT1a, AT1b, and AT2. mRNAs for all three subtypes occur in the adrenal and brain. To immunohistochemically differentiate these receptor subtypes, rabbits were immunized with C-terminal fragments of these subtypes to generate receptor subtype-specific antibodies. Immunofluorescence revealed AT1a and AT2 receptors in adrenal zona glomerulosa and medulla. AT1b immunofluorescence was present in the zona glomerulosa, but not the medulla. Ultrastructural immunogold labeling for the AT1a receptor in glomerulosa and medullary cells localized it to plasma membrane, endocytic vesicles, multivesicular bodies, and the nucleus. AT1b and AT2, but not AT1a, immunofluorescence was observed in the anterior pituitary. Stellate cells were AT1b positive while ovoid cells were AT2 positive. In the brain, neurons were AT1a, AT1b, and AT2 positive, but glia was only AT1b positive. Highest levels of AT1a, AT1b, and AT2 receptor immunofluorescence were in the subfornical organ, median eminence, area postrema, paraventricular nucleus, and solitary tract nucleus. These studies complement those employing different techniques to characterize Ang II receptors.

  12. Gene expression profiling analysis of MENX-associated rat pituitary adenomas contributes to understand molecular mechanisms of human pituitary adenomas

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, HONGZHI; XU, CHUAN; SUN, NINGYANG; ZHOU, YINTING; Yu, Xiaofei; Yan, Xue; ZHANG, QIUJUAN

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to screen potential genes associated with pituitary adenomas to obtain further understanding with regard to the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas. The microarray GSE23207 dataset, containing 16 pituitary adenoma samples from multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome-associated rats and 5 normal pituitary tissue samples, was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. The Linear Models for Microarray Data package was used to identify the differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) ...

  13. Altered anterior visual system development following early monocular enucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista R. Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The novel finding of an asymmetry in morphology of the anterior visual system following long-term survival from early monocular enucleation indicates altered postnatal visual development. Possible mechanisms behind this altered development include recruitment of deafferented cells by crossing nasal fibres and/or geniculate cell retention via feedback from primary visual cortex. These data highlight the importance of balanced binocular input during postnatal maturation for typical anterior visual system morphology.

  14. Pituitary and mammary growth hormone in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatti, Sofie Fatima Mareyam

    2006-01-01

    Several pathological (e.g. obesity and chronic hypercortisolism) and non-pathological (e.g. ageing) states in humans are characterized by a reduction in pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion. Chronic hypercortisolism in humans is also associated with an impaired GH response to various stimuli. Pit

  15. Pituitary diseases : long-term psychological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, pituitary adenomas can be appropriately treated, but patients continue to report impaired quality of life (QoL) despite long-term remission or cure. In patients with Cushing’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome or acromegaly, doctors should be aware of subtle cognitive impairments and the increa

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Pituitary Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is currently considered a major keystone of the diagnosis of diseases of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal region. However, the relatively small size of the pituitary gland, its location deep at the skull base and the numerous physiological variants present in this area impede the precise assessment of the anatomical structures and, particularly, of the pituitary gland itself. The diagnosis of the often tiny lesions of this region--such as pituitary microadenomas--is then difficult if the MRI technology is not optimized and if potential artifacts and traps are not recognized. Advanced MRI technology can not only depict small lesions with greater reliability, but also help in the differential diagnosis of large tumors. In these, defining the presence or absence of invasion is a particularly important task. This review describes and illustrates the radiological diagnosis of the different tumors of the sellar region, from the common prolactinomas, nonfunctioning adenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts, to the less frequent and more difficult to detect corticotroph pituitary adenomas in Cushing's disease, and other neoplastic and nonneoplastic entities. Finally, some hints are given to facilitate the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions. PMID:27003878

  17. Patient reported outcome in posttraumatic pituitary deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Marianne; Stochholm, Kirstine; Janukonyté, Jurgita;

    2015-01-01

    with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in relation to deficiencies identified upon pituitary assessment. DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study. Participants were Danish patients with a head trauma diagnosis recorded in the Danish Board of Health diagnostic code registry; 439...

