WorldWideScience

Sample records for anterior pituitary cells

  1. Prokaryotic adenylate cyclase toxin stimulates anterior pituitary cells in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin, M.J.; Evans, W.S.; Rogol, A.D.; Weiss, A.A.; Thorner, M.O.; Orth, D.N.; Nicholson, W.E.; Yasumoto, T.; Hewlett, E.L.

    1986-08-01

    Bordetella pertussis synthesis a variety of virulence factors including a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase (AC) toxin. Treatment of anterior pituitary cells with this AC toxin resulted in an increase in cellular cAMP levels that was associated with accelerated exocytosis of growth hormone (GH), prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The kinetics of release of these hormones, however, were markedly different; GH and prolactin were rapidly released, while LH and ACTH secretion was more gradually elevated. Neither dopamine agonists nor somatostatin changes the ability of AC toxin to generate cAMP (up to 2 h). Low concentrations of AC toxin amplified the secretory response to hypophysiotrophic hormones. The authors conclude that bacterial AC toxin can rapidly elevate cAMP levels in anterior pituitary cells and that it is the response that explains the subsequent acceleration of hormone release.

  2. Substance P enhances the proliferation of rat anterior pituitary cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The undecapeptide substanceP(SP) was shown to be intimately involved in both the structural and functional aspects of the anterior pituitary.Yet,in addition to its influences on hormonal secretion,SP may well possess more actions in this master gland.The present study was ftherefore aimed to investigate the effect of SP on the proliferation of rat anterior pituitary cells in primary culture,It was found that SP could dose-dependently increase the incorporation of tritiated thymidine(3H-TdR) into cultured anterior pituitary cells.Other mammalian tachykinins such as neurokinin A and neurokinin B had similar effect but to varying degrees.The equipotent analogue of SP,Norleucine11-SP(Nle11-SP),also acted likewise.with its action antagonizable by spantide,a SP receptor blocker.To further characterize the nature of cells responsive to the challenge of SP,immunocytochemical staining against S-100 protein and some adenohypophyseal hormones was performed alone or plus autoradiography.The results showed that the percentage of S-100 proteinimmunorective cells was apparently elevated by the addtion of Nle11-Sp for 48h,which indicates a preferential proliferation of folliculo-stellate cells under the regime .This was confirmed by increases in immunocytochemical or autoradiographical labelling indices of anterior pituitary Substance P and anterior pituitary cell proliferation.Cells treated similarly.Taken together,These results reveal that the trophic action of SP observed previously in other tissues is also present at least in cultured rat anterior pituitary cells.with responding cells being predominantly folliculo-stellate cells as typified by S-100 proteinimmunoreactivity.Therefore,an intra-pituitary trophicaction of SP in vivo could be anticipated.

  3. Specific in vitro uptake of serotonin by cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, M.A.; Azmitia, E.C.; Krieger, D.T.

    1982-03-01

    In vivo studies have suggested that serotonin (5HT) influences anterior pituitary function at the hypothalamic level. The present in vitro study investigated the possibility that 5HT may act directly on the anterior pituitary. The high affinity uptake of (3H)5HT into adult rat anterior pituitary tissue was examined in two types of experiments. 1) To test the specificity and saturability of uptake of 5HT in the anterior pituitary, pituitary tissue was incubated (37 C) with (3H)5HT (10(-8)-10(-6) M) in the presence and absence of excess (10(-5) M) unlabeled 5HT, norepinephrine, fluoxetine (FLUOX), metergoline, or cyproheptadine. A Hofstee analysis of the specific uptake of (3H)5HT gave an apparent Km value of 4.23 x 10(-7) M and a Vmax of 1576 pmol/g/10 min (3H)5HT. The total uptake of (3H)5HT was not altered by norepinephrine or metergoline, but was significantly reduced (P less than 0.01-0.001) by FLUOX and cyproheptadine. Uptake was shown to be temperature and sodium dependent and not directly dependent on energy derived from glycolysis or aerobic metabolism. 2) To study the site of uptake of 5 HT in the anterior pituitary, in concomitant radioautographic experiments, tissue was incubated with (3H)5HT with and without excess 5HT or FLUOX. Three patterns of silver grain distribution were observed: 1) nonrandom concentrations over select anterior pituitary cells near blood vessels, 2) heavy aggregates of silver grains usually associated with blood vessels, and 3) a seemingly random dispersal of grains over pituitary tissue. Tissue incubated with (3H)5HT alone contained 10% heavily labeled cells, 32% moderately labeled cells, and 58% weakly labeled cells. In contrast, no heavily labeled cells were seen when tissue was incubated with either excess 5HT or FLUOX in addition to (3H)5HT. Our findings of saturable and specific high affinity uptake of (3H)5HT into a subgroup of anterior pituitary cells suggest a direct pituitary action of 5HT.

  4. Uptake of triiodothyroacetic acid and its effect on thyrotropin secretion in cultured anterior pituitary cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Everts (Maria); T.J. Visser (Theo); E.P.C.M. Moerings (Ellis); R. Docter (Roel); H. van Toor (Hans); A.M. Tempelaars; E.P. Krenning (Eric); G. Hennemann; M. de Jong (Marion)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe uptake of [125I]triiodothyroacetic acid ([125I]Triac) in anterior pituitary cells was investigated and compared with that of [125I]T3. Furthermore, the effects of Triac, T3, and T4 on TSH release were compared. Cells isolated from adult male Wistar rats

  5. High-Cholesterol Diet Disrupts the Levels of Hormones Derived from Anterior Pituitary Basophilic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Zhang, X; Liu, Z; Yuan, Z; Song, Y; Shao, S; Zhou, X; Yan, H; Guan, Q; Gao, L; Zhang, H; Zhao, J

    2016-03-01

    Emerging evidence shows that elevated cholesterol levels are detrimental to health. However, it is unclear whether there is an association between cholesterol and the pituitary. We investigated the effects of a high-cholesterol diet on pituitary hormones using in vivo animal studies and an epidemiological study. In the animal experiments, rats were fed a high-cholesterol or control diet for 28 weeks. In rats fed the high-cholesterol diet, serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; also known as thyrotrophin), luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) produced by the basophilic cells of the anterior pituitary were elevated in a time-dependent manner. Among these hormones, TSH was the first to undergo a significant change, whereas adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), another hormone produced by basophilic cells, was not changed significantly. As the duration of cholesterol feeding increased, cholesterol deposition increased gradually in the pituitary. Histologically, basophilic cells, and especially thyrotrophs and gonadotrophs, showed an obvious increase in cell area, as well as a potential increase in their proportion of total pituitary cells. Expression of the β-subunit of TSH, FSH and LH, which controls hormone specificity and activity, exhibited a corresponding increase. In the epidemiological study, we found a similar elevation of serum TSH, LH and FSH and a decrease in ACTH in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Significant positive correlations existed between serum total cholesterol and TSH, FSH or LH, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that the high-cholesterol diet affected the levels of hormones derived from anterior pituitary basophilic cells. This phenomenon might contribute to the pituitary functional disturbances described in hypercholesterolaemia.

  6. Expression of the cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-2 in developing rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Syaidah, Rahimi; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Ramadhani, Dini; Jindatip, Depicha; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    In the anterior pituitary gland, folliculo-stellate cells and five types of hormone-producing cells are surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM) essential for these cells to perform their respective roles. Syndecans-type I transmembrane cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans act as major ECM coreceptors via their respective heparan sulfate chains and efficiently transduce intracellular signals through the convergent action of their transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. The syndecans comprise four family members in vertebrates: syndecan-1, -2, -3 and -4. However, whether syndecans are produced in the pituitary gland or whether they have a role as a coreceptor is not known. We therefore used (1) reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction to analyze the expression of syndecan genes and (2) immunohistochemical techniques to identify the cells that produce the syndecans in the anterior pituitary gland of adult rat. Syndecan-2 mRNA expression was clearly detected in the corticotropes of the anterior pituitary gland. Moreover, the expression of syndecan-2 in the developing pituitary gland had a distinct temporospatial pattern. To identify the cells expressing syndecan-2 in the developing pituitary gland, we used double-immunohistochemistry for syndecan-2 and the cell markers E-cadherin (immature cells) and Ki-67 (proliferating cells). Some E-cadherin- and Ki-67-immunopositive cells expressed syndecan-2. Therefore, syndecan-2 expression occurs in developmentally regulated patterns and syndecan-2 probably has different roles in adult and developing anterior pituitary glands.

  7. A SELF-PRIMING EFFECT OF LHRH ON LH SECRETION IN DISPERSED ANTERIOR PITUITARY CELLS OF ADULT MALE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUZhi-Chao; GUOJing; GUOJian

    1989-01-01

    LHRH self-priming effect is simply defmed as an enhancement of LH response to LHRH, i. e., a second challenge with LHRH elicits more LH secretion as compared to the first challenge. The present study is to observe whether this phenomenon exists in perfused anterior pituitary (AP) cells of adult male rat. Dispersed AP cells of adult SD

  8. Isolation of dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Yoshida, Saishu; Higuchi, Masashi; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kanno, Naoko; Yashiro, Takashi; Tateno, Kozue; Osako, Shunji; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2014-07-01

    S100β-protein-positive cells in the anterior pituitary gland appear to possess multifunctional properties. Because of their pleiotropic features, S100β-positive cells are assumed to be of a heterogeneous or even a non-pituitary origin. The observation of various markers has allowed these cells to be classified into populations such as stem/progenitor cells, epithelial cells, astrocytes and dendritic cells. The isolation and characterization of each heterogeneous population is a prerequisite for clarifying the functional character and origin of the cells. We attempt to isolate two of the subpopulations of S100β-positive cells from the anterior lobe. First, from transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the S100β protein promoter, we fractionate GFP-positive cells with a cell sorter and culture them so that they can interact with laminin, a component of the extracellular matrix. We observe that one morphological type of GFP-positive cells possesses extended cytoplasmic processes and shows high adhesiveness to laminin (process type), whereas the other is round in shape and exhibits low adherence to laminin (round type). We successfully isolate cells of the round type from the cultured GFP-positive cells by taking advantage of their low affinity to laminin and then measure mRNA levels of the two cell types by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The resultant data show that the process type expresses vimentin (mesenchymal cell marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte marker). The round type expresses dendritic cell markers, CD11b and interleukin-6. Thus, we found a method for isolating dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells by means of their property of adhering to laminin.

  9. Laminin in the anterior pituitary gland of the rat. Laminin in the gonadotrophic cells correlates with their functional state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Albrechtsen, R; Wewer, U M

    1987-01-01

    The distribution pattern of laminin in the rat anterior pituitary gland under physiological and hormonally altered conditions was studied immunohistochemically. Intense immunoreactivity of the capillaries and of the basement membranes surrounding parenchymal cells was found. Five to 10% of the pa......The distribution pattern of laminin in the rat anterior pituitary gland under physiological and hormonally altered conditions was studied immunohistochemically. Intense immunoreactivity of the capillaries and of the basement membranes surrounding parenchymal cells was found. Five to 10...... laminin and tubulin. After treatment with estrogen, which is known to suppress the function of the gonadotrophic cells, virtually no cytoplasmic laminin was found. Ultrastructurally, the number of light bodies in the gonadotrophic cells diminished significantly, from approximately 3 to 8 per cell to 0...... to 1 per cell in a given section. In contrast, after castration, the number of laminin positive cells increased to a number above that found in the normal adult male rat, and the number of light bodies increased two to four times. Based on these results, it appears that the presence of cytoplasmic...

  10. Functional differentiation of the anterior pituitary cells in the fetal pig. An ultrastructural immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacheux, F

    1984-01-01

    The fetal porcine pituitary was investigated by means of ultrastructural immunocytochemistry (1) to identify the first cells synthesizing the adenohypophyseal hormones, (2) to follow their differentiation during fetal development, and (3) to compare their ultrastructural characteristics with those of mature adult cells. The first ACTH-cells, which produced and stored ACTH, beta-LPH, beta-MSH, and alpha- and beta-endorphin in the same granules, were very numerous at day 34 and displayed a uniform morphology. At day 50 and thereafter, until the end of gestation, the ACTH-cells differed in their appearance probably reflecting various stages of differentiation of one cell type. The GH-cells gained rapidly ultrastructural features comparable to those of mature GH-cells. In contrast, in the case of PRL-cells, which appeared only at the end of the gestation period as immature elements containing very small secretory granules, the morphological maturation seemed to take place only after birth. The first cells synthesizing the glycoprotein hormones (LH alpha, LH beta, FSH and TSH) displayed ultrastructural features of immature cells. At day 50, their ultrastructural organization started to show a different pattern. At the end of gestation, the TSH-cells and the gonadotropic cells displayed the ultrastructural features of mature cells.

  11. Notch signaling-mediated cell-to-cell interaction is dependent on E-cadherin adhesion in adult rat anterior pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchuluun, Khongorzul; Azuma, Morio; Yashiro, Takashi; Kikuchi, Motoshi

    2016-12-10

    The rat anterior pituitary is composed of hormone-producing cells, non-hormone-producing cells (referred to as folliculostellate cells) and marginal layer cells. In the adult rat, progenitor cells of hormone-producing cells have recently been reported to be maintained within this non-hormone-producing cell population. In tissue, non-hormone-producing cells construct homophilic cell aggregates by the differential expression of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin. We have previously shown that Notch signaling, a known regulator of progenitor cells in a number of organs, is activated in the cell aggregates. We now investigate the relationship between Notch signaling and E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion in the pituitary gland. Immunohistochemically, Notch signaling receptor Notch2 and the ligand Jagged1 were localized within E-cadherin-positive cells in the marginal cell layer and in the main part of the anterior lobe, whereas Notch1 was localized in E-cadherin-positive and -negative cells. Activation of Notch signaling within E-cadherin-positive cells was confirmed by immunostaining of the Notch target HES1. Notch2 and Jagged1 were always co-localized within the same cells suggesting that homologous cells have reciprocal effects in activating Notch signaling. When the E-cadherin function was inhibited by exposure to a monoclonal antibody (DECMA-1) in primary monolayer cell culture, the percentage of HES1-positive cells among Notch2-positive cells was less than half that of the control. The present results suggest that E-cadherin-mediated cell attachment is necessary for the activation of Notch signaling in the anterior pituitary gland but not for the expression of the Notch2 molecule.

  12. Effects of retinoic acid on growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene expression and growth hormone secretion in rat anterior pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliza, Rita; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Azuma, Morio; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2016-06-30

    Retinoic acid (RA) is an important signaling molecule in embryonic development and adult tissue. The actions of RA are mediated by the nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), which regulate gene expression. RAR and RXR are widely expressed in the anterior pituitary gland. RA was reported to stimulate growth hormone (GH) gene expression in the anterior pituitary cells. However, current evidence is unclear on the role of RA in gene expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (Ghrh-r), growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghs-r) and somatostatin receptors (Sst-rs). Using isolated anterior pituitary cells of rats, we examined the effects of RA on gene expression of these receptors and GH release. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA; 10(-6) M) for 24 h increased gene expression levels of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r; however, expressions of Sst-r2 and Sst-r5 were unchanged. Combination treatment with the RAR-agonist Am80 and RXR-agonist PA024 mimicked the effects of ATRA on Ghrh-r and Ghs-r gene expressions. Exposure of isolated pituitary cells to ATRA had no effect on basal GH release. In contrast, ATRA increased growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)- and ghrelin-stimulated GH release from cultured anterior pituitary cells. Our results suggest that expressions of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r are regulated by RA through the RAR-RXR receptor complex and that RA enhances the effects of GHRH and ghrelin on GH release from the anterior pituitary gland.

  13. Influence of leptin on luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone secreted from cultured rat anterior pituitary cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuebing Qiao; Xiuyan Ma; Huixian Cui

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leptin may regulate reproductive function via release of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y. However, it is unknown whether this regulatory effect is limited to the hypothalamus. OBJECTIVE: To detect the effect of different dosages of leptin on luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion from in vitro cultured rat anterior pituitary cells. DESIGN: Contrast study based on cells. SETTING: This study was performed in the Basic Institute of Chengde Medical College, Chengde City, Hebei Province, China from March to June 2007. MATERIALS: Eighteen female Wistar rats of three months of age, weighing 200-220 g, and of clean grade were used. Leptin was provided by Peprotech Company, DMEM culture medium by Invitrogen Company, and the radioimmunological kit by Beijing Zhongshan Jinqiao Biotechnology Co., Ltd. METHODS: Three glandular organs were regarded as one group for culture of anterior pituitary cells. In the control group, saline was added to the culture medium instead of leptin. In the leptin group, leptin was prepared into different concentrations of 1×10-12, 1×10-11, 1×10-9, 1×10-7, and 1×10-6 mol/L for stimulation of cultured cells. The culture supernatant was obtained at three hours after additional of saline/leptin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Contents of LH and FSH were detected by radioimmunology. RESULTS: Following leptin stimulation, LH release increased with increasing concentrations of leptin up to 1×10-9 mol/L, where LH release peaked. LH release then progressively decreased with increasing leptin concentrations (P<0.01). LH release in the leptin (1×10-12, 1×10-11, 1×10-7, and 1×10-6 mol/L) groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). FSH content in the leptin (1×10-11, 1×10-9, and 1×10-7 mol/L) groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Leptin can directly affect pituitary tissue to promote the secretion of LH and FSH in a dose-dependent manner.

  14. Dexamethasone increases growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GRH) receptor mRNA levels in cultured rat anterior pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, M; Sato, M; Matsubara, S; Wada, Y; Takahara, J

    1996-06-01

    To examine the effects of glucocorticoid (GC) on growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GRH) receptor gene expression, a highly-sensitive and quantitative reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was used in this study. Rat anterior pituitary cells were isolated and cultured for 4 days. The cultured cells were treated with dexamethasone for 2, 6, and 24 h. GRH receptor mRNA levels were determined by competitive RT-PCR using a recombinant RNA as the competitor. Dexamethasone significantly increased GRH receptor mRNA levels at 5 nM after 6- and 24 h-incubations, and the maximal effect was found at 25 nM. The GC receptor-specific antagonist, RU 38486 completely eliminated the dexamethasone-induced enhancement of GRH receptor mRNA levels. Dexamethasone did not alter the mRNA levels of beta-actin and prolactin at 5 nM for 24 h, whereas GH mRNA levels were significantly increased by the same treatment. The GH response to GRH was significantly enhanced by the 24-h incubation with 5 nM dexamethasone. These findings suggest that GC stimulates GRH receptor gene expression through the ligand-activated GC receptors in the rat somatotrophs. The direct effects of GC on the GRH receptor gene could explain the enhancement of GRH-induced GH secretion.

  15. Cell-specific expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis in the anterior pituitary of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroba, Ana I; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso M; Frago, Laura M; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2007-01-01

    Cell death is increased in the anterior pituitary of poorly controlled diabetic rats, but anti-apoptotic mechanisms are also activated. We hypothesized that specific cell types are selectively protected against diabetes-induced cell death. To determine when anti-apoptotic mechanisms are activated, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were killed after 1, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of evolution. Anterior pituitaries were processed for western blot analysis to determine changes in the intrinsic cell death pathway and upstream kinases involved in cell protection mechanisms. An increase in cell death was detected by ELISA at 4 weeks of diabetes. TUNEL labelling demonstrated that this corresponded to death of primarily lactotrophs, a few somatotrophs, and no thyrotrophs, corticotrophs or gonadotrophs. Levels of phosphorylated (p) Akt were increased at 1 week of diabetes, while pERK1/2 levels increased at 4 weeks and pJNK at 6 weeks. Activation of caspase 3 decreased and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 protein family increased as early as 1 week after diabetes onset. These changes were coincident with increased IGF-I receptor levels. Levels of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) increased significantly after 6 weeks of diabetes, as did activation of nuclear factor (NF)kappaB. Double immunohistochemistry indicated that XIAP was expressed in less than 1% of lactotrophs and gonadotrophs, approximately 50% of somatotrophs and more than 90% of corticotrophs and thyrotrophs. These results suggest that some cell survival mechanisms are rapidly activated in the anterior pituitary, even before increased cell death can be detected, while others are more delayed. Furthermore, both pituitary cell death and expression of protective mechanisms such as XIAP are cell-type specific.

  16. Increase of S-100 protein-positive stellate cells in the anterior pituitary of chronic alcoholic patients with fatty liver or fatty cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa T

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Healthy subjects 40 years old were used as controls in a study of stellate cells (S-100 protein-containing cells, or S-100 cells in subjects with chronic alcoholism and fatty liver or fatty cirrhosis. S-100 cells were sparsely found in the adenohypophysis of control subjects, and these cells sometimes formed small clusters. However, in chronic alcoholics with fatty liver or fatty cirrhosis, the number of stellate cells in the anterior pituitary tended to be 17 times higher than it was in the control group. No increase in the number of S-100 positive cells that constitute the large and small follicles in the intermediate pituitary. The physiological function of the S-100 protein has not yet been identified. The fact that an increase in prolactin-secreting and growth hormone-secreting cells, as well as a decrease in gonadotrophs were observed in the hypophysis of alcoholics suggests that the function of stellate cells may be closely related to these phenomena. Our results also imply that the stellate cells found in the anterior and intermediate pituitary differ in function although they both produce S-100 proteins.

  17. Effects of caffeine on intracellular calcium, calcium current and calcium-dependent potassium current in anterior pituitary GH3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R H; Mokkapatti, R; Levitan, E S

    1994-01-01

    Caffeine elicits physiological responses in a variety of cell types by triggering the mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular organelles. Here we investigate the effects of caffeine on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and ionic currents in anterior pituitary cells (GH3) cells. Caffeine has a biphasic effect on Ca(2+)-activated K+ current [IK(Ca)]: it induces a transient increase superimposed upon a sustained inhibition. While the transient increase coincides with a rise in [Ca2+]i, the sustained inhibition of IK(Ca) is correlated with a sustained inhibition of the L-type Ca2+ current. The L-type Ca2+ current is also inhibited by other agents that mobilize intracellular Ca2+, including thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and ryanodine, but in a matter distinct from caffeine. Unlike the caffeine effect, the TRH-induced inhibition "washes-out" under whole-cell patch-clamp conditions and is eliminated by intracellular Ca2+ chelators. Likewise, the ryanodine-induced inhibition desensitizes while the caffeine-induced inhibition does not. Simultaneous [Ca2+]i and Ca2+ current measurements show that caffeine can inhibit Ca2+ current without changing [Ca2+]i. Single-channel recordings show that caffeine reduces mean open time without affecting single-channel conductance of L-type channels. Hence the effects of caffeine on ion channels in GH3 cells are attributable both to mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ and to a direct effect on the gating of L-type Ca2+ channels.

  18. Opposite effects of dihydrotestosterone and estradiol on apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland from male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, María Laura; Gottardo, María Florencia; Zárate, Sandra; Eijo, Guadalupe; Ferraris, Jimena; Jaita, Gabriela; Ayala, Mariela Moreno; Candolfi, Marianela; Pisera, Daniel; Seilicovich, Adriana

    2016-03-01

    Hormones locally synthesized in the anterior pituitary gland are involved in regulation of pituitary cell renewal. In the pituitary, testosterone (T) may exert its actions per se or by conversion to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or 17β-estradiol (E2) by 5α-reductase and aromatase activity, which are expressed in this gland. Previous reports from our laboratory showed that estrogens modulate apoptosis of lactotropes and somatotropes from female rats. Now, we examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of gonadal steroids on apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells from adult male rats. T in vitro did not modify apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells from gonadectomized (GNX) male rats. DHT, a non-aromatizable androgen, exerted direct antiapoptotic action on total anterior pituitary cells and folliculo-stellate cells, but not on lactotropes, somatotropes, or gonadotropes. On the contrary, E2 exerted a rapid apoptotic effect on total cells as well as on lactotropes and somatotropes. Incubation of anterior pituitary cells with T in presence of Finasteride, an inhibitor of 5α-reductase, increased the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells. In vivo administration of DHT to GNX rats reduced apoptosis in the anterior pituitary whereas E2 exerted proapoptotic action and reduced cells in G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. In summary, our results indicate that DHT and E2 have opposite effects on apoptosis in the anterior pituitary gland suggesting that local metabolization of T to these steroids could be involved in pituitary cell turnover in males. Changes in expression and/or activity of 5α-reductase and aromatase may play a role in the development of anterior pituitary tumors.

  19. Expression of chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in folliculostellate (FS) cells of the rat anterior pituitary gland: the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis induces interconnection of FS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Ilmiawati, Cimi; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2012-04-01

    The anterior pituitary gland is composed of five types of hormone-producing cells plus folliculostellate (FS) cells, which do not produce classical anterior pituitary hormones. FS cells are interconnected by cytoplasmic processes and encircle hormone-producing cells or aggregate homophilically. Using living-cell imaging of primary culture, we recently reported that some FS cells precisely extend their cytoplasmic processes toward other FS cells and form interconnections with them. These phenomena suggest the presence of a chemoattractant factor that facilitates the interconnection. In this study, we attempted to discover the factor that induces interconnection of FS cells and succeeded in identifying chemokine (CXC)-L12 and its receptor CXCR4 as potential candidate molecules. CXCL12 is a chemokine of the CXC subfamily. It exerts its effects via CXCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is a potent chemoattractant for many types of neural cells. First, we revealed that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are expressed by FS cells in rat anterior pituitary gland. Next, to clarify the function of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in FS cells, we observed living anterior pituitary cells in primary culture with specific CXCL12 inhibitor or CXCR4 antagonist and noted that extension of cytoplasmic processes and interconnection of FS cells were inhibited. Finally, we examined FS cell migration and invasion by using Matrigel matrix assays. CXCL12 treatment resulted in markedly increased FS cell migration and invasion. These data suggest that FS cells express chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 and that the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis evokes interconnection of FS cells.

  20. Hydropic degeneration of the anterior pituitary gland (adenohypophysis) in uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Seymour; Saltzman, Arthur

    2004-03-01

    We observed hydropic degeneration of the anterior pituitary in rats made uremic by nephrotoxic chemicals, especially when the uremic rats were given a pure carbohydrate diet beforehand. The hydropic degeneration caused loss of nuclear and cytoplasmic content of many or most anterior pituitary cells. It was readily visible in paraffin sections by light microscopy. It was exaggerated when water was injected after the nephrotoxin and it was greatly reduced if saline was injected after the nephrotoxin. Low serum sodium levels in affected rats and the response to saline injection suggested that the mechanism for development of hydropic degeneration of the anterior pituitary gland involved hyponatremia. Depletion of total body sodium probably accounts for the enhancement of hydropic degeneration by the pure carbohydrate diet. Morphologic lesions of the anterior pituitary related to hyponatremia and uremia have not been described previously.

  1. Blood, pituitary, and brain renin-angiotensin systems and regulation of secretion of anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1993-07-01

    In addition to increasing blood pressure, stimulating aldosterone and vasopressin secretion, and increasing water intake, angiotensin II affects the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. Some of these effects are direct. There are angiotensin II receptors on lactotropes and corticotropes in rats, and there may be receptors on thyrotropes and other secretory cells. Circulating angiotensin II reaches these receptors, but angiotensin II is almost certainly generated locally by the pituitary renin-angiotensin system as well. There are also indirect effects produced by the effects of brain angiotensin II on the secretion of hypophyseotropic hormones. In the anterior pituitary of the rat, the gonadotropes contain renin, angiotensin II, and some angiotensin-converting enzyme. There is debate about whether these cells also contain small amounts of angiotensinogen, but most of the angiotensinogen is produced by a separate population of cells and appears to pass in a paracrine fashion to the gonadotropes. An analogous situation exists in the brain. Neurons contain angiotensin II and probably renin, but most angiotensin-converting enzyme is located elsewhere and angiotensinogen is primarily if not solely produced by astrocytes. Angiotensin II causes secretion of prolactin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) when added to pituitary cells in vitro. Paracrine regulation of prolactin secretion by angiotensin II from the gonadotropes may occur in vitro under certain circumstances, but the effects of peripheral angiotensin II on ACTH secretion appear to be mediated via the brain and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). In the brain, there is good evidence that locally generated angiotensin II causes release of norepinephrine that in turn stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone-secreting neurons, increasing circulating luteinizing hormone. In addition, there is evidence that angiotensin II acts in the arcuate nuclei to increase the secretion of dopamine into the portal

  2. Short-Chain Fatty Acids Inhibit Growth Hormone and Prolactin Gene Transcription via cAMP/PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway in Dairy Cow Anterior Pituitary Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Fa Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs play a key role in altering carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, influence endocrine pancreas activity, and as a precursor of ruminant milk fat. However, the effect and detailed mechanisms by which SCFAs mediate bovine growth hormone (GH and prolactin (PRL gene transcription remain unclear. In this study, we detected the effects of SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate on the activity of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway, GH, PRL, and Pit-1 gene transcription in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells (DCAPCs. The results showed that SCFAs decreased intracellular cAMP levels and a subsequent reduction in PKA activity. Inhibition of PKA activity decreased CREB phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription. Furthermore, PTX blocked SCFAs- inhibited cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. These data showed that the inhibition of GH and PRL gene transcription induced by SCFAs is mediated by Gi activation and that propionate is more potent than acetate and butyrate in inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription. In conclusion, this study identifies a biochemical mechanism for the regulation of SCFAs on bovine GH and PRL gene transcription in DCAPCs, which may serve as one of the factors that regulate pituitary function in accordance with dietary intake.

  3. Excitatory and inhibitory effects of prolactin release activated by nerve stimulation in rat anterior pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Li-Zhi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A series of studies showed the presence of substantial amount of nerve fibers and their close relationship with the anterior pituitary gland cells. Our previous studies have suggested that aside from the classical theory of humoral regulation, the rat anterior pituitary has direct neural regulation on adrenocorticotropic hormone release. In rat anterior pituitary, typical synapses are found on every type of the hormone-secreting cells, many on lactotrophs. The present study was aimed at investigating the physiological significance of this synaptic relationship on prolactin release. Methods The anterior pituitary of rat was sliced and stimulated with electrical field in a self-designed perfusion chamber. The perfusate was continuously collected in aliquots and measured by radioimmunoassay for prolactin levels. After statistic analysis, differences of prolactin concentrations within and between groups were outlined. Results The results showed that stimulation at frequency of 2 Hz caused a quick enhancement of prolactin release, when stimulated at 10 Hz, prolactin release was found to be inhibited which came slower and lasted longer. The effect of nerve stimulation on prolactin release is diphasic and frequency dependent. Conclusions The present in vitro study offers the first physiological evidence that stimulation of nerve fibers can affect prolactin release in rat anterior pituitary. Low frequency stimulation enhances prolactin release and high frequency mainly inhibits it.

  4. Regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) subunit biosynthesis in cultured male anterior pituitary cells: effects of GnRH and testosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummen, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct effects of testosterone (T) on LH subunit apoprotein synthesis, glycosylation and release by the male pituitary. Cells from 1 wk castrate rats were cultured for 48 h in steroid-free medium followed by 48h in media /+-/10nM T. The cells were then incubated for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 12h in media containing (/sup 35/S)-methionine (/sup 35/S-Met) or (/sup 3/H)-glucosamine (/sup 3/H-Gln), /+-/1nM GnRH (exp 1) or in media containing precursors /+-/ 10nM T and/or 1nM GnRH (exp 2). Radiolabeled precursor incorporation into LH subunits was determined by immunoprecipitation followed by SDS-PAGE. In experiment 1, precursor incorporation into total protein (TP) and LH subunits increased linearly with time for at least 8h. GnRH did not effect precursor incorporation in to TP or /sup 35/S-Met labeling of LH subunits, but stimulated a linear, time-dependent accumulation of /sup 3/H-Gln into total LH subunits and the release of RIA-LH and radiolabeled subunits into media. Based on these results, the effects of T on LH subunit biosynthesis were studied during an 8h incubation. In experiment 2, GnRH enhanced the total /sup 3/H-Gln incorporation (but not /sup 35/S-Met incorporation) into both LH subunits. GnRH stimulated the release of /sup 35/S-Met LH..cap alpha.. and /sup 3/H-Gln LH subunits into media and increased the relative glycosylation of secreted LH subunits without altering the relative glycosylation of intracellular LH subunits. T inhibited RIA-LH release and incorporation of both precursors into total and secreted LH subunits (/+-/GnRH). However, only the relative glycosylation of secreted LH..cap alpha.. was reduced by T (/+-/GnRh).

  5. Cytoplasmic kinases downstream of GPR30 suppress gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from bovine anterior pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Faidiban O; Kadokawa, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    GPR30 is known as a membrane receptor for picomolar concentrations of estradiol. The GPR30-specific agonist G1 causes a rapid, non-genomic suppression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from bovine anterior pituitary (AP) cells. A few studies have recently clarified that protein kinase A (PKA) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) might be involved in cytoplasmic signaling pathways of GPR30 in other cells. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that PKA and ERK kinase (MEK) are important cytoplasmic mediators for GPR30-associated non-genomic suppression of GnRH-induced LH secretion from bovine AP cells. Bovine AP cells (n = 8) were cultured for 3 days under steroid-free conditions. The AP cells were previously treated for 30 min with one of the following: 5000 nM of PKA inhibitor (H89), 1000 nM of MEK inhibitor (U0126), or a combination of H89 and U0126. Next, the AP cells were treated with 0.01 nM estradiol for 5 min before GnRH stimulation. Estradiol treatment without inhibitor pretreatment significantly suppressed GnRH-induced LH secretion (P < 0.01). In contrast, estradiol treatment after pretreatment with H89, U0126 or their combination had no suppressive effect on GnRH-induced LH secretion. The inhibitors also inhibited the G1 suppression of GnRH-induced LH secretion. Therefore, these data supported the hypothesis that PKA and MEK (thus, also pERK) are the intracellular mediators downstream of GPR30 that induce the non-genomic suppression of GnRH-induced LH secretion from bovine AP cells by estradiol or G1.

  6. Electron microscopic observations of the anterior pituitary gland. Part I. The neurons in the "transitional zone" of the anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Yoshio; Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Sakuma, Eisuke; Wada, Ikuo; Horiuchi, Osamu; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Herbert, Damon C; Soji, Tsuyoshi

    2008-06-01

    Since [Westlud, K.N., Chils, G.V., 1982. Localization of serotonin fibers in the rat adenohypophysis. Endocrinology 111, 1761-1763] initially identified the serotonin nerve fibers in the anterior pituitary gland, attention has been paid to the rostral zone of the anterior lobe into which nerve fibers enter and subsequently spread to deeper regions of the lobe. The rostral zone is the trifurcated junction of the partes tuberalis, intermedia and distalis, and has the important role(s) for hormone secretion via the "transitional zone" [Sato, G, Shirasawa, N, Sakuma, E, Sato, Y, Asai, Y, Wada, I, Horiuchi, O, Sakamoto, A, Herbert, DC, Soji, T, 2005a. Intercellular communications within the rat anterior pituitary. XI: An immunohistochemical study of distributions of S-100 positive cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat. Tissue and Cell 37, 269-280.]. The objective of this study was to focus on the ultrastructure of this "zone." All of the animals studied were fixed by perfusion with glutaraldehyde via the left ventricle of the heart and examined by electron microscopy. In the "transitional zone," a cluster of neuronal elements was observed between the folliculo-stellate cell-rich area and the anterior lobe. This cluster consisted of myelinated fibers, unmyelinated fibers, neuroendocrine fibers, large cells, and supporting cells. The large cells were perikarya of neurons which made a "ganglion-like" structure with associated satellite cells. Agranular, folliculo-stellate cells were intermingled among the elements. This is the first report that neuronal elements form clusters in the "transitional zone." A relationship of the unmyelinated and neuroendocrine fibers in the basal layer and in the "transitional zone" is discussed.

  7. MR imaging in children with ectopic pituitary gland and anterior hypopituitarism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patkar D

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Posterior pituitary ectopia refers to an absent normal posterior pituitary bright spot within the sella with ectopic bright signal at another site (such as the median eminence on a weighted magnetic resonance. We describe two children with idiopathic anterior hypopituitarism who showed an ectopic posterior pituitary and absent pituitary stalk on imaging. We emphasize the association of the absent pituitary stalk in ectopic pituitary gland and low growth hormone levels.

  8. Expression of small leucine-rich proteoglycans in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Syaidah, Rahimi; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Ramadhani, Dini; Jindatip, Depicha; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Proteoglycans are components of the extracellular matrix and comprise a specific core protein substituted with covalently linked glycosaminoglycan chains. Small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) are a major family of proteoglycans and have key roles as potent effectors in cellular signaling pathways. Research during the last two decades has shown that SLRPs regulate biological functions in many tissues such as skin, tendon, kidney, liver, and heart. However, little is known of the expression of SLRPs, or the characteristics of the cells that produce them, in the anterior pituitary gland. Therefore, we have determined whether SLRPs are present in rat anterior pituitary gland. We have used real-time reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction to analyze the expression of SLRP genes and have identified the cells that produce SLRPs by using in situ hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probe. We have clearly detected the mRNA expression of SLRP genes, and cells expressing decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin, lumican, proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP), and osteoglycin are located in the anterior pituitary gland. We have also investigated the possible double-staining of SLRP mRNA and pituitary hormones, S100 protein (a marker of folliculostellate cells), desmin (a marker of capillary pericytes), and isolectin B4 (a marker of endothelial cells). Decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin, lumican, PRELP, and osteoglycin mRNA have been identified in S100-protein-positive and desmin-positive cells. Thus, we conclude that folliculostellate cells and pericytes produce SLRPs in rat anterior pituitary gland.

  9. Thyroxine 5'-deiodinase in human anterior pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagaki, Y; Yoshida, K; Ikeda, H; Kaise, K; Kaise, N; Yamamoto, M; Sakurada, T; Yoshinaga, K

    1990-08-01

    The activity of T4 5'-monodeiodinase (5'D) in the pituitary was measured in 12 patients with pituitary adenoma (3 patients with acromegaly, 2 with prolactinoma, 1 with Cushing's disease, 1 with TSH-producing tumor, and 5 with nonfunctioning tumor) and, as a control, in a patient who died of parotid cancer. The pituitaries, obtained at operation or autopsy, were homogenized in 0.1 mol/L potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, and centrifuged at 800 x g. Supernatants were incubated with [125I]T4 and 20 mmol/L dithiothreitol (DTT) at 37C for 90 min. T4 5'-D was measured by the release of 125I- with the ion exchange method. The activity of T4 5'-D in the pituitaries from patients with prolactinoma and parotid cancer was dependent on protein concentration, incubation time, incubation temperature, and T4 concentration, and was labile to prior heating at 70 C for 30 min. T4 5'-D was not inhibited by 1 mmol/L propylthiouracil, but was inhibited 95% by 0.1 mmol/L iopanoic acid. The apparent Km and maximum velocity for T4 5'-D in homogenates of prolactinoma at 20 mmol/L DTT were 11 nmol/L and 1.54 pmol/mg protein.h, respectively. This reaction followed sequential-type reaction kinetics when the DTT concentration was varied. All other homogenates of pituitary tumors, except two nonfunctioning tumors, also demonstrated T4 5'-D activity. These results indicate that 1) the human pituitary express a low Km and PTU-insensitive T4 5'-D activity which is very similar to the type II enzyme activity in the rat pituitary; and 2) various types of pituitary tumor cells contain T4 5'-D activity.

  10. Dopaminergic Neurons Controlling Anterior Pituitary Functions: Anatomy and Ontogenesis in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Romain; Affaticati, Pierre; Bureau, Charlotte; Colin, Ingrid; Demarque, Michaël; Dufour, Sylvie; Vernier, Philippe; Yamamoto, Kei; Pasqualini, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons located in the preoptico-hypothalamic region of the brain exert a major neuroendocrine control on reproduction, growth, and homeostasis by regulating the secretion of anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) hormones. Here, using a retrograde tract tracing experiment, we identified the neurons playing this role in the zebrafish. The DA cells projecting directly to the anterior pituitary are localized in the most anteroventral part of the preoptic area, and we named them preoptico-hypophyseal DA (POHDA) neurons. During development, these neurons do not appear before 72 hours postfertilization (hpf) and are the last dopaminergic cell group to differentiate. We found that the number of neurons in this cell population continues to increase throughout life proportionally to the growth of the fish. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation analysis suggested that this increase is due to continuous neurogenesis and not due to a phenotypic change in already-existing neurons. Finally, expression profiles of several genes (foxg1a, dlx2a, and nr4a2a/b) were different in the POHDA compared with the adjacent suprachiasmatic DA neurons, suggesting that POHDA neurons develop as a distinct DA cell population in the preoptic area. This study offers some insights into the regional identity of the preoptic area and provides the first bases for future functional genetic studies on the development of DA neurons controlling anterior pituitary functions.

  11. FSH and LH Secretion from in-vitro Cultured Buffalo Anterior Pituitary Cells Following Treatment with Diethyl-Stilbestrol and Medroxy-Progesterone and Their Effects on Ovarian Activity and Hematological Variables of Female Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleem Iqbal1, Nafees Akhtar1*, Nazir Ahmad1 and Sajjad-ur-Rahman2

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims of this study were: to investigate whether FSH and LH secretion from in-vitro cultured buffalo adenohypophyseal cells can be increased by supplementing culture media with diethyl-stilbestrol and medroxy-progesterone, respectively; to monitor bioactivity of these in-vitro produced gonadotropins and to see if these gonadotropins have any adverse effects on hematology and internal body organs of female rabbits. Pituitary glands collected from 36 adult buffaloes slaughtered at a local abattoir were used. The anterior pituitary cells were cultured in-vitro using medium RPMI-1640 (code R6504-Sigma enriched with 10% fetal calf serum and GnRH and treated with 0.5 or 1.0 mg/100 ml diethyl-stilbestrol, and 2.5 or 5.0 mg/ml medroxy-progesterone, or left as untreated control. The results showed that FSH and LH concentrations from cultures treated with low or high dose of respective steroids were higher (P<0.05 than those for controls. Treatment of pre-pubertal female rabbits with in-vitro extracted FSH increased serum FSH and LH concentrations, ovarian size and number of developing follicles (GFs on the ovaries compared to controls (P<0.01. However, rabbits treated with in-vitro produced extract of LH showed increased serum FSH and LH, while there was no effect on ovarian size and number of GFs. Moreover, treatment of rabbits with both gonadotropins had no effects on body weight, hematological variables and internal body organs. In conclusion, diethyl-stilbestrol and medroxy-progesterone enhanced the secretion of FSH and LH, respectively, from cultured pituitary cells. Moreover, in-vitro produced FSH increased ovarian size, serum FSH and LH and stimulated ovarian activity, while in-vitro produced LH neither increased ovarian size nor stimulated ovarian activity.

  12. β-Hydroxybutyric Sodium Salt Inhibition of Growth Hormone and Prolactin Secretion via the cAMP/PKA/CREB and AMPK Signaling Pathways in Dairy Cow Anterior Pituitary Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Peng Fu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA regulates the synthesis and secretion of growth hormone (GH and prolactin (PRL, but its mechanism is unknown. In this study, we detected the effects of BHBA on the activities of G protein signaling pathways, AMPK-α activity, GH, and PRL gene transcription, and GH and PRL secretion in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells (DCAPCs. The results showed that BHBA decreased intracellular cAMP levels and a subsequent reduction in protein kinase A (PKA activity. Inhibition of PKA activity reduced cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting GH and PRL transcription and secretion. The effects of BHBA were attenuated by a specific Gαi inhibitor, pertussis toxin (PTX. In addition, intracellular BHBA uptake mediated by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1 could trigger AMPK signaling and result in the decrease in GH and PRL mRNA translation in DCAPCs cultured under low-glucose and non-glucose condition when compared with the high-glucose group. This study identifies a biochemical mechanism for the regulatory action of BHBA on GH and PRL gene transcription, translation, and secretion in DCAPCs, which may be one of the factors that regulate pituitary function during the transition period in dairy cows.

  13. μ- and m-calpain expression and activity changes following diethylstilbestrol injection in the rat anterior pituitary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijiang Zhao; Zhongfang Shi; Fang Yuan; Guilin Li; Yazhuo Zhang; Zhongcheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about changes in calpain activity in the pituitary gland.In the present study,μ- and m-calpain activity changes were detected in the rat anterior pituitary following intraperitoneal injection of diethylstilbestrol.Double-immunofluorescence labeling confirmed colocalization of μ - and m-calpain in prolactin-secreting cells (lactotrophs).Western blot analysis revealed significantly increased expression of both calpains,which accompanied upregulated cytosol and membrane zymographic activities at 12 weeks following diethylstilbestrol injection,compared with rats injected with sunflower oil.Moreover,following estrogen injection,pituitary gland pathological damage gradually worsened with increasing time.Results demonstrated that estrogen regulated calpain expression and activity,and both calpains participated in the pathophysiological processes of the pituitary gland.Ubiquitous calpain expression could serve as an effective target for anti-estrogen drugs.

  14. Butyrate increases intracellular calcium levels and enhances growth hormone release from rat anterior pituitary cells via the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and 43.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Consolata Miletta

    Full Text Available Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB, which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous agonist for the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR, GPR41 and 43, on non-stimulated and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH-stimulated hGH secretion. Furthermore, we investigated the potential role of GPR41 and 43 on the generation of butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ signal and its ultimate impact on hGH secretion. To study this, wt-hGH was transfected into a rat pituitary tumour cell line stably expressing the human GHRH receptor. Treatment with butyrate promoted hGH synthesis and improved basal and GHRH-induced hGH-secretion. By acting through GPR41 and 43, butyrate enhanced intracellular free cytosolic Ca2+. Gene-specific silencing of these receptors led to a partial inhibition of the butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ rise resulting in a decrease of hGH secretion. This study suggests that butyrate is a metabolic intermediary, which contributes to the secretion and, therefore, to the metabolic actions of GH during fasting.

  15. Butyrate increases intracellular calcium levels and enhances growth hormone release from rat anterior pituitary cells via the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletta, Maria Consolata; Petkovic, Vibor; Eblé, Andrée; Ammann, Roland A; Flück, Christa E; Mullis, Primus-E

    2014-01-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH) rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous agonist for the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), GPR41 and 43, on non-stimulated and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-stimulated hGH secretion. Furthermore, we investigated the potential role of GPR41 and 43 on the generation of butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ signal and its ultimate impact on hGH secretion. To study this, wt-hGH was transfected into a rat pituitary tumour cell line stably expressing the human GHRH receptor. Treatment with butyrate promoted hGH synthesis and improved basal and GHRH-induced hGH-secretion. By acting through GPR41 and 43, butyrate enhanced intracellular free cytosolic Ca2+. Gene-specific silencing of these receptors led to a partial inhibition of the butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ rise resulting in a decrease of hGH secretion. This study suggests that butyrate is a metabolic intermediary, which contributes to the secretion and, therefore, to the metabolic actions of GH during fasting.

  16. Diabetes Insipidus and Anterior Pituitary Insufficiency Due to Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Arduç

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastases from breast cancer to the pituitary gland are uncommon. We present a 35-year-old woman with diabetes insipidus and anterior pituitary insufficiency resulting from breast cancer metastases to the pituitary gland. The patient presented with reduced consciousness, fatigue, polyuria, and polydipsia. Hypernatremia (sodium: 154 mmol/L, hypostenuria (urine density: 1001, and hypopituitarism were present on laboratory evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed heterogeneous pituitary gland, thickened pituitary stalk (8mm, and loss of normal hyperintense signal of the posterior pituitary. Based on the clinical, laboratory, and MRI findings, the patient was diagnosed with diabetes insipidus and anterior pituitary insufficiency due to pituitary metastases from breast cancer. She received desmopressin, L-thyroxine, and prednisolone, which resulted in improvement of her symptoms and laboratory results. The patient, who also received Gamma Knife radiosurgery and chemotherapy, died six months later due to disseminated metastases. Although pituitary metastasis is rare, it should be kept in mind in patients with breast cancer since early detection and treatment can improve symptoms of patients.

  17. Effect of monthly administration of GHRH (fragment 1-29) with osmotic pump on the rat anterior pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motylewska, Ewelina; Mełeń-Mucha, Gabriela; Mucha, Sławomir; Pawlikowski, Marek

    2005-01-01

    Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH) is the main factor, which regulates GH secretion and somatotrope proliferation. However, its chronic effect on anterior pituitary gland is still unknown. It is known that excessive GHRH secretion in patients with gastroenteropancreatic tumors secreting GHRH results in acromegaly and somatotrope hyperplasia. In mice transgenic for GHRH somatotrope tumors develop. Thus, the aim of this paper was to examine the effect of GHRH chronic administration on somatotrope secretion, their percentage and cell proliferation in anterior pituitary gland in rats. The experiment was performed on male Fischer 344 rats weighing 200+/-20 g. The animals were divided into two groups: group I-controls (13 rats) received solvent for GHRH (5% ethanol in demineralized water); group II (10 rats) received GHRH (Growth Hormone Releasing Factor, fragment 1-29 amide) at a dose of 5 microg/day. The substances were given for 1 month via osmotic pump (ALZET), which were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal region under ketamin anesthesia. After 4 weeks all rats were decapitated and the blood was collected. In the microscopic preparations of anterior pituitary gland the morphology of pituitary (Herlant staining) and the percentage of somatotrope cells and proliferation index based on PCNA staining were assessed. It was found that the chronic treatment with GHRH caused a statistically significant increase in serum rGH concentration and in percentage of somatotropes, but did not change proliferation index and did not induce pathological changes in the morphology of the anterior pituitary gland when compared to the control group. Summing up, monthly GHRH administration did not induce somatotrope adenomas but it caused serum GH level elevation, what seems to depend partially on the increase of somatotrope number.

  18. Anterior pituitary lobe atrophy as late complication of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dragan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is acute infective multisystemic disease followed by febrility, hemorrhages and acute renal insufficiency. Bleeding in the anterior pituitary lobe leading to tissue necrosis occurs in acute stage of severe clinical forms of HFRS, while atrophy of the anterior pituitary lobe with diminution of the gland function occurs after recovery stage. Case report. We presented a patient with the development of chronic renal insufficiency and hypopituitarism as complication that had been diagnosed six years after Hantavirus infection. Magnetic resonance of the pituitary gland revealed atrophy and empty sella turcica. Conclusion. Regarding frequency of this viral infection and its endemic character in some parts of our country partial and/or complete loss of pituitary function should be considered during the late stage of HFRS.

  19. Antiapoptotic factor humanin is expressed in normal and tumoral pituitary cells and protects them from TNF-α-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Gottardo

    Full Text Available Humanin (HN is a 24-amino acid peptide with cytoprotective action in several cell types such as neurons and testicular germ cells. Rattin (HNr, a homologous peptide of HN expressed in several adult rat tissues, also has antiapoptotic action. In the present work, we demonstrated by immunocytochemical analysis and flow cytometry the expression of HNr in the anterior pituitary of female and male adult rats as well as in pituitary tumor GH3 cells. HNr was localized in lactotropes and somatotropes. The expression of HNr was lower in females than in males, and was inhibited by estrogens in pituitary cells from both ovariectomized female and orquidectomized male rats. However, the expression of HNr in pituitary tumor cells was not regulated by estrogens. We also evaluated HN action on the proapoptotic effect of TNF-α in anterior pituitary cells assessed by the TUNEL method. HN (0.5 µM per se did not modify basal apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells but completely blocked the proapoptotic effect of TNF-α in total anterior pituitary cells, lactotropes and somatotropes from both female and male rats [corrected]. Also, HN inhibited the apoptotic effect of TNF-α on pituitary tumor cells. In summary, our results demonstrate that HNr is present in the anterior pituitary gland, its expression showing sexual dimorphism, which suggests that gonadal steroids may be involved in the regulation of HNr expression in this gland. Antiapoptotic action of HN in anterior pituitary cells suggests that this peptide could be involved in the homeostasis of this gland. HNr is present and functional in GH3 cells, but it lacks regulation by estrogens, suggesting that HN could participate in the pathogenesis of pituitary tumors.

  20. Anterior Pituitary Aplasia in an Infant with Ring Chromosome 18p Deletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Bellfield

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first reported case of an infant with 18p deletion syndrome with anterior pituitary aplasia secondary to a ring chromosome. Endocrine workup soon after birth was reassuring; however, repeat testing months later confirmed central hypopituitarism. While MRI reading initially indicated no midline defects, subsequent review of the images confirmed anterior pituitary aplasia with ectopic posterior pituitary. This case demonstrates how deletion of genetic material, even if resulting in a chromosomal ring, still results in a severe syndromic phenotype. Furthermore, it demonstrates the necessity of close follow-up in the first year of life for children with 18p deletion syndrome and emphasizes the need to verify radiology impressions if there is any doubt as to the radiologic findings.

  1. The pituitary growth hormone cell in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Wesley C.; Grindeland, R.

    1989-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH), produced and secreted from specialized cells in the pituitary gland, controls the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. It is also probably involved in the regulation of proper function of bone, muscle and immune systems. The behavior of the GH cell system was studied by flying either isolated pituitary cells or live rats. In the latter case, pituitary GH cells are prepared on return to earth and then either transplanted into hypophysectomized rats or placed into cell culture so that function of GH cells in-vivo vs. in-vitro can be compared. The results from three flights to date (STS-8, 1983; SL-3, 1985; Cosmos 1887, 1987) established that the ability of GH cells to release hormone, on return to earth, is compromised. The mechanism(s) responsible for this attenuation response is unknown. However, the data are sufficiently positive to indicate that the nature of the secretory defect resides directly within the GH cells.

  2. Anterior Pituitary Leptin Expression Changes in Different Reproductive States: Stimulation, in vitro, by Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)

    OpenAIRE

    Akhter, Noor; Johnson, Brandy W.; Crane, Christopher; Iruthayanathan, Mary; Zhou, Yi-Hong; Kudo, Akihiko; Childs, Gwen V.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to learn more about the changes in expression of rat anterior pituitary (AP) leptin during the estrous cycle. QRT-PCR assays of cycling rat AP leptin mRNA showed 2—fold increases from metestrus to diestrus followed by an 86% decrease on the morning of proestrus. Percentages of leptin cells increased in proestrus and pregnancy to 55–60% of AP cells. Dual labeling for leptin proteins and growth hormone (GH) or gonadotropins, showed that the rise in leptin protein-bearing...

  3. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript gene (CART1) expression through CRH type 1 receptor (CRHR1) in chicken anterior pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Chunheng; Cai, Guoqing; Huang, Long; Deng, Qiuyang; Lin, Dongliang; Cui, Lin; Wang, Yajun; Li, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide(s) is generally viewed as neuropeptide(s) and can control food intake in vertebrates, however, our recent study revealed that CART1 peptide is predominantly expressed in chicken anterior pituitary, suggesting that cCART1 peptide is a novel pituitary hormone in chickens and its expression is likely controlled by hypothalamic factor(s). To test this hypothesis, in this study, we examined the spatial expression of CART1 in chicken anterior pituitary and investigated the effect of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on pituitary cCART1 expression. The results showed that: 1) CART1 is expressed in both caudal and cephalic lobes of chicken anterior pituitary, revealed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), western blot and immuno-histochemical staining; 2) CRH potently stimulates cCART1 mRNA expression in cultured chick pituitary cells, as examined by qPCR, and this effect is blocked by CP154526 (and not K41498), an antagonist specific for chicken CRH type I receptor (cCRHR1), suggesting that cCRHR1 expressed on corticotrophs mediates this action; 3) the stimulatory effect of CRH on pituitary cCART1 expression is inhibited by pharmacological drugs targeting the intracellular AC/cAMP/PKA, PLC/IP3/Ca(2+), and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. This finding, together with the functional coupling of these signaling pathways to cCRHR1 expressed in CHO cells demonstrated by luciferase reporter assay systems, indicates that these intracellular signaling pathways coupled to cCRHR1 can mediate CRH action. Collectively, our present study offers the first substantial evidence that hypothalamic CRH can stimulate pituitary CART1 expression via activation of CRHR1 in a vertebrate species.

  4. Optogenetically enhanced pituitary corticotroph cell activity post-stress onset causes rapid organizing effects on behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Thiemann, Theresa; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Herget, Ulrich; Ryu, Soojin

    2016-01-01

    The anterior pituitary is the major link between nervous and hormonal systems, which allow the brain to generate adequate and flexible behaviour. Here, we address its role in mediating behavioural adjustments that aid in coping with acutely threatening environments. For this we combine optogenetic manipulation of pituitary corticotroph cells in larval zebrafish with newly developed assays for measuring goal-directed actions in very short timescales. Our results reveal modulatory actions of corticotroph cell activity on locomotion, avoidance behaviours and stimulus responsiveness directly after the onset of stress. Altogether, the findings uncover the significance of endocrine pituitary cells for rapidly optimizing behaviour in local antagonistic environments. PMID:27646867

  5. Related pituitary cell lineages develop into interdigitated 3D cell networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budry, Lionel; Lafont, Chrystel; El Yandouzi, Taoufik; Chauvet, Norbert; Conéjero, Geneviève; Drouin, Jacques; Mollard, Patrice

    2011-07-26

    The pituitary gland has long been considered to be a random patchwork of hormone-producing cells. By using pituitary-scale tridimensional imaging for two of the least abundant cell lineages, the corticotropes and gonadotropes, we have now uncovered highly organized and interdigitated cell networks that reflect homotypic and heterotypic interactions between cells. Although newly differentiated corticotrope cells appear on the ventral surface of the gland, they rapidly form homotypic strands of cells that extend from the lateral tips of the anterior pituitary along its ventral surface and into the medial gland. As the corticotrope network is established away from the microvasculature, cell morphology changes from rounded, to polygonal, and finally to cells with long cytoplasmic processes or cytonemes that connect corticotropes to the perivascular space. Gonadotropes differentiate later and are positioned in close proximity to corticotropes and capillaries. Blockade of corticotrope terminal differentiation produced by knockout of the gene encoding the transcription factor Tpit results in smaller gonadotropes within an expanded cell network, particularly in the lateral gland. Thus, pituitary-scale tridimensional imaging reveals highly structured cell networks of unique topology for each pituitary lineage. The sequential development of interdigitated cell networks during organogenesis indicate that extensive cell:cell interactions lead to a highly ordered cell positioning rather than random patchwork.

  6. Establishment and culture optimization of a new type of pituitary immortalized cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokubu, Yuko [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Asashima, Makoto [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Life Science Center of TARA, The University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken 305-8577 (Japan); Kurisaki, Akira, E-mail: akikuri@hotmail.com [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Biotechnology Research Institute for Drug Discovery, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    The pituitary gland is a center of the endocrine system that controls homeostasis in an organism by secreting various hormones. The glandular anterior pituitary consists of five different cell types, each expressing specific hormones. However, their regulation and the appropriate conditions for their in vitro culture are not well defined. Here, we report the immortalization of mouse pituitary cells by introducing TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes. The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed a thyrotroph-specific thyroid stimulating hormone beta (Tshb). After optimization of the culture conditions, these immortalized cells proliferated and maintained morphological characteristics similar to those of primary pituitary cells under sphere culture conditions in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with N2, B27, basic FGF, and EGF. These cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators and induced the expression of Tshb mRNA. Moreover, transplantation of the immortalized cell line into subcutaneous regions and kidney capsules of mice further increased Tshb expression. These results suggest that immortalization of pituitary cells with TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes is a useful method for generating proliferating cells for the in vitro analysis of pituitary regulatory mechanisms. - Highlights: • Mouse pituitary cell lines were immortalized by introducing TERT, E6, and E7. • The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed thyroid stimulating hormone beta. • The cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators, and induced Tshb.

  7. Effects of zeranol on in vitro growth hormone release by lamb and rat pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, C J; Wiggins, J P; Wangsness, P J

    1988-10-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the effect of zeranol on release and synthesis of growth hormone (GH) by anterior pituitary cells established in either static or continuous flow cultures. Young adult male rats, slaughter-age lambs and juvenile lambs were used as sources of pituitary cells. In static primary cell cultures, no consistent effect of zeranol at 10(-7), 10(-9) or 10(-11) M was demonstrated by either rat or ovine cells. Rat pituitaries established in perifusion culture chambers showed no repeatable response to zeranol. Dissociated cells from lambs established in perifusion culture, however, had significant increases in release of GH in response to 37% of zeranol pulse exposures. When dissociated cells from juvenile lamb pituitaries were used, up to 10-fold increases in GH release consistently were measured within minutes of exposure to zeranol.

  8. 腺垂体功能减退症及其危象的回顾性分析%Retrospective analysis of anterior pituitary hypofunction and pituitary crises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海龙; 陈小盼; 宋钦华; 王转锁

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the etiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of anterior pituitary hypo-functin. METHODS The clinical data of 61 cases of anterior pituitary hypofunction were collected and analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS The etiology of anterior pituitary hypofunction was as follows; Sheehan's syndrome (n = 36), pituitary tumor (n = 12) , postoperative craniopharyngioma undergoing radiotherapy (re = 6) , empty sella syndrome (re = 4) , autoimmune hy-pophysitis (re = 1). Hypogonadism, hypothyroidism and hypoadrenocorticism were found in 67% patients. CONCLUSION Clinical manifestation of anterior pituitary hypofunction is complex. In order to avoid misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis, clinicians should make effort to raise the diagnostic and therapeutic levels of anterior pituitary hypofunction.%目的 分析腺垂体功能减退症的病因、临床表现及诊治.方法 收治61例腺垂体功能减退症患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 席汉氏综合征36例,垂体瘤12例,颅咽管术后放疗6例,空泡蝶鞍4例,自身免疫性垂体炎1例,大部分患者性腺功能缺乏最早,甲状腺激素次之,肾上腺激素缺乏较晚,67%患者3个靶腺功能均有减退.结论 腺垂体功能减退症临床表现复杂,提高临床医生对该病诊治水平,避免误诊漏诊.

  9. Molecular Morphology of Pituitary Cells, from Conventional Immunohistochemistry to Fluorescein Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yoshiyuki Osamura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In situ hybridization (ISH at the electron microscopic (EM level is essential for elucidating the intracellular distribution and role of mRNA in protein synthesis. EM-ISH is considered to be an important tool for clarifying the intracellular localization of mRNA and the exact site of pituitary hormone synthesis on the rough endoplasmic reticulum. A combined ISH and immunohistochemistry (IHC under EM (EM-ISH&IHC approach has sufficient ultrastructural resolution, and provides two-dimensional images of the subcellular localization of pituitary hormone and its mRNA in a pituitary cell. The advantages of semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots, Qdots and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM enable us to obtain three-dimensional images of the subcellular localization of pituitary hormone and its mRNA. Both EM-ISH&IHC and ISH & IHC using Qdots and CLSM are useful for understanding the relationships between protein and mRNA simultaneously in two or three dimensions. CLSM observation of rab3B and SNARE proteins such as SNAP-25 and syntaxin has revealed that both rab3B and SNARE system proteins play important roles and work together as the exocytotic machinery in anterior pituitary cells. Another important issue is the intracellular transport and secretion of pituitary hormone. We have developed an experimental pituitary cell line, GH3 cell, which has growth hormone (GH linked to enhanced yellow fluorescein protein (EYFP. This stable GH3 cell secretes GH linked to EYFP upon stimulation by Ca2+ influx or Ca2+ release from storage. This GH3 cell line is useful for the real-time visualization of the intracellular transport and secretion of GH. These three methods from conventional immunohistochemistry and fluorescein imaging allow us to consecutively visualize the process of transcription, translation, transport and secretion of anterior pituitary hormone.

  10. Hyperprolactinemia after neonatal prolactin (PRL) deficiency in rats: evidence for altered anterior pituitary regulation of PRL secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, G V; Shyr, S W; Grosvenor, C E; Crowley, W R

    1988-05-01

    Previous findings from this laboratory suggest a role for milk-borne PRL in the development of the inhibitory neuroendocrine controls over PRL secretion. Thus, rats that consumed milk deficient in PRL on days 2-5 postpartum show reduced concentrations and turnover of DA in the median eminence and elevated serum levels of PRL at 30-35 days of age. The present experiments were undertaken to investigate whether these consequences of neonatal PRL deficiency persist beyond puberty, and whether alterations in pituitary responsiveness to hypothalamic hormones may be involved. Lactating rats received sc injections of either saline or the dopamine (DA) agonist bromocriptine (125 micrograms/rat.day) on each of days 2-5 postpartum, a treatment that reduces the amount of PRL in milk without abolishing lactation. Blood samples were obtained from male and female offspring at various postnatal ages, and PRL concentrations were determined by RIA. Serum PRL concentrations in offspring from both groups were low until after weaning, but the female offspring of bromocriptine-treated mothers showed significantly elevated serum PRL between days 30 and 90 postpartum. Male offspring of bromocriptine-treated mothers also had transiently increased serum PRL levels, which returned to control levels by day 40. The turnover rate of DA in the median eminence, calculated from the rate of decline after synthesis inhibition, was reduced on day 35 in neonatally PRL-deficient offspring, as shown previously. However, no differences in DA turnover between the two groups were apparent on day 60, indicating a recovery of normal dopaminergic activity. Anterior pituitary cells of 100-day-old control and neonatally PRL-deficient animals were dispersed, cultured for 3 days, and then exposed to either TRH, to stimulate PRL release, or to the DA agonist bromocriptine, which inhibits PRL release. Pituitary cells of neonatally PRL-deficient offspring were almost completely unresponsive to bromocriptine with

  11. Activation of GABA B receptors in the anterior pituitary inhibits prolactin and luteinizing hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux-Lantos, V; Rey, E; Libertun, C

    1992-11-01

    Previous work from our laboratory showed that baclofen could lower serum prolactin (PRL) levels acting at the central nervous system. The present experiments were designed to evaluate whether the gamma-aminobutyric acid B agonist was also effective in inhibiting hormone release at the pituitary level. In monolayer cultures of adenohypophyseal dispersed cells, baclofen inhibited basal PRL secretion after 1 or 2 h of incubation. This inhibition was significantly abolished by three antagonists: phaclofen, 3-aminopropyl-phosphonic acid and 4-aminobutylphosphonic acid. Furthermore, baclofen inhibited the thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced PRL release in a concentration-dependent manner. With regard to gonadotropin secretion, baclofen was unable to modify basal luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, but significantly inhibited the LH-releasing hormone-induced LH release. These results show that baclofen, in addition to its central neuroendocrine effects, inhibits pituitary hormone secretion, under basal and/or stimulated conditions, by direct action at the pituitary level.

