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Sample records for anterior lens capsule

  1. Herniation of the anterior lens capsule

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    Pereira Nolette

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Herniation of the anterior lens capsule is a rare abnormality in which the capsule bulges forward in the pupillary area. This herniation can be mistaken for an anterior lenticonus where both the capsule and the cortex bulge forward. The exact pathology behind this finding is still unclear. We report the clinical, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM and histopathological findings of a case of herniation of the anterior lens capsule. UBM helped to differentiate this entity from anterior lenticonus. Light microscopy revealed capsular splitting suggestive of capsular delamination and collection of fluid (aqueous in the area of herniation giving it a characteristic appearance.

  2. Anterior Lens Capsule and Iris Thicknesses in Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome.

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    Batur, Muhammed; Seven, Erbil; Tekin, Serek; Yasar, Tekin

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate anatomic properties of the lens capsule and iris by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in patients with pseudoexfoliation (PEX). This prospective study included 62 eyes of 62 patients with PEX syndrome and 43 eyes of 43 age- and gender-matched controls. All subjects underwent full ophthalmologic examinations including AS-OCT. Pupillary diameter, midperipheral stromal iris thickness, central and temporal lens capsule thicknesses, and peripheral pseudoexfoliation material thickness on the anterior lens capsule surface were measured and recorded. Mean age was 66.8 ± 9.3 years in the PEX group and 65.5 ± 8.9 years in the control group (p = 0.44). The PEX group consisted of 62 patients: 38 men (61.3%) and 24 women (38.7%); the control group included 43 subjects: 25 men (58.1%) and 18 women (41.9%). Pupillary diameter after pharmacologic mydriasis was 21% smaller in the PEX group than controls. Mean midperipheral iris thickness was 36 ± 7.2 μm (7.8%) thinner in the PEX group than that of control group (p = 0.047). The central anterior capsule was a mean of 3.40 ± 0.51 μm (18%) thicker in the PEX group compared to the control group (p = 0.0001). The temporal anterior lens capsule was a mean of 0.17 ± 0.15 μm thicker in the PEX group compared to the control group (p = 0.81). With high-resolution OCT imaging, it has become possible to evaluate the anterior lens capsule without histologic examination and demonstrate that it is thicker than normal in PEX patients.

  3. Treatment Approach to Small Inadvertent Injury of the Crystalline Lens Anterior Capsule During Iridodialysis Repair Surgery

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    Gökçen Gökçe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old man presented to our ophthalmology department with photophobia. On ophthalmic examination, iridodialysis secondary to blunt trauma that occurred 5 years ago was diagnosed. During iridodialysis repair surgery, long curved double-armed needle of 10-0 polypropylene suture (PC-9 inserted into the 19 gauge side port turned down inadvertently by its own weight, resulting in crystalline lens anterior capsule perforation. Postoperative clinical observation revealed no lens opacification affecting visual acuity. This case report showed that lens aspiration surgery should be postponed if the capsule injury is small.(Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 61-3

  4. Late anterior traumatic subluxation of a circular in-the-bag intraocular lens associated with lack of posterior capsule opacification.

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    Billotte, Christian; Stéfani, Pierre; Lecoq, Pierre

    2003-05-01

    We report a case of traumatic subluxation of a circular poly(methyl methacrylate) intraocular lens (IOL) 5 years after surgery. Slitlamp examination revealed the lack of epithelial cells or fibrosis in the intact capsule bag. Trauma was minor, and no other complication was found in the eye and orbit. The subluxated IOL was easily relocated in the bag with a hook, revealing the poor capsule sealing. Among the factors ensuring the fixation of IOLs placed in the bag after continuous curvilinear capsulotomy are sealing of the anterior and posterior capsules and proliferation of epithelial cells from the equator of the bag.

  5. Novel method of assessing delamination of the anterior lens capsule using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

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    Tan, Deborah KL; Aung, Tin; Perera, Shamira A

    2012-01-01

    Deborah KL Tan,1 Tin Aung,1–3 Shamira A Perera1,21Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore; 3National University of Singapore, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, SingaporeBackground: Delamination of the anterior lens capsule producing a double-ring sign during continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis is commonly associated with true exfoliation syndrome.Methods: Previous studies have concentrated on light- and transmission-electron microscopic...

  6. Morphologic Patterns Formed by the Anomalous Fibers Occurring Along the Anterior Capsule of the Crystalline Lens in People With the Long Anterior Zonule Trait.

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    Roberts, Daniel K; Yang, Yongyi; Morettin, Christina E; Newman, Tricia L; Roberts, Mary F; Wilensky, Jacob T

    2017-07-01

    People with the long anterior zonule (LAZ) trait, which may have prevalence near 2%, have zonular fibers that extend more central than usual along the anterior capsule of the crystalline lens. The anomalous fibers can be observed in vivo with clinical slit lamp biomicroscopy after pharmacologic pupil dilation, and although minimally studied, the LAZ trait may have importance to glaucoma, retinal degeneration, and cataract surgery. To further characterize LAZ morphology, a custom computer program was used to trace LAZ fibers seen on retro-illumination photos acquired during previous study at an academic, urban eye care facility in Chicago, IL. There were 59 African-Americans (54 female; median age = 70 years, 53-91 years) included in the analysis. After initial review of the zonule tracings, we identified three basic LAZ patterns. We called one pattern (47% of right eyes) a "non-segmental LAZ pattern," which was predominated by fibers that could be visually traced to the dilated pupil border where they became obscured by the iris. Another pattern (35% of right eyes), the "segmental LAZ pattern," was predominated by fibers that appeared to terminate abruptly without detectable extension to the pupil border. The third pattern (18% of right eyes), the "mixed LAZ pattern," had a more equivalent mixture of the other two fiber morphologies. Compared to the "non-segmental" group, the "segmental" LAZ eyes had smaller central zonule-free zones (P < 0.0001), and they tended to exhibit fewer LAZ fibers (P = 0.07). These data improve understanding of LAZ clinical anatomy and may be helpful to future investigation. Anat Rec, 300:1336-1347, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Pigmented striae of the anterior lens capsule and age-associated pigment dispersion of variable degree in a group of older African-Americans: an age, race, and gender matched study.

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    Roberts, D K; Winters, J E; Castells, D D; Clark, C A; Teitelbaum, B A

    2001-01-01

    To investigate pigmented striae of the anterior lens capsule in African-Americans, a potential indicator of significant anterior segment pigment dispersion. A group of 40 African-American subjects who exhibited pigmented lens striae (PLS) were identified from a non-referred, primary eye care population in Chicago, IL, USA. These subjects were then compared to an age, race, and gender matched control group relative to refractive error and the presence or absence of diabetes and hypertension. The PLS subjects (mean age = 65.4 +/- 8.8 years, range = 50-87 years) consisted of 36 females and 4 males. PLS were bilateral in 36 (85%) of the 40 subjects. Among the eyes with PLS, 21 (55%) of 38 right eyes and 22 (61%) of 36 left eyes also had significant corneal endothelial pigment dusting, commonly in the shape of a Krukenberg's spindle. Ten (25%) of the PLS subjects had either glaucoma or ocular hypertension (7 bilateral, 3 unilateral). The presence of trabecular meshwork pigment varied from minimal to heavy. The mean +/- SD (range) refractive error of the PLS right eyes was +1.61 +/- 1.43D (-1.50 to +5.00D) and +1.77 +/- 1.37D (-1.00 to +5.00D) for the left eyes. Based on these data, the PLS right eyes were +1.63D (Student's t, p = 0.0001; 95% CI = +0.82 to +2.44D) more hyperopic on average than the control right eyes, and the PLS left eyes were +1.77D (p = 0.0001; 95% CI = +0.92 to +2.63D) more hyperopic on average than the control left eyes. Trend analysis showed a gradually increasing likelihood of PLS with increasing magnitude of hyperopia in both eyes (Mantel-Haenszel chi-square, p = 0.001). Among PLS subjects, 24 (60%) of 40 were hypertensive and 9 (23%) of 40 were diabetic. However, these proportions were not significantly different (two-tailed Fisher's exact test; hypertension: p = 0.30; diabetes: p = 0.70) from the randomly selected controls. Among our African-American group, which consisted predominately of females >50 years of age, the likelihood of PLS

  8. Annular and central heavy pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule in the pigment dispersion syndrome: pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule in the pigment dispersion syndrome.

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    Turgut, Burak; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Deniz, Nurettin; Catak, Onur

    2008-12-01

    To report annular and central heavy pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule in a case of pigment dispersion syndrome. Case report. A 36-year-old female with bilateral pigment dispersion syndrome presented with progressive decrease in visual acuity in the right eye over the past 1-2 years. Clinical examination revealed the typical findings of pigment dispersion syndrome including bilateral Krunkenberg spindles, iris transillumination defects, and dense trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Remarkably, annular and central dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule was noted in the right eye. Annular pigment deposition on the posterior lens capsule may be a rare finding associated with pigment dispersion syndrome. Such a finding suggests that there may be aqueous flow into the retrolental space in some patients with this condition. The way of central pigmentation is the entrance of aqueous to Berger's space. In our case, it is probable that spontaneous detachment of the anterior hyaloid membrane aided this entrance.

  9. Crossed-swords, capsule-pinch technique for capsulotomy in pediatric and/or loose lens cataract extraction.

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    Snyder, Michael E; Lindsell, Luke B

    2010-02-01

    Puncturing the anterior capsule in a patient with a very soft lens, an elastic capsule, and/or deficient zonular countertraction can be challenging even with a sharp needle or blade. The crossed-swords, capsule-pinch technique capitalizes on opposing forces from 2 needles directed toward each other with a "pinch" of the capsule between their tips. This affords a controlled and facile puncture of the capsule without creating stress on the zonules or anteroposterior displacement of the lens. Copyright 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A new technique for the closure of the lens capsule by laser welding.

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    Pini, Roberto; Rossi, Francesca; Menabuoni, Luca; Lenzetti, Ivo; Yoo, Sonia; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    A new method is presented for the closure of the lens capsule based on laser welding of suitably prepared patches of anterior capsular tissue. Experiments were performed in freshly enucleated porcine eyes. The patches were previously stained with a solution of indocyanine green in sterile water and then welded on the recipient capsule by means of diode laser radiation at 810 nm. The welded tissue revealed mechanical properties comparable to those of healthy tissue. This technique is proposed to repair capsular breaks and to provide the closure of the capsulorhexis in lens refilling procedures.

  11. Lens stem cells may reside outside the lens capsule: an hypothesis

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    Meyer Rita A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider the ocular lens in the context of contemporary developments in biological ideas. We attempt to reconcile lens biology with stem cell concepts and a dearth of lens tumors. Historically, the lens has been viewed as a closed system, in which cells at the periphery of the lens epithelium differentiate into fiber cells. Theoretical considerations led us to question whether the intracapsular lens is indeed self-contained. Since stem cells generate tumors and the lens does not naturally develop tumors, we reasoned that lens stem cells may not be present within the capsule. We hypothesize that lens stem cells reside outside the lens capsule, in the nearby ciliary body. Our ideas challenge the existing lens biology paradigm. We begin our discussion with lens background information, in order to describe our lens stem cell hypothesis in the context of published data. Then we present the ciliary body as a possible source for lens stem cells, and conclude by comparing the ocular lens with the corneal epithelium.

  12. SURGICAL INTERVENTION AND ACCOMMODATIVE RESPONSES: I. CENTRIPETAL CILIARY BODY, CAPSULE AND LENS MOVEMENT IN RHESUS MONKEYS OF VARYING AGE

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    Croft, Mary Ann; Mcdonald, Jared P.; James, Rebecca J.; Heatley, Gregg A.; Lin, Ting-Li; Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Kaufman, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine how surgically altering the normal relationship between the lens and the ciliary body in rhesus monkeys affects centripetal ciliary body and lens movement. Methods In 18 rhesus monkey eyes (aged 6–27 years), accommodation was induced before and after surgery by electrical stimulation of the Edinger-Westphal (E–W) nucleus. Accommodative amplitude was measured by coincidence refractometry. Goniovideography was performed before and after intra- and extra-capsular lens extraction (ICLE, ECLE) and anterior regional zonulolysis. Centripetal lens/capsule movements, centripetal ciliary process (CP) movements, and circumlental space were measured by computerized image analysis of the goniovideography images. Results Centripetal accommodative CP and capsule movement increased in velocity and amplitude post-ECLE compared to pre-ECLE regardless of age (n=5). The presence of the lens substance retarded capsule movement by ~21% in the young eyes and by ~62% in the older eyes. Post-ICLE compared to pre-ICLE centripetal accommodative CP movement was dampened in all eyes in which the anterior vitreous was disturbed (n=7), but not in eyes in which the anterior vitreous was left intact (n=2). Following anterior regional zonulolysis (n=4), lens position shifted toward the lysed quadrant during accommodation. Conclusions The presence of the lens substance, capsule zonular attachments, and Wiegers ligament may play a role in centripetal CP movement. The capsule is still capable of centripetal movement in the older eye (although at a reduced capacity) and may have the ability to produce ~6 diopters of accommodation in the presence of a normal young crystalline lens or a similar surrogate. PMID:18552393

  13. Capsule-Fixated Intraocular Lens Implantation in Small Pupil Cases.

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    Schojai, Merita; Schultz, Tim; Burkhard Dick, H

    2017-08-01

    To describe a new technique for implantation of capsule-fixated intraocular lenses (IOLs) (FEMTIS; Oculentis, Berlin, Germany) in patients with small pupils. In 4 eyes with small pupils, an anterior capsule-fixated IOL was implanted into the capsular bag after femtosecond laser treatment. The two large and two small flaps of the IOL were elevated to the front of the iris and the anterior capsule. Finally, the iris was flipped over the flaps to ensure a fixation of the capsule inside of the capsulotomy. In all cases, the implantation of anterior capsule-fixated IOLs was possible. No complications occurred during surgery or within the first months after surgery. With the described technique, capsulefixated IOLs can be implanted in eyes with small pupil easily and safely. This type of IOL has great potential to improve the refractive outcome by better prediction of the postoperative IOL position and eliminating IOL rotation after cataract surgery. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(8):568-570.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Caffeine in the Lens Capsule/Epithelium After Peroral Intake: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study.

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    Kronschläger, Martin; Stimpfl, Thomas; Ruiß, Manuel; Hirnschall, Nino; Leisser, Christoph; Findl, Oliver

    2018-04-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of perorally administered caffeine, a widely consumed and potent dietary antioxidant, in the anterior lens capsule and lens epithelial cells, a crucial cell monolayer for cataract development. Bilateral cataract patients were scheduled for cataract surgery with a caffeine abstinence of 1 week before surgery of each eye. At the day of surgery of the second eye patients were administered no drink (0-mg group) or coffee with 60-, 120-, or 180-mg caffeine. After capsulorhexis the lens capsule including lens epithelial cells was transferred to a test tube for analysis of caffeine concentration by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Coffee consumption significantly (P < 0.05) increased caffeine levels of the lens capsule/epithelium in the 60-, 120-, and 180-mg group. Caffeine concentrations (caffeine ng/lens capsule/epithelium) measured as difference between 1st and 2nd eye were -0.52 ± 1.16 (0-mg group, n = 7), 1.88 ± 2.02 (60-mg group, n = 8), 2.09 ± 0.67 (120-mg group, n = 9), and 3.68 ± 1.86 (180-mg group, n = 9). The increase constant of caffeine in a linear regression model was estimated as a 95% CI 0.02 ± 0.0046 (degrees of freedom; 25; r = 0.85). Peroral intake of coffee significantly increased caffeine concentrations in the lens capsule and lens epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. This information is important for further investigations on preventing cataract.

  15. Reduced anterior internal capsule white matter integrity in primary insomnia.

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    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Regen, Wolfram; Prem, Martin; Baglioni, Chiara; Nissen, Christoph; Feige, Bernd; Schnell, Susanne; Kiselev, Valerij G; Hennig, Jürgen; Riemann, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    Chronic insomnia is one of the most prevalent central nervous system diseases, however, its neurobiology is poorly understood. Up to now, nothing is known about the integrity of white matter tracts in insomnia patients. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used in a well-characterized sample of primary insomnia (PI) patients and good sleeper controls to fill this void. Voxelwise between-group comparisons of fractional anisotropy (FA) were performed in 24 PI patients (10 males; 14 females; 42.7 ± 14.5 years) and 35 healthy good sleepers (15 males; 20 females; 40.1 ± 9.1 years) with age and sex as covariates. PI patients showed reduced FA values within the right anterior internal capsule and a trend for reduced FA values in the left anterior internal capsule. The results suggest that insomnia is associated with a reduced integrity of white matter tracts in the anterior internal capsule indicating that disturbed fronto-subcortical connectivity may be a cause or consequence of the disorder.

  16. Slit-lamp Needling of the Anterior Capsule for Aqueous Misdirection After Hyaloido-zonulectomy and Iridectomy.

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    Mardelli, Pierre G; Mardelli, Marc E

    2018-04-01

    We present a case of persistent aqueous misdirection, after Ahmed glaucoma valve surgery, despite undergoing an anterior vitrectomy with hyaloido-zonulectomy and iridectomy. A 73-year-old female patient, 4 months after phacotrabeculectomy, was referred with persistent high intraocular pressure (IOP). Postoperatively, she developed aqueous misdirection with a flat anterior chamber (AC) but with an IOP of 15 mm Hg. On presentation, her AC was shallow with peripheral iris-cornea touch, and her IOP was 39 mm Hg. Posterior Nd:Yag capsulotomy with disruption of anterior hyaloid face partially deepened the AC. With failure of the trabeculectomy and high IOP, an Ahmed valve was placed. On the first operative day the AC was deep with an IOP of 10 mm Hg. On day 6 the patient presented with pain, flat AC, and an IOP of 10 mm Hg. Fundus examination revealed no choroidal effusion. Despite repeated reformation with viscoelastic, the AC failed to deepen. An anterior vitrectomy with hyaloido-zonulectomy was performed. Initially, the AC was deep, but, a few days later, it was flat. Multiple reformations and vitreous tap failed to keep the AC deep. A 30-G needle was passed at the slit lamp across the temporal cornea, iris, and anterior capsule into the anterior vitreous cavity. The needle was then partially withdrawn and used to create a space between the intraocular lens and anterior capsule. This immediately deepened the AC and remained so for the duration of follow-up (4 mo). Slit-lamp needling of the anterior lens capsule can be successfully performed to help resolve a persistent case of aqueous misdirection after anterior vitrectomy.

  17. Primary anterior chamber intraocular lens for the treatment of severe crystalline lens subluxation.

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    Hoffman, Richard S; Fine, I Howard; Packer, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Subluxated cataractous and clear lenses are commonly treated by limbal or pars plana lensectomy followed by primary or secondary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Adjunctive capsular prosthetic devices have facilitated lens removal and IOL centration in these challenging cases but have also added complexity and potential complications to the procedure. Although crystalline lens extraction may be required to clear the visual axis in mild to moderate lens subluxations, we propose insertion of a primary anterior chamber IOL without lens extraction in severe subluxations when the eye is optically aphakic or can be made functionally aphakic following neodymium:YAG laser zonulysis. Two cases demonstrating this approach are presented.

  18. Application of lens capsules tension reducing capsulorhexis and conventional capsulorhexis in the white cataract phacoemulsification

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    Rong-Feng Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the clinical effect of lens capsules tension reducing capsulorhexis and conventional capsulorhexis in the white cataract phacoemulsification. Methods: A total of 68 patients (76 eyes with white cataract who were admitted in our hospital from June, 2011 to June, 2016 were included in the study and divided into the experiment group (n=34, 36 eyes and the control group (n=34, 40 eyes according to the difference of intraoperative capsulorhexis. All the patients were performed with cataract phacoemulsification in combined with intraocular lens implantation. The patients in the experiment group were performed with lens capsules tension reducing capsulorhexis, while the patients in the control group were performed with conventional capsulorhexis. The integrity of the anterior capsule capsulorhexis, the degree of corneal endothelium edema, the intraocular lens deviation, uncorrected visual acuity, and corneal endothelial cell count in the two groups were compared. Results: A total of 34 eyes (94.44% in the experiment group and 35 eyes (87.50% in the control group successfully completed continuous annular capsulorhexis, and there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. The number of patients whose uncorrected visual acuity was greater than 0.5 increased 1 d-6 months after operation, and that in the experiment group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The difference of intraocular lens deviation rates between the 2 groups at different times after operation was not significant. The corneal endothelial cell count 1 d-6 months after operation in the 2 groups was significantly decreased when compared with before operation, but the difference between the 2 groups was not significant. The number of eyes without edema in the experiment group 1d after operation was significantly higher than that in the control group, and the number of eyes with grade Ⅱ edema was significantly less than that in the control

  19. Complications and visual outcomes after glued foldable intraocular lens implantation in eyes with inadequate capsules.

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    Kumar, Dhivya Ashok; Agarwal, Amar; Packiyalakshmi, Sathiya; Jacob, Soosan; Agarwal, Athiya

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the complications and visual outcomes of glued intrascleral-fixated foldable intraocular lens (IOL) in eyes with deficient capsules. Dr Agarwal's Eye Hospital and Eye Research Centre, Chennai, India. Case series. Data were evaluated from the records of patients with a primary glued foldable IOL for intraoperative capsular loss or subluxated lens or secondary glued foldable IOL for aphakia. Exclusion criteria included preoperative glaucoma, aniridia, macular scar, traumatic subluxation, combined surgeries, incomplete operative medical records, and postoperative follow-up less than 6 months. The intraoperative and postoperative complication rates, reoperation rate, and visual outcomes were analyzed. The study comprised 208 eyes (185 patients). The mean follow-up was 16.7 months ± 10.2 (SD). The intraoperative complications were hyphema (0.4%), haptic breakage (0.4%), and deformed haptics (0.9%). Early complications occurred in 29 eyes (13.9%) and included corneal edema (5.7%), epithelial defect (1.9%), and grade 2 anterior chamber reaction (2.4%). Late complications occurred in 39 eyes (18.7%) and included optic capture (4.3%), IOL decentration (3.3%), haptic extrusion (1.9%), subconjunctival haptic (1.4%), macular edema (1.9%), and pigment dispersion (1.9%). Reoperation was required in 16 eyes (7.7%). Haptic position was altered in eyes with IOL decentration. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) improved or remained unchanged in 84.6% of eyes. The postoperative CDVA was 20/40 or better and 20/60 or better in 38.9% and 48.5% of eyes, respectively. The foldable glued-IOL procedure showed satisfactory visual outcomes without serious complications. Intraocular lens decentration was due to haptic-related problems. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule associated with the pigment dispersion syndrome.