  18. HYPONATREMIA AFTER TRANSSPHENIODAL SURGERY OF PITUITARY ADENOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶蔚; 任祖渊; 苏长保; 王任直; 杨义; 马文斌

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To clarify the frequency, presentation, associated factors, treatment and outcome of hy-ponatremia after transsphenoidal surgery of pituitary adenomas.Methods. Retrospectively reviewed the database of 183 patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgeryof pituitary adenomas between January 1999 and June 2000 in our department.Result.s. 38.8% (71/183) had postoperative hyponatremia. Among them, 59.2% (42/71) appeared onthe 4th to 7th day postoperatively. 59.2% (42/71) presented with nausea, vomiting, headache, dizzi-ness, confusion and weakness. Hyponatremia was related to age, tumor size and adenoma type, but notrelated to sex and degree of resection. Treatment consisted of salt replacement and mild fluid restrictionin 4 patients and salt and fluid replacement in 67 patients. Hyponatremia resolved within 16 days in allthe patients.Conclusions. Hyponatremia often appeared about 7 days after transsphenoidal surgery of pituitary ade-nomas, especially in elderly and patients with macroadenomas and huge pituitary adenomas. The principleof treatment was salt and fluid replacement.

  19. Molecular screening of pituitary adenomas for gene mutations and rearrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, V.; Drazin, N.Z.; Gonskey, R.; Melmed, S. (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Although pituitary tumors arise as benign monoclonal neoplasms, genetic alterations have not readily been identified in these adenomas. The authors studied restriction fragment abnormalities involving the GH gene locus, and mutations in the p53 and H-, K-, and N-ras genes in 22 human GH cell adenomas. Twenty two nonsecretory adenomas were also examined for p53 and ras gene mutations. Seven prolactinoma DNA samples were tested for deletions in the multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 (MEN-1) locus, as well as for rearrangements in the hst gene, a member of the fibroblast growth factor family. In DNA from GH-cell adenomas, identical GH restriction patterns were detected in both pituitary and lymphocyte DNA in all patients and in one patient with a mixed GH-TSH cell adenoma. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single stranded conformation polymorphism analysis, no mutations were detected in exons 5, 6, 7 and 8 of the p53 gene in GH cell adenomas nor in 22 nonsecretory adenomas. Codons 12/13 and 61 of H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras genes were also intact on GH cell adenomas and in nonsecretory adenomas. Site-specific probes for chromosome 11q13 including, PYGM, D11S146, and INT2 were used in 7 sporadic PRL-secreting adenomas to detect deletions of the MEN-1 locus on chromosome 11. One patient was identified with a loss of 11p, and the remaining 6 patients did not demonstrate loss of heterozygosity in the pituitary 11q13 locus, compared to lymphocyte DNA. None of these patients demonstrated hst gene rearrangements which also maps to this locus. These results show that p53 and ras gene mutations are not common events in the pathogenesis of acromegaly and nonsecretory tumors. Although hst gene rearrangements and deletions of 11q13 are not associated with sporadic PRl-cell adenoma formation, a single patient was detected with a partial loss of chromosome 11, including the putative MEN-1 site. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Health-related quality of life in pituitary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Iris; Valassi, Elena; Santos, Alicia; Webb, Susan M

    2015-03-01

    In the last 15 years, worse health-related quality of life (QoL) has been reported in patients with pituitary diseases compared with healthy individuals. Different QoL questionnaires have shown incomplete physical and psychological recovery after therapy. Residual impairments often affect QoL even long-term after successful treatment of pituitary adenomas. In this article, knowledge of factors that affect QoL in pituitary diseases is reviewed. The focus is on 5 pituitary diseases: Cushing syndrome, acromegaly, prolactinomas, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, and hypopituitarism.

  1. Purves symposium: 2. Pituitary morphology in relationship to function. General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, H D