  12. Combined anterior pituitary function test using CRH, GRH, LH-RH, TRH and vasopressin in patients with non-functioning pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, K; Makino, S; Hirasawa, R; Takao, T; Kageyama, J; Ogasa, T; Ota, Z

    1990-06-01

    We examined 8 normal subjects and 16 patients with non-functioning pituitary tumors with a combined anterior pituitary test to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the test. Diagnoses included 9 of chromophobe adenoma, 3 of craniopharyngioma, 2 of Rathke's cleft cyst, and 1 each of intrasellar cyst and tuberculum sella meningioma. All subjects received hypothalamic releasing hormones: 1 micrograms/kg corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), 1 micrograms/kg growth hormone releasing hormone (GRH), 500 micrograms thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), 100 micrograms luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH), and a relatively small dose (5 mU/kg) of lysine vasopressin (LVP). In the normal subjects, the addition of LVP potentiated the secretion of adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) induced by CRH, but had no significant effect on the secretion of other anterior pituitary hormones. In the combined test with 5 releasing hormones, the plasma ACTH and cortisol responses were not impaired in the majority of the patients before pituitary surgery. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) responses were not impaired in 82%, 70% and 67% of the patients, respectively, while the serum LH and GH responses were impaired in 67% and 73% of the patients, respectively. Following pituitary surgery, responses of these hormones to combined testing were similarly impaired in more than 75% of the patients. These results indicate that plasma ACTH, cortisol and serum TSH responses are fairly good before pituitary surgery but are impaired significantly after surgery. No subjects experienced any serious adverse effects related to the testing. These results suggest that combined testing with hypothalamic hormones is a convenient and useful method for evaluating pituitary function.

  13. Combined anterior pituitary function test using CRH, GRH, LH-RH, TRH and vasopressin in patients with non-functioning pituitary tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto,Kozo

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined 8 normal subjects and 16 patients with non-functioning pituitary tumors with a combined anterior pituitary test to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the test. Diagnoses included 9 of chromophobe adenoma, 3 of craniopharyngioma, 2 of Rathke's cleft cyst, and 1 each of intrasellar cyst and tuberculum sella meningioma. All subjects received hypothalamic releasing hormones: 1 micrograms/kg corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH, 1 micrograms/kg growth hormone releasing hormone (GRH, 500 micrograms thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, 100 micrograms luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH, and a relatively small dose (5 mU/kg of lysine vasopressin (LVP. In the normal subjects, the addition of LVP potentiated the secretion of adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH induced by CRH, but had no significant effect on the secretion of other anterior pituitary hormones. In the combined test with 5 releasing hormones, the plasma ACTH and cortisol responses were not impaired in the majority of the patients before pituitary surgery. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, prolactin (PRL and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH responses were not impaired in 82%, 70% and 67% of the patients, respectively, while the serum LH and GH responses were impaired in 67% and 73% of the patients, respectively. Following pituitary surgery, responses of these hormones to combined testing were similarly impaired in more than 75% of the patients. These results indicate that plasma ACTH, cortisol and serum TSH responses are fairly good before pituitary surgery but are impaired significantly after surgery. No subjects experienced any serious adverse effects related to the testing. These results suggest that combined testing with hypothalamic hormones is a convenient and useful method for evaluating pituitary function.

  14. Prenatal development of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors in the rat anterior pituitary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennes, L. (Wright State Univ. School of Medicine, Dayton, OH (USA))

    1990-02-01

    The development of pituitary GnRH receptors was studied in the rat with in vitro and in vivo autoradiography. GnRH receptors were first seen in pituitary primordia of 13-day-old fetuses. The binding was specific and saturable and was abolished in the presence of 10 microM synthetic GnRH. To examine whether GnRH was available to the fetus, amnionic fluid was collected on days E 12-18. RIA analyses showed that GnRH levels in the amnionic fluid were low on days 12 and 13 (0-20 pM/ml) and rose to 225 pM/ml on day E 16 before they declined to 110 pM/ml on fetal day E 18. The highest levels of GnRH in the amnionic fluid on day E 16 coincided with the first appearance of immunoreactive LH cells, as determined by immunohistochemistry. Intravenous injection of 500 microliters amnionic fluid into pentobarbital-anesthetized adult rats caused a transient 40-60% increase in circulating serum LH in the recipient animal. To show that GnRH from the amnionic fluid has access to the developing pituitary, the 125I-labeled GnRH agonist Buserelin was injected into the amnionic fluid of 13-, 14-, and 15-day-old fetuses in the presence or absence of 10 microM unlabeled GnRH. Autoradiographic analysis of the fetal tissue indicated that the labeled GnRH agonist bound to specific receptors in the primordial pituitaries. The results suggest that the pituitary gonadotropes are differentiated before day E 13 because the expression of GnRH receptors is already an indication of cell determination. Since GnRH is present in the amnionic fluid in a biologically active form and can reach the fetal pituitary, it is concluded that GnRH may be an important factor determining the onset LH synthesis, but not the differentiation, of primordial pituitary cells.

  15. Pituitary cell differentiation from stem cells and other cells: toward restorative therapy for hypopituitarism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Christophe; Vankelecom, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    The pituitary gland, key regulator of our endocrine system, produces multiple hormones that steer essential physiological processes. Hence, deficient pituitary function (hypopituitarism) leads to severe disorders. Hypopituitarism can be caused by defective embryonic development, or by damage through tumor growth/resection and traumatic brain injury. Lifelong hormone replacement is needed but associated with significant side effects. It would be more desirable to restore pituitary tissue and function. Recently, we showed that the adult (mouse) pituitary holds regenerative capacity in which local stem cells are involved. Repair of deficient pituitary may therefore be achieved by activating these resident stem cells. Alternatively, pituitary dysfunction may be mended by cell (replacement) therapy. The hormonal cells to be transplanted could be obtained by (trans-)differentiating various kinds of stem cells or other cells. Here, we summarize the studies on pituitary cell regeneration and on (trans-)differentiation toward hormonal cells, and speculate on restorative therapies for pituitary deficiency.

  16. Nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase is differentially regulated by nuclear and non-nuclear estrogen pathways in anterior pituitary gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena P Cabilla

    Full Text Available 17β-estradiol (E2 regulates hormonal release as well as proliferation and cell death in the pituitary. The main nitric oxide receptor, nitric oxide sensitive- or soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC, is a heterodimer composed of two subunits, α and β, that catalyses cGMP formation. α1β1 is the most abundant and widely expressed heterodimer, showing the greater activity. Previously we have shown that E2 decreased sGC activity but exerts opposite effects on sGC subunits increasing α1 and decreasing β1 mRNA and protein levels. In the present work we investigate the mechanisms by which E2 differentially regulates sGC subunits' expression on rat anterior pituitary gland. Experiments were performed on primary cultures of anterior pituitary cells from adult female Wistar rats at random stages of estrous cycle. After 6 h of E2 treatment, α1 mRNA and protein expression is increased while β1 levels are down-regulated. E2 effects on sGC expression are partially dependent on de novo transcription while de novo translation is fully required. E2 treatment decreased HuR mRNA stabilization factor and increased AUF1 p37 mRNA destabilization factor. E2-elicited β1 mRNA decrease correlates with a mRNA destabilization environment in the anterior pituitary gland. On the other hand, after 6 h of treatment, E2-BSA (1 nM and E2-dendrimer conjugate (EDC, 1 nM were unable to modify α1 or β1 mRNA levels, showing that nuclear receptor is involved in E2 actions. However, at earlier times (3 h, 1 nM EDC causes a transient decrease of α1 in a PI3k-dependent fashion. Our results show for the first time that E2 is able to exert opposite actions in the anterior pituitary gland, depending on the activation of classical or non-classical pathways. Thus, E2 can also modify sGC expression through membrane-initiated signals bringing to light a new point of regulation in NO/sGC pathway.

  17. Melatonin supplementation decreases prolactin synthesis and release in rat adenohypophysis: correlation with anterior pituitary redox state and circadian clock mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Barquilla, Pilar Cano; Pagano, Eleonora S; Fernández-Mateos, Pilar; Esquifino, Ana I; Cardinali, Daniel P

    2012-10-01

    In the laboratory rat, a number of physiological parameters display seasonal changes even under constant conditions of temperature, lighting, and food availability. Since there is evidence that prolactin (PRL) is, among the endocrine signals, a major mediator of seasonal adaptations, the authors aimed to examine whether melatonin administration in drinking water resembling in length the exposure to a winter photoperiod could affect accordingly the 24-h pattern of PRL synthesis and release and some of their anterior pituitary redox state and circadian clock modulatory mechanisms. Melatonin (3 µg/mL drinking water) or vehicle was given for 1 mo, and rats were euthanized at six time intervals during a 24-h cycle. High concentrations of melatonin (>2000 pg/mL) were detected in melatonin-treated rats from beginning of scotophase (at 21:00 h) to early photophase (at 09:00 h) as compared with a considerably narrower high-melatonin phase observed in controls. By cosinor analysis, melatonin-treated rats had significantly decreased MESOR (24-h time-series average) values of anterior pituitary PRL gene expression and circulating PRL, with acrophases (peak time) located in the middle of the scotophase, as in the control group. Melatonin treatment disrupted the 24-h pattern of anterior pituitary gene expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-1 and -2, heme oxygenase-1 and -2, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase, and catalase by shifting their acrophases to early/middle scotophase or amplifying the maxima. Only the inhibitory effect of melatonin on pituitary NOS-2 gene expression correlated temporally with inhibition of PRL production. Gene expression of metallothionein-1 and -3 showed maxima at early/middle photophase after melatonin treatment. The 24-h pattern of anterior pituitary lipid peroxidation did not vary after treatment. In vehicle-treated rats, Clock and Bmal1 expression peaked in the anterior pituitary at middle

  18. Purification and cultivation of human pituitary growth hormone secreting cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    The maintainance of actively secreting human pituitary growth hormone cells (somatotrophs) in vitro was studied. The primary approach was the testing of agents which may be expected to increase the release of the human growth hormone (hGH). A procedure for tissue procurement is described along with the methodologies used to dissociate human pituitary tissue (obtained either at autopsy or surgery) into single cell suspensions. The validity of the Biogel cell column perfusion system for studying the dynamics of GH release was developed and documented using a rat pituitary cell system.

  19. Evolving radiological features of hypothalamo-pituitary lesions in adult patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makras, P. [Athens General Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Athens (Greece); Athens General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Samara, C.; Antoniou, M.; Nikolakopoulou, Z. [Athens Hospital, 9. Pulmonary Department, Athens (Greece); Zetos, A. [General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Athens (Greece); Papadogias, D.; Piaditis, G.; Kaltsas, G.A. [Athens General Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Athens (Greece); Toloumis, G. [Athens General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Athens (Greece); Andreakos, E.; Kontogeorgos, G.

    2006-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare, systemic disease caused by monoclonal expansion of dendritic cells that shows a particular predilection for the hypothalamic-pituitary system (HPS). We studied the function (anterior and posterior pituitary hormonal secretion) and morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the HPS in 17 adult patients (seven males, median age 35 years, range 18-59 years) with multisystem LCH. We also evaluated the evolution of structural HPS abnormalities in relation to pituitary function and response to treatment in 12 of these patients during a median follow-up period of 3.75 years (range 1.5-10 years). Of the 17 patients, 14 (82%) had abnormal HPS imaging, and 12 (70%) had more than one area involved. Lack of the bright spot of the posterior pituitary lobe was typically found in all patients with the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus (DI). Eight patients (47%) had infundibular enlargement, six (35%) pituitary infiltration, four (24%) partially or completely empty sella, three (18%) hypothalamic involvement, and two (12%) infundibular atrophy. DI was found in 16 patients (94%) and anterior pituitary hormonal deficiency (APHD) in 10 patients (59%); two patients had single (12%) and 8 (47%) multiple APHD. During the follow-up period there was improvement of the initially demonstrated HPS pathology in seven (47%) patients, and five (33%) of them had received at least one form of treatment. APHD and DI persisted in all patients except in one in whom established gonadotrophin deficiency recovered. In summary, DI and APHD are very common in patients with multisystem LCH and are almost always associated with abnormal HPS imaging. (orig.)

  20. Pituitary null cell adenoma in a domestic llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, M D; Kiupel, M; Draper, A C E

    2014-07-01

    Pituitary gland neoplasia has been reported rarely in camelids. A 12-year-old neutered male llama (Lama glama) presented with lethargy, inappetence and neurological signs. On physical examination, the llama was mentally dull and exhibited compulsive pacing and circling to the left. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry revealed haemoconcentration, mild hypophosphataemia, hyperglycaemia, hypercreatininaemia and hyperalbuminaemia. Humane destruction was elected due to rapid clinical deterioration and poor prognosis. Post-mortem examination revealed a pituitary macroadenoma and bilateral internal hydrocephalus. Microscopically, the pituitary tumour was composed of neoplastic chromophobic pituitary cells. Ultrastructural studies revealed similar neoplastic cells to those previously described in human null cell adenomas. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly immunoreactive for neuroendocrine markers (synaptophysin and chromogranin A), but did not exhibit immunoreactivity for epithelial, mesenchymal, neuronal and all major pituitary hormone markers (adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone), consistent with the diagnosis of a pituitary null cell adenoma. This is the first report of pituitary neoplasia in a llama.

  1. Hypergravity and estrogen effects on avian anterior pituitary growth hormone and prolactin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorindo, R. P.; Negulesco, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Developing female chicks with fractured right radii were maintained for 14 d at either earth gravity (1 g) or a hypergravity state (2 g). The birds at 1 g were divided into groups which received daily injections of (1) saline, (2) 200 micrograms estrone, and (3) 400 micrograms estrone for 14 d. The 2-g birds were divided into three similarly treated groups. All 2-g birds showed significantly lower body weights than did 1-g birds. Anterior pituitary (AP) glands were excised and analyzed for growth hormone and prolactin content by analytical electrophoresis. The 1-g chicks receiving either dose of daily estrogen showed increased AP growth hormone levels, whereas hypergravity alone did not affect growth hormone content. Chicks exposed to daily estrogen and hypergravity displayed reduced growth hormone levels. AP prolactin levels were slightly increased by the lower daily estrogen dose in 1-g birds, but markedly reduced in birds exposed only to hypergravity. Doubly-treated chicks displayed normal prolactin levels. Reduced growth in 2-g birds might be due, in part, to reduced AP levels of prolactin and/or growth hormone.

  2. Blood plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones of rabbits after apricot seed exposure in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína MICHALCOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes possible changes in plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones induced by bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. seeds in young female rabbits in vivo. Prunus armeniaca L. is an important medicinal edible plant species commonly known as “apricot”. The apricot is a member of the Rosaceae and subfamily Prunoideae. It is one of the most delicious and commercially traded fruits in the world. Apricot kernel is the inner part of the seed of the apricot fruit. The kernel is used to produce oil and other chemicals used for medicinal purposes. The seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and for treatment several diseases especially cancer. In the present study apricot seeds were mixed with feed at different doses 0, 60, 300, 420 mg*kg-1 of body weight. ELISA was used to determine the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and prolactin (PRL. 58-days application of apricot seeds did not affect the concentration (P≥0.05 of PRL, LH in blood plasma. Significant (P≤0.01 inhibition of FSH levels induced by the seeds was found at the dose of 420 mg*kg-1 but not at 60 and 300 mg*kg-1 of body weight. These results are suggesting that the natural substances present in apricot seeds may be involved in mechanisms of ovarian folliculogenesis.

  3. Changes in pituitary growth hormone cells prepared from rats flown on Spacelab 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R.; Hymer, W. C.; Farrington, M.; Fast, T.; Hayes, C.; Motter, K.; Patil, L.; Vasques, M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of exposure to microgravity on pituitary gland was investigated by examining cells isolated from anterior pituitaries of rats flown on the 7-day Spacelab 3 mission and, subsequently, cultured for 6 days. Compared with ground controls, flight cells contained more intracellular growth hormone (GH); however, the flight cells released less GH over the 6-day culture period and after implantation into hypophysectomized rats than did the control cells. Compared with control rats, glands from large rats (400 g) contained more somatotrophs (44 percent compared with 37 percent in control rats); small rats (200 g) showed no difference. No major differences were found in the somatotroph ultrastructure (by TEM) or in the pattern of the immunoactive GH variants. However, high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of culture media indicated that flight cells released much less of a biologically active high-molecular weight GH variant, suggesting that space flight may lead to secretory dysfunction.

  4. Somatomammotrophic cells in GH-secreting and PRL-secreting human pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, M; Brina, M; Spada, A; Giannattasio, G

    1989-11-01

    A morphological study has been carried out on 20 GH-secreting adenomas removed from acromegalic normoprolactinemic patients, on 29 PRL-secreting adenomas removed from hyperprolactinemic patients without signs of acromegaly and on one normal human anterior pituitary gland collected at autopsy. The protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopic technique has been utilized in order to verify the presence of mixed cells producing both GH and PRL (somatomammotrophs) in these pituitary tissues. In the normal pituitary a considerable number of somatomammotrophs (15-20%) was found, thus supporting the idea that these cells are normal components of the human anterior pituitary gland. In 10 GH-secreting adenomas and in 10 PRL-secreting adenomas somatomammotrophs were present in a variable number (from 4 to 20% of the whole cell population in GH adenomas and from 1 to 47% in PRL tumors). It can be concluded therefore that these cells, largely present in all GH/PRL-secreting adenomas, can also be found in GH-secreting and PRL-secreting tumors without clinical evidence of a mixed secretion. Adenomatous somatomammotrophs displayed ultrastructural features of adenomatous somatotrophs and mammotrophs (prominent Golgi complexes, abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, irregular nuclei). The size and the number of granules were variable. In some cells GH and PRL were stored in distinct secretory granules, in others in mixed granules or both in mixed and distinct granules, thus suggesting that in adenomatous somatomammotrophs the efficiency of the mechanisms of sorting of the two hormones varies from one cell to another.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbôa P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID, an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P<0.05, while the EB-treated OVX group showed activity similar to that of the normal group. Thyroid 5'-ID-I showed the same pattern of changes, but these changes were not statistically significant. Pituitary and hepatic 5'-ID-II did not show major alterations. The treatment with the higher EB dose (14 µg, contrary to the results obtained with the lower dose, had no effect on the reduced pituitary 5'-ID-I of OVX rats. However, it induced an important increment of 5'-ID-I in the thyroid gland (0.8 times higher than that of the normal group: control = 131.9 ± 23.7 vs ovx + EB 14 µg = 248.0 ± 31.2; P<0.05, which is associated with increased serum TSH (0.6-fold vs OVX, P<0.05 but normal serum free T3 and free T4. The data suggest that estrogen is a physiological stimulator of anterior pituitary 5'-ID-I and a potent stimulator of the thyroid enzyme when employed at high doses

  6. Estradiol potentiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone responsiveness in the anterior pituitary is mediated by an increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, M.; Peegel, H.; Katta, V.

    1985-02-15

    In order to investigate the mechanism by which 17 beta-estradiol potentiates the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone on the anterior pituitary in vitro, cultured pituitary cells from immature female rats were used as the model system. Cultures exposed to estradiol at concentrations ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/L exhibited a significant augmentation of luteinizing hormone release in response to a 4-hour gonadotropin-releasing hormone (10 mumol/L) challenge at a dose of 10(-9) mol/L compared to that of control cultures. The estradiol augmentation of luteinizing hormone release was also dependent on the duration of estradiol exposure. When these cultures were incubated with tritium-labeled L-leucine, an increase in incorporation of radiolabeled amino acid into total proteins greater than that in controls was observed. A parallel stimulatory effect of estradiol on iodine 125-labeled D-Ala6 gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding was observed. Cultures incubated with estradiol at different concentrations and various lengths of time showed a significant increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding capacity and this increase was abrogated by cycloheximide. Analysis of the binding data showed that the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding activity was due to a change in the number of gonadotropin-releasing hormone binding sites rather than a change in the affinity. These results suggest that (1) estradiol treatment increases the number of pituitary receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone, (2) the augmentary effect of estradiol on luteinizing hormone release at the pituitary level might be mediated, at least in part, by the increase in the number of binding sites of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and (3) new protein synthesis may be involved in estradiol-mediated gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor induction.

  7. Purification and cultivation of human pituitary growth hormone secreting cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Efforts were directed towards maintenance of actively secreting human pituitary growth hormone cells (somatotrophs) in vitro. The production of human growth hormone (hGH) by this means would be of benefit for the treatment of certain human hypopituitary diseases such as dwarfism. One of the primary approaches was the testing of agents which may logically be expected to increase hGH release. The progress towards this goal is summarized. Results from preliminary experiments dealing with electrophoresis of pituitary cell for the purpose of somatotroph separation are described.

  8. Influence of apricot kernels on blood plasma levels of selected anterior pituitary hormones in male and female rabbits in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Michalcová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is represented in the family Rosacea more precisely in an apricot kernels and an almonds. There are a lot of components such as trace elements, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, esters, phenols, terpenoids, except cyanogenic glycoside in the seeds. It is known that bioregulators can modulate the activity of specific enzymes and hormones very exactly at low levels and in a short time. The aim of our study was examine the effects of selected doses (0, 60, 300, 420 mg/kg b.w. of apricot kernels in feed on the plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones in young male and female rabbits in vivo. A sensitive, biochemical method, ELISA was used to determine the hormones prolactin (PRL, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. 28-day application of apricot kernels did not affect the concentration of PRL, LH, FSH in blood plasma of males. No significant (P≤0.05 differences in case of PRL and LH levels in the blood plasma of females were found. On the other hand a significant (P≤0.05 inhibition of FSH release induced by kernels at the doses 300, 420 mg/kg was found. Our results indicate that apricot kernels could affect secretion of anterior pituitary hormone FSH in female rabbits.

  9. Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated mitochondrial damage plays a critical role in T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis and growth hormone deficiency in rat anterior pituitary GH3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianglian; Guo, Pu; Liu, Aimei; Wu, Qinghua; Xue, Xijuan; Dai, Menghong; Hao, Haihong; Qu, Wei; Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-04-01

    T-2 toxin, a major compound of trichothecenes, induces cell apoptosis and growth hormone (GH) deficiency and causes considerable growth retardation in animals and human cells. However, the mechanism underlying its growth suppression still remains unclear. Recent studies have suggested that ROS induced cell apoptosis and animal feed intake reduction, but there are limited reports on the role of RNS in T-2 toxin-mediated mitochondrial damage, cell apoptosis and growth retardation. Herein, T-2 toxin-induced GH3 cell damage and apoptosis were tested by MTT assay, LDH leakage and flow cytometry, respectively. Intracellular NO and antioxidant enzyme activity, ΔΨm, morphometric changes of mitochondria, the caspase pathway, and inflammatory factors were investigated. Free radical scavengers NAC, SOD and NO scavenger haemoglobin were used to explore the role of oxidative stress and the relationship between NO production and caspase pathway. The results clearly revealed that T-2 toxin caused significant increases in NO generation, cell apoptosis, GH deficiency, increased iNOS activity, upregulation of inflammatory factors and caspase pathway, decreases in ΔΨm and morphosis damage. These data suggest that mitochondria are a primary target of T-2 toxin-induced NO, and NO is a key mediator of T-2 toxin-induced cell apoptosis and GH deficiency via the mitochondria-dependent pathway in cells.

  10. Electrophoretic separation of kidney and pituitary cells on STS-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. R.; Nachtwey, D. S.; Barlow, G. H.; Cleveland, C.; Lanham, J. W.; Farrington, M. A.; Hatfield, J. M.; Hymer, W. C.; Todd, P.; Wilfinger, W.; Grindeland, R.; Lewis, M. L.

    A Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES) was used on Space Shuttle flight STS-8 to separate specific secretory cells from suspensions of cultured primary human embryonic kidney cells and rat pituitary cells. The objectives were to isolate the subfractions of kidney cells that produce the largest amounts of urokinase (plasminogen activator), and to isolate the subfractions of rat pituitary cells that secrete growth hormone, prolactin, and other hormones. Kidney cells were separated into more than 32 fractions in each of two electrophoretic runs. Electrophoretic mobility distributions in flight experiments were spread more than the ground controls. Multiple assay methods confirmed that all cultured kidney cell fractions produced some urokinase, and five to six fractions produced significantly more urokinase than the other fractions. Several fractions also produced tissue plasminogen activator. The pituitary cells were separated into 48 fractions in each of the two electrophoretic runs, and the amounts of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) released into the medium for each cell fraction were determined. Cell fractions were grouped into eight mobility classes and immunocytochemically assayed for the presence of GH, PRL, ACTH, LH, TSH, and FSH. The patterns of hormone distribution indicate that the specialized cells producing GH and PRL are isolatable due to the differences in electrophoretic mobilities.

  11. Expression of growth hormone (GH)-releasing factor gene in GH-producing pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, I; Inokuchi, K; Hasegawa, O; Sugihara, H; Minami, S

    1992-02-01

    Pituitary cells synthesize various neuropeptides that influence pituitary hormone secretion. GH-releasing factor (GRF) may also be produced by normal or pituitary tumor cells. We examined GRF gene expression in pituitary tumors. Standard techniques for the analysis of GRF gene expression did not appear to be suitable. Highly sensitive reverse transcription coupled to polymerase chain reaction was used. Specimens of pituitary adenoma were obtained by transsphenoidal adenomectomy from six patients with acromegaly and three patients with no clinical evidence of pituitary hormone overproduction; non-functioning adenoma. Pituitary glands were collected at autopsy from three patients who died from nonendocrine disorders. A specific GRF gene transcript was detected in five out of six GH-producing pituitary adenomas, whereas this was not found in three separate specimens of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma or anterior and posterior pituitary tissue. The data suggest that GRF is synthesized as an intrinsic product in human GH-producing pituitary adenoma.

  12. Purification and Cultivation of Human Pituitary Growth Hormones Secreting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Todd, P.; Grindeland, R.; Lanham, W.; Morrison, D.

    1985-01-01

    The rat and human pituitary gland contains a mixture of hormone producing cell types. The separation of cells which make growth hormone (GH) is attempted for the purpose of understanding how the hormone molecule is made within the pituitary cell; what form(s) it takes within the cell; and what form(s) GH assumes as it leaves the cell. Since GH has a number of biological targets (e.g., muscle, liver, bone), the assessment of the activities of the intracellular/extracellular GH by new and sensitive bioassays. GH cells contained in the mixture was separated by free flow electrophoresis. These experiments show that GH cells have different electrophoretic mobilities. This is relevant to NASA since a lack of GH could be a prime causative factor in muscle atrophy. Further, GH has recently been implicated in the etiology of motion sickness in space. Continous flow electrophoresis experiment on STS-8 showed that GH cells could be partially separated in microgravity. However, definitive cell culture studies could not be done due to insufficient cell recoveries.

  13. A five year prospective investigation of anterior pituitary function after traumatic brain injury: is hypopituitarism long-term after head trauma associated with autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriverdi, Fatih; De Bellis, Annamaria; Ulutabanca, Halil; Bizzarro, Antonio; Sinisi, Antonio A; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Amoresano Paglionico, Vanda; Dalla Mora, Liliana; Selcuklu, Ahmed; Unluhizarci, Kursad; Casanueva, Felipe F; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2013-08-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been recently recognized as a common cause of pituitary dysfunction. However, there are not sufficient numbers of prospective studies to understand the natural history of TBI induced hypopituitarism. The aim was to report the results of five years' prospective follow-up of anterior pituitary function in patients with mild, moderate and severe TBI. Moreover, we have prospectively investigated the associations between TBI induced hypopituitarism and presence of anti-hypothalamus antibodies (AHA) and anti-pituitary antibodies (APA). Twenty five patients (20 men, five women) were included who were prospectively evaluated 12 months and five years after TBI, and 17 of them also had a third-year evaluation. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is the most common pituitary hormone deficit at one, three, and five years after TBI. Although most of the pituitary hormone deficiencies improve over time, there were substantial percentages of pituitary hormone deficiencies at the fifth year (28% GH, 4% adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], and 4% gonadotropin deficiencies). Pituitary dysfunction was significantly higher in strongly AHA- and APA-positive (titers ≥1/16) patients at the fifth year. In patients with mild and moderate TBI, ACTH and GH deficiencies may improve over time in a considerable number of patients but, although rarely, may also worsen over the five-year period. However in severe TBI, ACTH and GH status of the patients at the first year evaluation persisted at the fifth year. Therefore, screening pituitary function after TBI for five years is important, especially in patients with mild TBI. Moreover, close strong associations between the presence of high titers of APA and/or AHA and hypopituitarism at the fifth year were shown for the first time.

  14. The pathophysiology of pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworakowska, Dorota; Grossman, Ashley B

    2009-10-01

    The pathogenesis of tumour formation in the anterior pituitary has been intensively studied, but the causative mechanisms involved in pituitary cell transformation and tumourigenesis remain elusive. Most pituitary tumours are sporadic, but some arise as a component of genetic syndromes such as the McCune-Albright syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex and, the most recently described, a MEN1-like phenotype (MEN4) and pituitary adenoma predisposition syndromes. Some specific genes have been identified that predispose to pituitary neoplasia (GNAS, MEN1, PRKAR1A, CDKN1B and AIP), but these are rarely involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic tumours. Mutations of tumour suppressor genes or oncogenes, as seen in more common cancers, do not seem to play an important role in the great majority of pituitary adenomas. The pituitary tumour transforming gene (PTTG; securin) was the first transforming gene found to be highly expressed in pituitary tumour cells, and seems to play an important role in the process of oncogenesis. Many tumour suppressor genes, especially those involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, are under-expressed, most often by epigenetic modulation - usually promoter hypermethylation - but the regulator of these co-ordinated series of methylations is also unclear. Cell signalling abnormalities have been identified in pituitary tumours, but their genetic basis is unknown. Both Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways are over-expressed and/or over-activated in pituitary tumours: these pathways share a common root, including initial activation related to the tyrosine kinase receptor, and we speculate that a change to these receptors or their relationship to membrane matrix-related proteins may be an early event in pituitary tumourigenesis.

  15. Single-cell qPCR on dispersed primary pituitary cells -an optimized protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Trude M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of false positives is a potential problem in single-cell PCR experiments. This paper describes an optimized protocol for single-cell qPCR measurements in primary pituitary cell cultures following patch-clamp recordings. Two different cell harvesting methods were assessed using both the GH4 prolactin producing cell line from rat, and primary cell culture from fish pituitaries. Results Harvesting whole cells followed by cell lysis and qPCR performed satisfactory on the GH4 cell line. However, harvesting of whole cells from primary pituitary cultures regularly produced false positives, probably due to RNA leakage from cells ruptured during the dispersion of the pituitary cells. To reduce RNA contamination affecting the results, we optimized the conditions by harvesting only the cytosol through a patch pipette, subsequent to electrophysiological experiments. Two important factors proved crucial for reliable harvesting. First, silanizing the patch pipette glass prevented foreign extracellular RNA from attaching to charged residues on the glass surface. Second, substituting the commonly used perforating antibiotic amphotericin B with β-escin allowed efficient cytosol harvest without loosing the giga seal. Importantly, the two harvesting protocols revealed no difference in RNA isolation efficiency. Conclusion Depending on the cell type and preparation, validation of the harvesting technique is extremely important as contaminations may give false positives. Here we present an optimized protocol allowing secure harvesting of RNA from single cells in primary pituitary cell culture following perforated whole cell patch clamp experiments.

  16. Distribution Patterns and Developmental Changes of GnRH and GnRHR-Immunopositive Cells in the Pituitary of Ji Ning Gray Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao, Wang Shu-Ying, Huang Li-Bo, Hou Yan-Meng and Shi Yun-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemical Strept Avidin Biotin-Peroxidase Complex (SABC three-step method was used to investigate the distribution patterns and developmental changes of GnRH and GnRHR immunopositive (GnRH-ip and GnRHR-ip cells in the pituitary of Ji Ning Gray goats during 0-180 days of age. The results showed that GnRH-ip and GnRHR-ip cells were detected only in the pars distalis of adenohypophysis. There were no positive cells in the pars intermedia and neurohypophysis. GnRH-ip and GnRHR-ip cells were not observed in the anterior pituitary at birth day and 30 days of age. At 60 days, a number of GnRH-ip and GnRHR-ip cells were found in the anterior pituitary. GnRH-ip cells were pale brown which scattered or clustered around the sinusoid capillary; GnRHR-ip cells were brown and the cytomembrane was darker. The size and percentage of GnRH-ip and GnRHR-ip cells increased with the age growth. The numbers of GnRH-ip and GnRHR-ip cells after sexual maturity were significantly bigger than that before sexual maturity. The results above suggested that GnRH and GnRHR in the pituitary of Ji Ning Gray goats play a pivotal role in the sexual development and sexual maturity.

  17. Light bodies in human pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1987-01-01

    by transmission electron microscopy. Double membrane bound bodies with filamentous internal structure identical to rodent light bodies were identified in 10 hormone-producing adenomas: 5 PRL, 1 PRL-GH, 2 GH, and 2 ACTH-producing tumours. No light bodies were found in the remaining 79 tumours nor in the pituitary......Light bodies are large cytoplasmic granules originally described in the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland. In order to determine whether similar bodies occur in the human anterior pituitary gland, 89 pituitary adenomas and periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases were examined...... cells in periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases. These results show that some human pituitary adenomas may contain light bodies identical to those seen in gonadotrophs of rat pituitary....

  18. IN VITRO CELL CULTURE AND HORMONE RADIOIMMUNOASSAY OF HUAMAN PITUITARY ADENOMAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆汉魁; 林祥通; 等

    1994-01-01

    Tissues from 30 human pituitary adenomas are monolayer-cell-cultured in vitro.Hormone secretion of GH,PRL,TSH,LH and FSH by cells into medium is detected by radioimmunoassay .The pattern and amount of hormone(s0 in the medium are used to determine the nature of the cells and thus to establish functional classification of pituitary adenomas.The results show that cell culture technique provides and easy and suitable mode for investigating the nature of pituitary adenomas.Hormone radioimmunoassay of culture medium is precise and reliable and represents the whole adenoma tissue.Further studies can lead to clearer understandngs of the pathology of pituitary adenomas.

  19. Effect of THIP and SL 76002, two clinically experimented GABA-mimetic compounds, on anterior pituitary GABA receptors and prolactin secretion in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apud, J.A.; Masotto, C.; Racagni, G.

    1987-03-02

    In the present study, the ability of three direct GABA agonists, muscimol, THIP and SL 76002 to displace /sup 3/H-GABA binding from anterior pituitary and medio-basal hypothalamus membranes was evaluated. Further, the effect of both THIP and SL 76002 on baseline prolactin levels or after stimulation of hormone release with haloperidol has been also studied. Either muscimol, THIP or SL 76002 have shown to posses 7-, 7- and 3-fold higher affinity, respectively, for the central nervous system than for the anterior pituitary /sup 3/H-GABA binding sites. Moreover, THIP and SL 76002 have demonstrated to be respectively, 25- and 1000- fold less potent than muscimol in inhibiting /sup 3/H- GABA binding at the level of the anterior pituitary and about 25- and 2700-fold less potent at the level of the medio-basal hypothalamus. Under basal conditions, either THIP or SL 76002 were ineffective to reduce prolactin release. However, after stimulation of prolactin secretion through blockade of the dopaminergic neurotransmission with haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), both THIP (10 mg/kg) and SL 76002 (200 mg/kg) significantly counteracted the neuroleptic-induced prolactin rise with a potency which is in line with their ability to inhibit /sup 3/H-GABA binding in the anterior pituitary. The present results indicate that both compounds inhibit prolactin release under specific experimental situations probably through a GABAergic mechanism. In view of the endocrine effects of these GABA-mimetic compounds, the possibility arises for an application of these type of drugs in clinical neuroendocrinology. 35 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Disulfiram sensitizes pituitary adenoma cells to temozolomide by regulating O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yachao; Xiao, Zheng; Chen, Wenna; Yang, Jinsheng; Li, Tao; Fan, Bo

    2015-08-01

    O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity is responsible for temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in patients harboring aggressive pituitary adenomas. Recently, disulfiram (DSF) has been shown to induce the loss of MGMT protein and increase TMZ efficacy in glioblastoma cells, while CD133+ nestin+ cells isolated from the cell population have been implicated as pituitary adenoma stem-like cells. However, whether DSF is able to potentiate the cytotoxic effects of TMZ on human pituitary adenoma cells has not been investigated to date. In the present study, CD133+ nestin+ phenotype cells were isolated from primary cultured human pituitary adenoma cells using microbeads. It was found that DSF reduced MGMT protein expression and sensitized human pituitary adenoma cells and stem-like cells to TMZ in vitro, while the proteasome inhibitor PS-341 abrogated the inhibitory effect of DSF on MGMT in vitro. The sensitizing effect of DSF was also verified in primary cultured human pituitary adenoma cells in vivo. The results of the present study suggested that DSF can increase the efficacy of the anti-tumor effect of TMZ on human pituitary adenoma cells and CD133+ nestin+ stem like cells via the ubiquitin-proteasomal MGMT protein elimination route. DSF combined with TMZ may be an effective therapeutic strategy against aggressive pituitary adenomas.

  1. Regulation of pituitary hormones and cell proliferation by components of the extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paez-Pereda

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix is a three-dimensional network of proteins, glycosaminoglycans and other macromolecules. It has a structural support function as well as a role in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The extracellular matrix conveys signals through membrane receptors called integrins and plays an important role in pituitary physiology and tumorigenesis. There is a differential expression of extracellular matrix components and integrins during the pituitary development in the embryo and during tumorigenesis in the adult. Different extracellular matrix components regulate adrenocorticotropin at the level of the proopiomelanocortin gene transcription. The extracellular matrix also controls the proliferation of adrenocorticotropin-secreting tumor cells. On the other hand, laminin regulates the production of prolactin. Laminin has a dynamic pattern of expression during prolactinoma development with lower levels in the early pituitary hyperplasia and a strong reduction in fully grown prolactinomas. Therefore, the expression of extracellular matrix components plays a role in pituitary tumorigenesis. On the other hand, the remodeling of the extracellular matrix affects pituitary cell proliferation. Matrix metalloproteinase activity is very high in all types of human pituitary adenomas. Matrix metalloproteinase secreted by pituitary cells can release growth factors from the extracellular matrix that, in turn, control pituitary cell proliferation and hormone secretion. In summary, the differential expression of extracellular matrix components, integrins and matrix metalloproteinase contributes to the control of pituitary hormone production and cell proliferation during tumorigenesis.

  2. Mobilized adult pituitary stem cells contribute to endocrine regeneration in response to physiological demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoti, Karine; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Lovell-Badge, Robin

    2013-10-03

    Pituitary hormone deficiencies, with Growth Hormone deficiency being most frequent (1 in 3,500-10,000 births), cause significant morbidity. Regeneration of missing endocrine cells would be a significant improvement over hormone replacement therapies, which incur side effects and do not mimic physiological secretion patterns. Recent in vitro studies have identified a population of adult pituitary progenitors that express the HMG box transcription factors SOX2 and SOX9. Here, we apply cell-lineage tracing analysis to demonstrate that SOX2- and SOX9-expressing progenitors can self-renew and give rise to endocrine cells in vivo, suggesting that they are tissue stem cells. Moreover, we show that they can become mobilized and differentiate into the appropriate endocrine cell types in response to physiological stress. Our results highlight the pituitary as a model for exploring how physiological changes influence stem cell behavior and suggest that manipulation of endogenous pituitary stem cells is a potential therapeutic strategy for pituitary deficiencies.

  3. Effect of angiotensin II, catecholamines and glucocorticoid on corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-induced ACTH release in pituitary cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami,Kazuharu

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of angiotensin II, catecholamines and glucocorticoid on CRF-induced ACTH release were examined using rat anterior pituitary cells in monolayer culture. Synthetic ovine CRF induced a significant ACTH release in this system. Angiotensin II produced an additive effect on CRF-induced ACTH release. The ACTH releasing activity of CRF was potentiated by epinephrine and norepinephrine. Dopamine itself at 0.03-30 ng/ml did not show any significant effect on ACTH release, but it inhibited CRF-induced ACTH release. Corticosterone at 10(-7 and 10(-6M inhibited CRF-induced ACTH release. These results indicate that angiotensin II, catecholamines and glucocorticoid modulate ACTH release at the pituitary level.

  4. Primary intravascular large B-cell lymphoma of pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K R Anila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old retired nurse, who was a known hypertensive on medication, presented with prolonged fever of 2-month duration without any clinical evidence of infection. On examination she had altered mental status. She also had other nonspecific complaints such as sleep disturbances, loss of weight, etc. On investigation, she was found to have anemia, thrombocytopenia, raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH values. She also had electrolyte imbalance. Radiological evaluation of brain showed mass lesion in the sella turcica, suggestive of pituitary adenoma. Biochemical evaluation showed hypopituitarism. Trans-sphenoidal biopsy was done. Based on histopathological and immunohistochemical findings a diagnosis of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL of pituitary was made. Our patient′s condition deteriorated rapidly and she succumbed to her illness before therapy could be initiated. We are reporting this case because of the rare subtype of large B-cell lymphoma presenting at an extremely unusual primary site.

  5. Electrophoretic separation of cells and particles from rat pituitary and rat spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Wesley C.

    1993-01-01

    There are 3 parts to the IML-2 TX-101 experiment. Part 1 is a pituitary cell culture experiment. Part 2 is a pituitary cell separation experiment using the Japanese free flow electrophoresis unit (FFEU). Part 3 is a pituitary secretory granule separation experiment using the FFEU. The objectives of this three part experiment are: (1) to determine the kinetics of production of biologically active growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) in rat pituitary GH and PRL cells in microgravity (micro-g); (2) to investigate three mechanisms by which a micro-g-induced lesion in hormone production may occur; and (3) to determine the quality of separations of pituitary cells and organelles by continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE) in micro-g under conditions where buoyancy-induced convection is eliminated.

  6. TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell HP75 facilitates cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Pan, Suxia; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Huanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), a regulatory protein composed of 59 amino acids, has been suggested to be involved in pathogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, invasion, migration and apoptosis in multiple malignant tumors. This study thus investigated the effect of TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell line HP75 on cell apoptosis and related pathways. RNA interference approach was used to knock down the expression of TFF3 protein. The gene silencing was validated by RNA denaturing gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. The effect of TFF3 knockout on cell apoptosis was analyzed by Western blotting and flow cytometry. TFF3 protein level in pituitary adenoma was about 3.61 ± 0.48 folds of that in normal tissues (P TFF3, the apoptotic ration was significantly elevated (P TFF3 protein knockout can facilitate apoptosis of human pituitary adenoma HP75 cells via mitochondrial pathway.

  7. TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell HP75 facilitates cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Pan, Suxia; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Huanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), a regulatory protein composed of 59 amino acids, has been suggested to be involved in pathogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, invasion, migration and apoptosis in multiple malignant tumors. This study thus investigated the effect of TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell line HP75 on cell apoptosis and related pathways. RNA interference approach was used to knock down the expression of TFF3 protein. The gene silencing was validated by RNA denaturing gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. The effect of TFF3 knockout on cell apoptosis was analyzed by Western blotting and flow cytometry. TFF3 protein level in pituitary adenoma was about 3.61 ± 0.48 folds of that in normal tissues (P TFF3, the apoptotic ration was significantly elevated (P TFF3 protein knockout can facilitate apoptosis of human pituitary adenoma HP75 cells via mitochondrial pathway. PMID:26823779

  8. The HMG-box transcription factor Sox4b is required for pituitary expression of gata2a and specification of thyrotrope and gonadotrope cells in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Yobhana; Lopez, Mauricio; Mavropoulos, Anastasia; Motte, Patrick; Martial, Joseph A; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Muller, Marc

    2012-06-01

    The pituitary is a complex gland comprising different cell types each secreting specific hormones. The extensive network of signaling molecules and transcription factors required for determination and terminal differentiation of specific cell types is still not fully understood. The SRY-like HMG-box (SOX) transcription factor Sox4 plays important roles in many developmental processes and has two homologs in zebrafish, Sox4a and Sox4b. We show that the sox4b gene is expressed in the pituitary anlagen starting at 24 h after fertilization (hpf) and later in the entire head region including the pituitary. At 48 hpf, sox4b mRNA colocalizes with that for TSH (tshβ), glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα), and the Zn finger transcription factor Gata2a. Loss of Sox4b function, using morpholino knockdown or expression of a dominant-negative Sox4 mutant, leads to a drastic decrease in tshβ and gsuα expression and reduced levels of gh, whereas other anterior pituitary gland markers including prl, slβ, pomc, and lim3 are not affected. Sox4b is also required for expression of gata2a in the pituitary. Knockdown of gata2a leads to decreased tshβ and gsuα expression at 48 hpf, similar to sox4b morphants. Injection of gata2a mRNA into sox4b morphants rescued tshβ and gsuα expression in thyrotrope cells. Finally, sox4b or gata2a knockdown causes a significant decrease of gonadotropin expression (lhβ and fshβ) at 4 d after fertilization. In summary, our results indicate that Sox4b is expressed in zebrafish during pituitary development and plays a crucial role in the differentiation of thyrotrope and gonadotrope cells through induction of gata2a expression in the developing pituitary.

  9. Pituitary Metastasis from Renal Cell Carcinoma: Description of a Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Chloé; Campitiello, Marco; Plastino, Francesca; Eid, Nada; Hennequin, Laurent; Quétin, Philippe; Longo, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 61 Final Diagnosis: Pituitary metastasis from renal cell carcinoma Symptoms: Deterioration of visual acuity and field • persisting headache • excess thirst • polyuria Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Total body CT-scan • brain MRI • trans-sphenoidal endoscopical surgery • radiotherapy • anti-angiogenic therapy Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: Pituitary metastasis is uncommon, breast and lung cancers being the most frequent primary tumors. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a rare cause of pituitary metastases, with only a few cases described to date. Case Report: We report a case of a 61-year-old man who presented with a progressive deterioration of visual acuity and field associated with a bitemporal hemianopsia. Two years ago, he underwent radical right nephrectomy for a clear cell RCC (ccRCC). The biological tests showed pan-hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus. Brain MRI revealed a large sellar tumor lesion bilaterally infiltrating the cavernous sinuses, which was surgically resected. Histology confirmed a ccRCC pituitary metastasis. The patient received post-surgical radiotherapy. Considering the presence of concomitant extra-pituitary metastases, treatment with sunitinib was started, followed by several lines of therapy with axitinib, everolimus, and sorafenib because of tumor progression. The patient also presented with a pituitary tumor recurrence, which was treated by stereotaxic radiotherapy. He died five years after the initial diagnosis of RCC and 30 months after the diagnosis of the pituitary metastasis. Conclusions: There are no standardized treatment guidelines for management of pituitary metastases. Pituitary surgery plays a role in symptom palliation, and it does not have any relevant impact on survival. Exclusive radiotherapy or stereotaxic radiotherapy could be an alternative to surgery in patients whose general condition is poor or who have concomitant extra-pituitary metastases. PMID:28044054

  10. Contemporary issues in the evaluation and management of pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekic, S; Stojanovic, M; Popovic, V

    2015-12-01

    Pituitary adenomas are common benign monoclonal neoplasms accounting for about 15% of intracranial neoplasms. Data from postmortem studies and imaging studies suggest that 1 of 5 individuals in the general population may have pituitary adenoma. Some pituitary adenomas (mainly microadenomas which have a diameter of less than 1 cm) are exceedingly common and are incidentally diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for an unrelated reason (headache, vertigo, head trauma). Most microadenomas remain clinically occult and stable in size, without an increase in tumor cells and without local mass effects. However, some pituitary adenomas grow slowly, enlarge by expansion and become demarcated from normal pituitary (macroadenomas have a diameter greater than 1 cm). They may be clinically silent or secrete anterior pituitary hormones in excess such as prolactin, growth hormone (GH), or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causing diseases like prolactinoma, acromegaly, Cushing's disease or rarely thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or gonadotropins (LH, FSH). The incidence of the various subtypes of pituitary adenoma varies but the most common is prolactinoma. Clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), which do not secrete hormones often cause local mass symptoms and represent one-third of pituitary adenomas. Given the high prevalence of pituitary adenomas and their heterogeneity (different tumor subtypes), it is critical that clinicians have a thorough understanding of the potential abnormalities in pituitary function and prognostic factors for behavior of pituitary adenomas in order to timely implement specific treatment modalities. Regarding pathogenesis of these tumors genetics, epigenetics and signaling pathways are the focus of current research yet our understanding of pituitary tumorigenesis remains incomplete. Although several genes and signaling pathways have been identified as important factors in the development of pituitary tumors, current

  11. A GRFa2/Prop1/stem (GPS cell niche in the pituitary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montse Garcia-Lavandeira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adult endocrine pituitary is known to host several hormone-producing cells regulating major physiological processes during life. Some candidates to progenitor/stem cells have been proposed. However, not much is known about pituitary cell renewal throughout life and its homeostatic regulation during specific physiological changes, such as puberty or pregnancy, or in pathological conditions such as tumor development. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified in rodents and humans a niche of non-endocrine cells characterized by the expression of GFRa2, a Ret co-receptor for Neurturin. These cells also express b-Catenin and E-cadherin in an oriented manner suggesting a planar polarity organization for the niche. In addition, cells in the niche uniquely express the pituitary-specific transcription factor Prop1, as well as known progenitor/stem markers such as Sox2, Sox9 and Oct4. Half of these GPS (GFRa2/Prop1/Stem cells express S-100 whereas surrounding elongated cells in contact with GPS cells express Vimentin. GFRa2+-cells form non-endocrine spheroids in culture. These spheroids can be differentiated to hormone-producing cells or neurons outlining the neuroectoderm potential of these progenitors. In vivo, GPSs cells display slow proliferation after birth, retain BrdU label and show long telomeres in its nuclei, indicating progenitor/stem cell properties in vivo. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest the presence in the adult pituitary of a specific niche of cells characterized by the expression of GFRa2, the pituitary-specific protein Prop1 and stem cell markers. These GPS cells are able to produce different hormone-producing and neuron-like cells and they may therefore contribute to postnatal pituitary homeostasis. Indeed, the relative abundance of GPS numbers is altered in Cdk4-deficient mice, a model of hypopituitarism induced by the lack of this cyclin-dependent kinase. Thus, GPS cells may display functional relevance in the

  12. Hypofunction of Anterior Pituitary:Clinical Analysis of 314 Cases%垂体前叶功能减退症314例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丹; 袁高品; 梁利波; 安振梅; 李双庆

    2015-01-01

    Objective To summarize the causes, clinical manifestations of the anterior pituitary hypothyroidism. Meth-ods 314 cases of hypofunction of anterior pituitary were retrospectively analyzed by general information, etiology, clinical mani-festations, and laboratory tests. Results There were 126 male and 188 female, including 120 Sheehan syndrome, 114 pituitary tumors, 28 craniopharyngioma, 2 Germinoma, 13 vacuoles sella, 3 pituitary cyst, and 1 nose pharyngealcancer chemotherapy and surgery. some of them were misdiagnosed with hypothyroidism, gastritis, enteritisin, anemia, encephalitis, mental illness, hypo-glycemia,hyponatremia, coronary artery disease, chronic pharyngitis, Meniere syndrome, viral myocarditis, syndrome of inappro-priate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, polymyositis, glomerulonephritis, proteinuria, and so on. Conclusion Anterior pituitary hypofunction involved multiple systems, and was easy to be misdiagnosed.%目的:总结垂体前叶功能减退症的病因、临床表现,分析其误诊情况。方法对314例垂体前叶功能减退症患者的一般资料、病因、临床表现、实验室检测进行回顾性分析。结果男126例,女188例;其中席汉氏综合征120例,垂体瘤及术后114例,颅咽管瘤28例,生殖细胞瘤2例,空泡蝶鞍13例,垂体囊肿3例,鼻咽癌放化疗术后1例。在能够提供既往诊疗病史的患者中被误诊为甲减者13例,胃炎、肠炎25例,不同类型贫血20例,脑炎6例,精神疾病6例,低血糖7例,低钠血症14例,尚有个别被误诊断为冠心病、慢性咽炎、美尼尔综合征、病毒性心肌炎、抗利尿激素分泌失调综合征、多发性肌炎、肾炎、蛋白尿待诊等。结论垂体前叶功能减退症的一些重要的症状、体征易被忽视,误诊率高,在临床工作中应予以重视,应对高危患者进行筛查以及早发现早治疗。

  13. Regulation of intestinal immune response by selective removal of the anterior, posterior, or entire pituitary gland in Trichinella spiralis infected golden hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Hernández-Cervantes

    Full Text Available The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been previously reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, and reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, as well as increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. However, to our knowledge, no findings have been published concerning the immune response following HYPOX during worm infection, particularly that which is caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of total or partial HYPOX on colonization of T. spiralis in the intestinal lumen, together with duodenal and splenic cytokine expression. Our results indicate that 5 days post infection, only neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL reduces the number of intestinally recovered T. spiralis larvae. Using semiquantitative inmunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of all tested Th1 cytokines was markedly diminished, even in the duodenum of infected controls. In contrast, a high level of expression of these cytokines was noted in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Th2 cytokines (with the exception of IL-4 was apparent in the duodenum of control and sham infected hamsters, compared to animals with NIL surgeries, which showed an increase in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13. Histology of duodenal mucosa from NIL hamsters showed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria, which was related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the gastrointestinal immune responses to T. spiralis through various mechanisms.

  14. Blood-brain barrier to peptides: (/sup 3/H)gonadotropin-releasing hormone accumulation by eighteen regions of the rat brain and by anterior pituitary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermisch, A.; Ruehle, H.J. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Biowissenschaften); Klauschenz, E.; Kretzschmar, R. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Inst. fuer Wirkstofforschung)

    1984-01-01

    After intracarotid injection of (/sup 3/H)gonadotropin-releasing hormone ((/sup 3/H)GnRH) the mean accumulation of radioactivity per unit wet weight of 18 brain samples investigated and the anterior pituitary was 0.38 +- 0.11% g/sup -1/ of the injected tracer dose. This indicates a low but measurable brain uptake of the peptide. The brain uptake of (/sup 3/H)GnRH in blood-brain barrier (BBB)-protected regions is 5% of that of separately investigated (/sup 3/H)OH. In BBB-free regions the accumulation of radioactivity was more than 25-fold higher than in BBB-protected regions. The accumulation of (/sup 3/H)GnRH among regions with BBB varies less than among regions with leaky endothelia. The data presented for (/sup 3/H)GnRH are similar to those for other peptides so far investigated.

  15. Ganglion cell tumours in the sella turcica in close morphological connection with pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyja, Ewa; Maksymowicz, Maria; Grajkowska, Wiesława; Zieliński, Grzegorz; Kunicki, Jacek; Bonicki, Wiesław; Witek, Przemysław; Naganska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Ganglion cell tumours in the sellar region are uncommon. They are usually associated with pituitary adenomas, while isolated ganglion cell neoplasms are extremely rare. We report the clinicopathological studies of five cases diagnosed as ganglion cell tumours located in the intrasellar region: four mixed/collision tumours composed of gangliocytoma and pituitary adenoma, and one isolated ganglioglioma unrelated to adenoma. Clinically, two patients presented with acromegaly, while three others were initially diagnosed as non-functioning adenomas. In four cases, the histopathological examination of surgical specimens revealed intermixed lesions composed of pituitary adenoma and ganglion cell elements. The adenomas appeared to secrete growth hormone. Electron microscopy enabled identification of the sparsely granulated somatotroph cells. Neoplastic neuronal lesions were composed of mature ganglion cells, including binucleate or multinucleate cells. In all cases, boundaries between adenomatous and gangliocytic components were not clearly demarcated, and numerous gangliocytic cells were closely intermingled with adenomatous tissue. One case lacked endocrine symptoms, and no pituitary adenoma was identified in the surgically excised material; it was finally diagnosed as low-grade ganglioglioma. The etiopathogenesis of ganglion cell neoplasms in the sellar region is not clearly defined. Our study revealed that if ganglion cell neoplasms were combined with adenoma, both neoplastic components were closely related to each other, and numerous neuronal elements were strictly intermingled with adenoma cells. Such a tissue pattern indicates that these neoplastic changes, including their common respective etiopathogeneses, are closely related. The identification of both components in sellar regions may have some nosological implications.

  16. Coordinate control of corticotropin, β-lipotropin, and β-endorphin release in mouse pituitary cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard G.; Herbert, Edward; Hinman, Michael; Shibuya, Haruo; Pert, Candace B.

    1978-01-01

    Hypothalamic extract stimulates the release of corticotropin (ACTH) and endorphins 2.5- to 30-fold in mouse pituitary tumor cell cultures (AtT-20/D16v line) and primary cell cultures from mouse anterior pituitary. ACTH and endorphin activities were measured by radioimmunoassay and immunoprecipitation. Pretreatment of tumor cell cultures with 1 μM dexamethasone reduced the stimulatory effect of the extract on release of ACTH and endorphins. Pretreatment of primary cell cultures with 10-6 M dexamethasone reduced the stimulatory effect of both vasopressin and the extract on the release of ACTH and endorphins. Release of ACTH and endorphin was coupled in both kinds of cultures in the basal, stimulated, and inhibited states. The molecular weight forms of ACTH and endorphin in tumor cell culture medium were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Radioimmunoassay and immunoprecipitation show that the 13,000-dalton and 4500-dalton forms of ACTH were present in about equal amounts in medium from cultures incubated with or without hypothalamic extract for 15 min, 30 min, or 2 hr. Smaller amounts of the high molecular weight forms of ACTH (20,000- to 23,000-dalton and 31,000-dalton ACTH) were observed in the culture medium at these times. The predominant forms of endorphin released after 20 min or 3 hr of incubation had molecular weights of 31,000, 11,700 (β-lipotropic hormone-size material) and 3500 (β-endorphin-size material). No degradation of the forms of endorphin released into the culture medium was observed after incubating the culture medium for 1.5 hr in the absence of cells. The proportions of the different forms of endorphin and ACTH present in the culture medium resembles that seen in cell extracts. PMID:217008

  17. Growth hormone-releasing factor induces c-fos expression in cultured primary pituitary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; Mitchell, R L; Vale, W;

    1987-01-01

    GH-releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin regulates the secretion and biosynthesis of GH as well as the proliferation of GH-producing cells. In order to further characterize the mitogenic effect of GRF, we studied the expression of the proto-oncogene c-fos in primary pituitary cells. Maximal...

  18. Gene expression profiling of pituitary melanotrope cells during their physiological activation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuribara, M.; Bakel, N.H. van; Ramekers, D.; Gouw, D. de; Neijts, R.; Roubos, E.W.; Scheenen, W.J.; Martens, G.J.M.; Jenks, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    The pituitary melanotrope cells of the amphibian Xenopus laevis are responsible for the production of the pigment-dispersing peptide alpha-melanophore-stimulating hormone, which allows the animal to adapt its skin color to its environment. During adaptation to a dark background the melanotrope cells

  19. The pituitary-Leydig cell axis before and after orchiectomy in patients with stage I testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Mikkel; Aksglaede, Lise; Juul, Anders

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the pituitary-Leydig cell axis in patients with stage I testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) followed with surveillance only, in order to evaluate the risk of Leydig cell dysfunction one year after orchiectomy.......This study investigates the pituitary-Leydig cell axis in patients with stage I testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) followed with surveillance only, in order to evaluate the risk of Leydig cell dysfunction one year after orchiectomy....

  20. 老龄对下丘脑-垂体前叶功能的影响%Aging-related changes of hypothalamic-anterior pituitary function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余叶蓉

    2014-01-01

    The changes in hypothalamic-pituitary function in older people include the effects of aging per se on hypothalamic-pituitary physiology,such as age-related declines in GH-IFG-1 system and increased activity in CRH-ACTH axis,and the hormone hyposecretion due to anterior pituitary diseases in elderly,including fibrosis and vascular alterations.In considering changes in hypothalamic-pituitary function in older people,it is important to distinguish between what is age-related and what is disease-related.Symptoms associated with hypopituitarism are nonspecific and may be often attributed to normal aging and can be challenging in clinical practice.Furthermore,the benefits and safety of selective pituitary hormonal replacement,including growth hormone replacement,remain controversial in the elderly.The evidence for age-related changes in GH-IGF-1 system and CRH-ACTH axis and their clinical consequences are reviewed.The characteristics in the clinical approach to disease-related hypopituitarism in older person are also briefly discussed.%老年人下丘脑-垂体前叶的功能变化主要包括两方面,一是与正常老龄过程相关的下丘脑-垂体功能变化,如生长激素(GH)-胰岛素样生长因子Ⅰ(IGF-Ⅰ)轴活性降低以及CRH-ACTH轴功能活跃等;二是老年人垂体前叶本身亦可因疾病而出现激素分泌功能低下,如鞍区肿瘤、缺血、纤维化等所致垂体前叶功能受损.对于下丘脑-垂体前叶功能改变的老年患者,临床上需仔细分析判断系老龄伴随的生理现象,还是疾病所致的病理过程.国内外学术界对于正常老龄过程中出现的垂体前叶功能变化是否需要干预存在诸多争议,而老年人垂体前叶功能低下的临床表现缺乏特异性,极易与正常老龄的生理功能变化混淆而漏诊.本文将简述老龄相关的GH-IGF-Ⅰ轴以及CRH-ACTH轴功能变化及其临床意义,并讨论老年人垂体前叶功能减退临床诊治中需注意的问题.

  1. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  2. Central diabetes insipidus: Is it Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the pituitary stalk? A diagnostic pitfall.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosch, H.; Grois, N.; Bökkerink, J.P.M.; Prayer, D.; Leuschner, I.; Minkov, M.; Gadner, H.

    2006-01-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare disorder that may be caused by a variety of diseases. In pediatric and adolescent patients the most common causes for CDI are Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and germinoma. To avoid a potentially hazardous biopsy of the hypothalamic pituitary region it

  3. Expression Analysis of the Hippo Cascade Indicates a Role in Pituitary Stem Cell Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Lodge

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The pituitary gland is a primary endocrine organ that controls major physiological processes. Abnormal development or homeostatic disruptions can lead to human disorders such as hypopituitarism or tumours. Multiple signalling pathways, including WNT, BMP, FGF and SHH regulate pituitary development but the role of the Hippo-YAP1/TAZ cascade is currently unknown. In multiple tissues, the Hippo kinase cascade underlies neoplasias; it influences organ size through the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis, and has roles in determining stem cell potential. We have used a sensitive mRNA in situ hybridisation method (RNAscope to determine the expression patterns of the Hippo pathway components during mouse pituitary development. We have also carried out immunolocalisation studies to determine when YAP1 and TAZ, the transcriptional effectors of the Hippo pathway, are active. We find that YAP1/TAZ are active in the stem/progenitor cell population throughout development and at postnatal stages, consistent with their role in promoting the stem cell state. Our results demonstrate for the first time the collective expression of major components of the Hippo pathway during normal embryonic and postnatal development of the pituitary gland.

  4. In vitro pituitary and thyroid cell proliferation assays and their relevance as alternatives to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Barae; Aarts, Jac M M J G; de Haan, Laura H J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Bovee, Toine F H; Murk, Albertinka J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the in vitro effect of eleven thyroid-active compounds known to affect pituitary and/or thyroid weights in vivo, using the proliferation of GH3 rat pituitary cells in the so-called "T-screen," and of FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells in a newly developed test denoted "TSH-screen" to gain insight into the relative value of these in vitro proliferation tests for an integrated testing strategy (ITS) for thyroid activity. Pituitary cell proliferation in the T-screen was stimulated by three out of eleven tested compounds, namely thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). Of these three compounds, only T4 causes an increase in relative pituitary weight, and thus T4 was the only compound for which the effect in the in vitro assay correlated with a reported in vivo effect. As to the newly developed TSH-screen, two compounds had an effect, namely, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) induced and T4 antagonized FRTL-5 cell proliferation. These effects correlated with in vivo changes induced by these compounds on thyroid weight. Altogether, the results indicate that most of the selected compounds affect pituitary and thyroid weights by modes of action different from a direct thyroid hormone receptor (THR) or TSH receptor (TSHR)-mediated effect, and point to the need for additional in vitro tests for an ITS. Additional analysis of the T-screen revealed a positive correlation between the THR-mediated effects of the tested compounds in vitro and their effects on relative heart weight in vivo, suggesting that the T-screen may directly predict this THR-mediated in vivo adverse effect.

  5. Metastatic Mantle Cell Lymphoma to the Pituitary Gland: Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Arthur; Carberry, Nathan; Solli, Elena; Kleinman, George; Tandon, Adesh

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual case of a metastatic mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) to the pituitary gland. The patient had a known history of MCL for which she previously received chemotherapy. She presented with new-onset diplopia and confusion, and reported a history of progressive vision blurriness associated with headache, nausea, and vomiting. MRI of the brain showed an enhancing lesion within the sella turcica involving the cavernous sinuses bilaterally, extending into Meckel's cave on the left, and abutting the optic nerves bilaterally. Following surgical excision, histopathology revealed the tumor to be a MCL. Metastatic pituitary tumors are rare and have been estimated to make up 1% of tumors discovered in the sellar region. The two most common secondary metastatic lesions to the sella are breast and lung carcinoma followed by prostate, renal cell, and gastrointestinal carcinoma. Metastatic lymphoma to the pituitary gland is especially rare and is estimated to constitute 0.5% of all metastatic tumors to the sella turcica. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of MCL metastasizing to the pituitary gland. PMID:26933415

  6. Metastatic Mantle Cell Lymphoma to the Pituitary Gland: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of a metastatic mantle cell lymphoma (MCL to the pituitary gland. The patient had a known history of MCL for which she previously received chemotherapy. She presented with new-onset diplopia and confusion, and reported a history of progressive vision blurriness associated with headache, nausea, and vomiting. MRI of the brain showed an enhancing lesion within the sella turcica involving the cavernous sinuses bilaterally, extending into Meckel's cave on the left, and abutting the optic nerves bilaterally. Following surgical excision, histopathology revealed the tumor to be a MCL. Metastatic pituitary tumors are rare and have been estimated to make up 1% of tumors discovered in the sellar region. The two most common secondary metastatic lesions to the sella are breast and lung carcinoma followed by prostate, renal cell, and gastrointestinal carcinoma. Metastatic lymphoma to the pituitary gland is especially rare and is estimated to constitute 0.5% of all metastatic tumors to the sella turcica. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of MCL metastasizing to the pituitary gland.

  7. Caveolin-1 sensitizes rat pituitary adenoma GH3 cells to bromocriptine induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mu-Chiou

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolactinoma is the most frequent pituitary tumor in humans. The dopamine D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine has been widely used clinically to treat human breast tumor and prolactinoma through inhibition of hyperprolactinemia and induction of tumor cell apoptosis, respectively, but the molecular mechanism of bromocriptine induction of pituitary tumor apoptosis remains unclear. Caveolin-1 is a membrane-anchored protein enriched on caveolae, inverted flask-shaped invaginations on plasma membranes where signal transduction molecules are concentrated. Currently, caveolin-1 is thought to be a negative regulator of cellular proliferation and an enhancer of apoptosis by blocking signal transduction between cell surface membrane receptors and intracellular signaling protein cascades. Rat pituitary adenoma GH3 cells, which express endogenous caveolin-1, exhibit increased apoptosis and shrinkage after exposure to bromocriptine. Hence, the GH3 cell line is an ideal model for studying the molecular action of bromocriptine on prolactinoma. Results The expression of endogenous caveolin-1 in GH3 cells was elevated after bromocriptine treatment. Transiently expressed mouse recombinant caveolin-1 induced apoptosis in GH3 cells by enhancing the activity of caspase 8. Significantly, caveolin-1 induction of GH3 cell apoptosis was sensitized by the administration of bromocriptine. Phosphorylation of caveolin-1 at tyrosine 14 was enhanced after bromocriptine treatment, suggesting that bromocriptine-induced phosphorylation of caveolin-1 may contribute to sensitization of apoptosis in GH3 cells exposed to bromocriptine. Conclusion Our results reveal that caveolin-1 increases sensitivity for apoptosis induction in pituitary adenoma GH3 cells and may contribute to tumor shrinkage after clinical bromocriptine treatment.