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    Lin, Danny Y; Volpicelli, Mark; Singh, Kuldev

    2003-12-01

    To report an unusual case of pigment dispersion syndrome associated with unilateral dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule. Case report. A 59-year-old male with bilateral pigment dispersion syndrome presented with progressive decrease in visual acuity in the left eye over the past 10 to 20 years. Clinical examination revealed the typical findings of pigment dispersion syndrome including the presence of bilateral Krunkenberg spindles, iris transillumination defects, and heavy trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Of note, there was remarkably dense pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule in the eye with decreased visual acuity. Pigmentation of the posterior lens capsule may be a rare finding associated with pigment dispersion syndrome. Such a finding suggests that there may be aqueous flow into the retrolental space in some patients with this condition. The optimal treatment of this unusual condition remains undetermined.

  1. Diffusion of nanoparticles into the capsule and cortex of a crystalline lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachar, Ronald A; Chen Wei; Woo, Boon K; Pierscionek, Barbara K; Zhang, Xing; Ma, Lun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the ability of fluorescent nanoparticles to diffuse into a crystalline lens. Intact porcine lenses from five-month-old pigs, intact human lenses obtained from three donors aged 41, 42 and 45 years, and sections of human lens cortex obtained from four donors aged 11, 19, 32, and 34 years were incubated for 72 h at 7 deg. C in aqueous solutions of green (566 nm) and red (652 nm) fluorescent water soluble cadmium tellurium (CdTe) nanoparticles. As demonstrated by fluorescent and confocal microscopy, the CdTe nanoparticles diffused into the porcine and human lens capsule and into human cortical lens fibres; however, the nanoparticles did not pass through the intact lens capsule. Nanoparticles can be used as a method for studying intracellular structure and biochemical pathways within the lens capsule and cortical lens fibres to further understand cataractogenesis and may serve as a carrier for chemotherapeutic agents for the potential treatment of primary and secondary cataracts

  2. Posterior capsule opacification.

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    Wormstone, I Michael; Wang, Lixin; Liu, Christopher S C

    2009-02-01

    Posterior Capsule Opacification (PCO) is the most common complication of cataract surgery. At present the only means of treating cataract is by surgical intervention, and this initially restores high visual quality. Unfortunately, PCO develops in a significant proportion of patients to such an extent that a secondary loss of vision occurs. A modern cataract operation generates a capsular bag, which comprises a proportion of the anterior and the entire posterior capsule. The bag remains in situ, partitions the aqueous and vitreous humours, and in the majority of cases, houses an intraocular lens. The production of a capsular bag following surgery permits a free passage of light along the visual axis through the transparent intraocular lens and thin acellular posterior capsule. However, on the remaining anterior capsule, lens epithelial cells stubbornly reside despite enduring the rigours of surgical trauma. This resilient group of cells then begin to re-colonise the denuded regions of the anterior capsule, encroach onto the intraocular lens surface, occupy regions of the outer anterior capsule and most importantly of all begin to colonise the previously cell-free posterior capsule. Cells continue to divide, begin to cover the posterior capsule and can ultimately encroach on the visual axis resulting in changes to the matrix and cell organization that can give rise to light scatter. This review will describe the biological mechanisms driving PCO progression and discuss the influence of IOL design, surgical techniques and putative drug therapies in regulating the rate and severity of PCO.

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN LENS CAPSULES - A COMPARATIVE LM, SEM AND TEM EXAMINATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGEBLOED, WL; KALICHARAN, D; LOS, LI; VANDERVEEN, G; WORST, JGF

    1991-01-01

    Lens capsules of patients of advanced age, obtained after extracapsular cataract surgery, were carefully prepared for a combined LM, TEM and SEM investigation, after preliminary washing and mounting onto a holder in a buffer solution. After pre-fixation with GA, samples were postfixed for LM/TEM and

  4. Anterior haptic flexing and in-the-bag subluxation of an accommodating intraocular lens due to excessive capsular bag contraction.

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    Kramer, Gregory D; Werner, Liliana; Neuhann, Tobias; Tetz, Manfred; Mamalis, Nick

    2015-09-01

    We describe the case of a patient who had cataract surgery with implantation of the hydrophilic acrylic Tetraflex accommodating intraocular lens (IOL), with subsequent development of capsulorhexis phimosis and in-the-bag IOL subluxation. Contraction of the capsular bag secondary to fibrosis resulted in significant anterior flexing of the lens haptic component. Explantation of the IOL-capsular bag complex was required 7 years after implantation. Histopathologic analysis demonstrated multiple areas of thick anterior subcapsular fibrosis. Pseudoexfoliative material was present throughout the surface of the lens capsule. Intraocular lenses manufactured from hydrophilic acrylic material are highly flexible and may be more susceptible to capsule contraction, even in the absence of predisposing ocular and systemic conditions. This case highlights the importance of developing guidelines regarding patient screening and selection for the appropriate use of accommodating and other highly flexible IOLs. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anterior joint capsule of the normal hip and in children with transient synovitis: US study with anatomic and histologic correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.F. Robben (Simon); M.H. Lequin (Maarten); A.F.M. Diepstraten (Ad); J.C. den Hollander (Jan); C.A. Entius; M. Meradji

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To study the anatomic components of the anterior joint capsule of the normal hip and in children with transient synovitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six cadaveric specimens were imaged with ultrasonography (US) with special attention to the anterior

  6. Transient anterior subcapsular vacuolar change of the crystalline lens in patients after posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation.

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    Chung, Jin Kwon; Shin, Jin Hee; Lee, Sung Jin

    2013-10-25

    We present two cases of transient vacuolar changes in the anterior subcapsular space of the crystalline lens in patients after posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation. Implantable collamer lenses (ICL) were implanted in healthy myopic patients. Vacuolar changes developed just after the irrigating procedure through the narrow space between the ICL and the crystalline lens. Slit-lamp examinations and spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed bleb-like lesions in the anterior subcapsular space of one eye in each case, though the lesions gradually improved without visual deterioration. Consequently, the lesions turned into a few anterior subcapsular small faint opacities. Direct irrigation of the narrow space confined by the ICL and the crystalline lens is at risk for the development of vacuolar changes in the crystalline lens. The observed spontaneous reversal indicates that surgeons should not rush to surgical intervention but rather opt for close follow over several weeks.

  7. Lenticonus diagnosis in Alport's syndrome: Anterior capsule apical angle calculation using Scheimpflug imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrín, E; Jarrín, I; Arnalich-Montiel, F

    2015-08-01

    We describe a simplified method to detect anterior lenticonus. Three eyes of 2 patients with anterior lenticonus, plus 16 eyes from 16 healthy controls underwent Scheimpflug imaging of their anterior segment with Pentacam. The anterior capsule apex angle was manually identified and automatically measured by AutoCAD. The mean angle was 173.06° (SD: 1.91) in healthy subjects, and 158.33° (SD: 3.05) in anterior lenticonus eyes. The angle obtained from patients was more than 3 SD steeper than those from healthy subjects. The apical angle calculation method seems to discriminate well between normal eyes and eyes suspected of having anterior lenticonus. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Optical transmission and laser ablation of pathologically changed eye lens capsule

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    Gamidov, A A; Bolshunov, A V [Research Institute of Eye Diseases, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yuzhakov, A V; Shcherbakov, E M; Baum, O I; Sobol, E N [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-28

    Optical transmission and ablation mechanisms in the secondary cataract films under the impact of 1.06-mm laser radiation are studied. The comparison of incident and transmitted (paraxial) radiation power at different values of the power density is carried out for two types of the eye lens capsule tissue (hard and soft) possessing different optical and mechanical properties. It is found that the effective attenuation coefficient for soft films is almost five times as large as that for the hard ones. The obtained measurement data on the transparency variation in the process of laser action allow the temperature evaluation and the determination of dominant mechanism of laser ablation, as well as the development of recommendations, providing the prevention or reduction of possible side effects. The obtained results can be used to optimise the regimes of laser impact in the process of the opacified lens capsule removal.

  9. Comparison of hydrophobic and hydrophilic intraocular lens in preventing posterior capsule opacification after cataract surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yang; Yang, Ke; Li, Jiaxin; Huang, Yang; Zhu, Siquan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) is a common long-term complication of cataract surgery. Intraocular lens design and material have been implicated in influencing the development of PCO. This study evaluated the association of hydrophobic and hydrophilic intraocular lenses on preventing PCO. Methods: Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until August 3, 2016, using the following search terms: cataract, posterior capsule opacification, ...

  10. [Capsule contraction as a cause of in-the-bag intraocular lens subluxation and simplified technique of IOL reposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurowski, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    Presentation of the case of the pseudophakic patient in whom 3 months after uncomplicated phacoemulsification severe capsule contraction syndrome, followed by equatorial capsule fibrosis, 240 degree zonular dialysis, and spontaneous in-the-bag intraocular lens subluxation, were observed. Consecutive surgical intervention consisting of simplified transscleral "free haptic" through the capsule fixation and additional plastic of phimotic capsulorrhexis allowed to restore the best corrected visual acuity to 20/25.

  11. Optical Coherence Tomography Examination of the Anterior Segment in a Case of Corneal Perforation and Lens Trauma by Chestnut Burr

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    Takashi Ono

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut burrs, the thorny encapsulation of chestnut fruit, can sometimes cause corneal injuries and ulceration, with poor prognoses. We report a case of corneal perforation and damaged anterior lens capsule due to a chestnut burr, using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT. A 67-year-old woman with a chestnut burr injury in her right eye was referred to our hospital. Her right best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 0.8. Slit-lamp examination and AS-OCT showed perforation involving the endothelial layer at the center of the cornea. The iris and anterior lens capsule were damaged. Cell infiltration was observed around the wound. Bacterial examination showed gram-positive cocci but no fungi. The patient was diagnosed with a corneal perforation and bacterial keratitis. Levofloxacin 1.5% and cefmenoxime treatments were initiated and a soft contact lens was placed to seal the wound. On day 3, there was no improvement in the corneal cell infiltration, but AS-OCT suggested that the inner wound had closed. A culture test revealed the presence of Propionibacterium acnes, which was sensitive to both levofloxacin and cefmenoxime. Therefore, we continued the same antibiotic treatment. On day 26, the opacification and cell infiltration at the center of the cornea had improved. AS-OCT showed healing of the corneal wound with reduction in the central corneal thickness. Her BCVA improved to 1.0. AS-OCT was a valuable tool to noninvasively observe wound shape and detect the presence of any intracorneal foreign bodies.

  12. Intracapsular lens extraction for the treatment of pupillary block glaucoma associated with anterior subluxation of the crystalline lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Joon; Ha, Seung Joo

    2013-01-01

    To report a case of pupillary block glaucoma associated with spontaneous crystalline lens subluxation into the anterior chamber in a 34-year-old man. Dry vitrectomy was performed for securing enough retrolental space, and an intracapsular lens extraction was then performed via a corneolimbal incision. Additional endothelial cell damage was avoided with an injection of viscoelastics and gentle extraction of the crystalline lens. After deepening of the anterior chamber, scleral fixation of the intraocular lens was performed with an ab externo technique. Two months after the operation, a well-fixated intraocular lens was observed and intraocular pressure was stable. The postoperative corneal astigmatism was -3.5 dpt, and the patient had a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/25. Postoperative complications included decreased endothelial cell count and sector iris paralysis near the incision site. An anteriorly subluxated crystalline lens can cause pupillary block glaucoma in healthy young adults. To prevent intraoperative complications, intracapsular lens extraction with dry vitrectomy can be a good surgical option. The endothelial cell density should be closely monitored after surgery.

  13. Inner Synovial Membrane Footprint of the Anterior Elbow Capsule: An Arthroscopic Boundary

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    Srinath Kamineni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study is to describe the inner synovial membrane (SM of the anterior elbow capsule, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Materials and Methods. Twenty-two cadaveric human elbows were dissected and the distal humerus and SM attachments were digitized using a digitizer. The transepicondylar line (TEL was used as the primary descriptor of various landmarks. The distance between the medial epicondyle and medial SM edge, SM apex overlying the coronoid fossa, the central SM nadir, and the apex of the SM insertion overlying the radial fossa and distance from the lateral epicondyle to lateral SM edge along the TEL were measured and further analyzed. Gender and side-to-side statistical comparisons were calculated. Results. The mean age of the subjects was 80.4 years, with six male and five female cadavers. The SM had a distinctive double arched attachment overlying the radial and coronoid fossae. No gender-based or side-to-side quantitative differences were noted. In 18 out of 22 specimens (81.8%, an infolding extension of the SM was observed overlying the medial aspect of the trochlea. The SM did not coincide with the outer fibrous attachment in any specimen. Conclusion. The humeral footprint of the synovial membrane of the anterior elbow capsule is more complex and not as capacious as commonly understood from the current literature. The synovial membrane nadir between the two anterior fossae may help to explain and hence preempt technical difficulties, a reduction in working arthroscopic volume in inflammatory and posttraumatic pathologies. This knowledge should allow the surgeon to approach this aspect of the anterior elbow compartment space with the confidence that detachment of this synovial attachment, to create working space, does not equate to breaching the capsule. Alternatively, stripping the synovial attachment from the anterior humerus does not constitute an anterior capsular release.

  14. Pathological findings in the lens capsules and intraocular lens in chronic pseudophakic endophthalmitis: an electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adán, A; Casaroli-Marano, R P; Gris, O; Navarro, R; Bitrian, E; Pelegrin, L; Sanchez-Dalmau, B

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the pathological findings in lens capsules and intraocular lens (IOL) studied by scanning and/or transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, respectively) in a series of four eyes with chronic pseudophakic endophthalmitis (CPE). We performed a retrospective study of four patients presenting CPE in whom surgical treatment with pars plana vitrectomy, capsulectomy with extraction of the IOL, and intravitreous antibiotic therapy was thereafter performed. The extracted IOL and the capsular remains were studied by SEM and/or TEM and microbiologic analysis of aqueous humour and vitreous aspirate was also carried out in all the cases. The presence of microorganisms was observed in the material analysed in all the cases studied. The use of TEM identified bacterial contamination by Staphylococcus spp and mixed contamination with microorganisms presenting a bacillar morphology suggestive of infection by Propionibacterium acnes in addition to the presence of cocci in the capsular remains. In another two cases, SEM localized colonies of Staphylococcus spp on the surface of the IOL in one case and mixed bacterial colonization with cocci plus filamentous bacteria in the other. The presence of macrophages associated with bacteria was observed in the capsular remains. Microorganisms were found in the IOL or the capsular material in the four cases studied, thereby explaining the refractoriness and severity of infection. The possible presence of polymicrobial infections, especially in the cases with filamentous bacteria, also explains the recurrence of infection.

  15. Comparison of hydrophobic and hydrophilic intraocular lens in preventing posterior capsule opacification after cataract surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Yang, Ke; Li, Jiaxin; Huang, Yang; Zhu, Siquan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) is a common long-term complication of cataract surgery. Intraocular lens design and material have been implicated in influencing the development of PCO. This study evaluated the association of hydrophobic and hydrophilic intraocular lenses on preventing PCO. Methods: Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until August 3, 2016, using the following search terms: cataract, posterior capsule opacification, and intraocular lens. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), retrospective, and cohort studies. Results: Eleven studies were included in the study with a total of 889 eyes/patients. The overall analysis revealed that hydrophobic intraocular lenses were associated with lower Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy rates than hydrophilic lenses [odds ratio (OR) = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.16–0.91, P = .029]. Hydrophobic intraocular lenses were also associated with lower subjective PCO score (diff. in means: −1.32, 95% CI = −2.39 to −0.25, P = .015) and estimated PCO score (diff. in means: −2.23; 95% CI, −3.80 to −0.68, P = .005) as compared with hydrophilic lenses. Objective PCO score was similar between lens types. (diff. in means: −0.075; 95% CI, −0.18 to 0.035; P = .182). Pooled analysis found that visual acuity was similar between hydrophobic and hydrophilic intraocular lenses (diff. in means: −0.016; 95% CI, −0.041 to 0.009, P = .208). Conclusion: In general, PCO scores and the rate of Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy were influenced by intraocular lens biomaterial. Lens made of hydrophobic biomaterial were overall superior in lowering the PCO score and the Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy rate, but not visual acuity. PMID:29095259

  16. Anterior migration of dexamethasone implant in a pseudophakic patient with intact posterior capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer Kocak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravitreal application of Ozurdex ® (Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA which is a biodegradable, sustained-release dexamethasone implant has been reported to be effective in the treatment of macular edema. Migration of such implant into the anterior chamber has been recently described in cases without perfect zonular or the posterior capsular integrity. Herein, we report the first case with anterior migration of Ozurdex ® implant that mislocated just behind the intraocular lens (IOL in an intact capsular bag. It is thought that such implant migrated anteriorly towards into the posterior chamber through weak zonules as the present case had a medical history of uneventful phacoemulsification surgery with the implantation of posterior chamber IOL. However, the migrated implant was well tolerated since there was no sign of the corneal complication, rise in intraocular pressure, and anterior chamber reaction. Close follow-up was scheduled to find out any signs of anterior segment pathology. Meanwhile dexamethasone implant completely degraded at the 4 th month of postoperative follow-up.

  17. In-the-bag decentration of a hydrophilic radially asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens secondary to capsule contraction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J.W.M. van der; Meulen, I.J. van der; Mourits, M.P.; Lapid-Gortzak, R.

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of in-the-bag decentration and tilt of a hydrophilic rotationally asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) of the M Plus type secondary to capsule contraction. After uneventful surgery and follow-up for 3 months, progressive decentering and tilting of the IOL secondary to

  18. NO PLIF Visualizations of the Orion Capsule in LENS-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, C.; Clemens, N.; Danehy, P. M.; Bathel, B.; Parker, R.; Wadhams, T.; Holden, M.; Kirk, B.

    2013-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of nitric oxide (NO) was used to visualize the interaction of reaction-control-system (RCS) jet flows in the wake of a hypersonic capsule reentry vehicle. The tests were performed at the Calspan University at Buffalo Research Center's (CUBRC) LENS-I reflected shock tunnel facility. This was the first application of PLIF to study RCS jets in a large-scale pulsed hypersonic facility. The LENS-I facility allowed RCS jet flows to be studied while varying the flow enthalpy, Reynolds number, angle of attack and jet configuration. The interaction of pitch and roll jets with the flowfield was investigated. Additionally, thin film sensors were used to monitor heat transfer on the surface of the model to detect any localized heating resulting from the firing of the RCS jets. Tests were conducted with the model held at angles of attack of 18deg and 22deg. The nominal Mach number in all tests was 8, while Reynolds number based on model diameter ranged from 2.2x10(exp 6) - 1.5x10(exp 7). Images were processed using the Virtual Diagnostics Interface (ViDI) system developed at NASA Langley Research Center to provide a three-dimensional display of the experimental data.

  19. Lens thickness assessment: anterior segment optical coherence tomography versus A-scan ultrasonography

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    Nikoo Hamzeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess lens thickness measurements with anterior segment-optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT in comparison with A-scan ultrasonography (A-scan US. METHODS: There were 218 adult subjects (218 eyes aged 59.2±9.2y enrolled in this prospective cross-sectional study. Forty-three eyes had open angles and 175 eyes had narrow angles. Routine ophthalmic exam was performed and nuclear opacity was graded using the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III. Lens thickness was measured by AS-OCT (Visante OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA. The highest quality image was selected for each eye and lens thickness was calculated using ImageJ software. Lens thickness was also measured by A-scan US. RESULTS: Interclass correlations showed a value of 99.7% for intra-visit measurements and 95.3% for inter-visit measurements. The mean lens thickness measured by AS-OCT was not significantly different from that of A-scan US (4.861±0.404 vs 4.866±0.351 mm, P=0.74. Lens thickness values obtained from the two instruments were highly correlated overall (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.81, P<0.001, and in all LOCS III specific subgroups except in grade 5 of nuclear opacity. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a 95% limit of agreement from -0.45 to 0.46 mm. Lens thickness difference between the two instruments became smaller as the lens thickness increased and AS-OCT yielded smaller values than A-scan US in thicker lens (β=-0.29, P<0.001 CONCLUSION: AS-OCT-derived lens thickness measurement is valid and comparable to the results obtained by A-scan US. It can be used as a reliable noncontact method for measuring lens thickness in adults with or without significant cataract.

  20. Profile of collagen gene expression in the glenohumeral capsule of patients with traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder,

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    Paulo Santoro Belangero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate the expression of the genes COL1A1, COL1A2, COL3A1 and COL5A1 in the glenohumeral capsule of patients with traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder.Methods:Samples from the glenohumeral capsule of 18 patients with traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder were evaluated. Male patients with a positive grip test and a Bankart lesion seen on magnetic resonance imaging were included. All the patients had suffered more than one episode of shoulder dislocation. Samples were collected from the injured glenohumeral capsule (anteroinferior region and from the macroscopically unaffected region (anterosuperior region of each patient. The expression of collagen genes was evaluated using the polymerase chain reaction after reverse transcription with quantitative analysis (qRT-PCR.Results:The expression of COL1A1, COL1A2 and COL3A1 did not differ between the two regions of the shoulder capsule. However, it was observed that the expression of COL5A1 was significantly lower in the anteroinferior region than in the anterosuperior region (median ± interquartile range: 0.057 ±0.052 vs. 0.155 ±0.398; p = 0.028 of the glenohumeral capsule.Conclusion:The affected region of the glenohumeral capsule in patients with shoulder instability presented reduced expression of COL5A1.

  1. Phakic iris-fixated intraocular lens placement in the anterior chamber: effects on aqueous flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Rodolfo; Pralits, Jan O; Siggers, Jennifer H; Soleri, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Phakic intraocular lenses (pIOLs) are used for correcting vision; in this paper we investigate the fluid dynamical effects of an iris-fixated lens in the anterior chamber. In particular, we focus on changes in the wall shear stress (WSS) on the cornea and iris, which could be responsible for endothelial and pigment cell loss, respectively, and also on the possible increase of the intraocular pressure, which is known to correlate with the incidence of secondary glaucoma. We use a mathematical model to study fluid flow in the anterior chamber in the presence of a pIOL. The governing equations are solved numerically using the open source software OpenFOAM. We use an idealized standard geometry for the anterior chamber and a realistic geometric description of the pIOL. We consider separately the main mechanisms that produce fluid flow in the anterior chamber. The numerical simulations allow us to obtain a detailed description of the velocity and pressure distribution in the anterior chamber, and indicated that implantation of the pIOL significantly modifies the fluid dynamics in the anterior chamber. However, lens implantation has negligible influence on the intraocular pressure and does not produce a significant increase of the shear stress on the cornea, while the shear stress on the iris, although increased, is not enough to cause detachment of cells. We conclude that alterations in the fluid dynamics in the anterior chamber as a result of lens implantation are unlikely to be the cause of medical complications associated with its use.