    1974-12-25

    It was found that the recognition of the character of a pituitary cell depended on its content of granules. The term "chromophobe" indicated the absence of granules. In the rat pituitary, total thyroxine deficiency resulted in progressive loss of granules from acidophil cells until they became unrecognizable as such. Therefore, counting the cell types as acidophils, basophils, and chromophobes had no significance. However, changes in the apparent proportions of the 3 groups could be used to determine how much thyroxine was needed to reverse changes produced by thyroidectomy. Rats that had been given brassica seed diets developed goiters. In these rats, proliferation of basophil cells occurred. The amount of thyroxine needed to reverse thyroidectomy changes was the same in rats receiving a brassica seed diet as in those on a normal diet. This excluded the possibility of the brassica agent acting as a thyroxine antagonist or of its increasing the thyroxine requirement of the animal. The effect of thyroidectomy was modified by diet. When a diet contained no animal products, the acidophils lost their granules. When acidophil granules were lost, growth ceased. When aciodphil granules had been lost after thyroidectomy, daily doses of thyroxine restored the acidophils and caus ed growth to resume. In animals given potent goitrogens, small doses of thyroxine did not inhibit activation of the thyroid gland, but with larg er doses basophilic changes regressed and the thyroid became inactive. It is concluded that basophil changes were linked with the production of thyrotrophic hormone while acidophil changes which were regressive were related to the failure of growth hormone secretion. When only a single change in hormone production occurs and only a single cell type is modified in the pituitary, that cell type is considered to be the site of production of that particular hormone. By improved technique, it was shown that the basophil cells were of 2 types: "thymotrophs

  2. Effects of memantine alone and with acute 'binge' cocaine on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Yuferov, V P; Spangler, R; Maggos, C E; Ho, A; Kreek, M J

    1998-07-01

    The effects of memantine, a non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist used in the management of dementia, and its coadministration with acute 'binge' pattern cocaine on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity were investigated in the rat. Measurements 3 h after injections showed that memantine alone at 20 mg kg(-1) (i.p.), but not 10 mg kg(-1), increased corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA levels in the hypothalamus and both adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels in the blood, and decreased type I CRF receptor mRNA in the anterior pituitary. Our previous studies have shown that acute 'binge' cocaine increases CRF mRNA levels in the hypothalamus. In this study, pretreatment with memantine (10 and 20 mg kg(-1), i.p.) did not alter the up-regulation of hypothalamic CRF mRNA induced by acute 'binge' cocaine (3 x 15 mg kg(-1), i.p.). Of interest, pretreatment with memantine at 10 mg kg(-1), which alone had no effect on corticosterone levels, caused a greater elevation of corticosterone levels in combination with 'binge' cocaine than acute 'binge' cocaine alone, indicating that memantine does not attenuate 'binge' cocaine-stimulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. These results indicate that both memantine and acute 'binge' cocaine stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity by activating CRF neurons in the hypothalamus. PMID:9718269

  3. Identification of candidate genes for human pituitary development by EST analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Huasheng

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pituitary is a critical neuroendocrine gland that is comprised of five hormone-secreting cell types, which develops in tandem during the embryonic stage. Some essential genes have been identified in the early stage of adenohypophysial development, such as PITX1, FGF8, BMP4 and SF-1. However, it is likely that a large number of signaling molecules and transcription factors essential for determination and terminal differentiation of specific cell types remain unidentified. High-throughput methods such as microarray analysis may facilitate the measurement of gene transcriptional levels, while Expressed sequence tag (EST sequencing, an efficient method for gene discovery and expression level analysis, may no-redundantly help to understand gene expression patterns during development. Results A total of 9,271 ESTs were generated from both fetal and adult pituitaries, and assigned into 961 gene/EST clusters in fetal and 2,747 in adult pituitary by homology analysis. The transcription maps derived from these data indicated that developmentally relevant genes, such as Sox4, ST13 and ZNF185, were dominant in the cDNA library of fetal pituitary, while hormones and hormone-associated genes, such as GH1, GH2, POMC, LHβ, CHGA and CHGB, were dominant in adult pituitary. Furthermore, by using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, Sox4 was found to be one of the main transcription factors expressed in fetal pituitary for the first time. It was expressed at least at E12.5, but decreased after E17.5. In addition, 40 novel ESTs were identified specifically in this tissue. Conclusion The significant changes in gene expression in both tissues suggest a distinct and dynamic switch between embryonic and adult pituitaries. All these data along with Sox4 should be confirmed to further understand the community of multiple signaling pathways that act as a cooperative network that regulates maturation of the pituitary. It was also suggested that EST