  8. Effect of atrial natriuretic peptide on gonadotropin release in superfused rat pituitary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, J; Ertl, T.; Schally, A V

    1986-01-01

    Cardiac atrial muscle cells produce a polypeptide hormone that plays a role in the control of water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure. The circulating form of this hormone is the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), which contains 28 amino acids. Various immunohistochemical studies have shown that ANP is present in many areas of the central nervous system, including the median eminence. In our studies, we investigated the effect of ANP in a superfused rat pituitary cell system. When ANP...

  9. The FGFR4-G388R Polymorphism Promotes Mitochondrial STAT3 Serine Phosphorylation to Facilitate Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Toru Tateno; Asa, Sylvia L.; Lei Zheng; Thomas Mayr; Axel Ullrich; Shereen Ezzat

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are common intracranial neoplasms, yet few germline abnormalities have been implicated in their pathogenesis. Here we show that a single nucleotide germline polymorphism (SNP) substituting an arginine (R) for glycine (G) in the FGFR4 transmembrane domain can alter pituitary cell growth and hormone production. Compared with FGFR4-G388 mammosomatotroph cells that support prolactin (PRL) production, FGFR4-R388 cells express predominantly growth hormone (GH). Growth promoting eff...

  10. Expression of Neuropeptide Y in Human Pituitary Adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laizhao Chen; Jingjian Ma; Anchao Zheng; Honggang Zheng

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Neuropeptid e Y (NPY) acts as a neuroendocrine modulator in the anterior pituitary, and NPY mRNA and NPY-immunoreactivity have been detected in normal human anterior pituitaries. However, only a few studies of NPY expression in human pituitary adenomas have been published. Our study was conducted to determine whether or not adenomatous cells express NPY, to investigate the relationship between NPY expression and the subtypes of pituitary adenoma and to explore the clinical significance of NPY.METHODS The study included tissues from 58 patients with pituitary adenomas who underwent surgery because of their clinical diagnosis.Using a highly specific anti-NPY polyclonal antibody, immunohistochemical analysis was performed on the surgically removed pituitary adenomas. Six fresh specimens also were examined using immuno-electron microscopy. NPY was labeled with colloidal gold in order to study the distribution of NPY at the subcellular level.RESULTS The NPY expression level was significantly different among subgroups of pituitary adenomas (P<0.05). NPY was immuno-detected in 58.6% of all adenomas, in 91.7% of gonadotrophic adenomas and in 14.3% of prolactinomas. NPY expression was slightly lower in invasive pituitary adenomas compared to noninvasive adenomas, but the difference was not significant (t=1.81, P>0.05). Of particular interest was the finding that vascular endothelial cells showed positive NPY expression in some pituitary adenomas. Parts of strongly positive tumor cells were seen in channels formed without endothelial cells, but which contained some red blood cells in a formation similar to so-called vasculogenic mimicry. Immuno-electron microscopy demonstrated that 4 of the 6 fresh specimens displayed positive NPY staining with a high density of gold particles located mainly in the secretory granulas. In addition, gold particles were sparsely detected in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and cell matrix.CONCLUSION NPY exists in pituitary adenomas

  11. Adenosine A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of in vitro prolactin secretion from the rat anterior pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L.W. Picanço-Diniz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, we demonstrated biphasic purinergic effects on prolactin (PRL secretion stimulated by an adenosine A2 agonist. In the present study, we investigated the role of the activation of adenosine A1 receptors by (R-N6-(2-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA at the pituitary level in in vitro PRL secretion. Hemipituitaries (one per cuvette in five replicates from adult male rats were incubated. Administration of R-PIA (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 µM induced a reduction of PRL secretion into the medium in a U-shaped dose-response curve. The maximal reduction was obtained with 0.1 µM R-PIA (mean ± SEM, 36.01 ± 5.53 ng/mg tissue weight (t.w. treatment compared to control (264.56 ± 15.46 ng/mg t.w.. R-PIA inhibition (0.01 µM = 141.97 ± 15.79 vs control = 244.77 ± 13.79 ng/mg t.w. of PRL release was blocked by 1 µM cyclopentyltheophylline, a specific A1 receptor antagonist (1 µM = 212.360 ± 26.560 ng/mg t.w., whereas cyclopentyltheophylline alone (0.01, 0.1, 1 µM had no effect. R-PIA (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 µM produced inhibition of PRL secretion stimulated by both phospholipase C (0.5 IU/mL; 977.44 ± 76.17 ng/mg t.w. and dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM; 415.93 ± 37.66 ng/mg t.w. with nadir established at the dose of 0.1 µM (225.55 ± 71.42 and 201.9 ± 19.08 ng/mg t.w., respectively. Similarly, R-PIA (0.01 µM decreased (242.00 ± 24.00 ng/mg t.w. the PRL secretion stimulated by cholera toxin (0.5 mg/mL; 1050.00 ± 70.00 ng/mg t.w.. In contrast, R-PIA had no effect (468.00 ± 34.00 ng/mg t.w. on PRL secretion stimulation by pertussis toxin (0.5 mg/mL; 430.00 ± 26.00 ng/mg t.w.. These results suggest that inhibition of PRL secretion after A1 receptor activation by R-PIA is mediated by a Gi protein-dependent mechanism.

  12. Impact of environmental chemicals on the thyroid hormone function in pituitary rat GH3 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva

    2005-01-01

    -nonylphenol, 4-octylphenol), pesticides (prochloraz, iprodion, chlorpyrifos), PCB metabolites (OH-PCB 106, OH-PCB 121, OH-PCB 69) and brominated flame-retardants (tetrabromobisphenol A). The ED potential of a chemical was determined by its effect on the cell proliferation of TH-dependent rat pituitary GH3 cell...... line. All tested chemicals significantly interfered with the cell proliferation alone or upon co-treatment with T3. The growth of GH3 cells was stimulated by all tested chemicals, but 4-n-nonylphenol, 4-octylphenol, prochloraz and iprodion elicited an inhibitory effect on cell growth. In conclusion...

  13. Pituitary dysfunction in survivors of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage of anterior communicating artery and middle cerebral artery aneurysms: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinaki Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The data on incidence of hypopituitarism after SAH are conflicting. Furthermore, it is still not known whether there is any difference in hormonal deficiencies between SAH due to anterior communicating artery (A-com and middle cerebral artery (MCA aneurysms. Materials and Methods: This study includes both retrospective and prospective arms. The data collected included baseline demographic profile, clinical severity on admission to the hospital by the Hunt and Hess grading system and World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS grading, radiological severity of bleed by the Fisher′s classification, and treatment details. All the patients underwent detailed hormonal evaluation at baseline and 6 months in prospective group while at the end of 1 year in the retrospective group. Hormonal deficiencies between patients with A-com and MCA aneurysmal SAH were compared using appropriate statistical tests. Results: Of 60 patients studied, 47 patients (A-com: 28 and MCA: 19 were in the retrospective group, while 13 patients (A-com-9, MCA-4 were in the prospective group. The baseline data were comparable between the two groups. At or after 6 months follow-up, 19 (31.6% patients, 10 patients with A-com and 9 patients with MCA aneurysmal SAH, had some form of hormone deficiency. Furthermore, there was no difference in endocrine dysfunctions between the two groups. There was no correlation between the severity of hormonal deficiency and the clinical severity of SAH grade by Hunt and Hess and radiological grade of SAH by Fisher′s grade. Conclusion: Hormonal deficiencies are not uncommon in patients with SAH. There is no difference in hormonal deficiencies and severity of hypopituitarism in patients with SAH due to A-com and MCA bleed.

  14. Germ cell tumor located in the midline of the anterior neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirdopska, Tatyana; Terziev, Ivan; Hristova, Sv; Mladenovsky, W; Petkov, R

    2011-01-01

    Primary germ cell tumors involving midline of the anterior neck are extremely rare. Here we report a 68-year-old male who was operated due to a mass lesion in the anterior neck with infiltration of the isthmus of the thyroid gland. Histopathological examination revealed a germ cell tumor with extragonadal localization in the anterior neck infiltrating the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  15. Three-dimensional Alginate-bead Culture of Human Pituitary Adenoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Rodríguez, Dulce; Paisano-Cerón, Karina; Valdovinos-Ramírez, Irene; Solano-Agama, Carmen; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Mendoza-Garrido, María E

    2016-02-18

    A three-dimensional culture method is described in which primary pituitary adenoma cells are grown in alginate beads. Alginate is a polymer derived from brown sea algae. Briefly, the tumor tissue is cut into small pieces and submitted to an enzymatic digestion with collagenase and trypsin. Next, a cell suspension is obtained. The tumor cell suspension is mixed with 1.2% sodium alginate and dropped into a CaCl2 solution, and the alginate/cell suspension is gelled on contact with the CaCl2 to form spherical beads. The cells embedded in the alginate beads are supplied with nutrients provided by the culture media enriched with 20% FBS. Three-dimensional culture in alginate beads maintains the viability of adenoma cells for long periods of time, up to four months. Moreover, the cells can be liberated from the alginate by washing the beads with sodium citrate and seeded on glass coverslips for further immunocytochemical analyses. The use of a cell culture model allows for the fixation and visualization of the actin cytoskeleton with minimal disorganization. In summary, alginate beads provide a reliable culture system for the maintenance of pituitary adenoma cells.

  16. High Population Density of Juvenile Chum Salmon Decreased the Number and Sizes of Growth Hormone Cells in the Pituitary

    OpenAIRE

    Salam, Md. Abdus; Ota, Yuki; Ando, Hironori; Fukuwaka, Masa-aki; Kaeriyama, Masahide; Urano, Akihisa

    1999-01-01

    Juveniles of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) held at high population density were apparently smaller than those held at medium and low population densities. The effects of high population density on pituitary growth hormone (GH) cells in juvenile chum salmon were examined using immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. The ratio of GH-immunoreactive (ir) area to the whole pituitary was almost constant in all of the high, medium and low population density groups, although the nu...

  17. Pituitary infiltration by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aral Ferihan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pituitary adenomas represent the most frequently observed type of sellar masses; however, the presence of a rapidly growing sellar tumor, diabetes insipidus, ophthalmoplegia and headaches in an older patient strongly suggests metastasis to the pituitary. Since the anterior pituitary has a great reserve capacity, metastasis to the pituitary and pituitary involvement in lymphoma are usually asymptomatic. Whereas diabetes insipidus is the most frequent symptom, patients can present with headaches, ophthalmoplegia and bilateral hemianopsia. Case presentation A 70-year-old woman with no previous history of malignancy presented with headaches, right oculomotor nerve palsy and diabetes insipidus. As magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sellar mass involving the pituitary gland and infundibular stalk, which also extended into the right cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus, the patient underwent an immediate transsphenoidal decompression surgery. Her prolactin was 102.4 ng/ml, whereas her gonadotropic hormone levels were low. A low level of urine osmolality after overnight water deprivation, along with normal plasma osmolality suggested diabetes insipidus. Histological examination revealed that the mass had been the infiltration of a high grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma involving respiratory system epithelial cells. Paranasal sinus computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax and abdomen were performed. Since magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any abnormality, after paranasal sinus computed tomography was performed, we concluded that the primary lymphoma originated from the sphenoid sinus and infiltrated the pituitary. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the sellar area were planned, but the patient died and her family did not permit an autopsy. Conclusion Lymphoma infiltration to the pituitary is difficult to differentiate from pituitary adenoma, meningioma and other sellar lesions. To plan the

  18. Characterization of murine pituitary-derived cell lines Tpit/F1, Tpit/E and TtT/GF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Saishu; Higuchi, Masashi; Ueharu, Hiroki; Nishimura, Naoto; Tsuda, Mitsuyoshi; Yako, Hideji; Chen, Mo; Mitsuishi, Hideo; Sano, Yoshiya; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    The pituitary is an important endocrine tissue of the vertebrate that produces and secretes many hormones. Accumulating data suggest that several types of cells compose the pituitary, and there is growing interest in elucidating the origin of these cell types and their roles in pituitary organogenesis. Therein, the histogenous cell line is an extremely valuable experimental tool for investigating the function of derived tissue. In this study, we compared gene expression profiles by microarray analysis and real-time PCR for murine pituitary tumor-derived non-hormone-producing cell lines TtT/GF, Tpit/F1 and Tpit/E. Several genes are characteristically expressed in each cell line: Abcg2, Nestin, Prrx1, Prrx2, CD34, Eng, Cspg4 (Ng2), S100β and nNos in TtT/GF; Cxcl12, Raldh1, Msx1 and Twist1 in Tpit/F1; and Cxadr, Sox9, Cdh1, EpCAM and Krt8 in Tpit/E. Ultimately, we came to the following conclusions: TtT/GF cells show the most differentiated state, and may have some properties of the pituitary vascular endothelial cell and/or pericyte. Tpit/F1 cells show the epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes with stemness still in a transiting state. Tpit/E cells have a phenotype of epithelial cells and are the most immature cells in the progression of differentiation or in the initial endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Thus, these three cell lines must be useful model cell lines for investigating pituitary stem/progenitor cells as well as organogenesis.

  19. Evaluation of the retinal nerve fibre layer and ganglion cell complex thickness in pituitary macroadenomas without optic chiasmal compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, G; Auriemma, R S; Cardone, D; Grasso, L F S; Velotti, N; Simeoli, C; Di Somma, C; Pivonello, R; Colao, A; de Crecchio, G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this prospective study was to measure the thickness of the circumpapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (cpRNFL) and the ganglion cell complex (GCC) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in a cohort of consecutive de novo patients with pituitary macroadenomas without chiasmal compression. Patients and methods Twenty-two consecutive patients with pituitary macroadenoma without chiasmal compression (16 men, 6 women, aged 45.2±14.6 years, 43 eyes) entered the study between September 2011 and June 2013. Among them, 31.8% harboured a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma, 27.3% a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma, 27.3% a corticotrophin-secreting pituitary adenoma, and 13.6% a non-secreting pituitary tumour. Eighteen subjects (nine females, nine males, mean age 36.47±6.37 years; 33 eyes) without pituitary adenoma, with normal ophthalmic examination, served as controls. In both patients and controls, cpRNFL and GCC thicknesses were measured by SD-OCT. Results Patients were significantly older (P=0.02) than controls. Best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, colour fundus photography, and automatic perimetry test were within the normal range in patients and controls. Conversely, cpRNFL (P=0.009) and GCC (P<0.0001) were significantly thinner in patients than in controls. The average GCC (r=0.306, P=0.046) significantly correlated with the presence of arterial hypertension. OCT parameters did not differ significantly between patients with a tumour volume above the median and those with a tumour volume below the median. Conclusion Pituitary macroadenomas, even in the absence of chiasmal compression, may induce GCC and retinal nerve fibre layer thinning. SD-OCT may have a role in the early diagnosis and management of patients with pituitary tumours. PMID:25853400

  20. Dopamine inhibits somatolactin gene expression in tilapia pituitary cells through the dopamine D2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quan; Lian, Anji; He, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates and possesses key hypophysiotropic functions. Early studies have shown that DA has a potent inhibitory effect on somatolactin (SL) release in fish. However, the mechanisms responsible for DA inhibition of SL gene expression are largely unknown. To this end, tilapia DA type-1 (D1) and type-2 (D2) receptor transcripts were examined in the neurointermediate lobe (NIL) of the tilapia pituitary by real-time PCR. In tilapia, DA not only was effective in inhibiting SL mRNA levels in vivo and in vitro, but also could abolish pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)- and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH)-stimulated SL gene expression at the pituitary level. In parallel studies, the specific D2 receptor agonists quinpirole and bromocriptine could mimic the DA-inhibited SL gene expression. Furthermore, the D2 receptor antagonists domperidone and (-)-sulpiride could abolish the SL response to DA or the D2 agonist quinpirole, whereas D1 receptor antagonists SCH23390 and SKF83566 were not effective in this respect. In primary cultures of tilapia NIL cells, D2 agonist quinpirole-inhibited cAMP production could be blocked by co-treatment with the D2 antagonist domperidone and the ability of forskolin to increase cAMP production was also inhibited by quinpirole. Using a pharmacological approach, the AC/cAMP pathway was shown to be involved in quinpirole-inhibited SL mRNA expression. These results provide evidence that DA can directly inhibit SL gene expression at the tilapia pituitary level via D2 receptor through the AC/cAMP-dependent mechanism.

  1. Experimental Modification of Rat Pituitary Prolactin Cell Function During and After Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Salada, T.; Avery, L.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental modification of rat pituitary prolactin cell function during and after spaceflight. This study was done to evaluate the effects of microgravity on prolactin (PRL) cells of the male rat pituitary gland. We used the identical passive closed-vial cell culture system that was described for the culture of growth hormone cells (W C. Hymer, R. E. Grindeland, T. Salada, P. Nye, E. Grossman, and R Lane). After an 8-day spaceflight, all flight media (containing released PRL), as well as extracts (containing intracellular PRL), contained significantly lower amounts of immunoreactive PRL than their corresponding ground control samples. On the other hand, these same samples, when assessed for their biological activities by two different in vitro lymphocyte assays, yielded disparate results that may reflect posttranslational modifications to the hormone molecule. Other data showed that: (1) the apparent molecular weights of released PRL molecules were not altered by microgravity; but (2) the region from which the PRL cells came (dorsal or ventral) made a significant difference in the amount and activity of PRL released from the flight cells. Because there is much current interest in the role that PRL may play in the regulation of the immune system and because changes in both cellular and humoral immunity accompany spaceflight, this study could help define future microgravity research in this area.

  2. Endogenous neuregulin-1 expression in the anterior pituitary of female Wistar-Furth rats during the estrous cycle%雌性Wistar-Furth大鼠动情期间垂体前叶内源性neuregulin-1的表达变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵炜疆; 任颂光

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the changes in endogenous neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) expression in the anterior pituitary of female Wistar-Furth rats in different phases of the estrous cycle. Methods Female Wistar-Furth rats during estrous cycles were used. RT-PCR was employed to study the changes in the expression of Nrgl isoforms and their cognate receptors ErbB-2 and ErbB-4 in the anterior pituitary in different phases of the estrous cycle. Western blotting was used to detect Nrgl expression at the protein level. Immunofluorescence staining was used to identify hypophyseal cells expressing Nrgl and observe the localization and distribution of Nrgl and functional phosphorylation of ErbB-4. The co-expression of Nrgl and ErbB-4 in the anterior pituitary of Rhesus monkey was also investigated. Results Some of the Nrgl isoforms, especially type ⅢNrgls, were expressed at a higher level during the estrous cycle Ⅰ (E1) and estrous cycleⅡ (E2), a result consistent with that of Western blotting for samples of the anterior pituitaries collected at these phases. Immunofluorescence staining identified the gonadotrophs as the main source of Nrgl, and showed an extensive distribution of Nrgl in the anterior pituitary in El and E2 phases accompanied by apparent phosphorylated activation of ErbB-4. Adjacent distribution of Nrgl- and ErbB-4-positive cells was also observed in the anterior pituitary of male Rhesus monkeys. Conclusion Our results provide evidence for the expression of multiple Nrgl isoforms and the presence of Nrg1/ErbB-4 signaling in the anterior pituitary of female Wistar-Furth rats. This signaling demonstrates an estrous cycle phase-related pattern. Additionally, Nrgl/ErbB-4-based juxtacrine signaling may exist in the anterior pituitary of male non-human primate.%目的 研究雌性Wistar-Furth大鼠发情期不同时段垂体前叶neuregulin-1(Nrg1)的表达变化.方法 采用RT-PCR观察雌性Wistar-Furth大鼠不同发情期间垂体Nrg1亚型及其内源受体ErbB-2

  3. MR findings in pituitary haemosiderosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosetto, P. [Institute of Neurology, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Zucchini, S.; Cicognani, A. [First Paediatric Clinic, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Cacciari, E. [First Paediatric Clinic, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)]|[Clinica Pediatrica 1, Bologna (Italy)

    1998-05-01

    A girl with Diamond-Blackfan syndrome and hypopituitarism was suspected of having pituitary haemosiderosis because of the clinical picture and the long history of blood transfusions. On T1-weighted MR images the pituitary exhibited a markedly hypointense anterior lobe (mimicking the empty sella), suggesting iron deposition, while on T2W MRI the low signal of the pituitary was surrounded by the high signal of the CSF. MR may be considered the examination of choice for detecting iron overload in the pituitary. (orig.) With 2 figs., 6 refs.

  4. Luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin-releasing pituitary tumor: possible malignant transformation of the LH cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spertini, F; Deruaz, J P; Perentes, E; Pelet, B; Gomez, F

    1986-05-01

    A pituitary tumor was diagnosed in a prepubertal 13-yr-old girl, who had elevated plasma LH (58 mIU/ml) and PRL (93 ng/ml) levels; decreased GH, ACTH, and FSH secretion; and diabetes insipidus. After surgery, plasma LH and PRL declined, but not to normal levels. Conventional external radiotherapy to the pituitary was immediately followed by a decrease in LH to prepubertal values (0.7 mIU/ml), while PRL levels became normal only after a long course of bromocriptine therapy. The pituitary tumor was composed of two distinct cell types: small polygonal cells, which were PRL positive by immunohistochemistry, and clusters of pleomorphic large frequently mitotic polynucleated cells, which were LH positive, some of them also being positive for the alpha-subunit or beta LH but not for beta FSH. Four years after surgery and radiotherapy, the patient deteriorated neurologically. Computed tomographic scan showed widespread frontal and periventricular tumor, which had the histological features of a poorly differentiated carcinoma. No PRL, LH, or alpha- or beta-subunits were detectable on immunocytochemistry. While the PRL-positive cells of the pituitary tumor displayed the histological and clinical features of PRL adenomas, the morphological characteristics of LH cells and the sharp decline of plasma LH levels after radiotherapy were suggestive of malignant transformation. In this context, the later brain tumor could have been the result of subependymal spread of the pituitary tumor after it lost its hormone-secreting capacity.

  5. Growth hormone-releasing hormone stimulates cAMP release in superfused rat pituitary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, J E; Groot, K. de; Schally, A V

    1995-01-01

    The release of growth hormone (GH) and cAMP was studied in superfused rat pituitary cells by infusing growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) at different doses or a combination of GHRH and somatostatin 14 (SS-14). Three-minute pulses of GHRH caused a dose-dependent GH and cAMP release (effective concentration of 50% of the maximal biological effect is 0.21 nM and 52.5 nM, respectively). The lowest effective doses of GHRH in the superfusion system were 0.03 nM for GH release and 0.3 nM for cA...

  6. Modulations of prolactin and growth hormone gene expression and chromatin structure in cultured rat pituitary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Levy-Wilson, B

    1983-01-01

    I have measured the effect of hormones and other regulatory factors present in the serum component of the culture medium on the levels of growth hormone and prolactin mRNAs in rat pituitary (GH4) cells. Hybridization of cytoplasmic RNA with growth hormone or prolactin cDNA clones indicate that serum depletion reduces significantly the amount of these two mRNAs. The localization of these two genes in chromatin was also analysed using micrococcal nuclease as a probe. At intermediate levels of d...

  7. The adult pituitary shows stem/progenitor cell activation in response to injury and is capable of regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiuli; Gremeaux, Lies; Luque, Raul M; Liekens, Daisy; Chen, Jianghai; Buch, Thorsten; Waisman, Ari; Kineman, Rhonda; Vankelecom, Hugo

    2012-07-01

    The pituitary gland constitutes, together with the hypothalamus, the regulatory core of the endocrine system. Whether the gland is capable of cell regeneration after injury, in particular when suffered at adult age, is unknown. To investigate the adult pituitary's regenerative capacity and the response of its stem/progenitor cell compartment to damage, we constructed a transgenic mouse model to conditionally destroy pituitary cells. GHCre/iDTR mice express diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor after transcriptional activation by Cre recombinase, which is driven by the GH promoter. Treatment with DT for 3 d leads to gradual GH(+) (somatotrope) cell obliteration with a final ablation grade of 80-90% 1 wk later. The stem/progenitor cell-clustering side population promptly expands after injury, concordant with the immediate increase in Sox2(+) stem/progenitor cells. In addition, folliculo-stellate cells, previously designated as pituitary stem/progenitor cells and significantly overlapping with Sox2(+) cells, also increase in abundance. In situ examination reveals expansion of the Sox2(+) marginal-zone niche and appearance of remarkable Sox2(+) cells that contain GH. When mice are left after the DT-provoked lesion, GH(+) cells considerably regenerate during the following months. Double Sox2(+)/GH(+) cells are observed throughout the regenerative period, suggesting recovery of somatotropes from stem/progenitor cells, as further supported by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) pulse-chase lineage tracing. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the adult pituitary gland holds regenerative competence and that tissue repair follows prompt activation and plausible involvement of the stem/progenitor cells.

  8. Regulation of GnRH receptors by progesterone and inhibin in ovine pituitary cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laws, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and the gonadal protein, inhibin, on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor number and binding affinity were investigated in vitro, using ovine pituitary cells in culture. Changes in GnRH binding were correlated with GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) release following pretreatment with P{sub 4} and inhibin. Ovine pituitary cells in culture were preincubated with P{sub 4} or porcine inhibin (I{sub P}) for 24 or 48 hours (h). Cells were collected and analyzed for GnRH binding using a radioligand-receptor assay. des-Gly{sup 10}-(D-Ala{sup 6})-LHRH-ethyl-amide was used as the radiolabeled GnRh superagonist analog (mono-{sup 125}I-GnRH-A) and as competing ligand. Treatment with P{sub 4} progressively decreased GnRH-A binding capacity by 44.3% and 71.8% of the control following pretreatment for 24 or 48 h, respectively. When P{sub 4} was removed from the cultures, GnRH-A binding capacity partially returned to control levels within 24 h. Decreased GnRH-A binding was closely correlated with the reduction in GnRH-stimulated LH release which was observed following 24 or 48 h pretreatment with P{sub 4}.

  9. The FGFR4-G388R polymorphism promotes mitochondrial STAT3 serine phosphorylation to facilitate pituitary growth hormone cell tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Tateno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary tumors are common intracranial neoplasms, yet few germline abnormalities have been implicated in their pathogenesis. Here we show that a single nucleotide germline polymorphism (SNP substituting an arginine (R for glycine (G in the FGFR4 transmembrane domain can alter pituitary cell growth and hormone production. Compared with FGFR4-G388 mammosomatotroph cells that support prolactin (PRL production, FGFR4-R388 cells express predominantly growth hormone (GH. Growth promoting effects of FGFR4-R388 as evidenced by enhanced colony formation was ascribed to Src activation and mitochondrial serine phosphorylation of STAT3 (pS-STAT3. In contrast, diminished pY-STAT3 mediated by FGFR4-R388 relieved GH inhibition leading to hormone excess. Using a knock-in mouse model, we demonstrate the ability of FGFR4-R385 to promote GH pituitary tumorigenesis. In patients with acromegaly, pituitary tumor size correlated with hormone excess in the presence of the FGFR4-R388 but not the FGFR4-G388 allele. Our findings establish a new role for the FGFR4-G388R polymorphism in pituitary oncogenesis, providing a rationale for targeting Src and STAT3 in the personalized treatment of associated disorders.

  10. Ikaros and its interacting partner CtBP target the metalloprotease ADAMTS10 to modulate pituitary cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhongyi; Asa, Sylvia L; Ezzat, Shereen

    2017-01-05

    We have previously described the expression and up-regulation of the C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) in response to pituitary hypoxia. This co-repressor interacts with the hematopoietic factor Ikaros to target several components implicated in cellular growth and apoptotic pathways. To identify common transcriptional pituitary targets we performed promoter arrays using Ikaros and CtBP chromatin immunoprecipitated (ChIP) DNA from pituitary AtT20 cells. This approach yielded a finite list of gene targets common to both transcription factors. Of these, the metalloprotease ADAMTS10 emerged as a validated target. We show the ability of Ikaros to bind the ADAMTS10 promoter, influence its transfected activity, and induce endogenous gene expression. ADAMTS10 is expressed in primary pituitary cells and is down-regulated in Ikaros null mice. Further, knockdown of ADAMTS10 in AtT20 cells recapitulates the impact of Ikaros deficiency on POMC/ACTH hormone expression. These results uncover a novel role for the metalloprotease ADAMTS10 in the pituitary. Additionally, they position this metalloprotease as a potential functional integrator of the Ikaros-CtBP chromatin remodeling network.

  11. The FGFR4-G388R polymorphism promotes mitochondrial STAT3 serine phosphorylation to facilitate pituitary growth hormone cell tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Toru; Asa, Sylvia L; Zheng, Lei; Mayr, Thomas; Ullrich, Axel; Ezzat, Shereen

    2011-12-01

    Pituitary tumors are common intracranial neoplasms, yet few germline abnormalities have been implicated in their pathogenesis. Here we show that a single nucleotide germline polymorphism (SNP) substituting an arginine (R) for glycine (G) in the FGFR4 transmembrane domain can alter pituitary cell growth and hormone production. Compared with FGFR4-G388 mammosomatotroph cells that support prolactin (PRL) production, FGFR4-R388 cells express predominantly growth hormone (GH). Growth promoting effects of FGFR4-R388 as evidenced by enhanced colony formation was ascribed to Src activation and mitochondrial serine phosphorylation of STAT3 (pS-STAT3). In contrast, diminished pY-STAT3 mediated by FGFR4-R388 relieved GH inhibition leading to hormone excess. Using a knock-in mouse model, we demonstrate the ability of FGFR4-R385 to promote GH pituitary tumorigenesis. In patients with acromegaly, pituitary tumor size correlated with hormone excess in the presence of the FGFR4-R388 but not the FGFR4-G388 allele. Our findings establish a new role for the FGFR4-G388R polymorphism in pituitary oncogenesis, providing a rationale for targeting Src and STAT3 in the personalized treatment of associated disorders.

  12. Thyroid hormone uptake in cultured rat anterior pituitary cells: effects of energy status and bilirubin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W.J.S. Wassen (Frank); E.P.C.M. Moerings (Ellis); H. van Toor (Hans); G. Hennemann; M.E. Everts (Maria)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractTransport of thyroxine (T(4)) into the liver is inhibited in fasting and by bilirubin, a compound often accumulating in the serum of critically ill patients. We tested the effects of chronic and acute energy deprivation, bilirubin and its precursor biliverdi

  13. Germ Cell Tumor Located in the Midline of the Anterior Neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana PIRDOPSKA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary germ cell tumors involving midline of the anterior neck are extremely rare. Here we report a 68-year-old male who was operated due to a mass lesion in the anterior neck with infiltration of the isthmus of the thyroid gland. Histopathological examination revealed a germ cell tumor with extragonadal localization in the anterior neck infiltrating the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  14. Simultaneous measurement of hormone release and secretagogue binding by individual pituitary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.F.; Neill, J.D.

    1987-08-01

    The quantitative relationship between receptor binding and hormone secretion at the single-cell level was investigated in the present study by combining a reverse hemolytic plaque assay for measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from individual pituitary cells with an autoradiographic assay of /sup 125/I-labeled gonadontropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist binding to the same cells. In the plaque assay, LH secretion induces complement-mediated lysis of the LH-antibody-coated erythrocytes around the gonadotropes, resulting in areas of lysis (plaques). LH release from individual gonadotropes was quantified by comparing radioimmunoassayable LH release to hemolytic area in similarly treated cohort groups of cells; plaque area was linearly related to the amount of LH secreted. Receptor autoradiography was performed using /sup 125/I-labeled GnRH-A (a superagonist analog of GnRH) both as the ligand and as the stimulant for LH release in the plaque assay. The grains appeared to represent specific and high-affinity receptors for GnRH because (i) no pituitary cells other than gonadotropes bound the labeled ligand and (ii) grain development was progressively inhibited by coincubation with increasing doses of unlabeled GnRH-A. The authors conclude that GnRH receptor number for any individual gonadotrope is a weak determinant of the amount of LH it can secrete; nevertheless, full occupancy of all its GnRH receptors is required for any gonadotrope to reach its full LH-secretory capacity. Apparently the levels of other factors comprising the steps along the secretory pathway determine the secretory capacity of an individual cell.

  15. Occult Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma, a Thickened Pituitary Stalk and Diabetes Insipidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Etiologies of a thickened stalk include inflammatory, neoplastic, and idiopathic origins, and the underlying diagnosis may remain occult. We report a patient with a thickened pituitary stalk (TPS) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) whose diagnosis remained obscure until a skin lesion appeared. The patient presented with PTC, status postthyroidectomy, and I131 therapy. PTC molecular testing revealed BRAF mutant (V600E, GTC>GAG). She had a 5-year history of polyuria/polydipsia. Overnight dehydration study confirmed diabetes insipidus (DI). MRI revealed TPS with loss of the posterior pituitary bright spot. Evaluation showed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and low IGF-1. Chest X-ray and ACE levels were normal. Radiographs to evaluate for extrapituitary sites of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) were unremarkable. Germinoma studies were negative: normal serum and CSF beta-hCG, alpha-fetoprotein, and CEA. Three years later, the patient developed vulvar labial lesions followed by inguinal region skin lesions, biopsy of which revealed LCH. Reanalysis of thyroid pathology was consistent with concurrent LCH, PTC, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis within the thyroid. This case illustrates that one must be vigilant for extrapituitary manifestations of systemic diseases to diagnose the etiology of TPS. An activating mutation of the protooncogene BRAF is a potential unifying etiology of both PTC and LCH. PMID:27656301

  16. Brain Mast Cells Act as an Immune Gate to the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Itsuro; Inoue, Yasuhisa; Shimada, Toshio; Aikawa, Tadaomi

    2001-01-01

    Mast cells perform a significant role in the host defense against parasitic and some bacterial infections. Here we show that in the dog, degranulation of brain mast cells evokes hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses via histamine release. A large number of mast cells were found in a circumscribed ventral region of the hypothalamus, including the pars tuberalis and median eminence. When these intracranial mast cells were passively sensitized with immunoglobulin E via either the intracerebro...

  17. Secretion of human parathyroid hormone from rat pituitary cells infected with a recombinant retrovirus encoding preproparathyroid hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Hellerman, J G; Cone, R C; Potts, J. T.; Rich, A; Mulligan, R C; Kronenberg, H M

    1984-01-01

    In order to study the functions of precursors to secreted proteins, we expressed cloned DNA encoding human preproparathyroid hormone (preproPTH) in rat pituitary cells. We first constructed a recombinant plasmid containing human preproPTH cDNA and retroviral control signals. This recombinant plasmid was transfected into psi-2 cells, a packaging cell line that produces Moloney murine leukemia viral particles containing no retroviral RNA. The transfected psi-2 cells generated helper-free recomb...

  18. Membrane estrogen receptor-α-mediated nongenomic actions of phytoestrogens in GH3/B6/F10 pituitary tumor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jeng, Yow-Jiun; Kochukov, Mikhail Y.; Watson, Cheryl S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Estradiol (E2) mediates various intracellular signaling cascades from the plasma membrane via several estrogen receptors (ERs). The pituitary is an estrogen-responsive tissue, and we have previously reported that E2 can activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as ERK1/2 and JNK1/2/3 in the membrane ERα (mERα)-enriched GH3/B6/F10 rat pituitary tumor cell line. Phytoestrogens are compounds found in plants and foods such as soybeans, alfalfa sprouts, and red grapes. Th...

  19. Generation of immortal cell lines from the adult pituitary: role of cAMP on differentiation of SOX2-expressing progenitor cells to mature gonadotropes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginah L Kim

    Full Text Available The pituitary is a complex endocrine tissue composed of a number of unique cell types distinguished by the expression and secretion of specific hormones, which in turn control critical components of overall physiology. The basic function of these cells is understood; however, the molecular events involved in their hormonal regulation are not yet fully defined. While previously established cell lines have provided much insight into these regulatory mechanisms, the availability of representative cell lines from each cell lineage is limited, and currently none are derived from adult pituitary. We have therefore used retroviral transfer of SV40 T-antigen to mass immortalize primary pituitary cell culture from an adult mouse. We have generated 19 mixed cell cultures that contain cells from pituitary cell lineages, as determined by RT-PCR analysis and immunocytochemistry for specific hormones. Some lines expressed markers associated with multipotent adult progenitor cells or transit-amplifying cells, including SOX2, nestin, S100, and SOX9. The progenitor lines were exposed to an adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, over 7 days and were induced to differentiate to a more mature gonadotrope cell, expressing significant levels of α-subunit, LHβ, and FSHβ mRNAs. Additionally, clonal populations of differentiated gonadotropes were exposed to 30 nM gonadotropin-releasing hormone and responded appropriately with a significant increase in α-subunit and LHβ transcription. Further, exposure of the lines to a pulse paradigm of GnRH, in combination with 17β-estradiol and dexamethasone, significantly increased GnRH receptor mRNA levels. This array of adult-derived pituitary cell models will be valuable for both studies of progenitor cell characteristics and modulation, and the molecular analysis of individual pituitary cell lineages.

  20. The selector gene Pax7 dictates alternate pituitary cell fates through its pioneer action on chromatin remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budry, L.; Balsalobre, A.; Gauthier, Y.; Khetchoumian, K.; L'Honore, A.; Vallette-Kasic, S.; Brue, T; Figarella-Branger, D.; Meij, B.P.; Drouin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Genes Dev. 2012 Oct 15;26(20):2299-310. doi: 10.1101/gad.200436.112. The selector gene Pax7 dictates alternate pituitary cell fates through its pioneer action on chromatin remodeling. Budry L, Balsalobre A, Gauthier Y, Khetchoumian K, L'honoré A, Vallette S, Brue T, Figarella-Branger D, Meij B, Drou

  1. The selector gene Pax7 dictates alternate pituitary cell fates through its pioneer action on chromatin remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budry, Lionel; Balsalobre, Aurélio; Gauthier, Yves; Khetchoumian, Konstantin; L'honoré, Aurore; Vallette, Sophie; Brue, Thierry; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Meij, Björn; Drouin, Jacques

    2012-10-15

    The anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland derive from the surface ectoderm. They provide a simple system to assess mechanisms of developmental identity established by tissue determinants. Each lobe contains a lineage expressing the hormone precursor pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC): the corticotropes and melanotropes. The T-box transcription factor Tpit controls terminal differentiation of both lineages. We now report on the unique role of Pax7 as a selector of intermediate lobe and melanotrope identity. Inactivation of the Pax7 gene results in loss of melanotrope gene expression and derepression of corticotrope genes. Pax7 acts by remodeling chromatin and allowing Tpit binding to a new subset of enhancers for activation of melanotrope-specific genes. Thus, the selector function of Pax7 is exerted through pioneer transcription factor activity. Genome-wide, the Pax7 pioneer activity is preferentially associated with composite binding sites that include paired and homeodomain motifs. Pax7 expression is conserved in human and dog melanotropes and defines two subtypes of pituitary adenomas causing Cushing's disease. In summary, expression of Pax7 provides a unique tissue identity to the pituitary intermediate lobe that alters Tpit-driven differentiation through pioneer and classical transcription factor activities.

  2. Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells express functional pituitary and gonadal sex hormone receptors: Therapeutic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    PONIEWIERSKA-BARAN, AGATA; SCHNEIDER, GABRIELA; SUN, WENYUE; ABDELBASET-ISMAIL, AHMED; BARR, FREDERIC G.; RATAJCZAK, MARIUSZ Z.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that sex hormones play an important role in several types of cancer. Because they are also involved in skeletal muscle development and regeneration, we were therefore interested in their potential involvement in the pathogenesis of human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a skeletal muscle tumor. In the present study, we employed eight RMS cell lines (three fusion positive and five fusion negative RMS cell lines) and mRNA samples obtained from RMS patients. The expression of sex hormone receptors was evaluated by RT-PCR and their functionality by chemotaxis, adhesion and direct cell proliferation assays. We report here for the first time that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors are expressed in established human RMS cell lines as well as in primary tumor samples isolated from RMS patients. We also report that human RMS cell lines responded both to pituitary and gonadal sex hormone stimulation by enhanced proliferation, chemotaxis, cell adhesion and phosphorylation of MAPKp42/44 and AKT. In summary, our results indicate that sex hormones are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of RMS, and therefore, their therapeutic application should be avoided in patients that have been diagnosed with RMS. PMID:26983595

  3. [Involution of gonadotrophic cells of the pituitary gland in the male frog, Rana esculenta, after section of the pituitary stem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legait, H; Helas, G

    1976-01-01

    One and two months after section of the hypophyseal stalk in the male frog. Rana esculenta, and involution of numerous gonadotrophic cells, contrasting with the normal aspect of the eosinophilic cells can be observed.

  4. HIF-1α Inhibition Sensitized Pituitary Adenoma Cells to Temozolomide by Regulating Presenilin 1 Expression and Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Zhang; Yuling, Yang; Dongchun, Wang; Bingbing, Xie; Xiaoli, Li; Bin, Xu

    2016-12-01

    Pituitary adenomas usually develop temozolomide resistance, which could compromise the anticancer effects of temozolomide. Suppression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α has been shown to sensitize glioblastoma cells to temozolomide treatment according to previous reports. However, whether and how the suppression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α could sensitize pituitary adenomas to temozolomide treatment are still poorly understood. In the present study, using hypoxia-inducible factor 1α knockdown strategy, we demonstrated for the first time that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α knockdown could inhibit temozolomide-induced autophagy in rat pituitary adenoma GH3 cells and thus increase antitumor efficacy of temozolomide. Furthermore, we found hypoxia-inducible factor 1α knockdown could block autophagy process through neutralizing lysosomal pH value but not inhibiting autophagy induction. Finally, we found hypoxia-inducible factor 1α could regulate lysosomal pH value through regulating full length presenilin 1 expression, and exogenous reexpression of presenilin 1could restore lysosome acidic levels. Our data indicated hypoxia-inducible factor 1α knockdown could be a potential approach to improve the efficacy of temozolomide therapy for pituitary adenomas.

  5. High Throughput Method to Quantify Anterior-Posterior Polarity of T-Cells and Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Marriott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The virologic synapse (VS, which is formed between a virus-infected and uninfected cell, plays a central role in the transmission of certain viruses, such as HIV and HTLV-1. During VS formation, HTLV-1-infected T-cells polarize cellular and viral proteins toward the uninfected T-cell. This polarization resembles anterior-posterior cell polarity induced by immunological synapse (IS formation, which is more extensively characterized than VS formation and occurs when a T-cell interacts with an antigen-presenting cell. One measure of cell polarity induced by both IS or VS formation is the repositioning of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC relative to the contact point with the interacting cell. Here we describe an automated, high throughput system to score repositioning of the MTOC and thereby cell polarity establishment. The method rapidly and accurately calculates the angle between the MTOC and the IS for thousands of cells. We also show that the system can be adapted to score anterior-posterior polarity establishment of epithelial cells. This general approach represents a significant advancement over manual cell polarity scoring, which is subject to experimenter bias and requires more time and effort to evaluate large numbers of cells.

  6. Receptor-mediated binding and uptake of GnRH agonist and antagonist by pituitary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennes, L.; Stumpf, W.E.; Conn, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The intracellular pathway of an enzyme resistant GnRH agonist (D- Lys6 -GnRH) conjugated to ferritin or to colloidal gold was followed in cultured pituitary cells. After an initial uniform distribution over the cell surface of gonadotropes, the electrondense marker was internalized, either individually or in small groups. After longer incubation times, the marker appeared in the lysosomal compartment and the Golgi apparatus, where it could be found in the vesicular as well as cisternal portion. In addition, the receptor-mediated endocytosis of the GnRH antagonist D-p-Glu1-D-Phe2-D-Trp3-D- Lys6 -GnRH was studied by light and electron microscopic autoradiography after 30 and 60 min of incubation to ensure uptake. At both time points, in in vitro as well as in vivo studies, silver grains were localized over cytoplasmic organelles of castration cells, including dilated endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and clear vesicles. No consistent association with cell nuclei, mitochondria, or secretory vesicles could be observed. The results suggest that both agonist and antagonist are binding selectively to the plasma membrane of gonadotropes and subsequently are taken up via receptor-mediated endocytosis for degradation or possible action on synthetic processes.

  7. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone is prerequisite for the constitutive expression of pituitary annexin A5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Aiko; Kurusu, Shiro; Kawaminami, Mitsumori

    2015-01-01

    Annexin A5 (ANXA5), a member of the structurally related family of annexin proteins, is expressed in pituitary gonadotropes. We previously reported that ANXA5 expression is stimulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). In the present study, we investigated ANXA5 expression in the anterior pituitary gland of GnRH-deficient mutant hypogonadal (hpg) mice. RT-PCR demonstrated that luteinizing hormone β subunit (LHβ) and ANXA5 mRNA levels were both lower in the pituitary gland of hpg mice than in wild-type mice. Immunohistochemistry showed that ANXA5 expression throughout the pituitary gland was very low in hpg mice, suggesting that ANXA5 is diminished in gonadotropes and also in other cell types. Subcutaneous administration of a GnRH analogue, des-gly10 (Pro9)-GnRH ethylamide (1 μg/day for 7 days), augmented the expression of LHβ and ANXA5 in the pituitary gland in hpg mice. However, LHβ- and ANXA5-positive cells did not show exactly matched spatial distributions. These findings suggest that GnRH is necessary for constitutive ANXA5 expression in the pituitary gland, not only in gonadotropes but also in other pituitary gland cell types. A close relationship between ANXA5 and LHβ expression was confirmed. It is suggested that a significant role of ANXA5 in the physiologic secretion of LH.

  8. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Homozygous GPR161 Mutation in a Family with Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Ender; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Pehlivan, Davut; Charng, Wu-Lin; Yaykasli, Kursat O.; Bayram, Yavuz; Gambin, Tomasz; Withers, Marjorie; Atik, Mehmed M.; Arslanoglu, Ilknur; Bolu, Semih; Erdin, Serkan; Buyukkaya, Ayla; Yaykasli, Emine; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is a rare, congenital anomaly of the pituitary gland characterized by pituitary gland insufficiency, thin or discontinuous pituitary stalk, anterior pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic positioning of the posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophysis). The clinical presentation of patients with PSIS varies from isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency to combined pituitary insufficiency and accompanying extrapituitary findings. Mutations in HESX1, LHX4, OTX2, SOX3, and PROKR2 have been associated with PSIS in less than 5% of cases; thus, the underlying genetic etiology for the vast majority of cases remains to be determined. Objective: We applied whole-exome sequencing (WES) to a consanguineous family with two affected siblings who have pituitary gland insufficiency and radiographic findings of hypoplastic (thin) pituitary gland, empty sella, ectopic neurohypophysis, and interrupted pitiutary stalk—characteristic clinical diagnostic findings of PSIS. Design and Participants: WES was applied to two affected and one unaffected siblings. Results: WES of two affected and one unaffected sibling revealed a unique homozygous missense mutation in GPR161, which encodes the orphan G protein–coupled receptor 161, a protein responsible for transducing extracellular signals across the plasma membrane into the cell. Conclusion: Mutations of GPR161 may be implicated as a potential novel cause of PSIS. PMID:25322266

  9. Human chorionic somatomammotropin and growth hormone gene expression in rat pituitary tumor cells is dependent on proximal promoter sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtigal, M.W.; Nickel, B.E.; Klassen, M.E.; Cattini, P.A. (Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)); Zhang, Wengang; Eberhardt, N.L. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1989-06-12

    Human placental chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS-A or hCS-B) and pituitary growth hormone (hGH-N) are related by structure and function. The hCS-A gene is expressed in rat pituitary tumor (GC) cells after gene transfer. Deletion of hCS-A 5{prime}-flanking DNA reveals repressor activity upstream of nucleotide {minus}132, and a region essential for expression in GC cells between nucleotides {minus}94 and {minus}61. The sequences in this region differ from the equivalent hGH-N gene DNA by one nucleotide, and include the binding site for a pituitary-specific factor (GHF-1), required for hGH-N expression in GC cells. Exchange of hGH-N with hCS-A gene DNA in this region maintains expression in GC cells. By contrast, modification of these sequences blocks expression. These data indicate that proximal promoter sequences, equivalent to those bound by GHF-1 on the hGH-N gene, are required for hCS-A expression in GC cells.

  10. Identification of a subtype-specific ENC1 gene related to invasiveness in human pituitary null cell adenoma and oncocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Hong, Lichuan; Wu, Yonggang; Li, Chuzhong; Wan, Hong; Li, Guilin; Sun, Yilin; Yu, Shenyuan; Chittiboina, Prashant; Montgomery, Blake; Zhuang, Zhengping; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2014-09-01

    Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) may be locally invasive. Surgery is a treatment option, but unlike the case for functional pituitary adenomas, there are almost no drug treatments available for NFPAs. Markers of invasiveness are needed to guide therapeutic decision-making and identify potential adjuvant drugs. Owing to the highly heterogeneous nature of NFPAs, little is known regarding the subtype-specific gene expression profiles associated with invasiveness. To identify important biomarkers of invasiveness, we selected 23 null cell adenomas and 20 oncocytomas. These tumors were classified as invasive or non-invasive adenomas based on magnetic resonance imaging, pathology slides and surgical findings. Firstly, we observed that there were significant differences in expression between invasive (n = 3) and non-invasive (n = 4) adenomas by gene expression microarray. A total of 1,188 genes were differentially expressed in the invasive and non-invasive adenomas. Among these 1,188 genes, 578 were upregulated and 610 were downregulated in invasive adenomas. Secondly, the expression of ENC1, which displayed the significant alterations, was further confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis in all 43 tumor samples and three normal pituitary glands. Low levels of ENC1 were found in tumor samples, while high levels were detected in normal pituitary glands. Interestingly, the ENC1 expression level was low in invasive null cell adenomas compared with non-invasive adenomas, but this relationship was not observed in invasive oncocytomas. Immunohistochemistry also demonstrated that the staining of ENC1 was different between invasive and non-invasive null cell adenomas. In addition, bioinformatics studies, including gene ontology and protein interaction analyses, were also performed to better understand the critical role of ENC1 in the development and progression of null cell adenomas and oncocytomas. Consequently, ENC1 may be an important biomarker for null cell

  11. Regulation of pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) expression and phosphorylation in thyroid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy, Gregory D; Ryan, Gavin A; Read, Martin L; Fong, Jim C W; Poole, Vikki; Seed, Robert I; Sharma, Neil; Smith, Vicki E; Kwan, Perkin P K; Stewart, Sarah L; Bacon, Andrea; Warfield, Adrian; Franklyn, Jayne A; McCabe, Christopher J; Boelaert, Kristien

    2013-11-01

    Human pituitary tumor transforming gene (hPTTG) is a multifunctional proto-oncogene implicated in the initiation and progression of several tumors. Phosphorylation of hPTTG is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDC2), whereas cellular expression is regulated by specificity protein 1 (SP1). The mechanisms underlying hPTTG propagation of aberrant thyroid cell growth have not been fully defined. We set out to investigate the interplay between hPTTG and growth factors, as well as the effects of phosphorylation and SP1 regulation on hPTTG expression and function. In our study, epidermal growth factor (EGF), TGFα, and IGF-1 induced hPTTG expression and phosphorylation in thyroid cells, which was associated with activation of MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Growth factors induced hPTTG independently of CDC2 and SP1 in thyroid carcinoma cells. Strikingly, CDC2 depletion in TPC-1 cells resulted in enhanced expression and phosphorylation of hPTTG and reduced cellular proliferation. In reciprocal experiments, hPTTG overexpression induced EGF, IGF-1, and TGFα mRNAs in primary human thyrocytes. Treatment of primary human thyrocytes with conditioned media derived from hPTTG-transfected cells resulted in autocrine upregulation of hPTTG protein, which was ameliorated by growth factor depletion or growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A transgenic murine model of thyroid targeted hPTTG overexpression (hPTTG-Tg) (FVB/N strain, both sexes) demonstrated smaller thyroids with reduced cellular proliferation and enhanced secretion of Egf. In contrast, Pttg(-/-) knockout mice (c57BL6 strain, both sexes) showed reduced thyroidal Egf mRNA expression. These results define hPTTG as having a central role in thyroid autocrine signaling mechanisms via growth factors, with profound implications for promotion of transformed cell growth.

  12. Non-pituitary origin sellar tumours mimicking pituitary macroadenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abele, T.A., E-mail: travaus@gmail.com [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States); Yetkin, Z.F.; Raisanen, J.M.; Mickey, B.E.; Mendelsohn, D.B. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Although the large majority of sellar tumours are pituitary adenomas, several other pituitary and non-pituitary origin tumours arise in the sellar and parasellar regions. Given their location, non-adenomatous lesions frequently mimic pituitary macroadenomas and can pose a diagnostic challenge for the radiologist. Distinguishing rare sellar lesions from the common macroadenoma helps to direct the correct surgical approach and reduce the risk of incomplete resection and/or complications such as cerebrospinal fluid leak with the potential for meningitis. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging features of non-pituitary-origin sellar tumours, focusing on characteristics that may distinguish them from pituitary macroadenomas. Lesions include meningioma, metastatic disease, epidermoid cyst, germinoma, chondrosarcoma, giant cell tumour, and giant aneurysm.

  13. Gene expression profiling of pituitary melanotrope cells during their physiological activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribara, Miyuki; van Bakel, Nick H M; Ramekers, Dyan; de Gouw, Daan; Neijts, Roel; Roubos, Eric W; Scheenen, Wim J J M; Martens, Gerard J M; Jenks, Bruce G

    2012-01-01

    The pituitary melanotrope cells of the amphibian Xenopus laevis are responsible for the production of the pigment-dispersing peptide α-melanophore-stimulating hormone, which allows the animal to adapt its skin color to its environment. During adaptation to a dark background the melanotrope cells undergo remarkable changes characterized by dramatic increases in cell size and secretory activity. In this study we performed microarray mRNA expression profiling to identify genes important to melanotrope activation and growth. We show a strong increase in the expression of the immediate early gene (IEG) c-Fos and of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF). Furthermore, we demonstrate the involvement of another IEG in the adaptation process, Nur77, and conclude from in vitro experiments that the expression of both c-Fos and Nur77 are partially regulated by the adenylyl cyclase system and calcium ions. In addition, we found a steady up-regulation of Ras-like product during the adaptation process, possibly evoked by BDNF/TrkB signaling. Finally, the gene encoding the 105-kDa heat shock protein HSPh1 was transiently up-regulated in the course of black-background adaptation and a gene product homologous to ferritin (ferritin-like product) was >100-fold up-regulated in fully black-adapted animals. We suggest that these latter two genes are induced in response to cellular stress and that they may be involved in changing the mode of mRNA translation required to meet the increased demand for de novo protein synthesis. Together, our results show that microarray analysis is a valuable approach to identify the genes responsible for generating coordinated responses in physiologically activated cells.

  14. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide modulates catecholamine storage and exocytosis in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    Full Text Available A number of efforts have been made to understand how pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP functions as a neurotrophic and neuroprotective factor in Parkinson's disease (PD. Recently its effects on neurotransmission and underlying mechanisms have generated interest. In the present study, we investigate the effects of PACAP on catecholamine storage and secretion in PC12 cells with amperometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. PACAP increases quantal release induced by high K+ without significantly regulating the frequency of vesicle fusion events. TEM data indicate that the increased volume of the vesicle is mainly the result of enlargement of the fluidic space around the dense core. Moreover, the number of docked vesicles isn't modulated by PACAP. When cells are acutely treated with L-DOPA, the vesicular volume and quantal release both increase dramatically. It is likely that the characteristics of amperometric spikes from L-DOPA treated cells are associated with increased volume of individual vesicles rather than a direct effect on the mechanics of exocytosis. Treatment with PACAP versus L-DOPA results in different profiles of the dynamics of exocytosis. Release via the fusion pore prior to full exocytosis was observed with the same frequency following treatment with PACAP and L-DOPA. However, release events have a shorter duration and higher average current after PACAP treatment compared to L-DOPA. Furthermore, PACAP reduced the proportion of spikes having rapid decay time and shortened the decay time of both fast and slow spikes. In contrast, the distributions of the amperometric spike decay for both fast and slow spikes were shifted to longer time following L-DOPA treatment. Compared to L-DOPA, PACAP may produce multiple favorable effects on dopaminergic neurons, including protecting dopaminergic neurons against neurodegeneration and potentially regulating dopamine storage and release, making it a promising

  15. Tubocurarine blocks a calcium-dependent potassium current in rat tumoral pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacher, P; Vacher, A M; Mollard, P

    1998-04-30

    We investigated the effects of potassium channel inhibitors on electrical activity, membrane ionic currents, intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and hormone release in GH3/B6 cells (a line of pituitary origin). Patch-clamp recordings show a two-component after hyperpolarization (AHP) following each action potential (current clamp) or a two-component tail current (voltage-clamp). Both components can be blocked by inhibiting Ca2+ influx. Application of D-tubocurarine (dTc) (20-500 microM) reversibly suppressed the slowly decaying Ca2+-activated K+ tail current (I AHPs) in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, low doses of tetraethylammonium ions (TEA+) only blocked the rapidly decaying voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ tail current (I AHPf). Therefore, GH3/B6 cells exhibit at least two quite distinct Ca2+-dependent K+ currents, which differ in size, voltage- and Ca2+-sensitivity, kinetics and pharmacology. These two currents also play quite separate roles in shaping the action potential. d-tubocurarine increased spontaneous Ca2+ action potential firing, whereas TEA increased action potential duration. Thus, both agents stimulated Ca2+ entry. I AHPs is activated by a transient increase in [Ca2+]i such as a thyrotrophin releasing hormone-induced Ca2+ mobilization. All the K+ channel inhibitors we tested: TEA, apamin, dTC and charybdotoxin, stimulated prolactin and growth hormone release in GH3/B6 cells. Our results show that I AHPs is a good sensor for subplasmalemmal Ca2+ and that dTc is a good pharmacological tool for studying this current.

  16. Pituitary infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during or right after childbirth, it is called Sheehan syndrome . This is a very rare condition. Risk factors ... commonly, pituitary dysfunction may appear more slowly. In Sheehan syndrome, for example, the first symptom may be a ...

  17. Pituitary tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough of its hormones. This condition is called hypopituitarism . The causes of pituitary tumors are unknown. Some ... Cyst Endocrine glands Gigantism Growth hormone test Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I Prolactin blood test ...

  18. Pituitary metastasis as a presenting manifestation of silent systemic malignancy: A retrospective analysis of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dutta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pituitary metastasis as a presenting manifestation of silent systemic malignancy is rare. We describe four such cases. Materials and Methods: Four patients (0.7% of malignancy with pituitary metastasis out of 540 patients of sellar mass within a period of 10 years were analyzed for clinical, hormonal and radiological findings. Result: The age range of these patients was 39-60 years with lag time ranging from 2to 5 months. Pituitary pathology was presenting manifestation in all 4 patients including diabetes insipidus, ophthalmoplegia and variable anterior pituitary hormone deficiency. 2 patients had bronchogenic carcinoma and one each had squamous cell and adenocarcinoma with unknown primary. Diagnosis of pituitary metastasis was confirmed in three on pituitary mass histopathology and in one it was based on rapidly appearing mass in a short time. Conclusion: Rapidly appearing mass in the sellar region, short lag time,sudden onset of ophthalmoplegia, -symptoms and signs disproportionate to the size of mass, presence of diabetes insipidus and destroyed but normal sized sella should invoke the suspicion of pituitary metastasis.

  19. Pituitary apoplexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Ranabir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is rare endocrine emergency which can occur due to infarction or haemorrhage of pituitary gland. This disorder most often involves a pituitary adenoma. Occasionally it may be the first manifestation of an underlying adenoma. There is conflicting data regarding which type of pituitary adenoma is prone for apoplexy. Some studies showed predominance of non-functional adenomas while some other studies showed a higher prevalence in functioning adenomas amongst which prolactinoma have the highest risk. Although pituitary apoplexy can occur without any precipitating factor in most cases, there are some well recognizable risk factors such as hypertension, medications, major surgeries, coagulopathies either primary or following medications or infection, head injury, radiation or dynamic testing of the pituitary. Patients usually present with headache, vomiting, altered sensorium, visual defect and/or endocrine dysfunction. Hemodynamic instability may be result from adrenocorticotrophic hormone deficiency. Imaging with either CT scan or MRI should be performed in suspected cases. Intravenous fluid and hydrocortisone should be administered after collection of sample for baseline hormonal evaluation. Earlier studies used to advocate urgent decompression of the lesion but more recent studies favor conservative approach for most cases with surgery reserved for those with deteriorating level of consciousness or increasing visual defect. The visual and endocrine outcomes are almost similar with either surgery or conservative management. Once the acute phase is over, patient should be re-evaluated for hormonal deficiencies.

  20. Recruiting of somatotroph cells after combined somatostatin, GHRH and growth hormone (GH) secretagogue stimulation in a study of pituitary GH reserve in prepuberal female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Reina, L.; García-Martínez, E.; Rojas, J.P.; Cañete, M.D.; G. Bernal; Cañete, R.

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic confirmation of growth hormone (GH) deficiency in children and adults is based on stimulation tests designed to assess the pituitary reserve by measuring the amount of GH released into the bloodstream; however, the results obtained by this means cannot provide any direct indication of the amount of GH actually produced by pituitary somatotroph cells. The present paper sought to test the hypothesis that release of GH following administration of sp...

  1. The planar cell polarity protein Strabismus promotes Pins anterior localization during asymmetric division of sensory organ precursor cells in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaïche, Yohanns; Beaudoin-Massiani, Olivia; Stuttem, Isabella; Schweisguth, François

    2004-01-01

    Cell fate diversity is generated in part by the unequal segregation of cell-fate determinants during asymmetric cell division. In the Drosophila bristle lineage, the sensory organ precursor (pI) cell is polarized along the anteroposterior (AP) axis by Frizzled (Fz) receptor signaling. We show here that Fz localizes at the posterior apical cortex of the pI cell prior to mitosis, whereas Strabismus (Stbm) and Prickle (Pk), which are also required for AP polarization of the pI cell, co-localize at the anterior apical cortex. Thus, asymmetric localization of Fz, Stbm and Pk define two opposite cortical domains prior to mitosis of the pI cell. At mitosis, Stbm forms an anterior crescent that overlaps with the distribution of Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) and Discs-large (Dlg), two components of the anterior Dlg-Pins-Galphai complex that regulates the localization of cell-fate determinants. At prophase, Stbm promotes the anterior localization of Pins. By contrast, Dishevelled (Dsh) acts antagonistically to Stbm by excluding Pins from the posterior cortex. We propose that the Stbm-dependent recruitment of Pins at the anterior cortex of the pI cell is a novel read-out of planar cell polarity.

  2. Pituitary Adenlylate Cyclase Activating Peptide Protects Adult Neural Stem Cells from a Hypoglycaemic milieu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Mansouri

    Full Text Available Hypoglycaemia is a common side-effect of glucose-lowering therapies for type-2 diabetic patients, which may cause cognitive/neurological impairment. Although the effects of hypoglycaemia in the brain have been extensively studied in neurons, how hypoglycaemia impacts the viability of adult neural stem cells (NSCs has been poorly investigated. In addition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of how hypoglycaemia regulates NSCs survival have not been characterized. Recent work others and us have shown that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R agonist Exendin-4 stimulate NSCs survival against glucolipoapoptosis. The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro system where to study the effects of hypoglycaemia on NSC survival. Furthermore, we determine the potential role of PACAP and Exendin-4 in counteracting the effect of hypoglycaemia. A hypoglycaemic in vitro milieu was mimicked by exposing subventricular zone-derived NSC to low levels of glucose. Moreover, we studied the potential involvement of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress by quantifying protein levels of Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and mRNA levels of CHOP. We show that PACAP via PAC-1 receptor and PKA activation counteracts impaired NSC viability induced by hypoglycaemia. The protective effect induced by PACAP correlated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, Exendin-4 was ineffective. The results show that hypoglycaemia decreases NSC viability and that this effect can be substantially counteracted by PACAP via PAC-1 receptor activation. The data supports a potential therapeutic role of PAC-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of neurological complications, based on neurogenesis impairment by hypoglycaemia.

  3. Infundibulo-hypophysitis-like radiological image in a patient with pituitary infiltration of a diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A León-Suárez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL is a hematological tumor caused by abnormal lymphoid proliferation. NHL can arise in any part of the body, including central nervous system (CNS. However, pituitary involvement is a quite rare presentation. The diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is the most common subtype when pituitary is infiltrated. Here, we report a case of pituitary infiltration of NHL DLBCL type in a woman with hypopituitarism and an infundibulum-hypophysitis-like image on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. A female aged 64 years, complained of dyspepsia, fatigue, weight loss and urine volume increment with thirst. Endoscopy and gastric biopsy confirmed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Treatment with chemotherapy using R-CHOP was initiated. During her hospitalization, hypotension and polyuria were confirmed. Hormonal evaluation was compatible with central diabetes insipidus and hypopituitarism. Simple T1 sequence of MRI showed thickening of the infundibular stalk with homogeneous enhancement. After lumbar puncture analysis, CNS infiltration was confirmed showing positive atypical lymphocytes. Pituitary and infundibular stalk size normalized after R-CHOP chemotherapy treatment. In conclusion, pituitary infiltration of NHL with infundibular-hypophysitis-like image on MRI is a rare finding. Clinical picture included hypopituitarism and central diabetes insipidus. Diagnosis should be suspected after biochemical analysis and MRI results. Treatment consists of chemotherapy against NHL and hormonal replacement for pituitary dysfunction.

  4. Immunohistochemical study of pituitary cells in wild and captive Salminus hilarii (Characiformes: Characidae) females during the annual reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honji, Renato Massaaki; Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique; Pandolfi, Matias; Shimizu, Akio; Borella, Maria Inês; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater fish that live exclusively in rivers are at particular risk from fragmentation of the aquatic system, mainly the species that migrate upriver for reproduction. That is the case of Salminus hilarii, an important migratory species currently classified as "almost threatened" in the São Paulo State (Brazil), facing water pollution, dam construction, riparian habitat destruction and environmental changes that are even more serious in this State. Additionally, this species show ovulation dysfunction in captivity. Our studies focused on the identification and distribution of the pituitary cell types in the adenohypophysis of S. hilarii females, including a morphometric analysis that compares pituitary cells from wild and captive broodstocks during the reproductive annual cycle. The morphology of adenohypophysial cells showed differences following the reproductive cycle and the environment. In general, optical density suggested a higher cellular activity during the previtellogenic (growth hormone) and vitellogenic (somatolactin) stages in both environments. Additionally, the nucleus/cell ratio analysis suggested that growth hormone and somatolactin cells were larger in wild than in captive females in most reproductive stages of the annual cycle. In contrast, prolactin hormone showed no variation throughout the reproductive cycle (in both environments). Morphometrical analyses related to reproduction of S. hilarii in different environmental conditions, suggest that somatolactin and growth hormone play an important role in reproduction in teleost and can be responsible for the regulation of associated processes that indirectly affect reproductive status.