  2. Effects of lens extirpation with anterior vitrectomy on vitreous three-dimensional mesh structure

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    Yan Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the changes in vitreous gel structure after lens extirpation combined with anterior vitrectomy in rabbit eyes. METHODS: Twenty-eight chinchilla rabbits were divided into three groups. The control group (Group I included 16 eyes from eight rabbits who did not receive any treatment. Group II included 20 eyes from 10 rabbits that underwent lens aspiration only. Group III included 20 eyes from 10 rabbits that underwent lens aspiration combined with posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy. Eyes were harvested on the 30th and 60th day postoperatively, respectively. Changes in vitreous gel stretch length due to gravity and the rate of vitreous liquefaction were observed. The collagen content in the vitreous body was examined using the L-hydroxyproline test. Electronic microscopic images were obtained from each eyeball. RESULTS: On both the 30th and 60th day postoperatively, the vitreous gel length of group III was significantly shorter than group I and group II (P<0.05, while the rate of liquefaction of the vitreous body in group III was significantly higher than group I and group II (P<0.05. The collagen content in group III was also higher than that in group I and group II (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Loss of vitreous gel mass is more likely to occur in the eyes of rabbits receiving anterior vitrectomy. Lensectomy combined with anterior vitrectomy may damage the stable three-dimensional mesh structure of collagen, which could aggravate vitreous gel liquefaction.

  3. Evaluation of lens dose from anterior electron beams: comparison of Pinnacle and Gafchromic EBT3 film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonier, Marcus; Wronski, Matt; Yeboah, Collins

    2015-03-08

    Lens dose is a concern during the treatment of facial lesions with anterior electron beams. Lead shielding is routinely employed to reduce lens dose and minimize late complications. The purpose of this work is twofold: 1) to measure dose pro-files under large-area lead shielding at the lens depth for clinical electron energies via film dosimetry; and 2) to assess the accuracy of the Pinnacle treatment planning system in calculating doses under lead shields. First, to simulate the clinical geometry, EBT3 film and 4 cm wide lead shields were incorporated into a Solid Water phantom. With the lead shield inside the phantom, the film was positioned at a depth of 0.7 cm below the lead, while a variable thickness of solid water, simulating bolus, was placed on top. This geometry was reproduced in Pinnacle to calculate dose profiles using the pencil beam electron algorithm. The measured and calculated dose profiles were normalized to the central-axis dose maximum in a homogeneous phantom with no lead shielding. The resulting measured profiles, functions of bolus thickness and incident electron energy, can be used to estimate the lens dose under various clinical scenarios. These profiles showed a minimum lead margin of 0.5 cm beyond the lens boundary is required to shield the lens to ≤ 10% of the dose maximum. Comparisons with Pinnacle showed a consistent overestimation of dose under the lead shield with discrepancies of ~ 25% occur-ring near the shield edge. This discrepancy was found to increase with electron energy and bolus thickness and decrease with distance from the lead edge. Thus, the Pinnacle electron algorithm is not recommended for estimating lens dose in this situation. The film measurements, however, allow for a reasonable estimate of lens dose from electron beams and for clinicians to assess the lead margin required to reduce the lens dose to an acceptable level.

  4. Anterior and posterior capsule densitometry levels after femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery

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    Txomin Alberdi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze and compare five different variables over one year follow-up (1wk, 1, 3, 6 and 12mo: anterior capsule (AC, and posterior capsule (PC area densitometry values, AC and PC linear densitometry values, and AC opening area reduction ratio after femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. METHODS: This was a prospective comparative study. Seventy-one patients underwent femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery on single eye between June 2014 and December 2015. A 5.0 mm diameter laser assisted anterior capsulotomy was performed on all eyes. In every post-surgery evaluation, AC opacificaction (ACO and PC opacification (PCO density levels were provided by Oculus Pentacam®HR using area and linear densitometry methods. Digital images were captured with a slit-lamp Topcon photographic camera and IMAGEnet® 5 software. The AC opening area on the digital images was measured using the Sketchandcalc area calculator and converted to reduction ratio levels. RESULTS: Using Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC, we found no correlation (r=-0.091, P=0.46 in the twelfth month assessment between the evolution of ACO area densitometry values and PCO area densitometry values considered as independent variables. We found no correlation, using PCC (r=-0.096, P=0.43 between the evolution of ACO linear densitometry values and PCO linear densitometry values, in the twelfth month visit, working both as independent variables. AC linear densitometry levels and AC area densitometry levels continued to grow strongly from sixth to twelfth months. Analysis of the values of AC opening area reduction ratio (1wk, 1, 3, 6, 12mo revealed statistically significant differences between the values of successive examinations but the magnitude of the change decreased. In the final period of monitoring between six and twelve months the magnitude of change was low. CONCLUSION: Our results show strong increases of Scheimpflug ACO densitometry values from the sixth to the

  5. The anterior glenohumeral joint capsule: macroscopic and MRI anatomy of the fasciculus obliquus or so-called ligamentum glenohumerale spirale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merila, M.; Eller, A.; Haviko, T. [Department of Orthopaedics, Clinic of Traumatology and Orthopaedics, University of Tartu, Puusepa 8, 51014, Tartu (Estonia); Leibecke, T.; Gehl, H.B. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538, Luebeck (Germany); Busch, L.C. [Institute of Anatomy, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538, Luebeck (Germany); Russlies, M. [Clinic of Orthopaedics, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538, Luebeck (Germany); Kolts, I. [Institute of Anatomy, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, Biomedicum, 50411, Tartu (Estonia)

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the macroscopic and MRI anatomy of the fasciculus obliquus, otherwise known as the ligamentum glenohumerale spirale or spiral GHL of the anterior shoulder joint capsule. Conventional and MR arthrography (1.5-T device Somatom Symphony, Siemens with shoulder coil) images in standard planes were compared with gross anatomic dissection findings in six fresh shoulder specimens from three cadavers. The MR imaging protocol included T1, PD and DESS 3D WI sequences. The macroscopically recognisable band - the spiral GHL - was identified by anatomic dissection and MRI in all the specimens. It was best visualised by MR arthrography on axial and oblique sagittal planes (T1; PD WI) and appeared as a low signal intensity stripe within the superficial layer of the anterior joint capsule. The absence of the variable middle glenohumeral ligament did not influence the anatomic properties and the MR imaging of the spiral GHL. Diagnostic visualisation of the normal anatomic structures is a prerequisite to distinguish between normal and pathologic conditions. Anatomy of the spiral GHL can be used by radiologists for more detailed interpretation of the anterior shoulder joint capsule ligaments on MR images. (orig.)

  6. The effect of Nd:YAG laser treatment of posterior capsule opacification on anterior chamber depth and refraction in pseudophakic eyes

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    Khambhiphant B

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bharkbhum Khambhiphant,1 Chayata Liumsirijarern,2 Piyada Saehout1 1Department of Ophthalmology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: This was a prospective descriptive study to determine the changes in intraocular lens (IOL position after neodymium-doped yttrium–aluminum–garnet (Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy by measuring anterior chamber depth (ACD and refraction, including the spherical equivalent (SE and cylinder. Materials and methods: Forty-seven pseudophakic eyes with posterior capsule opacification of 29 patients were included. Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy was performed. Patients’ ACD and refraction were measured before the treatment, as well as after the treatment at 1 week and 3 months. IOLMaster® and an automated refractometer were used at the Department of Ophthalmology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in ACD and SE before and after laser treatment at 1 week and 3 months (repeated analysis of variance, P=0.582 and P=0.269, respectively. Both backward IOL movement (number [n]=29 and forward IOL movement (n=18 were found. Some changes in cylindrical refraction were found at 1 week, but decreased at 3 months after capsulotomy (baseline cylinder: -1.16; cylinder at 1 week and 3 months: -1.00 and -1.14, respectively; P=0.012. These changes were the same with one-piece and three-piece IOLs. Conclusion: Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy did not significantly change ACD and SE. It led to cylinder change at 1 week after laser, but the effect decreased at 3 months. This effect was small and may not be clinically significant. Keywords: posterior capsule opacification, neodymium-doped yttrium–aluminum–garnet, anterior chamber depth, pseudophakia, refraction

  7. Anterior vaulting of single piece in-the-bag intraocular lens after blunt trauma

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    Seung Hoon Oh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 64-year-old man complained of difficulty with far vision in the right eye after blunt trauma by his hand during sleep. He had undergone uneventful phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL implantation of both eyes one week before the event. On slit lamp examination, the anterior chamber was shallow compared to postoperative one day or the left eye. After mydriasis, IOL position was perfect, within the capsulorrhexis margin, and no haptics were protruded. SE of his right eye was −4.00 diopter after trauma, although spherical equivalent (SE of both eyes was near emmetropia one day after cataract surgery. We decided on IOL reposition or exchange. Intraoperatively, we pushed the IOL posteriorly; the IOL was vaulted posteriorly, as expected. After surgery, his SE was +0.25 with the same diopter IOL. We report the case on the possibility of 4-point haptic IOL vaulting anteriorly by blunt trauma within the capsular bag.

  8. Comparison of hydrophobic and hydrophilic intraocular lens in preventing posterior capsule opacification after cataract surgery: An updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Yang, Ke; Li, Jiaxin; Huang, Yang; Zhu, Siquan

    2017-11-01

    Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) is a common long-term complication of cataract surgery. Intraocular lens design and material have been implicated in influencing the development of PCO. This study evaluated the association of hydrophobic and hydrophilic intraocular lenses on preventing PCO. Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until August 3, 2016, using the following search terms: cataract, posterior capsule opacification, and intraocular lens. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), retrospective, and cohort studies. Eleven studies were included in the study with a total of 889 eyes/patients. The overall analysis revealed that hydrophobic intraocular lenses were associated with lower Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy rates than hydrophilic lenses [odds ratio (OR) = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.16-0.91, P = .029]. Hydrophobic intraocular lenses were also associated with lower subjective PCO score (diff. in means: -1.32, 95% CI = -2.39 to -0.25, P = .015) and estimated PCO score (diff. in means: -2.23; 95% CI, -3.80 to -0.68, P = .005) as compared with hydrophilic lenses. Objective PCO score was similar between lens types. (diff. in means: -0.075; 95% CI, -0.18 to 0.035; P = .182). Pooled analysis found that visual acuity was similar between hydrophobic and hydrophilic intraocular lenses (diff. in means: -0.016; 95% CI, -0.041 to 0.009, P = .208). In general, PCO scores and the rate of Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy were influenced by intraocular lens biomaterial. Lens made of hydrophobic biomaterial were overall superior in lowering the PCO score and the Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy rate, but not visual acuity.

  9. Long anterior zonules and pigment dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroi, Sayoko E; Lark, Kurt K; Sieving, Paul A; Nouri-Mahdavi, Kouros; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Katz, Gregory J; Ritch, Robert

    2003-12-01

    To describe pigment dispersion associated with long anterior zonules. Multicenter observational case series. Fifteen patients, seven of whom were treated for glaucoma or ocular hypertension, were identified with long anterior zonules and pigment dispersion. Transmission electron microscopy was performed on one anterior capsule specimen. All patients had anterior zonules that inserted centrally on the lens capsule. Signs of pigment dispersion included corneal endothelial pigmentation, loss of the pupillary ruff, and variable trabecular meshwork pigmentation. Ultrasound biomicroscopy verified the lack of posterior iris insertion and concavity. There was no exfoliation material. Transmission electron microscopy showed zonular lamellae with adherent pigment granules, and no exfoliation material. Long anterior zonules inserted onto the central lens capsule may cause mechanical disruption of the pigment epithelium at the pupillary ruff and central iris leading to pigment dispersion.

  10. Capsular 'pits' in the human lens.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, M. L.; Brown, N. A.; Shun-Shin, G. A.; Smith, G. T.

    1992-01-01

    The lens capsule is an atypical basement membrane surrounding the lens epithelial cells and lens fibres which make up the remainder of the human lens. A seemingly unreported morphological change visible in the lens capsule with the biomicroscope is described.

  11. Anterior capsulotomy using the CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Adiel; Ma-Naim, Tova; Rosner, Mordechai; Eyal, Ophir; Belkin, Michael

    1998-06-01

    Continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) is the preferred technique for removal of the anterior capsule during cataract surgery due to this technique assuring accurate centration of the intraocular lens. During modern cataract surgery, especially with small or foldable intra ocular lenses, centration of the lens is obligatory. Radial tears at the margin of an anterior capsulotomy may be associated with the exit of at least one loop of an intraocular lens out of the capsular bag ('pea pod' effect) and its subsequent decentration. The anterior capsule is more likely to ream intact if the continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) technique is used. Although manual capsulorhexis is an ideal anterior capsulectomy technique for adults, many ophthalmologists are still uncomfortable with it and find it difficult to perform, especially in complicated cases such as these done behind small pupil, cataract extraction in children and pseudoexfoliation syndrome. We have developed a technique using a CO2 laser system for safe anterior capsulotomy and tested it in animal eyes.

  12. Pigment deposition on the central aspect of the posterior lens capsule in pigmentary dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajaiah, Shubha; Shun-Shin, Georges Adrien

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of an increasing pigmentary plaque on the posterior surface of the lens during follow-up of a case of pigment dispersion syndrome and suggest that this is a new sign of pigment dispersion.

  13. Pigment deposition on the central aspect of the posterior lens capsule in pigmentary dispersion

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajaiah, Shubha; Shun-Shin, Georges Adrien

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of an increasing pigmentary plaque on the posterior surface of the lens during follow-up of a case of pigment dispersion syndrome and suggest that this is a new sign of pigment dispersion.

  14. Ultrastructural effects of silicone oil on the clear crystalline lens of the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Wael; Sharaf, Mohamed; Abdelazeem, Khaled; El-Gamal, Dalia; Nafady, Allam

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate light and electron microscopic changes of the anterior capsule and its epithelium after clear lens extraction of vitrectomized myopic eyes with silicone oil tamponade. This prospective, controlled, non-randomized, interventional study included 20 anterior lens capsular specimens that were excised during combined clear lens extraction and silicone oil removal from previously vitrectomized highly myopic patients with silicone oil tamponade for previous retinal detachment surgeries. The specimens were examined via light microscopy and electron microscopy and compared with 20 anterior capsule specimens removed during clear lens extraction of non-vitrectomized highly myopic eyes. Light microscopic examination of clear lens anterior capsule specimens of vitrectomized myopic eyes filled with silicone oil showed relatively more flat cells with irregular outline of lens' epithelial cells with wide intercellular spaces, deeply stained nuclei, and multiple intracytoplasmic vacuoles. Scanning electron microscopy revealed collagenous surfaces filled with multiple pits, depressions, and abnormal deposits. Transmission electron microscopy revealed lens epithelial cells with apoptotic changes, many cytoplasmic vacuoles, and filopodia-like protrusions between lens epithelial cells and the capsule. Epithelial proliferation and multilayering were also observed. silicone oil may play a role in the development of apoptotic and histopathological changes in clear lens epithelial cells. Clarity of the lens at the time of silicone oil removal does not indicate an absence of cataractous changes. We found justification of combined clear lens extraction and silicone oil removal or combined phacovitrectomy when silicone oil injection is planned, but further long-term studies with larger patient groups are required.

  15. The anterior lens capsule used as support material in RPE cell-transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolini, J; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Wiencke, A K

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the use of an ocular basement membrane as support material for transplanted porcine RPE cells.......To investigate the use of an ocular basement membrane as support material for transplanted porcine RPE cells....

  16. Four-year Follow-up of the Changes in Anterior Segment After Phakic Collamer Lens Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Na; Li, Xuedong; Kong, Jun

    2017-06-01

    To assess the changes and relationship in central vaulting, flare intensity, and crystalline lens thickness during a follow-up period of 4 years after implantable collamer lens (ICL) implantation in eyes with high myopia. Retrospective observational study. Ninety-eight eyes of 50 patients were followed up with routine measurements of central vaulting, crystalline lens thickness, endothelial cell density, and aqueous flare postoperatively. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. The relationship between the annual change in crystal lens thickness after surgery and age was evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression. There was a continuous reduction in central vaulting and endothelial cell density as well as an increase in crystalline lens thickness in ICL eyes from 1 month onward to 5 years postoperatively (P lens thickness (r = 0.617, P lens thickness are more prominent during the first year after ICL implantation, tending to be relatively stable afterwards. The anterior inflammation during the early postoperative period synchronizes with the sharp progression of crystalline lens changes within the first year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anterior segment and retinal OCT imaging with simplified sample arm using focus tunable lens technology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Karnowski, Karol; Ruminski, Daniel; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Availability of the long-depth-range OCT systems enables comprehensive structural imaging of the eye and extraction of biometric parameters characterizing the entire eye. Several approaches have been developed to perform OCT imaging with extended depth ranges. In particular, current SS-OCT technology seems to be suited to visualize both anterior and posterior eye in a single measurement. The aim of this study is to demonstrate integrated anterior segment and retinal SS-OCT imaging using a single instrument, in which the sample arm is equipped with the electrically tunable lens (ETL). ETL is composed of the optical liquid confined in the space by an elastic polymer membrane. The shape of the membrane, electrically controlled by a specific ring, defines the radius of curvature of the lens surface, thus it regulates the power of the lens. ETL can be also equipped with additional offset lens to adjust the tuning range of the optical power. We characterize the operation of the tunable lens using wavefront sensing. We develop the optimized optical set-up with two adaptive operational states of the ETL in order to focus the light either on the retina or on the anterior segment of the eye. We test the performance of the set-up by utilizing whole eye phantom as the object. Finally, we perform human eye in vivo imaging using the SS-OCT instrument with versatile imaging functionality that accounts for the optics of the eye and enables dynamic control of the optical beam focus.

  18. Preservation of the articular capsule and short lateral rotator in direct anterior approach to total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Akio; Kaneko, Kazuo; Obayashi, Osamu; Mogami, Atsuhiko; Morohashi, Itaru

    2018-03-09

    In total hip arthroplasty via a direct anterior approach, the femur must be elevated at the time of femoral implant placement. For adequate elevation, division of the posterior soft tissues is necessary. However, if we damage and separate the posterior muscle tissue, we lose the benefits of the intermuscular approach. Furthermore, damage to the posterior soft tissue can result in posterior dislocation. We investigate that protecting the posterior soft tissue increases the joint stability in the early postoperative period and results in a lower dislocation rate. We evaluated muscle strength recovery by measuring the maximum width of the internal obturator muscle on CT images (GE-Healthcare Discovery CT 750HD). We compared the maximum width of the muscle belly preoperatively versus 10 days and 6 months postoperatively. As clinical evaluations, we also investigated the range of motion of the hip joint, hip joint function based on the Japanese Orthopaedic Association hip score (JOA score), and the dislocation rate 6 months after surgery. The width of the internal obturator muscle increased significantly from 15.1 ± 3.1 mm before surgery to 16.4 ± 2.8 mm 6 months after surgery. The JOA score improved significantly from 50.8 ± 15.1 points to 95.6 ± 7.6 points. No dislocations occurred in this study. We cut only the posterosuperior articular capsule and protected the internal obturator muscle to preserve muscle strength. We repaired the entire posterosuperior and anterior articular capsule. These treatments increase joint stability in the early postoperative period, thus reducing the dislocation rate. Therapeutic, Level IV.

  19. Unilateral congenital corneal keloid with anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis and subluxated lens: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanathi, M; Sen, Seema; Panda, Anita; Dada, Tanuj; Behera, Geeta; Khokhar, Sudharshan

    2007-01-01

    To report the unusual association of unilateral congenital corneal keloid with anterior-segment mesenchymal dysgenesis and bilateral subluxated lens. A 20-year old man presented with a mass lesion involving the left cornea. The corneal lesion had been present since birth. On biomicroscopic examination, a well-defined vascularized, grayish-white mass occupying the whole of the left cornea was seen. The right eye showed multiple peripheral corneal opacities with iridocorneal adhesions, a poorly defined supranasal limbus, and a subluxated lens. Excision biopsy of the mass was done for histopathologic examination. Histopathologic examination of the excised corneal mass showed features consistent with that of a corneal keloid: thickened keratinized epithelium, absent Bowman membrane layer, and fibrovascular hyperplasia composed of hyalinized collagen fibers with irregular orientation of the collagen lamellae. During penetrating keratoplasty of the left eye, an anomalous iris pattern with poorly defined angle and a supranasal subluxated lens was also observed. Extraction of the subluxated lens was also done. The graft failed subsequent to a nonhealing persistent epithelial defect. Our case report highlights the rare association of a unilateral congenital corneal keloid with anterior-segment mesenchymal dysgenesis and bilateral subluxated lens.

  20. Spontaneous bilateral anterior partial in-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation following routine annual eye examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Joshua R; Werner, Liliana; Owen, Leah; Vasavada, Shail A; Crandall, Alan

    2014-09-01

    We present the case of an 81-year-old man with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF) in whom spontaneous bilateral anterior partial in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL) dislocation was diagnosed following a routine dilated examination that demonstrated only mild pseudophacodonesis with no evidence of subluxation. Uneventful cataract surgery with placement of single-piece hydrophobic acrylic posterior chamber IOLs had been performed in both eyes 7 years previously. Bilateral IOL repositioning with scleral fixation was performed to correct the dislocation. Postoperative examinations showed remarkable improvement in visual acuity and IOL stability. We hypothesize that zonular weakness secondary to PXF predisposed the patient to bilateral IOL partial dislocation. Pupil dilation in the setting of mild pseudophacodonesis at the time of routine examination may have been a precipitating factor. To our knowledge, bilateral IOL subluxation/dislocation has been described in a limited number of case reports. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The lens and cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Andrew G

    2004-08-01

    It is conservatively estimated that some form of lens opacity is present in 5% to 7% of horses with otherwise clinically normal eyes.These opacities can range from small epicapsular remnants of the fetal vasculature to dense and extensive cataract. A cataract is defined technically as any opacity or alteration in the optical homogeneity of the lens involving one or more of the following: anterior epithelium, capsule, cortex, or nucleus. In the horse, cataracts rarely involve the entire lens structure (ie, complete cataracts) and are more usually localized to one anatomic landmark or sector of the lens. Complete cataracts are invariably associated with overt and significant visual disability. Focal or incomplete cataracts alone seldom cause any apparent visual dysfunction in affected horses,however.

  2. Vitrectorhexis and lens aspiration with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in spherophakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Christiane; Khatib, Lama

    2012-07-01

    We describe a technique that uses the vitrector to perform successful lens aspiration and posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in children with spherophakia and anterior lens subluxation. After an anterior chamber maintainer is placed, the ocutome is introduced through a limbal incision to perform a circular vitrectorhexis to avoid excessive manipulation of the unstable lens followed by gentle cortex aspiration. A foldable IOL is injected into the sulcus (3-piece IOL) or bag (1-piece IOL) if the capsule is sufficiently stable. Through a pars plana incision, the ocutome is then used to perform a posterior capsulotomy to prevent late posterior capsule opacification. In our patient, sulcus IOL placement was more stable than in-the-bag placement. Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of an accommodating intra-ocular lens - In vitro prevention of re-growth of pig and rabbit lens capsule epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, Theo G.; Koopmans, Steven; Terwee, Thom; Norrby, Sverker; Hooymans, J. M. M.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2006-01-01

    Cataract surgery is routinely performed to replace the clouded lens by a rigid polymeric intra-ocular lens unable to accommodate. By implanting a silicone gel into an intact capsular bag the accommodating properties of the natural lens can be maintained or enhanced. The implantation success of

  4. Cx43, ZO-1, alpha-catenin and beta-catenin in cataractous lens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Specimens of the anterior lens capsule with an attached monolayer of lens epithelial cells (LECs) were obtained from patients (=52) undergoing cataract surgery. Specimens were divided into three groups based on the type of cataract: nuclear cataract, cortical cataract and posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC).