  4. MRI evaluation of pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the MRI manifestations of the pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism and to improve the differential diagnosis of secondary pituitary hyperplasia and pituitary tumors. Methods: The MRI findings of pituitary hyperplasia in 10 documented primary hypothyroidism patients (male 3, female 7; age range: 9-15 years) were reviewed. The pulse sequences using a 1.0T MR scanner included coronal and sagittal T1W, coronal T2W and coronal contrast-enhanced T1W in all patients. Results: The pituitary gland was markedly enlarged with mean height of 15.5 mm (11-23 mm). Central bulging of pituitary gland was seen in all 10 patients with mild displacement of the infundibulum in 3 and sellar enlargement in 5. All glands had homogeneous MR signal intensities and contrast enhancement. Conclusion: Pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism has characteristic MR features of central bulging with homogeneous signal intensities and contrast enhancement. (authors)

  5. The interstitial nuclei of the human anterior hypothalamus: an investigation of sexual variation in volume and cell size, number and density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byne, W; Lasco, M S; Kemether, E; Shinwari, A; Edgar, M A; Morgello, S; Jones, L B; Tobet, S

    2000-02-21

    The four interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH) have been considered as candidate human nuclei for homology with the much studied sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area of the rat. Assessment of the INAH for sexual dimorphism has produced discrepant results. This study reports the first systematic examination of all four INAH in the human for sexual variation in volume, neuronal number and neuronal size. Serial Nissl-stained coronal sections through the medial preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus were examined from 18 males and 20 females who died between the ages of 17 and 65 without evidence of hypothalamic pathology or infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. A computer-assisted image-analysis system and commercial stereology software package were employed to assess total volume, neuronal number and mean neuronal size for each INAH. INAH3 occupied a significantly greater volume and contained significantly more neurons in males than in females. No sex differences in volume were detected for any of the other INAH. No sexual variation in neuronal size or packing density was observed in any nucleus. The present data corroborate two previous reports of sexual dimorphism of INAH3 but provide no support for previous reports of sexual variation in other INAH.

  6. Pathology of growth hormone-producing tumors of the human pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, K; Horvath, E

    1986-02-01

    This paper reviews the morphologic features of growth hormone-producing tumors of the human pituitary. These tumors are associated with elevated blood growth hormone levels and acromegaly or gigantism and can be classified into the following morphologically distinct entities by the combined application of histology, immunocytology, and electron microscopy: densely granulated growth hormone cell adenoma; sparsely granulated growth hormone cell adenoma; mixed growth hormone cell- prolactin cell-adenoma; acidophil stem cell adenoma; mammosomatotroph cell adenoma; growth hormone cell carcinoma; plurihormonal adenoma with growth hormone production. PMID:3303228

  7. Anterior hip pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, J W

    1999-10-15

    Anterior hip pain is a common complaint with many possible causes. Apophyseal avulsion and slipped capital femoral epiphysis should not be overlooked in adolescents. Muscle and tendon strains are common in adults. Subsequent to accurate diagnosis, strains should improve with rest and directed conservative treatment. Osteoarthritis, which is diagnosed radiographically, generally occurs in middle-aged and older adults. Arthritis in younger adults should prompt consideration of an inflammatory cause. A possible femoral neck stress fracture should be evaluated urgently to prevent the potentially significant complications associated with displacement. Patients with osteitis pubis should be educated about the natural history of the condition and should undergo physical therapy to correct abnormal pelvic mechanics. "Sports hernias," nerve entrapments and labral pathologic conditions should be considered in athletic adults with characteristic presentations and chronic symptoms. Surgical intervention may allow resumption of pain-free athletic activity. PMID:10537384

  8. Anterior segment dysgenesis in mosaic Turner syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, I; Haigh, P; Clayton-Smith, J.; Clayton, P.; Price, D.; Ridgway, A; Donnai, D

    1997-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Females with Turner syndrome commonly exhibit ophthalmological abnormalities, although there is little information in the literature documenting findings specific to Turner syndrome mosaics. Ophthalmic findings are described in four patients with mosaic Turner syndrome. All had anterior chamber abnormalities and all four had karyotypic abnormalities with a 45, X cell line. The possible relation between the karyotypic and the phenotypic findings in these patients is discussed.
...