  5. Lycopene and beta-carotene induce growth inhibition and proapoptotic effects on ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália F Haddad

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10-15% of intracranial tumors and result in morbidity associated with altered hormonal patterns, therapy and compression of adjacent sella turcica structures. The use of functional foods containing carotenoids contributes to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and vascular disorders. In this study, we evaluated the influence of different concentrations of beta-carotene and lycopene on cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis, hormone secretion, intercellular communication and expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27(kip1 in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells, the AtT20 cells, incubated for 48 and 96 h with these carotenoids. We observed a decrease in cell viability caused by the lycopene and beta-carotene treatments; in these conditions, the clonogenic ability of the cells was also significantly decreased. Cell cycle analysis revealed that beta-carotene induced an increase of the cells in S and G2/M phases; furthermore, lycopene increased the proportion of these cells in G0/G1 while decreasing the S and G2/M phases. Also, carotenoids induced apoptosis after 96 h. Lycopene and beta-carotene decreased the secretion of ACTH in AtT20 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Carotenoids blocked the gap junction intercellular communication. In addition, the treatments increased the expression of phosphorylated connexin43. Finally, we also demonstrate decreased expression of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2 and increased expression of p27(kip1 in carotenoid-treated cells. These results show that lycopene and beta-carotene were able to negatively modulate events related to the malignant phenotype of AtT-20 cells, through a mechanism that could involve changes in the expression of connexin 43, Skp2 and p27(kip1; and suggest that these compounds might provide a novel pharmacological approach to the treatment of Cushing's disease.

  6. GH and Pituitary Hormone Alterations After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Züleyha; Tanrıverdi, Fatih; Ünlühızarcı, Kürşad; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a crucially important public health problem around the world, which gives rise to increased mortality and is the leading cause of physical and psychological disability in young adults, in particular. Pituitary dysfunction due to TBI was first described 95 years ago. However, until recently, only a few papers have been published in the literature and for this reason, TBI-induced hypopituitarism has been neglected for a long time. Recent studies have revealed that TBI is one of the leading causes of hypopituitarism. TBI which causes hypopituitarism may be characterized by a single head injury such as from a traffic accident or by chronic repetitive head trauma as seen in combative sports including boxing, kickboxing, and football. Vascular damage, hypoxic insult, direct trauma, genetic predisposition, autoimmunity, and neuroinflammatory changes may have a role in the development of hypopituitarism after TBI. Because of the exceptional structure of the hypothalamo-pituitary vasculature and the special anatomic location of anterior pituitary cells, GH is the most commonly lost hormone after TBI, and the frequency of isolated GHD is considerably high. TBI-induced pituitary dysfunction remains undiagnosed and therefore untreated in most patients because of the nonspecific and subtle clinical manifestations of hypopituitarism. Treatment of TBI-induced hypopituitarism depends on the deficient anterior pituitary hormones. GH replacement therapy has some beneficial effects on metabolic parameters and neurocognitive dysfunction. Patients with TBI without neuroendocrine changes and those with TBI-induced hypopituitarism share the same clinical manifestations, such as attention deficits, impulsion impairment, depression, sleep abnormalities, and cognitive disorders. For this reason, TBI-induced hypopituitarism may be neglected in TBI victims and it would be expected that underlying hypopituitarism would aggravate the clinical picture of TBI

  7. Is IGSF1 involved in human pituitary tumor formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucz, Fabio R.; Horvath, Anelia D.; Azevedo, Monalisa F.; Levy, Isaac; Bak, Beata; Wang, Ying; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Gourgari, Evgenia; Manning, Allison D.; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Bertollo; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Lodish, Maya; Hofman, Paul; Anderson, Yvonne C; Holdaway, Ian; Oldfield, Edward; Chittiboina, Prashant; Nesterova, Maria; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Wit, Jan M.; Bernard, Daniel J.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2014-01-01

    IGSF1 is a membrane glycoprotein highly expressed in the anterior pituitary. Pathogenic mutations in the IGSF1 gene (on Xq26.2) are associated with X-linked central hypothyroidism and testicular enlargement in males. In this study we tested the hypothesis that IGSF1 is involved in the development of pituitary tumors, especially those that produce growth hormone (GH). IGSF1 was sequenced in 21 patients with gigantism or acromegaly and 92 healthy individuals. Expression studies with a candidate pathogenic IGSF1 variant were carried out in transfected cells and immunohistochemistry for IGSF1 was performed in sections from GH-producing adenomas, familial somatomammotroph hyperplasia and in normal pituitary. In two male patients, and in one female, with somatomammotroph hyperplasia from the same family, we identified the sequence variant p.N604T, which in silico analysis suggested could affect IGSF1 function. Of 60 female controls, two carried the same variant, and seven were heterozygous for other variants. Immunohistochemistry showed increase IGSF1 staining in the GH-producing tumor from the patient with the IGSF1 p.N604T variant compared to a GH-producing adenoma from a patient negative for any IGSF1 variants and to normal control pituitary tissue. The IGSF1 gene appears polymorphic in the general population. A potentially pathogenic variant identified in the germline of three patients with gigantism from the same family (segregating with the disease) was also detected in two healthy female controls. Variations in IGSF1 expression in pituitary tissue in patients with or without IGSF1 germline mutations point to the need for further studies of IGSF1 action in pituitary adenoma formation. PMID:25527509

  8. Is IGSF1 involved in human pituitary tumor formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucz, Fabio R; Horvath, Anelia D; Azevedo, Monalisa F; Levy, Isaac; Bak, Beata; Wang, Ying; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Gourgari, Evgenia; Manning, Allison D; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Bertollo; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Lodish, Maya; Hofman, Paul; Anderson, Yvonne C; Holdaway, Ian; Oldfield, Edward; Chittiboina, Prashant; Nesterova, Maria; Biermasz, Nienke R; Wit, Jan M; Bernard, Daniel J; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2015-02-01

    IGSF1 is a membrane glycoprotein highly expressed in the anterior pituitary. Pathogenic mutations in the IGSF1 gene (on Xq26.2) are associated with X-linked central hypothyroidism and testicular enlargement in males. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IGSF1 is involved in the development of pituitary tumors, especially those that produce growth hormone (GH). IGSF1 was sequenced in 21 patients with gigantism or acromegaly and 92 healthy individuals. Expression studies with a candidate pathogenic IGSF1 variant were carried out in transfected cells and immunohistochemistry for IGSF1 was performed in the sections of GH-producing adenomas, familial somatomammotroph hyperplasia, and in normal pituitary. We identified the sequence variant p.N604T, which in silico analysis suggested could affect IGSF1 function, in two male patients and one female with somatomammotroph hyperplasia from the same family. Of 60 female controls, two carried the same variant and seven were heterozygous for other variants. Immunohistochemistry showed increased IGSF1 staining in the GH-producing tumor from the patient with the IGSF1 p.N604T variant compared with a GH-producing adenoma from a patient negative for any IGSF1 variants and with normal control pituitary tissue. The IGSF1 gene appears polymorphic in the general population. A potentially pathogenic variant identified in the germline of three patients with gigantism from the same family (segregating with the disease) was also detected in two healthy female controls. Variations in IGSF1 expression in pituitary tissue in patients with or without IGSF1 germline mutations point to the need for further studies of IGSF1 action in pituitary adenoma formation.

  9. Leucine-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity is localized in luteinizing hormone-producing cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hirohumi; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we used immunohistochemical techniques to determine the cell type of leucine-enkephalin (Leu-ENK)-immunoreactive cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary. Immunoreactive cells were scattered throughout the pars distalis except for the dorso-caudal portion. These cells were immuno-positive for luteinizing hormone (LH), but they were immuno-negative for adrenocorticotrophic, growth, and thyroid-stimulating hormones, as well as prolactin. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that Leu-ENK-like substance and LH co-localized within the same secretory granules. Leu-ENK secreted from gonadotrophs may participate in LH secretion in an autocrine fashion, and/or may participate in the release of sex steroids together with LH.

  10. Giant Anterior Chest Wall Basal Cell Carcinoma: An Approach to Palliative Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Joy F. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior chest wall giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC is a rare skin malignancy that requires a multidisciplinary treatment approach. This case report demonstrates the challenges of anterior chest wall GBCC reconstruction for the purpose of palliative therapy in a 72-year-old female. Surgical resection of the lesion included the manubrium and upper four ribs. The defect was closed with bilateral pectoral advancement flaps, FlexHD, and pedicled VRAM. The palliative nature of this case made hybrid reconstruction more appropriate than rigid sternal reconstruction. In advanced metastatic cancers, the ultimate goals should be to avoid risk for infection and provide adequate coverage for the defect.

  11. Both pituitary and placental growth hormone transcripts are expressed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melen, L; Hennen, G; Dullaart, RPF; Igout, A

    1997-01-01

    The hGH-V gene codes for a variant of human pituitary growth hormone (hGH-N) named placental growth hormone (hPGH). hPGH shares 93% amino acid identity with hGH-N. Until now the hGH-V gene was considered to be exclusively expressed in human placenta, where it replaces maternal circulating hGH-N at t

  12. EGF stimulates Pit-1 independent transcription of the human prolactin pituitary promoter in human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells through its proximal AP-1 response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfroid, Isabelle; Van de Weerdt, Cécile; Baudhuin, Ariane; Martial, Joseph A; Muller, Marc

    2005-01-14

    Normal and neoplastic human mammary gland cells are targets for the proliferative action of prolactin. These cells also synthesize prolactin, thereby inducing an autocrine/paracrine proliferative loop. We present the first extensive analysis of the transcriptional regulation of the human prolactin gene (hPRL) in human mammary tumor cells, SK-BR-3. We show that the pituitary promoter is functional in these cells in the absence of the pituitary-specific factor Pit-1. Expression of exogenous Pit-1 or epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment stimulates the transfected hPRL pituitary promoter and the endogenous hPRL expression. EGF stimulation is mediated by increased synthesis of c-fos and c-jun, resulting in AP-1 binding to the proximal hPRL pituitary promoter. This regulation involves the EGF receptor, possibly ErbB2 that is highly expressed in SK-BR-3 cells, and a PI3K/JNK pathway. The stimulation of hPRL gene transcription by EGF in mammary cells may include hPRL in a complex regulatory network controlling growth of human mammary cells.

  13. Effects of pentosan polysulfate sodium on the estrogen-induced pituitary prolactinoma in Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Slawomir; Melen-Mucha, Gabriela; Stepien, Tomasz; Godlewski, Andrzej; Stepien, Henryk

    2002-01-01

    The development of estrogen-induced pituitary prolactinoma in Fischer 344 (F344) rats is associated with enhanced neovascularization. This type of tumor is a rich source of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which possesses strong mitogenic and angiogenic properties. Pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS) has been shown to exert antitumor activity by antagonizing the binding of bFGF to cell surface receptors. We have examined the effects of pentosan on tumor growth, hyperprolactinemia and angiogenesis in diethylstilbestrol-induced anterior pituitary adenoma in F344 rats. Chronic treatment with PPS did not cause any changes in the pituitary weight and serum prolactin concentration in comparison with untreated animals. The density of microvessels identified by CD-31 was also not affected by the tested drug. On the other hand, pentosan has been found to decrease cell proliferation evaluated by a number of PCNA-positive stained cell nuclei. Moreover, the TUNEL method has revealed an increased number of apoptotic bodies within the anterior pituitary after treatment with PPS. Despite the antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity of pentosan, the drug failed to inhibit tumor growth. This fact might be due to the lack of antiangiogenic activity of PPS in this experimental design.

  14. Contribution of mdr1b-type P-glycoprotein to okadaic acid resistance in rat pituitary GH3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, V; Marwitz, J; Sieder, S; Ziemann, C; Hirsch-Ernst, K I; Quentin, I; Steinfelder, H J

    1999-08-01

    Okadaic acid as well as other, structurally different, inhibitors of serine/threonine phosphatases 1 and 2A induce apoptosis in pituitary GH3 cells. Incubation with stepwise raised concentrations of okadaic acid resulted in the isolation of cells that were increasingly less sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of this agent. After about 18 months cells were selected that survived at 300 nM okadaic acid, which is about 30 times the initially lethal concentration. This study revealed that a major pharmacokinetic mechanism underlying cell survival was the development of a P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. The increase in mRNA levels of the mdr1b P-glycoprotein isoform correlated with the extent of drug resistance. Functional assays revealed that increasing drug resistance was paralleled by a decreased accumulation of rhodamine 123, a fluorescent dye which is a substrate of mdr1-mediated efflux activity. Resistance could be abolished by structurally different chemosensitizers of P-glycoprotein function like verapamil and reserpine but not by the leukotriene receptor antagonist MK571 which is a modulator of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP). Okadaic acid resistance included cross-resistance to other cytotoxic agents that are substrates of mdr1-type P-glycoproteins, like doxorubicin and actinomycin D, but not to non-substrates of mdr1, e.g. cytosine arabinoside. Thus, functional as well as biochemical features support the conclusion that okadaic acid is a substrate of the mdr1-mediated efflux activity in rat pituitary GH3 cells. Maintenance of resistance after withdrawal of okadaic acid as well as metaphase spreads of 100 nM okadaic acid-resistant cells suggested a stable MDR genotype without indications for the occurrence of extrachromosomal amplifications, e.g. double minute chromosomes.

  15. Transcranial surgery for pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, A Samy; Agazzi, Siviero; van Loveren, Harry R

    2005-07-01

    Although the transsphenoidal approach is the preferred approach to the vast majority of pituitary tumors with or without suprasellar extension, the transcranial approach remains a vital part of the neurosurgical armamentarium for 1 to 4% of these tumors. The transcranial approach is effective when resection becomes necessary for a portion of a pituitary macroadenoma that is judged to be inaccessible from the transsphenoidal route because of isolation by a narrow waist at the diaphragma sellae, containment within the cavernous sinus lateral to the carotid artery, projection anteriorly onto the planum sphenoidale, or projection laterally into the middle fossa. The application of a transcranial approach in these circumstances may still be mitigated by response to prolactin inhibition of prolactinomas, the frequent lack of necessity to remove asymptomatic nonsecretory adenomas from the cavernous sinus, and the lack of evidence that sustained chemical cures can be reliably achieved by removal of secretory adenomas (adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone) from the cavernous sinus. Cranial base surgical techniques have refined the surgical approach to pituitary adenomas but have had less effect on actual surgical indications than anticipated. Because application of the transcranial approach to pituitary adenomas is and should be rare in clinical practice, it is useful to standardize the technique to a default mode with which the surgical team is most experienced and, therefore, most comfortable. Our default mode for transcranial pituitary surgery is the frontotemporal-orbitozygomatic approach.

  16. Delayed sequelae of pituitary irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, K.H.; Lyman, J.T.; Lawrence, J.H.; Tobias, C.A.; Born, J.L.; Fabrikant, J.I.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1958, 781 patients at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have received helium-particle stereotactic radiosurgery to the adenohypophysis. Autopsy findings in 15 of these patients are reported. Ten patients received pituitary radiation (average dose, 116 Gy in six fractions) for progressive neovascularization retinopathy due to diabetes mellitus. Evidence of a time-dependent course of progressive fibrosis in their pituitary glands was found. Five patients were treated for eosinophilic adenomas. Although they had lower average doses of radiation (56 Gy in six fractions), their pituitary glands showed cystic cavitation of the adenomas. The adenomas thus appeared more radiosensitive than the normal pars anterior, which, in turn, was more radiosensitive than the adjacent neurohypophysis. No significant radiation changes were found in the surrounding brain or cranial nerves. The endocrine organs under pituitary control showed varying degrees of atrophy, and clinical tests revealed progressive hypofunction. It was concluded that charged-particle therapy produced a sharply delineated focal ral tests revealed progressive hypofunction. It was concluded that charged-particle therapy produced a sharply delineated focal radiation lesion confined to the pituitary gland but did not cause injury to the critical structures of the surrounding central nervous system.

  17. Purkinje cell activity in the cerebellar anterior lobe after rabbit eyeblink conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, John T.; Steinmetz, Joseph E.

    2005-01-01

    The cerebellar anterior lobe may play a critical role in the execution and proper timing of learned responses. The current study was designed to monitor Purkinje cell activity in the rabbit cerebellar anterior lobe after eyeblink conditioning, and to assess whether Purkinje cells in recording locations may project to the interpositus nucleus. Rabbits were trained in an interstimulus interval discrimination procedure in which one tone signaled a 250-msec conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) interval and a second tone signaled a 750-msec CS-US interval. All rabbits showed conditioned responses to each CS with mean onset and peak latencies that coincided with the CS-US interval. Many anterior lobe Purkinje cells showed significant learning-related activity after eyeblink conditioning to one or both of the CSs. More Purkinje cells responded with inhibition than with excitation to CS presentation. In addition, when the firing patterns of all conditioning-related Purkinje cells were pooled, it appeared that the population showed a pattern of excitation followed by inhibition during the CS-US interval. Using cholera toxin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase, Purkinje cells in recording areas were found to project to the interpositus nucleus. These data support previous studies that have suggested a role for the anterior cerebellar cortex in eyeblink conditioning as well as models of cerebellar-mediated CR timing that postulate that Purkinje cell activity inhibits conditioned response (CR) generation during the early portion of a trial by inhibiting the deep cerebellar nuclei and permits CR generation during the later portion of a trial through disinhibition of the cerebellar nuclei. PMID:15897252

  18. Computational Image Analysis Reveals Intrinsic Multigenerational Differences between Anterior and Posterior Cerebral Cortex Neural Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Winter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Time-lapse microscopy can capture patterns of development through multiple divisions for an entire clone of proliferating cells. Images are taken every few minutes over many days, generating data too vast to process completely by hand. Computational analysis of this data can benefit from occasional human guidance. Here we combine improved automated algorithms with minimized human validation to produce fully corrected segmentation, tracking, and lineaging results with dramatic reduction in effort. A web-based viewer provides access to data and results. The improved approach allows efficient analysis of large numbers of clones. Using this method, we studied populations of progenitor cells derived from the anterior and posterior embryonic mouse cerebral cortex, each growing in a standardized culture environment. Progenitors from the anterior cortex were smaller, less motile, and produced smaller clones compared to those from the posterior cortex, demonstrating cell-intrinsic differences that may contribute to the areal organization of the cerebral cortex.

  19. Pituitary Adenoma as a Rare Form of Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María León Blasco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas are benign tumors arising from one of the five cell types in the anterior pituitary. Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce hormones due to the lack of pituary adrenocorticotropic hormone or hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor. The case of a 37-year-old female patient who started developing muscle twitching in legs and arms, muscular weakness, fatigue, muscle aches, severe and throbbing hemicrania on the right side, among other symptoms, a year ago is presented. Several tests were performed (cortisol level, adrenocorticotropic hormone, calcium and phosphorus in blood and urine, magnetic resonance imaging of the skull, leading to the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma with isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency and secondary adrenal insufficiency. Treatment with steroids and calcium supplements ensured a satisfactory recovery.

  20. Effects of bromocriptine on serum prolactin levels, pituitary weight and immunoreactive prolactin cells in estradiol-treated ovariectomized rats: an experimental model of estrogen-dependent hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Ribeiro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the effects of bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist, on pituitary wet weight, number of immunoreactive prolactin cells and serum prolactin concentrations in estradiol-treated rats. Ovariectomized Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with sunflower oil vehicle or estradiol valerate (50 or 300 µg rat-1 week-1 for 2, 4 or 10 weeks. Bromocriptine (0.2 or 0.6 mg rat-1 day-1 was injected daily during the last 5 or 12 days of estrogen treatment. Data were compared with those obtained for intact control rats. Administration of both doses of estrogen increased serum prolactin levels. No difference in the number of prolactin cells in rats treated with 50 µg estradiol valerate was observed compared to intact adult animals. In contrast, rats treated with 300 µg estradiol valerate showed a significant increase in the number of prolactin cells (P<0.05. Therefore, the increase in serum prolactin levels observed in rats treated with 50 µg estradiol valerate, in the absence of morphological changes in the pituitary cells, suggests a "functional" estrogen-induced hyperprolactinemia. Bromocriptine decreased prolactin levels in all estrogen-treated rats. The administration of this drug to rats previously treated with 300 µg estradiol valerate also resulted in a significant decrease in pituitary weight and number of prolactin cells when compared to the group treated with estradiol alone. The general antiprolactinemic and antiproliferative pituitary effects of bromocriptine treatment reported here validate the experimental model of estrogen-induced hyperprolactinemic rats

  1. Primary Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of a Urethral Diverticulum Treated with Multidisciplinary Robotic Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dane Scantling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary urethral carcinoma is extremely rare and is marked by a variety of clinical symptoms. Primary carcinoma of a urethral diverticulum is still rarer and clear cell adenocarcinoma of the urethra is particularly uncommon (Swartz et al., 2006. Such infrequency has led to inadequate management guidance in the literature for a disease that is often late in presentation and carries substantial morbidity and mortality. This treatable but grave disease deserves definitive curative treatment. We present the first published instance in which it was treated with robotic anterior exenteration. In our case, a 47-year-old female was referred to the urology service for investigation of recurring urinary tract infections. During the workup, the patient was found to have an advanced clear cell urethral adenocarcinoma originating in a urethral diverticulum. We discuss the natural history of this condition, its consequences, and the first instance of its treatment using robotic anterior pelvic exenteration.

  2. Pituitary abscess: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos K A Karagiannis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary abscess is a rare life-threating entity that is usually misdiagnosed as a pituitary tumor with a definite diagnosis only made postoperatively. Over the last several decades, advances in healthcare have led to a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality due to pituitary abscess. We report a case of a 34-year-old woman who was admitted to our department for investigation of a pituitary mass and with symptoms of pituitary dysfunction, headaches and impaired vision. During her admission, she developed meningitis-like symptoms and was treated with antibiotics. She eventually underwent transsphenoidal surgery for excision of the pituitary mass. A significant amount of pus was evident intraoperatively; however, no pathogen was isolated. Six months later, the patient was well and had full recovery of the anterior pituitary function. Her menses returned, and she was only on treatment with desmopressin for diabetes insipidus that developed postoperatively.

  3. Down-regulation of Leucine-rich Repeats and Immunoglobulin-like Domain Proteins (LRIG1-3) in HP75 Pituitary Adenoma Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Dongsheng; HAN Lin; SHU Kai; CHEN Jian; LEI Ting

    2007-01-01

    Three human leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) genes and proteins, named LRIG1-3, has been previously characterized and it was proposed that they may act as suppressors of tumor growth. The LRIG1 protein can inhibit the growth of tumors of glial cells and the down-regulation of the LRIG1 gene may be involved in the development and progression of the tumor. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a recently developed technique for quantitative assessment of specific RNA levels. In the current study, it was demonstrated that LRIG1-3 and EGFR mRNA was detected in human pituitary adenoma cell lines and a normal pituitary sample, with differences in the expression levels. Compared to the normal pituitary samples, the expression of LRIG1-3 in HP75 cell line was lower, but the expression of EGFR in HP75 cell line was higher. The results are consistent with LRIG1-3 being tumour suppressor genes, and LRIG genes decreasing the expression of EGFR. The ratio of EGFR/LRIG1 was increased at least 13-fold in HP75 cells compared with the normal pituitary cells, which was also the case for the ratio of EGFR/LRIG2 (14-fold increase in HP75) and EGFR/LRIG3 (11-fold increase in HP75). Further studies were needed to elucidate the explicit role of LRIG genes as negative regulators of oncogenesis in human pituitary adenoma.

  4. Tissue engineering of ligaments : A comparison of bone marrow stromal cells, anterior cruciate ligament, and skin fibroblasts as cell source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eijk, F; Riesle, J; Willems, WJ; Van Blitterswijk, CA; Verbout, AJ; Dhert, WJA

    2004-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery still has important problems to overcome, such as "donor site morbidity" and the limited choice of grafts in revision surgery. Tissue engineering of ligaments may provide a solution for these problems. Little is known about the optimal cell sou

  5. Prenatal stress induces long-term effects in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis in adult male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Baquedano

    Full Text Available Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of gestation (45 minutes; 3 times/day. Only male offspring were used for this study and were sacrificed at 6 months of age. In prenatally stressed adults a decrease in markers of cell death and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary. This was associated with an increase in insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels, phosphorylation of CREB and calpastatin levels and inhibition of calpain -2 and caspase -8 activation. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were increased and levels of the pro-apoptotic factor p53 were reduced. In conclusion, prenatal restraint stress induces a long-term decrease in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis that might be at least partly mediated by an autocrine-paracrine IGF-I effect. These changes could condition the response of this axis to future physiological and pathophysiological situations.

  6. Prenatal Stress Induces Long-Term Effects in Cell Turnover in the Hippocampus-Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis in Adult Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquedano, Eva; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda; Lagunas, Natalia; Calmarza-Font, Isabel; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.; Frago, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of gestation (45 minutes; 3 times/day). Only male offspring were used for this study and were sacrificed at 6 months of age. In prenatally stressed adults a decrease in markers of cell death and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary. This was associated with an increase in insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels, phosphorylation of CREB and calpastatin levels and inhibition of calpain -2 and caspase -8 activation. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were increased and levels of the pro-apoptotic factor p53 were reduced. In conclusion, prenatal restraint stress induces a long-term decrease in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis that might be at least partly mediated by an autocrine-paracrine IGF-I effect. These changes could condition the response of this axis to future physiological and pathophysiological situations. PMID:22096592

  7. Effects of interleukin-1 beta on thyrotropin secretion and thyroid hormone uptake in cultured rat anterior pituitary cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W.J.S. Wassen (Frank); E.P.C.M. Moerings (Ellis); H. van Toor (Hans); E.A. de Vrey (Evelyn); G. Hennemann; M.E. Everts (Maria)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) on basal and TRH-induced TSH release, and the effects of IL-1 beta on the uptake of [125I]T3 and [125I]T4 and on nuclear binding of [125I]T3 were examined. Furthermore,

  8. Acute pituitary apoplexy complicating a pituitary macroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febin Joseph

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition caused by either haemorrhage or infarction of the pituitary gland. In most cases, a pre-existing pituitary macroadenoma is present. Patients present with the clinical syndrome of headache, visual defects or ophthalmoplegia, altered state of consciousness and variable endocrine deficits.

  9. Negative regulation of human growth hormone gene expression by insulin is dependent on hypoxia-inducible factor binding in primary non-tumor pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Hana; Jin, Yan; Cattini, Peter A

    2012-09-28

    Insulin controls growth hormone (GH) production at multiple levels, including via a direct effect on pituitary somatotrophs. There are no data, however, on the regulation of the intact human (h) GH gene (hGH1) by insulin in non-tumor pituitary cells, but the proximal promoter region (nucleotides -496/+1) responds negatively to insulin in transfected pituitary tumor cells. A DNA-protein interaction was also induced by insulin at nucleotides -308/-235. Here, we confirmed the presence of a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) binding site within these sequences (-264/-259) and investigated whether HIF-1 is associated with insulin regulation of "endogenous" hGH1. In the absence of primary human pituitary cells, transgenic mice expressing the intact hGH locus in a somatotroph-specific manner were generated. A significant and dose-dependent decrease in hGH and mouse GH RNA levels was detected in primary pituitary cell cultures from these mice with insulin treatment. Increasing HIF-1α availability with a hypoxia mimetic significantly decreased hGH RNA levels and was accompanied by recruitment of HIF-1α to the hGH1 promoter in situ as seen with insulin. Both inhibition of HIF-1 DNA binding by echinomycin and RNA interference of HIF-1α synthesis blunted the negative effect of insulin on hGH1 but not mGH. The insulin response is also sensitive to histone deacetylase inhibition/trichostatin A and associated with a decrease in H3/H4 hyperacetylation in the proximal hGH1 promoter region. These data are consistent with HIF-1-dependent down-regulation of hGH1 by insulin via chromatin remodeling specifically in the proximal promoter region.

  10. An intronic SNP in the thyroid hormone receptor β gene is associated with pituitary cell-specific over-expression of a mutant thyroid hormone receptor β2 (R338W in the index case of pituitary-selective resistance to thyroid hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochran Craig

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH is caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor β gene (THRB. The syndrome varies from asymptomatic to diffuse hypothyroidism, to pituitary-selective resistance with predominance of hyperthyroid signs and symptoms. The wide spectrum of clinical presentation is not completely attributable to specific THRB mutations. The THRB gene encodes two main isoforms, TR β1 which is widely distributed, and TR β2, whose expression is limited to the cochlea, retina, hypothalamus, and pituitary. Recent data demonstrated that in mice an intron enhancer region plays a critical role in the pituitary expression of the β2 isoform of the receptor. We thus hypothesized that polymorphisms in the human homologous region could modulate the pituitary expression of the mutated gene contributing to the clinical presentation of RTH. Methods Screening and in vitro characterization of polymorphisms of the intron enhancer region of the THRB gene in the index case of pituitary-selective RTH. Results The index case of pituitary-selective resistance is characterized by the missense R338W exon 9 mutation in cis with two common SNPs, rs2596623T and rs2596622C, located in the intron enhancer region of the THRB gene. Reporter gene assay experiments in GH3 pituitary-derived cells indicate that rs2596623T generates an increased pituitary cell-specific activity of the TR β2 promoter suggesting that rs2596623T leads to pituitary over-expression of the mutant allele. Conclusions The combined coding mutation and non-coding SNP therefore generate a tissue-specific dominant-negative condition recapitulating the patient's peculiar phenotype. This case illustrates the role of regulatory regions in modifying the clinical presentation of genetic diseases.

  11. Mechanical stretch increases CCN2/CTGF expression in anterior cruciate ligament-derived cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Yoshiaki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan); Furumatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: matino@md.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan); Kubota, Satoshi; Kawata, Kazumi [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan); Ozaki, Toshifumi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan); Takigawa, Masaharu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Dentistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama (Japan)

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} CCN2/CTGF localizes to the ligament-to-bone interface, but is not to the midsubstance region of human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). {yields} Mechanical stretch induces higher increase of CCN2/CTGF gene expression and protein secretion in ACL interface cells compared with ACL midsubstance cells. {yields} CCN2/CTGF treatment stimulates the proliferation of ACL interface cells. -- Abstract: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-to-bone interface serves to minimize the stress concentrations that would arise between two different tissues. Mechanical stretch plays an important role in maintaining cell-specific features by inducing CCN family 2/connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF). We previously reported that cyclic tensile strain (CTS) stimulates {alpha}1(I) collagen (COL1A1) expression in human ACL-derived cells. However, the biological function and stress-related response of CCN2/CTGF were still unclear in ACL fibroblasts. In the present study, CCN2/CTGF was observed in ACL-to-bone interface, but was not in the midsubstance region by immunohistochemical analyses. CTS treatments induced higher increase of CCN2/CTGF expression and secretion in interface cells compared with midsubstance cells. COL1A1 expression was not influenced by CCN2/CTGF treatment in interface cells despite CCN2/CTGF stimulated COL1A1 expression in midsubstance cells. However, CCN2/CTGF stimulated the proliferation of interface cells. Our results suggest that distinct biological function of stretch-induced CCN2/CTGF might regulate region-specific phenotypes of ACL-derived cells.

  12. The Marine Metabolite SZ-685C Induces Apoptosis in Primary Human Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma Cells by Inhibition of the Akt Pathway in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA is one of the most common types of pituitary adenoma. The marine anthraquinone derivative SZ-685C has been isolated from the secondary metabolites of the mangrove endophytic fungus Halorosellinia sp. (No. 1403 which is found in the South China Sea. Recent research has shown that SZ-685C possesses anticancer and tumor suppressive effects. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT assay to investigate the different effect of the marine compound SZ-685C on the proliferation of primary human NFPA cells, rat normal pituitary cells (RPCs and rat prolactinoma MMQ cell lines. Hoechst 33342 dye/propidium iodide (PI double staining and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Annexin V/PI (Annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis assays detected an enhanced rate of apoptosis in cells treated with SZ-685C. Enhanced expression levels of caspase 3 and phosphate and tensin homolog (PTEN were determined by Western blotting. Notably, the protein expression levels of Akt were decreased when the primary human NFPA cells were treated with SZ-685C. Here, we show that SZ-685C induces apoptosis of human NFPA cells through inhibition of the Akt pathway in vitro. The understanding of apoptosis has provided the basis for novel targeted therapies that can induce death in cancer cells or sensitize them to established cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy.

  13. Single-Cell Phenotypic Characterization of Human Pituitary GHomas and Non-Functioning Adenomas Based on Hormone Content and Calcium Responses to Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senovilla, Laura; Núñez, Lucía; de Campos, José María; de Luis, Daniel A.; Romero, Enrique; García-Sancho, Javier; Villalobos, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Human pituitary tumors are generally benign adenomas causing considerable morbidity due to excess hormone secretion, hypopituitarism, and other tumor mass effects. Pituitary tumors are highly heterogeneous and difficult to type, often containing mixed cell phenotypes. We have used calcium imaging followed by multiple immunocytochemistry to type growth hormone secreting (GHomas) and non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Individual cells were typed for stored hormones and calcium responses to classic hypothalamic releasing hormones (HRHs). We found that GHomas contained growth hormone cells either lacking responses to HRHs or responding to all four HRHs. However, most GHoma cells were polyhormonal cells responsive to both thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and GH-releasing hormone. NFPAs were also highly heterogeneous. Some of them contained ACTH cells lacking responses to HRHs or polyhormonal gonadotropes responsive to LHRH and TRH. However, most NFPAs were made of cells storing no hormone and responded only to TRH. These results may provide new insights on the ontogeny of GHomas and NFPAs. PMID:26106585

  14. Hydrogen sulfide induces hyperpolarization and decreases the exocytosis of secretory granules of rat GH3 pituitary tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafina, Alsu N; Yakovlev, Aleksey V; Gaifullina, Aisylu Sh; Weiger, Thomas M; Hermann, Anton; Sitdikova, Guzel F

    2015-10-02

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the membrane potential, action potential discharge and exocytosis of secretory granules in neurosecretory pituitary tumor cells (GH3). The H2S donor - sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) induced membrane hyperpolarization, followed by truncation of spontaneous electrical activity and decrease of the membrane resistance. The NaHS effect was dose-dependent with an EC50 of 152 μM (equals effective H2S of 16-19 μM). NaHS effects were not altered after inhibition of maxi conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels by tetraethylammonium or paxilline, but were significantly reduced after inhibition or activation of ATP-dependent potassium channels (KATP) by glibenclamide or by diazoxide, respectively. In whole-cell recordings NaHS increased the amplitude of KATP currents, induced by hyperpolarizing pulses and subsequent application of glibenclamide decreased currents to control levels. Using the fluorescent dye FM 1-43 exocytosis of secretory granules was analyzed in basal and stimulated conditions (high K(+) external solution). Prior application of NaHS decreased the fluorescence of the cell membrane in both conditions which links with activation of KATP currents (basal secretion) and activation of KATP currents and BK-currents (stimulated exocytosis). We suggest that H2S induces hyperpolarization of GH3 cells by activation of KATP channels which results in a truncation of spontaneous action potentials and a decrease of hormone release.

  15. Expression for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in pituitary adenomas 38 cases for semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojie Lu; Kailai Chen; Weiyang Ji; Qing Wang; Bing Li; Jiang'an Li; Jiyong Sun

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:It has been reposed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ(PPAR γ)is highly expressed in lung cancer,colon cancer,and gastric cancer,as well as other tumors.OBJECTIVE:To study expression of PPAR γ in pituitary adenomas and analyze the role of PPAR γ in hormonal typing of pituitary adenomas.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:Semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry of pathological specimens.The experiment was conducted at the Department of Neurosurgery,Wuxi Second Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University between January 2002 and May 2005.MATERIALS:Surgical resection samples of pituitary adenomas from 38 cases(18 male and 20 female)were analyzed.Eight cases were determined to be invasive pituitary adenomas and 30 cases were non-invasive pituitary adenomas.Hormonal classification of the types of pituitary adenomas revealed somatotrophic adenomas in six cases,corticotrophic adenoma in five cases,prolactinomas in 13 cases,multi-hormone secreting adenomas in six cases,and eight cases of adenoma without altered endocrine function.Five autopsy specimens were collected dunng the same period from patients of matching age that died from unrelated diseases and were included as normal anterior pituitary controls.METHODS:Cell counts for positive immunohistochemical signals were recorded from histopathological sections.The percentage of positive cells was reported as a semi-quantitative analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The rate of PPAR γ positive cells in different types of adenoma was based on hormonal levels and invasiveness of pituitary tumor cells.RESULTS:All tumor biopsies were determined to express PPAR γ.T1le rate of PPAR γ-positive cells ranged between 8%-65% in the pituitary adenomas.According to hormonal type,PPAR γ expression did not vary between the groups.In addition.there was no significant difference in PPAR γ expression between the non-invasive and invasive pituitary adenomas.CONCLUSIONS:Human pituitary adenomas express PPAR γ,and this

  16. Inhibitory Smads and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) modulate anterior photoreceptor cell number during planarian eye regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sastre, Alejandro; Molina, Ma Dolores; Saló, Emili

    2012-01-01

    Planarians represent an excellent model to study the processes of body axis and organ re-specification during regeneration. Previous studies have revealed a conserved role for the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway and its intracellular mediators Smad1/5/8 and Smad4 in planarian dorsoventral (DV) axis re-establishment. In an attempt to gain further insight into the role of this signalling pathway in planarians, we have isolated and functionally characte-rized the inhibitory Smads (I-Smads) in Schmidtea mediterranea. Two I-Smad homologues have been identified: Smed-smad6/7-1 and Smed-smad6/7-2. Expression of smad6/7-1 was detected in the parenchyma, while smad6/7-2 was found to be ex-pressed in the central nervous system and the eyes. Neither single smad6/7-1 and smad6/7-2 nor double smad6/7-1,-2 silencing gave rise to any apparent disruption of the DV axis. However, both regenerating and intact smad6/7-2 (RNAi) planarians showed defects in eye morphogenesis and displayed small, rounded eyes that lacked the anterior subpopulation of photoreceptor cells. The number of pigment cells was also reduced in these animals at later stages of regeneration. In contrast, after low doses of Smed-bmp(RNAi), planarians regenerated larger eyes in which the anterior subpopulation of photoreceptor cells was expanded. Our results suggest that Smed-smad6/7-2 and Smed-bmp control the re-specification and maintenance of anterior photoreceptor cell number in S. mediterranea.

  17. Estradiol processing by pituitary cells in culture: An examination of the influences of various exposures to progesterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krey, L.C.; Kamel, F. (Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Dispersed, estradiol (E{sub 2})-treated pituitary cells were used to examine the cellular mechanisms underlying progesterone (P) suppression of GnRH-stimulated LH and FSH secretion. When cells were exposed to 10{sup {minus}9}M E{sub 2} for 48 h prior to GnRH challenge, P treatment for the last 24 h suppressed gonadotroph responsiveness to GnRH for both LH and FSH secretion. To determine if P acts by blocking E{sub 2} processing and/or uptake, we exposed cells to 2,4,6,7-{sup 3}H-E{sub 2} {plus minus} P and monitored the level and distribution of {sup 3}H-estrogens bound to estrogen receptors salt-extracted from nuclear pellets purified by sucrose density centrifugation. At 1, 4 and 24 h, P had no effect on the level of {sup 3}H-estrogen+receptor complexes or on the distribution of receptor-bound {sup 3}H-E{sub 2}, {sup 3}H-estrone and {sup 3}H-estriol. The results indicate that chronic influences of P to suppress the responsiveness of E{sub 2}-treated gonadotrophs to GnRH cannot be explained by alterations in estrogen receptor occupation as is the case in reproductive tract tissues.

  18. Protective Effects of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Against Oxidative Stress in Zebrafish Hair Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasica, Natalia; Podlasz, Piotr; Sundvik, Maria; Tamas, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Kaleczyc, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide, with known antiapoptotic functions. Our previous in vitro study has demonstrated the ameliorative role of PACAP-38 in chicken hair cells under oxidative stress conditions, but its effects on living hair cells is now yet known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo the protective role of PACAP-38 in hair cells found in zebrafish (Danio rerio) sense organs-neuromasts. To induce oxidative stress the 5-day postfertilization (dpf) zebrafish larvae were exposed to 1.5 mM H2O2 for 15 min or 1 h. This resulted in an increase in caspase-3 and p-38 MAPK level in the hair cells as well as in an impairment of the larvae basic behavior. To investigate the ameliorative role of PACAP-38, the larvae were incubated with a mixture of 1.5 mM H2O2 and 100 nM PACAP-38 following 1 h preincubation with 100 nM PACAP-38 only. PACAP-38 abilities to prevent hair cells from apoptosis were investigated. Whole-mount immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy analyses revealed that PACAP-38 treatment decreased the cleaved caspase-3 level in the hair cells, but had no influence on p-38 MAPK. The analyses of basic locomotor activity supported the protective role of PACAP-38 by demonstrating the improvement of the fish behavior after PACAP-38 treatment. In summary, our in vivo findings demonstrate that PACAP-38 protects zebrafish hair cells from oxidative stress by attenuating oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

  19. Reevaluation of the electrophysiological actions of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in a rat pituitary cell line (GH3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simasko, S M

    1991-04-01

    The electrophysiological actions of TRH were examined in the clonal pituitary cell line GH3 with the use of the perforated patch variation of the standard whole cell patch-clamp technique. The action of TRH on spontaneously spiking cells was to cause a brief hyperpolarization (first phase action), followed by a period during which action potential behavior was significantly modified (second phase action). The modifications during second phase action included a reduction in the slope of the up-stroke, a reduced peak potential, an increase in duration, and a depolarizing shift of the after-hyperpolarization. The modification of voltage- and calcium-dependent conductances that underlie these changes were investigated in voltage clamp experiments. During first phase action TRH was found to increase calcium-dependent potassium current. During second phase action TRH was found to significantly reduce the L-type calcium current (35%), with no alteration in the T-type calcium current. The second phase action of TRH on calcium-dependent potassium conductance was complex. First, a decrease was observed. This was followed by an increase that did not become fully manifest until after TRH was washed from the cell. TRH caused no change in voltage-dependent potassium current. These results indicate that the second phase action of TRH on action potential behavior in GH3 cells is mediated by a reduction in L-type calcium current and alterations in the behavior of calcium-dependent potassium currents, but not through changes in voltage-dependent potassium currents.

  20. Proliferative and anti-proliferative effects of dietary levels of phytoestrogens in rat pituitary GH3/B6/F10 cells - the involvement of rapidly activated kinases and caspases

    OpenAIRE

    Watson Cheryl S; Jeng Yow-Jiun

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Phytoestogens are a group of lipophillic plant compounds that can have estrogenic effects in animals; both tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic effects have been reported. Prolactin-secreting adenomas are the most prevalent form of pituitary tumors in humans and have been linked to estrogen exposures. We examined the proliferative effects of phytoestrogens on a rat pituitary tumor cell line, GH3/B6/F10, originally subcloned from GH3 cells based on its ability to express high l...

  1. Wnt/planar cell polarity signaling controls the anterior-posterior organization of monoaminergic axons in the brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermaker, Ali G; Prasad, Asheeta A; Bechara, Ahmad; Adolfs, Youri; Tissir, Fadel; Goffinet, Andre; Zou, Yimin; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen

    2010-11-24

    Monoaminergic neurons [serotonergic (5-HT) and dopaminergic (mdDA)] in the brainstem project axons along the anterior-posterior axis. Despite their important physiological functions and implication in disease, the molecular mechanisms that dictate the formation of these projections along the anterior-posterior axis remain unknown. Here we reveal a novel requirement for Wnt/planar cell polarity signaling in the anterior-posterior organization of the monoaminergic system. We find that 5-HT and mdDA axons express the core planar cell polarity components Frizzled3, Celsr3, and Vangl2. In addition, monoaminergic projections show anterior-posterior guidance defects in Frizzled3, Celsr3, and Vangl2 mutant mice. The only known ligands for planar cell polarity signaling are Wnt proteins. In culture, Wnt5a attracts 5-HT but repels mdDA axons, and Wnt7b attracts mdDA axons. However, mdDA axons from Frizzled3 mutant mice are unresponsive to Wnt5a and Wnt7b. Both Wnts are expressed in gradients along the anterior-posterior axis, consistent with their role as directional cues. Finally, Wnt5a mutants show transient anterior-posterior guidance defects in mdDA projections. Furthermore, we observe during development that the cell bodies of migrating descending 5-HT neurons eventually reorient along the direction of their axons. In Frizzled3 mutants, many 5-HT and mdDA neuron cell bodies are oriented abnormally along the direction of their aberrant axon projections. Overall, our data suggest that Wnt/planar cell polarity signaling may be a global anterior-posterior guidance mechanism that controls axonal and cellular organization beyond the spinal cord.

  2. Hyperpolarization of the Membrane Potential Caused by Somatostatin in Dissociated Human Pituitary Adenoma Cells that Secrete Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Naohide; Shibuya, Naohiko; Ogata, Etsuro

    1986-08-01

    Membrane electrical properties and the response to somatostatin were examined in dissociated human pituitary adenoma cells that secrete growth hormone (GH). Under current clamp condition with a patch electrode, the resting potential was -52.4 ± 8.0 mV, and spontaneous action potentials were observed in 58% of the cells. Under voltage clamp condition an outward K+ current, a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ current, and a Ca2+ current were observed. Cobalt ions suppressed the Ca2+ current. The threshold of Ca2+ current activation was about -60 mV. Somatostatin elicited a membrane hyperpolarization associated with increased membrane permeability in these cells. The reversal potential of somatostatin-induced hyperpolarization was -78.4 ± 4.3 mV in 6 mM K+ medium and -97.2 ± 6.4 mV in 3 mM K+ medium. These reversal potential values and a shift with the external K+ concentration indicated that membrane hyperpolarization was caused by increased permeability to K+. The hyperpolarized membrane potential induced by somatostatin was -63.6 ± 5.9 mV in the standard medium. This level was subthreshold for Ca2+ and Na+ currents and was sufficient to inhibit spontaneous action potentials. Hormone secretion was significantly suppressed by somatostatin and cobalt ions. Therefore, we suggest that Ca2+ entering the cell through voltage-dependent channels are playing an important role for GH secretion and that somatostatin suppresses GH secretion by blocking Ca2+ currents. Finally, we discuss other possibilities for the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on GH secretion.

  3. A rare case of type 1 diabetes mellitus with pituitary hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Jostol; Sudeep, K; Venkatesha, B M

    2014-01-01

    Growth failure and pubertal abnormalities are not uncommon in chronic uncontrolled metabolic diseases like diabetes mellitus. We present a young girl with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes mellitus, who presented with short stature and primary amenorrhea, and on evaluation was found to have anterior pituitary hypoplasia. In addition to uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, she presented with early onset growth failure and lack of spontaneous secondary sexual characteristics. She had central hypothyroidism and inappropriately normal gonadotropin levels. However her serum cortisol levels were normal. MRI of the sellar-suprasellar region revealed a small anterior pituitary gland with thinning of the pituitary stalk consistent with pituitary hypoplasia. While uncontrolled type 1 diabetes itself may cause growth retardation and pubertal abnormalities, this girl had coexisting pituitary maldevelopment - a rare co-existence of two major illnesses of unrelated etiologies. The partial pituitary hormonal deficiency, which spared the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, may be due to a transcription factor defect.

  4. Graded hedgehog and fibroblast growth factor signaling independently regulate pituitary cell fates and help establish the pars distalis and pars intermedia of the zebrafish adenohypophysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner, Burcu; Ozacar, A Tuba; Thomas, Jeanne E; Karlstrom, Rolf O

    2008-09-01

    The vertebrate adenohypophysis forms as a placode at the anterior margin of the neural plate, requiring both hedgehog (Hh) and fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) mediated cell-cell signaling for induction and survival of endocrine cell types. Using small molecule inhibitors to modulate signaling levels during zebrafish development we show that graded Hh and Fgf signaling independently help establish the two subdomains of the adenohypophysis, the anteriorly located pars distalis (PD) and the posterior pars intermedia (PI). High levels of Hh signaling are required for formation of the PD and differentiation of anterior endocrine cell types, whereas lower levels of Hh signaling are required for formation of the PI and differentiation of posterior endocrine cell types. In contrast, high Fgf signaling levels are required for formation of the PI and posterior endocrine cell differentiation, whereas anterior regions require lower levels of Fgf signaling. Based on live observations and marker analyses, we show that the PD forms first at the midline closest to the central nervous system source of Sonic hedgehog. In contrast the PI appears to form from more lateral/posterior cells close to a central nervous system source of Fgf3. Together our data show that graded Hh and Fgf signaling independently direct induction of the PD and PI and help establish endocrine cell fates along the anterior/posterior axis of the zebrafish adenohypophysis. These data suggest that there are distinct origins and signaling requirements for the PD and PI.

  5. Pineal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Concomitant With Pituitary Prolactinoma: Possible Correlation Between 2 Distinguished Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Shin; Noh, Myung-Giun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This is the first reported case of pineal lymphoma with concomitant prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma. A 51-year-old male experienced worsening headaches accompanied by nausea, diplopia, and memory loss for 1 month. Cranial nerve examination revealed bilateral upward gaze limitation with convergence impairment, which is known as Parinaud syndrome. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the pineal gland with a coexisting mass within the enlarged sella fossa. Hormone analysis revealed hyperprolactinemia. The pineal mass was removed without injuring the hypothalamus, brain stem, or any neighboring vessels. Pathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the pineal gland. After further studies, the pineal lymphoma was determined to be a secondary tumor from a gastric primary tumor. The patient died 6 months after diagnosis due to systemic progression of DLBCL. Although the mechanistic link between hyperprolactinemia and lymphoma progression has not been clarified on a clinical basis, high prolactin levels may contribute to the rapid progression and therapeutic resistance of the lymphoma. PMID:26937937

  6. Pineal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Concomitant With Pituitary Prolactinoma: Possible Correlation Between 2 Distinguished Pathologies: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Shin; Noh, Myung-Giun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2016-02-01

    This is the first reported case of pineal lymphoma with concomitant prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma.A 51-year-old male experienced worsening headaches accompanied by nausea, diplopia, and memory loss for 1 month. Cranial nerve examination revealed bilateral upward gaze limitation with convergence impairment, which is known as Parinaud syndrome. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the pineal gland with a coexisting mass within the enlarged sella fossa. Hormone analysis revealed hyperprolactinemia. The pineal mass was removed without injuring the hypothalamus, brain stem, or any neighboring vessels. Pathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the pineal gland. After further studies, the pineal lymphoma was determined to be a secondary tumor from a gastric primary tumor. The patient died 6 months after diagnosis due to systemic progression of DLBCL.Although the mechanistic link between hyperprolactinemia and lymphoma progression has not been clarified on a clinical basis, high prolactin levels may contribute to the rapid progression and therapeutic resistance of the lymphoma.

  7. Identification of spectrin as a calmodulin-binding component in the pituitary gonadotrope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooge, C.H.

    1989-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is a hypothalamic decapeptide which stimulates the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary. Ca{sup 2+} fulfills the requirements of a second messenger for this system. Inhibition of calmodulin will inhibit GnRH stimulated LH release. The aim of the present studies has been to identify the locus of action of calmodulin within the pituitary. By use of an {sup 125}I-calmodulin gel overlayer assay, five major Ca{sup 2+}-dependent {sup 125}I-calmodulin labelled components of subunit M{sub r} > 205,000; 200,000; 135,000; 60,000; and 52,000 have been identified. This labeling was found to be phenothiazine-sensitive. Ca{sup 2+}-independent binding that was observed appears to be due to hydrophobic interactions of calmodulin with acid-soluble proteins, principally histones. Subcellular fractionation revealed that the Ca{sup 2+}-dependent calmodulin-binding components are localized primarily in the cytosolic fraction. Separation of dispersed anterior pituitary cells through a linear Metrizamide gradient yielded gonadotrope-enriched fractions, which were found to contain all five {sup 125}I-calmodulin binding components corresponding to the major bands in the pituitary homogenate. The calmodulin-binding component levels do not appear to be differentially regulated by steroids. The calmodulin binding component with a M{sub r} > 205,000 has been identified as spectrin. Spectrin-like immunoreactivity and {sup 125}I-calmodulin-binding activity in pituitary tissue homogenates co-migrated in various percentage acrylamide gels with avian erythrocyte spectrin. Spectrin was detected in a gonadotrope-enriched fraction by immunoblotting, and confirmed in gonadotropes by indirect immunofluorescence of cultured pituitary cells in which spectrin- and LH-immunoreactivity co-localized.

  8. Pituitary Tumors: Condition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and metabolism. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is involved in growth, body temperature, and heart rate. Nonfunctioning pituitary tumors (also called nonsecretory tumors) do not produce hormones. They can press on or damage the pituitary ...

  9. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained...

  10. Effects of combinatorial treatment with pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide and human mesenchymal stem cells on spinal cord tissue repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Min Fang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to understand if human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs and neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP have synergistic protective effect that promotes functional recovery in rats with severe spinal cord injury (SCI. To evaluate the effect of delayed combinatorial therapy of PACAP and hMSCs on spinal cord tissue repair, we used the immortalized hMSCs that retain their potential of neuronal differentiation under the stimulation of neurogenic factors and possess the properties for the production of several growth factors beneficial for neural cell survival. The results indicated that delayed treatment with PACAP and hMSCs at day 7 post SCI increased the remaining neuronal fibers in the injured spinal cord, leading to better locomotor functional recovery in SCI rats when compared to treatment only with PACAP or hMSCs. Western blotting also showed that the levels of antioxidant enzymes, Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and peroxiredoxin-1/6 (Prx-1 and Prx-6, were increased at the lesion center 1 week after the delayed treatment with the combinatorial therapy when compared to that observed in the vehicle-treated control. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that co-culture with hMSCs in the presence of PACAP not only increased a subpopulation of microglia expressing galectin-3, but also enhanced the ability of astrocytes to uptake extracellular glutamate. In summary, our in vivo and in vitro studies reveal that delayed transplantation of hMSCs combined with PACAP provides trophic molecules to promote neuronal cell survival, which also foster beneficial microenvironment for endogenous glia to increase their neuroprotective effect on the repair of injured spinal cord tissue.

  11. CT of pituitary abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, T.C.; Johns, R.D.; Long, M.; Myles, S.T.

    1985-06-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare condition, with only 50 cases reported in the literature. Of those, 29 cases were well documented for analysis. Preoperative diagnosis of pituitary abscess is difficult. The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of pituitary abscess was first described in 1983; the abscess was depicted by axial images with coronal reconstruction. The authors recently encountered a case of pituitary abscess documented by direct coronal CT of the sella turcica.

  12. Inhibitory effect of resveratrol on the proliferation of GH3 pituitary-adenoma cells and voltage-dependent potassium current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Chu; Lanlan Wei; Chao Wang; Yu Cheng; Kongbin Yang; Baofeng Yang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Recent researches indicate that activation of potassium channel is likely to cause many kinds of cells to proliferate and differentiate;using chemical to block the potassium channel can restrain the proliferation of small lung-cancer cells.breast cancer.prostate cancer and human lymphocyte,etc.Previous researches proved that resveratrol(RE),a selective estrogen receptor modulator(SERM).could inhibit growth of GH3 calls,induce apoptosis,and resist tumor through interfering K+ channel.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of RE on Voltage-dependent K+ current [Ik(v)] and cell proliferation in GH3 pituitary-tumor cells.DESIGN:Observational contrast study.SETTING:Department of Neurosurgery.the First Clinical Hospital of Harbin Medical University;Department of Microbiology,Harbin Medical University;Department of Pharmacology,Harbin Medical University.MATERIALS: GH3 pituitary-tumor cell line of rats was purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC).RE and[3-(4,5-dimethylthiazo1-2-y1)-2.5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide](MTT)were obtained from Sigma Chemical CO,St Louis,USA;Ham's F-10 medium from Gibco BRL;Equine serum and fetal bovine serum from Hyclone Laboratories,Logan,UT;FACSCalibur flow cytometer from BD Company,USA.RE was dissolved in ethanol and stored at-20 ℃.It was diluted to different concentrations (10.50,100 μmol/L)with medium and extra cellular solution when needed.rhe final concentration of ethanol was Jess than 0.01%.METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Department of Microbiology and Pharmacology of Harbin Medical University from March 2005 to January 2006.①Cell preparation:Proliferating indexes affected by 10.50 and 100 μmol/L RE were measured with MTT,respectively.0.0001 volume fraction of ethan ol was added into control group.Inhibitory rate of cellular growth was calculated as the following formula:Inhibitory rate (%)=(1-A value in experimental group/A value in control group)x100%.The experiments mentioned above were

  13. Protocadherin-19 and N-cadherin interact to control cell movements during anterior neurulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sayantanee; Emond, Michelle R; Jontes, James D

    2010-11-29

    The protocadherins comprise the largest subgroup within the cadherin superfamily, yet their cellular and developmental functions are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate that pcdh 19 (protocadherin 19) acts synergistically with n-cadherin (ncad) during anterior neurulation in zebrafish. In addition, Pcdh 19 and Ncad interact directly, forming a protein-protein complex both in vitro and in vivo. Although both molecules are required for calcium-dependent adhesion in a zebrafish cell line, the extracellular domain of Pcdh 19 does not exhibit adhesive activity, suggesting that the involvement of Pcdh 19 in cell adhesion is indirect. Quantitative analysis of in vivo two-photon time-lapse image sequences reveals that loss of either pcdh 19 or ncad impairs cell movements during neurulation, disrupting both the directedness of cell movements and the coherence of movements among neighboring cells. Our results suggest that Pcdh 19 and Ncad function together to regulate cell adhesion and to mediate morphogenetic movements during brain development.

  14. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Norman; Medina-Garcia, Luis; Al Mohajer, Mayar; Zangeneh, Tirdad T.

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s). Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should immediately start empiric antibiotics and request a neurosurgical consult when pituitary abscess is suspected. Escherichia coli (E. coli) causing intracranial infections are not well understood and are uncommon in adults. We present an interesting case of an immunocompetent male with a history of hypogonadism presenting with worsening headache and acute right eye vision loss. He was found to have a polymicrobial pituitary abscess predominantly involving E.   coli in addition to Actinomyces odontolyticus and Prevotella melaninogenica in the setting of an apoplectic pituitary prolactinoma. The definitive etiology of this infection was not determined but an odontogenic process was suspected. A chronic third molar eruption and impaction in close proximity to the pituitary gland likely led to contiguous spread of opportunistic oral microorganisms allowing for a polymicrobial pituitary abscess formation. PMID:27006841

  15. Polymicrobial Pituitary Abscess Predominately Involving Escherichia coli in the Setting of an Apoplectic Pituitary Prolactinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Beatty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary abscess is a rare intracranial infection that can be life-threatening if not appropriately diagnosed and treated upon presentation. The most common presenting symptoms include headache, anterior pituitary hypofunction, and visual field disturbances. Brain imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging usually reveals intra- or suprasellar lesion(s. Diagnosis is typically confirmed intra- or postoperatively when pathological analysis is done. Clinicians should immediately start empiric antibiotics and request a neurosurgical consult when pituitary abscess is suspected. Escherichia coli (E. coli causing intracranial infections are not well understood and are uncommon in adults. We present an interesting case of an immunocompetent male with a history of hypogonadism presenting with worsening headache and acute right eye vision loss. He was found to have a polymicrobial pituitary abscess predominantly involving E.   coli in addition to Actinomyces odontolyticus and Prevotella melaninogenica in the setting of an apoplectic pituitary prolactinoma. The definitive etiology of this infection was not determined but an odontogenic process was suspected. A chronic third molar eruption and impaction in close proximity to the pituitary gland likely led to contiguous spread of opportunistic oral microorganisms allowing for a polymicrobial pituitary abscess formation.

  16. A pediatric case of pituitary macroadenoma presenting with pituitary apoplexy and cranial nerve involvement: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçetin, Mustafa; Karacı, Mehmet; Toroslu, Ertuğ; Edebali, Nurullah

    2016-09-01

    Pituitary adenomas usually arise from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and are manifested with hormonal disorders or mass effect. Mass effect usually occurs in nonfunctional tumors. Pituitary adenomas may be manifested with visual field defects or rarely in the form of total oculomotor palsy. Visual field defect is most frequently in the form of bitemporal hemianopsia and superior temporal defect. Sudden loss of vision, papilledema and ophthalmoplegia may be observed. Pituitary apoplexy is defined as an acute clinical syndrome characterized with headache, vomiting, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia and clouding of consciousness. The problem leading to pituitary apoplexy may be decreased blood supply in the adenoma and hemorrhage following this decrease or hemorrhage alone. In this article, we present a patient who presented with fever, vomiting and sudden loss of vision and limited outward gaze in the left eye following trauma and who was found to have pituitary macroadenoma causing compression of the optic chiasma and optic nerve on the left side on cranial and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging.

  17. A pediatric case of pituitary macroadenoma presenting with pituitary apoplexy and cranial nerve involvement: case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçetin, Mustafa; Karacı, Mehmet; Toroslu, Ertuğ; Edebali, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas usually arise from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and are manifested with hormonal disorders or mass effect. Mass effect usually occurs in nonfunctional tumors. Pituitary adenomas may be manifested with visual field defects or rarely in the form of total oculomotor palsy. Visual field defect is most frequently in the form of bitemporal hemianopsia and superior temporal defect. Sudden loss of vision, papilledema and ophthalmoplegia may be observed. Pituitary apoplexy is defined as an acute clinical syndrome characterized with headache, vomiting, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia and clouding of consciousness. The problem leading to pituitary apoplexy may be decreased blood supply in the adenoma and hemorrhage following this decrease or hemorrhage alone. In this article, we present a patient who presented with fever, vomiting and sudden loss of vision and limited outward gaze in the left eye following trauma and who was found to have pituitary macroadenoma causing compression of the optic chiasma and optic nerve on the left side on cranial and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging.

  18. The effect of blocking angiogenesis on anterior cruciate ligament healing following stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Koji; Kawakami, Yohei; Mifune, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Tang, Ying; Cummins, James H; Greco, Nick; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Wang, Bing; Fu, Freddie H; Huard, Johnny

    2015-08-01

    Ruptured human anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) contain vascular stem cells capable of enhancing the healing of tendon grafts. In the current study we explored the role that neo-angiogenesis plays in ACL healing. ACL-derived CD34+ cells were isolated via Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) from the rupture sites of human ACLs. The cells were then virally transduced to express either vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or soluble FLT-1 (sFLT-1), which is an antagonist of VEGF. We established five groups: CD34+VEGF(100%), where 100% of the cells were transduced with VEGF, CD34+VEGF(25%), where only 25% of the cells were transduced with VEGF, CD34+, CD34+sFLT-1, and a No cells group. The CD34+sFLT1 group had a significant reduction in biomechanical strength compared to the CD34+ group at 4 and 8 weeks; whereas the biomechanical strength of the CD34+VEGF(25%) group was significantly greater than the CD34+ group at week 4; however, no difference was observed by week 8. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated a significantly lower number of isolectin B4 and hCD31 positive cells, markers associated with angiogenesis, in the CD34+sFLT1 group, and a higher number of isolectin B4 and hCD31 positive cells in the CD34+VEGF(100%) and CD34+VEGF(25%) groups compared to the CD34+ group. Graft maturation was significantly delayed in the CD34+sFLT1 group and accelerated in the CD34+VEGF(25%) group compared to the CD34+ group. In conclusion, blocking VEGF reduced angiogenesis, graft maturation and biomechanical strength following ACL reconstruction. Native expression of VEGF by the CD34+ cells improved tendon graft maturation and biomechanical strength; however, over-expression of VEGF impeded improvements in biomechanical strength.

  19. Automated detection of inflammatory cells in whole anterior chamber of a uveitis mouse from swept-source optical coherence tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Cell grading in a rodent anterior chamber is essential for anterior inflammation evaluation in preclinical vision research. This paper describes a computerized method for detection and counting of the anterior chamber cells from swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) images of a experimental rodent model of uveitis. The volumetric anterior segment OCT data is obtained from 100 kHz SS-OCT imaging of mouse eye in vivo. For the OCT cross-sections, each OCT structural image is de-speckled and binarized. After removal of cornea, iris, and crystalline lens structures connected to the binary image border, an area thresholding is then employed for each labeled region to isolate only celllike objects in the anterior chamber, followed by roundness estimation of the objects to identify potential cell candidates in the data. Eventually, the cell candidates are counted and graded as total number of cells in the anterior chamber.

  20. Phosphorylation substrates for protein kinase C in intact pituitary cells: characterization of a receptor-mediated event using novel gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strulovici, B.; Tahilramani, R.; Nestor, J.J. Jr.

    1987-09-22

    The involvement of protein kinase C in the signal transduction of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) action was investigated with a GnRH superagonist, partial agonists, and antagonists in intact rat pituitary cells. Exposure of /sup 32/P-labeled cells to GnRH or to the superagonist (D-Nal(2)/sup 6/)GnRH induced the enhanced phosphorylation of 42-, 34-, 11-, and 10-kDa proteins and the dephosphorylation of a 15-kDa protein as assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/autoradiography. This effect was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by potent GnRG antagonists. Downregulation of protein kinase C by prolonged incubation of the pituitary cells with high concentrations of active phorbol esters abolished protein kinase C activity and also prevented the phosphorylation induced by GnRN, or (D-Nal(2)/sup 6/)GnRH. The same effect was obtained by preincubating the cells with the protein kinase C inhibitor H-7. In this study the authors identify for the first time physiological substrates for protein kinase C in intact pituitary cells. They demonstrate a close quantitative correlation between the extent of translocation of protein kinase C, levels of phosphorylation of specific substrates in the intact cells, and the biological activity of the GnRH analogues with varying affinity for the GnRH receptor. These data strengthen the contention that the physiological effects of GnRH are primarily mediated via the phosphatidylinositol/Ca/sup 2 +/ signal transfer system and represent a first step toward defining the physiological substrates of protein kinase C and their role in the cascade of events that starts upon binding of GnRH to its receptor.

  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Enhancing Biologic Healing after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ki-Mo; Lim, Hong Chul; Bae, Ji Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using tendon grafts is the current gold standard for the treatment of ACL tears in active patients. However, many patients still experience residual knee instability, knee pain and progressive cartilage degeneration following ACL reconstruction. Recent developments in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based approaches for treating musculoskeletal injuries have led to the application of MSCs for enhancing healing after ACL injuries. The purpose of this article is to review recent pre-clinical and clinical studies using MSCs for the enhancement of biologic healing of ACL injuries. Because of the success of pre-clinical studies, MSC-based approaches are now thought to be promising treatment options for enhancing biologic healing of ACL grafts and restoring the functional properties to the levels of the native ACL, and ultimately improving clinical outcomes.