  5. [Slit lamp optical coherence tomography study of anterior segment changes after phacoemulsification and foldable intraocular lens implantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Pi-song; Zhang, Zhen-ping; Lin, Hao-tian; Wu, Wen-jie; Bai, Ling

    2009-09-01

    To investigate quantitative changes of the anterior segment configuration after clear corneal incision phacoemulsification and foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation with slit-lamp-adapted optical coherence tomography (SL-OCT). In prospective consecutive case series, clear corneal incision phacoemulsification and foldable intraocular lens implantation were performed in 44 eyes of 40 patients. The changes of the anterior segment configuration were performed by SL-OCT before and 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks and 1 month after surgery. SPSS 16.0 software was used to analyze statistical difference. For all patients, the central corneal thickness (CCT) and the incisional corneal thickness (ICT) increased significantly 1 day after surgery (CCT increased 99.59 microm, ICT increased 234.57 microm; P = 0.490). At 1 month, the CCT almost had returned to baseline, but the ICT had been thicker about 19.25 microm than baseline(P = 0.001). The measurements of ACD, AOD500, AOD750, TISA500, TISA750 also increased significantly 1 day after surgery. Although the ACD had no changes within 2 weeks (all P 0.05). The SL-OCT could impersonality and quantificationally evaluate the anterior segment changes induced by cataract surgery.

  6. [Opacification of an intraocular lens: calcification of hydrophilic intraocular lenses after gas tamponade of the anterior chamber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidinger, G; Pemp, B; Werner, L

    2013-11-01

    A patient with endothelial dystrophy was treated with Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) combined with cataract extraction and implantation of a hydrophilic intraocular lens (IOL, Lentis-L312, Oculentis) but visual acuity dropped from 0.15 logMAR to 0.52 logMAR 18 months later due to calcification of the IOL. With new methods of lamellar corneal transplantation being used more frequently the number of necessary anterior chamber tamponades with air/gas are increasing. In cataract cases in which a gas tamponade and transplantation might be necessary later on (cornea guttata), hydrophilic IOLs should be avoided.

  7. Episodic memory following deep brain stimulation of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule and electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, Isidoor O; Mantione, Mariska; Hoogendoorn, Mechteld L C; Horst, Ferdinand; Notten, Peter; Schuurman, P Richard; Denys, Damiaan

    Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) and Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) are effective treatments for patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, a common side effect of ECT is autobiographical memory loss (e.g., personal experiences), whereas the impact of DBS on autobiographical memories has never been established. Comparing autobiographical memories following DBS and ECT. In two hospitals in The Netherlands, we interviewed 25 TRD patients treated with DBS of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule (vALIC), 14 TRD patients treated with ECT and 22 healthy controls (HC) with the Autobiographical Memory Inventory - Short Form (AMI-SF) in a prospective, longitudinal study between March 2010 and August 2016. Patients treated with DBS were interviewed before surgery, after surgery, and twice during treatment over 122.7 (SD: ±22.2) weeks. Patients treated with ECT were tested before ECT, after six right unilateral (RUL) ECT sessions and twice following ECT over 65.1 (±9.3) weeks. Controls were tested four times over 81.5 (±15.6) weeks. Compared to HC, the AMI-SF score decreased faster in both TRD groups (P ECT group was larger than both the DBS and HC groups. Both ECT and vALIC DBS result in a faster autobiographical memory decline compared to HC. DBS might have a negative impact on autobiographical memories, although less so than ECT. Future work should dissect whether DBS or characteristics of TRD cause this decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Microplasma Induced Cell Morphological Changes and Apoptosis of Ex Vivo Cultured Human Anterior Lens Epithelial Cells - Relevance to Capsular Opacification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Recek

    Full Text Available Inducing selective or targeted cell apoptosis without affecting large number of neighbouring cells remains a challenge. A plausible method for treatment of posterior capsular opacification (PCO due to remaining lens epithelial cells (LECs by reactive chemistry induced by localized single electrode microplasma discharge at top of a needle-like glass electrode with spot size ~3 μm is hereby presented. The focused and highly-localized atmospheric pressure microplasma jet with electrode discharge could induce a dose-dependent apoptosis in selected and targeted individual LECs, which could be confirmed by real-time monitoring of the morphological and structural changes at cellular level. Direct cell treatment with microplasma inside the medium appeared more effective in inducing apoptosis (caspase 8 positivity and DNA fragmentation at a highly targeted cell level compared to treatment on top of the medium (indirect treatment. Our results show that single cell specific micropipette plasma can be used to selectively induce demise in LECs which remain in the capsular bag after cataract surgery and thus prevent their migration (CXCR4 positivity to the posterior lens capsule and PCO formation.

  9. Removal of intraocular foreign body in anterior chamber angle with prism contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Ming; Yan, Hua; Cai, Jin-Hong; Li, Hai-Bo

    2017-01-01

    To introduce a novel approach in removal of anterior chamber angle foreign body (ACFB) using a prism contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps. Data of 42 eyes of 42 patients who had undergone removal of ACFB using a prism contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps from January 2008 to October 2013 were collected and analyzed. Twenty eyes in group A received the conventional approach by using toothed forceps through corneal limbus incision, and 22 eyes in group B underwent the novel method through the opposite corneal limbus incision. The success rate of ACFB once removal was 75% (15/20) in group A, and 100% (22/22) in group B. The average operation time of group A was significantly longer compared with group B (34.9±9.88min vs 22.13±8.85min; P contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps is a safer, more effective, and convenient technique compared with the conventional approach.

  10. Small-incision 4-point scleral suture fixation of a foldable hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens in the absence of capsule support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terveen, Daniel C; Fram, Nicole R; Ayres, Brandon; Berdahl, John P

    2016-02-01

    To determine the visual outcomes and complications of a new small-incision technique for 4-point fixation of a hydrophilic acrylic posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) in the absence of capsule support. Three North American tertiary referral centers and a private practice. Retrospective case series. Secondary IOL placement was performed from 2011 to 2014. Indications for surgery, clinical results, and complications were analyzed. Primary outcomes included postoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and surgical complications. Charts of 35 patients (37 eyes) were reviewed. The mean age at surgery was 56 years, and the mean follow-up was 6 months (range 3 to 24 months). Clinical indications included a dislocated IOL (30%), ocular trauma (19%), crystalline lens subluxation (19%), uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome (5%), post-complicated cataract (8%), congenital cataract (8%), and decompensated cornea (3%). The mean CDVA improved from 20/80 preoperatively to 20/40 postoperatively (P IOL dislocation (3%). Small-incision 4-point scleral fixation of the Akreos AO60 hydrophilic acrylic IOL in the absence of capsule support appears to be a safe and effective technique for secondary IOL placement. Drs. Berdahl and Ayres are consultants to Bausch & Lomb, Inc. Drs. Ayres and Fram have received speaker fees from Bausch & Lomb. Dr. Terveen does not have a financial or proprietary interest in any material or methods mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. SU-E-T-556: Monte Carlo Generated Dose Distributions for Orbital Irradiation Using a Single Anterior-Posterior Electron Beam and a Hanging Lens Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duwel, D; Lamba, M; Elson, H; Kumar, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Various cancers of the eye are successfully treated with radiotherapy utilizing one anterior-posterior (A/P) beam that encompasses the entire content of the orbit. In such cases, a hanging lens shield can be used to spare dose to the radiosensitive lens of the eye to prevent cataracts. Methods: This research focused on Monte Carlo characterization of dose distributions resulting from a single A-P field to the orbit with a hanging shield in place. Monte Carlo codes were developed which calculated dose distributions for various electron radiation energies, hanging lens shield radii, shield heights above the eye, and beam spoiler configurations. Film dosimetry was used to benchmark the coding to ensure it was calculating relative dose accurately. Results: The Monte Carlo dose calculations indicated that lateral and depth dose profiles are insensitive to changes in shield height and electron beam energy. Dose deposition was sensitive to shield radius and beam spoiler composition and height above the eye. Conclusion: The use of a single A/P electron beam to treat cancers of the eye while maintaining adequate lens sparing is feasible. Shield radius should be customized to have the same radius as the patient’s lens. A beam spoiler should be used if it is desired to substantially dose the eye tissues lying posterior to the lens in the shadow of the lens shield. The compromise between lens sparing and dose to diseased tissues surrounding the lens can be modulated by varying the beam spoiler thickness, spoiler material composition, and spoiler height above the eye. The sparing ratio is a metric that can be used to evaluate the compromise between lens sparing and dose to surrounding tissues. The higher the ratio, the more dose received by the tissues immediately posterior to the lens relative to the dose received by the lens

  12. Comparison of the Results of Secondary Anterior Chamber and Secondary Scleral-Fixated Intraocular Lens Implantation in Complicated Phacoemulsification Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimet Yeşim Erçalık

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the visual prognosis and postoperative complication rates of secondary anterior chamber (AC IOL and scleralfixated (SF intraocular lenses (IOL after complicated phacoemulsification surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty eyes of thirty patients were reviewed for this retrospective study. The patients with secondary AC IOL implantation formed group 1 (n=15, and the patients with secondary SF IOL implantation formed group 2 (n=15. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA with Snellen chart, biomicroscopic examination, intraocular pressure (IOP measurement with applanation tonometer, gonioscopy performed by Goldmann’s 3-mirror contact lens, and fundus examination were performed preoperatively in all patients. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in postoperative BCVA (p=0.492 and postoperative success (BCVA not changed or better postoperatively between the 2 groups (p=0.598. Postoperative success rate was 80% in group 1 and 93.7% in Group 2. The postoperative cylindrical power of the eyes did not differ significantly between the groups (p=0.220. The postoperative complications in group 1 were as follows: transient corneal edema in 5 eyes, transient IOP elevation in 2 eyes, postoperative fibrinous reaction in the anterior chamber in one eye, late-onset secondary glaucoma in one eye, hyphema in one eye, cystoid macular edema in one eye, vitreous prolapse into the anterior chamber in one eye, and IOL malposition in one eye. The postoperative complications in group 2 were as follows: transient corneal edema in 3 eyes, vitreous prolapse into the anterior chamber in 2 eyes, IOL malposition in 2 eyes, transient IOP elevation in one eye, and retinal detachment in one eye. Conclusion: In this study, both IOL types were observed to be preferable in cases without adequate capsular support following complicated cataract surgery. However, further studies with large numbers of patients are needed to define the best choice

  13. Analysis of incidence and related factors on effusion of anterior chamber after phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Bing Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the incidence and related factors on effusion of anterior chamber(ACafter phacoemulsification(PEcombined with intraocular lens(IOLimplantation. METHODS: Totally 359 cases of cataract(375 eyesunderwent PE combined with IOL implantation were collected in our hospital. The incidence of AC exudation after operation and related factors were analyzed by single factor and multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The group was included in 359 cases(375 eyes. The incidence of postoperative AC exudation in the study group was 5.9%(22/375. The preoperative intraocular pressure(IOP, visual acuity before and after surgery, nuclear grades, posterior capsular rupture(PCRrate and ultrasonic accumulated energy complex parameter(AECPof the study group showed statistically significant difference compared with the control group(all P21mmHg, intraoperative pupil diameter 7.25(%×min, the lens nucleus grade ≥ IV were risk factors of AC exudation after PE combined with IOL implantation in patients with cataract(all P21mmHg, ultrasound AECP >7.25 were independent risk factors of AC exudation after PE combined with IOL implantation in patients with cataract(all PCONCLUSION: High myopia, glaucoma, uveitis, the lens nucleus grade ≥ IV, the incidence of intraoperative PCR, preoperative IOP>21mmHg, ultrasonic AECP>7.25 are independent risk factors of AC exudation after PE combined with IOL implantation in patients with cataract, with such risk factors in patients with cataract should be paid closely attention and timely diagnosis and treatment in clinic.

  14. BILATERAL SIMULTANEOUS ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR LENTICONUS WITHOUT SYSTEMIC SIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hima Bindu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A 21 year male came for eye checkup with a refractive error OD - 12.00 sph, - 2.25 @ 160° cyl and OS - 15.00 sph, - 2.50 @ 5°cyl and was referred to department of refractive surgery for opinion His BCVA in OD 6 / 18, OS 6/ 24. Slit lamp examination under dilation with phenylephrine plus tropic amide revealed the abnormal contour of the anterior and posterior lens capsule. Rest of the findings were normal with clear cornea, Von Herricks grade 3 deep anterior chamber, open angles in Gonioscopy. Retro illumination showed the typical’ oil droplet configuration’ in the lens. Retinal examination with the 90 D lens was otherwise normal except of the peculiar ‘OMEGA' shaped curving of the slit beam over the retina which occurred due the difference in the refractive power of the lens in the axial and paraxial zones of the lens

  15. Outcomes of iris-claw anterior chamber versus iris-fixated foldable intraocular lens in subluxated lens secondary to Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Denise E; Soriano, Eduardo S; Meirelles, Rodrigo L; Alberti, Gustave N; Nosé, Walton

    2010-08-01

    To compare the outcome of phacoemulsification using 2 different iris-fixation techniques for intraocular lens (IOL) replacement, a foldable posterior chamber IOL (PCIOL; AcrySof MA60AC, Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX) and an iris-claw anterior chamber IOL (ACIOL; Artisan, Ophtec BV), for treatment of subluxated lenses in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). Randomized, controlled trial. A total of 31 eyes of 16 patients with subluxated lenses associated with MFS and a preoperative corrected visual acuity (CVA) IOL type. Preoperative and postoperative ophthalmologic examination, optical coherence tomography, and endothelial cell counts were performed. We recorded CVA results at 3, 6, and 12 months, complications, endothelial cell loss, and central retinal thickness. In the iris-fixated PCIOL group, CVA was significantly improved at 3 (P = 0.011; n = 16), 6 (P = 0.006; n = 16), and 12 months (P = 0.002; n = 16). In the iris-claw ACIOL group, CVA was significantly improved at 3 (P = 0.001; n=15), 6 (P = 0.001; n = 15), and 12 months (P = 0.009; n = 12). The CVA results did not differ significantly between groups. Dislocation of the IOL occurred in 3 of 16 (18.75%) eyes in the PCIOL group. Retinal detachment occurred in 3 eyes (2 in the PCIOL group and 1 in the ACIOL group) and was successfully repaired. Postoperative foveal tomograms in both groups revealed a decrease in the mean foveal thickness (MFT; IOL dislocation tended to occur more frequently in the iris-fixated PCIOL group, the difference was not significant. At 6 months postoperatively, all study patients tended to have a thinner MFT. None of the patients in either group developed cystoid macular edema. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-invasive measurements of the dynamic changes in the ciliary muscle, crystalline lens morphology, and anterior chamber during accommodation with a high-resolution OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Taboada, José J; Domínguez-Vicent, Alberto; Monsálvez-Romín, Daniel; Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess non-invasively the changes in the anterior chamber eye, crystalline lens morphology, and ciliary muscle during accommodation by means of an anterior chamber optical coherence tomographer (OCT), and correlate them with vergence. Twenty-five eyes of twenty-five healthy subjects, whose mean age was 29.9±7.1 years, were included and measured with an anterior chamber OCT. The central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior crystalline lens radius of curvature (ALRC), crystalline lens thickness (CLT), and ciliary muscle area (CMA) were measured for each participant at 0, -1, -2, and -3 D of target vergence. A linear model was used to assess the correlation of each eye parameter with the vergence demand. The mean CCT showed no change for all the accommodative stimuli. The mean ACD and ALRC decreased with the vergence, about 4.5 and 30 % at -3 D, respectively. On the contrary, the CLT and CMA showed an opposite tendency, where the mean CLT was increased by 4.0 % and the mean CMA was done by 26% at -3 D. Statistical significant differences (p < 0.001) were obtained among all vergences for each eye metric, except for the CCT (p = 0.76). The ACD and ALRC decreased about 2 and 10 % per dioptre of accommodation, respectively; whereas the CLT and CMA increased about 2 and 9 %, respectively. These results add knowledge regarding the understanding of accommodation and give new perspectives for biomechanics and biometry.

  17. The Relationship between Anterior Chamber Depth, Axial Length and Intraocular Lens Power among Candidates for Cataract Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat, Mohammad Reza; Azimi, Ali; Arasteh, Peyman; Tehranian, Naghmeh; Bamdad, Shahram

    2016-10-01

    Basic anatomical parameters in ophthalmology are variable in different countries according to ethnic groups, genetics and some environmental factors. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and intraocular lens power (IOL) in a referral center from eastern Iran among patients who had cataract surgery, in comparison to studies from other regions of the world. In a cross-sectional retrospective study from 2011 to 2013, the records of 698 cataract patients referring to Khatam Al Anbia general hospital in Mashhad, Iran were evaluated. We divided patients, based on their AL and ACD, into three separate groups and compared their results. The SPSS software was used for data analysis. The Chi-Square test and the Independent-samples t-test were used to compare qualitative and quantitative data between two groups, respectively. The Kendall and the Pearson product-moment correlation tests were used to assess the relationship between AL and ACD. The linear Regression model was used to obtain a mathematical model to estimate ACD, using AL, age and sex. Among individuals who had normal AL (between 22-24.5mm), there was a positive correlation between AL and ACD (p24.5mm), no significant correlation was detected. We also found that older people have shorter AL (p=0.001 and r=-0.287). Men have an average longer AL (23.7±2.4mm vs. 22.9±2.1mm; pworld and although some anatomical variations may exist regarding ophthalmic anatomy, factors like race and geographical area have little effect on the relationship between ACD, AL and IOL power calculation, furthermore our results support the use of third and fourth generation formulas for IOL power calculation.

  18. Capsular Outcomes After Pediatric Cataract Surgery Without Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuhua; Lin, Haotian; Lin, Zhuoling; Chen, Jingjing; Tang, Xiangchen; Luo, Lixia; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate capsular outcomes 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation via qualitative classification and quantitative measurement. This study is a cross-sectional study that was approved by the institutional review board of Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China. Digital coaxial retro-illumination photographs of 329 aphakic pediatric eyes were obtained 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation. Capsule digital coaxial retro-illumination photographs were divided as follows: anterior capsule opening area (ACOA), posterior capsule opening area (PCOA), and posterior capsule opening opacity (PCOO). Capsular outcomes were qualitatively classified into 3 types based on the PCOO: Type I—capsule with mild opacification but no invasion into the capsule opening; Type II—capsule with moderate opacification accompanied by contraction of the ACOA and invasion to the occluding part of the PCOA; and Type III—capsule with severe opacification accompanied by total occlusion of the PCOA. Software was developed to quantitatively measure the ACOA, PCOA, and PCOO using standardized DCRPs. The relationships between the accurate intraoperative anterior and posterior capsulorhexis sizes and the qualitative capsular types were statistically analyzed. The DCRPs of 315 aphakic eyes (95.8%) of 191 children were included. Capsular outcomes were classified into 3 types: Type I—120 eyes (38.1%); Type II—157 eyes (49.8%); Type III—38 eyes (12.1%). The scores of the capsular outcomes were negatively correlated with intraoperative anterior capsulorhexis size (R = −0.572, P PCOA increased in size from Type I to Type II, and the PCOO increased from Type II to Type III (all P < 0.05). Capsular outcomes after pediatric cataract surgery can be qualitatively classified and quantitatively measured by acquisition, division

  19. Capsular phimosis with complete occlusion of the anterior capsular opening after intact continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kharashi, Soliman A.; Al-Obailan, Majed

    2009-01-01

    Shrinkage and whitening of the anterior capsule opening - capsular contraction syndrome - is a well-known complication after continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis. A 72-year-old women underwent continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis, phacoemulsification, and implantation of posterior chamber intraocular lens with polymethylmethacrylate haptics. Four months postoperatively, the patient reported deterioration in visual acuity that was resulted due to complete occlusion of anterior capsular opening by fibrotic tissue. The fibrous membrane was excised surgically in capsulorrhexis fashion. (author)

  20. [Magnetic resonance imaging study of effects of accommodation on human lens morphological characters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sui-lian; Zhang, Ai; Shi, Jian-jing; Zhou, Yun-xin

    2013-11-05

    To evaluate the effects of accommodation on lens morphological characters. From January 2011 to June 2011, magnetic resonance images of eyes were acquired from 30 subjects aged 20 to 24 years during accommodation and at rest. The optimal images were analyzed by Autocad 2010 to obtain the total lens cross-sectional area (CSA) and CSA of anterior and posterior portions of lens, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, lens diameter, vitreous chamber depth and axial length during accommodation and at rest. Paired-t test was performed. The anterior curvature radius (mm), posterior curvature radius (mm), CSA of anterior portion (mm(2)), CSA of posterior portion (mm(2)), total lens CSA (mm(2)) was (8.7 ± 0.8), (6.2 ± 0.5), (7.5 ± 2.1), (12.0 ± 2.6), (20 ± 4) during relaxed accommodation; anterior curvature radius (mm), posterior curvature radius (mm), CSA of anterior portion (mm(2)), CSA of posterior portion (mm(2)), total lens CSA (mm(2)) was (7.1 ± 1.3), (5.6 ± 0.5), (14.7 ± 2.9), (12.2 ± 2.1) and (27 ± 4) during accommodation. The total lens CSA (t = -11.556, P 0.05) under a statistically independent accommodative state. There was significant difference in the anterior chamber depth (t = 4.366, P 0.05) and axial length (t = 0.418, P > 0.05) under accommodative states. During accommodation, the anterior chamber depth decreases, lens thickness increases and diameter of lens decreases while anterior portions and total lens CSA increase. There are insignificant changes in posterior portions of lens CSA, vitreous chamber depth and axial length. The accommodative changes in CSA indicate that the anterior portion of lens may be related with the properties of anterior capsule and lens material, the position of zonular attachments and the location of fetal nucleus. Helmholtz theory is supported.

  1. [Visual rehabilitation of patients with large post-traumatic defects of the anterior eye segment through iris-lens diaphragm implantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodzhaev, N S; Sobolev, N P; Mushkova, I A; Izmaylova, S B; Karimova, A N

    The diversity of methodological approaches and lack of pathogenetically reasonable tactics for patients with combined ocular injuries became the basis for the development and systematization of surgical rehabilitation stages of patients, in whom post-traumatic cataract is combined with post-traumatic aniridia and corneal scarring. to construct a visual rehabilitation approach to patients with post-traumatic defects of the anterior eye segment following optical-reconstructive surgery that involved implantation of an iris-lens diaphragm (ILD). We have analyzed 80 reconstructive cases with ILD implantation in patients with post-traumatic aniridia and corneal damage. These patients constituted the first study group (Group 1). We have also investigated 58 eyes with residual ametropy and stable visual function 1 year after ILD implantation before and after conducting a laser keratorefractive surgery. These patients were assigned to the second study group (Group 2). Rehabilitation approach to patients after anterior segment injuries that has been proposed allows to achieve high clinical and functional results and reduce the risk of intra- and postoperative complications. The proposed approach to patients after optical-reconstructive surgery with iris-lens diaphragm implantation followed by keratorefractive surgery is an effective method of visual rehabilitation of anterior eye segment post-traumatic defects.