  9. Pituitary disease in childhood: utility of magnetic resonance; Patologia hipofisaria en la edad pediatrica: unidad de la resonance magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, A. C.; Oleaga, L.; Ibanez, A. M.; Campo, M.; Grande, D. [Hospital de Basurto. Bilbao (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To assess the utility of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the study of pediatric patients with clinical suspicion of pituitary disease. We studied 18 patients aged 7 to 18 years.Fifteen had hormonal disturbances, two presented amenorrhea and 1 complained of headache, fever and symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia. All the patients were examined using a Siemens SP 42 1-Tesla MRI scanner. Sagittal and coronal T1-weighted spin-echo images were obtained; in addition T2-weighted spin-echo or fast spin-echo imaging was performed in ten cases and intravenous gadolinium was administered in nine. We found 9 patients with hypothalamic-pituitary dysgenesis, 2 with germinoma, 2 cases of pituitary hemosiderosis in patients with thalassemia, 2 cases of microadenoma, one abscess, one case of idiopathic central diabetes insipidus and one of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. MR enabled us to assess pituitary structural alterations in children with hypothalamic-pituitary hormone deficiencies. In our series of patients, hypothalamic-pituitary dysgenesiss was the most frequent cause of adenohypophyseal deficiencies, and most cases of central diabetes insipidus were secondary to masses in the sellar and suprasellar region. In patients with thalassemia, T2-weighted MR images showed the amount of iron deposited in adenophypophysis. Gadolinium-enhanced studies were useful in the study of masses and when the presence of microadenoma was suspected. (Author) 26 refs.

  10. Comparative studies on histological and ultra-structure of the pituitary of different ploidy level fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG; Yu; LIU; Shaojun; HUANG; Weiren; ZHANG; Jian; SUN; Yuandong; ZHANG; Chun; CHEN; Song; LIU; Jinghui; LIU; Yun

    2006-01-01

    The histological and ultra-structure of the pituitary in diploid red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.), triploid crucian carp and allotetraploid hybrids within and after the breeding season were comparatively studied. The result showed that there were six endocrine cell types in the pituitary of these three kinds of fishes, and there was an obvious difference in cell size among different ploidy level fishes. As for the same type of pituitary cells, the cell size was increased gradually with the increasing ploidy level. In the breeding season, the allotetraploid hybrids had higher proportion of gonadotropin cells (GTH) than triploids, and the triploids had higher proportion of GTH than diploids. The results were related to the earlier sexual maturity of allotetraploid hybrids and sterility of triploid cruclan carp. On the other hand, among the three kinds of fishes, the proportion of somatotropin (STH)cells in triploids crucian carp was the highest, whereas that in allotetraploid hybrids was the lowest.The results might be connected with the faster growth rate of triploids and slower growth rate of allotetraploid hybrids. In addition, in GTH cells of meso-adenohypophysis after the breeding season,there were many endocrine particles in triploids, while those endocrine particles were released from the cells in allotetraploids and diploids. This result showed that the sterility of triploid crucian carp might be related to the hormone which was not released from the GTH cells. In a word, the present study indicated that the differences in the structure of pituitary among different ploidy level fishes contributed to their difference in the growth rate and gonadal development.

  11. Magnocellular hypothalamic system and its interaction with the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivukhina, Elena V; Jirikowski, Gustav F

    2016-07-01

    The hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis and in regulation of numerous adaptive reactions, e.g., endocrine stress response. Nonapeptides vasopressin and oxytocin are the major hormones of this system. They are synthesized by magnocellular neurons of the paraventricular and supraoptic hypothalamic nuclei. Magnocellular vasopressin is known to be one of the main physiological regulators of water-electrolyte balance. Its importance for control of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis has been widely described. Magnocellular oxytocin is secreted predominantly during lactation and parturition. The complex actions of oxytocin within the brain include control of reproductive behavior and its involvement in central stress response to different stimuli. It's neuroendocrine basis is activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis: corticotropin-releasing hormone is synthesized in parvocellular neurons of the paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei. The transitory coexpression of vasopressin in these cells upon stress has been described. Glucocorticoids, the end products of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis have both central and peripheral actions. Their availability to target tissues is mainly dependent on systemic levels of corticosteroid-binding globulin. Intrinsic expression of this protein in different brain regions in neurons and glial cells has been recently demonstrated. Regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system is highly complex. The role of both systems in the pathogenesis of various chronic ailments in humans has extensively been studied. Their disturbed functioning seems to be linked to various psychiatric, autoimmune and cardiovascular pathologies. PMID:26827626

  12. Childhood feedback pituitary tumor-like proliferation caused by primary hypothyroidism : a case report%儿童原发性甲状腺功能减退继发垂体反馈性瘤样增生1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪霞; 黄建勇