  2. β-Pix directs collective migration of anterior visceral endoderm cells in the early mouse embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelchenko, Tatiana; Rabadan, M Angeles; Hernández-Martínez, Rocío; Grego-Bessa, Joaquim; Anderson, Kathryn V; Hall, Alan

    2014-12-15

    Collective epithelial migration is important throughout embryonic development. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood but likely involve spatially localized activation of Rho GTPases. We previously reported that Rac1 is essential for generating the protrusive activity that drives the collective migration of anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) cells in the early mouse embryo. To identify potential regulators of Rac1, we first performed an RNAi screen of Rho family exchange factors (guanine nucleotide exchange factor [GEF]) in an in vitro collective epithelial migration assay and identified β-Pix. Genetic deletion of β-Pix in mice disrupts collective AVE migration, while high-resolution live imaging revealed that this is associated with randomly directed protrusive activity. We conclude that β-Pix controls the spatial localization of Rac1 activity to drive collective AVE migration at a critical stage in mouse development.

  3. Management of nonfunctioning pituitary incidentaloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, Françoise; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Cazabat, Laure; Boulin, Anne; Cotton, François; Bonneville, Jean-François; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Vidal-Trécan, Gwénaelle; Chanson, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Prevalence of pituitary incidentaloma is variable: between 1.4% and 27% at autopsy, and between 3.7% and 37% on imaging. Pituitary microincidentalomas (serendipitously discovered adenoma 1cm in diameter) show increased size in 20-24% and 34-40% of cases at respectively 4 and 8years' follow-up. Radiologic differential diagnosis requires MRI centered on the pituitary gland. Initial assessment of nonfunctioning (NF) microincidentaloma is firstly clinical, the endocrinologist looking for signs of hypersecretion (signs of hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly or Cushing's syndrome), followed up by systematic prolactin and IGF-1 assay. Initial assessment of NF macroincidentaloma is clinical, the endocrinologist looking for signs of hormonal hypersecretion or hypopituitarism, followed up by hormonal assay to screen for hypersecretion or hormonal deficiency and by ophthalmologic assessment (visual acuity and visual field) if and only if the lesion is near the optic chiasm (OC). NF microincidentaloma of less than 5mm requires no surveillance; those of≥5mm are not operated on but rather monitored on MRI at 6months and then 2years. Macroincidentaloma remote from the OC is monitored on MRI at 1year, with hormonal exploration (for anterior pituitary deficiency), then every 2years. When macroincidentaloma located near the OC is managed by surveillance rather than surgery, MRI is recommended at 6months, with hormonal and visual exploration, then annual MRI and hormonal and visual assessment every 6months. Surgery is indicated in the following cases: evolutive NF microincidentaloma, NF macroincidentaloma associated with hypopituitarism or showing progression, incidentaloma compressing the OC, possible malignancy, non-compliant patient, pregnancy desired in the short-term, or context at risk of apoplexy.

  4. Ammonia differentially suppresses the cAMP chemotaxis of anterior-like cells and prestalk cells in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ira N Feit; Erika J Medynski; Michael J Rothrock

    2001-06-01

    A drop assay for chemotaxis to cAMP confirms that both anterior-like cells (ALC) and prestalk cells (pst cells) respond to cAMP gradients. We present evidence that the chemotactic response of both ALC and pst cells is suppressed by ammonia, but a higher concentration of ammonia is required to suppress the response in pst cells. ALC show a chemotactic response to cAMP when moving on a substratum of prespore cells in isolated slug posteriors incubated under oxygen. ALC chemotaxis on a prespore cell substratum is suppressed by the same concentration of ammonia that suppresses ALC chemotaxis on the agar substratum in drop assays. Chemotaxis suppression is mediated by the unprotonated (NH3) species of ammonia. The observed suppression, by ammonia, of ALC chemotaxis to cAMP supports our earlier hypothesis that ammonia is the tip-produced suppressor of such chemotaxis. We discuss implications of ammonia sensitivity of pst cells and ALC with regard to the movement and localization of ALC and pst cells in the slug and to the roles played by ALC in fruiting body formation. In addition, we suggest that a progressive decrease in sensitivity to ammonia is an important part of the maturation of ALC into pst cells.

  5. Chemo-thermotherapy for radiation-induced squamous cell carcinoma in anterior chest wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Ken; Doi, Osamu; Higashiyama, Masahiko; Yokouchi, Hideki; Noguchi, Shinzaburo; Koyama, Hiroki (Osaka Prefectural Center for Adult Diseases (Japan))

    1992-09-01

    A 62 years-old woman had visited our hospital with the large and deep ulcer formation on the left anterior chest wall. A biopsy of the ulcerous lesion established the diagnosis of a squamous cell carcinoma which might be induced by the irradiation after mastectomy. Although a wide resection of the chest wall including left arm was performed, it was impossible to resect completely. After then, she had operations for local recurrence three times in three years. However, cure was not obtained, and residual lesions gradually enlarged and all layers of the anterior chest wall were replaced with tumor tissues. Conventional chemotherapy using futraful and mytomycin C was not effective. Therefore, we tried combined therapy with intravenous administration of cisplatin (CDDP) and vindesine (VDS), and local hyperthermia using radiofrequency (RF) wave. A total number of 11 courses of this treatment modality was carried out at once a week intervals. The tumor-temperature was maintained at the range of 40-43degC for 40 min in each treatment session. Chemotherapeutic agents were administered simultaneously with hyperthermia. After these treatment, the recurrent tumor was markedly reduced, and epithelization of the ulcer was recognized from the surrounding normal skin. The residual tumor was then resected completely. The operative wound was successfully closed by surrounding normal tissue mobilization. She is in good postoperative condition. We concluded that the chemo-thermotherapy is safe and promising therapeutic modality for such invasive squamous cell carcinoma, and the normal tissues are not affected. Furthermore, this approach will expand the scope of radical resection for such an uncontrollable tumor. (author).

  6. [Chemo-thermotherapy of radiation-induced squamous cell carcinoma in anterior chest wall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, K; Doi, O; Higashiyama, M; Yokouchi, H; Noguchi, S; Koyama, H

    1992-09-01

    A 62-year-old woman had visited our hospital with the large and deep ulcer formation on the left anterior chest wall. A biopsy of the ulcerous lesion established the diagnosis of a squamous cell carcinoma which might be induced by the irradiation after mastectomy. Although a wide resection of the chest wall including left arm was performed, it was impossible to resect completely. After then, she had operations for local recurrence for three times in three years. However, cure was not obtained, and residual lesions gradually enlarged and all layers of the anterior chest wall was replaced with tumor tissues. Conventional chemotherapy using ftorafur and mitomycin C was not effective. Therefore, we tried combined therapy with intravenous administration of cisplatin (CDDP) and vindesine (VDS), and local hyperthermia using radiofrequency (RF) wave. A total number of 11 courses of this treatment modality was carried out at once a week intervals. The tumor-temperature was maintained at the range of 40-43 degrees C for 40 min in each treatment session. Chemotherapeutic agents were administered simultaneously with hyperthermia. After these treatments, the recurrent tumor was markedly reduced, and epithelization of the ulcer was recognized from the surrounding normal skin. The residual tumor was then resected completely. The operative wound was successfully closed by surrounding normal tissue mobilization. She is in good postoperative condition. We concluded that the chemo-thermotherapy is safe and promising therapeutic modality for such invasive squamous cell carcinoma, and the normal tissues are not affected. Furthermore, this approach will expand the scope of radical resection for such an uncontrollable tumor.

  7. MRI of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, Dimitrios Nikiforos [University of Ioannina, Department of Physiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2005-11-01

    In childhood, the MR characteristics of the normal pituitary gland are well established. During the first 2 months of life the adenohypophysis demonstrates high signal. Pituitary gland height (PGH) decreases during the 1st year of life and then increases, reaching a plateau after puberty. The magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) increases in both sexes up to the age of 20 years. On dynamic contrast-enhanced studies, the posterior pituitary lobe enhances simultaneously with the straight sinus, and the adenohypophysis later, but within 30 s. In genetically determined dysfunctional states, the adenohypophysis may be normal, hypoplastic, or enlarged. Pituitary enlargement, observed in Prop 1 gene mutations, is characterized by a mass interposed between the anterior and posterior lobes. An ectopic posterior lobe (EPP), associated with a hypoplastic or absent pituitary stalk, may be observed in patients with hypopituitarism. Tumors of the hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) axis may be the origin of adenohypophyseal deficiencies. A small hypointense adenohypophysis is found in iron overload states and is often associated with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Absence of the posterior lobe bright signal, with or without a thick pituitary stalk or a mass at any site from the median eminence to the posterior pituitary lobe, may be found in diabetes insipidus. Hydrocephalus, suprasellar arachnoid cysts, hypothalamic hamartomas and craniopharyngiomas may result in central precocious puberty (CPP). Increased PGH in girls with idiopathic CPP is useful for its differential diagnosis from premature thelarche (PT). Pituitary adenomas, observed mainly in adolescents, present the same MR characteristics as those in adults. (orig.)

  8. The adhesion GPCR latrophilin - a novel signaling cascade in oriented cell division and anterior-posterior polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Jana; Prömel, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Although several signaling pathways in oriented cell division have been well characterized such as delta/notch inductions or wnt/frizzled-based anterior-posterior polarity, there is strong evidence for additional signal pathways controlling early anterior-posterior polarity decisions. The homolog of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor latrophilin, LAT-1 has been identified as a receptor essential for oriented cell division in an anterior-posterior direction of specific blastomeres in the early C. elegans embryo. We recently conducted a study aiming at clarifying the signals involved in LAT-1 function. We identified a Gs protein/adenylyl cyclase/cAMP pathway in vitro and demonstrated its physiological relevance in oriented cell division. By interaction with a Gs protein LAT-1 elevates cAMP levels. These data indicate that G-protein signaling in oriented cell division is not solely GPCR-independent. This commentary will discuss our findings in the context of the current knowledge of mechanisms controlling oriented cell division and anterior-posterior polarity. Further, we identify open questions which need to be addressed in the future.

  9. 原发性甲状腺功能减退症与垂体反应性增生%Pituitary Hyperplasia Secondary to Primary Hypothyroidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴洲

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary hyperplasia is a non-neoplastic increase in the absolute number of anterior pituitary cells.As a pathological diagnosis, pituitary hyperplasia is different from pituitary adenoma.Pituitary responsive hyperplasia secondary to primary hypothyroidism frequently occurs, which is subject to the misdiagnosis as prolactinoma or thyrotropin-releasing hormone adenoma.The hyperplasia can be reversed by thyroid hormone replacement therapy.The recognition of such pituitary disease in children, especially the clinical and imaging characteristics, helps to avoid unnecessary operation.%垂体增生是垂体前叶细胞绝对数量的非肿瘤性增多,它是一种病理学诊断,区别于垂体腺瘤.原发性甲状腺功能减退症所致垂体反应性增生较常见,这种垂体增生有可能被误诊为催乳素瘤、促甲状腺激素瘤等,但它通常能被甲状腺素替代治疗所逆转.尤其在儿童,注意识别这种垂体病变,了解其临床特征及影像学特点,可以避免不必要的手术.

  10. Cervicoplastia anterior Anterior cervicoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Gomes Patrocínio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Muitos pacientes buscam correção estética da frouxidão da pele do pescoço, depósito de gordura na região submentoneana ou bandas de platisma. Em grande parte dos casos a ação medial, via cervicoplastia anterior é necessária. OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a casuística e avaliar os resultados e complicações com a técnica de cervicoplastia anterior no Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Relato de série. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Quarenta e dois pacientes, entre 39 e 65 anos de idade, sendo 40 (95,2% do sexo feminino e 2 (4,8% do masculino, foram submetidos a cervicoplastia anterior. Retrospectivamente foram avaliados resultados e complicações. RESULTADOS: Destes, 34 apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, 4 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo cirurgião, 3 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo paciente e 1 apresentou déficit estético necessitando cirurgia revisional. Ao estudo fotográfico, todos os pacientes apresentaram melhora do perfil cervical, redução das bandas de platisma e da frouxidão da pele, estabilização da musculatura cervical e acentuação do ângulo cervicomental, em graus variados. Houve complicação em 2 casos (discreto serohematoma e cicatriz um pouco alargada. CONCLUSÃO: A cervicoplastia, associada ou não à tração lateral pela ritidoplastia, é uma técnica que produz resultados satisfatórios na grande maioria dos casos.Many patients look for aesthetic correction of the laxity of neck skin, submandibular fat deposit or platisma bands. In a large part of the cases, medial action, through anterior cervicoplasty is necessary. AIM: To demonstrate the casuistic and to evaluate the results and complications with anterior cervicoplasty technique in the Otorhinolaryngology Service of the Federal University of Uberlândia. STUDY DESIGN: Serie report. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-two patients, between 39 and 65 years of age, being 40 (95

  11. Giant Cell Tumor of Rib Arising Anteriorly as a Large Inframammary Mass: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sharma

    2012-01-01

    posteriorly. The rarity of this tumor poses diagnostic and therapeutic problems for physicians, especially when it is located in the anterior arc of the rib in close proximity to the breasts in female patients. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 32-year-old Asian female with a giant cell tumor of her anterior rib, presenting as a large inframammary mass. Computed tomography showed a tumor arising from the 7th rib anteriorly with marginal sclerosis, cortical destruction, and a soft tissue mass. She was treated with surgical resection, and the defect was reconstructed primarily. The surgical specimen measured 28.0 × 24.0 cm. The microscopic examination showed a large number of multinucleate giant cells scattered over the parenchyma. Patient recovered uneventfully and continues to be recurrence-free six years after surgical resection. Conclusion. We report the largest known case of giant cell tumor arising from the anterior aspect of a rib. We recommend including giant cell tumor in the differential diagnosis of chest wall masses especially in female patients, regardless of the size on clinical examination.

  12. Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction in respiratory hypoxia.

    OpenAIRE

    Semple, P D; Beastall, G H; Watson, W S; Hume, R

    1981-01-01

    Eight hypoxic male patients with stable chronic obstructive airways disease were submitted for combined anterior pituitary function testing. All subjects showed normal growth hormone and essentially normal cortisol responses to adequate hypoglycaemia, two subjects showed delayed responses of thyroid stimulating hormone to administered thyrotrophin releasing hormone and all had basal prolactin levels within normal limits. Basal levels of luteinising hormone were significantly lower than in the...

  13. Unusual Complication of Pituitary Macroadenoma: A Case Report and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mohamed Said; AlBerawi, Mohamad Najm; Bozom, Issam Al; Shaikh, Nissar F.; Salem, Khalid Yacout

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 48 Final Diagnosis: Pituitary apoplexy complicated by cerebral infarction Symptoms: Disturbed conscious level • loss of vision Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Radiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Pituitary macroadenoma is a common benign tumor that usually presents with visual field defects or hormonal abnormalities. Cerebral infarction can be a complication of a large pituitary adenoma. We report a rare case of bilateral anterior cerebral arteries infarcts by a large pituitary macroadenoma with apoplexy. Case Report: A 48-year-old male patient presented with altered conscious level and sudden loss of vision for one-day duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a large seller and suprasellar hemorrhagic mass of pituitary origin, with associated bilateral areas of diffusion restriction in the frontal parasagittal regions, consistent with infarctions. Magnetic resonance angiography showed elevation and compression of A1 segment of both anterior cerebral arteries by the hemorrhagic pituitary macroadenoma. The patient underwent trans-sphenoidal resection of the pituitary adenoma, but unfortunately, ischemia was irreversible. Computed tomography (CT) done post-operatively showed hypodensity in the frontal and parietal parasagittal areas, which was also persistent in the follow up CT scans. The patient’s neurological function remained poor, with GCS of 8/15, in vegetative state. Conclusions: Vascular complications of the pituitary apoplexy, although uncommon, can be very severe and life threatening. Early detection of vascular compromise caused by hemorrhagic pituitary macroadenoma can prevent delay in intervention. Clinicians should also consider pituitary adenoma as a possible cause of stroke. PMID:27708253

  14. Endocrine disrupting effects of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane analogues on gonadotropin hormones in pituitary gonadotrope cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinghua; Yang, Ye; Xiong, Kang; Liu, Jing

    2014-05-01

    It has been shown that exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) analogues leads to disharmony of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). However, the effects and mechanisms of DDT analogues on the expression of gonadotropin genes (FSHβ, LHβ and Cgα), which is the rate-limiting step of FSH and LH biosynthesis, remain unknown. In this study, we assessed the effects of p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and methoxychlor (MXC) on gonadotropin genes expression and hormones synthesis in gonadotrope cells. p,p'-DDT and MXC at test concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-7)mol/L, stimulated gonadotropin genes expression and hormones synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was required for the induction of gonadotropin genes expression and hormones synthesis by p,p'-DDT or MXC exposure. This study showed for the first time that p,p'-DDT and MXC regulated gonadotropin genes expression and hormones synthesis through ERK pathway in gonadotrope cells.

  15. The effects of levofloxacin on rabbit anterior cruciate ligament cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yu; Chen, Biao; Qi, Yongjian [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Universite, Faculte de Medicine, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Wang, Hui [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2011-11-15

    Articular cartilage, epiphyseal growth plate and tendons have been recognized as targets of fluoroquinolone-induced connective tissue toxicity. The effects of fluoroquinolones on ligament tissues are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of levofloxacin, a typical fluoroquinolone antibiotic drug, on rabbit anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) cells in vitro. Rabbit ACL cells were treated with levofloxacin at different concentrations (0, 14, 28, 56, 112 and 224 {mu}M) and were assessed to determine the possible cytotoxic effects of levofloxacin on ACL cells. Levofloxacin, with concentrations ranging from 28 to 224 {mu}M, induced dose-dependent ACL cell apoptosis. Characteristic markers of programmed cell death and degenerative changes were identified by electron microscopy in the ACL cells treated with 28 {mu}M of levofloxacin. Moreover, levofloxacin significantly increased the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) and MMP-13 and decreased the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) in a concentration-dependent manner; TIMP-3 and collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1A1) mRNA expression was not affected. Immunocytochemical analysis indicated that levofloxacin markedly increased the expression of active caspase-3 within a concentration range of 28 to 224 {mu}M, whereas a clear-cut decrease in Col1A1 expression was found with levofloxacin treatment concentrations of 112 and 224 {mu}M, compared to controls. Our data suggest that levofloxacin has cytotoxic effects on ACL cells characterized by enhanced apoptosis and decreased extracellular matrix, which suggest a potential adverse effect of fluoroquinolones. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Levofloxacin has cytotoxic effect on rabbit ACL cells in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Levofloxacin induces apoptosis in ACL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It decreases extracellular matrix by upregulation of matrix degrading enzymes. Black

  16. Does a nonclassical signaling mechanism underlie an increase of estradiol-mediated gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor binding in ovine pituitary cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy L; Whitesell, Jennifer D; Cantlon, Jeremy D; Clay, Colin M; Nett, Terry M

    2011-10-01

    Estradiol-17beta (E2) is the major regulator of GnRH receptor (GnRHR) gene expression and number during the periovulatory period; however, the mechanisms underlying E2 regulation of the GNRHR gene remain undefined. Herein, we find that E2 conjugated to BSA (E2-BSA) mimics the stimulatory effect of E2 on GnRH binding in primary cultures of ovine pituitary cells. The time course for maximal GnRH analog binding was similar for both E2 and E2-BSA. The ability of E2 and E2-BSA to increase GnRH analog binding was blocked by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182,780. Also, increased GnRH analog binding in response to E2 and the selective ESR1 agonist propylpyrazole triol was blocked by expression of a dominant-negative form of ESR1 (L540Q). Thus, membrane-associated ESR1 is the likely candidate for mediating E2 activation of the GNRHR gene. As cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is an established target for E2 activation in gonadotrophs, we next explored a potential role for this protein as an intracellular mediator of the E2 signal. Consistent with this possibility, adenoviral-mediated expression of a dominant-negative form of CREB (A-CREB) completely abolished the ability of E2 to increase GnRH analog binding in primary cultures of ovine pituitary cells. Finally, the presence of membrane-associated E2 binding sites on ovine pituitary cells was demonstrated using a fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate of E2-BSA. We suggest that E2 regulation of GnRHR number during the preovulatory period reflects a membrane site of action and may proceed through a nonclassical signaling mechanism, specifically a CREB-dependent pathway.

  17. How effective is external pituitary irradiation for growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feek, C.M.; McLelland, J.; Seth, J.; Toft, A.D.; Irvine, W.J.; Padfield, P.L.; Edwards, C.R.W. (Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (UK); Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK))

    1984-04-01

    Forty-six patients with GH-secreting pituitary tumours were treated with external pituitary irradiation through two opposed fields to a total dose of 3750 cGy over 15 fractions. Thirty-patients received external radiotherapy as primary treatment; 16 received radiotherapy combined with pituitary surgery. The mean (+- SD) serum GH in the former group was 74.3 +- 74.8 mU/l before treatment, falling by 28% per year over 0-5 years and by 16% per year over 0-20 years. The mean (+- SD) serum GH in the latter group was 265.4 +- 209.3 mU/l before treatment, falling by 76% in the first year-a direct result of surgery-then by 30% per year over 1-5 years and 16% per year over 1-20 years. Progressive failure of normal anterior pituitary function developed by 10 years, with variable loss of gonadotrophin, corticotrophin and thyrotrophin function. The respective figures for patients treated with radiotherapy alone were 47.4, 29.6 and 16.0% and for the combined group 70.2, 53.9 and 38.1%. Whilst external pituitary irradiation appears to reduce serum GH concentrations in patients with GH-secreting pituitary tumours the major disadvantages are the time taken to achieve a cure and the high incidence of hypopituitarism.

  18. Familial pituitary tumor syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Marianne S; McDonald, Kerrie L; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J; Robinson, Bruce G

    2009-08-01

    The vast majority of pituitary tumors are benign and occur sporadically; however, they can still result in significant morbidity and even premature mortality through mass effects and hormone dysfunction. The etiology of sporadic tumors is still poorly understood; by contrast, advances have been made in our understanding of familial pituitary adenoma syndromes in the past decade. Currently, four genes are known to be associated with familial pituitary tumor syndromes: MEN1, CDKN1B, PRKAR1A and AIP. The first three genes are associated with a variety of extrapituitary pathologies, for example, primary hyperparathyroidism with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, which might aid identification of these syndromes. By contrast, AIP mutations seem to occur in the setting of isolated familial pituitary adenomas, particularly of the growth-hormone-secreting subtype. Awareness and identification of familial pituitary tumor syndromes is important because of potential associated pathologies and important implications for family members. Here, we review the current knowledge of familial pituitary tumor syndromes.

  19. Alzheimer caregiver stress: basal natural killer cell activity, pituitary-adrenal cortical function, and sympathetic tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, M; Hauger, R; Patterson, T L; Semple, S; Ziegler, M; Grant, I

    1997-01-01

    The association between Alzheimer caregiving and natural killer (NK) cell activity and basal plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, beta-endorphin, prolactin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and neuropeptide Y was determined in 100 spousal Alzheimer caregivers and 33 age- and gender-comparable control volunteers upon intake into a study of the psychological and physiologic impact of caregiving. The relationship between these physiologic measures and individual characteristics such as age, gender, medical status, severity of stress, severity of depressive symptoms, and caregiver burden was tested. In addition, the association between NK activity and alterations of the neuroendocrine measures was investigated. As compared to controls, the Alzheimer caregivers had similar levels of NK activity and of basal plasma neuroendocrine hormones and sympathetic measures. While older age and male gender status were associated with increased levels of ACTH, neither medical caseness, severity of life stress, nor severity of depressive symptoms was associated with alterations in any of the multiple physiologic domains. Classification of Alzheimer caregiver burden identified caregivers who were mismatched in terms of the amount of care they were required to provide and the amount of respite time received. The mismatched caregivers had significantly higher basal plasma ACTH but no change in other physiological measures, as compared to non-mismatched caregivers. NK activity was negatively correlated with plasma levels of neuropeptide Y but not with any of the other neuroendocrine measures. Based on this cross-sectional evaluation of NK activity and neuroendocrine and sympathetic measures, we conclude that most Alzheimer caregivers do not show evidence of altered basal physiology.

  20. Somatotrophs and lactotrophs: an immunohistochemical study of Gallus domesticus pituitary gland at different stages of induced moult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sandhu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of somatotrophs and lactotrophs and conduct a morphometrical analysis of immunoreactive somatotrophs and lactotrophs in the pituitary glands of White Leghorn Hens (Gallus domesticus during the period of induced moult. We divided the periods of induced moulting into three phases viz. 7, 14 and 21 days. The labeled alkaline-phsphatase method with anti-GH (growth hormone and anti-PRL (prolactin as a primary antibody was used to detect somatotrophs and lactotrophs, in the midsagital sections of chicken adenohypophysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that somatotrophs are not only confined to the cephalo-caudal axis but can also be found in the caudal lobe; while lactotrophs were distributed in both lobes of the anterior pituitary gland at all stages of moulting (7, 14 and 21 days. Lactotrophs were of different shapes but somatotrophs were oval to round in morphology. At the given stages of induced moulting, some hypertrophied lactotrophs were also present after 7 days of induced moult in the anterior pituitary gland. However, there were moulting-related changes: from 7 to 21 days of induced moulting the immunoreactive-PRL cell population decreased, while the mean lactotroph size was more than that of somatotrophs. Basic quantitative and morphological information relating to somatotrophs and lactotrophs during the period of induced moult in laying hens is reported here and the changes brought about by induced moulting are restricted to PRL positive cells rather than GH positive cells.

  1. The effects of acetylsalicylic acid on the pituitary prolactin of the lizard, Uromastix hardwickii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mahmood; Hasan, Ruqaiya; Ahmad, Mansoor; Qureshi, Anila; Masroor, Shama

    2005-07-01

    This study deals with the intravenous administration of 7 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) solution to Uromastix hardwickii for 4 days. It enhances the activity of anterior pituitary lactotrophs, when 0.1 ml of pituitary homogenate of ASA treated was injected hypodermically to crop-sac showed a greater diametric response and increased activity with milk like secretion than that of the injections of 0.1 ml homogenate of control pituitary. The present study indicated that ASA induces hyperprolactinemia.

  2. Electrotonic Coupling in the Pituitary Supports the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in a Sex Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Göngrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gap junctions are present in many cell types throughout the animal kingdom and allow fast intercellular electrical and chemical communication between neighboring cells. Connexin-36 (Cx36, the major neuronal gap junction protein, synchronizes cellular activity in the brain, but also in other organs. Here we identify a sex-specific role for Cx36 within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis at the level of the anterior pituitary gland (AP. We show that Cx36 is expressed in gonadotropes of the AP sustaining their synchronous activity. Cx36 ablation affects the entire downstream HPG axis in females, but not in males. We demonstrate that Cx36-mediated coupling between gonadotropes in the AP supports gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced secretion of luteinizing hormone. Furthermore, we provide evidence for negative feedback regulation of Cx36 expression in the AP by estradiol. We thus conclude that hormonally-controlled plasticity of gap junction communication at the level of the AP constitutes an additional mechanism affecting female reproduction.

  3. Treatment Options for Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Pituitary Tumors Treatment Pituitary Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Pituitary Tumors ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  4. Progressive pituitary hormone deficiency following radiation therapy in adults; Deficiencia progressiva dos hormonios adeno-hipofisarios apos radioterapia em adultos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Rafaela A.; Vaisman, Mario [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Endocrinologia]. E-mail: rafaela_loureiro@hotmail.com

    2004-10-01

    Hypopituitarism can be caused by radiation therapy, even when it is not directly applied on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and can lead to anterior pituitary deficiency mainly due to hypothalamic damage. The progressive loss of the anterior pituitary hormones usually occurs in the following order: growth hormone, gonadotropin hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Although there are several different tests available to confirm anterior pituitary deficiency, this paper will focus on the gold standard tests for patients submitted to radiation therapy. We emphasize that the decline of anterior pituitary function is time- and dose-dependent with some variability among the different axes. Therefore, awareness of the need of a joint management by endocrinologists and oncologists is essential to improve treatment and quality of life of the patients. (author)

  5. A primer on pituitary injury for the obstetrician gynecologist: Simmond's disease, Sheehan's Syndrome, traumatic injury, Dahan's Syndrome, pituitary apoplexy and lymphocytic hypophysitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Michael H; Tan, Seang L

    2017-04-01

    The pituitary gland plays a critical role in reproduction. In response to the hypothalamus the anterior pituitary secretes prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adreno-corticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and growth hormone. Dysregulation in these hormones often lead to reproductive failure. Multiple mechanisms of pituitary injury exist. Simmond's disease is atrophy or destruction of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland resulting in hypopituitarism. Sheehan's syndrome is post-partum pituitary injury due to massive hemorrhage. Traumatic injury resulting in hemorrhage in a non-pregnancy state can also cause partial or complete pituitary failure. Dahan's syndrome is pituitary injury due to severe vasospasm, without significant hemorrhage. Pituitary apoplexy is infarction of a pituitary adenoma and intra-mass hemorrhage with result injury to hormone production by the gland. Lymphocytic infiltration is the most common cause of hypophysitis and the mechanism is often unknown, although it may be autoimmune-related. The mechanism and treatments of each of these pathologies will be discussed in a context of reproduction.

  6. Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of the thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) receptor from clonal GH sub 4 C sub 1 pituitary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of drugs with anesthetic properties on the activity of the pituitary thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor was determined in the clonal GH{sub 4}C{sub 1} somatomammotropic cell line. Classic local anesthetics and other drugs with anesthetic activity inhibited binding of ({sup 3}H)methyl-TRH to cell receptors at concentrations known to produce anesthetic effects on the membrane. The inhibition of TRH receptor binding by tetracaine was competitive and temperature and pH dependent. Verapamil and tetracaine inhibited TRH-stimulated prolactin secretion at concentrations that inhibited peptide binding. TRH-stimulated prolactin secretion was equivalent with or without Ca{sup 2+} channel activity. Verapamil and tetracaine also inhibited basal prolactin and secretion stimulated by drugs that bypass membrane receptors, db-cAMP and TPA. These results indicate that inhibition of TRH binding and responses by diverse drugs results from an anesthetic effect on the cell membrane.

  7. MicroRNAs in Human Pituitary Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of recently identified noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level. Due to the large number of genes regulated by miRNAs, miRNAs play important roles in many cellular processes. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs are dysregulated in pituitary adenomas, a class of intracranial neoplasms which account for 10–15% of diagnosed brain tumors. Deregulated miRNAs and their targets contribute to pituitary adenomas progression and are associated with cell cycle control, apoptosis, invasion, and pharmacological treatment of pituitary adenomas. To provide an overview of miRNAs dysregulation and functions of these miRNAs in pituitary adenoma progression, we summarize the deregulated miRNAs and their targets to shed more light on their potential as therapeutic targets and novel biomarkers.

  8. Pituitary prolactin adenoma with Toxoplasma gondii infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓晖; 李青; 程虹; 阎庆国; 黄高昇

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To report two recent cases of pituitary adenoma associated with Toxoplasma gondii (T.Gondii) infection.Methods: Histological changes were observed in H & E and PAS staining sections microscopically.Immunohistochemistry was performed to classify the pituitary tumors and to confirm the diagnosis of T.gondii.Results: The cases were 43- and 19-year-old females, in which the latter one was a recurring case, and radiology examination showed that tumors existed in sellar region.Microscopically, the tumors consisted of small homogenous polygonal or round cells with abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm.Immunohistochemistry revealed they were prolactin-producing adenomas.Interestingly, we found toxoplasma infection in the tumor tissues, being confirmed by T.gondii sepicific antibody immunohistochemistry.Conclusion: The association of pituitary adenoma with toxoplasma raises the possibility that T.gondii may be involved in the development of certain cases of pituitary adenoma.

  9. Central GABAergic innervation of the pituitary in goldfish: a radioautographic and immunocytochemical study at the electron microscope level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kah, O.; Dubourg, P.; Martinoli, M.G.; Rabhi, M.; Gonnet, F.; Geffard, M.; Calas, A.

    1987-09-01

    The GABAergic innervation of the goldfish pituitary was studied at the light and electron microscope levels by means of radioautography after in vitro incubation in tritiated gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and immunocytochemistry using antibodies against GABA. Following incubation of pituitary fragments in a medium containing tritiated GABA, a selective uptake of the tracer was observed within the digitations of the neurohypophysis. Silver grain clusters were also observed in the adenohypophyseal tissue. At the electron microscope level, this uptake was found to correspond to nerve endings containing small clear and dense-core vesicles. These labeled profiles were located mainly in neurohypophyseal digitations in close apposition with the basement membrane separating the neurohypophysis from the adenohypophysis. However, they were also encountered in direct contact with most adenohypophyseal cell types in the different lobes. These results were confirmed by immunocytochemical data demonstrating the presence of numerous GABA immunoreactive fibers in both anterior and neurointermediate lobes. They were found either in the digitations of the neurohypophysis or in the adenohypophysis in direct contact with the glandular cells with a distribution and an ultrastructural aspect similar to those observed by radioautography. These data demonstrate that the pituitary of teleosts receives a massive GABAergic innervation. Although physiological data providing a functional significance for such an innervation are lacking, the present study suggests that, as already documented in mammals, GABA may be involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of pituitary functions in teleosts.

  10. Stem cell-dependent formation of a functional anterior regeneration pole in planarians requires Zic and Forkhead transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogg, Matthias C; Owlarn, Suthira; Pérez Rico, Yuvia A; Xie, Jianlei; Suzuki, Yoko; Gentile, Luca; Wu, Wei; Bartscherer, Kerstin

    2014-06-15

    Planarians can regenerate their head within days. This process depends on the direction of adult stem cells to wound sites and the orchestration of their progenitors to commit to appropriate lineages and to arrange into patterned tissues. We identified a zinc finger transcription factor, Smed-ZicA, as a downstream target of Smed-FoxD, a Forkhead transcription factor required for head regeneration. Smed-zicA and Smed-FoxD are co-expressed with the Wnt inhibitor notum and the Activin inhibitor follistatin in a cluster of cells at the anterior-most tip of the regenerating head - the anterior regeneration pole - and in surrounding stem cell progeny. Depletion of Smed-zicA and Smed-FoxD by RNAi abolishes notum and follistatin expression at the pole and inhibits head formation downstream of initial polarity decisions. We suggest a model in which ZicA and FoxD transcription factors synergize to control the formation of Notum- and Follistatin-producing anterior pole cells. Pole formation might constitute an early step in regeneration, resulting in a signaling center that orchestrates cellular events in the growing tissue.

  11. Impaired Pituitary Axes Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Scranton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury (TBI is significant and rarely considered by clinicians. This topic has received much more attention in the last decade. The incidence of post TBI anterior pituitary dysfunction is around 30% acutely, and declines to around 20% by one year. Growth hormone and gonadotrophic hormones are the most common deficiencies seen after traumatic brain injury, but also the most likely to spontaneously recover. The majority of deficiencies present within the first year, but extreme delayed presentation has been reported. Information on posterior pituitary dysfunction is less reliable ranging from 3%–40% incidence but prospective data suggests a rate around 5%. The mechanism, risk factors, natural history, and long-term effect of treatment are poorly defined in the literature and limited by a lack of standardization. Post TBI pituitary dysfunction is an entity to recognize with significant clinical relevance. Secondary hypoadrenalism, hypothyroidism and central diabetes insipidus should be treated acutely while deficiencies in growth and gonadotrophic hormones should be initially observed.

  12. Regulation of Pituitary Beta Endorphin Release: Role of Serotonin Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-15

    to the hypothalamus. Anatomically, the pituitary is divisible into two distinct portions: the anterior pitui- tary ( adenohypophysis ) and the...controlled by either hormonal or neural signals 30 from the hypothalamus. The adenohypophysis (pars intermedia and pars distalis) is composed of...endorphin secretion, like the biosynthetic processing of POMC, is different for these two lobes of the adenohypophysis . Whereas pars distalis B

  13. Pituitary Apoplexy Presented with Optic Neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Owji

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a 40-years-old woman presented with visual loss in the right eye since two days ago. The patient complained of headache with gradual onset in the right parietal area since 2 years ago. The headache pattern did not alter.The left eye was normal but the vision in the right eye was 50 cm finger counting. Marcus Gunn pupil could be observed during swinging-flashlight test in the right eye. According to these findings, the first diagnosis was optic neuritis which was corroborated with visual evoked potential (the latency of P100 was 122. According to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, there was a big cystic tumor in sella turcica extended to the suprasellar region (Figure 1-A. It had a large liquid component. Optic chiasm was under pressure and was displaced (Figure 1-B. A faint enhancement was seen after the injection (Figure 1-C.The patient was operated with the transnasal-transsphenoidal approach. Blood and fibrin were among the small monomorphic round cells andfibro-connective tissue of the pituitary gland. Considering the bleeding inside the pituitary tumor, the final diagnosis was pituitary apoplexy. After recovery from the operation the symptoms were removed.Pituitary apoplexy presents with headache, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia, and mental alterations which is caused by infarction or sudden bleeding inside the pituitary tumor.1In our review of literature, 3 patients afflicted with pituitary apoplexy presented with optic neuritis were reported.In a study conducted by Petersen et al., all three patients referred to them suffered from unilateral visual loss and headache. They were examined with the early diagnosis of optic neuritis. After taking a Brain Computerized tomography (CT scan, pituitary adenoma together with the formation of cyst were detected in patients. After transsphenoidal adenomectomy, the patient regained full vision. Therefore, the correct diagnosis of these patients, who had been incorrectly diagnosed with

  14. RNAi-mediated knockdown of pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG1) suppresses the proliferation and invasive potential of PC3 human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, S.Q. [Department of Urology and Center of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Institute of Urology, Peking University and Department of Urology, First Hospital, Peking University, Beijing (China); Liao, Q.J.; Wang, X.W. [Department of Urology and Center of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xin, D.Q. [Institute of Urology, Peking University and Department of Urology, First Hospital, Peking University, Beijing (China); Chen, S.X.; Wu, Q.J.; Ye, G. [Department of Urology and Center of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2012-08-10

    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG1) is a proto-oncogene that promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis in numerous cell types and is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors. We have demonstrated that PTTG1 expression was up-regulated in both human prostate cancer specimens and prostate cancer cell lines. For a more direct assessment of the function of PTTG1 in prostate tumorigenesis, RNAi-mediated knockdown was used to selectively decrease PTTG1 expression in PC3 human prostate tumor cells. After three weeks of selection, colonies stably transfected with PTTG1-targeted RNAi (the knockdown PC3 cell line) or empty vector (the control PC3 cell line) were selected and expanded to investigate the role of PTTG1 expression in PC3 cell growth and invasion. Cell proliferation rate was significantly slower (28%) in the PTTG1 knockdown line after 6 days of growth as indicated by an MTT cell viability assay (P < 0.05). Similarly, a soft agar colony formation assay revealed significantly fewer (66.7%) PTTG1 knockdown PC3 cell colonies than control colonies after three weeks of growth. In addition, PTTG1 knockdown resulted in cell cycle arrest at G1 as indicated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The PTTG1 knockdown PC3 cell line also exhibited significantly reduced migration through Matrigel in a transwell assay of invasive potential, and down-regulation of PTTG1 could lead to increased sensitivity of these prostate cancer cells to a commonly used anticancer drug, taxol. Thus, PTTG1 expression is crucial for PC3 cell proliferation and invasion, and could be a promising new target for prostate cancer therapy.

  15. What Are Pituitary Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grow and to make steroid hormones (such as cortisol). Too much ACTH from the pituitary causes Cushing’s ... Cancer Atlas Press Room Cancer Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, ...

  16. A STUDY OF PITUITARY GLAND TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rame

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pituitary gland is known as the “Master Gland” of the body as it controls majority of the endocrine glands of the body. Embryologically, they are formed by two parts. There are two types of malignancies encountered namely adenomas and carcinomas. Vast majority of the neoplasms located in the sella turcica are benign pituitary adenomas derived from adenohypophyseal cells. The aim is to study the pituitary malignancies. METHODS The sample size included 100 cases of intra-cranial neoplasms that turned in the Department of Medicine in KVG Medical College, Sullia and different local private hospitals of Sullia and Mangalore. RESULTS Pituitary tumours comprised 6(6% of all the tumour studies. They occurred maximally in the age above 14 years. Tumours showed a male predominance. All the tumours were located in pituitary fossa. Principal presenting complaint was visual disturbance. Microscopically, the tumour was composed of small polyhedral to round cells with a uniform darkly staining round nucleus and scant eosinophilic cytoplasm. The cells formed papillary structures or were arranged in a trabecular pattern. CONCLUSION There is a male predominance in this study and the percentage of cases was found to be less in this region of Karnataka

  17. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure promotes differentiation of pituitary corticotrope-derived AtT20 D16V cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, Antonella; Ledda, Mario; Rosola, Emanuela; Pozzi, Deleana; D'Emilia, Enrico; Giuliani, Livio; Foletti, Alberto; Modesti, Andrea; Morris, Stephen J; Grimaldi, Settimio

    2006-12-01

    The pituitary corticotrope-derived AtT20 D16V cell line responds to nerve growth factor (NGF) by extending neurite-like processes and differentiating into neurosecretory-like cells. The aim of this work is the study of the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) at a frequency of 50 Hz on these differentiation activities. To establish whether exposure to the field could influence the molecular biology of the cells, they were exposed to a magnetic flux density of 2 milli-Tesla (mT). Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and intracellular pH (pHi) were monitored in single exposed AtT20 D16V cells using fluorophores Indo-1 and SNARF for [Ca2+]i and pHi, respectively. Single-cell fluorescence microscopy showed a statistically significant increase in [Ca2+]i followed by a drop in pHi in exposed cells. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission microscopy of exposed AtT20 D16V cells show morphological changes in plasma membrane compared to non-exposed cells; this modification was accompanied by a rearrangement in actin filament distribution and the emergence of properties typical of peptidergic neuronal cells-the appearance of secretory-like granules in the cytosol and the increase of synaptophysin in synaptic vesicles, changes typical of neurosecretory-like cells. Using a monoclonal antibody toward the neurofilament protein NF-200 gave additional evidence that exposed cells were in an early stage of differentiation compared to control. Pre-treatment with 0.3 microM nifedipine, which specifically blocks L-type Ca2+ channels, prevented NF-200 expression in AtT20 D16V exposed cells. The above findings demonstrate that exposure to 50 Hz ELF-EMF is responsible for the premature differentiation in AtT20 D 16 V cells.

  18. Influence of maternal dexamethasone treatment on morphometric characteristics of pituitary GH cells and body weight in near-term rat fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Milosević

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH and glucocorticoids have a powerful influence on controlling fetal growth, differentiation and maturation of numerous tissues. In the present study, the effect of maternal dexamethasone (Dx treatment on GH cells and body weight in 19- and 21-day-old rat fetuses was investigated using immunocytochemical and morphometric methods. Pregnant female rats received daily injections of 1.0-0.5-0.5 mg Dx/kg b.w. on days 16-18 of pregnancy (experimental group, while the control group received an equal volume of saline. Dx treatment of pregnant rats enhanced immunostaining intensity and significantly increased (p<0.05 GH nuclear and cell volume, as well as volume density and number of GH cells per square millimeter in 19-day-old fetuses compared to the controls. In 21-day-old fetuses after maternal Dx administration, immunoreactivity, volume density and number of GH cells remained significantly increased (p<0.05. Dx treatment of pregnant rats resulted in marked body weight reduction of 21-day-old but not 19 days old fetuses in comparison with the corresponding controls. The presented results demonstrate that maternal Dx application has pronounced effect on morphometric parameters of GH cells of 19- and 21-day-old fetuses. Also, in near-term rat fetuses body weight was largely independent of pituitary GH cell activity.

  19. Calbindin-D9k as a sensitive molecular biomarker for evaluating the synergistic impact of estrogenic chemicals on GH3 rat pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thuy T B; An, Beum-Soo; Yang, Hyun; Jung, Eui-Man; Hwang, Inho; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2012-11-01

    Various endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols [4-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-tert octylphenol (OP)] and isobutylparaben (IBP) are a constant concern due to their widespread distribution. It has been reported that some combinations of hormone-disrupting chemicals are much more powerful than any of the chemicals alone. In this study, we measured the expression of an estrogenic biomarker gene, calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k), and progesterone receptor (PR) to evaluate the individual or combined estrogenic activity of BPA, NP, OP and IBP in GH3 rat pituitary cells. Most doses of the individual compounds and all the doses of the combined chemicals significantly increased CaBP-9k and PR mRNA and protein expression compared to the vehicle (except for PR expression after treatment with OP and NP at 10-7 M). Of note, high doses (10-6 and 10-5 M) of the EDC combinations increased the translational and transcriptional levels of CaBP-9k by 1.3- to 2.4-fold compared to each individual equivalent concentrations of EDCs. To determine whether the increased CaBP-9k gene expression was induced via intracellular estrogen receptor (ER), we blocked ER signaling using fulvestrant, an ER antagonist. The results showed that fulvestrant significantly reversed the CaBP-9k and PR upregulation following treatment with individual EDCs or their combinations. Taken together, we conclude that combinations of BPA, NP, OP and IBP in GH3 rat pituitary cells have synergistic estrogenic activities mediated by ER signaling. In addition, the expression of the CaBP-9k gene may be used as a biomarker to assess the synergistic effects of EDCs in vitro.

  20. Somatostatin receptor biology in neuroendocrine and pituitary tumours: part 1--molecular pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Mehtap; Dworakowska, Dorota; Grossman, Ashley

    2010-11-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) may occur at many sites in the body although the majority occur within the gastroenteropancreatic axis. Non-gastroenteropancreatic NETs encompass phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, medullary thyroid carcinoma, anterior pituitary tumour, broncho-pulmonary NETs and parathyroid tumours. Like most endocrine tumours, NETs also express somatostatin (SST) receptors (subtypes 1-5) whose ligand SST is known to inhibit endocrine and exocrine secretions and have anti-tumour effects. In the light of this knowledge, the idea of using SST analogues in the treatment of NETs has become increasingly popular and new studies have centred upon the development of new SST analogues. We attempt to review SST receptor (SSTR) biology primarily in neuroendocrine tissues, focusing on pituitary tumours. A full data search was performed through PubMed over the years 2000-2009 with keywords 'somatostatin, molecular biology, somatostatin receptors, somatostatin signalling, NET, pituitary' and all relevant publications have been included, together with selected publications prior to that date. SSTR signalling in non-neuroendocrine solid tumours is beyond the scope of this review. SST is a potent anti-proliferative and anti-secretory agent for some NETs. The successful therapeutic use of SST analogues in the treatment of these tumours depends on a thorough understanding of the diverse effects of SSTR subtypes in different tissues and cell types. Further studies will focus on critical points of SSTR biology such as homo- and heterodimerization of SSTRs and the differences between post-receptor signalling pathways of SSTR subtypes.

  1. EFFECTS OF CAGING DENSITY ON PITUITARY AND TESTICLE RELATED RESPONSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of caging density on pituitary and testicle related responses A significant negative correlation between the incidence of testicular interstitial cell tumors (ICT) and of pituitary tumors (PT) in control male F344 rats is reported associated with the number of ani...

  2. Engrafted human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived anterior specified neural progenitors protect the rat crushed optic nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Satarian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs is a common occurrence in several eye diseases. This study examined the functional improvement and protection of host RGCs in addition to the survival, integration and neuronal differentiation capabilities of anterior specified neural progenitors (NPs following intravitreal transplantation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NPs were produced under defined conditions from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs and transplanted into rats whose optic nerves have been crushed (ONC. hiPSCs were induced to differentiate into anterior specified NPs by the use of Noggin and retinoic acid. The hiPSC-NPs were labeled by green fluorescent protein or a fluorescent tracer 1,1' -dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI and injected two days after induction of ONC in hooded rats. Functional analysis according to visual evoked potential recordings showed significant amplitude recovery in animals transplanted with hiPSC-NPs. Retrograde labeling by an intra-collicular DiI injection showed significantly higher numbers of RGCs and spared axons in ONC rats treated with hiPSC-NPs or their conditioned medium (CM. The analysis of CM of hiPSC-NPs showed the secretion of ciliary neurotrophic factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor. Optic nerve of cell transplanted groups also had increased GAP43 immunoreactivity and myelin staining by FluoroMyelin™ which imply for protection of axons and myelin. At 60 days post-transplantation hiPSC-NPs were integrated into the ganglion cell layer of the retina and expressed neuronal markers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The transplantation of anterior specified NPs may improve optic nerve injury through neuroprotection and differentiation into neuronal lineages. These NPs possibly provide a promising new therapeutic approach for traumatic optic nerve injuries and loss of RGCs caused by other diseases.

  3. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in the treatment of pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, C.; Theodorou, M.; Poullos, N.; Astner, S.T.; Geinitz, H.; Molls, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie; Stalla, G.K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Psychiatrie, Muenchen (Germany). Klinische Neuroendokrinologie; Meyer, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik; Nieder, C. [Nordland Hospital, Bodoe (Norway). Dept. of Oncology and Palliative Medicine; Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Grosu, A.L [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to evaluate tumor control and side effects associated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in the management of residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas. Patients and methods: We report on 37 consecutive patients with pituitary adenomas treated with FSRT at our department. All patients had previously undergone surgery. Twenty-nine patients had nonfunctioning, 8 had hormone-producing adenoma. The mean total dose delivered by a linear accelerator was 49.4 Gy (range 45-52.2 Gy), 5 x 1.8 Gy weekly. The mean PTV was 22.8 ccm (range 2.0-78.3 ccm). Evaluation included serial imaging tests, endocrinologic and ophthalmologic examination. Results: Tumor control was 91.9 % for a median follow-up time of 57 months (range 2-111 months). Before FSRT partial hypopituitarism was present in 41 % of patients, while 35 % had anterior panhypopituitarism. After FSRT pituitary function remained normal in 22 %, 43 % had partial pituitary dysfunction, and 35 % had anterior panhypopituitarism. Visual acuity was stable in 76 % of patients, improved in 19 %, and deteriorated in 5 %. Visual fields remained stable in 35 patients (95 %), improved in one and worsened in 1 patient (2.7 %). Conclusion: FSRT is an effective and safe treatment for recurrent or residual pituitary adenoma. Good local tumor control and preservation of adjacent structures can be reached, even for large tumors. (orig.)

  4. Gross Morphology and Localization of Adenohypophyseal Cells in Camel (Camelus dromedarius Using A New Combination of Stains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. S. Jaspal, Z. U. Rahman* and A. M. Cheema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty normal camels (Camelus dromedarius were selected for gross morphological and modified staining of anterior pituitary. Camels were divided in three age groups viz 2-4, 5-10 and above 10 years. Pituitary weight, length, width and circumference were recorded before preservation and at midsegittal cutting. Pituitary weight increased significantly as these animals grew older. Male had heavier pituitary as compared to female. Higher pituitary weight was observed in old as compared to young camel. Sections (4m of camel pituitary gland were stained with “Phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin-Orange G-Acid fuchsin-Light green” combination of dyes. This combination of acidic and basic dyes showed affinity to their respective adenohypophyseal cells and proved a suitable combination for differentiation of adenohypophyseal cells and architectural pattern of pituitary gland. Use of Lugol’s Iodine and sodium thiosulphate solution caused mercury fixation which ultimately enhanced the staining of camel adenohypophysis. The whole pituitary presented a brilliant appearance of clarity, enabling cell counts to be performed easily, purely with reference to the colors of adenohypophyseal cell types. This method can be applied for differential staining of adenohypophysis and with good cytology results to the hypophysis of many mammals. The method also provides a sharp contrast between cellular and connective tissue components. With this staining technique, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of different adenohypophyseal cell types at various functional and hormonal stages, under certain physiological and pathological conditions can also be studied.

  5. Studies on prolactin-secreting cells in aging rats of different strains. I. Alterations in pituitary histology and serum prolactin levels as related to ageing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, van L.J.A.; Zwieten, van M.J.; Mattheij, J.A.M.; Kemenade, J.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Serum PRL levels and histologically tumor-free pituitary glands of 91 aging rats of the BN/BiRij strain, the WAG/Rij strain and their F1 hybrid were studied. In rats with pituitary glands without signs of hyperplasia, serum PRL levels were, in comparison to rats of 15-24 months, increased 25-29-mont

  6. Hypothalamic-pituitary vascularization in pituitary stalk transection syndrome: is the pituitary stalk really transected? The role of gadolinium-DTPA with spin-echo T1 imaging and turbo-FLASH technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genovese, E. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Maghnie, M. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Beluffi, G. [Dept. of Radiodiagnosis, Section of Pediatric Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Villa, A. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Sammarchi, L. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Severi, F. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Campani, R. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    We examined 14 patients, aged 10-25 years, with idiopathic hypopituitarism. All presented an ectopic posterior pituitary at the median eminence with a hypoplastic anterior pituitary on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eight patients had isolated growth hormone deficit (IGHD) and six had multiple hormone deficits (MPHD). Unenhanced MRI showed the pituitary stalk, which was extremely thin, in only three patients, while T1-weighted images obtained after intravenous injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) showed a thin pituitary stalk in seven patients (six with IGHD and one with MPHD), demonstrating a preserved vascular component of the stalk. MRI with Gd-DTPA was more sensitive than unenhanced MRI in detecting the pituitary stalk in patients with hypopituitarism with an ectopic posterior pituitary: the stalk was demonstrated in 50 % of the cases (seven patients), versus 21.4 % (three patients) by unenhanced MRI. The dynamic study of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis performed with turbo-FLASH sequences after bolus injection of Gd-DTPA showed the residual anterior pituitary to have arterial enhancement times, which suggests that an arterial system compensates for the absent or diminished blood supply from the portal system, independent of stalk detection. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Long-term application of diethylstilbestrol upregulates expressions of μ- and m-calpains in pituitary intermediate lobe of female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijiang Zhao; Fang Yuan; Guilin Li; Zhongfang Shi; Yun Cui; Yazhuo Zhang; Zhongcheng Wang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During formation of prolactin neoplasia, how cells and its structure in adenohypophysis affect prolactin cells should be further studied. Intermediate lobe can be regarded as a driving region to release prolactin (PRL) and may promote formation of prolactin neoplasia in pituitary anterior lobe. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of diethylstilbestrol (DES) on the expressions of μ and m-calpains in pituitary intermediate lobe of female Wistar rats. DESIGN: Observational contrast animal study. SETTING: Beijing Neurosurgical Institute.MATERIALS: A total of 21 female Wistar rats, 3 weeks old weighing 70 - 80 g were housed with free access to tap water and standard pellet food. They were kept in a CL-grade condition, at (24±1) ℃ and a humidity of (55±5)%, and with a 12 hours day-night cycle. Caprine anti-μ- and m-calpains antibodies were provided by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, CA, USA; rabbit-anti-PRL antibodies by Dako, Denmark; rabbit-anti-ACTH antibody by Boster Company, Wuhan.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in Pathophysiological Department and Animal Laboratory, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute from August 2006 to January 2007. ①Rats were randomly divided into groups with 7 in each group, including vehicle control group, in which rats were injected intraperitoneally with sun-flower seed oil (1 Ml/kg, twice a week) for 16 weeks; DES group, where animals were administered with DES (5 mg/kg, twice a week) for 16 weeks; DES + vehicle control group, in which DES was administered for 12 weeks at the same dose with those in DES group, and then was discontinued and replaced by sun-flower seed oil (1 Ml/kg, twice a week) for the following 4 weeks. ②At 16 weeks later, pituitary tissue was dealt with HE staining and PRL immunohistochemical examination to observe evoke of tumor; meanwhile, immunohistochemical examination was used to observe expression of PRL of pituitary anterior lobe, expressions ofμ- and m-calpains of pituitary intermediate lobe and

  8. Lymphocytic hypophysitis masquerading as pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pituitary hypophysitis (PH is characterized by pituitary infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells that could lead to loss of pituitary function. Hypophysitis may be autoimmune or secondary to systemic diseases or infections. Based on the histopathological findings PH is classified into lymphocytic, granulomatous, xanthomatous, mixed forms (lymphogranulomatous, xanthogranulomatous, necrotizing and Immunoglobulin- G4 (IgG4 plasmacytic types. Objective: To report a case of lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH. Case Report: A 15-year-old girl presented with history of headache, amenorrhea, and history of polyuria for past 4 months. Initial evaluation had suppressed follicular stimulating hormone (<0.01 mIU/ml, high prolactin levels (110.85 ng/ml and diabetes insipidus (DI. Magnetic resonance imaging of sella was suggestive of pituitary macroadenoma with partial compression over optic chiasma. Patient underwent surgical decompression. Yellowish firm tissue was evacuated and xanthochromic fluid was aspirated. Histopathology was suggestive of LH. She resumed her cycles postoperatively after 4 months, prolactin levels normalized, however, she continues to have DI and is on desmopressin spray. This case has been presented here for its rare presentation in an adolescent girl because it is mostly seen in young females and postpartum period and its unique presentation as an expanding pituitary mass with optic chiasma compression. Conclusion: Definitive diagnosis of LH is based on histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic approach should be based on the grade of suspicion and clinical manifestations of LH.

  9. Pituitary Adenoma Segmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Egger, Jan; Kuhnt, Daniela; Freisleben, Bernd; Nimsky, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Sellar tumors are approximately 10-15% among all intracranial neoplasms. The most common sellar lesion is the pituitary adenoma. Manual segmentation is a time-consuming process that can be shortened by using adequate algorithms. In this contribution, we present a segmentation method for pituitary adenoma. The method is based on an algorithm we developed recently in previous work where the novel segmentation scheme was successfully used for segmentation of glioblastoma multiforme and provided an average Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 77%. This scheme is used for automatic adenoma segmentation. In our experimental evaluation, neurosurgeons with strong experiences in the treatment of pituitary adenoma performed manual slice-by-slice segmentation of 10 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cases. Afterwards, the segmentations were compared with the segmentation results of the proposed method via the DSC. The average DSC for all data sets was 77.49% +/- 4.52%. Compared with a manual segmentation that took, on the...

  10. Calcium ion cyclotron resonance (ICR), 7.0 Hz, 9.2 microT magnetic field exposure initiates differentiation of pituitary corticotrope-derived AtT20 D16V cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foletti, Alberto; Ledda, Mario; De Carlo, Flavia; Grimaldi, Settimio; Lisi, Antonella

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this work is the study of the effect of electromagnetic radiations (ELF-EMF) tuned to the calcium cyclotron resonance condition of 7.0 Hz, 9.2 microT on the differentiation process of pituitary corticotrope-derived AtT20 D16V cells. These cells respond to nerve growth factor by extending neurite-like processes. To establish whether exposure to the field could influence the molecular biology of the pituitary gland, a corticotrope-derived cells line (AtT20 D16V) was exposed to ELF-EMF at a frequency of 7.0 Hz, 9.2 microT electromagnetic field by a Vega Select 719 power supply. Significant evidence was obtained to conclude that as little as 36 h exposure to the Ca(2+) ICR condition results in enhanced neurite outgrowth, with early expression and aggregation of the neuronal differentiation protein NF-200 into neurite structures.

  11. Optimized conditions for primary culture of pituitary cells from the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The importance of osmolality, pCO₂, and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodne, Kjetil; von Krogh, Kristine; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Sand, Olav; Haug, Trude M

    2012-09-01

    Protocols for primary cultures of teleost cells are commonly only moderately adjusted from similar protocols for mammalian cells, the main adjustment often being of temperature. Because aquatic habitats are in general colder than mammalian body temperatures and teleosts have gills in direct contact with water, pH and buffer capacity of blood and extracellular fluid are different in fish and mammals. Plasma osmolality is generally higher in marine teleosts than in mammals. Using Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) as a model, we have optimized these physiological parameters to maintain primary pituitary cells in culture for an extended period without loosing key properties. L-15 medium with adjusted osmolality, adapted to low pCO(2) (3.8mm Hg) and temperature (12°C), and with pH 7.85, maintained the cells in a physiologically sounder state than traditional culture medium, significantly improving cell viability compared to the initial protocol. In the optimized culture medium, resting membrane potential and response to releasing hormone were stable for at least two weeks, and the proportion of cells firing action potentials during spawning season was about seven times higher than in the original culture medium. The cells were moderately more viable when the modified medium was supplemented with newborn calf serum or artificial serum substitute. Compared to serum-free L-15 medium, expression of key genes (lhb, fshb, and gnrhr2a) was better maintained in medium containing SSR, whereas NCS tended to decrease the expression level. Although serum-free medium is adequate for many applications, serum supplement may be preferable for experiments dependent on membrane integrity.

  12. Combinations of physiologic estrogens with xenoestrogens alter calcium and kinase responses, prolactin release, and membrane estrogen receptor trafficking in rat pituitary cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Cheryl S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xenoestrogens such as alkylphenols and the structurally related plastic byproduct bisphenol A have recently been shown to act potently via nongenomic signaling pathways and the membrane version of estrogen receptor-α. Though the responses to these compounds are typically measured individually, they usually contaminate organisms that already have endogenous estrogens present. Therefore, we used quantitative medium-throughput screening assays to measure the effects of physiologic estrogens in combination with these xenoestrogens. Methods We studied the effects of low concentrations of endogenous estrogens (estradiol, estriol, and estrone at 10 pM (representing pre-development levels, and 1 nM (representing higher cycle-dependent and pregnancy levels in combinations with the same levels of xenoestrogens in GH3/B6/F10 pituitary cells. These levels of xenoestrogens represent extremely low contamination levels. We monitored calcium entry into cells using Fura-2 fluorescence imaging of single cells. Prolactin release was measured by radio-immunoassay. Extracellular-regulated kinase (1 and 2 phospho-activations and the levels of three estrogen receptors in the cell membrane (ERα, ERβ, and GPER were measured using a quantitative plate immunoassay of fixed cells either permeabilized or nonpermeabilized (respectively. Results All xenoestrogens caused responses at these concentrations, and had disruptive effects on the actions of physiologic estrogens. Xenoestrogens reduced the % of cells that responded to estradiol via calcium channel opening. They also inhibited the activation (phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinases at some concentrations. They either inhibited or enhanced rapid prolactin release, depending upon concentration. These latter two dose-responses were nonmonotonic, a characteristic of nongenomic estrogenic responses. Conclusions Responses mediated by endogenous estrogens representing different life stages are

  13. Anterior mediastinal mass in a young marijuana smoker: a rare case of small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothadia, Jiten P; Chhabra, Saurabh; Marcus, Alan; May, Michael; Saraiya, Biren; Jabbour, Salma K

    2012-01-01

    The use of cannabis is embedded within many societies, mostly used by the young and widely perceived to be safe. Increasing concern regarding the potential for cannabis to cause mental health effects has dominated cannabis research, and the potential adverse respiratory effects have received relatively little attention. We report a rare case of 22-year-old man who presented with bilateral neck lymphadenopathy, fatigue, and sore throat without significant medical or family history. The patient had smoked one marijuana joint three times a week for three years but no cigarettes. Chest CT demonstrated a large anterior mediastinal mass compressing the superior vena cava and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. A final diagnosis of small-cell lung cancer was reached. Although rare, a small-cell lung cancer in this patient should alert the physician that cannabis smoking may be a risk factor for lung cancer.

  14. Anterior Mediastinal Mass in a Young Marijuana Smoker: A Rare Case of Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiten P. Kothadia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of cannabis is embedded within many societies, mostly used by the young and widely perceived to be safe. Increasing concern regarding the potential for cannabis to cause mental health effects has dominated cannabis research, and the potential adverse respiratory effects have received relatively little attention. We report a rare case of 22-year-old man who presented with bilateral neck lymphadenopathy, fatigue, and sore throat without significant medical or family history. The patient had smoked one marijuana joint three times a week for three years but no cigarettes. Chest CT demonstrated a large anterior mediastinal mass compressing the superior vena cava and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. A final diagnosis of small-cell lung cancer was reached. Although rare, a small-cell lung cancer in this patient should alert the physician that cannabis smoking may be a risk factor for lung cancer.

  15. AVE protein expression and visceral endoderm cell behavior during anterior-posterior axis formation in mouse embryos: Asymmetry in OTX2 and DKK1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Hideharu; Shioi, Go; Aizawa, Shinichi

    2015-06-15

    The initial landmark of anterior-posterior (A-P) axis formation in mouse embryos is the distal visceral endoderm, DVE, which expresses a series of anterior genes at embryonic day 5.5 (E5.5). Subsequently, DVE cells move to the future anterior region, generating anterior visceral endoderm (AVE). Questions remain regarding how the DVE is formed and how the direction of the movement is determined. This study compares the detailed expression patterns of OTX2, HHEX, CER1, LEFTY1 and DKK1 by immunohistology and live imaging at E4.5-E6.5. At E6.5, the AVE is subdivided into four domains: most anterior (OTX2, HHEX, CER1-low/DKK1-high), anterior (OTX2, HHEX, CER1-high/DKK1-low), main (OTX2, HHEX, CER1, LEFTY1-high) and antero-lateral and posterior (OTX2, HHEX-low). The study demonstrates how this pattern is established. AVE protein expression in the DVE occurs de novo at E5.25-E5.5. Neither HHEX, LEFTY1 nor CER1 expression is asymmetric. In contrast, OTX2 expression is tilted on the future posterior side with the DKK1 expression at its proximal domain; the DVE cells move in the opposite direction of the tilt.

  16. Influence of Hepes- and CO2/HCO(3-)-buffer on Ca2+ transients induced by TRH and elevated K+ in rat pituitary GH4C1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnquist, K; Päällysaho, J; Heinonen, E; Kaila, K

    1995-07-01

    The influence of two buffer systems (Hepes and CO2/HCO3-) on intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) transients evoked by TRH and by elevated K+ were studied in single, and small clusters of, clonal rat pituitary GH4C1 cells using Fura 2. The steady-state level of [Ca2+]i was virtually identical in Hepes and CO2/HCO3-. In both buffers, addition of TRH induced a transient increase in [Ca2+]i which attained a significantly higher peak in Hepes (357 +/- 43 nM) when compared with values measured in the presence of CO2/HCO3- (184 +/- 21 nM). In Hepes, the basal IP3-level was higher than in CO2/HCO3-. The TRH-evoked increase in IP3 was higher in magnitude in Hepes than in CO2/HCO3-, although the stimulated/basal ratio was not different between the two buffers. The buffer composition had no effect on the specific binding of 3H-TRH to the cells. Furthermore, the amplitude of the increase in [Ca2+]i evoked by 50 mM K+ was identical in both buffers. TRH and K+ had no effect on pHi in either buffer. The present results indicate that HCO3- has an influence on TRH-induced Ca2+ transient, at least in part by modifying the TRH-evoked production of IP3.

  17. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP Pathway Is Induced by Mechanical Load and Reduces the Activity of Hedgehog Signaling in Chondrogenic Micromass Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Juhász

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is a neurohormone exerting protective function during various stress conditions either in mature or developing tissues. Previously we proved the presence of PACAP signaling elements in chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Since no data can be found if PACAP signaling is playing any role during mechanical stress in any tissues, we aimed to investigate its contribution in mechanotransduction during chondrogenesis. Expressions of the mRNAs of PACAP and its major receptor, PAC1 increased, while that of other receptors, VPAC1, VPAC2 decreased upon mechanical stimulus. Mechanical load enhanced the expression of collagen type X, a marker of hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and PACAP addition attenuated this elevation. Moreover, exogenous PACAP also prevented the mechanical load evoked activation of hedgehog signaling: protein levels of Sonic and Indian Hedgehogs and Gli1 transcription factor were lowered while expressions of Gli2 and Gli3 were elevated by PACAP application during mechanical load. Our results suggest that mechanical load activates PACAP signaling and exogenous PACAP acts against the hypertrophy inducing effect of mechanical load.