  2. Sectioning a luxated intraocular lens inside the vitreous cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, Daniel; Pazos, Marta

    2013-07-01

    We describe a new technique for sectioning an intraocular lens (IOL) inside the vitreous cavity. The IOL had a broken haptic and was accidentally luxated after a complicated cataract surgery with posterior capsule rupture. The primary indication to cut the IOL in half inside the vitreous cavity is to preserve the anterior capsule integrity, especially in a small-sized capsulotomy, allowing subsequent implantation of a new IOL in the sulcus with the optical zone captured in the capsulorhexis. Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanism research of miR-181 regulating human lens epithelial cell apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the expression of miR-181 in the lens tissue of cataract and the regulating mechanism of miR-181 on apoptosis of human lens epithelial cell.METHODS:Real time q-PCR was used to measure the expression of miR-181 in the anterior lens capsules of age-related cataract and human lens epithelial cell apoptosis model. miR-181 mimic and inhibitor were transfected using Lipofectamine 2 000 to regulate the expression of miR-181, and then Real time q-PCR was used to verify transfection efficiency. Flow cytometry was used to detect the change of cell apoptosis rate. RESULTS: Compared with control group, the expression of miR-181 was significantly higher in both the anterior lens capsules of age-related cataract and human lens epithelial cell apoptosis model; the relative expression of miR-181 in lens epithelial cells transfected with miR-181 mimic was increased, whereas decreased in cells transfected with miR-181 inhibitor; the apoptosis rate of cells transfected with miR-181 mimic was increased, while reduced in miR-181 inhibitor group. Each result was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: High expression of miR-181 is detected in anterior lens capsule of age-related cataract. miR-181 might play a certain role in the pathogenesis of cataract via promoting human lens epithelial cell apoptosis. miR-181 probably becomes a new approach for the nonoperative treatment of cataract, but the concrete mechanism still needs to be further studied.

  4. Uneventful Anterior Migration of Intravitreal Ozurdex Implant in a Patient with Iris-Sutured Intraocular Lens and Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Andleeb; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Selimis, Vasileios; Tsoulnaras, Konstantinos I; Tabibian, David; Kymionis, George D

    2018-01-01

    We report here the case of a patient with anterior segment migration of intravitreal dexamethasone implant as well as its management and outcome. The patient had the following sequence of events: complicated cataract surgery, iris-sutured intraocular lens implant, followed by cystoid macular edema treated with intravitreal Avastin, retinal vein occlusion treated with intravitreal dexamethasone implant, corneal decompensation treated with Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK), and finally recurrence of macular edema treated with repeated intravitreal dexamethasone implant. Dexamethasone implant had completely dissolved from the eye 12 weeks after insertion without any complication. A conservative approach with regular monitoring in the situation of a quiet anterior segment without any corneal decompensation can provide enough time for the implant to dissolve without causing any complication to the involved eye, avoiding any additional surgical intervention, as presented in this case report. Despite the fact that the implant was left for natural dissolution, there were no adverse effects related to the graft or the eye.

  5. Effect of miR-138 on the antioxidant function of lens epithelial cells affected by age-related cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects and mechanism of miR-138 in mediating the antioxidant function of lens epithelial cells affected by age-related cataracts. METHODS: Real-time quantitative PCR(RT-qPCRwas used to detect miR-138 expression in the anterior lens capsules of healthy people, the anterior lens capsules of patients with age-related cataracts, and human epithelial cell line(SRA01/04cells exposed to oxidative stress. A 2', 7'-dichloro-fluorescein diacetate(DCFH-DAprobe was used to measure the levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species(ROSin human lens epithelial cells(hLECsexposed to 400μmol/L H2O2 for 1h. SRA01/04 cells were transfected with either miR-138 mimics, mimic controls, miR-138 inhibitors or inhibitor controls. After 72h, these cells were exposed to 400μmol/L H2O2 for 1h, then p53 and Bax mRNA expression were measured using RT-qPCR. Expression of p53 and Bax protein were also measured by western blotting analysis. Finally, cell viability was assessed using an MTS assay. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, expression of miR-138 in the anterior lens capsules of age-related cataract patients and in SRA01/04 cells exposed to oxidative stress significantly increased(PPPPCONCLUSION: The expression of miR-138 is upregulated in the anterior lens capsules of age-related cataract patients. MiR-138 decreases the anti-oxidative stress capacity of lens epithelial cells by upregulating p53 and Bax, while inhibiting cell proliferation and repair. This finding suggests that miR-138 may play a key role in the development of age-related cataracts.

  6. Combined pars plana lensectomy-vitrectomy with open-loop flexible anterior chamber intraocular lens (AC IOL) implantation for subluxated lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, S; Wirostko, W J; Sinha, S; Mieler, W F; Koenig, S B; Sheth, B P

    2000-01-01

    To review our experience with combined pars plana lensectomy-vitrectomy and open-loop flexible anterior chamber intraocular lens (AC IOL) implantation for managing subluxated crystalline lenses. Retrospective review of 36 consecutive eyes (28 patients), all of which had subluxated crystalline lenses, managed by pars plana lensectomy-vitrectomy with insertion of an open-loop flexible AC IOL. The study was performed at the Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, over an 8-year period. An average preoperative visual acuity of 20/163 (range, 20/25 to hand motions) improved to 20/36 (range, 20/20 to 4/200) with surgery after a mean follow-up of 14 months (range, 1 to 59 months) (P IOL implantation appears to be an excellent technique for managing subluxated crystalline lenses. It is associated with a significant improvement in visual acuity (P subluxated lens through a limbal wound. Additionally, use of an AC IOL offers a simplified alternative to placement of a ciliary sulcus sutured posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL).

  7. Primary intraocular lens implantation for penetrating lens trauma in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, R J; Yorston, D; Wood, M; Gilbert, C; Foster, A

    1998-09-01

    This study aimed to audit the surgical strategy of primary posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation for cases of recent penetrating trauma involving the lens in an African population. Retrospective, noncomparative case series. Seventy-two cases are reported, including all patients who underwent primary intraocular lens implantation for traumatic cataract extraction performed within 1 month of injury between 1988 and 1996. Demographic characteristics and follow-up attendance rates are analyzed. Surgical technique and the occurrence of intraoperative and postoperative complications are reported. Visual outcomes are reported with detailed analysis for cases of poor visual outcome. Mean age was 14.3 years (standard deviation = 11.1), 57 (79%) were male and 15 (21%) were female (chi-square = 23.66, P capsule had been breached by the trauma in 27 (38%) cases, and 15 of these required anterior vitrectomy. Capsular fixation of the implant was achieved in 49% of patients, the remainder having sulcus fixation. Intraoperative rupture of the posterior capsule occurred in four cases. The only common postoperative complication was acute fibrinous anterior uveitis, which occurred in 29 (40%) patients, and 32% of patients followed up for at least 6 months required secondary posterior capsulotomy. This was more common in younger patients (chi-square = 4.2, P < 0.05). Corrected postoperative visual acuities were available for 51 patients, of which 71% achieved 20/60 or better visual acuity. Patients 6 years of age or younger were less likely to achieve 20/60 (chi-square = 6.61, P = 0.01). This surgical strategy has proved successful, producing good visual results and causing no sight-threatening complications. Primary posterior capsulotomy may be appropriate for younger patients.

  8. Myo/Nog cells: targets for preventing the accumulation of skeletal muscle-like cells in the human lens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn Gerhart

    Full Text Available Posterior capsule opacification (PCO is a vision impairing condition that arises in some patients following cataract surgery. The fibrotic form of PCO is caused by myofibroblasts that may emerge in the lens years after surgery. In the chick embryo lens, myofibroblasts are derived from Myo/Nog cells that are identified by their expression of the skeletal muscle specific transcription factor MyoD, the bone morphogenetic protein inhibitor Noggin, and the epitope recognized by the G8 monoclonal antibody. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that depletion of Myo/Nog cells will prevent the accumulation of myofibroblasts in human lens tissue. Myo/Nog cells were present in anterior, equatorial and bow regions of the human lens, cornea and ciliary processes. In anterior lens tissue removed by capsulorhexis, Myo/Nog cells had synthesized myofibroblast and skeletal muscle proteins, including vimentin, MyoD and sarcomeric myosin. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA was detected in a subpopulation of Myo/Nog cells. Areas of the capsule denuded of epithelial cells were surrounded by Myo/Nog cells. Some of these cell free areas contained a wrinkle in the capsule. Depletion of Myo/Nog cells eliminated cells expressing skeletal muscle proteins in 5-day cultures but did not affect cells immunoreactive for beaded filament proteins that accumulate in differentiating lens epithelial cells. Transforming growth factor-betas 1 and 2 that mediate an epithelial-mesenchymal transition, did not induce the expression of skeletal muscle proteins in lens cells following Myo/Nog cell depletion. This study demonstrates that Myo/Nog cells in anterior lens tissue removed from cataract patients have undergone a partial differentiation to skeletal muscle. Myo/Nog cells appear to be the source of skeletal muscle-like cells in explants of human lens tissue. Targeting Myo/Nog cells with the G8 antibody during cataract surgery may reduce the incidence of PCO.

  9. Capsular Outcomes After Pediatric Cataract Surgery Without Intraocular Lens Implantation: Qualitative Classification and Quantitative Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuhua; Lin, Haotian; Lin, Zhuoling; Chen, Jingjing; Tang, Xiangchen; Luo, Lixia; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate capsular outcomes 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation via qualitative classification and quantitative measurement.This study is a cross-sectional study that was approved by the institutional review board of Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China.Digital coaxial retro-illumination photographs of 329 aphakic pediatric eyes were obtained 12 months after pediatric cataract surgery without intraocular lens implantation. Capsule digital coaxial retro-illumination photographs were divided as follows: anterior capsule opening area (ACOA), posterior capsule opening area (PCOA), and posterior capsule opening opacity (PCOO). Capsular outcomes were qualitatively classified into 3 types based on the PCOO: Type I-capsule with mild opacification but no invasion into the capsule opening; Type II-capsule with moderate opacification accompanied by contraction of the ACOA and invasion to the occluding part of the PCOA; and Type III-capsule with severe opacification accompanied by total occlusion of the PCOA. Software was developed to quantitatively measure the ACOA, PCOA, and PCOO using standardized DCRPs. The relationships between the accurate intraoperative anterior and posterior capsulorhexis sizes and the qualitative capsular types were statistically analyzed.The DCRPs of 315 aphakic eyes (95.8%) of 191 children were included. Capsular outcomes were classified into 3 types: Type I-120 eyes (38.1%); Type II-157 eyes (49.8%); Type III-38 eyes (12.1%). The scores of the capsular outcomes were negatively correlated with intraoperative anterior capsulorhexis size (R = -0.572, P PCOA increased in size from Type I to Type II, and the PCOO increased from Type II to Type III (all P < 0.05).Capsular outcomes after pediatric cataract surgery can be qualitatively classified and quantitatively measured by acquisition, division, definition, and user

  10. Anterior capsular support for posterior chamber intraocular lenses following vitreous loss in endocapsular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Pushpa

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available We used anterior capsular support for posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs in fourteen eyes with large posterior capsular ruptures. An endocapsular technique preserved the anterior capsule and facilitated implantation. With a median follow up of 8.5 months, all patients had a visual acuity of 6/9 or better. One lens was lost in the vitreous and one patient had a clinically significant cystoid macular edema. In the event of a posterior capsular rupture we suggest this technique as an alternative to anterior chamber or scleral-fixated lenses

  11. Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking Combined with an Artiflex Iris-Fixated Anterior Chamber Phakic Intraocular Lens Implantation in a Patient with Progressive Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Hashmani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present here the case of a 24-year-old male who experienced progressive keratoconus and vision loss which adversely affected his ability to carry out everyday tasks. This landed him in the Hashmanis Hospital for consultation. He had a preoperative best corrected visual acuity of 6/12. He underwent multiple Oculus Pentacam examinations, which showed progressive keratoconus. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL was performed to stabilize his cornea and, subsequently, an Artiflex anterior chamber iris-fixated phakic intraocular lens (ACIF-PIOL was implanted to alleviate his refractive errors. The patient achieved a postoperative uncorrected visual acuity of 6/12. This report shows that CXL combined with ACIF-PIOL can be safe and effective in those with progressive keratoconus.

  12. Central posterior capsule pigmentation in a patient with pigment dispersion and previous ocular trauma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mezaine, Hani S

    2010-01-01

    We report a 55-year-old man with unusually dense, unilateral central posterior capsule pigmentation associated with the characteristic clinical features of pigment dispersion syndrome, including a Krukenberg's spindle and dense trabecular pigmentation in both eyes. A history of an old blunt ocular trauma probably caused separation of the anterior hyaloid from the back of the lens, thereby creating an avenue by which pigment could reach the potential space of Berger's from the posterior chamber.

  13. Central posterior capsule pigmentation in a patient with pigment dispersion and previous ocular trauma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mezaine Hani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 55-year-old man with unusually dense, unilateral central posterior capsule pigmentation associated with the characteristic clinical features of pigment dispersion syndrome, including a Krukenberg′s spindle and dense trabecular pigmentation in both eyes. A history of an old blunt ocular trauma probably caused separation of the anterior hyaloid from the back of the lens, thereby creating an avenue by which pigment could reach the potential space of Berger′s from the posterior chamber.

  14. Histopathologic evaluation of the anterior segment of eyes enucleated due to glaucoma secondary to primary lens displacement in 13 canine globes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, Anthony F; Pizzirani, Stefano; Pirie, Christopher G

    2013-07-01

    PURPOSE  To describe histologic anterior segment changes in eyes affected with primary lens displacement (PLD) and secondary glaucoma. METHODS  Histologic sections stained with H&E from canine eyes enucleated because of PLD and secondary glaucoma were examined. RESULTS  Thirteen eyes from 12 patients were evaluated. Four dogs were castrated males and eight spayed females. Median age was 8 years of age (range 3-13). Breeds included seven terriers and five other breeds. All eyes examined demonstrated varying degrees of inflammation involving the iris and cleft. Mononuclear and melanophagic infiltration of the cleft was found in all specimens. Four globes also showed polymorphonuclear infiltrate. Pre-iridal fibrovascular membranes were clearly identified in 10 of 13 eyes. Total inflammatory score was significantly greater in all globes examined compared with an age-matched group of normal dogs. The posterior pigmented iris epithelium demonstrated a consistent pattern of hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy and cystic degeneration, more prominent in the more central regions. In some cases, hyperplasia was of greatest severity in the mid-iris and associated with thinning or flattening of the pupillary region. CONCLUSIONS  These results suggest that lens instability may be associated with chronic inflammation and secondary glaucoma. Mechanical irritation from an unstable lens may result in hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of the posterior pigmented iris epithelium and subsequent cellular exfoliation and release of melanin. An inflammatory reaction directly or indirectly related to melanin release may obstruct the outflow pathways ultimately leading to glaucoma and loss of vision. Use of topical steroids may be warranted in dogs with PLD. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. Supracapsular glued intraocular lens in progressive subluxated cataracts: Technique to retain an intact vitreous face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Soosan; Narasimhan, Smita; Agarwal, Amar; Mazzotta, Cosimo; Rechichi, Miguel; Agarwal, Athiya

    2017-03-01

    We describe a technique to prevent late intraocular lens (IOL) subluxation and dislocation that can be associated with progressive zonulopathy. Supracapsular glued IOL fixation is done to retain an intact anterior hyaloid face and avoid vitreous disturbance while providing stable long-term IOL fixation. Phacoemulsification is followed by glued IOL implantation above intact anterior and posterior capsules. Sclerotomies are created ab interno in a supracapsular plane under diametrically opposite lamellar scleral flaps without entering the vitreous cavity. Haptics are externalized in the supracapsular plane and tucked into intrascleral tunnels. Intraoperative or postoperative posterior capsulorhexis or capsulotomy and anterior capsule relaxing cuts can prevent capsule phimosis. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Uneventful Anterior Migration of Intravitreal Ozurdex Implant in a Patient with Iris-Sutured Intraocular Lens and Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andleeb Zafar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report here the case of a patient with anterior segment migration of intravitreal dexamethasone implant as well as its management and outcome. Methods: The patient had the following sequence of events: complicated cataract surgery, iris-sutured intraocular lens implant, followed by cystoid macular edema treated with intravitreal Avastin, retinal vein occlusion treated with intravitreal dexamethasone implant, corneal decompensation treated with Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK, and finally recurrence of macular edema treated with repeated intravitreal dexamethasone implant. Results: Dexamethasone implant had completely dissolved from the eye 12 weeks after insertion without any complication. Conclusion: A conservative approach with regular monitoring in the situation of a quiet anterior segment without any corneal decompensation can provide enough time for the implant to dissolve without causing any complication to the involved eye, avoiding any additional surgical intervention, as presented in this case report. Despite the fact that the implant was left for natural dissolution, there were no adverse effects related to the graft or the eye.

  17. Anterior capsular staining with trypan blue for capsulorhexis in mature and hypermature cataracts. A preliminary study

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    Kothari Kulin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the efficacy and safety of 0.1% Trypan Blue dye to stain the anterior capsule for capsulorhexis in mature and hypermature cataracts. Methods: This preliminary study included 25 eyes of 25 patients with a unilateral mature or hypermature cataract, including one case of traumatic mature cataract. In all these cases 0.2ml of 0.1% trypan blue dye was used to stain the anterior capsule. The efficacy and safety of the dye was evaluated on the basis of intraoperative and postoperative observations. Results: In all 25 eyes the capsulorhexis was completed. There was peripheral extension of the capsulorhexis in the eye with traumatic cataract and the stained edge of the anterior capsule helped identification and redirection of the capsulorhexis. Successful phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation was performed in all eyes. Adverse reactions related to the dye such as raised intraocular pressure, anterior chamber inflammation and endothelial damage were not observed in the immediate postoperative period or at the end of mean follow-up of 3 months. Conclusion: Trypan blue dye staining of the anterior capsule appears to be a very useful and safe technique that simplifies capsulorhexis in mature and hypermature cataracts.

  18. Treatment of a dislocated lens by transcorneal vitrectomy and bimanual phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Akira Watanabe, Tamaki Gekka, Hiroshi Tsuneoka Department of Ophthalmology, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Background: As a method of treatment for a dropped lens nucleus, which occurred during cataract surgery, the dropped lens nucleus was removed through the corneal wound without using pars plana vitrectomy (PPV. After vitrectomy, the dropped lens nucleus was floated on the perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL. The floating lens nucleus was then phacoemulsified and aspirated. During surgery, irrigation from the anterior chamber was performed. This method was very effective for treatment of a dropped hard nucleus.Case report: During cataract surgery on the left eye of an 80-year-old woman, a posterior capsule rupture occurred. As a result, the lens nucleus dropped into the vitreous cavity. Irrigation to the anterior chamber was performed, with an anterior chamber maintainer inserted through a newly created side port at the corneal limbus. A vitreous cutter and a light guide were inserted in order to perform vitrectomy through the corneal incisions that were created for the cataract surgery. After vitrectomy, the dropped lens nucleus was floated using PFCL. The floating lens nucleus was removed by a bimanual phacoemulsification technique, with the anterior chamber irrigation continuing. The separation of the irrigation port and the aspiration port allowed for effective treatment of the dropped nucleus that was floating on the PFCL, even using a ­phacoemulsification machine with a peristaltic pump system. Safe and effective vitrectomy, similar to a PPV, could be performed with this method using three corneal ports.Conclusion: This technique may allow safer and more effective treatment for a dropped lens nucleus compared with conventional PPV. With this technique, corneal distortion due to surgical manipulation can lead to reduced visibility of the posterior eye. Keywords: dislocated lens, transcorneal vitrectomy, bimanual

  19. Phakic Intraocular Lens Implantation: Refractive Outcome and Safety in Patients with Anterior Chamber Depth between 2.8 and 3.0 versus ≥3.0 mm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Marta G; Silva, Andreia M M; Marques, Sara H M; Melo, Sofia H; Póvoa, João A; Lobo, Conceição; Murta, Joaquim Neto

    2017-01-01

    To compare endothelial cell (EC) variation after anterior chamber phakic intraocular lens (AC-pIOL) implantation in highly myopic patients with a preoperative anterior chamber depth (ACD) between 2.8 and 3.0 versus ≥3.0 mm. A total of 280 eyes submitted to primary AC-pIOL implantation were analyzed. Pre- and postoperative values for uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, spherical equivalent, ACD (endothelial surface), and EC count were collected. The eyes were divided into 2 groups: group A - ACD between 2.8 and 3.0 mm; group B - ACD ≥3.0 mm. Mean global EC loss (ECL) and loss for each ACD group, according to pIOL type, were analyzed. Significant improvement of the spherical equivalent (-11.38 ± 4.57 vs. -0.49 ± 0.79; p = 0.000) and a significant decrease in EC density (2,810.95 ± 343.88 vs. 2,584.09 ± 374.88 cells/mm2; p = 0.000) were noted. The mean annual ECL was -2.19 ± 3.97%. Regarding group A (n = 80), a mean annual ECL of -2.06 ± 3.88% was registered, higher for the Acrysof Cachet® subtype, while group B (n = 200) showed -2.25 ± 4.01% ECL, higher for the Verisyse® subtype. There was no significant difference between the groups (p = 0.96). AC-pIOL implantation significantly improves the spherical equivalent in myopic patients. The mean annual ECL after pIOL implantation was higher in the larger ACD group, but this value was not statistically significant. A 2.8-mm ACD value seems to be a safe cutoff for AC-pIOL implantation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Comparison of axial length, anterior chamber depth and intraocular lens power between IOLMaster and ultrasound in normal, long and short eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Zhang, Yaqin; Zhang, Haining; Jia, Zhijie; Zhang, Suhua; Wang, Xiaogang

    2018-01-01

    To compare the axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and intraocular lens power (IOLP) of IOLMaster and Ultrasound in normal, long and short eyes. Seventy-four normal eyes (≥ 22 mm and ≤ 25 mm), 74 long eyes (> 25 mm) and 78 short eyes (devices in the order of IOLMaster followed by Ultrasound. The IOLP were calculated using a free online LADAS IOL formula calculator. The difference in AL and IOLP between IOLMaster and Ultrasound was statistically significant when all three groups were combined. The difference in ACD between IOLMaster and Ultrasound was statistically significant in the normal group (Peye group (Peye group (P = 0.465). For the IOLP difference between IOLMaster and Ultrasound in the normal group, the percentage of IOLP differences eye group, they were 90.5%, 5.4%, 4.1% and 0%, respectively. For the short eye group, they were 61.5%, 23.1%, 10.3%, and 5.1%, respectively. IOLMaster and Ultrasound have statistically significant differences in AL measurements and IOLP (using LADAS formula) for normal, long eye and short eye. The two instruments agree regarding ACD measurements for the long eye group, but differ for the normal and short eye groups. Moreover, the high percentage of IOLP differences greater than |0.5|D in the short eye group is noteworthy.