    2013-01-01

    Feedback pituitary tumor hyperplasia refers to the corresponding pituitary hormone cell hyperpla-sia and pituitary augmentation caused by the primary hypofunction of target gland. The incidence of feedback pituitary tumor-like proliferation caused by primary hypothyroidism is the highest,accounting for 33. 3% of all feedback tumor. Children are rare,but due to the involvement of growth and development,and easily misdiagnosed as pituitary adenomas. However,the clinical treatment of the two principles are completely different from each other. This article will report a case of feedback Pituitary tumor-like proliferation. Caused by primary hypothyroidism in recent years in our hospital. The clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, imaging features, diagnosis and treatment and prognosis of this case will be demonstrated in the report.

  13. An essential regulatory role for macrophage migration inhibitory factor in T-cell activation.

    OpenAIRE

    Bacher, M; Metz, C N; Calandra, T; Mayer, K.; Chesney, J.; Lohoff, M.; Gemsa, D.; Donnelly, T.; Bucala, R

    1996-01-01

    The protein known as macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was one of the first cytokines to be discovered and was described 30 years ago to be a T-cell-derived factor that inhibited the random migration of macrophages in vitro. A much broader role for MIF has emerged recently as a result of studies that have demonstrated it to be released from the anterior pituitary gland in vivo. MIF also is the first protein that has been identified to be secreted from monocytes/macrophages upon glu...

  14. Prenatal immune challenge alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in adult rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Reul, J M; Stec, I; Wiegers, G J; Labeur, M S; Linthorst, A C; Arzt, E; Holsboer, F

    1994-01-01

    We investigated whether non-abortive maternal infections would compromise fetal brain development and alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning when adult. To study putative teratogenic effects of a T cell-mediated immune response versus an endotoxic challenge, 10-d-pregnant rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of 5 x 10(8) human red blood cells (HRBC) or gram-negative bacterial endotoxin (Escherichia coli LPS: 30 micrograms/kg). The adult male progeny (3 ...

  15. Preoperative volume determination for pituitary adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukic, Dženan; Egger, Jan; Bauer, Miriam H. A.; Kuhnt, Daniela; Carl, Barbara; Freisleben, Bernd; Kolb, Andreas; Nimsky, Christopher

    2011-03-01

    The most common sellar lesion is the pituitary adenoma, and sellar tumors are approximately 10-15% of all intracranial neoplasms. Manual slice-by-slice segmentation takes quite some time that can be reduced by using the appropriate algorithms. In this contribution, we present a segmentation method for pituitary adenoma. The method is based on an algorithm that we have applied recently to segmenting glioblastoma multiforme. A modification of this scheme is used for adenoma segmentation that is much harder to perform, due to lack of contrast-enhanced boundaries. In our experimental evaluation, neurosurgeons performed manual slice-by-slice segmentation of ten magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cases. The segmentations were compared to the segmentation results of the proposed method using the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). The average DSC for all datasets was 75.92%+/-7.24%. A manual segmentation took about four minutes and our algorithm required about one second.

  16. Progression of an Invasive ACTH Pituitary Macroadenoma with Cushing’s Disease to Pituitary Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Groberio Borba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary carcinomas are very rare tumors that in most cases produce prolactin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH. It is a challenge to diagnosis of a pituitary carcinoma before disclosed symptomatic metastasis. We report the case of a female patient with Cushing’s disease who underwent three transsphenoidal surgeries, with pathological findings of common ACTH pituitary adenoma including Ki-67 expression <3%. She achieved hypocortisolism after the 3rd surgery although ACTH levels remained slightly elevated. The patient returned some time later with fast worsening of hypercortisolism. Magnetic resonance imaging showed clivus invasion, which led to a fourth surgery and radiation. This time, immunohistochemistry revealed strong Ki-67 (10% to 15% and p53 expression. Liver and lumbar spine metastases were found on workup. The patient died after few months due to lung infection. Pituitary carcinomas are rare, and the transformation of an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma into a carcinoma is exceptional. The difficulty of defining markers for the diagnosis of carcinoma, before metastasis diagnosis, in order to change the management of the disease, is a challenge.

  17. Effects of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) and Dopamine on Gonadotropin(GTH) Secretion from in vitro Pituitary Cells of Rainbow Trout%促性