  18. Dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis predicts some aspects of the behavioral response to chronic fluoxetine: association with hippocampal cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid eKhemissi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In depressed patients, antidepressant resistance has been associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The scope of this study was to try to create HPA-related antidepressant resistance in mice and to investigate adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a putative mechanism of antidepressant resistance. Mice were subjected to a 9 week Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress (UCMS. After a 2 weeks drug-free period, mice were segregated in two groups, according to the percentage of corticosterone suppression after dexamethasone injection: High suppression (HS and Low suppression (LS mice. From the 5thweek onwards, fluoxetine at a dose of 15 mg/kg (i.p. was administered daily and at the end of 8th week, a battery of behavioral tests assessing the emotional, cognitive, and motor aspects of UCMS-induced depressive-like behavior was applied. Results show that fluoxetine-induced antidepressant effects were observed with higher amplitude in HS when compared to LS on various behavioral phenotypes, like coat state, novelty suppression of feeding, splash test and nest test. The same profile was found concerning the immunohistochimical analysis of ki-67 positive cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, which is a marker of neuronal proliferation, but not for doublecortin labelling. This suggests that the failure of fluoxetine to induce antidepressant effects may be associated to the poor ability of the compound to stimulate cell proliferation in the hippocampus.

  19. Pituitary adenoma: a radiotherapeutic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platta, Christopher S; Mackay, Christopher; Welsh, James S

    2010-08-01

    Pituitary adenomas comprise approximately 10% to 20% of all central nervous system neoplasms whereas autopsy series have suggested that the incidence of pituitary adenoma in the general population may approach 25%. Several treatment modalities are used in the treatment of pituitary adenomas, including observation, surgery, medical intervention, and radiotherapy. The treatment modality employed depends greatly on the type of pituitary adenoma and presenting symptoms. This review will discuss the biology of pituitary adenomas and the current management principles for the treatment of prolactinomas, Cushing disease, acromegaly, and nonsecretory adenomas, with an emphasis on the published radiotherapeutic literature.

  20. Molecular Imaging of Pituitary Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Herder, Wouter W

    2016-01-01

    The presence of large numbers and/or the high affinity of dopamine D2 and/or somatostatin receptors on pituitary adenomas may enable their visualization with radionuclide-coupled receptor agonists or antagonists. However, the role of these imaging modalities in the differential diagnosis of or therapeutic purposes for pituitary lesions is very limited. Only in very specific cases might these molecular imaging techniques become helpful. These include the differential diagnosis of pituitary lesions, ectopic production of pituitary hormones, such as adrenocorticotrophic hormone, growth hormone (GH) or their releasing hormones (corticotropin-releasing hormone and GH-releasing hormone), and the localization of metastases from pituitary carcinomas.

  1. Butyrate Increases Intracellular Calcium Levels and Enhances Growth Hormone Release from Rat Anterior Pituitary Cells via the G-Protein-Coupled Receptors GPR41 and 43

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Consolata Miletta; Vibor Petkovic; Andrée Eblé; Ammann, Roland A; Flück, Christa E.; Primus-E Mullis

    2014-01-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH) rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous...

  2. Butyrate increases intracellular calcium levels and enhances growth hormone release from rat anterior pituitary cells via the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and 43

    OpenAIRE

    Miletta, Maria Consolata; Petkovic, Vibor; Eblé, Andrée; Ammann, Roland; Flück, Christa; Mullis, Primus-Eugen

    2014-01-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH) rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous...

  3. Dbx1-expressing cells are necessary for the survival of the mammalian anterior neural and craniofacial structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Causeret

    Full Text Available Development of the vertebrate forebrain and craniofacial structures are intimately linked processes, the coordinated growth of these tissues being required to ensure normal head formation. In this study, we identify five small subsets of progenitors expressing the transcription factor dbx1 in the cephalic region of developing mouse embryos at E8.5. Using genetic tracing we show that dbx1-expressing cells and their progeny have a modest contribution to the forebrain and face tissues. However, their genetic ablation triggers extensive and non cell-autonomous apoptosis as well as a decrease in proliferation in surrounding tissues, resulting in the progressive loss of most of the forebrain and frontonasal structures. Targeted ablation of the different subsets reveals that the very first dbx1-expressing progenitors are critically required for the survival of anterior neural tissues, the production and/or migration of cephalic neural crest cells and, ultimately, forebrain formation. In addition, we find that the other subsets, generated at slightly later stages, each play a specific function during head development and that their coordinated activity is required for accurate craniofacial morphogenesis. Our results demonstrate that dbx1-expressing cells have a unique function during head development, notably by controlling cell survival in a non cell-autonomous manner.

  4. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulate murine neural progenitor cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Eugene; May, Victor; Braas, Karen M; Shutz, Kristin C; Mao-Draayer, Yang

    2008-11-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NPC) have gained wide interest over the last decade from their therapeutic potential, either through transplantation or endogenous replacement, after central nervous system (CNS) disease and damage. Whereas several growth factors and cytokines have been shown to promote NPC survival, proliferation, or differentiation, the identification of other regulators will provide much needed options for NPC self-renewal or lineage development. Although previous studies have shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) can regulate stem/progenitor cells, the responses appeared variable. To examine the direct roles of these peptides in NPCs, postnatal mouse NPC cultures were withdrawn from epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblastic growth factor (FGF) and maintained under serum-free conditions in the presence or absence of PACAP27, PACAP38, or VIP. The NPCs expressed the PAC1(short)null receptor isoform, and the activation of these receptors decreased progenitor cell apoptosis more than 80% from TUNEL assays and facilitated proliferation more than fivefold from bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) analyses. To evaluate cellular differentiation, replicate control and peptide-treated cultures were examined for cell fate marker protein and transcript expression. In contrast with previous work, PACAP peptides downregulated NPC differentiation, which appeared consistent with the proliferation status of the treated cells. Accordingly, these results demonstrate that PACAP signaling is trophic and can maintain NPCs in a multipotent state. With these attributes, PACAP may be able to promote endogenous NPC self-renewal in the adult CNS, which may be important for endogenous self-repair in disease and ageing processes.

  5. IMAGING IN PITUITARY APOPLEXY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary apoplexy is an acute clinical condition characterized by sudden onset of headache, vomiting, visual disturbance, ophthalmoplegia and altered sensorium occurring due to infarction or haemorrhage of pituitary gland and often involving the pituita ry adenoma. Predominantly seen in non - functional adenomas and in functioning adenomas with prolactinomas having the highest risk. Patients usually present with headache, vomiting, altered sensorium, visual defect and/or endocrine dysfunction. Hemodynamic i nstability may result from adrenocorticotrophic hormone deficiency. Imaging with either CT scan or MRI is performed in suspected cases. On CT, a recent hemorrhage appears as a single or multiple hyperdense lesions with no or little contrast enhancement. MR I is useful in estimating the onset of bleeding and to show the relationship between the tumor and the surrounding structures. CT or MR Angiography is done to rule out aneurysm. Treatment is conservative and surgery is reserved for those cases with deterio rating level of consciousness or increasing visual defect. Here we present a 47 year old male who presented with history of headache and visual disturbances for 6 weeks and was evaluated with radiograph, CT and MRI. A 47 year old male patient presented to the Neurosurgical Department of Vydehi Medical College and Research Centre with history of gradual blurring of vision in the left eye for 2 months. History of diabetes or hypertension was present. The man was hemodynamically stable. Radiograph of the skull showed widening of sella with erosion of the floor. He was advised CT. CT showed widening of sella and a pituitary lesion with fluid level. MRI was advocated for further evaluation. MRI axial and coronal showed sellar and suprasellar mass with figure of e ight appearance mass suggesting pituitary mass. Hyper intense fluid level was seen suggesting bleed within the mass. Contrast MRI showed peripheral enhancement. Diagnosis of

  6. An unusual case of hypopituitarism and transient thyrotoxicosis following asymptomatic pituitary apoplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masanori; Murakami, Miho; Ueda, Harumi; Miyata, Misaki; Takahashi, Norio; Oiso, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Although pituitary function is often impaired in pituitary apoplexy, the development of thyrotoxicosis is rare. We describe an unusual case of hypopituitarism due to pituitary apoplexy coexisting with transient hyperthyroidism. A 74-year-old woman presented with severe fatigue, palpitation, appetite loss, hypotension, and hyponatremia. Endocrine studies showed hyperthyroidism and anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies. A magnetic resonance imaging suggested recent-onset pituitary apoplexy in a pituitary tumor, although the patient had no apoplectic symptoms such as headache and visual disturbance. Thyrotoxicosis and adrenal insufficiency worsened her general condition. Glucocorticoid supplementation improved her clinical symptoms and hyponatremia. Serum anti-thyrotropin receptor and thyroid-stimulating antibody titers were negative, and her thyroid function was spontaneously normalized without antithyroid medication, suggesting painless thyroiditis. Thereafter, her thyroid function decreased because of central hypothyroidism and 75 µg of levothyroxine was needed to maintain thyroid function at the euthyroid stage. The pituitary mass was surgically removed and an old hematoma was detected in the specimen. Considering that painless thyroiditis develops as a result of an autoimmune process, an immune rebound mechanism due to adrenal insufficiency probably caused painless thyroiditis. Although the most common type of thyroid disorder in pituitary apoplexy is central hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis caused by painless thyroiditis should be considered even if the patient has pituitary deficiencies. Because thyrotoxicosis with adrenal insufficiency poses a high risk for a life-threatening adrenal crisis, prompt diagnosis and treatment are critical.

  7. An anatomical and histochemical examination of the pituitary gland of carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    EKİCİ, Aygül; TİMUR, Metin

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out for the purpose of studying the anatomical and the histochemical structure of the pituitary gland of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Anatomically, the shape of the gland has been observed to be round-oval, looking like an acorn. The pituitary gland consists of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis parts. Microscopically, the adenohypophysis consists of anterior (pars distalis) and posterior (pars intermedia) parts. The second lobe of the gland, called the...

  8. Quantitative determination of angiotensin II binding sites in rat brain and pituitary gland by autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israel, A.; Correa, F.M.A.; Niwa, M.; Saavedra, J.M. (National Inst. of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1984-11-26

    Rat brain and pituitary angiotensin II (AII) binding sites were quantitated by incubation of tissue sections with /sup 125/I-(Sar/sup 1/) AII, Ultrofilm radioautography, computerized densitometry, and comparison with /sup 125/I-standards at appropriate film exposure times. The highest number of AII binding sites was found in anterior pituitary and the circumventricular organs, organon subfornicalis and organon vasculosum laminae terminalis.

  9. Lutropin regulation of steroidogenesis and specific protein synthesis in rat Leydig cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H.A. Janszen (Felix)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractIn the testis steroidogenesis takes place in the Leydig cells (Hooker, 1970) and is under the control of lutropin, a glycoprotein hormone with a mol. wt. of about 30,000 consisting of 2 nonidentical subunits, which is secreted by the anterior pituitary (Hall, 1970). The main steroid secr

  10. Molecular effects of novel mutations in Hesx1/HESX1 associated with human pituitary disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brickman, J M; Clements, M; Tyrell, R

    2001-01-01

    The homeobox gene Hesx1/HESX1 has been implicated in the establishment of anterior pattern in the central nervous system (CNS) in a number of vertebrate species. Its role in pituitary development has been documented through loss-of-function studies in the mouse. A homozygous missense point mutation...... defects associated with an undescended or ectopic posterior pituitary. A similar structural pituitary abnormality was observed in a second patient heterozygous for another mutation in HESX1, Ser170Leu (S170L). Association of S170L with a pituitary phenotype may be a direct consequence of the HESX1...... mutation since S170L is also associated with a dominant familial form of pituitary disease. However, a third mutation in HESX1, Asn125Ser (N125S), occurs at a high frequency in the Afro-Caribbean population and may therefore reflect a population-specific polymorphism. To investigate the molecular basis...

  11. The Localization of Ghrelin and Its mRNA in the Rat Hypothalamus and Pituitary%Ghrelin及其mRNA在大鼠下丘脑和垂体上的定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 方富贵; 章孝荣; 张运海; 王索路; 蒲勇; 李运生

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the regulation of Ghrelin on the hypothalamus and pituitary of rat. The localization of Ghrelin and its mRNA in hypothalamus and pituitary tissues were detected by immunohistochemical PV-9000 2-step and in situ hybridization, respectively. Results showed that Ghrelin and its mRNA was mainly distributed in the arcuate nuclei, ventromedial nucleus, median eminence, periventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and anterior pituitary, the colour of cells in nuclei were different. A large number of positive cells were found in anterior pituitary, no positive cells were distributed in neurohypophysis. Ghrelin and its mRNA were both presented in the hypothalamus and pituitary tissues of rat, which suggested that the Ghrelin may play a role in the secretion of gonadotropinreleasing hormone and gonadotropin.%为了阐明Ghrelin对大鼠下丘脑与垂体的调控规律,拟采用PV-9000两步法免疫组化和原位杂交方法分别确定Ghrelin及其mRNA在大鼠下丘脑和垂体组织中的定位.结果表明Ghrelin及其mRNA主要分布在下丘腩的弓状核、腹内侧核、正中隆起、室旁核等处的核团,各部分核团细胞着色程度深浅不一,腺垂体细胞中也有大量阳性细胞分布,但神经垂体则无阳性细胞分布.结果提示,Ghrelin及其mRNA在大鼠下丘脑、垂体中均有分布,揭示Ghrelin可能对大鼠促性腺激素释放激素和促性腺激素分泌有一定的调控作用.

  12. Cell Fusion along the Anterior-Posterior Neuroaxis in Mice with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasa R Sankavaram

    Full Text Available It is well documented that bone marrow-derived cells can fuse with a diverse range of cells, including brain cells, under normal or pathological conditions. Inflammation leads to robust fusion of bone marrow-derived cells with Purkinje cells and the formation of binucleate heterokaryons in the cerebellum. Heterokaryons form through the fusion of two developmentally differential cells and as a result contain two distinct nuclei without subsequent nuclear or chromosome loss.In the brain, fusion of bone marrow-derived cells appears to be restricted to the complex and large Purkinje cells, raising the question whether the size of the recipient cell is important for cell fusion in the central nervous system. Purkinje cells are among the largest neurons in the central nervous system and accordingly can harbor two nuclei.Using a well-characterized model for heterokaryon formation in the cerebellum (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis - a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we report for the first time that green fluorescent protein-labeled bone marrow-derived cells can fuse and form heterokaryons with spinal cord motor neurons. These spinal cord heterokaryons are predominantly located in or adjacent to an active or previously active inflammation site, demonstrating that inflammation and infiltration of immune cells are key for cell fusion in the central nervous system. While some motor neurons were found to contain two nuclei, co-expressing green fluorescent protein and the neuronal marker, neuron-specific nuclear protein, a number of small interneurons also co-expressed green fluorescent protein and the neuronal marker, neuron-specific nuclear protein. These small heterokaryons were scattered in the gray matter of the spinal cord.This novel finding expands the repertoire of neurons that can form heterokaryons with bone marrow-derived cells in the central nervous system, albeit in low numbers, possibly leading to a novel therapy for spinal cord

  13. Nonadenomatous tumors of the pituitary and sella turcica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Benjamin Y; Castillo, Mauricio

    2005-07-01

    While pituitary adenomas make up over 90% of all sellar masses, there are a number of less known tumors, both malignant and benign, which may arise within the sella turcica. These include relatively common tumors such as meningiomas and craniopharyngiomas, as well as extremely rare tumors such as pituitary astrocytomas and granular cell tumors. Unfortunately, many of these tumors lack characteristic imaging features, often making it extremely difficult to distinguish them by imaging alone from the more common pituitary adenoma. In this article, we review several nonadenomatous tumors of the sella, with a focus on their clinical features and typical MR imaging characteristics.

  14. Effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin on the pituitary-gonadal axis of female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asuquo OR; Oko OOK; Brownson ES; Umoetuk GB; Utin IS

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin (S. mombin) on the histology of the anterior pituitary, ovary and uterus; and on the serum sex hormones of adult female Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups of six rats per group. The animals in the treatment groups were administered orally ethanolic extract of S. mombin leaves at the doses of 250, 350 and 500 mg/kg body weight daily for fourteen days. Rats in the control group received distilled water. The body weights of the rats were determined at the beginning and end of the experiment. Histological analysis of pituitary, ovary and uterus was carried out. Hormonal assay for estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH were done using Enzyme-Linked Immunoabsorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: There was significant (P<0.05) decrease in relative organ weights of extract-treated rats compared to the control. Pituitary showed accumulation and aggregation of cells in experimental animals. Uteri of treated groups showed thickening of endometrial lining and presence of cysts, ovarian tissues were damaged. Furthermore, the extract caused reduction in serum concentration of sex hormones of the treated animals relative to the control. Conclusion: This study suggests that ethanolic extract of S. mombin leaf may have antifertility property, confirming its use as a local contraceptive.

  15. Familial pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeva, S; Vasilev, V; Vroonen, L; Naves, L; Jaffrain-Rea, M-L; Daly, A F; Zacharieva, S; Beckers, A

    2010-12-01

    Pituitary adenomas are benign intracranial neoplasms that present a major clinical concern because of hormonal overproduction or compression symptoms of adjacent structures. Most arise in a sporadic setting with a small percentage developing as a part of familial syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), Carney complex (CNC), and the recently described familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and MEN-4. While the genetic alterations responsible for the formation of sporadic adenomas remain largely unknown, considerable advances have been made in defining culprit genes in these familial syndromes. Mutations in MEN1 and PRKAR1A genes are found in the majority of MEN1 and CNC patients, respectively. About 15% of FIPA kindreds present with mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene. Mutations in the CDKN1B gene, encoding p27(Kip)¹ were identified in MEN4 cases. Familial tumours appear to differ from their sporadic counterparts not only in genetic basis but also in clinical characteristics. Evidence suggests that, especially in MEN1 and FIPA, they are more aggressive and affect patients at younger age, therefore justifying the importance of early diagnosis. In this review, we summarize the genetic and clinical characteristics of these familial pituitary adenomas.

  16. Silencing of HOTAIR expression inhibits the temozolomide-induced apoptosis in pituitary tumor cells%抑制 HOTAIR 的表达促进替莫唑胺引起的垂体腺瘤细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李九州; 张玉奇; 赵全成; 刘洪恩; 左凯

    2016-01-01

    目的:探索长链非编码RNA(long noncoding RNA ,lncRNA)HOTAIR在替莫唑胺引起的垂体瘤细胞凋亡中的功能。方法体外培养垂体腺瘤细胞系 HP75细胞和GH3细胞,使用替莫唑胺处理 HP75细胞和GH3细胞后,采用实时定量PCR法检测细胞中 HOTAIR的表达;采用RNA干扰(RNA interference ,RNAi)技术敲低内源性 HOTAIR的表达;并应用MTT法检测敲低内源性HOTAIR后细胞增殖能力的改变,应用流式细胞术检测敲低内源性 HOTAIR后替莫唑胺对垂体腺瘤细胞凋亡的影响。结果替莫唑胺能够引起垂体腺瘤HP75细胞和GH3细胞显著的凋亡,并且在此过程中HOTAIR的表达显著降低;采用RNAi技术能够显著地抑制垂体腺瘤细胞系中HOTAIR的表达;敲低HOTAIR后,细胞的增殖能力受到明显的抑制,如果同时使用替莫唑胺处理细胞,细胞的凋亡率出现显著地升高。结论敲低内源性 HOTAIR的表达能够促进替莫唑胺引起的垂体腺瘤细胞凋亡,二者具有协同作用。%Objective To investigate the effect of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) HOTAIR on the temozolomide-induced apoptosis of pituitary tumor cells .Methods Pituitary adenoma cell line HP75 cells and GH3 cells were cultured in vitro ,quanti-tative real-time PCR was used to detect the expression level of lncRNA HOTAIR in HP75 cells and GH3 cells after treatment with temozolomide .The HP75 cells and GH3 cells were transfected with siRNA specially targeting HOTAIR to knock endoge-nous HOTAIR down in vitro ;furthermore ,MTT assay was used to detect the proliferation rate in HP75 and GH3 cells ,flow cytometry assay was employed to detect the temozolomide-induced apoptosis in HP75 cells and GH3 cells .Results Temozolo-mide could cause significant apoptosis in pituitary tumor HP75 cells GH3 cells ,at the same time ,the expression of HOTAIR was significantly reduced in cells treated with temozolomide;the expression of HOTAIR could be

  17. Expression of orexin receptors in the pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Tadeusz; Smolinska, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Orexin receptors type 1 (OX1R) and type 2 (OX2R) are G protein-coupled receptors whose structure is highly conserved in mammals. OX1R is selective for orexin A, and OX2R binds orexin A and orexin B with similar affinity. Orexin receptor expression was observed in human, rat, porcine, sheep as well as Xenopus laevis pituitaries, both in the adenohypophysis and in the neurohypophysis. The expression level is regulated by gonadal steroid hormones and GnRH. The majority of orexins reaching the pituitary originate from the lateral hypothalamus, but due to the presence of the receptors and the local production of orexins in the pituitary, orexins could deliver an auto/paracrine effect within the gland. Cumulative data indicate that orexins are involved in the regulation of LH, GH, PRL, ACTH, and TSH secretion by pituitary cells, pointing to orexins' effect on the functioning of the endocrine axes. Those hormones may also serve as a signal linking metabolic status with endocrine control of sleep, arousal, and reproduction processes.

  18. Primary hypothyroidism masquerading pituitary macroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Amit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse and reactive pituitary gland enlargement secondary to primary hypothyroidism is an uncommon occurrence and that can masquerade many pituitary disorders. In present article, we report a case of 19 year female severe hypothyroidism presenting with diffuse enlargement of pituitary gland and hyperprolactinemia and review the clinical importance of this entity. Knowledge of this entity is very important to avoid unnecessary surgery and irreversible complications in this sub-group of patients.

  19. Pituitary gland volume in patients with schizophrenia, subjects at ultra high-risk of developing psychosis and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Dorte; Krogh, Jesper; Mondelli, Valeria;

    2013-01-01

    A larger pituitary size is thought to reflect a greater activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may be related to an increase in the number and size of corticotroph cells. Some studies, but not all, indicate that pituitary volume increases before or at the onset...

  20. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  1. HMGA1-pseudogene expression is induced in human pituitary tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Francesco; De Martino, Marco; D'Angelo, Daniela; Mussnich, Paula; Raverot, Gerald; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Fraggetta, Filippo; Trouillas, Jacqueline; Fusco, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have established that High Mobility Group A (HMGA) proteins play a pivotal role on the onset of human pituitary tumors. They are overexpressed in pituitary tumors, and, consistently, transgenic mice overexpressing either the Hmga1 or the Hmga2 gene develop pituitary tumors. In contrast with HMGA2, HMGA1 overexpression is not related to any rearrangement or amplification of the HMGA1 locus in these tumors. We have recently identified 2 HMGA1 pseudogenes, HMGA1P6 and HMGA1P7, acting as competitive endogenous RNA decoys for HMGA1 and other cancer related genes. Here, we show that HMGA1 pseudogene expression significantly correlates with HMGA1 mRNA levels in growth hormone and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas likely inhibiting the repression of HMGA1 through microRNAs action. According to our functional studies, these HMGA1 pseudogenes enhance the proliferation and migration of the mouse pituitary tumor cell line, at least in part, through their upregulation. Our results point out that the overexpression of HMGA1P6 and HMGA1P7 could contribute to increase HMGA1 levels in human pituitary tumors, and then to pituitary tumorigenesis. PMID:25894544

  2. The pathology of pituitary adenomas from a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworakowska, Dorota; Korbonits, Marta; Aylwin, Simon; McGregor, Alan; Grossman, Ashley B

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas present with a variety of clinical endocrine manifestations and arise in a sporadic setting or rarely as part of hereditary genetic syndromes. Molecular analysis of familial pituitary adenomas has provided significant insight into pituitary tumorigenesis. Some specific genes have been identified that predispose to pituitary neoplasia, but these are rarely involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic tumors. The number of identified genes involved in pituitary tumorigenesis is progressively increasing. The possible resulting mechanisms of action involve abnormalities in signal transduction pathways, cell cycle regulators, growth factors, chromosome stability and others. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of genetic alterations and their implications for patient prognosis, as well as to identify targets for existing and new therapeutic options. The aim of this review is to focus on the molecular pathology of pituitary adenomas from a practical perspective and discuss the possible clinical implications which may relate to particular molecular alterations. We have summarised familial syndromes related to pituitary adenomas and considered the prognostic value of selected molecular alterations in these tumors.

  3. Cushing-type ectopic pituitary adenoma with unusual pathologic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher T. Kimmell, MD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pituitary adenomas comprise, by varying reports, approximately 1-2% of all pituitary adenomas. They are often located in the nasopharyngeal region associated with the pharyngeal pituitary. The location and pathologic features of these masses make them atypical when compared with intrasellar pituitary adenomas. A 54-year-old man presented with vertebral compression fracture and physical stigmata of Cushing’s disease. Biochemical testing confirmed hypercortisolemia responsive to high dose dexamethasone suppression. MRI of the head demonstrated an enhancing mass in the posterior aspect of the sphenoid sinus not involving the sella turcica. Endoscopic biopsy followed by resection confirmed this mass to be a pituitary adenoma with unusual pathologic features. Most notably, the tumor cells demonstrated large, eosinophilic, vacuolated cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical profile of the tumor was typical of an ACTH secreting tumor, notably with positivity for ACTH. The patient did well from his surgery. Post-operatively his serum cortisol level normalized and he remains in chemical remission one year after surgery. Ectopic pituitary adenomas are an unusual manifestation of hormonally active pituitary neoplastic disease. Their atypical clinical presentations, location, and pathologic features can make them a diagnostic challenge. Clinicians should be aware of these entities, especially when considering differential diagnosis for a mass in the sphenoid sinus and nasopharyngeal region.

  4. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-05-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and ..cap alpha..-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin.

  5. Expression of Neuropeptide Y and Its Relationship with Molecular and Morphological Changes in Human Pituitary Adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ruichao; Li, Mu; Chang, Binge; Chen, Laichao; Ma, Jingjian

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on molecular and histological changes in human pituitary adenomas. The localization of NPY and its expression at the protein, messenger RNA (mRNA), and receptor levels were investigated here in different subcategories of pituitary adenomas. Immunohistochemical staining was performed in all cases to assess expression of NPY. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to study the mRNA expression of NPY. NPY subcellular localization was observed using immunoelectron microscopy in cytoplasm, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and cell matrix in four of the six cases of pituitary adenoma. NPY protein expression was observed in 59.6% of 57 cases of pituitary adenoma and in 2 cases of pituitary hyperplasia. mRNA expression of NPY was observed in all 57 cases of pituitary adenoma and in 2 cases of pituitary hyperplasia. Significantly different levels of expression were observed across different subcategories of pituitary adenoma. mRNA expression of Y1R and Y2R was observed across all subcategories of pituitary adenomas, and a positive correlation was observed between NPY and Y2R. In conclusion, evidence is provided here for the expression of NPY and its receptors, Y1R and Y2R, in human pituitary adenoma, and the levels of expression were found to differ across different subcategories. Differences in expression of Y2R in human pituitary adenomas were found to have remarkable statistical significance.

  6. A retrospective review of pituitary MRI findings in children on growth hormone therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Sarah L.; Lawrence, Sarah [University of Ottawa, Division of Endocrinology, Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa (Canada); Laffan, Eoghan [Children' s University Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Dublin 1 (Ireland)

    2012-07-15

    Patients with congenital hypopituitarism might have the classic triad of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, which consists of: (1) an interrupted or thin pituitary stalk, (2) an absent or ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP), and (3) anterior pituitary hypoplasia or aplasia. To examine the relationship between pituitary anatomy and the degree of hormonal dysfunction. This study involved a retrospective review of MRI findings in all children diagnosed with congenital growth hormone deficiency from 1988 to 2010 at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital. Of the 52 MRIs reviewed in 52 children, 26 children had normal pituitary anatomy and 26 had one or more elements of the classic triad. Fourteen of fifteen children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies had structural anomalies on MRI. Twelve of 37 children with isolated growth hormone deficiency had an abnormal MRI. Children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were more likely to have the classic triad than children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. A normal MRI was the most common finding in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. (orig.)

  7. Increased number of TH-immunoreactive cells in the ventral tegmental area after deep brain stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, J A D; Hescham, S; Adriaanse, B; Campos, F L; Steinbusch, H W M; Rutten, B P F; Temel, Y; Jahanshahi, A

    2015-09-01

    Dopamine (DA) has been long implicated with the processes of memory. In long-term memory, the hippocampus and ventral tegmental area (VTA) use DA to enhance long-term potentiation, while prefrontal DA D1 receptors are involved in working memory. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of specific brain areas have been shown to affect memory impairments in animal models. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DBS could reverse memory impairments by increasing the number of dopaminergic cells in the VTA. Rats received DBS at the level of the mammillothalamic tract, the anterior nucleus of the thalamus, and entorhinal cortex before euthanasia. These regions are part of the so-called memory circuit. Brain sections were processed for c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunocytochemistry in the VTA and the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). c-Fos, TH and c-Fos/TH immunoreactive cells were analyzed by means of stereology and confocal microscopy. Our results showed that DBS of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus induced substantial higher numbers of TH-immunoreactive cells in the VTA, while there were no significant differences between the experimental groups in the number of TH immunoreactive cells in the SNc, c-Fos immunoreactive cells and c-Fos/TH double-labeled cells in both the SNc and VTA. Our findings suggest a phenotypic switch, or neurotransmitter respecification, of DAergic cells specifically in the VTA which may be induced by DBS in the anterior nucleus of the thalamus.

  8. Proliferative and anti-proliferative effects of dietary levels of phytoestrogens in rat pituitary GH3/B6/F10 cells - the involvement of rapidly activated kinases and caspases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Cheryl S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytoestogens are a group of lipophillic plant compounds that can have estrogenic effects in animals; both tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic effects have been reported. Prolactin-secreting adenomas are the most prevalent form of pituitary tumors in humans and have been linked to estrogen exposures. We examined the proliferative effects of phytoestrogens on a rat pituitary tumor cell line, GH3/B6/F10, originally subcloned from GH3 cells based on its ability to express high levels of the membrane estrogen receptor-α. Methods We measured the proliferative effects of these phytoestrogens using crystal violet staining, the activation of several mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and their downstream targets via a quantitative plate immunoassay, and caspase enzymatic activities. Results Four phytoestrogens (coumestrol, daidzein, genistein, and trans-resveratrol were studied over wide concentration ranges. Except trans-resveratrol, all phytoestrogens increased GH3/B6/F10 cell proliferation at some concentration relevant to dietary levels. All four phytoestrogens attenuated the proliferative effects of estradiol when administered simultaneously. All phytoestrogens elicited MAPK and downstream target activations, but with time course patterns that often differed from that of estradiol and each other. Using selective antagonists, we determined that MAPKs play a role in the ability of these phytoestrogens to elicit these responses. In addition, except for trans-resveratrol, a serum removal-induced extrinsic apoptotic pathway was blocked by these phytoestrogens. Conclusion Phytoestrogens can block physiological estrogen-induced tumor cell growth in vitro and can also stimulate growth at high dietary concentrations in the absence of endogenous estrogens; these actions are correlated with slightly different signaling response patterns. Consumption of these compounds should be considered in strategies to control endocrine tumor cell

  9. Localization of amylin-like immunoreactivity in melanocyte-stimulating hormone-containing cells of the pars intermedia but not those of the pars distalis in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hirohumi; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

    2016-04-01

    Immunohistochemical techniques were employed to investigate the distribution of amylin-like immunoreactivity in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary. Amylin-immunoreactive cells were observed in the pars intermedia, and these cells were found to be immunoreactive for α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH) as well. In contrast, αMSH-immunoreactive cells in the pars distalis were immuno-negaitive for amylin. These light microscopic findings were confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. Amylin-immunoreactive signals were located on the haloes of presumable secretory granules in association with αMSH-immunoreactive signals in the amylin-positive cells. However, in the pars distalis, the αMSH-positive cells did not contain amylin-immunoreactive secretory granules. Western blot analysis of axolotl pituitary extracts revealed the labeling of a protein band at approximately 10.5-kDa by the anti-rat amylin serum, which was not labeled by the anti-αMSH antibody. These findings indicate that amylin secreted from MSH-producing cells in the pars intermedia may modulate MSH secretion in an autocrine fashion and may participate in MSH functions such as fatty homeostasis together with MSH.

  10. Epidermal growth factor and ras regulate gene expression in GH4 pituitary cells by separate, antagonistic signal transduction pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, C.A.; Gutierrez-Hartmann, A. [Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This report discusses the role of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) in promoting activation of the rat prolactin promoter in neuroendocrine cells via a Ras-independent mechanism. It also discusses the role of phosphotransferases in mediating EGF response. 32 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The Injection of Air/Oxygen Bubble into the Anterior Chamber of Rabbits as a Treatment for Hyphema in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Ayintap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the changes of partial oxygen pressure (PaO2 in aqueous humour after injecting air or oxygen bubble into the anterior chamber in sickle cell hyphema. Methods. Blood samples were taken from the same patient with sickle cell disease. Thirty-two rabbits were divided into 4 groups. In group 1 (n=8, there was no injection. Only blood injection constituted group 2 (n=8, both blood and air bubble injection constituted group 3 (n=8, and both blood and oxygen bubble injection constituted group 4 (n=8. Results. The PaO2 in the aqueous humour after 10 hours from the injections was 78.45 ± 9.9 mmHg (Mean ± SD for group 1, 73.97 ± 8.86 mmHg for group 2, 123.35 ± 13.6 mmHg for group 3, and 306.47 ± 16.5 mmHg for group 4. There was statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 2, when compared with group 3 and group 4. Conclusions. PaO2 in aqueous humour was increased after injecting air or oxygen bubble into the anterior chamber. We offer to leave an air bubble in the anterior chamber of patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies and hyphema undergoing an anterior chamber washout.

  12. Xenoestrogens at picomolar to nanomolar concentrations trigger membrane estrogen receptor-alpha-mediated Ca2+ fluxes and prolactin release in GH3/B6 pituitary tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Ann L; Bulayeva, Nataliya N; Watson, Cheryl S

    2005-04-01

    Xenoestrogens (XEs) are widespread in our environment and are known to have deleterious effects in animal (and perhaps human) populations. Acting as inappropriate estrogens, XEs are thought to interfere with endogenous estrogens such as estradiol (E2) to disrupt normal estrogenic signaling. We investigated the effects of E2 versus several XEs representing organochlorine pesticides (dieldrin, endosulfan, o',p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene), plastics manufacturing by-products/detergents (nonylphenol, bisphenol A), a phytoestrogen (coumestrol), and a synthetic estrogen (diethylstilbestrol) on the pituitary tumor cell subline GH3/B6/F10, previously selected for expression of high levels of membrane estrogen receptor-alpha. Picomolar to nanomolar concentrations of both E2 and XEs caused intracellular Ca2+ changes within 30 sec of administration. Each XE produced a unique temporal pattern of Ca2+ elevation. Removing Ca2+ from the extracellular solution abolished both spontaneous and XE-induced intracellular Ca2+ changes, as did 10 microM nifedipine. This suggests that XEs mediate their actions via voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane. None of the Ca2+ fluxes came from intracellular Ca2+ stores. E2 and each XE also caused unique time- and concentration-dependent patterns of prolactin (PRL) secretion that were largely complete within 3 min of administration. PRL secretion was also blocked by nifedipine, demonstrating a correlation between Ca2+ influx and PRL secretion. These data indicate that at very low concentrations, XEs mediate membrane-initiated intracellular CCa2+ increases resulting in PRL secretion via a mechanism similar to that for E2, but with distinct patterns and potencies that could explain their abilities to disrupt endocrine functions.

  13. Regional myocardial function after intracoronary bone marrow cell injection in reperfused anterior wall infarction - a cardiovascular magnetic resonance tagging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnesen Harald

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trials have brought diverse results of bone marrow stem cell treatment in necrotic myocardium. This substudy from the Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Acute Myocardial Infarction trial (ASTAMI explored global and regional myocardial function after intracoronary injection of autologous mononuclear bone marrow cells (mBMC in acute anterior wall myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR tagging was performed 2-3 weeks and 6 months after revascularization in 15 patients treated with intracoronary stem cell injection (mBMC group and in 13 controls without sham injection. Global and regional left ventricular (LV strain and LV twist were correlated to cine CMR and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE. Results In the control group myocardial function as measured by strain improved for the global LV (6 months: -13.1 ± 2.4 versus 2-3 weeks: -11.9 ± 3.4%, p = 0.014 and for the infarct zone (-11.8 ± 3.0 versus -9.3 ± 4.1%, p = 0.001, and significantly more than in the mBMC group (inter-group p = 0.027 for global strain, respectively p = 0.009 for infarct zone strain. LV infarct mass decreased (35.7 ± 20.4 versus 45.7 ± 29.5 g, p = 0.024, also significantly more pronounced than the mBMC group (inter-group p = 0.034. LV twist was initially low and remained unchanged irrespective of therapy. Conclusions LGE and strain findings quite similarly demonstrate subtle differences between the mBMC and control groups. Intracoronary injection of autologous mBMC did not strengthen regional or global myocardial function in this substudy. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00199823

  14. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome in Chinese people: clinical characteristic analysis of 55 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Guo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS is characterized by the absence of pituitary stalk, pituitary hypoplasia, and ectopic posterior pituitary. Due to the rarity of PSIS, clinical data are limited, especially in Chinese people. Herein, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with PSIS from our center over 10 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical manifestations and laboratory and MRI findings in 55 patients with PSIS. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients with PSIS, 48 (87.3% were male. The average age was 19.7±6.7 years and there was no familial case. A history of breech delivery was documented in 40 of 45 patients (88.9% and 19 of 55 patients (34.5% had a history of dystocia. Short stature was found in 47 of 55 patients (85.5% and bone age delayed 7.26±5.37 years. Secondary sex characteristics were poor or undeveloped in most patients. The prevalence of deficiencies in growth hormone, gonadotropins, corticotropin, and thyrotropin were 100%, 95.8%, 81.8%, 76.3%, respectively. Hyperprolactinemia was found in 36.4% of patients. Three or more pituitary hormone deficiencies were found in 92.7% of the patients. All patients had normal posterior pituitary function and absent pituitary stalk on imaging. The average height of anterior pituitary was 28 mm, documented anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Midline abnormalities were presented in 9.1% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features of our Chinese PSIS patients seem to be different from other reported patients in regarding to the higher degree of hypopituitarism and lower prevalence of midline defects. In addition, our patients were older at the time of case detection and the bone age was markedly delayed. We also had no cases of familial PSIS.

  15. Comparison of effects of sedation induced with propofol versus midazolam on anterior pituitary hormone in mechanically ventilated patients with traumatic brain injury%异丙酚和咪达唑仑用于颅脑创伤患者机械通气镇静对垂体前叶激素影响的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟春; 张彦; 王亚欣

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较异丙酚和咪达唑仑用于颅脑损伤患者机械通气镇静对垂体前叶激素的影响.方法 ICU颅脑创伤成年患者84例,拟在镇静下行机械通气治疗,采用随机数字表法,将其随机分为2组(n=42):异丙酚组(P组)和咪达唑仑组(M组).P组静脉输注异丙酚1.5~6.0mg· kg-1·h-1,加深镇静时静脉注射异丙酚50 mg;M组静脉输注咪达唑仑0.10~0.35 mg·kg-1·h-1,加深镇静时静脉注射咪达唑仑7.5 mg.维持Ramsay镇静评分2~4分,行机械通气72~120 h.记录镇静前格拉斯哥昏迷评分、入ICU后4周格拉斯哥预后评分,于镇静24、72 h时和入ICU后4周采集静脉血样,采用ELISA法测定血清皮质醇(COR)、促甲状腺激素(TSH)、泌乳素(PRL)和生长激素(GH)水平.结果 与M组比较,P组镇静24、72 h时血清COR和GH水平降低,TSH水平升高(P<0.05或0.01),而以上指标水平均维持于正常范围.2组PRL水平及预后良好率之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 异丙酚与咪达唑仑用于颅脑创伤患者机械通气镇静对垂体前叶内分泌功能的影响无显著差异.%Objective To compare the effects of sedation induced with propofol and midazolam on anterior pituitary hormone in mechanically ventilated patients with traumatic brain injury.Methods Eighty-four patients with acute traumatic brain injury,aged 20-60 yr,weighing 50-70 kg,undergoing mechanical ventilation during sedation induced with propofol or midazolam,were randomly divided into 2 groups ( n =42 each):propofol group (group P) and midasolam group (group M).Ramsay sedation score was maintained at 2-4.In group P,propofol was continuously infused at the initial infusion rate of 1.5-6.0 mg·kg-1 ·h-1 and propofol 50 mg was injected intravenously to increase the depth of sedation when needed.In group M,midazolam was continuously infused at the initial infusion rate of 0.10-0.35 mg· kg-1· h-1 and midazolam 7.5 mg was injected intravenously to increase the depth

  16. Human pituitary tissue secretes a potent growth factor for chondrocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, S; Friesen, H G

    1986-01-01

    We report the secretion from human pituitary tumor fragments in organ culture of a potent mitogen for chondrocyte proliferation. Primary human pituitary cell and organ cultures were established from pituitary fragments obtained from patients with acromegaly, prolactinomas, and nonfunctional adenomas. The conditioned culture medium contained a mitogenic factor(s) that stimulated rabbit fetal chondrocyte proliferation, causing up to an 8-fold increase in cell number when added to Ham's F-10 medium in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum. Blood leaking into the surgical field after the adenomectomy is known to contain very high concentrations of pituitary hormones. Serum samples, obtained from this venous "ooze" collected at the site of pituitary surgery, also were found to contain chondrocyte growth-promoting activity. Some venous serum samples stimulated chondrocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent manner down to a 1:10 dilution of 1 microliter serum, indicating that the material being secreted was very potent indeed. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and analytical gel isoelectric focusing of culture media or serum samples from the pituitary fossa demonstrated that the growth factor secreted from the pituitary tumor fragments as well as from the venous serum is similar, if not identical, to chondrocyte growth factor (mol wt, 43,000; pI 7.6-7.9) purified from human pituitaries collected at autopsy. These results suggest that the chondrocyte growth-promoting factor(s) may not only be secreted by pituitary tumor fragments but by normal human pituitary tissue as well.

  17. How to make a teleost adenohypophysis: molecular pathways of pituitary development in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogoda, Hans-Martin; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

    2009-11-27

    The anterior pituitary gland, or adenohypophysis (AH), represents the key component of the vertebrate hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis, where it functions at the interphase of the nervous and endocrine system to regulate basic body functions like growth, metabolism and reproduction. For developmental biologists, the adenohypophysis serves as an excellent model system for the studies of organogenesis and differential cell fate specification. Previous research, mainly done in mouse, identified numerous extrinsic signaling cues and intrinsic transcription factors that orchestrate the gland's developmental progression. In the past years, the zebrafish has emerged as a powerful tool to elucidate the genetic networks controlling vertebrate development, behavior and disease. Based on mutants isolated in forward genetic screens and on gene knock-downs using morpholino oligonucleotide (oligo) antisense technology, our current understanding of the molecular machinery driving adenohypophyseal ontogeny could be considerably improved. In addition, comparative analyses have shed further light onto the evolution of this rather recently invented organ. The goal of this review is to summarize current knowledge of the genetic and molecular control of zebrafish pituitary development, with special focus on most recent findings, including some thus far unpublished data from our own laboratory on the transcription factor Six1. In addition, zebrafish data will be discussed in comparison with current understanding of adenohypophysis development in mouse.

  18. Pituitary stalk lesion in a 13-year-old female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilbermint, Mihail; Ramnitz, Mary S.; Lodish, Maya B.; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Quezado, Martha M.

    2016-01-01

    Germinomas presenting with a pituitary stalk lesion and panhypopituitarism are rare in children, and their definite diagnosis is challenging. An invasive diagnostic approach, such as a transsphenoidal biopsy, is often required prior to establishing a treatment regimen. A 13-year-old female presented with 1 year of secondary amenorrhea, fatigue, and progressive thirst with polyuria. Laboratory work-up revealed panhypopituitarism (central hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency and central diabetes insipidus). α-Fetoprotein and β-human chorionic gonadotropin were not elevated in serum nor in cerebrospinal fluid. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary region showed an enhancing infundibular lesion, extending into the hypothalamus, and infiltrating the pituitary gland. A transsphenoidal biopsy of the infundibular lesion confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma (germ-cell tumor). After appropriate hormone replacement therapy, chemotherapy and low-dose radiation therapy, the patient achieved complete resolution of the pituitary stalk lesion on the MRI. PMID:24129100

  19. Pituitary stalk lesion in a 13-year-old female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilbermint, Mihail; Ramnitz, Mary S; Lodish, Maya B; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Patronas, Nicholas J; Quezado, Martha M; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2014-03-01

    Germinomas presenting with a pituitary stalk lesion and panhypopituitarism are rare in children, and their definite diagnosis is challenging. An invasive diagnostic approach, such as a transsphenoidal biopsy, is often required prior to establishing a treatment regimen. A 13-year-old female presented with 1 year of secondary amenorrhea, fatigue, and progressive thirst with polyuria. Laboratory work-up revealed panhypopituitarism (central hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency and central diabetes insipidus). α-Fetoprotein and β-human chorionic gonadotropin were not elevated in serum nor in cerebrospinal fluid. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary region showed an enhancing infundibular lesion, extending into the hypothalamus, and infiltrating the pituitary gland. A transsphenoidal biopsy of the infundibular lesion confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma (germ-cell tumor). After appropriate hormone replacement therapy, chemotherapy and low-dose radiation therapy, the patient achieved complete resolution of the pituitary stalk lesion on the MRI.

  20. Dissociation between the effects of somatostatin (SS) and octapeptide SS-analogs on hormone release in a small subgroup of pituitary- and islet cell tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Hofland (Leo); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); H.A. Visser-Wisselaar (Heleen); C. van Uffelen; M. Waaijers (Marlijn); J. Zuyderwijk; P. Uitterlinden (Piet); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); J.M. Kros (Johan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of somatostatin (SS-14 and/or SS-28) and of the three octapeptide SS-analogs that are available for clinical use (octreotide, BIM-23014 and RC-160) on hormone release by primary cultures of 15 clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFA), 7

  1. Giant repeater F-wave in patients with anterior horn cell disorders. Role of motor unit size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I K; el-Abd, M A

    1997-01-01

    Conventional F-wave responses as well as single motor unit F-wave responses together with the volitionally recruited motor unit action potentials (MUAP) were studied in hand and feet muscles of 10 healthy subjects and 32 patients with anterior horn cell disorders. The amplitude of the largest F-wave (Fl) was significantly greater in the affected patients compared with healthy subjects. Giant repeater F-wave responses "up to 4 mV" were recorded in muscles having volitionally recruited giant MUAPs. Although, the group mean percentage of motor unit F-wave responses per stimulation in all tested orthodromic MUAPs was significantly decreased in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, the group mean percentage of motor unit F-wave responses per stimulation in all tested orthodromic MUAPs that gave motor unit F-wave response was significantly increased compared with healthy subjects. The responding orthodromic MUAP gave identical motor unit F-wave response, even for complex polyphasic units. Enhanced monosynaptic (H-) reflex, proximal axon reflex (A-wave), and repetitive muscle response as possible explanations for the giant F-wave responses could be discounted. The electrophysiologic behavior of the giant late responses described here fits well with the criteria of F-waves modulated by newly formed distal (and or proximal) axonal branching.

  2. Shift of the pituitary stalk in intrasellar pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Jusuke; Tokiguchi, Susumu; Nakamori, Akitoshi (Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Watanabe, Akira; Yokoyama, Motoharu

    1982-08-01

    Fifty-one patients from a group of 344 patients undergoing the evaluation of intrasellar or parasellar tumors were diagnosed on CT as having an intrasellar pituitary adenoma. Axial transverse sections were performed at -10/sup 0/ to Reid's basal line, using 1.5-mm-thick slices and sagittal and coronal reformation. Of these 51 patients, 17 showed a shift of the pituitary stalk. The area where a tumor was thought to be located within the sella turcica on preoperative CT became defective on CT after transsphenoidal surgery in all cases. Histological verification was obtained in all cases. Also, the shift of the pituitary stalk was normalized or markedly improved after surgery in all cases. In functioning tumors, all cases except two showed an endocrinologically normal state or a marked improvement after transsphenoidal surgery. On the basis of the above-mentioned facts, it was concluded that the shift of the pituitary stalk in intrasellar pituitary adenomas indicated the evidence of a mass and its location in the sella turcica. However, a shift of the pituitary stalk was also observed under other conditions, such as empty sella and tuberculum sellae meningioma, and so it is not a pathognomonic finding in intrasellar pituitary adenomas.

  3. Anterior cruciate ligament tears treated with percutaneous injection of autologous bone marrow nucleated cells: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Centeno CJ

    2015-07-01

    =0.25, the mean LEFS change was an increase of 23.3 (P=0.03, and mean reported improvement was 86.7%. Conclusion: Based on this small case series, autologous bone marrow concentrate shows promise in the treatment of grade 1, 2, and possibly grade 3 ACL tears without retraction. Further investigation using a controlled study design is warranted. Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament injury, regenerative therapy, bone marrow concentrate, mesenchymal stem cells, knee instability

  4. Mechanical Loading Improves Tendon-Bone Healing in a Rabbit Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Model by Promoting Proliferation and Matrix Formation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Tendon Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanglong Song

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study investigated the effect of mechanical stress on tendon-bone healing in a rabbit anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction model as well as cell proliferation and matrix formation in co-culture of bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs and tendon cells (TCs. Methods: The effect of continuous passive motion (CPM therapy on tendon-bone healing in a rabbit ACL reconstruction model was evaluated by histological analysis, biomechanical testing and gene expressions at the tendon-bone interface. Furthermore, the effect of mechanical stretch on cell proliferation and matrix synthesis in BMSC/TC co-culture was also examined. Results: Postoperative CPM therapy significantly enhanced tendon-bone healing, as evidenced by increased amount of fibrocartilage, elevated ultimate load to failure levels, and up-regulated gene expressions of Collagen I, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, Tenascin C and tenomodulin at the tendon-bone junction. In addition, BMSC/TC co-culture treated with mechanical stretch showed a higher rate of cell proliferation and enhanced expressions of Collagen I, Collagen III, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, Tenascin C and tenomodulin than that of controls. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that proliferation and differentiation of local precursor cells could be enhanced by mechanical stimulation, which results in enhanced regenerative potential of BMSCs and TCs in tendon-bone healing.

  5. Decreased hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone content and pituitary responsiveness in hypothyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Katakami, H; Downs, T. R.; Frohman, L A

    1986-01-01

    The effects of thyroidectomy (Tx) and thyroxine replacement (T4Rx) on pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion and hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GRH) concentration were compared to define the mechanism of hypothyroid-associated GH deficiency. Thyroidectomized rats exhibited a complete loss of pulsatile GH secretion with extensive reduction in GRH responsiveness and pituitary GH content. Cultured pituitary cells from Tx rats exhibited reduced GRH sensitivity, maximal GH responsiveness, and...

  6. Ontogeny and the developing change of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone cells of chicken embryos%鸡胚胎腺垂体卵泡刺激素细胞的发育及其变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玉琴; 刘英; 袁学军; 刘靖闻; 陈慧; 吴瑜瑜

    2012-01-01

    应用免疫组织化学方法,对发育的第3.5~20.5天鸡胚腺垂体卵泡刺激素(FSH)细胞的发生及其在发育过程中的变化规律进行了研究。结果,鸡胚发育的中期(第10.5天),可观察到少量明显的FSH细胞分布于腺垂体后叶,随着胚胎的发育,FSH细胞数量显著增加(P〈0.05),发育的第16.5天FSH细胞数量增加到了整个孵化期的最大值,分布于垂体后叶的腹侧,前叶仅有少量零散的FSH细胞;在发育的第18.5天至出生期FSH细胞数量显著减少。早期FSH细胞体积小、细胞浆少、细胞核大,单个或团状分布,随着胚龄的增加,细胞体积增大、细胞浆增多、细胞浆浓染。结果表明,鸡胚胎腺垂体FSH细胞发生于胚胎发育的中期,细胞的增殖和分化过程发生在胚胎发育的中后期;FSH细胞分布于垂体后叶腹侧。%The present study is to determine ontogeny of chick embryonic pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) cells and their change during developing embryos.The pituitary glands were collected on day 3.5 to 20.5 of incubation,respectively.The expression and distribution of pituitary FSH cells were then detected by the immunohistochemical method.The experimental results demonstrated that scattered and clarity immunopositive FSH cells were first detected in caudal lobe of pituitary gland on day 10.5,and then dramatically increased(P0.05).FSH cells increased to a peak on day 16.5,and distributed caudal lobe,only scattered FSH cells distributed cephalic lobe of pituitary gland.On day 18.5 FSH cells decreased.In the early stage,the volume of FSH cells was smaller,there was less cytoplasmic and bigger nuclear,and light staining;in the mid-incubation and later,the volume become bigger,the cells became intensive staining.These results suggested that the ontogeny of FSH cells is in the middle stage and that the proliferation and differentiation of FSH cells occur during middle and late stage.

  7. Diffuse large B-cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma in a 65-year-old woman presenting with hypopituitarism and recovering after chemotherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyer Steve L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Diffuse large B-cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma may involve the pituitary either as a primary central nervous system lymphoma or, more frequently, as metastasis from systemic lymphoma leading to hypopituitarism. A partial recovery of pituitary function after treatment with chemotherapy has previously been described but complete recovery with cessation of all hormone supplements is excessively rare. We report a patient presenting with anterior hypopituitarism with subsequent complete and sustained recovery of pituitary function after successful treatment of the lymphoma. Case presentation A 65-year-old Caucasian woman with lethargy, loss of appetite and peripheral edema was found to have anterior hypopituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no mass lesions in the pituitary although a positron emission tomography scan showed abnormal pituitary activity. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed multiple intra-abdominal lymph nodes, which on histology proved diagnostic of diffuse large B-cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma. She received six cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy, after which she achieved a complete metabolic response at all known previous sites of the disease, confirmed by positron emission tomography scanning. Concomitant with the tumor response, there was full recovery of adrenal, thyroid and gonadal axes which has persisted at 10 months follow-up. Conclusion Although rare, it is important to recognize lymphomatous infiltration of the pituitary as a potentially reversible cause of hypopituitarism.

  8. Does blood transfusion affect pituitary gonadal axis and sperm parameters in young males with sickle cell disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We evaluated the effect of packed red cell transfusion (PCTx on serum concentrations of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (LH and FSH and testosterone (T levels and measured sperm parameters in young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD on top-up transfusion (TTx and those on exchange transfusion (ETx regimen. Materials and Methods: Basal serum concentrations of FSH, LH, and T and semen parameters were evaluated before and 7 days after PCTx in 18 young adults with transfusion-dependent SCD, aged 20.7 ± 2.88 years. They had full pubertal development (Tanner′s stage 5, and capacity to ejaculate. They were regularly transfused since early childhood. Chelation therapy was started early during the first 2 years of life using desferrioxamine and was replaced by deferasirox for the last 4-5 years. Ten patients were on TTx and eight were on ETx regimen. Results: PCTx significantly increased hemoglobin (Hb from 8.5 ± 1.17 g/dl to 10.5 ± 0.4 g/dl, T from 12.3 ± 1.24 nmol/L to 14.23 ± 1.22 nmol/L and gonadotropins′ concentrations. Sperm parameters improved significantly after PCTx including: total sperm count from 87.4 ± 24.6 million/ml to 146.2 ± 51.25 million/ml, total progressive sperm motility (TPM from 40.8 ± 11.1 million/ml to 93.4 ± 38.3 million/ml, rapid progressive sperm motility (RPM progressive motility from 29.26 ± 8.75 million/ml to 67.4 ± 29 million/ml. After PCTx the total sperm count, TPM and RPM were significantly better in the ETx group versus the TTx group. Before and after PCTx, T concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm total count, volume, TPM and RPM (r = 0.53, 0.55, 0.42, and 0.38, respectively, P < 0.01. Hb concentrations were correlated significantly with sperm count, TPM, RPM, and % of sperms with normal morphology (r = 0.60, 0.69, 0.66, and 0.86, respectively, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Our study suggests that in males with SCD blood transfusion is associated

  9. Anatomy of melancholia: focus on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis overactivity and the role of vasopressin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dinan, Timothy G

    2012-02-03

    Overactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis characterized by hypercortisolism, adrenal hyperplasia and abnormalities in negative feedback is the most consistently described biological abnormality in melancholic depression. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are the main secretagogues of the HPA\\/stress system. Produced in the parvicellular division of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus the release of these peptides is influenced by inputs from monoaminergic neurones. In depression, anterior pituitary CRH1 receptors are down-regulated and response to CRH infusion is blunted. By contrast, vasopressin V3 receptors on the anterior pituitary show enhanced response to AVP stimulation and this enhancement plays a key role in maintaining HPA overactivity.

  10. EXPRESSION OF c-erbB-2, p53, p16 IN SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF ANTERIOR TONGUE IN CHINA POPULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗敏; 徐震纲; 唐平章; 李爱东; 王争; 赵清正

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Aberrant expression of c-erbB-2, p53, p16 has been found in oral squamous cell carcinoma. We therefore examined expression of these proteins in squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tongue and compared their relationship with clinical stages and prognosis. Methods: Seventy-six patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tongue never treated before were obtained from Cancer Hospital, CAMS. Archive tissues of carcinoma and paracarcinoma were examined for c-erbB-2, p53 and p16 expression by immunohistochemistry.Results: The rates of immunopositive staining of c-erbB-2,p53 and p16 were 64.5%, 61.8% and 23.7% respectively; the positive rates in paracarcinoma mucosa were 19.7%, 22.6% and 55.3% respectively. Overexpression of c-erbB-2 was significantly correlated with short overall survival,metastasis and staging. Overexpression of paracarcinoma p53 was significantly correlated with local recurrence.Conclusion. c-erbB-2 may be used as a prognosis marker for the patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tongue and p53 as a recurrence marker.

  11. Fetal antigen 1 in healthy adults and patients with pituitary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Støving, René Klinkby;

    2001-01-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of human fetal antigen 1 (FA1) in adult human tissues has demonstrated a strong association between FA1 and (neuro)endocrine structures. In the anterior pituitary gland FA1 was colocalized with GH, and the present study was performed to evaluate a ...

  12. Dural enhancement in pituitary macroadenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattin, F. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Besancon (France); Dept. of Neuroradiology, Jean Minjoz Hospital, Besancon (France); Bonneville, F.; Andrea, I.; Barrali, E.; Bonneville, J.F. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Besancon (France)

    2000-07-01

    We describe the normal dural enhancement patterns of the sellar region and determine whether the duramater is affected by pituitary macroadenomas. Dural enhancement appeared to be usually abnormal in 20 patients with pituitary macroadenoma compared with 20 control patients, mainly at the planum sphenoidale and carotid sulcus. However dural changes are subtle and their recognition requires knowledge of the normal enhancement patterns. Dural changes, reported in a variety of inflammatory and infectious dural diseases and after surgery, are not specific and may be also seen in pituitary macroadenomas. (orig.)

  13. EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-a AND THEIR RECEPTOR IN HUMAN PITUITARY TUMORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the role of growth factor autocrine stimulation in the pathogenesis of human pituitary tumors. Methods: The expression of EGF, TGF-a and EGFR were studied by immunohisto-chemical method on paraffin-embedded sections of 30 cases pituitary tumor. Results: EGFR and its ligands EGF, TGF-a expressed in majority of pituitary tumors. The expression of EGFR and its ligands varied with cells' intensity, density and type. Conclusion: The EGF autocrine stimulating exerted in the pituitary tumor development process, that tyrosine kinases inhibitors may be useful for pituitary tumors treatment.

  14. An immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study of the larval anterior intestine of the frog Rana temporaria, with especial reference to endocrine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodegas, M E; Villaro, A C; Burrell, M A; Rovira, J; Valverde, E; Ortiz De Zárate, A; Sesma, P

    1997-10-01

    Endocrine cells of the larval intestine of Rana temporaria tadpoles have been identified by argyrophilic, immunocytochemical and electron-microscopical techniques. Scarce endocrine cells have been found in both the short non-absorptive zone immediately following the stomach, and in the rest of the anterior intestine. Endocrine cells are frequently seen to extend a cytoplasmic process towards the lumen. Immunoreactivity for serotonin, somatostatin, bombesin and cholecystokinin-8 has been detected. According to the ultrastructural traits of the endocrine granules, three larval intestinal endocrine populations have been differentiated.

  15. Primary hypothyroidism with growth failure and pituitary pseudotumor in a 13-year-old female: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Noelle S; Pinsker, Jordan E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Primary hypothyroidism is a well-known cause of poor linear growth in children. A rare finding with profound or long-standing disease is anterior pituitary enlargement (pituitary pseudotumor). This case highlights this uncommon finding, discusses clinical situations in which gradual dose escalation of levothyroxine may be advisable and reviews adjuvant therapies that have been previously attempted to improve final height in the setting of profound hypothyroidism. Case presentatio...

  16. Diffuse anterior retinoblastoma: current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jing Yang,1–3 Yalong Dang,1–3 Yu Zhu,1 Chun Zhang2,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, 3Clinical Stem Cell Research Center, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Diffuse anterior retinoblastoma is a rare variant of retinoblastoma seeding in the area of the vitreous base and anterior chamber. Patients with diffuse anterior retinoblastoma are older than those with the classical types, with the mean age being 6.1 years. The original cells of diffuse anterior retinoblastoma are supposed to be cone precursor. Patients most commonly present with pseudouveitis, pseudohypopyon, and increased intraocular pressure. The retina under fundus examination is likely to be normal, and the clinical features mimic the inflammation progress, which can often lead to misdiagnosis. The published diffuse anterior retinoblastoma cases were diagnosed after fine-needle aspiration biopsy running the potential risk of inducing metastasis. The most common treatment for diffuse anterior retinoblastoma is enucleation followed by systematic chemotherapy according to the patient’s presentation and clinical course. This review summarizes the recent advances in etiology (including tumorigenesis and cell origin, pathology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and new treatment. The challenges of early diagnosis and prospects are also discussed. Keywords: pathology, microenvironment, treatment, diagnosis 

  17. Role of adenohypophyseal mixed cell-follicles in age estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa T

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we used paraffin-embedded human pituitary obtained from 248 autopsy cases and identified mixed cell follicles by the immunohistochemical method. We examined the number and size of the mixed cell follicles, and the ratio of each component cell of these follicles, in the anterior pituitary at various age groups. The number of follicles increased with age, and the size of the follicles also tended to enlarge with age. Statistical analysis showed that a high correlation existed between age and the number or the size of the mixed cell-follicles formed by various adenohypophyseal cells. In addition, when the proportions of the different cell types that formed the follicles were examined, sex differences were observed with aging for the GH cells, the PRL cells, and the gonadotroph (GTH cells, while no changes were observed with aging in both men and women for the ACTH cells and TSH cells. These results indicate that the number, size, and ratio of each component cell of follicles in the anterior pituitary are adequately applicable for the purpose of age estimation in routine forensic medicine.

  18. Spinogenesis and pruning in the anterior ventral inferotemporal cortex of the macaque monkey: an intracellular injection study of layer III pyramidal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy N. Elston

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cortical pyramidal cells grow and mature at different rates in visual, auditory and prefrontal cortex of the macaque monkey. In particular, differences across the areas have been reported in both the timing and magnitude of growth, branching, spinogenesis and pruning in the basal dendritic trees of cells in layer III. Presently available data suggest that these different growth profiles reflect the type of functions performed by these cells in the adult brain. However, to date, studies have focussed on only a relatively few cortical areas. In the present investigation we quantified the growth of the dendritic trees of layer III pyramidal cells in the anterior ventral portion of cytoarchitectonic area TE (TEav to better comprehend developmental trends in the cerebral cortex. We quantified the growth and branching of the dendrities, and spinogenesis and pruning of spines, from post-natal day 2 (PND2 to four and a half years of age. We found that the dendritic trees increase in size from PND2 to 7 months of age and thereafter become smaller. The dendritic trees became increasingly more branched from PND2 into adulthood. There was a 2-fold increase in the number of spines in the basal dendritic trees of pyramidal cells from PND2 to 3½ months of age and then a 10% net decrease in spine number into adulthood. Thus, the growth profile of layer III pyramidal cells in the anterior ventral portion of the inferotemporal cortex differs to that in other cortical areas associated with visual processing.

  19. Anterior Hypopituitarism is Rare and Autoimmune Disease is Common in Adults with Idiopathic Central Diabetes Insipidus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Objective: Central diabetes insipidus is a rare clinical condition with a heterogenous aetiology. Up to 40% of cases are classified as idiopathic, though many of these are thought to have an autoimmune basis. Published data has suggested that anterior hypopituitarism is common in childhood onset idiopathic diabetes insipidus. We aimed to assess the incidence of anterior hypopituitarism in a cohort of adult patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Design and Patients: We performed a retrospective review of the databases of two pituitary investigation units. This identified 39 patients with idiopathic diabetes insipidus. All had undergone MRI scanning and dynamic pituitary testing (either insulin tolerance testing or GHRH\\/arginine and short synacthen testing) to assess anterior pituitary function. Results: One patient had partial growth hormone deficiency; no other anterior pituitary hormonal deficits were found. 33% had at least one autoimmune disease in addition to central diabetes insipidus. Conclusions: Our data suggest that anterior hypopituitarism is rare in adult idiopathic diabetes insipidus. Routine screening of these patients for anterior hypopituitarism may not therefore be indicated. The significant prevalence of autoimmune disease in this cohort supports the hypothesis that idiopathic diabetes insipidus may have an autoimmune aetiology.

  20. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh;

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  1. Angiogenesis in Pituitary Adenomas: Human Studies and New Mutant Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of angiogenesis in pituitary tumor development has been questioned, as pituitary tumors have been usually found to be less vascularized than the normal pituitary tissue. Nevertheless, a significantly higher degree of vasculature has been shown in invasive or macropituitary prolactinomas when compared to noninvasive and microprolactinomas. Many growth factors and their receptors are involved in pituitary tumor development. For example, VEGF, FGF-2, FGFR1, and PTTG, which give a particular vascular phenotype, are modified in human and experimental pituitary adenomas of different histotypes. In particular, vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF, the central mediator of angiogenesis in endocrine glands, was encountered in experimental and human pituitary tumors at different levels of expression and, in particular, was higher in dopamine agonist resistant prolactinomas. Furthermore, several anti-VEGF techniques lowered tumor burden in human and experimental pituitary adenomas. Therefore, even though the role of angiogenesis in pituitary adenomas is contentious, VEGF, making permeable pituitary endothelia, might contribute to adequate temporal vascular supply and mechanisms other than endothelial cell proliferation. The study of angiogenic factor expression in aggressive prolactinomas with resistance to dopamine agonists will yield important data in the search of therapeutical alternatives.