  1. No stabilizing effect of the elbow joint capsule. A kinematic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K K; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff

    1999-01-01

    We dissected 7 cadaveric elbow specimens, leaving the collateral ligaments and the joint capsule intact. The anterior and the posterior capsule were sequentially transected, followed by kinematic testings. We found no change in joint laxity after total transection of the capsule.......We dissected 7 cadaveric elbow specimens, leaving the collateral ligaments and the joint capsule intact. The anterior and the posterior capsule were sequentially transected, followed by kinematic testings. We found no change in joint laxity after total transection of the capsule....

  2. Capsule Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because experience with it is limited and traditional upper endoscopy is widely available. Why it's done Your doctor might recommend a capsule endoscopy procedure to: Find the cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. If you have unexplained bleeding in your digestive ...

  3. Anterior capsulotomy with an ultrashort-pulse laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackman, Ramon Naranjo; Kuri, Jorge Villar; Nichamin, Louis D Skip; Edwards, Keith

    2011-05-01

    To assess the precision of laser anterior capsulotomy compared with that of manual continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC). Asociación Para Evitar La Ceguera en México IAP, Hospital Dr. Luis Sánchez Bulnes, Mexico City, Mexico. Nonrandomized single-center clinical trial. In patients presenting for cataract surgery, the LensAR Laser System was used to create a laser anterior capsulotomy of the surgeon's desired size. Capsule buttons were retrieved and measured and then compared with buttons retrieved from eyes having a manually torn CCC. Deviation from the intended diameter and the regularity of shape were assessed. When removing the capsule buttons at the start of surgery, the surgeon rated the ease of removal on a scale of 1 to 10 (1 = required manual capsulorhexis around the whole diameter; 10 = button free floating or required no manual detachment from remaining capsule during removal). The mean deviation from the intended diameter was 0.16 mm ± 0.17 (SD) for laser anterior capsulotomy and 0.42 ± 0.54 mm for CCC (P=.03). The mean absolute deviation from the intended diameter was 0.20 ± 0.12 mm and 0.49 ± 0.47 mm, respectively (P=.003). The mean of the average squared residuals was 0.01 ± 0.03 and 0.02 ± 0.04, respectively (P=.09). The median rating of the ease of removal was 9 (range 5 to 10). Laser anterior capsulotomy created a more precise capsule opening than CCC, and the buttons created by the laser procedure were easy to remove at the beginning of cataract surgery. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Encephalitozoon cuniculi causes focal anterior cataract and uveitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell, B; Csokai, J; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, A; Maaß, G

    2015-01-01

    Three mongrel dogs, aged 10 months (case 1), 14 months (case 2) and 7.5 years (case 3), were presented because of ophthalmologic disorders of 4 months, 6 months and 7 years duration, respectively. All three dogs were offspring of stray dogs from Hungary and Serbia and had positive serum antibody titres against Encephalitozoon (E.) cuniculi. The two young dogs showed unilateral, the older dog bilateral chronic anterior uveitis with posterior synechia and focal anterior cortical cataract. The fundi that could be evaluated developed focal tapetal hyporeflective lesions in the course of the disease. Dogs 1 and 2 underwent removal of the lens via phacoemulsification. PCR of the lens material was positive for E. cuniculi strains IV and II, respectively. In dog 2 findings suggestive of microsporidia were detected underneath the anterior lens capsule by immunohistochemical staining. In all cases medical treatment consisted of systemic fenbendazole, prednisolone, and topical anti-inflammatory drugs, and additional brinzolamid/timolol for dog 3. For the time being all cases (follow up 23 months, 6 months and 3 months, respectively) are still on topical anti-inflammatory therapy. It is concluded that E. cuniculi infections can cause cataract and chorioretinal lesions in dogs.

  5. Anterior segment morphology and morphometry in selected reptile species using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rival, Franck; Linsart, Adeline; Isard, Pierre-François; Besson, Christian; Dulaurent, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To provide new and original images of the anterior segment (AS) of the eye of selected Ophidian, Chelonian, and Saurian species and to compare the AS architecture among and within these three groups. 17 Saurians, 14 Ophidians, and 11 Chelonians with no concurrent systemic or eye disease were included in the study. Age, weight, nose-cloaca distance (NCD), and pupil shape were collected for each animal. The AS was examined by optical coherence tomography (OCT). After gross description of the appearance of the AS, the central and peripheral corneal thickness (CCT, PCT) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured using the software provided with the OCT device. The ratio CCT/ACD was then calculated for each animal. Pupil shape was a vertical slit in all the crepuscular or nocturnal animals (except for 1 chelonian and 1 ophidian). Each group had its own particular AS architecture. Saurians had a regularly thin cornea with a flat anterior lens capsule and a deep anterior chamber. Ophidians had a thick cornea with a narrow anterior chamber due to a very anteriorly anchored spherical lens. The spectacle was difficult to identify in all ophidians except in Python molurus bivitattus in which it was more obvious. Chelonians displayed an intermediate architecture which more closely resembled the Saurian type than the Ophidian type. Despite grossly similar AS architecture, the three groups of reptiles in the study demonstrated differences that are suggestive of a link between anatomical disparities and variations in environment and lifestyle. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. Lens artifacts in human fetal eyes - the challenge of interpreting the histomorphology of human fetal lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Martina C; Müller, Annette M; Klarmann-Schulz, Ute; Holz, Frank G; Loeffler, Karin U

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the lens, including cataractous changes, is often of paramount importance in the classification of fetal syndromes or forensic questions. On histology, the crystalline lens is - especially in fetal and infant eyes - an organ susceptible to numerous artifacts. Thus, the aim of our study was to study various factors (including fixatives) that might have an impact on lens histomorphology. Twenty eyes from ten fetuses (formalin fixation: n = 10, glutaraldehyde fixation: n = 10), matched for gestational age and abortion (spontaneous vs. induced), were investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. Sections were stained with routine hematoxylin & eosin (H&E), and periodic acid schiff (PAS). The age of the fetal eyes ranged from 15 to 36 weeks of gestation. Lens artifacts were analyzed and compared to fetal and adult lenses with definitive cataractous changes. In addition, 34 eyes from 27 fetuses with trisomy 21 were investigated for lens changes. All lenses showed artifacts of varying extent, in particular globules, vacuoles, clefts, anterior/posterior capsular separation, subcapsular proteinaceous material, fragmentation of the lens capsule/epithelium, and a posterior umbilication. Glutaraldehyde-fixed lenses displayed less artifacts compared to those fixed in formalin. Slight differences in the appearance of artifacts were found dependent on the fixative (formaldehyde vs glutaraldehyde) and the kind of abortion (iatrogenous vs spontaneous). The gestational age did not have a significant influence on the type and extent of lens artifacts. The lenses from fetuses with trisomy 21 displayed similar lens artifacts with no specific findings. Alterations in fetal lens morphology are extremely frequent and variable. These artifacts have to be carefully taken into account when interpreting post-mortem findings. Thus, the postmortem diagnosis of a fetal cataract should be made with great caution, and should include, in adherence to our proposed

  7. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on crystalline lens and retina in nicotine-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Seyhmus; Nergiz, Yusuf; Cingü, Abdullah Kürşat; Atay, Ahmet Engin; Sahin, Alparslan; Cinar, Yasin; Caca, Ihsan

    2013-03-01

    To determine histopathological changes on crystalline lens and retina of rats after subcutaneous injection of nicotine and to examine the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on these changes related to nicotine exposure. Twenty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were enrolled in the study and the rats were divided into four equal sized groups randomly (Group N: the rats exposed only to nicotine, group HB: the rats received only HBO, group N+HB: the rats that underwent to nicotine injection and subsequently received HBO, group C: the control group that neither exposed to nicotine nor received HBO). The rats were sacrificed by decapitation method and all were enucleated immediately after scarification. Tissue samples from crystalline lens, lens capsule, and the retina from the right eyes of the rats were examined by light microscopy. While the histological appearances of the retina and the lens was similar in group HB, group N+HB, and the control group; group N showed some pathological changes like decrement in the retinal ganglion cell density, atrophy of the retinal nerve fiber layer, congestion of the vessels in the optic nerve head, thinning of the internal plexiform layer, thinning of the lens capsule, and transformation of the anterior subcapsular epithelium into squamous epithelia. Subcutaneous injection of nicotine was found to be related with some pathological changes in the retina and lens of the Sprague-Dawley rats. However HBO caused no significant negative effect. Furthermore, the histopathological changes related to nicotine exposure in the lens and retina of the rats recovered by the application of HBO.

  8. The Effect of the Crystalline Lens on Central Vault After Implantable Collamer Lens Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Meng-Ying; Chen, Qian; Zeng, Qing-Yan

    2017-08-01

    To identify associations between crystalline lens-related factors and central vault after Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL) (Staar Surgical, Monrovia, CA) implantation. This retrospective clinical study included 320 eyes from 186 patients who underwent ICL implantation surgery. At 1 year after surgery, the central vault was measured using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Preoperative anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, lens position (lens position = anterior chamber depth + 1/2 lens thickness), and vault were analyzed to investigate the effects of lens-related factors on postoperative vault. The mean vault was 513 ± 215 µm at 1 year after surgery. Vault was positively correlated with preoperative anterior chamber depth (r = 0.495, P lens position (r = 0.371, P lens thickness (r = -0.262, P lens position than eyes in the other two vault groups (which had vaults ≥ 250 µm) (P lens position less than 5.1 mm had greatly reduced vaults (P lens could have an important influence on postoperative vault. Eyes with a shallower anterior chamber and a forward lens position will have lower vaults. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(8):519-523.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Anterior capsular rupture following blunt ocular injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremida, Anas; Kassem, Iris; Traish, Aisha

    2011-01-01

    Summary A 10-year-old boy suffered a large, oblique anterior capsular tear following blunt injury to his right eye. The boy was followed daily for hyphema resolution and progressive traumatic cataract formation. After the hyphema had resolved, the lens was removed using an anterior approach and an intraocular lens was placed with excellent visual outcome. PMID:23362402

  10. Crystalline lens power and refractive error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Rafael; Morgan, Ian G; Nangia, Vinay; Jonas, Jost B

    2012-02-01

    To study the relationships between the refractive power of the crystalline lens, overall refractive error of the eye, and degree of nuclear cataract. All phakic participants of the population-based Central India Eye and Medical Study with an age of 50+ years were included. Calculation of the refractive lens power was based on distance noncycloplegic refractive error, corneal refractive power, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and axial length according to Bennett's formula. The study included 1885 subjects. Mean refractive lens power was 25.5 ± 3.0 D (range, 13.9-36.6). After adjustment for age and sex, the standardized correlation coefficients (β) of the association with the ocular refractive error were highest for crystalline lens power (β = -0.41; P lens opacity grade (β = -0.42; P lens power (β = -0.95), lower corneal refractive power (β = -0.76), higher lens thickness (β = 0.30), deeper anterior chamber (β = 0.28), and less marked nuclear lens opacity (β = -0.05). Lens thickness was significantly lower in eyes with greater nuclear opacity. Variations in refractive error in adults aged 50+ years were mostly influenced by variations in axial length and in crystalline lens refractive power, followed by variations in corneal refractive power, and, to a minor degree, by variations in lens thickness and anterior chamber depth.

  11. Regional Variation Is Present in Elbow Capsules after Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Germscheid, Niccole M.; Hildebrand, Kevin A.

    2006-01-01

    Myofibroblast numbers and α-smooth muscle actin expression are increased in anterior joint capsules of patients with posttraumatic elbow contractures. The purpose of our study was to determine whether these changes occur regionally or throughout the entire joint capsule. We hypothesized that the α-smooth muscle actin mRNA expression and the myofibroblast numbers in posterior joint capsules would be elevated in elbows obtained from patients with posttraumatic joint contractures compared with j...

  12. Myofibroblast Numbers are Elevated in Human Elbow Capsules After Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrand, Kevin A.; Zhang, Mei; van Snellenberg, Wistara; King, Graham J. W.; Hart, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Elbow contractures, a frequent problem after injury, can be treated by excision of the joint capsule. However, the underlying changes in the joint capsule are poorly understood. Based on skin healing work, we examined the hypotheses that myofibroblast numbers and expression of a myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin, are elevated in patients with posttraumatic joint contractures. Anterior capsules were obtained from six patients who had operative release of posttraumatic contractures gre...

  13. Capsulorhexis contraction after cataract surgery: Comparison of sharp anterior edge and modified anterior edge acrylic intraocular lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corydon, C.; Lindholt, M.; Knudsen, E.B.

    2007-01-01

    eyes) were included in a prospective randomized study. All had phacoemulsification followed by implantation of an IOL with a modified anterior edge (38 eyes) or a sharp anterior edge (46 eyes). One day (baseline) and 3 months postoperatively, the area of the anterior capsule opening was measured using...... retroillumination photographs. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in the area of the anterior capsule opening from 1 day to 3 months postoperatively in both groups (Psharp...

  14. Bilateral intraocular lens subluxation secondary to haptic angulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Montañés, Javier; Fernández-Hortelano, Ana; Caire, Josemaría

    2008-04-01

    An 82-year-old man had uneventful phacoemulsification with bilateral implantation of a hydrophilic acrylic, single-piece intraocular lens (IOL) (ACR6D SE, Laboratoires Cornéal). Five years later, simultaneous and bilateral IOL subluxations occurred. In both eyes, the subluxation was situated on the side of one haptic that had moved forward (temporal area in the right eye and superior area in the left eye). In the right eye, the haptic-capsular bag was entrapped by the pupil and produced endothelial damage. A transscleral suture was placed over and under the subluxated haptic through the anterior and posterior capsules to capture the haptic. The haptic was then sutured to the sclera. No postoperative complications developed. We hypothesize that 10-degree angulated and broad haptic junctions can lead to zonular damage and IOL subluxation.

  15. Posterior capsule opacification and neovascularization treated with intravitreal bevacizumab and Nd:YAG capsulotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimelda Yuriana Sánchez-Castro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Grimelda Yuriana Sánchez-Castro1, Alejandra Hitos-Fájer1, Erick Mendoza-Schuster1, Raul Velez-Montoya2, Cecilio Francisco Velasco-Barona11Asociación para Evitar la Ceguera en México. Hospital “Dr. Luis Sánchez Bulnes”, México, D.F. Ophthalmology Department – Anterior Segment; 2Asociación para Evitar la Ceguera en México. Hospital “Dr. Luis Sánchez Bulnes”, México, D.F. Ophthalmology Department – Retina departmentAbstract: We reported a 75-year-old diabetic man, who developed opacification and neovascularization of the posterior capsule after extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. The patient was treated with two injections of 2.5 mg of intravitreal bevacizumab. The treatment produced an important regression of the posterior capsular new vessels, allowing us to perform a successful Nd:YAG capsulotomy, clearing the visual axis and improving the visualization of the posterior pole. Even though, best corrected visual acuity was 20/200 due to diabetic macular edema.Keywords: posterior capsule opacification, posterior capsule neovascularization, cataract surgery, postoperative complications, intravitreal bevacizumab

  16. DNA methyl transferases are differentially expressed in the human anterior eye segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, Nicolas; Belville, Corinne; Chiambaretta, Frédéric; Sapin, Vincent; Blanchon, Loïc

    2014-08-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark involved in the control of genes expression. Abnormal epigenetic events have been reported in human pathologies but weakly documented in eye diseases. The purpose of this study was to establish DNMT mRNA and protein expression levels in the anterior eye segment tissues and their related (primary or immortalized) cell cultures as a first step towards future in vivo and in vitro methylomic studies. Total mRNA was extracted from human cornea, conjunctiva, anterior lens capsule, trabeculum and related cell cultures (cornea epithelial, trabecular meshwork, keratocytes for primary cells; and HCE, Chang, B-3 for immortalized cells). cDNA was quantified by real-time PCR using specific primers for DNMT1, 2, 3A, 3B and 3L. Immunolocalization assays were carried out on human cornea using specific primary antibodies for DNMT1, 2 and 3A, 3B and 3L. All DNMT transcripts were detected in human cornea, conjunctiva, anterior lens capsule, trabeculum and related cells but showed statistically different expression patterns between tissues and cells. DNMT2 protein presented a specific and singular expression pattern in corneal endothelium. This study produced the first inventory of the expression patterns of DNMTs in human adult anterior eye segment. Our research highlights that DNA methylation cannot be ruled out as a way to bring new insights into well-known ocular diseases. In addition, future DNA methylation studies using various cells as experimental models need to be conducted with attention to approach the results analysis from a global tissue perspective. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Incidência de opacificação de cápsula posterior em pacientes submetidos à facoemulsificação e implante de lentes intra-oculares acrílicas hidrofílicas expansíveis Incidence of posterior capsule opacification in patients submitted to phacoemulsification and expandable acrylic intraocular lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Arcoverde Gonçalves de Medeiros

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar prospectivamente os resultados das lentes intra-oculares de polímeros expansíveis implantadas em pacientes submetidos à facoemulsificação, quanto à incidência de opacificação de cápsula posterior, levando em consideração a biocompatibilidade das lentes expansíveis. MÉTODOS: O grupo de estudo foi composto por 830 pacientes, 1.200 olhos, que foram submetidos a facoemulsificação, utilizando a mesma técnica, variando-se apenas o diâmetro da capsulorrexe, pelo mesmo cirurgião, no período de 1998 a 2002, com implante de lente intra-ocular hidrofílica expansível. O acompanhamento médio foi de 2,4 anos, variando de seis meses a quatro anos. RESULTADOS: O número total de opacificação de cápsula posterior foi de 54 casos. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência de opacificação de cápsula posterior encontrada no grupo foi de 4,6%.PURPOSE: To evaluate prospectively the results of expandable acrylic intraocular lenses in patients submitted to phacoemulsification as regard posterior capsule opacification. METHODS: The study group consisted of 830 patients, 1,200 eyes that underwent phacoemulsification from 1998 to 2002, by the same surgeon, using the same technique but with different diameters of capsulorrhexis, with expandable hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens implantation. The mean follow-up was 2.4 years, ranging from 6 months to 4 years. RESULTS: The total number of posterior capsule opacification was 54 cases. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of posterior capsule opacification was 4.6% in these patients.

  18. [fs-Lentotomy: presbyopia reversal by generating gliding planes inside the crystalline lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubatschowski, H; Schumacher, S; Wegener, A; Fromm, M; Oberheide, U; Hoffmann, H; Gerten, G

    2009-12-01

    Based on the Helmholtz theory for accommodation, increasing sclerosis of the lens nucleus and cortex is the main cause for the development of presbyopia. Existing therapies, however, do not reverse the stiffness of the crystalline lens and thus do not regain real accommodation ability. A new approach to restore the flexibility of the lens has been realised by utilising the non-linear interaction of ultrafast laser pulses with transparent tissue, the so-called photodisruption. This process has been used to create micro-incisions which act as gliding planes inside the crystalline lens without opening the eye globe. This treatment method, known as fs-lentotomy, enables regeneration of real dynamic accommodation. For the first time, 3D structures for gliding planes were successfully generated in experiments with human donor lenses of different ages. An average increase in anterior-posterior lens thickness of 100 mum accompanied by a decrease of equatorial lens diameter was observed as a direct consequence of fs-lentotomy. This is attributed to the increased flexibility, as the force of the capsule bag moulds the lens tissue more spherically. Moreover, in vivo experiments on rabbit eye lenses did not induce an increasing opacification (cataract) over a six-month follow-up period. However, the incisions were still detectable using Scheimpflug imaging and histopathological techniques, although the visibility of the incisions was declining. Furthermore, no side effects were observed during the wound healing process and during a six-months follow-up period. Based on these findings fs-lentotomy might have the potential to become a procedure for the reversal of presbyopia. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  19. Catarata polar anterior piramidal deslocada para a câmara anterior causando edema de córnea: relato de caso Corneal edema caused by a pyramidal anterior polar cataract dislocated to the anterior chamber: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Coral Ghanem

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Cataratas polares anteriores piramidais são opacidades cônicas que se projetam para a câmara anterior a partir da cápsula anterior do cristalino. Na grande maioria dos pacientes a opacidade permanece aderida e estável durante toda a vida. O objetivo deste trabalho é documentar uma manifestação incomum desse tipo de catarata: a deiscência espontânea das pirâmides para a câmara anterior causando descompensação endotelial e edema corneal bilateral. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente feminina, de 66 anos, branca, que apresentava edema corneal localizado inferiormente no olho direito associado à lesão nodular branco-esclerótica compatível com a pirâmide anterior da catarata polar. O olho esquerdo apresentava edema corneal difuso intenso e presença de uma catarata polar anterior com a região piramidal deslocada para a câmara anterior. Sabe-se que a pirâmide anterior pode permanecer inabsorvida na câmara anterior por longo período, pois é composta de tecido colágeno denso. Isto causa perda endotelial progressiva e edema corneal e deve ser considerada indicação de remoção cirúrgica da catarata polar anterior e de seu fragmento. Ressalta-se, também, a importância do bom senso no julgamento das cataratas polares anteriores, considerando-se tamanho da opacidade, simetria das opacidades e componente cortical associado, na tentativa de se evitar ambliopia.Pyramidal anterior polar cataracts are conical opacities that project into the anterior chamber from the anterior capsule of the lens. In the vast majority of patients the opacity remains bound and stable throughout life. We report an unusual complication of this type of cataract: spontaneous dehiscence of the pyramids to the anterior chamber causing bilateral endothelial damage and corneal edema. 66-year-old white woman presented with inferior corneal edema in the right eye and diffuse corneal edema in the left eye. A white nodular lesion was observed in the inferior angle

  20. The Role of Type IV Collagen in Developing Lens in Mouse Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jalali

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sExtracellular matrix (ECM and basement membrane (BM play important roles in many developmental processes during development and after birth. Among the components of the BM, collagen fibers specially type IV are the most important parts. The aim of this study was to determine the time when collagen type IV appears in the BM of lens structure during mouse embryonic development.Materials and MethodsIn this experimental study, 22 female Balb/C mice were randomly selected and were kept under normal condition, finding vaginal plug was assumed as day zero of pregnancy. From embryonic day 10 to 20, all specimens were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and their heads were fixed, serially sectioned and immunohistochemistry study for tracing collagen type IV in lens were carried out.ResultsOur data revealed that collagen type IV appeared at the early stage of gestation day 12 in BM of anterior epithelial lens cells and the amount of this protein gradually increased until days 15-17 in ECM and posterior capsule epithelium. After this period, severe reaction was not observed in any part of the lens.ConclusionThese findings establish the important role of collagen IV in developing optic cup and any changes during critical period of pregnancy may be result in severe visual system defect

  1. Two-Port Pars Plana Anterior and Central Core Vitrectomy (Lam Floaterectomy) in Combination With Phacoemulsification and Intraocular Lens Implantation Under Topical Anesthesia for Patients with Cataract and Significant Floaters: Results of the First 50 Consecutive Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Dennis S C; Leung, Hiu Ying; Liu, Shu; Radke, Nishant; Yuan, Ye; Lee, Vincent Y W

    2017-01-01

    To study the safety and efficacy of 2-port pars plana anterior and central core vitrectomy (Lam floaterectomy) in combination with phacoemulsification (phaco) and intraocular lens implantation (IOL) for patients with cataract and significant floaters under topical anesthesia. Retrospective review of the first 50 consecutive cases. A standardized treatment protocol was used for patients with cataract and significant (moderate to severe) floaters (duration > 3 months). Data analysis included intraoperative and postoperative complications, floater status, and patient satisfaction. There were 50 eyes (38 patients) with a male-to-female ratio of 1 to 2.3. Twelve patients had bilateral eye surgeries. Mean age was 58.10 ± 9.85 years (range, 39-83). All patients completed the 3-month follow-up. One eye had mild vitreous hemorrhage at the end of surgery arising from sclerotomy wound oozing. No other intraoperative compli-cations were encountered. Postoperatively, there was 1 case of transient hypotony and 1 case of congestion at sclerotomy wound. No cases of retinal break or detachment, or clinically significant macular edema, were reported. There were 5 cases (10%) of mild residual floaters and 1 case (2%) of floater recurrence. Total floater clearance rate was 88%. Patient satisfaction rates were 80%, 14%, 6%, and 0% for very satisfied, satis-fied, acceptable, and unsatisfied, respectively. The 3-month results in terms of safety and efficacy of the Lam floaterectomy in combination with phaco and IOLfor patients with cataract and significant floaters under topical anesthesia are encouraging. Further larger-scale, prospective, multicenter studies seem warranted. Copyright© 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  2. Objective lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  3. Polydopamine-coated capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Scott R.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Kang, Sen; Baginska, Marta B.

    2018-04-17

    One aspect of the invention is a polymer material comprising a capsule coated with PDA. In certain embodiments, the capsule encapsulates a functional agent. The encapsulated functional agent may be an indicating agent, healing agent, protecting agent, pharmaceutical drug, food additive, or a combination thereof.

  4. TUG1 promotes lens epithelial cell apoptosis by regulating miR-421/caspase-3 axis in age-related cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoxing; Song, Huiyang; Chen, Lei; Yang, Weihua; Nan, Kaihui; Lu, Peirong

    2017-07-01

    Age-related cataract is among the most common chronic disorders of ageing and the apoptosis of lens epithelial cells contributes to non-congenital cataract development. We amid to explore the role of TUG1 and miR-421 in the age-related cataract. The expression level of TUG1, miR-421 and caspase-3 were detected by RT-qPCR. The apoptotic-related protein, caspase-3, Bax and blc-2 were analyzed by western blot. We performed ultraviolet (UV) irradiation to induce SAR01/04 cell apoptosis which was analyzed by flow cytometry. RIP pull-down and luciferase reporter assay were used to verified the combination and regulating among TUG1, miR-421 and caspase-3. Here, we observed that the expression level of TUG1 and caspase-3 in the anterior lens capsules of age-related cataract were significantly higher and miR-421 was significantly lower than that in the normal anterior lens capsules. The apoptosis-related protein, caspase-3, Bax and blc-2 were abnormal expression in the anterior lens capsules of age-related cataract tissue. Our data showed that the expression level of TUG1 and caspase-3 and cell apoptosis rate in SAR01/04 cells treated with UV irradiation was remarkably higher than that in the control. TUG1 negatively regulated miR-421 expression and promoted UV irradiation-induced SAR01/04 cell apoptosis. However, miR-421 inhibitor and pcDNA-caspase-3 could reverse the action of the SRA01/04 cell apoptosis by si-TUG1, which suggested TUG1 promoted UV irradiation-induced apoptosis through downregulating miR-421 expression. Furthermore, this study confirmed TUG1 could been in combination with miR-421, and TUG1 and caspase-3 were both a directly target of miR-421. TUG1 modulated lens epithelial cell apoptosis through miR-421/caspase-3 axis. These findings will offer a novel insight into the pathogenesis of cataract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Goat′s eye integrated with a human cataractous lens: A training model for phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Sengupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A relatively simple and inexpensive technique to train surgeons in phacoemulsification using a goat′s eye integrated with a human cataractous nucleus is described. The goat′s eye is placed on a bed of cotton within the lumen of a cylindrical container. This is then mounted on a rectangular thermocol so that the limbus is presented at the surgical field. After making a clear corneal entry with a keratome, the trainer makes a 5-5.5 mm continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis in the anterior lens capsule, creates a crater of adequate depth in the cortex and inserts the human nucleus within this crater in the goat′s capsular bag. The surgical wound is sutured, and the goat′s eye is ready for training. Creating the capsulorhexis with precision and making the crater of adequate depth to snugly accommodate the human nucleus are the most important steps to prevent excessive wobbling of the nucleus while training.

  6. Goat's eye integrated with a human cataractous lens: A training model for phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sabyasachi; Dhanapal, Praveen; Nath, Manas; Haripriya, Aravind; Venkatesh, Rengaraj

    2015-03-01

    A relatively simple and inexpensive technique to train surgeons in phacoemulsification using a goat's eye integrated with a human cataractous nucleus is described. The goat's eye is placed on a bed of cotton within the lumen of a cylindrical container. This is then mounted on a rectangular thermocol so that the limbus is presented at the surgical field. After making a clear corneal entry with a keratome, the trainer makes a 5-5.5 mm continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis in the anterior lens capsule, creates a crater of adequate depth in the cortex and inserts the human nucleus within this crater in the goat's capsular bag. The surgical wound is sutured, and the goat's eye is ready for training. Creating the capsulorhexis with precision and making the crater of adequate depth to snugly accommodate the human nucleus are the most important steps to prevent excessive wobbling of the nucleus while training.

  7. The clinical outcomes of surgical management of anterior chamber migration of a dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunseung; Lee, Min Woo; Byeon, Suk Ho; Koh, Hyoung Jun; Lee, Sung Chul; Kim, Min

    2017-09-01

    Our purpose was to describe the clinical course, and individualized management approaches, of patients with migration of a dexamethasone implant into the anterior chamber. This was a retrospective review of four patients with seven episodes of anterior chamber migration of a dexamethasone implant. After 924 intravitreal dexamethasone injections, anterior migration of the implant occurred in four eyes of four patients (0.43%). All four eyes were pseudophakic: one eye had a posterior chamber intraocular lens in the capsular bag but in a post-laser posterior capsulotomy state, two eyes had a sulcus intraocular lens (IOL), and one eye had an iris-fixated retropupillary IOL. All eyes had a prior vitrectomy and no lens capsule. The time interval from injection to detection of the implant migration ranged from 2 to 6 weeks. Of the four eyes with corneal edema, only one eye required a corneal transplantation, although it was unclear whether the implant migration was the direct cause of the corneal decompensation because the patient had a history of bullous keratopathy resulting from an extended history of uveitis. All patients underwent surgical intervention: two patients with a repositioning procedure, and the other two patients with removal due to repeated episodes, although surgical removal was not always necessary to reverse the corneal complications. In our study, not all patients required surgical removal of the implants. Repositioning the implant back into the vitreous cavity may be considered as an option in cases involving the first episode with no significant corneal endothelial decompensation. Considering potential anterior segment complications and the loss of drug effectiveness together, an individualized approach is recommended to obtain the best treatment outcomes and to minimize the risk of corneal complications.

  8. Intraocular Foreign Body Detected by Gonioscopy in the Anterior Chamber Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özdemir Özdemir

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 45-year-old male patient was referred to our hospital with suspicion of foreign body in the right eye. It was learned that a metal burr entered his right eye 2 days ago. Best-corrected visual acuity in the right eye was 9/10. Biomicroscopic examination showed a 2-mm fullthickness corneal incision in the lower paracentral cornea. Defect on the iris corresponding to the incision line drew our attention. Seidel test was negative. After dilatation, the anterior lens capsule and fundus examinations were performed and were normal. The presence of intraocular foreign body (IOFB was suspected and it was detected in the lower quadrant of the iridocorneal angle by gonioscopy. Emergency surgery was performed and IOFB was extracted. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 278-81

  9. Iris-claw intraocular lenses to correct aphakia in the absence of capsule support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Samantha R; Arun, Kikkeri; Anandan, Maghizh; Glover, Nicholas; Patel, Chetan K; Rosen, Paul

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the indications, postoperative visual efficacy, and complication rate after intraocular implantation of an iris-claw aphakic intraocular lens (IOL). Oxford Eye Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom. Case series. This chart review comprised eyes with no capsule support that had anterior iris-fixation IOL implantation for aphakia between 2001 and 2009. The study comprised 116 eyes (104 patients). Iris-claw IOLs were inserted during primary lens surgery in 18 eyes (15.5%), during an IOL exchange procedure for dislocated posterior chamber IOLs in 19 eyes (16.4%), and as a secondary procedure in 79 eyes (68.1%). The mean follow-up was 22.4 months (range 3 to 79 months). The final corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was 6/12 or better in 68.9% of all eyes and in 47 of 53 eyes (88.7%) with no preoperative comorbidity. Complications included wound leak requiring resuturing in 2.6% of eyes, postoperative intraocular pressure rise in 9.5% of eyes (glaucoma escalation 0.8%), and cystoid macular edema in 7.7% of eyes (0.8% chronic). Iris-claw IOL subluxation occurred in 6.0% of eyes from 5 days to 60 months postoperatively; all the IOLs were repositioned. Corneal decompensation occurred in 1.7% of eyes; 0.8% had retinal detachments. Iris-claw IOL implantation for aphakia gave a good visual outcome and can be used for a wide range of indications. Postoperative complication rates were comparable to, if not better than, those with conventional anterior chamber IOLs. Correct implantation technique is critical in avoiding postoperative IOL subluxation. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetically guided capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudhin, Naveen; Zverev, Vladimir I; Keller, Henrik; Pane, Salvador; Egolf, Peter W; Nelson, Bradley J; Tishin, Alexander M

    2017-08-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a powerful tool for medical screening and diagnosis, where a small capsule is swallowed and moved by means of natural peristalsis and gravity through the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The camera-integrated capsule allows for visualization of the small intestine, a region which was previously inaccessible to classical flexible endoscopy. As a diagnostic tool, it allows to localize the sources of bleedings in the middle part of the gastrointestinal tract and to identify diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease), polyposis syndrome, and tumors. The screening and diagnostic efficacy of the WCE, especially in the stomach region, is hampered by a variety of technical challenges like the lack of active capsular position and orientation control. Therapeutic functionality is absent in most commercial capsules, due to constraints in capsular volume and energy storage. The possibility of using body-exogenous magnetic fields to guide, orient, power, and operate the capsule and its mechanisms has led to increasing research in Magnetically Guided Capsule Endoscopy (MGCE). This work shortly reviews the history and state-of-art in WCE technology. It highlights the magnetic technologies for advancing diagnostic and therapeutic functionalities of WCE. Not restricting itself to the GI tract, the review further investigates the technological developments in magnetically guided microrobots that can navigate through the various air- and fluid-filled lumina and cavities in the body for minimally invasive medicine. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Egg capsules of the dusky catshark Bythaelurus canescens (Carcharhiniformes, Scyliorhinidae) from the south-eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, F; Bustamante, C; Oddone, M C; Hernández, S; Lamilla, J

    2010-09-01

    The external morphology of the egg capsule of Bythaelurus canescens and its fixation to the substratum are described. Bythaelurus canescens egg capsules are typically vase-shaped, dorso-ventrally flattened, pale yellow in colour when fresh and covered by 12-15 longitudinal ridges. The anterior border of the capsule is straight, whereas the posterior border is semicircular. Two horns bearing long, coiled tendrils arise from the anterior and posterior ends of the capsule. The presence of longitudinal ridges and long coiled tendrils at both anterior and posterior ends of the capsule readily distinguish these egg capsules from those of other chondrichthyans occurring in the south-east Pacific Ocean. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Advances in pediatric gastroenterology: introducing video camera capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaw, Emmanuel O

    2006-04-01

    The video camera capsule endoscope is a gastrointestinal endoscope approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2001 for use in diagnosing gastrointestinal disorders in adults. In 2003, the agency approved the device for use in children ages 10 and older, and the endoscope is currently in use at Arkansas Children's Hospital. A capsule camera, lens, battery, transmitter and antenna together record images of the small intestine as the endoscope makes its way through the bowel. The instrument is used with minimal risk to the patient while offering a high degree of accuracy in diagnosing small intestine disorders.

  13. Measurement of Crystalline Lens Volume During Accommodation in a Lens Stretcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marussich, Lauren; Manns, Fabrice; Nankivil, Derek; Maceo Heilman, Bianca; Yao, Yue; Arrieta-Quintero, Esdras; Ho, Arthur; Augusteyn, Robert; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2015-07-01

    To determine if the lens volume changes during accommodation. The study used data acquired on 36 cynomolgus monkey lenses that were stretched in a stepwise fashion to simulate disaccommodation. At each step, stretching force and dioptric power were measured and a cross-sectional image of the lens was acquired using an optical coherence tomography system. Images were corrected for refractive distortions and lens volume was calculated assuming rotational symmetry. The average change in lens volume was calculated and the relation between volume change and power change, and between volume change and stretching force, were quantified. Linear regressions of volume-power and volume-force plots were calculated. The mean (± SD) volume in the unstretched (accommodated) state was 97 ± 8 mm3. On average, there was a small but statistically significant (P = 0.002) increase in measured lens volume with stretching. The mean change in lens volume was +0.8 ± 1.3 mm3. The mean volume-power and volume-load slopes were -0.018 ± 0.058 mm3/D and +0.16 ± 0.40 mm3/g. Lens volume remains effectively constant during accommodation, with changes that are less than 1% on average. This result supports a hypothesis that the change in lens shape with accommodation is accompanied by a redistribution of tissue within the capsular bag without significant compression of the lens contents or fluid exchange through the capsule.

  14. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory of probabil...

  15. NIF capsule performance modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-shot modeling of NIF capsule implosions was performed in order to validate our physical and numerical models. Cryogenic layered target implosions and experiments with surrogate targets produce an abundance of capsule performance data including implosion velocity, remaining ablator mass, times of peak x-ray and neutron emission, core image size, core symmetry, neutron yield, and x-ray spectra. We have attempted to match the integrated data set with capsule-only simulations by adjusting the drive and other physics parameters within expected uncertainties. The simulations include interface roughness, time-dependent symmetry, and a model of mix. We were able to match many of the measured performance parameters for a selection of shots.

  16. Microscope-Integrated Intraoperative Ultrahigh-Speed Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography for Widefield Retinal and Anterior Segment Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen D; Waheed, Nadia K; Witkin, Andre; Baumal, Caroline R; Liu, Jonathan J; Potsaid, Benjamin; Joseph, Anthony; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex; Chan, Kinpui; Duker, Jay S; Fujimoto, James G

    2018-02-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of retinal and anterior segment intraoperative widefield imaging using an ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) surgical microscope attachment. A prototype post-objective SS-OCT using a 1,050-nm wavelength, 400 kHz A-scan rate, vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) light source was integrated to a commercial ophthalmic surgical microscope after the objective. Each widefield OCT data set was acquired in 3 seconds (1,000 × 1,000 A-scans, 12 × 12 mm 2 for retina and 10 × 10 mm 2 for anterior segment). Intraoperative SS-OCT was performed in 20 eyes of 20 patients. In six of seven membrane peels and five of seven rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair surgeries, widefield retinal imaging enabled evaluation pre- and postoperatively. In all seven cataract cases, anterior imaging evaluated the integrity of the posterior lens capsule. Ultrahigh-speed SS-OCT enables widefield intraoperative viewing in the posterior and anterior eye. Widefield imaging visualizes ocular structures and pathology without requiring OCT realignment. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:94-102.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Different alpha crystallin expression in human age-related and congenital cataract lens epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhou, Sheng; Guo, Minfei; Li, Yuting; Gu, Jianjun

    2016-05-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the different expressions of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in human lens epithelium of age-related and congenital cataracts. The central part of the human anterior lens capsule approximately 5 mm in diameter together with the adhering epithelial cells, were harvested and processed within 6 hours after cataract surgery from age-related and congenital cataract patients or from normal eyes of fresh cadavers. The mRNA and soluble protein levels of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in the human lens epithelium were detected by real-time PCR and western blots, respectively. The mRNA and soluble protein expressions of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in the lens epithelium were both reduced in age-related and congenital cataract groups when compared with the normal control group. However, the degree of α-crystallin loss in the lens epithelium was highly correlated with different cataract types. The α-crystallin expression of the lens epithelium was greatly reduced in the congenital cataract group but only moderately decreased in the age-related cataract group. The reduction of αA-crystallin soluble protein levels in the congenital cataract group was approximately 2.4 fold decrease compared with that of the age-related cataract group, while an mRNA fold change of 1.67 decrease was observed for the age-related cataract group. Similarly, the reduction of soluble protein levels of αB-crystallin in the congenital cataract group was approximately a 1.57 fold change compared with that of the age-related cataract group. A 1.75 fold change for mRNA levels compared with that of the age-related cataract group was observed. The results suggest that the differential loss of α-crystallin in the human lens epithelium could be associated with the different mechanisms of cataractogenesis in age-related versus congenital cataracts, subsequently resulting in different clinical presentations.

  18. Upregulations of Clcn3 and P-Gp Provoked by Lens Osmotic Expansion in Rat Galactosemic Cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Lens osmotic expansion, provoked by overactivated aldose reductase (AR, is the most essential event of sugar cataract. Chloride channel 3 (Clcn3 is a volume-sensitive channel, mainly participating in the regulation of cell fundamental volume, and P-glycoprotein (P-gp acts as its modulator. We aim to study whether P-gp and Clcn3 are involved in lens osmotic expansion of galactosemic cataract. Methods and Results. In vitro, lens epithelial cells (LECs were primarily cultured in gradient galactose medium (10–60 mM, more and more vacuoles appeared in LEC cytoplasm, and mRNA and protein levels of AR, P-gp, and Clcn3 were synchronously upregulated along with the increase of galactose concentration. In vivo, we focused on the early stage of rat galactosemic cataract, amount of vacuoles arose from equatorial area and scattered to the whole anterior capsule of lenses from the 3rd day to the 9th day, and mRNA and protein levels of P-gp and Clcn3 reached the peak around the 9th or 12th day. Conclusion. Galactosemia caused the osmotic stress in lenses; it also markedly leads to the upregulations of AR, P-gp, and Clcn3 in LECs, together resulting in obvious osmotic expansion in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Posterior chamber lens implantation with scleral fixation in children with traumatic cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caca, Ihsan; Sahin, Alparslan; Ari, Seyhmus; Alakus, Fuat

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of posterior chamber lens implantation with scleral fixation (SF-PCIOL) in children with traumatic cataract. Twenty-four eyes of 24 cases were included. All patients had corneal or corneoscleral lacerations that were primarily repaired. Traumatic cataract subsequently developed and SF-PCIOL was performed due to insufficient posterior capsule support. The average age of the patients was 5.8 years (range: 4 to 10 years). All cases had SF-PCIOL implanted via internal route using triangular double scleral flaps made of 9-0 polypropylene after a complete anterior vitrectomy. Average follow-up was 14.6 ± 4.3 months (range: 11 to 18 months). Visual acuity was increased at the last visit in 23 (96%) patients. Common postoperative complications were fibrinous reaction in 6 (25%) patients, transient intraocular pressure increase in 4 (17%) patients, membrane formation requiring removal in 1 (4%) patient, transient intraocular hemorrhage as vitreous hemorrhage in 1 (4%) patient, and retinal detachment in 1 (4%) patient after the postoperative second month. SF-PCIOL is an effective and reliable method in patients with pediatric traumatic cataract who had insufficient posterior capsule support. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Cionni ring and in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation for subluxated lenses: a prospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Abhay R; Praveen, Mamidipudi R; Vasavada, Viraj A; Yeh, Ru-Yin; Srivastava, Samaresh; Koul, Archana; Trivedi, Rupal H

    2012-06-01

    To report the intraoperative performance and postoperative outcomes of the Cionni-modified capsule tension ring (CTR) implantation in eyes with subluxated lenses. Prospective, observational case series. This study was carried out at Iladevi Cataract & IOL Research Centre, Ahmedabad, India. The study population comprised 41 eyes with subluxated lenses that underwent lens extraction, capsular bag fixation with modified CTR, and in-the-bag single-piece AcrySof intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Main outcome measures were intraoperative performance and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), IOL centration, and complications. The mean age was 29.46 ± 16.16 years (3-68 years). Mean extent of subluxation was 6.1 ± 1.0 clock hours. Preoperatively, vitreous was detected in the anterior chambers of 5 eyes (12.2%). Two-port anterior chamber vitrectomy was performed in 2 eyes. Mean follow-up was 45.8 ± 2.9 months. Mean preoperative BCVA was 0.66 ± 0.22 logMAR (35 eyes). Mean postoperative BCVA at final follow-up was 0.33 ± 0.21 logMAR (41 eyes) (P IOL decentration was noted and repositioning was required in 2 eyes. Posterior capsule opacification developed in 14 eyes (34.2%); 12 eyes (29.3%) required Nd:YAG capsulotomy. Other complications included cystoid macular edema in 1 eye (2.4%), posterior synechiae in 1 eye (2.4%), and retinal detachment in 1 eye (2.4%). In-the-bag implantation of a Cionni-modified CTR with IOL appears to be a safe option in eyes with subluxated cataract, ensuring a stable IOL with few complications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Atraumatic Anterior Dislocation of the Hip Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiko Ohtsuru

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dislocation of the hip joint in adults is usually caused by high-energy trauma such as road traffic accidents or falls from heights. Posterior dislocation is observed in most cases. However, atraumatic anterior dislocation of the hip joint is extremely rare. We present a case of atraumatic anterior dislocation of the hip joint that was induced by an activity of daily living. The possible causes of this dislocation were anterior capsule insufficiency due to developmental dysplasia of the hip, posterior pelvic tilt following thoracolumbar kyphosis due to vertebral fracture, and acetabular anterior coverage changes by postural factor. Acetabular anterior coverage changes in the sagittal plane were measured using a tomosynthesis imaging system. This system was useful for elucidation of the dislocation mechanism in the present case.