  2. In1-ghrelin splicing variant is overexpressed in pituitary adenomas and increases their aggressive features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; Gahete, Manuel D; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Rincón-Fernández, David; Nelson, Richard; Beltrán, Manuel; de la Riva, Andrés; Japón, Miguel A; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Gálvez, Ma Ángeles; García-Arnés, Juan A; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Morgan, Jennifer; Tsomaia, Natia; Culler, Michael D; Dieguez, Carlos; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raúl M

    2015-03-04

    Pituitary adenomas comprise a heterogeneous subset of pathologies causing serious comorbidities, which would benefit from identification of novel, common molecular/cellular biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The ghrelin system has been linked to development of certain endocrine-related cancers. Systematic analysis of the presence and functional implications of some components of the ghrelin system, including native ghrelin, receptors and the recently discovered splicing variant In1-ghrelin, in human normal pituitaries (n = 11) and pituitary adenomas (n = 169) revealed that expression pattern of ghrelin system suffers a clear alteration in pituitary adenomasas compared with normal pituitary, where In1-ghrelin is markedly overexpressed. Interestingly, in cultured pituitary adenoma cells In1-ghrelin treatment (acylated peptides at 100 nM; 24-72 h) increased GH and ACTH secretion, Ca(2+) and ERK1/2 signaling and cell viability, whereas In1-ghrelin silencing (using a specific siRNA; 100 nM) reduced cell viability. These results indicate that an alteration of the ghrelin system, specially its In1-ghrelin variant, could contribute to pathogenesis of different pituitary adenomas types, and suggest that this variant and its related ghrelin system could provide new tools to identify novel, more general diagnostic, prognostic and potential therapeutic targets in pituitary tumors.

  3. [Effect of veralipride on the estral cycle, genital tract, mammary gland and pituitary gland in female rats (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchmann-Duplessis, H

    1980-10-15

    A study of the potential biological effects of veralipride was conducted in female rats. A definite stimulating action on the mammary gland was noted, but doses of 5 to 20 mg/kg/day are required to produce secretion, which is varying from one animal to another. Follicular maturation is preserved, though there is an increase in the number of corpora lutea with more marked development in some of them. Progesterone impregnation of the uterus occurs in a variable way and then only at doses of 5 + 0 20 mg/kg/day. Vaginal mucification, from a reduction in estrogen in relation to progesterone impregnation, is noted after 1 mg/kg/day (though 25 p. cent of the animals still demonstrate vaginal keratinization after 20 mg/kg/day). Finally, degranulation of the carminophile cells of the anterior pituitary gland, occurs after 5 mg/kg/day.

  4. Cytomorphology of metastatic pituitary carcinoma to the bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Christopher M; Lin, Xiaoqi

    2017-03-07

    Metastatic pituitary carcinoma to bone is rare. In this report, we present a case of a 59-year-old female with recurrent pituitary adenoma of the sparsely granulated somatotroph subtype with metastasis to a few bony sites 10 years later. Needle core biopsy (NCB) with touch preparations was performed on a 5 mm lesion in left ilium. Diff-Quik stained NCB touch preparation slides showed a few loosely cohesive epithelial polygonal cells that were arranged in nests or acini, or singly, had scant vacuolated cytoplasm and eccentrically located round nuclei (plasmacytoid) with slight nuclear pleomorphism, fine granular chromatin, conspicuous nucleoli, and smooth nuclear membrane. Trilineage hematopoietic cells of bone marrow were also appreciated in the background. H&E stained core sections showed fragments of bone and bone marrow with nests of bland epithelial cells with similar cytomorphology as seen in NCB touch preparation slides. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for juxtanuclear dot-like staining of pan-cytokeratin (CAM 5.2 and AE1/AE3) (a specific feature), neuroendocrine markers (CD56, synaptophysin, and chromogranin. Additionally, scattered cells were immunoreactive for growth hormone. Molecular test showed that tumor cells were negative for the promoter methylation of O-6-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase (MGMT). Final diagnosis of metastatic pituitary carcinoma was rendered. Morphology of metastatic pituitary carcinoma, its differential, clinical presentation and treatment were discussed. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal pituitary gland using ultrashort TE (UTE) pulse sequences (REV 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portman, Olivia; Flemming, Stephen; Cox, Jeremy P.D.; Johnston, Desmond G. [Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, St Mary' s Hospital, Endocrinology and Metabolic Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Bydder, Graeme M. [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the normal pituitary gland in male subjects with ultrashort echo time (TE) pulse sequences, describe its appearance and measure its signal intensity before and after contrast enhancement. Eleven male volunteers (mean age 57.1 years; range 36-81 years) were examined with a fat-suppressed ultrashort TE (= 0.08 ms) pulse sequence. The studies were repeated after the administration of intravenous gadodiamide. The MR scans were examined for gland morphology and signal intensity before and after enhancement. Endocrinological evaluation included baseline pituitary function tests and a glucagon stimulatory test to assess pituitary cortisol and growth hormone reserve. High signal intensity was observed in the anterior pituitary relative to the brain in nine of the 11 subjects. These regions involved the whole of the anterior pituitary in three subjects, were localised to one side in two examples and were seen inferiorly in three subjects. Signal intensities relative to the brain increased with age, with a peak around the sixth or seventh decade and decreasing thereafter. Overall, the pituitary function tests were considered to be within normal limits and did not correlate with pituitary gland signal intensity. The anterior pituitary shows increased signal intensity in normal subjects when examined with T{sub 1}-weighted ultrashort TE pulse sequences. The cause of this increased intensity is unknown, but fibrosis and iron deposition are possible candidates. The variation in signal intensity with age followed the temporal pattern of iron content observed at post mortem. No relationship with endocrine status was observed. (orig.)

  6. Xanthomatous Hypophysitis Mimicking a Pituitary Adenoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Aste

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypophysitis is an inflammatory disease of the pituitary gland that may mimic pituitary tumors clinically and radiologically. Case Description. We report a case of a xanthomatous hypophysitis initially diagnosed as pituitary adenoma. A 31-year-old woman presented with headache, diabetes insipidus, and amenorrhea. A head CT scan showed no intrasellar changes, while an MRI scan showed a sellar cystic mass. An endocrinological work up revealed mild hypocortisolism and diabetes insipidus (DI. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed. The intraoperative histological examination suggested a pituitary adenoma. The removed tissue showed central necrosis surrounded by accumulation of foamy cells and xanthomatous epithelioid cells. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery, Nevertheless, DI persisted and the adenohypophysis hypofunction did not recover. Conclusion. We describe an unusual inflammatory lesion of the pituitary gland mimicking an adenoma. A high level of clinical suspicion of inflammatory disorders is necessary for correct diagnosis and optimal management.

  7. Clinical features and differential diagnosis of pituitary tumours with emphasis on acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, J V; Jackson, I M

    1995-04-01

    Pituitary adenomas are frequently encountered, benign intracranial tumours. Clinically classified according to their capacity to produce and secrete hormones, pituitary tumours are diagnosed from the clinical manifestations and biochemical findings of specific pituitary hormone overproduction or of impaired pituitary function due to pressure on normal pituitary cells, the pituitary stalk or the hypothalamus. Additionally, the tumour may result in neurological manifestations due to its effect as an intracranial space-occupying lesion. Pituitary adenomas may present acutely with pituitary apoplexy after intrapituitary haemorrhage or infarction. The subsequent hypofunction of the pituitary with concomitant neurological sequelae of an expanding intracranial mass are often associated with excruciating headache, diplopia and visual field defects. Gradually developing neurological deficits or secondary endocrine failure over several years may precede the recognition of non-secretory tumours (30-40% of pituitary adenomas) as well as some of the hormone-producing adenomas, especially when they expand beyond the confines of the sella turcica. Asymptomatic masses occur in the pituitary in 5-27% of unselected autopsy series. About 10-20% of pituitaries imaged as part of a brain study contain lesions 'consistent with a pituitary adenoma', with about half being pituitary adenomas ('incidentalomas'). Many advocate screening such cases for a wide spectrum of pituitary function abnormalities. Clinical judgement should be utilized to determine the extent of the work-up and the frequency of follow-up. Acromegaly, a clinical syndrome caused by excess growth hormone secretion, accounts for one-sixth of resected pituitary tumours. This disorder leads to chronic progressive disability and a shortened life span, with approximately 50% of untreated acromegalic patients experiencing premature death. The prevalence of acromegaly has been estimated to range from 50 to 70 per million, with the

  8. Hypothalamic, pituitary and thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy to the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samaan, N.A.; Vieto, R.; Schultz, P.N.; Maor, M.; Meoz, R.T.; Sampiere, V.A.; Cangir, A.; Ried, H.L.; Jesse, R.H. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    One hundred-ten patients who had nasopharyngeal cancer and paranasal sinus tumors and were free of the primary disease were studied one to 26 years following radiotherapy. There were 70 males and 40 females ranging in age from 4 to 75 years, with a mean age of 36.5 years. During therapy both the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland were in the field of irradiation. The radiation dose to the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland was estimated to be 400 to 7500 rad with a median dose of 5618 rad to the anterior pituitary gland and a median dose of 5000 rad to the hypothalamus. We found evidence of endocrine deficiencies in 91 of the 110 patients studied. Seventy-six patients showed evidence of one or more hypothalamic lesions and 43 patients showed evidence of primary pituitary deficiency. Forty of the 66 patients who received radiotherapy to the neck for treatment or prevention of lymph node metastasis showed evidence of primary hypothyroidism. The range of the dose to the thyroid area was 3000 to 8800 rad with a median of 5000 rad. One young adult woman who developed galactorrhea and amenorrhea 2 years following radiotherapy showed a high serum prolactin level, but had normal anterior pituitary function and sella turcica. She regained her menses and had a normal pregnancy and delivery following bromocriptine therapy. These results indicate that endocrine deficiencies after radiotherapy for tumors of the head and neck are common and should be detected early and treated. Long-term follow-up of these patients is indicated since complications may appear after the completion of radiotherapy.

  9. Cyclic adenosine 3'-5'-monophosphate (cAMP) exerts proliferative and anti-proliferative effects in pituitary cells of different types by activating both cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, E; Peverelli, E; Giardino, E; Locatelli, M; Lasio, G B; Beck-Peccoz, P; Spada, A; Lania, A G; Mantovani, G

    2014-03-05

    In the pituitary the activation of cyclic adenosine 3'-5'-monophosphate (cAMP) dependent pathways generates proliferative signals in somatotrophs, whereas in pituitary cells of other lineages its effect remains uncertain. Moreover, the specific role of the two main cAMP effectors, protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac), has not been defined. Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cAMP on pituitary adenomatous cells proliferation and to identify PKA and Epac differential involvement. We found that cAMP increased DNA synthesis and cyclin D1 expression in somatotropinomas, whereas it reduced both parameters in prolactinomas and nonfunctioning adenomas, these effects being replicated in corresponding cell lines. Moreover, the divergent cAMP effects were mimicked by Epac and PKA analogs, which activated Rap1 and CREB, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated that cAMP exerted opposite effects on different pituitary cell types proliferation, these effects being mediated by both Epac and PKA.

  10. Heterogeneity of secretory granules of silent pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1988-01-01

    Silent pituitary adenomas were compared with hormonally active tumors taking into account the size, number, and ultrastructural characteristics of secretory granules (SG). The study group (a total of 79 primary pituitary adenomas) comprised 27 silent, 21 growth hormone (GH)-producing-, 16 prolactin...... (PRL)-producing-, 5 GH-PRL-producing- and 10 adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing adenomas. The SG of silent adenomas were significantly smaller than SG in endocrine active adenomas. All hormonally inactive tumors also contained small (mean, 94 nm) specific cytoplasmic granules, designated...... approximately 10 to 50% of the granules in each cell. These granules were not seen in hormonally active tumors and considered therefore diagnostic of silent pituitary adenomas....

  11. Study on the clinical relativity of glial cell growth factor and prolactin pituitary tumor%胶质细胞生长因子与泌乳素垂体瘤的临床相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永军; 高翔; 刘吉祥; 李建华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨胶质细胞生长因子(GGF)与泌乳素垂体瘤临床的相关性,并分析其预测临床复发的价值。方法研究对象为本院收治的71例泌乳素垂体瘤(PRL )患者,采用免疫组织化学检测GGF在肿瘤组织中的表达情况,分析GGF表达水平与PRL水平、肿瘤大小、微血管密度(MVD)及肿瘤侵袭性的关系,并进一步分析GGF表达水平与泌乳素垂体腺瘤复发的临床联系,最后采用多因素Cox生存风险模型寻求可能的预后影响因素。结果不同PRL水平、肿瘤大小、M VD及肿瘤侵袭性的患者其GGF表达水平也具有明显差异,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);3年无复发生存分析显示,GGF高表达组患者的3年无复发生存率(71.4%)和生存期(28.0±2.2)个月均明显低于低表达GGF组88.9%和(32.8±1.5)个月,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);多因素Cox生存风险模型分析提示GGF可能是预测泌乳素垂体瘤患者复发预后的独立生物学指标( P<0.05)。结论 GGF与泌乳素垂体瘤患者临床基线资料密切相关,且可能成为预测患者复发预后的重要生物学指标。%Objective To explore clinical relevance of the glial cell growth factor (GGF) and pro‐lactin pituitary tumor ,and to analyze clinical value of its predicting recurrence .Methods Research ob‐ject for the records of 71 cases in our hospital ,prolactin (PRL ) of pituitary adenoma patients using immunohistochemical detection GGF expression in tumor tissue ,analysis GGF expression level and the level of PRL ,tumor size ,microvascular density (MVD) and the relationship between tumor invasive , and further analysis GGF expression level and prolactin pituitary adenoma recurrence of clinical rela‐tion ,finally using multiariable Cox survival risk model for possible prognostic factors .Results The dif‐ferent levels of PRL ,tumor size ,tumor MVD and expression level

  12. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in pituitary tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Patnaik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is the bleeding into the subarachnoid space containing cerebrospinal fluid. The most common cause of SAH is trauma. Rupture of aneurysms, vascular anomalies, tumor bleeds and hypertension are other important etiologies. SAH in the setting of pituitary tumor can result from various causes. It can be due to intrinsic tumor related pathology, injury to surrounding the vessel during the operative procedure or due to an associated aneurysm. We discuss the pathological mechanisms and review relevant literature related to this interesting phenomenon. Early and accurate diagnosis of the cause of the SAH in pituitary tumors is important, as this influences the management.

  13. Unusual mixed gangliocytoma-pituitary adenoma in sellar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-tian JIN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The presence of ganglion cells within an endocrine pituitary adenoma in sellar region is rare, and is usually diagnosed as "mixed gangliocytoma-pituitary adenoma". Due to lack of radiological characteristics, it is very difficult to make an accurate diagnosis preoperatively. Herein we describe one case of unusual mixed gangliocytoma - growth hormone (GH secreting pituitary adenoma in sellar region and review related literatures, so as to summarize the clinicopathological characteristics and improve the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this tumor. Methods and Results A 28 - year - old female presented with headache and blurred vision for 8 months. She also complained of acromegaly and amenorrhea. Head CT and MRI examinations showed a sellar and suprasellar mass with clear boundary compressing the optic chiasm and buttom of the third ventricle. The mass exhibited isointense signal or mild hypointensity on T1WI and mild hyperintensity on T2WI with heterogeneous enhancement on the contrast MRI. The tumor was removed totally. The histological sections demonstrated two parts of intermixed areas. One part of areas was marked by a proliferation of scattered gangliocyte - like cells arranged in a fibrillary background. Other areas were marked by a sheet - like or locally papillary proliferation of round and oval cells. Immunohistochemically, cytoplasm of gangliocyte-cells were diffusely positive for synaptophysin (Syn, and negative for adenohypophysial hormones; cytoplasm of round and oval cells were diffusely positive for Syn, and almost 30% cells were positive for GH, and negative for other neurohypophysial hormones. A final diagnosis of mixed gangliocytoma-GH secreting pituitary adenoma in sellar region (WHO grade Ⅰ was made. The patient did not receive postoperatively adjuvant therapy and was followed-up for one year, without any neurological deficit or signs of recurrence. Conclusions Mixed gangliocytoma - pituitary

  14. BIM-23A760 influences key functional endpoints in pituitary adenomas and normal pituitaries: molecular mechanisms underlying the differential response in adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; López-Sánchez, Laura M; Gahete, Manuel D; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Vázquez-Borrego, Mari C; Gálvez, María A; de la Riva, Andrés; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Jiménez-Reina, Luis; Moreno-Carazo, Alberto; Tinahones, Francisco J; Maraver-Selfa, Silvia; Japón, Miguel A; García-Arnés, Juan A; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Webb, Susan M; Kineman, Rhonda D; Culler, Michael D; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raúl M

    2017-02-09

    Chimeric somatostatin/dopamine compounds such as BIM-23A760, an sst2/sst5/D2 receptors-agonist, have emerged as promising new approaches to treat pituitary adenomas. However, information on direct in vitro effects of BIM-23A760 in normal and tumoral pituitaries remains incomplete. The objective of this study was to analyze BIM-23A760 effects on functional parameters (Ca(2+) signaling, hormone expression/secretion, cell viability and apoptosis) in pituitary adenomas (n = 74), and to compare with the responses of normal primate and human pituitaries (n = 3-5). Primate and human normal pituitaries exhibited similar sst2/sst5/D2 expression patterns, wherein BIM-23A760 inhibited the expression/secretion of several pituitary hormones (specially GH/PRL), which was accompanied by increased sst2/sst5/D2 expression in primates and decreased Ca(2+) concentration in human cells. In tumoral pituitaries, BIM-23A760 also inhibited Ca(2+) concentration, hormone secretion/expression and proliferation. However, BIM-23A760 elicited stimulatory effects in a subset of GHomas, ACTHomas and NFPAs in terms of Ca(2+) signaling and/or hormone secretion, which was associated with the relative somatostatin/dopamine-receptors levels, especially sst5 and sst5TMD4. The chimeric sst2/sst5/D2 compound BIM-23A760 affects multiple, clinically relevant parameters on pituitary adenomas and may represent a valuable therapeutic tool. The relative ssts/D2 expression profile, particularly sst5 and/or sst5TMD4 levels, might represent useful molecular markers to predict the ultimate response of pituitary adenomas to BIM-23A760.

  15. BIM-23A760 influences key functional endpoints in pituitary adenomas and normal pituitaries: molecular mechanisms underlying the differential response in adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Costa, Alejandro; López-Sánchez, Laura M.; Gahete, Manuel D.; Rivero-Cortés, Esther; Vázquez-Borrego, Mari C.; Gálvez, María A.; de la Riva, Andrés; Venegas-Moreno, Eva; Jiménez-Reina, Luis; Moreno-Carazo, Alberto; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Maraver-Selfa, Silvia; Japón, Miguel A.; García-Arnés, Juan A.; Soto-Moreno, Alfonso; Webb, Susan M.; Kineman, Rhonda D.; Culler, Michael D.; Castaño, Justo P.; Luque, Raúl M.

    2017-01-01

    Chimeric somatostatin/dopamine compounds such as BIM-23A760, an sst2/sst5/D2 receptors-agonist, have emerged as promising new approaches to treat pituitary adenomas. However, information on direct in vitro effects of BIM-23A760 in normal and tumoral pituitaries remains incomplete. The objective of this study was to analyze BIM-23A760 effects on functional parameters (Ca2+ signaling, hormone expression/secretion, cell viability and apoptosis) in pituitary adenomas (n = 74), and to compare with the responses of normal primate and human pituitaries (n = 3–5). Primate and human normal pituitaries exhibited similar sst2/sst5/D2 expression patterns, wherein BIM-23A760 inhibited the expression/secretion of several pituitary hormones (specially GH/PRL), which was accompanied by increased sst2/sst5/D2 expression in primates and decreased Ca2+ concentration in human cells. In tumoral pituitaries, BIM-23A760 also inhibited Ca2+ concentration, hormone secretion/expression and proliferation. However, BIM-23A760 elicited stimulatory effects in a subset of GHomas, ACTHomas and NFPAs in terms of Ca2+ signaling and/or hormone secretion, which was associated with the relative somatostatin/dopamine-receptors levels, especially sst5 and sst5TMD4. The chimeric sst2/sst5/D2 compound BIM-23A760 affects multiple, clinically relevant parameters on pituitary adenomas and may represent a valuable therapeutic tool. The relative ssts/D2 expression profile, particularly sst5 and/or sst5TMD4 levels, might represent useful molecular markers to predict the ultimate response of pituitary adenomas to BIM-23A760. PMID:28181484

  16. 无功能性垂体腺瘤围手术期内分泌水平的变化及诊断进展%Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas perioperative endocrine levels and diagnostic progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彪; 田君; 王守森

    2014-01-01

    无功能性垂体腺瘤起源于垂体前叶上皮细胞,约占垂体腺瘤的1/3,大多数患者临床表现为头痛、视物模糊。但是部分患者术前及术后出现垂体功能减退。肿瘤对门静脉及垂体柄的压迫导致垂体前叶缺血坏死是引起垂体功能低下的主要机制,术中操作、肿瘤大小及残留都可导致新发垂体功能低下。术前主要以生长激素缺乏为主,而术后出现各个激素轴的改变。垂体功能减退容易被忽视,仅靠激素基础值的检测诊断远远不够,必要时需行刺激试验确诊。一旦明确垂体功能减退,充足的激素替代治疗能够提高患者的生活质量。%Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas originate in the epithelial cells of the anterior pituitary, which accounts for about 1/3 of pituitary adenomas .The most common clinical symptoms in patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas are headache and visual changes .Some patients present hypopituitarism pre-or postoperation .Portal vein and pituitary stalk are compressed by adenomas and cause ischemic necrosis of the anterior pituitary , which is the main mechanism of hypopituitarism .Growth hormone deficiency is the mainly manifestation in the preoperation , the various hormone axis change in the postoperation .Hypopituitarism is often overlook easily , hormone-based detection and diagnosis alone is not enough, the stimulation test is needed when necessary .Once hypopituitarism is confirmed, adequate hormone replacement therapy can improve the quality of life of patients .

  17. Hypothalamic-Pituitary Function in Brain Death: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair-Collins, Michael; Northrup, Jesse; Olcese, James

    2016-01-01

    The Uniform Determination of Death Act (UDDA) states that an individual is dead when "all functions of the entire brain" have ceased irreversibly. However, it has been questioned whether some functions of the hypothalamus, particularly osmoregulation, can continue after the clinical diagnosis of brain death (BD). In order to learn whether parts of the hypothalamus can continue to function after the diagnosis of BD, we performed 2 separate systematic searches of the MEDLINE database, corresponding to the functions of the posterior and anterior pituitary. No meta-analysis is possible due to nonuniformity in the clinical literature. However, some modest generalizations can reasonably be drawn from a narrative review and from anatomic considerations that explain why these findings should be expected. We found evidence suggesting the preservation of hypothalamic function, including secretion of hypophysiotropic hormones, responsiveness to anterior pituitary stimulation, and osmoregulation, in a substantial proportion of patients declared dead by neurological criteria. We discuss several possible explanations for these findings. We conclude by suggesting that additional clinical research with strict inclusion criteria is necessary and further that a more nuanced and forthright public dialogue is needed, particularly since standard diagnostic practices and the UDDA may not be entirely in accord.

  18. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome.

  19. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF THE PITUITARY METASTASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连伟; 任祖渊; 苏长保

    2004-01-01

    Thee cases of pituitary metastases were reported. They all had operations and the pathological examination confirming the diagnosis. The clinical features of diabetes insipidus and extraocular nerve palsy were presented. In two cases, the original tumors were bronchioloalveolar carcinoma; in the other one, the original tumor was unknown. All three cases had poor outcome. These cases illustrate the fact that a pituitary metastasis can closely mimic a pituitary benign tumor, such as pituitary adenoma. Especially in the presence of suggestive symptoms such as diabetes insipidus and/or cranical nerve paralysis, the possibility of metastatic disease in the differential diagnosis of a pituitary mass should always be considered.

  20. Imaging of the pituitary and sella turcica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Avi

    2006-09-01

    The pituitary gland is housed in the sella turcica and has vital endocrinologic functions. It lies in close proximity to numerous vital structures, including the optic chiasm, sphenoid sinus, cavernous sinus and hypothalamus. An understanding of the function, anatomy and embryology of the pituitary gland and its surrounding structures is vital to understanding its normal appearance, as well as in evaluating the broad spectrum of pathology that can involve the pituitary gland. Imaging of pathology in the sellar region, including pituitary adenomas, meningiomas, craniopharyngiomas and aneurysms, plays an important role in guiding treatment decisions. Modern imaging techniques are also important in evaluating the pituitary gland after surgery.

  1. Computed tomography in pituitary abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, W.; Scharphuis, T.; Distelmaier, P.

    1986-06-01

    This is a report on a rare case of a recurring abscess in the pituitary gland. Diagnosis was extremely difficult to establish preoperatively. This is demonstrated via various radiological methods. Anamnesis and clinical disease pattern are important assisting factors in diagnosis.

  2. Sella turcica morphology and the pituitary gland--a new contribution to craniofacial diagnostics based on histology and neuroradiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger

    2012-01-01

    The present review summarizes two decades of published and unpublished studies on normal and pathological development of sella turcica and pituitary gland in humans. The pathological conditions are studied in known genotype deviations, syndromes, and other malformations. The studies include....... Malformations in the pituitary gland were observed in several cases. For diagnostic purposes, the review distinguishes between deviations in the anterior wall and in the posterior wall of the sella turcica. Deviations in the anterior wall seem to be associated with deviations specifically in the frontonasal......, varying from mild to severe phenotype. The malformation in the sella turcica/pituitary gland can be associated with a malformation within a developmental field that forms the craniofacial region (frontonasal, maxillary, palatal, and mandibular fields), sometimes also involving the brain stem, thymus...

  3. Outcome of visual acuity after surgical removal of pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grković Desanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pituitary adenomas with suprasellar extension may produce anterior visual pathway compression, resulting in characteristic visual deficit. Surgical decompression of these structures prevents further visual deterioration and its postop­ erative recovery. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate pre­ and postoperative visual acuity (VA in patients with pituitary ad­ enomas, and to detect the influence of prognostic factors, such as symptoms duration, degree of visual acuity reduction and tumor size in the assessment of the prognosis of postoperative visual function. Methods. We analyzed 40 consecutive patients who fulfilled three criteria: evidence of preoperative visual dysfunction, transsphenoidal or transfrontal tumor resection and hystologically verified pituitary adenoma. A visual examination was performed under standard conditions, pre and postoperatively (10 days, one month and six months after surgery. A paired t­test was used to assess the differences of pre­ and postoperative characteristics values, and the Chisquare test of independence in the assessment of the influence of prognostic factors. Results. Postoperative improvement of VA was seen in 84.61% patients (68% eyes. Eyes with preoperative mild and moderate degree of VA reduction showed improvement in 89.65% eyes in contrast to 22.60% eyes with preoperative severe reduction of VA, which was all statistically significant. Eyes in patients with tumor smaller than 20 mm had improvement of VA in 91.66% eyes, while eyes with tumor larger than 40 mm had improvement of VA in 61.11% eyes, which was statistically significant. When symptoms duration was below two years the improvement of VA was detected in 65.38% eyes as related to 50% eyes with symptoms duration exceeding two years, which was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Pituitary adenomas commonly cause visual impairment. Postoperatively the majority of patients show a distinct improvement of

  4. [Two autopsy cases of primary pituitary carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, K; Suzuki, T; Masuda, Y; Masugi, Y; Teramoto, A; Ohama, E

    1988-05-01

    We studied two autopsy cases of primary pituitary carcinoma. Case-1. A 45 year old female was admitted on Oct. 4 1978, with a complaint of right homonymous hemianopsia. And diagnosis was pituitary adenoma. Partial removal of pituitary tumor was performed on Oct. 23 1978. She died on Dec. 5 1978 due to bleeding of gastrointestinal tract. Autopsy disclosed a pituitary carcinoma invading the left hypothalamus, mamillary body, optic and V cranial nerves, and mid brain as well as sphenoid bone. No extracranial metastasis was noted. Case-2. A 44 year old female with a history of acromegaly for 6 years was admitted with a complaint of headache on May 8 1976. She was diagnosed as having pituitary adenoma. The subtotal removal of pituitary tumor was performed on May 21 1976 and followed by 4500 rad irradiation. At this time, pathological diagnosis was eosinophilic adenoma. Seven years later, she complained of progressive right hearing disturbance, dysarthria and ataxic gait 1983. The second subtotal removal of pituitary tumor was performed with a diagnosis of recurrence of pituitary adenoma on Oct. 7 1983. After the operation, she complicated sepsis and died on Jan. 14 1984. An autopsy disclosed a pituitary carcinoma from residual pituitary gland, continuously extending to the subarachnoid space of the pons, and invading right cerebello-pontine angle and cerebellum. The histological examination revealed pituitary carcinoma with high pleomorphism and glioblastoma multiform-like feature were within the tumor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Drainage or Packing of the Sella? Transsphenoidal Surgery for Primary Pituitary Abscess: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichi Oya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The detailed surgical procedure of the transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary abscess has scarcely been described previously because it is a very rare clinical entity. The authors reported two cases of primary pituitary abscess. In case 1, the anterior wall of the sella turcica was reconstructed with the vomer bone after irrigating the abscess cavity, but the sella was not packed by fat for fear of the persistent infection by devascularized tissues. This led to the postoperative meningocele, the cerebrospinal fluid leak, and bacterial meningitis despite the successful abscess drainage. In case 2, tight sellar packing and reconstruction of the sellar wall were performed to avoid these postoperative complications, which resulted in complete drainage and uneventful postoperative course. Although accumulation of more cases is obviously needed to establish the definitive surgical technique in pituitary abscess surgery, our experience might suggest that packing of the sella is not impeditive for postoperative sufficient drainage.

  6. Pituitary apoplexy presenting with anorexia and hyponatraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yosuke; Nakata, Kenji; Suzuki, Kenichi; Ando, Yasuyo

    2015-04-09

    Pituitary apoplexy, a syndrome caused by haemorrhage into the pituitary gland, typically manifests as sudden severe headache, visual symptoms and hypopituitarism, including adrenal insufficiency. We report a case of a 65-year-old man with adrenal insufficiency due to pituitary apoplexy presenting with anorexia following temporal headache and diagnosed through evaluation for hyponatraemia. MRI focusing on the pituitary gland helped to confirm the diagnosis. Our experience serves as a useful reminder of this atypical presentation of pituitary apoplexy, also known as 'subclinical pituitary apoplexy,' and underscores the importance of careful evaluation for hyponatraemia using serial urine osmolality, which is useful to distinguish hypovolaemic hyponatraemia from euvolaemic hyponatraemia. Clinicians should consider pituitary apoplexy as a differential diagnosis in cases of anorexia, loss of energy or hyponatraemia, following headache even when the patient is lacking classical symptoms such as severe headache or visual symptoms.

  7. Somatostatin receptor biology in neuroendocrine and pituitary tumours: part 1 – molecular pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Mehtap; Dworakowska, Dorota; Grossman, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) may occur at many sites in the body although the majority occur within the gastroenteropancreatic axis. Non-gastroenteropancreatic NETs encompass phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, medullary thyroid carcinoma, anterior pituitary tumour, broncho-pulmonary NETs and parathyroid tumours. Like most endocrine tumours, NETs also express somatostatin (SST) receptors (subtypes 1–5) whose ligand SST is known to inhibit endocrine and exocrine secretions and have anti-tumour effects. In the light of this knowledge, the idea of using SST analogues in the treatment of NETs has become increasingly popular and new studies have centred upon the development of new SST analogues. We attempt to review SST receptor (SSTR) biology primarily in neuroendocrine tissues, focusing on pituitary tumours. A full data search was performed through PubMed over the years 2000–2009 with keywords ‘somatostatin, molecular biology, somatostatin receptors, somatostatin signalling, NET, pituitary’ and all relevant publications have been included, together with selected publications prior to that date. SSTR signalling in non-neuroendocrine solid tumours is beyond the scope of this review. SST is a potent anti-proliferative and anti-secretory agent for some NETs. The successful therapeutic use of SST analogues in the treatment of these tumours depends on a thorough understanding of the diverse effects of SSTR subtypes in different tissues and cell types. Further studies will focus on critical points of SSTR biology such as homo- and heterodimerization of SSTRs and the differences between post-receptor signalling pathways of SSTR subtypes. PMID:20629989

  8. Transcriptome-wide identification of preferentially expressed genes in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny eSt-Amand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify preferentially expressed genes in the central endocrine organs of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, we generated transcriptome-wide mRNA profiles of the mouse hypothalamus, pituitary gland and parietal cortex using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE. Total counts of SAGE tags for the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and parietal cortex were 165824, 126688 and 161045 tags, respectively. This represented 59244, 45151 and 55131 distinct tags, respectively. Comparison of these mRNA profiles revealed that 22 mRNA species, including three potential novel transcripts, were preferentially expressed in the hypothalamus. In addition to well-known hypothalamic transcripts, such as hypocretin, several genes involved in hormone function, intracellular transduction, metabolism, protein transport, steroidogenesis, extracellular matrix and brain disease were identified as preferentially expressed hypothalamic transcripts. In the pituitary gland, 106 mRNA species, including 60 potential novel transcripts, were preferentially expressed. In addition to well-known pituitary genes, such as growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone beta, a number of genes classified to function in transport, amino acid metabolism, intracellular transduction, cell adhesion, disulfide bond formation, stress response, transcription, protein synthesis and turnover, cell differentiation, the cell cycle and in the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix were also preferentially expressed. In conclusion, the current study identified not only well-known hypothalamic and pituitary transcripts but also a number of new candidates likely to be involved in endocrine homeostatic systems regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

  9. β-Adrenoceptor activation enhances L-type calcium channel currents in anterior piriform cortex pyramidal cells of neonatal mice: implication for odor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhinaba; Mukherjee, Bandhan; Chen, Xihua; Yuan, Qi

    2017-03-01

    Early odor preference learning occurs in one-week-old rodents when a novel odor is paired with a tactile stimulation mimicking maternal care. β-Adrenoceptors and L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC) are critically involved in this learning. However, whether β-adrenoceptors interact directly with LTCCs in aPC pyramidal cells is unknown. Here we show that pyramidal cells expressed significant LTCC currents that declined with age. β-Adrenoceptor activation via isoproterenol age-dependently enhanced LTCC currents. Nifedipine-sensitive, isoproterenol enhancement of calcium currents was only observed in post-natal day 7-10 mice. APC β-adrenoceptor activation induced early odor preference learning was blocked by nifedipine coinfusion.

  10. Pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas develop in old mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both growth hormone and prolactin, by 8 months of age. We now report for the first time that old GRH-transgenic m......-transgenic mice, 16 to 24 months of age, develop pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas. These findings provide conclusive evidence that protracted stimulation of secretory activity can cause proliferation, hyperplasia and adenoma of adenohypophysial cells....

  11. Pituitary tumor evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertson, B.; Binney, S.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes research on the following: the structure of {sup 10}B{sub 10}-ovine corticotropin releasing hormone and {sup 10}B{sub 10}-growth hormone releasing hormone; the BNCT effect on AtT-20 cell {sup 10}B{sub 10}-CRH incubations in vitro; BNCT effects on GH{sub 4}C{sub 1} cell {sup 10}B{sub 10} growth hormone releasing factor incubation in vitro; and competitive inhibition of AtT-20 cell BNCT effect.

  12. Visual outcome after fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy of benign anterior skull base tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astradsson, Arnar; Wiencke, Anne Katrine; Munck af Rosenschold, Per;

    2014-01-01

    skull base meningiomas and 55 patients treated with FSRT for pituitary adenomas between January 1999 and December 2009 with at least 2 years follow-up were included. Patients were followed up prospectively with magnetic resonance imaging scans, visual acuity and visual field examinations. RION was found...... in four (10%) patients with anterior skull base meningiomas and seven patients (13%) with pituitary adenomas. The five-year actuarial freedom from 25% RION visual field loss was 94% following FSRT. Actuarial 2-, 5- and 10-year tumor control rates were 100, 88.4 and 64.5% for anterior skull base...... meningiomas and 100, 98.2 and 94.9% for pituitary adenomas, respectively. Patients with an impaired visual field function pre-FSRT were more likely to experience worsened function (p = 0.016). We found that RION, was a relatively uncommon event, in a large prospective cohort of patients that were...

  13. Somatostatin receptor biology in neuroendocrine and pituitary tumours: part 1 – molecular pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Cakir, Mehtap; Dworakowska, Dorota; Grossman, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) may occur at many sites in the body although the majority occur within the gastroenteropancreatic axis. Non-gastroenteropancreatic NETs encompass phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas, medullary thyroid carcinoma, anterior pituitary tumour, broncho-pulmonary NETs and parathyroid tumours. Like most endocrine tumours, NETs also express somatostatin (SST) receptors (subtypes 1–5) whose ligand SST is known to inhibit endocrine and exocrine secretions and hav...

  14. Toxic effects of methoxychlor administered subcutaneously on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, A; Cabaleiro, T; Caride, A; Esquifino, A I

    2008-05-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of methoxychlor MTX at the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in adult male rats. This global objective comprises three major aims: (1) to analyze the possible differential MTX effects in norepinephrine and serotonin concentration an in serotoninergic metabolism in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus and median eminence; (2) to evaluate effects induced by MTX exposure on gonadotropins and testosterone; 93 to elucidate whether the regulatory interactions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis are modified by this pesticide. Animals were administered subcutaneously 25mg/kg/day of MTX for 1 month. MTX increased norepinephrine and serotonin content in anterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.05), but decreased serotonin concentration in posterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.05). MTX diminished serotonin turnover in anterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.01) and decreased plasma LH (P < or = 0.001) and testosterone (P < or = 0.05) levels but those of FSH remained unmodified. We can conclude that MTX exposure: (1) could exert differential effects in norepinephrine and serotonin concentration an in serotoninergic metabolism in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus and median eminence, being the anterior hypothalamus the most sensitive region to the pesticide; (2) could inhibit LH and testosterone secretion without changing FSH; (3) four potential pathways might be involved in MTX effects on testosterone secretion (changing LH secretion; modifying serotonin and norepinephrine at the hypothalamic level; alterating the direct neural pathway between brain and testes; and/or by a direct effect in testes).

  15. Computed tomography of pituitary microadenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung-Il; Katto, Keiichi; Tanaka, Teruhiko; Kosaka, Shiro; Kaimori, Mitsuhiro (Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan))

    1983-08-01

    Thirteen pituitary microadenomas detected by Delta Scan 2020 are presented, and their CT findings are analyzed in points of size, shape, limit, density and contrast enhancement. All are demonstrated as a round, well defined and homogeneous mass, and are enhanced by contrast medium. The average size is 6.2 by 7.6 mm in diameter. Two of them are prolactinoma, and are treated by Bromocriptine. The prolactinomas vanished on CT scan, 6 months after administration of Bromocriptine. Eleven of them are nonfunctioning. Five are operated and the others are followed by CT scan. In detection of pituitary microadenoma, overlapping scanning with thin-slice is necessary and coronal scanning is often helpful. The adenoma greater than 5 mm in diameter may be detectable.

  16. Combined chronic lymphocytic leukemia and prolactinoma: a rare occurrence in a patient presenting with pituitary apoplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisht, Khaled M; Palmer, Cheryl A; Couldwell, William T

    2013-10-01

    The authors describe a rare case of combined pituitary chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and prolactinoma in a 77-year-old man presenting with apoplexy. This case highlights the importance of evaluating the pituitary gland in patients with CLL who present with clinical manifestations of apoplexy as well as the need to carefully evaluate pathological specimens from the gland for the presence of lymphocytic cells in those patients. This is the first reported case of a combined CLL-prolactinoma pituitary lesion presenting with apoplexy.

  17. Rheumatic manifestations of pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, S; Kleinberg, D L

    2001-10-01

    Pituitary tumors may cause rheumatologic problems as a result of under production or overproduction of one pituitary hormone. Excessive growth hormone causes destruction of cartilage by a direct action. Facial and acral changes and arthralgias may be some of the first symptoms of acromegaly. The arthritis associated with acromegaly is often devastating. Carpal tunnel syndrome is very common in patients with acromegaly. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) has indirect effects via the action of glucocorticoid on bones, muscles, and the immune system. Proximal muscle weakness is a characteristic feature of Cushing's syndrome. Patients with Cushing's syndrome commonly have osteopenia and osteoporosis that lead to an increase in bone fractures. Avascular necrosis is associated with exogenous steroid administration. The effects of too much glucocorticoid or too rapid withdrawal can be severe. Gonadotropins act via the gonadal steroids and protect bone mass from loss. Prolactin is less involved in rheumatologic disease; the data for which are limited in humans. Pituitary tumors can have manifestations similar to rheumatologic disorders and should be included in the differential diagnosis of these diseases.

  18. Primary hypothyroidism presenting as pituitary hyperplasia with hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ling YAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the histological characteristics, immunohistochemical phenotypes, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of one case of primary hypothyroidism presenting as pituitary hyperplasia concurrent with hyperprolactinemia.  Methods and Results A 29-year-old female presented menoxenia for one year, galactorrhea for 3 months, and headache for one week. Head MRI demonstrated a sellar space-occcupying lesion and a pituitary adenoma was suspected. Therefore, the patient underwent an exploratory surgery via transnasal-sphenoidal approach under general anesthesia. During the surgery the lesion was located in the right side of sella turcica. It was hard, tough and gray with poor blood supply. Under optical microscopy, the acinar cells showed a diffuse hyperplasia, with focal nodular expansion. The boundary between hyperplastic and normal acinus was ill-defined. By using immunohistochemical staining, the hyperplastic cells were diffusely positive for synaptophysin (Syn and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, partially positive for prolactin (PRL, and negative for thyoid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1. Lymphocytes were scatteredly positive for leukocyte common antigen (LCA. Ki-67 labeling index was less than 1%. Pathological diagnosis was pituitary hyperplasia. The final clinical diagnosis was hypothyroidism. The patient took levothyroxine sodium (Euthyrox 100 μg/d continously, and was well during the 13-month follow-up.  Conclusions Preopertive diagnosis of pituitary hyperplasia is difficult.Definite diagnosis could be made by clinical history, typical histopathological characteristics and immunohistochemical phenotypes. Differential diagnosis from pituitary adenoma, especially microadenoma, should be paid attention. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.04.009

  19. Sellar lesion: Not always a pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Shalinee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory lesions of the hypophysis account for 0.5% of all symptomatic diseases of the pituitary, which include lymphocytic hypophysitis, granulomatous hypophysitis with or without specific etiology and pituitary abscess. Sellar tuberculoma is a rare type of granulomatous hypophysitis. We document a case of a postmenopausal lady who presented with galactorrhea, headache and blurring of vision. Based on preliminary investigations, a clinical diagnosis of pituitary adenoma was made and the pituitary gland was surgically excised. Histopathological examination showed caseating granulomas, along with normal areas of preserved pituitary gland and a final diagnosis of tuberculous hypophysitis was made. This case is being documented due to the extremely rare involvement of the pituitary gland by granulomatous lesions such as tuberculosis and to emphasize the role of intraoperative consultation to obviate the need for radical surgery in such lesions.

  20. Dynamic computed tomography of the pituitary gland using a single slice scanner in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Magno, Sara; Grinwis, Guy C M; Voorhout, George; Meij, Björn P.

    2016-01-01

    Selective removal of the pituitary adenoma has not been advocated in dogs with pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism because the pituitary adenoma is usually not visualized on routine computed tomography (CT).Dynamic pituitary CT scanning is aimed at the detection of the pituitary flush and, indirect

  1. Pituitary macroadenoma presenting as a nasal tumor: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Adolfo Silva Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Pituitary macroadenomas are rare intracranial tumors. In a few cases, they may present aggressive behavior and invade the sphenoid sinus and nasal cavity, causing unusual symptoms. In this paper, we report an atypical case of pituitary adenoma presenting as a nasal mass.CASE REPORT: The patient was a 44-year-old woman who had had amenorrhea and galactorrhea for ten months, with associated nasal obstruction, macroglossia and acromegaly. Both growth hormone and prolactin levels were increased. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large mass originating from the lower surface of the pituitary gland, associated with sella turcica erosion and tumor extension through the sphenoid sinus and nasal cavity. Histopathological analysis demonstrated a chromophobe pituitary adenoma with densely packed rounded epithelial cells, with some atypias and rare mitotic figures. There was no evidence of metastases.CONCLUSION: Macroadenoma invading the nasal cavity is a rare condition and few similar cases have been reported in the literature. This study contributes towards showing that tumor extension to the sphenoid sinus and nasopharynx needs to be considered and investigated in order to make an early diagnosis when atypical symptoms like nasal obstruction are present.

  2. CONGENITAL ANTERIOR TIBIOFEMURAL SUBLUXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahla

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anterior tibiofemoral subluxation is an extremely rare disorder. All reported cases accompanied by other abnormalities and syndromes. A 16-year-old high school girl referred to us with bilateral anterior tibiofemoral subluxation as the knees were extended and reduced at more than 30 degrees flexion. Deformities were due to tightness of the iliotibial band and biceps femuris muscles and corrected by surgical release. Associated disorders included bilateral anterior shoulders dislocation, short metacarpals and metatarsals, and right calcaneuvalgus deformity.

  3. Temozolomide treatment of a pituitary carcinoma and two pituitary macroadenomas resistant to conventional therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, C; Schroeder, H D; Hansen, S

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aggressive pituitary tumours may be difficult to treat. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating cytostaticum. In a small number of cases, TMZ therapy has been reported to reduce pituitary tumour size and hormone hypersecretion. DESIGN: We present three patients with pituitary tumours treat...

  4. [Old phenotype and new genotypes. Pituitary adenomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, C; Jedidi, H; Petrossians, P; Krzesinski, F; Daly, A; Beckers, A

    2015-11-01

    Gigantism and acromegaly, usually caused by a pituitary adenoma linked inappropriate secretion of growth hormone (GH), are generally considered as very rare diseases, even if, according to some authors, their cumulative prevalence is about 1/5000. Starting from the historical case of a giant from Liège we shall describe the different types of GH pituitary adenomas and their pathophysiology. We shall particularly discuss rare forms of inherited GH secreting pituitary adenomas like the FIPA (familial inherited isolated pituitary adenomas) and the X-LAG (X linked acrogigantism), both described for the first time in Liège, in 2000 and 2014, respectively.

  5. A Rare Cause of Hypopituitarism: Pituitary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şazi İmamoğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary tuberculosis is a rare condition that can present with hypopituitarism even without any evidence of systemic tuberculosis and is easily confused with pituitary adenomas. Headache and hypopituitarism are the most common presenting symptoms. We report the case of pituitary tuberculosis in a 39-year-old male patient who presented with panhypopituitarism. Although it is rare and difficult to diagnose, pituitary tuberculosis should be considered in every nonfunctional sellar masses, especially in fairly small ones with unexpected hypopituitarism. Turk Jem 2012; 16: 26-8

  6. Enhanced nestin expression and small blood vessels in human pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Millan, María Inés; Berner, Silvia Inés; Luque, Guillermina María; De Bonis, Cristian; Sevlever, Gustavo; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia; Cristina, Carolina

    2013-09-01

    The role of angiogenesis in human pituitary tumor progression is questioned. Our aim was to characterize the morphologic changes that occur in the vasculature of pituitary adenomas, in correlation with the expression of nestin, a protein found in endothelial cells of newly formed vessels of developing organs. We also evaluated the relation of angiogenic markers and nestin with Ki-67 index. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin embedded samples of 47 pituitary adenomas and six normal pituitaries. We determined microvessel density (number of CD31+ or CD34+ vessels per square millimetre), vascular area (cumulative area occupied by vessels), average vessel size, and further classified vessels as small ( 100 μm2). We correlated the above parameters with nestin expression and Ki-67 index. Lower vascular area compared to normal tissue was found in adenomas (p vessels than control pituitaries (p controls, so that nestin positive area was significantly higher in tumors. Furthermore, nestin area correlated positively with the % of small vessels. Ki-67 correlated neither with vascular area nor with nestin expression. In human pituitary tumors there was a predominance of small capillaries in correlation with increased expression of the progenitor marker nestin. We suggest that angiogenesis is an active process in these tumors, in spite of their low total vascular area when compared to normal pituitaries.

  7. Identification of estradiol/ERα-regulated genes in the mouse pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Joon; Gieske, Mary C; Trudgen, Kourtney L; Hudgins-Spivey, Susan; Kim, Beob Gyun; Krust, Andree; Chambon, Pierre; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Blalock, Eric; Ko, CheMyong

    2011-09-01

    Estrogen acts to prime the pituitary prior to the GnRH-induced LH surge by undiscovered mechanisms. This study aimed to identify the key components that mediate estrogen action in priming the pituitary. RNA extracted from the pituitaries of metestrous (low estrogen) and proestrus (high estrogen) stage mice, as well as from ovariectomized wild-type and estrogen receptor α (ERα) knockout mice treated with 17β-estradiol (E(2)) or vehicle, was used for gene expression microarray. Microarray data were then aggregated, built into a functional electronic database, and used for further characterization of E(2)/ERα-regulated genes. These data were used to compile a list of genes representing diverse biological pathways that are regulated by E(2) via an ERα-mediated pathway in the pituitary. This approach substantiates ERα regulation of membrane potential regulators and intracellular vesicle transporters, among others, but not the basic components of secretory machinery. Subsequent characterization of six selected genes (Cacna1a, Cacna1g, Cited1, Abep1, Opn3, and Kcne2) confirmed not only ERα dependency for their pituitary expression but also the significance of their expression in regulating GnRH-induced LH secretion. In conclusion, findings from this study suggest that estrogen primes the pituitary via ERα by equipping pituitary cells with critical cellular components that potentiate LH release on subsequent GnRH stimulations.

  8. Endosphenoidal coil for intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland during transsphenoidal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittiboina, Prashant; Lalith Talagala, S; Merkle, Hellmut; Sarlls, Joelle E; Montgomery, Blake K; Piazza, Martin G; Scott, Gretchen; Ray-Chaudhury, Abhik; Lonser, Russell R; Oldfield, Edward H; Koretsky, Alan P; Butman, John A

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Pituitary MR imaging fails to detect over 50% of microadenomas in Cushing's disease and nearly 80% of cases of dural microinvasion. Surface coils can generate exceptionally high-resolution images of the immediately adjacent tissues. To improve imaging of the pituitary gland, a receive-only surface coil that can be placed within the sphenoid sinus (the endosphenoidal coil [ESC]) during transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) was developed and assessed. METHODS Five cadaver heads were used for preclinical testing of the ESC. The ESC (a double-turn, 12-mm-diameter surface coil made from 1-mm-diameter copper wire) was developed to obtain images in a 1.5-T MR scanner. The ESC was placed (via a standard sublabial TSS approach) on the anterior sella face. Clinical MR scans were obtained using the 8-channel head coil and ESC as the receiver coils. Using the ESC, ultra-high-resolution, 3D, balanced fast field echo (BFFE) and T1-weighted imaging were performed at resolutions of 0.25 × 0.25 × 0.50 mm(3) and 0.15 × 0.15 × 0.30 mm(3), respectively. RESULTS Region-of-interest analysis indicated a 10-fold increase in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the pituitary when using the ESC compared with the 8-channel head coil. ESC-related improvements (p < 0.01) in the SNR were inversely proportional to the distance from the ESC tip to the anterior pituitary gland surface. High-resolution BFFE MR imaging obtained using ESC revealed a number of anatomical features critical to pituitary surgery that were not visible on 8-channel MR imaging, including the pituitary capsule, the intercavernous sinus, and microcalcifications in the pars intermedia. These ESC imaging findings were confirmed by the pathological correlation with whole-mount pituitary sections. CONCLUSIONS ESC can significantly improve SNR in the sellar region intraoperatively using current 1.5-T MR imaging platforms. Improvement in SNR can provide images of the sella and surrounding structures with unprecedented

  9. Adenomas hipofisários: relação entre invasividade e índice proliferativo tumoral Pituitary adenomas: relationship between invasiveness and proliferative cell nuclear index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSWALDO INÁCIO DE TELLA JR

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisamos 76 pacientes com adenomas hipofisários do ponto de vista clínico, radiológico e tratamento cirúrgico. Todos os casos foram estudados por imuno-histoquímica e em 49 pacientes foi pesquisado o anticorpo monoclonal PCNA. Os adenomas bi-hormonais foram os mais frequentes seguidos dos prolactinomas e os adenomas não secretantes. Os adenomas bi-hormonais não secretantes e os produtores de subunidade alfa foram proporcionalmente mais invasivos pelos critérios radiológicos. A maioria dos pacientes (59 foi operada por via transeptoesfenoidal, em seis casos a via transcraniana foi realizada e em 11 pacientes houve necessidade das duas abordagens. A ressecção foi total em 32 pacientes, a maioria em microadenomas, subtotal em 15 e parcial em 29. A complicação endócrina mais frequente foi diabetes insipidus. Houve tendência de associação positiva para os adenomas secretantes e PCNA mais elevado, assim como relação positiva quando analisamos os adenomas invasivos pela tomografia computadorizada ou ressonância magnética e o PCNA 3 e 4. A melhora visual foi observada em 85% dos macroadenomas, mesmo quando a ressecção foi parcial ou subtotal.We evaluated clinically, radiologically and surgically a series of 76 pituitary adenomas. All cases were assessed immunohistochemically and in 49 patients the PCNA monoclonal antibody was measured. The most frequent types found were the bihormonal adenomas, followed by prolactinomas and non secreting adenomas. The bihormonal adenomas, non secreting adenonas and the sub unit alfa producing adenomas were proportionally more invase as determined by radiological criteria (CTscan or MRI. In 59 patients a transphenoidal approach was used, six cases were operated on transcranially and in 11 patients we used a combination of both approach. Total resection were achieved in 32 cases, most of which were microadenomas, in 15 cases the resection was subtotal and partial in 29 cases. Diabetes insipidus

  10. Fat-suppressed dynamic MR imaging for the postoperative evaluation of pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akada, Kiyohiro [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The usefulness of the early post operative evaluation of pituitary adenomas with fat-suppressed MR imaging was studied. Thirty patients with pituitary adenoma, who underwent trans-sphenoidal surgery were analyzed. These include 22 with macroadenoma (3 recurrent cases) and 8 with microadenoma (2 recurrent cases). In all cases after adenoma resection, fat tissue was placed into the sella turcica to prevent postoperative cerebro-spinal fluid leakage and infections. T1-weighted and Gd DTPA-enhanced MR images were obtained using a 1.5-T superconductive MRI system (Shimadzu Co., Ltd.) by a standard technique and also by a fat suppression technique (chemical shift selective presaturation: CHESS) after surgery. It was difficult to discriminate between hematoma, fat tissue and pituitary posterior lobe on T1-weighted images within 1 month after surgery because of high-signal intensity. However, these regions could be distinguished one another by the CHESS technique. Normal pituitary anterior lobe could be identified in 86% of macroadenoma cases using Gd CHESS dynamic study, whereas it was identified only in 23% by standard technique. Normal anterior lobe was identified in 100% of microadenoma cases using Gd CHESS dynamic study. The residual tumors were found to invade into the supra sella or cavernous sinus, and these lesions could be distinguished from the surrounding tissue by the CHESS dynamic study in 83%, whereas only 33% could be distinguished by the standard technique. Although the fat tissue showed a time-sequence decrease in volume, high-signal intensity sometimes lasted long in association with degenerative granulation. In conclusion, CHESS dynamic MR Imaging study is useful for detection of the normal pituitary lobe and residual adenomas after trans-sphenoidal surgery. (author)

  11. Pituitary Gigantism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present a rare case of gigantism. Case Report: A 25-year-old lady presented with increased statural growth and enlarged body parts noticed since the age of 14 years, primary amenorrhea, and frontal headache for the last 2 years.She has also been suffering from non-inflammatory low back pain with progressive kyphosis and pain in the knees, ankles, and elbows for the last 5 years. There was no history of visual disturbance, vomiting, galactorrhoea, cold intolerance. She had no siblings. Family history was non-contributory.Blood pressure was normal. Height 221 cm, weight 138 kg,body mass index (BMI28. There was coarsening of facial features along with frontal bossing and prognathism, large hands and feet, and small goitre. Patient had severe kyphosis and osteoarthritis of knees. Confrontation perimetry suggested bitemporal hemianopia. Breast and pubic hair were of Tanner stage 1. Serum insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF1 was 703 ng/ml with all glucose suppressedgrowth hormone (GHvalues of >40 ng/ml. Prolactin was 174 ng/ml. Basal serum Lutenising Hormone (LH, follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH was low. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, liver and renal function tests, basal cortisol and thyroid profile, Calcium, phosphorus and Intact Parathyroid hormone (iPTH were normal.Computed tomographyscan of brain showed large pituitary macroadenoma. Automated perimetry confirmed bitemporal hemianopia. A diagnosis of gigantism due to GH secreting pituitary macroadenoma with hypogonadotrophichypogonadism was made. Debulking pituitary surgery followed by somatostatin analogue therapy with gonadal steroid replacement had been planned, but the patient refused further treatment.

  12. Metastatic pituitary carcinoma: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Shang-fu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background As a kind of rare tumor, metastatic pituitary carcinoma is very difficult to diagnose clinically and is easy to be misdiagnosed. This article aims to discuss the clinical manifestations and histopathological features of this tumor. Methods The clinical presentations, histopathological features and immunophenotype were studied in one case of poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinoma metastatic to pituitary gland, and related literature was reviewed. Results A 47-year-old woman mainly presented with faint, headache and blurred vision. CT scan demonstrated abnormal signals in suprasellar cistern. During the resection, the tumor could be seen locating in sellar region, the size of which was about 2 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm. Histopathological examination revealed that the structure of pituitary gland was damaged and the tumor was composed of atypical round or oval cells arranged in nest or glandular patterns, in which a number of enlarged plump tumor cells contained abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with eccentrical caryogenesis. The immunohistochemistry showed that epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, pan cytokeratin (PCK, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1 and cytokeratin 7 (CK7 were positive in tumor cells with Ki-67 labeling index being 15%, but chromogranin (CgA, cancer embryo antigen (CEA, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP, CD117, leukocyte common antigen (LCA, CD30, anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1 (ALK-1 were negative in tumor cells. After operation the patient received treatment with levothyroxine sodium and γ knife, but died 4 months later. Conclusion Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry can confirm the diagnosis of metastatic pituitary carcinoma and locate the primary lesion. Postoperative comprehensive therapy is necessary.

  13. Radiation Therapy of Pituitary Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Moon Baik; Hong, Seong Eong [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Radiation treatment results were analyzed in a retrospective analysis of 47 patients with pituitary adenoma treated with radiation alone or combined with surgery from 1974 through 1987 at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology of Kyung Hee University. The 5-year overall survival rates for all patients was 80.4%. Radiation therapy was effective for improving visual symptoms and headache, but could not normalize amenorrhea and galactorrhoea. There was no difference of survival rate between radiation alone and combination with surgery. Prognostic factors such as age, sex, disease type, visual field, headache and surgical treatment were statistically no significant in survival rates of these patients.

  14. Angioscan exploration of morphology of pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabarin, A.; David, J.P.; Drouillard, J. and others

    1987-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the morphologic study of pituitary due to the availability of angioscan programs. An exceptional case is presented of a persistent intrasellar trigeminal artery associated with prolactinoma. Based on technological progress in CT scan imaging the place of angiographic explorations in the investigation of pituitary adenoma is reconsidered.

  15. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging in Cushing's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Giovanni; Tortora, Fabio; Baldelli, Roberto; Cocchiara, Francesco; Paragliola, Rosa Maria; Sbardella, Emilia; Simeoli, Chiara; Caranci, Ferdinando; Pivonello, Rosario; Colao, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    Adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary tumor represents about 10 % of pituitary adenomas and at the time of diagnosis most of them are microadenomas. Transsphenoidal surgery is the first-line treatment of Cushing's disease and accurate localization of the tumor within the gland is essential for selectively removing the lesion and preserving normal pituitary function. Magnetic resonance imaging is the best imaging modality for the detection of pituitary tumors, but adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary microadenomas are not correctly identified in 30-50 % of cases, because of their size, location, and enhancing characteristics. Several recent studies were performed with the purpose of better localizing the adrenocorticotropin-secreting microadenomas through the use in magnetic resonance imaging of specific sequences, reduced contrast medium dose and high-field technology. Therefore, an improved imaging technique for pituitary disease is mandatory in the suspect of Cushing's disease. The aims of this paper are to present an overview of pituitary magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of Cushing's disease and to provide a magnetic resonance imaging protocol to be followed in case of suspicion adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma.

  16. MR differentiation of craniopharyngioma from pituitary macroadenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Jee Young; Lee, Jeong Whee; Jeh, Soo Kyung; Park, Hae Kwan; Lee, Kyung Jin; Hahn, Seong Tae [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    We wanted to determine the differential points between craniopharyngioma and pituitary macroadenoma on MRI. The MRI findings in twenty seven patients (age range: 14-67 years, mean age: 46 years, 17 males and 10 females) with pathologically proven craniopharyngioma and twenty four patients (age range: 23-64 years, mean age: 54 years, 8 males and 16 females) with pathologically proven pituitary macroadenoma were analyzed retrospectively by two radiologists. We analyzed the location, the contour of the mass, the presence of high signal intensity on the T1 weighted images, the thickness of the enhancing wall, separation between the mass and the pituitary gland, and the presence of attachment or compression to the midbrain. On MRI, craniopharyngiomas showed a suprasellar location, high signal intensity on the T1 weighted images and a larger suprasellar portion. After contrast enhancement, the separation of the mass from the pituitary gland is more distinct than that of the pituitary macroadenomas. The craniopharyngiomas showed the presence of attachment or compression to the midbrain. The pituitary macroadenomas had a larger intra-or infrasellar portion than that of the craniopharyngiomas, and they also showed a thicker enhancing wall after contrast enhancement. The location, contour of the mass, presence of high signal intensity on T1 weighted images, thickness of the enhancing wall, separation of the mass from the pituitary gland and the presence of attachment or compression to midbrain are useful differential points between craniophayngioma and pituitary macroadenoma on MRI.

  17. The Enigma behind Pituitary and Sella Turcica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umarevathi Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pituitary gland’s role as a functional matrix for sella turcica has not been suggested in orthodontic literature. This paper is an attempt to correlate the role of pituitary gland in the development of sella turcica. A case report of dwarfism associated with hypopituitarism is presented to highlight the above hypothesis.

  18. Shedding light on canine pituitary dwarfism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, A.M.W.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary dwarfism, associated with growth hormone deficiency, is an autosomal, recessively inherited disorder in shepherd dogs. Due to the serious nature of pituitary dwarfism and lack of efficient treatment, it is preferable to prevent dwarfs from being born by applying a correct breeding policy.

  19. The Enigma behind Pituitary and Sella Turcica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Umarevathi; Mahendra, Lodd; Rangarajan, Sumanth; Madasamy, Ramasamy; Ibrahim, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The pituitary gland's role as a functional matrix for sella turcica has not been suggested in orthodontic literature. This paper is an attempt to correlate the role of pituitary gland in the development of sella turcica. A case report of dwarfism associated with hypopituitarism is presented to highlight the above hypothesis.

  20. The Enigma behind Pituitary and Sella Turcica

    OpenAIRE

    Umarevathi Gopalakrishnan; Lodd Mahendra; Sumanth Rangarajan; Ramasamy Madasamy; Mohammad Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The pituitary gland’s role as a functional matrix for sella turcica has not been suggested in orthodontic literature. This paper is an attempt to correlate the role of pituitary gland in the development of sella turcica. A case report of dwarfism associated with hypopituitarism is presented to highlight the above hypothesis.

  1. Ontogeny and the developing change of pituitary glycoprotein hormone α subunit(PGHα) cells of chicken embryos%鸡胚胎腺垂体糖蛋白激素α亚单位细胞的发育及其变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玉琴; 刘英; 崔胜

    2011-01-01

    The present study was to determine ontogeny of chick embryonic pituitary glycoprotein hormoneα subunit(PGHα cells) and their change during the development of embryos.The pituitary glands were collected on day 3.5 to 20.5 of incubation,respectively.The expression and distribution of pituitary PGHα cells were then detected by the immunohistochemical method.The experimental results demonstrated that scattered and clarity immunopositive PGHα cells were first detected in cephalic lobe and caudal lobe of pituitary gland on day 6.5 of incubation,and then dramatically increased(P0.05) and distributed throughout the whole cephalic lobe,caudal lobe and pars tubercles of pituitary gland during the embryonic periods.In the early stage,the volume of PGHα cells was small with less cytoplasmic and bigger nuclear,and light staining as well;in the mid and later-incubation,the volume of cells became bigger with intensive staining.These results suggested that the ontogeny of PGHα cells is in the early stage,and the proliferation and differentiation of PGHα cells occur during the middle and late stages.%应用免疫组织化学方法,对第3.5~20.5天鸡胚腺垂体糖蛋白激素α亚单位(PGHα)细胞的发生及其在发育过程中的变化规律进行了研究。结果,鸡胚发育的早期(第6.5天),可观察到少量明显的PGHα细胞分布于腺垂体前、后叶,随着胚胎的发育,PGHα细胞数量显著增加(P〈0.05),分布于腺垂体前、后叶和结节部,且后叶PGHα细胞数多于前叶。早期PGHα细胞体积小、细胞浆少、细胞核大,随着胚龄的增加,细胞体积增大、细胞浆增多、细胞浆浓染。结果表明,鸡胚腺垂体PGHα细胞发生于胚胎发育的早期,细胞的增殖和分化过程发生在胚胎发育的中后期。

  2. Transseptal approach for the treatment of pituitary lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escajadillo, J R; de Gortari, E

    1983-05-01

    The transseptal approach is the most logical and adequate technique to reach the sella turcica and adjacent structures. In the era before the use of antibiotic and steroid replacement therapy, Harvey Cushing, MD, and Norman Dott, MD, obtained successful results by using the transseptal approach to resect and decompress pituitary adenomas. Some authors use the maxilla-premaxilla technique followed by a sublabial incision through which they introduce the trans-sphenoidal speculum. The endonasal approach is a modification of the sublabial incision, but much of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid is still removed. Therefore, we have added another modification that consists in removing only a fragment of the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid and vomer anterior to the sphenoid rostrum. We also describe our experience with this technique and analyze our results.

  3. Anterior Hypopituitarism and Treatment Response in Hunter Syndrome: A Comparison of Two Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Paola; Wei, Xing-Chang; Khan, Aneal

    2016-01-01

    Hypopituitarism is a clinically important diagnosis and has not previously been reported in Hunter syndrome. We contrast two cases with anatomic pituitary anomalies: one with anterior panhypopituitarism and the other with intact pituitary function. Patient 1, a 10-year-old boy with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for poor growth and an ectopic posterior pituitary gland. Endocrine testing revealed growth hormone (GH) deficiency, secondary adrenal insufficiency, and tertiary hypothyroidism. An improvement in growth velocity with hormone replacement (GH, thyroxine, and corticosteroid) was seen; however, final adult height remained compromised. Patient 2, a 13-year-old male with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for growth failure. He had a large empty sella turcica with posteriorly displaced pituitary. Functional endocrine testing was normal and a trial of GH-treatment yielded no significant effect. Panhypopituitarism associated with pituitary anomalies has not been previously reported in Hunter syndrome and was an incidental finding of significant clinical importance. In the setting of documented anterior hypopituitarism, while hormone replacement improved growth velocity, final height remained impaired. In patient 2 with equivocal GH-testing results, treatment had no effect on linear growth. These cases highlight the importance of careful clinical assessment in Hunter syndrome and that judicious hormone replacement may be indicated in individual cases. PMID:28018694

  4. Anterior Hypopituitarism and Treatment Response in Hunter Syndrome: A Comparison of Two Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munier A. Nour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypopituitarism is a clinically important diagnosis and has not previously been reported in Hunter syndrome. We contrast two cases with anatomic pituitary anomalies: one with anterior panhypopituitarism and the other with intact pituitary function. Patient 1, a 10-year-old boy with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for poor growth and an ectopic posterior pituitary gland. Endocrine testing revealed growth hormone (GH deficiency, secondary adrenal insufficiency, and tertiary hypothyroidism. An improvement in growth velocity with hormone replacement (GH, thyroxine, and corticosteroid was seen; however, final adult height remained compromised. Patient 2, a 13-year-old male with Hunter syndrome, was evaluated for growth failure. He had a large empty sella turcica with posteriorly displaced pituitary. Functional endocrine testing was normal and a trial of GH-treatment yielded no significant effect. Panhypopituitarism associated with pituitary anomalies has not been previously reported in Hunter syndrome and was an incidental finding of significant clinical importance. In the setting of documented anterior hypopituitarism, while hormone replacement improved growth velocity, final height remained impaired. In patient 2 with equivocal GH-testing results, treatment had no effect on linear growth. These cases highlight the importance of careful clinical assessment in Hunter syndrome and that judicious hormone replacement may be indicated in individual cases.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville, Jean-Francois; Bonneville, Fabrice; Cattin, Francoise [University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Besancon (France)

    2005-03-01

    Today, MR is the only method needed for the morphological investigation of endocrine-active pituitary adenomas. In acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome, the therapeutic attitude is directly dictated by MR data. We present the MR aspect of pituitary adenomas according to size, sex, age, endocrine activity and a few particular conditions such as hemorrhagic pituitary adenomas, pituitary adenomas during pregnancy, cavernous sinus invasion and postsurgical changes. When an intrasellar mass extending out of the sella turcica is detected, the goal of the MR examination is to indicate precisely the origin of the tumor, its extension in relation to the various surrounding structures, its structure and its enhancement in order to help in the differential diagnosis. Demonstration of very small pituitary adenomas remains a challenge. When SE T1- and Turbo SE T2-weighted sequences are non-diagnostic, enhanced imaging becomes mandatory; half-dose gadolinium injection, delayed sequence, dynamic imaging can be of some help. (orig.)

  6. Allogeneic versus autologous derived cell sources for use in engineered bone-ligament-bone grafts in sheep anterior cruciate ligament repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Vasudevan D; Behbahani-Nejad, Nilofar; Horine, Storm V; Olsen, Tyler J; Smietana, Michael J; Wojtys, Edward M; Wellik, Deneen M; Arruda, Ellen M; Larkin, Lisa M

    2015-03-01

    The use of autografts versus allografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is controversial. The current popular options for ACL reconstruction are patellar tendon or hamstring autografts, yet advances in allograft technologies have made allogeneic grafts a favorable option for repair tissue. Despite this, the mismatched biomechanical properties and risk of osteoarthritis resulting from the current graft technologies have prompted the investigation of new tissue sources for ACL reconstruction. Previous work by our lab has demonstrated that tissue-engineered bone-ligament-bone (BLB) constructs generated from an allogeneic cell source develop structural and functional properties similar to those of native ACL and vascular and neural structures that exceed those of autologous patellar tendon grafts. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of our tissue-engineered ligament constructs fabricated from autologous versus allogeneic cell sources. Our preliminary results demonstrate that 6 months postimplantation, our tissue-engineered auto- and allogeneic BLB grafts show similar histological and mechanical outcomes indicating that the autologous grafts are a viable option for ACL reconstruction. These data indicate that our tissue-engineered autologous ligament graft could be used in clinical situations where immune rejection and disease transmission may preclude allograft use.

  7. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) ... and Recovery Coping With an ACL Injury About ACL Injuries A torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is ...

  8. Middle frontal horizontal partial laryngectomy (MFHPL: a treatment for stage T1b squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx involving anterior vocal commissure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bin Lei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The therapeutic effect of middle frontal horizontal partial laryngectomy (MFHPL in treating stage T1b squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx involving anterior vocal commissure (AVC was compared with that of the anterior frontolateral vertical partial laryngectomy (AFVPL. The feasibility and practical significance of MFHPL in clinical application was discussed in the present study. METHODS: From January 1996 to January 2010, a total of 65 patients diagnosed with stage T1bN0M0 glottic laryngeal cancer were treated with MFHPL or AFVPL. The postoperative complications, glottic reconstruction, recurrence rate, voice quality and survival rates were evaluated and compared between two treatments. RESULTS: AFVPL and MFHPL were performed in 34 and 31 patients, respectively. Flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy revealed that in the MFHPL-treated patients the reconstructed glottis was spacious and symmetric. In contrast, AFVPL treatment resulted in irregular glottic area with poor symmetry and tubular glottis. The incidence of postoperative laryngeal stenosis significantly differed between the MFHPL- and AFVPL-treated groups (P = 0.025. No significant difference was detected in the 3- and 5-year overall- or tumor-free survival rates between two treatments. The Voice Handicap Index (VHI and maximum phonation time (MPT after surgery were 51.0±12.99 and 12.42±3.44 sec in the AFVPL-treated group; while in the MFHPL-treated patients they were 31.81±7.48 and 7.65±1.98 sec, respectively. Both differences in VHI (P = 0.012 and MPT (P = 0.024 were significant between two treatments. CONCLUSIONS: MFHPL was comparable to AFVPL with respect to postoperative complications, recurrence rate and survival rates, but possessed advantages over AFVPL in terms of the incidence of laryngeal stenosis and voice quality. Our study indicated that MFHPL has a potential value in clinical practice of treating stage T1b squamous cell carcinoma of the

  9. Dendritic cells and macrophages in the pituitary and the gonads. Evidence for their role in the fine regulation of the reproductive endocrine response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, A; Allaerts, W; Leenen, PJM; Schoemaker, J; Drexhage, HA

    1997-01-01

    Blood monocytes are able to mature into macrophages as well as into dendritic cells, Dendritic cells and macrophages have mainly been studied for their function in the immune response, e.g. in the presentation of antigens to lymphocytes and in the phagocytosis/degradation of unwanted material. The c

  10. Neuronal localization of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 in the adrenal medulla and growth-inhibitory effect on chromaffin cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Hannibal, J; Wulff, B S

    1995-01-01

    medulla showed PACAP38 immunoreactivity in a widely distributed network of delicate nerve fibers surrounding the chromaffin cells. In a primary culture system, PACAP38 inhibited growth factor-stimulated DNA synthesis by 90% in neonatal and adult rat chromaffin cells with half-maximal inhibition at 4 and 0...

  11. Large pituitary incidentaloma in a patient with sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Jalota

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 60 year old male with a medical history of pulmonary sarcoidosis and chronic low testosterone presented to his allergist for excessive lacrimation. Computed tomography (CT scan of sinuses ordered for possible blocked nasolacrimal duct revealed an abnormal expansion of the sella turcica. Magnetic resonance imaging suggested a homogeneously enhancing 4 cm soft tissue mass enveloping the internal carotid and abutting the optic nerves. Since the patient indicated no symptoms, it was felt to be consistent with a pituitary incidentaloma. Laboratory investigation showed only minimally elevated prolactin. Visual field testing at the office was normal but computed campimetry was suggestive of few minimally depressed points in the supra-temporal quadrant on the right. Even with high suspicion of neurosarcoidosis, the patient had a surgical indication so he underwent transsphenoidal excision of the mass with no complications. Pathology was consistent with a null-cell pituitary adenoma.

  12. Dual pathways of calcium entry in spike and plateau phases of luteinizing hormone release from chicken pituitary cells: sequential activation of receptor-operated and voltage-sensitive calcium channels by gonadotropin-releasing hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J.S.; Wakefield, I.K.; King, J.A.; Mulligan, G.P.; Millar, R.P.

    1988-04-01

    It has previously been shown that, in pituitary gonadotrope cells, the initial rise in cytosolic Ca2+ induced by GnRH is due to a Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores. This raises the possibility that the initial transient spike phase of LH release might be fully or partially independent of extracellular Ca2+. We have therefore characterized the extracellular Ca2+ requirements, and the sensitivity to Ca2+ channel blockers, of the spike and plateau phases of secretion separately. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+ the spike and plateau phases were inhibited by 65 +/- 4% and 106 +/- 3%, respectively. Both phases exhibited a similar dependence on concentration of extracellular Ca2+. However, voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel blockers D600 and nifedipine had a negligible effect on the spike phase, while inhibiting the plateau phase by approximately 50%. In contrast, ruthenium red, Gd3+ ions, and Co2+ ions inhibited both spike and plateau phases to a similar extent as removal of extracellular Ca2+. A fraction (35 +/- 4%) of spike phase release was resistant to removal of extracellular Ca2+. This fraction was abolished after calcium depletion of the cells by preincubation with EGTA in the presence of calcium ionophore A23187, indicating that it depends on intracellular Ca2+ stores. Neither absence of extracellular Ca2+, nor the presence of ruthenium red or Gd3+ prevented mobilization of 45Ca2+ from intracellular stores by GnRH. We conclude that mobilization of intracellular stored Ca2+ is insufficient by itself to account for full spike phase LH release.

  13. Expression of p53 protein in pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Inactivating mutations of TP53, a tumor suppressor gene, are associated with abnormal cell proliferation. Although p53 expression is common in many human malignancies, p53 protein has seldom been evaluated in pituitary tumors. When detected, the percentage of p53-positive cells is low, and, in general, it is exclusive for invasive lesions. The aim of the present study was to use immunohistochemistry to determine the presence of p53 protein in pituitary adenomas from tumor samples of 163 surgeries performed in 148 patients (40% male, 60% female. In 35% of the cases the adenoma was nonfunctional, while in the others it was associated with PRL, GH and/or ACTH endocrine hypersecretion syndrome. Macroadenomas were observed in 83.2% of the cases with available neuroimage evaluation, of which 28% invaded the cavernous, sphenoid and/or ethmoidal sinus, bone, third ventricle or subfrontal lobe. p53 protein was detected in 2/148 patients (1.3%. Immunohistochemistry was positive for PRL and GH in these cases. Due to the high percentage of invasive pituitary adenomas found in our study, the low frequency of p53 detection suggests that it is inadequate as a routine marker for aggressiveness and as a predictive factor of tumor behavior.

  14. A novel missense mutation (P366T) of the LHX4 gene causes severe combined pituitary hormone deficiency with pituitary hypoplasia, ectopic posterior lobe and a poorly developed sella turcica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Toshihiro; Hattori, Tsukasa; Nakajima, Takeo; Okuhara, Koji; Tsubaki, Junko; Fujieda, Kenji

    2007-08-01

    LIM homeodomain transcription factors regulate many aspects of development in multicellular organisms. LHX4/Lhx4 is a protein that is essential for pituitary development and motor neuron specification in mammals. In human, a heterozygous splicing mutation of the LHX4 gene was reported in a family with combined pituitary hormone deficiencies (CPHD). In addition to CPHD, these patients were characterized by small sella turcica and chiari malformation. Here we report a Japanese patient with CPHD (GH, PRL, TSH, LH, FSH, and ACTH deficiency) due to a novel missense mutation (P366T) of the LHX 4 gene. She showed severe respiratory disease and hypoglycemia soon after birth. Brain MRI demonstrated hypoplastic anterior pituitary, ectopic posterior lobe, a poorly developed sella turcica, and chiari malformation. Sequence analysis of the LHX 4 gene identified a heterozygous missense mutation (P366T) in exon 6, which was present in LIM4 specific domain. Neither of the patient's parents harbored this mutation, indicating de novo mutation.

  15. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  16. Persistence of intrasellar trigeminal artery and simultaneous pituitary adenoma: description of two cases and their importance for the differential diagnosis of sellar lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marcio Carlos; Kodaira, Sergio; Musolino, Nina Rosa Castro

    2014-08-01

    Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most frequent embryonic communication between the carotid and vertebrobasilar systems. However, hormonal changes or the association of PTA with other sellar lesions, such as pituitary adenomas, are extremely rare. The aim of the present study was to report two patients with intrasellar PTA and simultaneous pituitary adenoma in order to emphasize the importance of differential diagnoses for sellar lesions. Case 1. A female patient, 41 years old, was admitted with a history of chronic headache (> 20 years). Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a rounded lesion in the left portion of the pituitary gland suggestive of adenoma (most likely clinically non-functioning adenoma). In addition to this lesion, the MRI demonstrated ecstasy of the right internal carotid artery and imaging suggestive of an intrasellar artery that was subsequently confirmed by an angio-MRI of the cerebral vessels as PTA. Case 2. A female patient, 42 years old, was admitted with a history of amenorrhea and galactorrhea in 1994. Laboratorial investigation revealed hyperprolactinemia. Pituitary MRI showed a small hyposignal area in the anterior portion of pituitary gland suggestive of a microadenoma initiated by a dopaminergic agonist. Upon follow-up, aside from the first lesion, the MRI showed a well delineated rounded lesion inside the pituitary gland, similar to a vessel. Angio-MRI confirmed a left primitive PTA. Failure to recognize these anomalous vessels within the sella might lead to serious complications during transsphenoidal surgery. Therefore, although their occurrence is uncommon, a working knowledge of vascular lesions in the sella turcica or pituitary gland is important for the differential diagnosis of pituitary lesions, especially pituitary adenomas.

  17. Diagnosis of pituitary microadenomas by CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakoda, K.; Gen, M.; Yonezawa, M.; Ohta, M.; Matsumura, S. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1981-10-01

    The presence of pituitary microadenomas can be established by the detection of minor changes on polytomograms of the sella turcica. However, as this method is a procedure for detecting secondary changes due to adenoma, it is understandable that microadenomas which fail to present secondary changes cannot be picked up. From this point of view, we investigated the possibility detecting changes in the pituitary itself by means of CT. An axial scan of pituitary microadenomas by EMI-1010 showed that some of the PRL secreting adenomas and all of the GH secreting adenomas showed areas of high density, and that some of PRL secreting adenomas and all the ACTH secreting adenomas showed areas of low density at the site of the adenomas. On a coronal scan with GE/X2, the normal pituitary is highly enhanced, and an absorption coefficient of 70 - 80 is demonstrated, but on an axial scan the coefficient becomes 25 - 35 due to the partial-volume effect. On a coronal scan pituitary microadenomas are shown as hypodense-lucent or isodense as a normal pituitary. However, the absorption coefficient of the hypodense-lucent area was 50 - 60; this is not low, but is, rather, a high density. At present, it is our belief that it is most effective to use a coronal angle with a high-resolution scanner in the diagnosis of pituitary microadenomas.

  18. Lectin Histochemical Study of Vasculogenesis During Rat Pituitary Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s The aim of this study was to investigate glycoconjugates distribution patterns as well as their changes during the course of pituitary portal vasculogenesis and angiogenesis.Materials and MethodsFormalin fixed paraffin sections of 10 to 20 days of Sprague Dawly rat fetuses were processed for histochemical studies using four different horseradish peroxidase (HRP conjugated lectins. Orange peel fungus (OFA, Vicica villosa (VVA, Glycine max (SBA and Wistaria floribunda (WFA specific for α-L-Fucose, D-Gal, α, ß-D-GalNAc and D- GalNAc terminal sugars of glycoconjugates respectively.ResultsOur finding indicated that adenohypophysal cells reacted with OFA on gestational day 10 (E10 and increased progressively to E14. Staining intensity did not change from days 14 to17, then after increased following days to E20 significantly (P< 0.05. A few cells around Rathke’s pouch reacted with VVA on E13, increased to E14 and decreased significantly afterward (P< 0.05. Reaction of some cells around Rathke’s pouch reacted with SBA on E14. This visible reaction was the same as E18 and decreased later (P< 0.05. Many cells around Rathke’s pouch reacted with WFA on E13 and increased on E 14 and E15 and decreased thereafter (P< 0.05.ConclusionReactions of OFA and other tested lectins with endothelial cells around Rathke’s pouch and developing pars distalis were different. These results suggest that embryonic origin of hypophiseal pituitary portal (HPP system endothelial cells are not the same and our finding also indicated that glycoconjugates with terminal sugars α-L-Fucose, D-Gal, α, ß-D-GalNAc may play critical role(s in cell interactions and tissue differentiations such as vasculogensis and angiogenesis as well as other developmental precursors in formation of the pituitary gland.

  19. Acromegaly due to a Macroinvasive Plurihormonal Pituitary Adenoma and a Rectal Carcinoid Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ouk Chin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A macroinvasive pituitary adenoma with plurihormonality usually causes acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia, and also accompanies with neurologic symptoms such as visual disturbances. However, its concurrent presentation with a rectal carcinoid tumor is rarely observed. This study reports the history, biochemical, colonoscopic and immunohistochemical results of a 48-year-old female with acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia. Despite the large size and invasive nature of the pituitary adenoma to adjacent anatomical structures, she did not complain of any neurologic symptoms such as visual disturbance or headache. Immunohistochemical staining of the surgical specimen from the pituitary adenoma revealed that the tumor cells were positive for growth hormone (GH, prolactin (PRL, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH. Staining for pituitary-specific transcription factor-1 (Pit-1 was shown to be strongly positive, which could have been possibly contributing to the plurihormonality of this adenoma. Colonoscopy found a rectal polyp that was identified to be a carcinoid tumor using immunohistochemical staining. A macroinvasive pituitary adenoma with concomitant rectal carcinoid tumor was secreting GH, PRL, and TSH, which were believed to be in association with over-expression of Pit-1. This is the first case report of double primary tumors comprising a plurihormonal pituitary macroadenoma and rectal carcinoid tumor.

  20. The role of temozolomide in the treatment of aggressive pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James K; Patel, Jimmy; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2015-06-01

    Pituitary tumors are amongst the most common intracranial neoplasms and are generally benign. However, some pituitary tumors exhibit clinically aggressive behavior that is characterized by tumor recurrence and continued progression despite repeated treatments with conventional surgical, radiation and medical therapies. More recently, temozolomide, a second generation oral alkylating agent, has shown therapeutic promise for aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas with favorable clinical and radiographic responses. Temozolomide causes DNA damage by methylation of the O(6) position of guanine, which results in potent cytotoxic DNA adducts and consequently, tumor cell apoptosis. The degree of MGMT expression appears to be inversely related to therapeutic responsiveness to temozolomide with a significant number of temozolomide-sensitive pituitary tumors exhibiting low MGMT expression. The presence of high MGMT expression appears to mitigate the effectiveness of temozolomide and this has been used as a marker in several studies to predict the efficacy of temozolomide. Recent evidence also suggests that mutations in mismatch repair proteins such as MSH6 could render pituitary tumors resistant to temozolomide. In this article, the authors review the development of temozolomide, its biochemistry and interaction with O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), its role in adjuvant treatment of aggressive pituitary neoplasms, and future works that could influence the efficacy of temozolomide therapy.

  1. Presence by radioimmunoassay of a calcitonin-like substance in porcine pituitary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherwood, B.D.; Deftos, L.J.

    1980-06-01

    We studied acidic acetone extracts of whole porcine pituitary glands for the presence of immunoreactive calcitonin (CT) using a porcine CT (pCT) RIA which did not react with other known pituitary hormones. Four preparations of porcine pituitary extract contained immunoreactive CT. Three of these displayed inhibition of binding parallel to that of authentic pCT in the pCT RIA and contained a single peak of immunoreactivity similar to pCT when studied by two different gel filtration chromatography systems. One preparation of porcine pituitary extract showed nonparallelism in RIA dose-dilution experiments and multiple immunoreactive species both similar to and larger than pCT on gel filtration in 6 M guanidine HCl. The effect of the reduction of disulfide bonds, followed by carboxymethylation of sulfhydryl groups, on immunoreactivity and apparent molecular size was similar for the CT-like substance in porcine pituitary extract and for authentic pCT. Preliminary immunohistological studies showed cytoplasmic staining in cells of the porcine adenohypophysis. These results demonstrate that the porcine pituitary gland contains a substance which has some of the immunochemical and biochemical properties of thyroidal pCT.

  2. Anterior Pituitary Hypofunction with Long QT Syndrome Episodes of Torsades De Pointes Ventricular Tachycardia : Report of One Case%腺垂体功能减退症伴长QT综合征发作尖端扭转性室速一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩贤珍; 张竞涛; 安雅莉; 谭慧琼

    2011-01-01

    Patients with men 63 years of age, due to a sudden syncope emergency admissions, morbidity when in the outer court head MR1 shows: empty sells, ECG shows: long QT with torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia after intravenous administration of amiodarone, give terminating ventricular tachycardia, then transferred to the hospital, with no obvious predisposing factors during hair two times. Auxiliary examination: dynamic electrocardiogram shows: QT570-640ms sinus bradycardia in heartbeat, junctional escape rhythm; hypopituitarism. Implanted ICD absolutely suitable for patients, because of personal factors give DDD pacemaker implantation, and combined with propranoioi regulation of ventricular rate in 60-70 / mm. Follow-up for half a year without recurrence. The clinical course is empty sclla syndrome ESS and pituitary (unction reduction alter TDP. Without other trigger factors, similar to those reported in rare, we suggested that the two may be related, specifically whether there is any association or causation need further medical certificates.%患者男性63岁,因突发晕厥急诊入院,发病时在外院颅脑MRI示:空泡蝶鞍,ECG示:长QT伴尖端扭转型室速,给与胺碘酮静脉用药后终止室速,后转入笔者医院,期间无明显诱发因素再发两次.辅助检查:动态心电图示:QT570-640ms窦性心动过缓,交界区逸搏心律;腺垂体功能低下.有植入ICD的绝对适应征,因患者个人因素给予植入DDD起搏器,并合用心得安调节心室率在60-70次/min,随访半年无再发.该个案临床过程表现为空泡蝶鞍综合征ESS并垂体功能低减后出现TDP,无其它引发因素,类似报道罕见,我们认为二者可能相关,具体是否存在关联或者因果关系尚需进一步医学证明.

  3. Hypopituitarism following pituitary irradiation for acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloia, J.F.; Archambeau, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    Endocrine evaluation is reported in 8 acromegalic patients who received 5500 rad to the pituitary from a linear accelerator. There was a mean decrease in hGH levels of 72%. Plasma testosterone levels were low in 1 of the 6 male patients prior to pituitary irradiation and were below normal in all male patients on the final evaluation (3.1 +- 0.2 SD years postirradiation). Deficiency of TSH secretion developed in 2 patients following irradiation. This rather high incidence of postirradiation partial hypopituitarism was not anticipated and is thought to be related to radiation necrosis of the normal pituitary tissue which surrounds the adenoma.

  4. JAK2V617F/STAT5 signaling pathway promotes cell proliferation through activation of Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xu-Liang [Department of Hematology, Heping Hospital of Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi 046000 (China); Department of Hematology, Xiangya Hospital of Centre-South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Wei, Wu; Xu, Hong-Liang; Zhang, Mei-Xiang; Qin, Xiao-Qi; Shi, Wen-Zhi; Jiang, Zhi-Ping [Department of Hematology, Heping Hospital of Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi 046000 (China); Chen, Yi-Jian [Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital, GanNan Medical University, GanZhou 341000 (China); Chen, Fang-Ping, E-mail: xychenfp@2118.cn [Department of Hematology, Xiangya Hospital of Centre-South University, Changsha 410008 (China)

    2010-08-06

    Research highlights: {yields} AG490, a member of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, could inhibit the JAK2V617F/STAT5 signaling pathway in HEL cell which harbor JAK2V617F mutation. {yields} Inhibition of the JAK2V617F/STAT5 signaling pathway inhibited the growth of HEL cells. {yields} JAK2V617F mutation promotes cell proliferation through activation of PTTG1 expression. {yields} JAK2V617F/STAT5 signaling pathway regulate PTTG1 expression at transcriptional level. -- Abstract: Gain-of-function mutations of JAK2 play crucial roles in the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms; however, the underlying downstream events of this activated signaling pathway are not fully understood. Our experiment was designed and performed to address one aspect of this issue. Here we report that AG490, a potent JAK2V617F kinase inhibitor, effectively inhibits the proliferation of HEL cells. Interestingly, AG490 also decreases the expression of PTTG1, a possible target gene of the aberrant signaling pathway, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the promoter activity analyses reveal that the inhibition of the PTTG1 expression is affected at the transcriptional level. Thus, our results suggest that the JAK2V617F/STAT5 signaling pathway promotes cell proliferation through the transcriptional activation of PTTG1.

  5. Management of incidental pituitary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas F. Marko

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary incidentalomas are common lesions for which neurosurgical referrals may become progressively more frequent, given the increasing application of neuroimaging. The initial evaluation of a patient with radiographic evidence of an incidentaloma should focus on addressing two questions: (1 is the lesion causing neurological symptoms, and (2 is the lesion hormonally active? The answers to these two questions provide a framework for subsequent clinical management. The initial patient assessment should include a detailed history and physical examination, including the bedside assessment of visual fields. High-quality MRI imaging is essential, and formal visual field testing should be obtained in patients where the lesion abuts or compresses the optic apparatus. The initial biochemical workup is intended to assess potential pituitary hypo- or hyperfunction and should include measurement of serum levels of prolactin, insulin-like growth factor type-1, free thyroxine, testosterone, and an assessment of axis hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis function. Additional testing may include serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone levels. Neurologically-asymptomatic patients without endocrine dysfunction can be managed with observation at regular intervals, including MRI imaging at 6 months and 1 year and then annually for a period of 3 years. Follow-up biochemical assessment is not necessary in the absence of clinical symptoms or radiographic enlargement of the lesion. After 3 years the follow-up interval may be prolonged, although closer follow-up may be indicated for patients with lesions C1 cm. Most patients who either present with or who subsequently develop neurologic or endocrinologic symptoms should be considered for surgery as the first-line therapy.

  6. Characterization of dopamine D2 receptors in the pituitary of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Asselt, L.A.; Goos, H.J.; De Leeuw, R.; Peter, R.E.; Hol, E.M.; Wassenberg, F.P.; Van Oordt, P.G. (Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands))

    1990-10-01

    Dopamine receptors in the pituitary of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, were characterized using ({sup 3}H)spiperone as radioligand. Specific binding of ({sup 3}H)spiperone to pituitary membranes reached equilibrium within 60 min of incubation. The binding of the radioligand was tissue specific since the amount of binding was linear with pituitary membrane content in the incubations. In addition, pituitary membranes were observed to bind considerably more ({sup 3}H)spiperone, compared to membrane preparation of various other tissues. Saturation experiments revealed the presence of a single class of high affinity/low capacity binding sites. The binding characteristics, estimated by Scatchard analysis, were: Kd = 3.2 +/- 0.5 x 10(-9) M and Bmax = 105 +/- 5 fmol/mg protein. Specific binding was displaceable with dopamine and with various specific D2 agonists and antagonists. The nature of displacement curves resembles those observed in studies on mammalian dopamine receptors. Binding experiments with cell fractions, obtained after centrifugation of dispersed pituitary cells over a Percoll density gradient, showed that most ({sup 3}H)spiperone binding was obtained in an enriched gonadotropic cell fraction. This observation indicates that the receptor characteristics, estimated with the ({sup 3}H)spiperone assay, are representative for dopamine receptors on the gonadotropic cells.

  7. Endocrine cells producing regulatory peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solcia, E; Usellini, L; Buffa, R; Rindi, G; Villani, L; Zampatti, C; Silini, E

    1987-07-15

    Recent data on the immunolocalization of regulatory peptides and related propeptide sequences in endocrine cells and tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, lung, thyroid, pituitary (ACTH and opioids), adrenals and paraganglia have been revised and discussed. Gastrin, xenopsin, cholecystokinin (CCK), somatostatin, motilin, secretin, GIP (gastric inhibitory polypeptide), neurotensin, glicentin/glucagon-37 and PYY (peptide tyrosine tyrosine) are the main products of gastrointestinal endocrine cells; glucagon, CRF (corticotropin releasing factor), somatostatin, PP (pancreatic polypeptide) and GRF (growth hormone releasing factor), in addition to insulin, are produced in pancreatic islet cells; bombesin-related peptides are the main markers of pulmonary endocrine cells; calcitonin and CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide) occur in thyroid and extrathyroid C cells; ACTH and endorphins in anterior and intermediate lobe pituitary cells, alpha-MSH and CLIP (corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide) in intermediate lobe cells; met- and leu-enkephalins and related peptides in adrenal medullary and paraganglionic cells as well as in some gut (enterochromaffin) cells; NPY (neuropeptide Y) in adrenaline-type adrenal medullary cells, etc.. Both tissue-appropriate and tissue-inappropriate regulatory peptides are produced by endocrine tumours, with inappropriate peptides mostly produced by malignant tumours.

  8. MRI Imaging Features of Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome%垂体柄阻断综合征的MRI表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦雨; 冯逢; 有慧; 李明利; 金征宇

    2011-01-01

    目的 讨论垂体柄阻断综合征的MRI特点.资料与方法 回顾性分析临床及MRI诊断的18例垂体柄阻断综合征患儿的影像及临床资料.结果 18例患者垂体前叶明显变薄,垂体柄缺如16例,2例垂体柄纤细,垂体后叶短T1信号未见,下丘脑漏斗处有短T1信号.实验室检查均有生长激素和(或)其他激素的缺乏.结论 垂体柄阻断综合征多发生于男性,有典型的MRI表现.%Purpose To study the MRI features of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome.Materials and Methods The MRI findings of the patients with PSIS proved by clinically and MRI were analyzed retrospectively. Results All the subjects were male.Atrophy or aplasia of anterior pituitary, heterotopia of posterior pituitary were found in all the cases. Absence (n=16) and marked thinning (n=2) of the pituitary stalk were identified. Growth hormone deficiency and (or) multiple pituitary hormone deficiency were confirmed by blood laboratory tests. Conclusions PSIS is male-predominant and the MRI findings are characteristic of stalk absence or thinning with anterior pituitary atrophy and neurohypophysis heterotopia.

  9. The effect of substance P on the content of cAMP in cultured cells of the rat anterior pituitary gland%P物质对大鼠腺垂体培养细胞Camp含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婧; 姜恩魁; 常志杰

    2003-01-01

    目的:探讨P物质(SP)作用于大鼠腺垂体培养细胞SP受体(SPR)后是否影响第二信使cAMP的水平.方法:应用RIT法测定细胞内cAMP的含量.结果与结论:SP兴奋腺垂体细胞SPR后的生物学反映至少部分是通过刺激第二信使cAMP的生成来完成的.

  10. Efficacy of a dopamine-somatostatin chimeric molecule, BIM-23A760, in the control of cell growth from primary cultures of human non-functioning pituitary adenomas: a multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Tullio; Barbieri, Federica; Spaziante, Renato; Zona, Gianluigi; Hofland, Leo J; van Koetsveld, Peter M; Feelders, Richard A; Stalla, Günter K; Theodoropoulou, Marily; Culler, Michael D; Dong, Jesse; Taylor, John E; Moreau, Jacques-Pierre; Saveanu, Alexandru; Gunz, Ginette; Dufour, Henry; Jaquet, Philippe

    2008-06-01

    Dopamine D2 and somatostatin receptors (sstrs) were reported to affect non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) proliferation in vitro. However, the reported results differ according to the experimental conditions used. We established an experimental protocol allowing reproducible evaluation of NFPA cell proliferation in vitro, to test and compare the antiproliferative effects of dopamine and somatostatin analogs (alone or in combination) with the activity of the dopamine-somatostatin chimeric molecule BIM-23A760. The protocol was utilized by four independent laboratories, studying 38 fibroblast-deprived NFPA cell cultures. Cells were characterized for GH, POMC, sstr1-sstr5, total dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) (in all cases), and D2 receptor long and short isoforms (in 15 out of 38 cases) mRNA expression and for alpha-subunit, LH, and FSH release. D2R, sstr3, and sstr2 mRNAs were consistently observed, with the dominant expression of D2R (2.9+/-2.6 copy/copy beta-glucuronidase; mean+/-s.e.m.), when compared with sstr3 and sstr2 (0.6+/-1.0 and 0.3+/-0.6 respectively). BIM-23A760, a molecule with high affinity for D2R and sstr2, significantly inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation in 23 out of 38 (60%) NFPA cultures (EC50=1.2 pM and Emax=-33.6+/-3.7%). BIM-23A760 effects were similar to those induced by the selective D2R agonist cabergoline that showed a statistically significant inhibition in 18 out of 27 tumors (compared with a significant inhibition obtained in 17 out of 27 tumors using BIM-23A760, in the same subgroup of adenomas analyzed), while octreotide was effective in 13 out of 27 cases. In conclusion, superimposable data generated in four independent laboratories using a standardized protocol demonstrate that, in vitro, chimeric dopamine/sstr agonists are effective in inhibiting cell proliferation in two-thirds of NFPAs.

  11. Norepinephrine modulates pyramidal cell synaptic properties in the anterior piriform cortex of mice: age-dependent effects of β-adrenoceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinaba eGhosh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Early odor preference learning in rodents occurs within a sensitive period (≤postnatal day (P10-12, during which pups show a heightened ability to form an odor preference when a novel odor is paired with a tactile stimulation (e.g. stroking. Norepinephrine (NE release from the locus coeruleus during stroking mediates this learning. However, in older pups, stroking loses its ability to induce learning. The cellular and circuitry mechanisms underpinning the sensitive period for odor preference learning is not well understood. We first established the sensitive period learning model in mice - odor paired with stroking induced odor preference in P8 but not P14 mice. This learning was dependent on NE-β-adrenoceptors as it was prevented by propranolol injection prior to training. We then tested whether there are developmental changes in pyramidal cell excitability and NE responsiveness in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC in mouse pups. Although significant differences of pyramidal cell intrinsic properties were found in two age groups (P8-11 and P14+, NE at two concentrations (0.1 and 10 μM did not alter intrinsic properties in either group. In contrast, in P8-11 pups, NE at 0.1 μM presynaptically decreased miniature IPSC and increased miniature EPSC frequencies. These effects were reversed with a higher dose of NE (10 μM, suggesting involvement of different adrenoceptor subtypes. In P14+ pups, NE at higher doses (1 and 10 μM acted both pre- and postsynaptically to promote inhibition. These results suggest that enhanced synaptic excitation and reduced inhibition by NE in the aPC network may underlie the sensitive period.

  12. Norepinephrine Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Mice: Age-Dependent Effects of β-adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhinaba; Purchase, Nicole C; Chen, Xihua; Yuan, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Early odor preference learning in rodents occurs within a sensitive period [≤postnatal day (P)10-12], during which pups show a heightened ability to form an odor preference when a novel odor is paired with a tactile stimulation (e.g., stroking). Norepinephrine (NE) release from the locus coeruleus during stroking mediates this learning. However, in older pups, stroking loses its ability to induce learning. The cellular and circuitry mechanisms underpinning the sensitive period for odor preference learning is not well understood. We first established the sensitive period learning model in mice - odor paired with stroking induced odor preference in P8 but not P14 mice. This learning was dependent on NE-β-adrenoceptors as it was prevented by propranolol injection prior to training. We then tested whether there are developmental changes in pyramidal cell excitability and NE responsiveness in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC) in mouse pups. Although significant differences of pyramidal cell intrinsic properties were found in two age groups (P8-11 and P14+), NE at two concentrations (0.1 and 10 μM) did not alter intrinsic properties in either group. In contrast, in P8-11 pups, NE at 0.1 μM presynaptically decreased miniature IPSC and increased miniature EPSC frequencies. These effects were reversed with a higher dose of NE (10 μM), suggesting involvement of different adrenoceptor subtypes. In P14+ pups, NE at higher doses (1 and 10 μM) acted both pre- and postsynaptically to promote inhibition. These results suggest that enhanced synaptic excitation and reduced inhibition by NE in the aPC network may underlie the sensitive period.

  13. A possible new syndrome with growth-hormone secreting pituitary adenoma, colonic polyposis, lipomatosis, lentigines and renal carcinoma in association with familial testicular germ cell malignancy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Phuong L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germ-cell testicular cancer has not been definitively linked to any known hereditary cancer susceptibility disorder. Familial testicular cancer in the presence of other findings in affected and unaffected family members might indicate a previously-unidentified hereditary cancer syndrome. Case presentation The patient was diagnosed with a left testicular seminoma at age 28, and treated with left orchiectomy followed by adjuvant cobalt radiation. His family history is significant for testicular seminoma in his son, bladder cancer in his sister, and lipomatosis in his father. His evaluation as part of an etiologic study of familial testicular cancer revealed multiple colon polyps (adenomatous, hyperplastic, and hamartomatous first found in his 50 s, multiple lipomas, multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions, left kidney cancer diagnosed at age 64, and a growth-hormone producing pituitary adenoma with associated acromegaly diagnosed at age 64. The patient underwent genetic testing for Cowden syndrome (PTEN gene, Carney complex (PRKAR1A gene, and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1 gene; no deleterious mutations were identified. Discussion The constellation of benign and malignant neoplasms in the context of this patient's familial testicular cancer raised the possibility that these might be manifestations of a known hereditary susceptibility cancer syndrome; however, genetic testing for the three syndromes that were most likely to explain these findings did not show any mutation. Alternatively, this family's phenotype might represent a novel neoplasm susceptibility disorder. This possibility cannot be evaluated definitively on the basis of a single case report; additional observations and studies are necessary to investigate this hypothesis further.

  14. Development of gonadotropes may involve cyclic transdifferentiation of growth hormone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, G V

    2002-04-01

    The cyclic rise in expression of anterior pituitary gonadotropins coincides with the appearance of cells sharing gonadotropic and somatotropic phenotypes. To learn more about possible factors that regulate the origin of this cell type, we studied the time of appearance of cells that co-expressed growth hormone (GH) and gonadotropins and estrogen receptors during the estrous cycle and compared this timing with known changes in regulatory hormones or their receptors. The first event in this cell population is an increase in expression of estrogen receptor (ER)beta by GH cells from estrus to metestrus suggesting that estrogen may mediate this early change. Expression of GH mRNA rises rapidly from metestrus to mid-cycle. The rise is seen first in GH cells and then in cells with luteinizing hormone (LH) antigens. These data suggest that, early in the cycle, cells bearing GH and growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) receptors begin to produce LH and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors. Early in proestrus, there is an increase in cells with GH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) suggesting that this set of multipotential cells develops later than GH-LH cells. This fits with earlier studies showing the later rise in expression of FSH mRNA. Collectively these data suggest that the anterior pituitary contains a subset of GH cells that have the capacity to respond to multiple releasing hormones and support more than one system.

  15. Anaplastic astrocytoma 14 years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Masaru; Misumi, Syuuzou; Kurosaki, Syuuhei; Shibasaki, Takashi; Ohye, Chihiro (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-04-01

    A case of anaplastic astrocytoma following radiotherapy for growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma is presented with a review of the literature. A 43 year old female was admitted with signs of acromegaly and hypertension. An eosinophilic pituitary adenoma was subtotally removed by transsphenoidal approach, followed by 60 Gy irradiation using a 2x2 cm lateral field. Fourteen years later at the age of 57, she suffered from headache, recent-memory disturbance and uncinate fits. CT scan and MRI disclosed ring-like enhanced mass lesion in the left temporal lobe, corresponding to the previous irradiated field. {sup 18}F-FDG PET showed hypermetabolism at the lesion. Left frontotemporal craniotomy was performed, and a reddish gray gelatinous tumor containing necrotic center and cyst was partially removed. Histologically, the tumor consisted of hypercellular astrocytic cells with perivascular pseudorosette. Coagulation necrosis at the center of the tumor, and hyalinosis and fibrosis of the blood vessels in and around the tumor, which might have been caused by the antecedent radiotherapy, were recognized. Postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were given, however, she expired 13 months after the operation. Seven cases, including ours, of malignant glioma following radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma were reported in the literature. A total dose of irradiation varies from 45 to 95 Gy with a mean of 50 Gy. The period of latency before tumor occurrence ranges from 5 to 22 years with a mean of 10 years. The differentiation of radiation-induced gliomas from radionecrosis of the brain is also discussed. (author).

  16. Screening for GPR101 defects in pediatric pituitary corticotropinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellin, Giampaolo; Correa, Ricardo R; Batsis, Maria; Faucz, Fabio R; Chittiboina, Prashant; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Larco, Darwin O; Quezado, Martha; Daly, Adrian F; Stojilkovic, Stanko S; Wu, T John; Beckers, Albert; Lodish, Maya; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-03-09

    Cushing disease (CD) in children is caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas. Germline or somatic mutations in genes such as MEN1, CDKIs, AIP, and USP8 have been identified in pediatric CD, but the genetic defects in a significant percentage of cases are still unknown. We investigated the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR101, a gene known to be involved in somatotropinomas, for its possible involvement in corticotropinomas. We performed GPR101 sequencing, expression analyses by RT-qPCR and immunostaining, and functional studies (cell proliferation, pituitary hormones secretion, and cAMP measurement) in a series of patients with sporadic CD secondary to ACTH-secreting adenomas in whom we had peripheral and tumor DNA (N=36). No increased GPR101 expression was observed in tumors compared to normal pituitary (NP) tissues, nor did we find a correlation between GPR101 and ACTH expression levels. Sequence analysis revealed a very rare germline heterozygous GPR101 variant (p.G31S) in one patient with CD. Overexpression of the p.G31S variant did not lead to increased growth and proliferation, although modest effects on cAMP signaling were seen. GPR101 is not overexpressed in ACTH-secreting tumors compared to NPs. A rare germline GPR101 variant was found in one patient with CD but in vitro studies did not support a consistent pathogenic effect. GPR101 is unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of CD.

  17. Activation of caspase 8 in the pituitaries of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: implication in increased apoptosis of lactotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroba, Ana I; Frago, Laura M; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2005-10-01

    Lactotroph cell death is increased in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. To determine the mechanism involved, cell death proteins were accessed in pituitaries of diabetic (streptozotocin at 65 mg/kg, 2 months evolution) and control male rats by Western blot analysis and double immunohistochemistry. The intact and cleaved forms of caspase 9 were increased in diabetic rat pituitaries compared with controls. Although the proforms of caspases 3, 6, and 7 were increased in diabetic rat pituitaries, their activated forms were either unchanged or decreased. Activation of these effector caspases may be blocked by the increased expression of X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) in diabetic rat pituitaries. However, in diabetic rats, XIAP expression in lactotrophs was decreased, suggesting that this cell type is not protected. Caspase 8, p53, and nuclear factor kappaB were more highly activated in diabetic rat pituitaries, with caspase 8 colocalization in lactotrophs being increased. These results suggest that, in the pituitaries of diabetic rats, the cascades of normal cell turnover are partially inhibited, possibly via XIAP, and this may be cell specific. Furthermore, activation of the extrinsic cell-death pathway, including activation of caspase 8, may underlie the diabetes-associated increase in lactotroph death.

  18. Angiotensin II in the brain and pituitary: contrasting roles in the regulation of adenohypophyseal secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1989-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AII) is present in gonadotropes in rats, and there are AII receptors on lactotropes and corticotropes. AII may be a paracrine mediator that stimulates the secretion of prolactin and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) at the level of the pituitary, but additional research is needed to define its exact role. Angiotensinogen may also reach the gonadotropes via a paracrine route. On the other hand, there is considerable evidence that brain AII stimulates the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) by increasing the secretion of LH-releasing hormone, and that this effect is due to AII-mediated release of norepinephrine from noradrenergic nerve terminals in the preoptic region of the hypothalamus. In addition, brain AII inhibits the secretion of prolactin, probably by increasing the release of dopamine into the portal hypophyseal vessels. Circulating AII stimulates the secretion of a third anterior pituitary hormone, ACTH, by acting on one or more of the circumventricular organs to increase the secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone.

  19. Simulated pituitary apoplexy: report of an unusual case due to hemorrhage into hypothalamic astrocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glew, W B

    1977-02-01

    An unusual case of acute bilateral loss of vision simulating pituitary apoplexy but due instead to a fatal hemorrhage into a hypothalamic glioma is reported. The clinician dealing with abrupt loss of vision must promptly rule out ocular and orbital causes and then proceed immediately to a consideration of the variety of intracranial lesions which may cause sudden visual loss. Uihlein and Rucker have listed them in descending order of frequency: pituitary adenoma, tumors of the optic nerve and chiasm, supraclinoid aneurysm, parasellar lesion, thrombosis of the carotid artery, hydrocephalus of the third ventricle, chiasmal arachnoiditis, fracture of the anterior cranial fossa, basofrontal tumor of the skull, and pseudotumor cerebri. Neurologic, ophthalmologic, and neuroradiologic evaluations should be obtained without delay and will usually define the lesion and point to the appropriate treatment.

  20. What Happens After Treatment for Pituitary Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop pituitary hormone deficiencies after surgery or radiation therapy. These people will need hormone replacement. Thyroid hormone and adrenal steroids can be taken as pills. In men, testosterone can be given to restore sex drive and ...

  1. Intrasellar tuberculoma presenting as pituitary apoplexy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar M

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The combination of apoplectic symptoms and a sellar mass most often points to a diagnosis of a pituitary adenoma. Sellar tuberculomas are not considered as a cause of ′pituitary apoplexy′ and there has been no radiological documentation of haemorrhage associated with them. We report a 27 years old man who presented with 3 previous episodes of pituitary apoplexy. CT scan showed evidence of a sellar mass with haemorrhage. Transsphenoidal biopsy of the intrasellar mass was reported as ′tuberculoma′. The patient had marked reduction in the size of the lesion following antituberculous therapy with no recurrence of symptoms. Intrasellar tuberculomas must be considered as one of the differential diagnosis when patients present with a pituitary apoplexy.

  2. Pituitary diseases : long-term clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaauw, Agatha Apolonia van der

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes various studies during the long-term follow-up of patients after treatment for pituitary diseases. The focus of this thesis is acromegaly, growth hormone deficiency, sleep and quality of life. Various aspects are described.

  3. What Are the Symptoms of Pituitary Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are the symptoms of pituitary tumors? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Symptoms of Functioning Tumors The symptoms of functioning tumors ...

  4. Diagnostic criteria in invasive pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldovan Ioana-Maria

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas are benign pituitary primary tumors, the most frequent type of tumor in the pituitary fossa. An important part, around 1/3 of the pituitary adenomas manifests an aggressive behavior, growing faster and invading into parasellar areas (cavernous sinus, neural tissues and bones. Objectives: the first aim of this paper is to review the last findings about invasiveness diagnostic criteria, imagistic and biomarkers, which can be used in the classification of pituitary tumors and also to predict the probability of invasiveness, tumor recurrence and suspicion of malignancy. The second aim is to highlight the morphological and clinic types of invasive pituitary adenomas. Materials and methods: we performed a systematic review and analysis of the published articles, searching PubMed between January 1985 and December 2015. There were selected articles published in English, reviews and abstracts. During the advanced search type in PubMed, combinations of the following keywords were used: “pituitary adenoma”, “invasive”, “aggressive”, “biomarkers”, “classification”, “histological subtypes”, ‘”immunohistochemical markers”. Results: 215 articles were selected, regarding diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic aspects. There were some histological subtypes of pituitary adenomas known as having an aggressive clinical behavior. Several biomarkers were identified as being associated with the invasive feature: proliferation markers (Ki-67 index, number of mitoses, p53 & p27 expression, microvascularization density, telomerase, topoisomerase 2 Alpha, matrix metalloproteinases, protein kinase C, cyclooxygenase-2, E-cadherin, transcription Factors, genetic alterations (PTTG gene, Galectin-3 protein/ LGALS3 gene, apoptosis markers. Based on their invasion and proliferation characteristics, pituitary tumors are proposed to be classified into five grades (1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3, the grade 2b tumor with high risk of recurrence

  5. Aryl‐hydrocarbon receptor activity modulates prolactin expression in the pituitary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Tyler B.; Brannick, Katherine E.; Raetzman, Lori T., E-mail: raetzman@life.illinois.edu

    2012-11-15

    Pituitary tumors account for 15% of intracranial neoplasms, however the extent to which environmental toxicants contribute to the proliferation and hormone expression of pituitary cells is unknown. Aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) interacting protein (AIP) loss of function mutations cause somatotrope and lactotrope adenomas in humans. AIP sequesters AhR and inhibits its transcriptional function. Because of the link between AIP and pituitary tumors, we hypothesize that exposure to dioxins, potent exogenous ligands for AhR that are persistent in the environment, may predispose to pituitary dysfunction through activation of AhR. In the present study, we examined the effect of AhR activation on proliferation and endogenous pituitary hormone expression in the GH3 rat somatolactotrope tumor cell line and the effect of loss of AhR action in knockout mice. GH3 cells respond to nM doses of the reversible AhR agonist β-naphthoflavone with a robust induction of Cyp1a1. Although mRNA levels of the anti-proliferative signaling cytokine TGFbeta1 are suppressed upon β-naphthoflavone treatment, we did not observe an alteration in cell proliferation. AhR activation with β-naphthoflavone suppresses Ahr expression and impairs expression of prolactin (PRL), but not growth hormone (GH) mRNA in GH3 cells. In mice, loss of Ahr similarly leads to a reduction in Prl mRNA at P3, while Gh is unaffected. Additionally, there is a significant reduction in pituitary hormones Lhb and Fshb in the absence of Ahr. Overall, these results demonstrate that AhR is important for pituitary hormone expression and suggest that environmental dioxins can exert endocrine disrupting effects at the pituitary. -- Highlights: ► AhR signaling suppresses Prl mRNA expression. ► AhR signaling does not influence pituitary proliferation in culture. ► AhR is necessary for Prl, Lhb and Fshb expression at postnatal day 3.

  6. Double pituitary adenomas: six surgical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, T; Horiguchi, H; Xu, B; Li, C; Hino, A; Sakaki, M; Kannuki, S; Yamada, S

    1999-05-01

    While double pituitary adenomas have been found in approximately 1% of autopsy pituitaries, those in surgically resected material have been only rarely reported. We report herein 6 cases of double pituitary adenomas, which consisted of two histologically and/or immunohistochemically different areas among approximately 450 surgical specimens. Five out of 6 patients were men and the age was ranged between 18 and 61 years old. All these 6 patients presented acromegaly or acrogigantism and hyperprolactinemia was noted in 3 patients. In 2 patients (cases 1 and 2) the two adenomas belonged to different adenoma groups (GH-PRL-TSH group and FSH/LH group), while in the remaining 4 patients (cases 3-6) the two adenomas belonged to the same group (GH-PRL-TSH group). Thus, in all patients at least one of the two adenomas was GH-producing adenoma. Reasons for a high incidence of GH-producing adenomas in surgically resected double pituitary adenomas may include the presence of a variety of histologic subtypes among GH-producing adenomas and the advantage of cytokeratin immunostaining to distinguish these subtypes. In regard to pathogenesis of double pituitary adenomas, adenomas in cases 1 and 2 may be of multicentric occurrence, while those in cases 3-6 may occur through different clonal proliferation within originally one adenoma, resulting in diverse phenotypic expressions. Since there were patients with familial MEN 1 (case 2) and familial pituitary adenoma unrelated MEN 1 (case 3), genetic background should be also considered. Double pituitary adenomas in surgically resected material may not be so infrequent. Further molecular analysis will provide new insights into understanding the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas and their mechanisms of multidirectional phenotypic diffrentiation.

  7. Temozolomide in aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Leon D. Ortiz; Luis V. Syro; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Fabio Rotondo; Humberto Uribe; Camilo E Fadul; Eva Horvath; Kalman Kovacs

    2012-01-01

    Temozolomide is an alkylating agent used in the treatment of gliomas and, more recently, aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas. Temozolomide methylates DNA and, thereby, has antitumor effects. O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, a DNA repair enzyme, removes the alkylating adducts that are induced by temozolomide, thereby counteracting its effects. A Medline search for all of the available publications regarding the use of temozolomide for the treatment of pituitary tumors was perf...

  8. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of visual cortex activation in patients with anterior visual pathway lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiufeng Song; Guohua Wang; Tong Zhang; Lei Feng; Peng An; Yueli Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the secondary visual cortex functional disorder in patients with glaucoma and large pituitary adenoma by functional magnetic resonance imaging, and to determine the correlation between visual field defect and primary visual cortex activation. Results showed that single eye stimulation resulted in bilateral visual cortex activation in patients with glaucoma or large pituitary adenoma. Compared with the normal control group, the extent and intensity of visual cortex activation was decreased after left and right eye stimulation, and functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed a correlation between visual field defects and visual cortex activation in patients with glaucoma and large pituitary adenoma. These functional magnetic resonance imaging data suggest that anterior optic pathway lesions can cause secondary functional disorder of the visual cortex, and that visual defects are correlated with visual cortex activation.

  9. FMRF-amide-like immunoreactivity in brain and pituitary of the hagfish Eptatretus burgeri (Cyclostomata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jirikowski, G; Erhart, G; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1984-01-01

    the hypothalamus to the olfactory system and caudally to the medulla oblongata. FMRF-amide-like immunoreactivity was also found in cells of the adenohypophysis. These observations suggest that the hagfish possesses a brain FMRF-amide-like transmitter system and pituitary cells containing FMRF-amide-like material...

  10. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity “Pituitary gigantism: Update on Molecular Biology and Management”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B.; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an update on the mechanisms leading to pituitary gigantism, as well as to familiarize the practitioner with the implication of these genetic findings on treatment decisions. Recent findings Prior studies have identified gigantism as a feature of a number of monogenic disorders, including mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene, multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 4, McCune Albright Syndrome, Carney Complex, and the paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma and pituitary adenoma association (3PA) due to succinate dehydrogenase defects. We recently described a previously uncharacterized form of early-onset pediatric gigantism caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 and we termed it X-LAG (X-linked acrogigantism). The age of onset of increased growth in X-LAG is significantly younger than other pituitary gigantism cases, and control of growth hormone excess is particularly challenging. Summary Knowledge of the molecular defects that underlie pituitary tumorigenesis is crucial for patient care as they guide early intervention, screening for associated conditions, genetic counseling, surgical approach (partial or total hypophysectomy), and choice of medical management. Recently described microduplications of Xq26.3 account for more than 80% of the cases of early-onset pediatric gigantism. Early recognition of X-LAG may improve outcomes, as successful control of growth hormone excess requires extensive anterior pituitary resection and are difficult to manage with medical therapy alone. PMID:26574647

  11. The endocrine-immune network during taeniosis by Taenia solium: The role of the pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that sex hormones play an important role during Taenia solium infection; however, to our knowledge no studies exist concerning the immune response following complete or lobe-specific removal of the pituitary gland during T. solium infection. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze in hamsters, the effects of lack of pituitary hormones on the duodenal immune response, and their impact on T. solium establishment and development. Thus, in order to achieve this goal, we perform anterior pituitary lobectomy (AL, n = 9), neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL, n = 9) and total hypophysectomy (HYPOX, n = 8), and related to the gut establishment and growth of T. solium, hematoxylin-eosin staining of duodenal tissue and immunofluorescence of duodenal cytokine expression and compared these results to the control intact (n = 8) and control infected group (n = 8). Our results indicate that 15 days post-infection, HYPOX reduces the number and size of intestinally recovered T. solium adults. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of duodenal IFN-γ and IL-12 Th1 cytokines was mildly expressed in the infected controls, in contrast with the high level of expression of these cytokines in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, the duodenum of HYPOX animals showed an increase in the expression of Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-6, when compared to control hamsters. Histological analysis of duodenal mucosa from HYPOX hamsters revealed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria and related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that lobe-specific pituitary hormones affect differentially the T. solium development and the gut immune response.

  12. Etiology of hypopituitarism in tertiary care institutions in Turkish population: analysis of 773 patients from Pituitary Study Group database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriverdi, F; Dokmetas, H S; Kebapcı, N; Kilicli, F; Atmaca, H; Yarman, S; Ertorer, M E; Erturk, E; Bayram, F; Tugrul, A; Culha, C; Cakir, M; Mert, M; Aydin, H; Taskale, M; Ersoz, N; Canturk, Z; Anaforoglu, I; Ozkaya, M; Oruk, G; Hekimsoy, Z; Kelestimur, F; Erbas, T

    2014-09-01

    Hypopituitarism in adult life is commonly acquired and the main causes are known as pituitary tumors and/or their treatments. Since there are new insights into the etiology of hypopituitarism and presence of differences in various populations, more studies regarding causes of hypopituitarism are needed to be done in different ethnic groups with sufficient number of patients. Therefore, we performed a multi-center database study in Turkish population investigating the etiology of hypopituitarism in 773 patients in tertiary care institutions. The study was designed and coordinated by the Pituitary Study Group of SEMT (The Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism of Turkey). Nineteen tertiary reference centers (14 university hospitals and 5 training hospitals) from the different regions of Turkey participated in the study. It is a cross-sectional database study, and the data were recorded for 18 months. We mainly classified the causes of hypopituitarism as pituitary tumors (due to direct effects of the pituitary tumors and/or their treatments), extra-pituitary tumors and non-tumoral causes. Mean age of 773 patients (49.8 % male, 50.2 % female) was 43.9 ± 16.1 years (range 16-84 years). The most common etiology of pituitary dysfunction was due to non-tumoral causes (49.2 %) among all patients. However, when we analyze the causes according to gender, the most common etiology in males was pituitary tumors, but the most common etiology in females was non-tumoral causes. According to the subgroup analysis of the causes of hypopituitarism in all patients, the most common four causes of hypopituitarism which have frequencies over 10 % were as follows: non-secretory pituitary adenomas, Sheehan's syndrome, lactotroph adenomas and idiopathic. With regard to the type of hormonal deficiencies; FSH/LH deficiency was the most common hormonal deficit (84.9 % of the patients). In 33.8 % of the patients, 4 anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies (FSH/LH, ACTH, TSH, and GH) were

  13. 谷胱甘肽对多巴胺诱导的GH4细胞凋亡的保护作用%Glutathione protects GH4 pituitary lactotrope tumor cells from apoptosis induced by dopamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晗; 李书鹏; 姜玉华; 刘芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore mechanisms of dopamine(DA) inducing GH4 cell apoptosis and glutathione(GSH) protecting GH4 cells from apoptosis induced by DA. Methods ① GH4 pituitary cells were treated with DA at 0, 100, 300 and 500μmol/L for 24 h, then treated with DA at 500 μmol/L for 0,1,3,5,12 and 24 h to select the appropriate concentration and time. ② Then GH4 cells were treated with raclopride( a D2 receptor antagonist, Rac) and GSH to explore the effects of Rac and GSH on apoptosis. ③Apoptotic cells were counted by an inverted phase contrast microscope. Morphological appearance was observed by PI labeling, and expressions of Bcl-2 and PARP-1 were detected by Western blot. Results DA induced concentration-and time-dependent GH4 cell apoptosis. A selective D2 receptor antagonist could not block the cytotoxic effect. PI revealed that exposure to GSH (1 mmol/L) for lh prior to the DA treatment attenuated DA-induced apoptosis. Western blot showed up-regulation of Bcl-2 and down-regulation of PARP-1. Conclusion DA exerts cytotoxic effects on GH4 cells mainly through auto-oxidation in the intracellular space. A selective D2 receptor antagonist cannot block DA-induced apoptosis, while GSH can block it, which may be relevant to regulation of Bcl-2 and PARP-1.%目的 探讨多巴胺(DA)诱导垂体瘤GH4细胞凋亡及谷胱甘肽(GSH)对DA诱导细胞凋亡的保护作用机制.方法 本实验通过3部分探讨DA的凋亡作用及GSH的保护作用:①实验分空白对照组及DA用药组,体外观察不同浓度、时间DA对GH4细胞生长的影响;②实验分空白对照组、DA组、DA联合DA D2受体拮抗剂组,观察D2受体在细胞凋亡中的作用;③实验设空白对照组、DA组、GSH用药组,PI染色分别观察3组细胞的凋亡情况,Western blot检测Bcl-2及PARP-1的表达.结果 DA诱导的GH4细胞凋亡呈浓度-时间依赖性,选择性D2受体拮抗剂不能阻断细胞凋亡,经GSH处理GH4细胞后,PI染色显示凋

  14. Histopathologic changes of hypothalamus and pituitary in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yan; Meng Fan-yu; Hu Zhen-hua; Liu Fang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the histopathologic changes of hypothalamus and pituitary in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Methods: Rat model of PCOS was established in 6 immature female SD rats and another 6 immature rats treated with placebo were as control. The tissues of hypothalamus and pituitary were obtained and observed by light microscope and transmission electron microscope.Results: Light microscopy revealed little difference in morphology of neurons in arcuate nucleus or basophilic cells in pituitary between PCOS rats and normal rats. Electron microscopic examination showed that, compared with those in normal rats, GnRH neurons in PCOS rats were larger and fuller, with Golgi complex and mitochondria increased. The mitochondria were small, round and swelling. More high-density secretory granules and bright vesicles were observed in the cytoplasm. The Golgi complex near nucleus in pituitary gonadotropin cell in PCOS rats was fractured and expanded, and there were increased number mitochondria and different sizes of the higher electron density secretory granules in the cytoplasm. Conclusion: The morphological alterations in hypothalamus and pituitary could play a very important role in the development of PCOS.

  15. Resistance to dopamine agonists and somatostatin analogues in pituitary tumors: focus on cytoskeleton involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika ePeverelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary tumors, that origin from excessive proliferation of a specific subtype of pituitary cell, are mostly benign tumors, but may cause significant morbidity in affected patients, including visual and neurologic manifestations from mass-effect, or endocrine syndromes caused by hormone hypersecretion. Dopamine (DA receptor DRD2 and somatostatin (SS receptors (SSTRs represent the main targets of pharmacological treatment of pituitary tumors since they mediate inhibitory effects on both hormone secretion and cell proliferation, and their expression is retained by most of these tumors. Although long acting DA and SS analogs are currently used in the treatment of prolactin (PRL- and growth hormone (GH-secreting pituitary tumors, respectively, clinical practice indicates a great variability in the frequency and entity of favourable responses. The molecular basis of the pharmacological resistance are still poorly understood, and several potential molecular mechanisms have been proposed, including defective expression or genetic alterations of DRD2 and SSTRs, or an impaired signal transduction. Recently, a role for cytoskeleton protein filamin A (FLNA in DRD2 and SSTRs receptors expression and signalling in PRL- and GH- secreting tumors, respectively, has been demonstrated, first revealing a link between FLNA expression and responsiveness of pituitary tumors to pharmacological therapy. This review provides an overview of the known molecular events involved in SS and DA resistance, focusing on the role played by FLNA.

  16. Identification of the receptors for somatostatin (SST) and cortistatin (CST) in chickens and investigation of the roles of cSST28, cSST14, and cCST14 in inhibiting cGHRH1-27NH2-induced growth hormone secretion in cultured chicken pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fengyan; Huang, Guian; Gao, Shunyu; Li, Juan; Yan, Zhenxin; Wang, Yajun

    2014-03-25

    Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are proposed to mediate the actions of somatostatin (SST) and its related peptide, cortistatin (CST), in vertebrates. However, the identity, functionality, and tissue expression of these receptors remain largely unknown in most non-mammalian vertebrates including birds. In this study, five SSTRs (named cSSTR1, cSSTR2, cSSTR3, cSSTR4, cSSTR5) were cloned from chicken brain by RT-PCR. Using a pGL3-CRE-luciferase reporter system, we demonstrated that activation of each cSSTR expressed in CHO cells by cSST28, cSST14 and cCST14 treatment could inhibit forskolin-induced luciferase activity of CHO cells, indicating the functional coupling of all cSSTRs to Gi protein(s). Interestingly, cSSTR1-4 expressed in CHO cells could be activated by cSST28, cSST14 and cCST14 with high potencies, suggesting that they may function as the receptors common for these peptides. In contrast, cSSTR5 could be potently activated by cSST28 only, indicating that it is a cSST28-specific receptor. Using RT-PCR, wide expression of cSSTRs was detected in chicken tissues including pituitary. In accordance with their expression in pituitary, cSST28, cSST14, and cCST14 were demonstrated to inhibit basal and novel cGHRH1-27NH2-induced GH secretion in cultured chicken pituitary cells dose-dependently (0-10nM) by Western blot analysis, suggesting the involvement of cSSTR(s) common for these peptides in mediating their inhibitory actions. Collectively, our study establishes a molecular basis to elucidate the roles of SST/CST in birds and provide insights into the roles of SST/CST in vertebrates, such as their conserved actions on pituitary.

  17. Increased CD40 ligand in patients with acute anterior uveitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øgard, Carsten; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Krogh, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory response in acute anterior uveitis (AU) is believed to be primarily mediated by autoreactive T-cells. We wanted to evaluate whether the T-cell activation marker CD40 ligand is involved in the AU immunopathogenesis.......The inflammatory response in acute anterior uveitis (AU) is believed to be primarily mediated by autoreactive T-cells. We wanted to evaluate whether the T-cell activation marker CD40 ligand is involved in the AU immunopathogenesis....

  18. Intracranial hemorrhage from undetected aneurysmal rupture complicating transphenoidal pituitary adenoma resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Tarun; Uy, Edilfavia Mae; Rai, Mridula; Kannan, Subramanian; Senatus, Patrick

    2011-08-01

    We report a case of a 39-year-old man who presented with a nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma which extended into the suprasellar region. He underwent a transcranial resection of the tumor followed eight months later by transsphenoidal surgery for the residual tumor. Postoperatively he developed massive subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. A cerebral angiogram revealed a leaking anterior communicating artery aneurysm which was not seen on the computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography before the surgery. Complications of transsphenoidal surgery, particularly vascular hemorrhagic complications, and risk of rupture of undetected aneurysms are discussed.

  19. Hepatopathy in an adult, secondary to congenital untreated panhypopituitarism and ectopic posterior pituitary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Valle-Murillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of an adult with advanced liver failure in the setting of an untreated congenital panhypopituitarism. A 32-years-old man presented with a newly onset seizure episode secondary to hypoglycemia. In the initial exploration, we found eunuchoid habitus, absence of secondary sexual characteristics, ascites, and hepatic encephalopathy. Hormonal evaluation confirmed the absence of anterior hypophyseal hormones and the liver function tests showed derangement of liver function. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI showed hypoplastic adenohypophysis and ectopic posterior pituitary gland. In the approach to liver disease, no cause was identified, besides the untreated panhypopituitarism.

  20. Mo