  2. A Model of the Effect of Lens Development on Refraction in Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ji C

    2017-12-01

    The study provides a new theory on the mechanism underlying myopia development, and it could be useful in clinical practice to control myopia development in schoolchildren. To model the effect of the crystalline lens on refractive development in schoolchildren. The Zemax 13 was used to calculate Zernike aberrations and refractions across 50° horizontal visual fields. Optical effects of the anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and radii of curvature of the lens surfaces on refractions were modeled. Refractive changes induced by lens development in emmetropic and myopic eyes, based on a previous longitudinal study from literature, were calculated. A lens thickness reduction with an anterior chamber depth deepening caused a hyperopic shift over the visual fields and even more at the periphery. Opposite effects were found when the lens was thinned without any change of the anterior chamber depth. While a flattening of the anterior lens surface produced hyperopic refractions overall, a posterior lens flattening caused a myopic shift at the periphery, but a hyperopic shift of the central refraction. In the myopic eye, lens development induced refractive change toward more hyperopic over the visual fields and more at the periphery. Lens thinning and lens axial movement participate in peripheral refractive development in schoolchildren, and lens development with a deeper anterior chamber depth and a flatter lens surface in the myopic eye could generate extra hyperopia over visual fields. The myopic lens development could be due to a backward movement of the lens, driven by a backward growth of the ciliary process, which might be a causative factor of myopia development.

  3. [Phacoemulsification of subluxated lens with capsular tension ring implantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorecka, Mariola; Rokicki, Wojciech; Nita, Malgorzata; Krysik, Katarzyna; Nita, Ewa; Sikorska, Aleksandra; Romaniuk, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate long term results of phacoemulsification with PC IOL and capsular tension ring (CTR) implantation in lens subluxation. The study comprised of 134 patients--146 eyes with subluxated lens. In all cases phacoemulsification with PC IOL and CTR implantation was performed. No intaroperative complications has occured. Postoperative complications included: inflammation in the anterior chamber in 3 eyes (2.1%), retinal detachment in 2 eyes (1.4%). In all cases there was no PC IOL decentration. (1) CTR facilitates phacoemulsification with PC IOL implantation in lens subluxation. (2) Phacoemulsification of subluxated lens with PC IOL and CTR implantation seems to be safe and effective procedure.

  4. Converging or Diverging Lens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Why does a lens magnify? Why does it shrink objects? Why does this happen? The activities that we propose here are useful in helping us to understand how lenses work, and they show that the same lens can have different magnification capabilities. A converging lens can also act as a diverging lens. (Contains 4 figures.)

  5. High temperature radioisotope capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A high temperature radioisotope capsule made up of three concentric cylinders, with the isotope fuel located within the innermost cylinder is described. The innermost cylinder has hemispherical ends and is constructed of a tantalum alloy. The intermediate cylinder is made of a molybdenum alloy and is capable of withstanding the pressure generated by the alpha particle decay of the fuel. The outer cylinder is made of a platinum alloy of high resistance to corrosion. A gas separates the innermost cylinder from the intermediate cylinder and the intermediate cylinder from the outer cylinder

  6. Adhesive capsulitis: contrast-enhansed shoulder MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokalp, Gokhan; Yildirim, Nalan; Yazici, Zeynep; Algin, Oktay

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Evaluation of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) findings in cases clinically diagnosed as adhesive capsulitis (AC). CE-MRI images of 12 cases diagnosed as AC (13 shoulder joints) and nine control cases were retrospectively evaluated. AC diagnosis was establlished based on the history and clinical symptoms. MR signal intensity changes in the axillary pouch, rotator interval, biceps anchor and anterior posterior capsules were analysed with regard to the presence of abnormal soft tissue and contrast enhancement. Capsular and synovial thickening were measured in the axillary recess and rotator interval on coronal oblique CE T1-weighted images. Patient and control groups were compared by Fisher's exact and McNemar tests in terms of signal intensity changes and contrast enhancement in the described areas. Results: Comparison of the group with AC and the control group regarding intensity changes showed a statistically significant difference in the axillary pouch (P 0.05). Comparison of AC and control groups in terms of contrast enhancement revealed statistically significant differences in the axillary pouch, rotator interval, biceps anchor and anterior-posterior capsules (P < 0.001). A significant difference was determined between the AC and control groups with regard to thickening in axillary pouch and rotator interval (P < 0.001). CE studies are useful for diagnosis of AC as it demonstrates thickening of specific soft-tissue areas like joint capsule and synovium.

  7. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasavada Abhay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  8. Comparison of clear lens extraction and collamer lens implantation in high myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M Emarah

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed M Emarah, Mostafa A El-Helw, Hazem M YassinCairo University, Cairo, EgyptAim: To compare the outcomes of clear lens extraction and collamer lens implantation in high myopia.Patients and methods: Myopic patients younger than 40 years old with more than 12 diopters of myopia or who were not fit for laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis were included. Group 1 comprised patients undergoing clear lens extraction and Group 2 patients received the Visian implantable collamer lens. Outcome and complications were evaluated.Results: Postoperative best corrected visual acuity was -0.61 ± 0.18 in Group 1 and 0.79 ± 0.16 in Group 2. In Group 1, 71.4% achieved a postoperative uncorrected visual acuity better than the preoperative best corrected visual acuity, while only 51.8% patients achieved this in Group 2. Intraocular pressure decreased by 12.55% in Group 1, and increased by 15.11% in Group 2. Corneal endothelial cell density decreased by 4.47% in Group 1 and decreased by 5.67% in Group 2. Posterior capsule opacification occurred in Group 1. In Group 2, lens opacification occurred in 11.11%, significant pigment dispersion in 3.7%, and pupillary block glaucoma in 3.7%.Conclusion: Clear lens extraction presents less of a financial load up front, and less likelihood of the need for a secondary intervention in the future. Clear lens extraction is a more viable solution in developing countries with limited financial resources.Keywords: clear lens extraction, implantable collamer lens, myopia

  9. Clinical observation of small-incision extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of cataract in the sight restoration project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jian Cheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the clinical effects of small-incision extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of cataract.METHODS:Totally 642 cases 676 eyes of cataract were treated by small-incision extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation. Complication during and after operations and postoperative visual acuity was observed.RESULTS:Visual acuity of 670 eyes was ≥0.05 and off-blindness rate was 99.11%, and there was 627 eyes ≥0.3 and the off-disability rate was 92.75% after 1mo. Rupture of posterior capsule during surgery occurred in 24 eyes. Fifty-four eyes were corneal edema, and anterior chamber exudation were 26 eyes, and 23 eyes were hypertension after operation. CONCLUSION: There are a little complications during and after operation for cataract treated by small-incision extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation. Patients have good recovery after operation. This operation does not need high-standard equipments and is suitable in the sight restoration project.

  10. Capsule endoscopy: Beyond small bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N Adler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the brief and dramatic history of capsule endoscopy of the digestive tract is reviewed. Capsule endoscopy offers a non invasive method to diagnose diseases that affect the esophagus, small bowel and colon. Technological improvements relating to optics, software, data recorders with two way communication have revolutionized this field. These advancements have produced better diagnostic performance.

  11. Single lens to lens duplication: The missing link

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, Rupal; Jethani, Jitendra; Saluja, Praveen; Bharti, Vinay

    2008-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the lens include a wide range from lens coloboma to primary aphakia and doubling of lens. There have been few case reports of double lens; the etiology suggested is metaplastic changes in the surface ectoderm that leads to formation of two lens vesicles and hence resulting in double lens. We report a case with bilobed lens, which raises the possibility of explaining the etiology of double lens.

  12. Contact Lens Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Contact Lens Care Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... www.fda.gov/medwatch Learn More about Contact Lens Care Other Tips on Contact Lenses Decorative Contact ...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF LENS THICKNESS IN ANGLE CLOSURE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishat Sultana Khayoom

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anterior chamber depth and lens thickness have been considered as important biometric determinants in primary angle-closure glaucoma. Patients with primary narrow angle may be classified as a primary angle closure suspect (PACS, or as having primary angle closure (PAC or primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG. 23.9% of patients with primary angle closure disease are in India, which highlights the importance of understanding the disease, its natural history, and its underlying pathophysiology, so that we may try to establish effective methods of treatment and preventative measures to delay, or even arrest, disease progression, thereby reducing visual morbidity. AIM To determine the lens thickness using A-scan biometry and its significance in various stages of angle closure disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients attending outpatient department at Minto Ophthalmic Hospital between October 2013 to May 2015 were screened for angle closure disease and subsequently evaluated at glaucoma department. In our study, lens thickness showed a direct correlation with shallowing of the anterior chamber by determining the LT/ ACD ratio. A decrease in anterior chamber depth is proportional to the narrowing of the angle which contributes to the progression of the angle closure disease from just apposition to occlusion enhancing the risk for optic nerve damage and visual field loss. Hence, if the lens thickness values are assessed earlier in the disease process, appropriate intervention can be planned. CONCLUSION Determination of lens changes along with anterior chamber depth and axial length morphometrically can aid in early detection of angle closure. The role of lens extraction for PACG is a subject of increased interest. Lens extraction promotes the benefits of anatomical opening of the angle, IOP reduction and improved vision. This potential intervention may be one among the armamentarium of approaches for PACG. Among the current treatment modalities

  14. Soft gelatin capsules (softgels).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullapalli, Rampurna Prasad

    2010-10-01

    It is estimated that more than 40% of new chemical entities (NCEs) coming out of the current drug discovery process have poor biopharmaceutical properties, such as low aqueous solubility and/or permeability. These suboptimal properties pose significant challenges for the oral absorption of the compounds and for the development of orally bioavailable dosage forms. Development of soft gelatin capsule (softgel) dosage form is of growing interest for the oral delivery of poorly water soluble compounds (BCS class II or class IV). The softgel dosage form offers several advantages over other oral dosage forms, such as delivering a liquid matrix designed to solubilize and improve the oral bioavailability of a poorly soluble compound as a unit dose solid dosage form, delivering low and ultra-low doses of a compound, delivering a low melting compound, and minimizing potential generation of dust during manufacturing and thereby improving the safety of production personnel. However, due to the very dynamic nature of the softgel dosage form, its development and stability during its shelf-life are fraught with several challenges. The goal of the current review is to provide an in-depth discussion on the softgel dosage form to formulation scientists who are considering developing softgels for therapeutic compounds.

  15. Status of irradiation capsule design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Hiroshi; Yamaura, Takayuki; Nagao, Yoshiharu

    2013-01-01

    For the irradiation test after the restart of JMTR, further precise temperature control and temperature prediction are required. In the design of irradiation capsule, particularly sophisticated irradiation temperature prediction and evaluation are urged. Under such circumstance, among the conventional design techniques of irradiation capsule, the authors reviewed the evaluation method of irradiation temperature. In addition, for the improvement of use convenience, this study examined and improved FINAS/STAR code in order to adopt the new calculation code that enables a variety of analyses. In addition, the study on the common use of the components for radiation capsule enabled the shortening of design period. After the restart, the authors will apply this improved calculation code to the design of irradiation capsule. (A.O.)

  16. Pentacam Scheimpflug quantitative imaging of the crystalline lens and intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Patricia; Marcos, Susana

    2009-05-01

    To implement geometrical and optical distortion correction methods for anterior segment Scheimpflug images obtained with a commercially available system (Pentacam, Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH). Ray tracing algorithms were implemented to obtain corrected ocular surface geometry from the original images captured by the Pentacam's CCD camera. As details of the optical layout were not fully provided by the manufacturer, an iterative procedure (based on imaging of calibrated spheres) was developed to estimate the camera lens specifications. The correction procedure was tested on Scheimpflug images of a physical water cell model eye (with polymethylmethacrylate cornea and a commercial IOL of known dimensions) and of a normal human eye previously measured with a corrected optical and geometrical distortion Scheimpflug camera (Topcon SL-45 [Topcon Medical Systems Inc] from the Vrije University, Amsterdam, Holland). Uncorrected Scheimpflug images show flatter surfaces and thinner lenses than in reality. The application of geometrical and optical distortion correction algorithms improves the accuracy of the estimated anterior lens radii of curvature by 30% to 40% and of the estimated posterior lens by 50% to 100%. The average error in the retrieved radii was 0.37 and 0.46 mm for the anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature, respectively, and 0.048 mm for lens thickness. The Pentacam Scheimpflug system can be used to obtain quantitative information on the geometry of the crystalline lens, provided that geometrical and optical distortion correction algorithms are applied, within the accuracy of state-of-the art phakometry and biometry. The techniques could improve with exact knowledge of the technical specifications of the instrument, improved edge detection algorithms, consideration of aspheric and non-rotationally symmetrical surfaces, and introduction of a crystalline gradient index.

  17. Cataract Surgery in Anterior Megalophthalmos: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    GALVIS, Virgilio; TELLO, Alejandro; M. RANGEL, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Anterior megalophthalmos is characterized by megalocornea associated with a very broad anterior chamber and ciliary ring elongation. It is also called X-linked megalocornea. It is accompanied by early development of cataracts, zonular anomalies, and, rarely, vitreoretinal disorders. Subluxation of a cataract can occur in cataract surgery because of zonular weakness. In addition, in most patients, standard intraocular lens (IOL) decentration is a risk because of the enlarged sulcus and capsular bag. These unique circumstances make cataract surgery challenging. To date, several approaches have been developed. Implantation of a retropupillary iris-claw aphakic intraocular lens may be a good option because it is easier than suturing the IOL and can have better and more stable anatomic and visual outcomes, compared to other techniques. PMID:27350950

  18. Aberration design of zoom lens systems using thick lens modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinkai; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Wu, Zhuoqi

    2014-12-20

    A systematic approach for the aberration design of a zoom lens system using a thick lens module is presented. Each component is treated as a thick lens module at the beginning of the design. A thick lens module refers to a thick lens component with a real lens structure, like lens materials, lens curvatures, lens thicknesses, and lens interval distances. All nine third-order aberrations of a thick lens component are considered during the design. The relationship of component aberrations in different zoom positions can be approximated from the aberration shift. After minimizing the aberrations of the zoom lens system, the nine third-order aberrations of every lens component can be determined. Then the thick lens structure of every lens component can be determined after optimization according to their first-order properties and third-order aberration targets. After a third optimization for minimum practical third-order aberrations of a zoom lens system, the aberration design using the thick lens module is complete, which provides a practical zoom lens system with thick lens structures. A double-sided telecentric zoom lens system is designed using the thick lens module in this paper, which shows that this method is practical for zoom lens design.

  19. Linguatula serrata in the anterior chamber of the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Bhende

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of intraocular Linguatula in healthy young female who presented with a history of trivial trauma, dislocated lens, inflammation and secondary glaucoma. A mobile worm was seen in the anterior chamber. Pars plana lensectomy and vitrectomy was planned to remove both the cataractous lens and the parasite during which the worm disappeared from view but was later recovered from the cassette fluid. It was identified as the nymphal form of Linguatula serrata (tongue worm.

  20. MRI diagnosis of reverse and separation of meniscus articular capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaofeng; Zhou Chengtao; Mu Renqi; Zhang Guanghui; Xu Yongzhong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the MR imaging of reverse and separation of meniscal articular capsule. Methods: MR imaging of reverse and separation of meniscus articular capsule confirmed by surgery and arthroscope were analyzed retrospectively in 8 cases. Results: The 'Butterfly knot sign' disappeared and was replaced with fluid signal on the sagittal slice of meniscal body in 8 cases. Part of back angle remained in 3 cases. 'Double anterior cruciate ligament sign' was showed on one side of middle sagittal slice in 7 cases. 'Reverse meniscus sign' was revealed in intercondylar fossa on the coronary view in 8 cases. Abnormal high signal was showed in the injured meniscus in 6 cases. Abnormal high signal was detected in the opposite meniscus in 5 cases. Conclusion: The MR findings of reverse and separation of meniscus articular capsule include disappearance of 'butterfly knot sign', appearance of 'reverse meniscus sign' and 'double anterior cruciate ligament sign'. The diagnosis would be established if the former 2 signs were present or all the 3 signs were present simultaneously. (authors)

  1. White matter alterations in the internal capsule and psychomotor impairment in melancholic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyett, Matthew P; Perry, Alistair; Breakspear, Michael; Wen, Wei; Parker, Gordon B

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that structural brain abnormalities may play a role in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression. We set out to test whether diffusion-derived estimates of white matter structure were disrupted in melancholia in regions underpinning psychomotor function. We hypothesized that those with melancholia (and evidencing impaired psychomotor function) would show disrupted white matter organization in internal capsule subdivisions. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data were acquired from 22 melancholic depressed, 23 non-melancholic depressed, and 29 healthy control participants. Voxel-wise fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) values were derived for anterior, posterior, and retrolenticular limbs of the internal capsule and compared between groups. Neuropsychological (reaction time) and psychomotor functioning were assessed and correlated against FA. Fractional anisotropy was distinctly increased, whilst RD was decreased, in the right anterior internal capsule in those with melancholia, compared to controls. The right anterior limb of the internal capsule correlated with clinical ratings of psychomotor disturbance, and reduced psychomotor speed was associated with increased FA values in the right retrolenticular limb in those with melancholia. Our findings highlight a distinct disturbance in the local white matter arrangement in specific regions of the internal capsule in melancholia, which in turn is associated with psychomotor dysfunction. This study clarifies the contribution of structural brain integrity to the phenomenology of melancholia, and may assist future efforts seeking to integrate neurobiological markers into depression subtyping.

  2. Photoflash unit having optical system including aspheric lens to enhance light output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    A photoflash unit employing an optical system or apparatus with improved center beam candle power seconds and zonal lumen seconds from the flash lamp therein, said unit also employing a minimized utilization ratio of lamp-to-package cross-sectional area. Each individual lamp capsule comprises a reflective element, a refractive element (lens), and at least one photoflash lamp (light source). The lens provides for lamp shred magnification so as to fill the cell (capsule) width to thus provide maximum transfer of light to the subject on axis. One embodiment has the light source fused (glued) to the reflector and lens while a second embodiment has an air interface between the source and the optical elements. In both embodiments, the lens is aspheric and substantially covers both the reflector and source

  3. Etiology of the anterior ankle impingement syndrome: A descriptive anatomical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Johannes L.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2004-01-01

    Background: In the anterior ankle impingement syndrome, recurrent traction to the anterior joint capsule is stated to be the cause of formation of talotibial osteophytes. This hypothesis involves the assumption that the osteophytes originate at the site where a capsular attachment is located. A soft

  4. Surgical effect of traumatic lens dislocation with secondary glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dan Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To retrospectively evaluate the effect of lens extraction combined with vitrectomy to treat traumatic lens dislocation with secondary glaucoma.METHODS:Thirty-one eyes(31 casesof lens dislocation caused by blunt trauma with secondary glaucoma were treated respectively with cataract extraction combined with anterior vitrectomy, trabeculectomy and intraocular lens implantation. The visual acuity and pressure were observed 1wk, 1 and 3mo after operative. RESULTS:Thirty-one eyes were all complete the operation successfully, and 6 eyes were given combined trabeculectomy, 9 eyes were implanted anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation(IOLand 15 eyes were given posterior chamber suture fixation. Sixteen eyes were implanted in one-stage operation, while 8 eyes were implanted in two-stage operation. All intraocular pressure(IOPwere controlled to the normal level after operation and 23 eyes had visual acuity of more than 0.3.CONCLUSION:Lens extraction combined with vitrectomy is an effective method for treatment of lens dislocation with secondary glaucoma. In order to control the IOP and get well visual function, we should choose IOL implantation or trabeculectomy according to the patient's condition.

  5. Iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw intraocular lens implantation for the management of iris-lens injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shufang; Wang, Mingling; Xiao, Tianlin; Zhao, Zhenquan

    2016-03-01

    To study the efficiency and safety of iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in the patients with iris-lens injuries. Retrospective, noncomparable consecutive case series study. Eleven patients (11 eyes) following iris-lens injuries underwent iris reconstructions combined with iris-claw IOL implantations. Clinical data, such as cause and time of injury, visual acuity (VA), iris and lens injuries, surgical intervention, follow-up period, corneal endothelial cell count, and optical coherence tomography, were collected. Uncorrected VA (UCVA) in all injured eyes before combined surgery was equal to or iris returned to its natural round shape or smaller pupil, and the iris-claw IOLs in the 11 eyes were well-positioned on the anterior surface of reconstructed iris. No complications occurred in those patients. Iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw IOL implantation is a safe and efficient procedure for an eye with iris-lens injury in the absence of capsular support.

  6. Radial head button holing: a cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Su-Mi; Chai, Jee Won; You, Ja Yeon; Park, Jina [Seoul National University Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Kee Jeong [Seoul National University Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    ''Buttonholing'' of the radial head through the anterior joint capsule is a known cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation associated with Monteggia injuries in pediatric patients. To the best of our knowledge, no report has described an injury consisting of buttonholing of the radial head through the annular ligament and a simultaneous radial head fracture in an adolescent. In the present case, the radiographic findings were a radial head fracture with anterior dislocation and lack of the anterior fat pad sign. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clearly demonstrated anterior dislocation of the fractured radial head through the torn annular ligament. The anterior joint capsule and proximal portion of the annular ligament were interposed between the radial head and capitellum, preventing closed reduction of the radial head. Familiarity with this condition and imaging findings will aid clinicians to make a proper diagnosis and fast decision to perform an open reduction. (orig.)

  7. Arthroscopic treatment of refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rassi Fernandes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the results of arthroscopic treatment of refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder associated as for improved range of motion after a minimum follow up of six years. METHODS: from August 2002 to December 2004, ten patients with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder resistant to conservative treatment underwent arthroscopic surgery. One interscalene catheter was placed for postoperative analgesia before the procedure. All were in Phase II, with a minimum follow up of two years. The mean age was 52.9 years (39-66, predominantly female (90%, six on the left shoulder. The time between onset of symptoms and surgical treatment ranged from six to 20 months. Four adhesive capsulitis were found to be primary (40% and six secondary (60%. RESULTS: the preoperative mean of active anterior elevation was 92°, of external rotation was 10.5° of the L5 level internal rotation; the postoperative ones were 149°, 40° and T12 level, respectively. Therefore, the average gain was 57° for the anterior elevation, 29.5° for external rotation in six spinous processes. There was a significant difference in movements' gains between the pre and post-operative periods (p<0.001. By the Constant Score (range of motion, there was an increase of 13.8 (average pre to 32 points (average post. CONCLUSION: the arthroscopic treatment proved effective in refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder resistant to conservative treatment, improving the range of joint movements of patients evaluated after a minimum follow up of six years.

  8. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  9. Equilibrium ignition for ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, K.S.; Colgate, S.A.; Johnson, N.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Menikoff, R.; Petschek, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    There are two fundamentally different approaches to igniting DT fuel in an ICF capsule which can be described as equilibrium and hot spot ignition. In both cases, a capsule which can be thought of as a pusher containing the DT fuel is imploded until the fuel reaches ignition conditions. In comparing high-gain ICF targets using cryogenic DT for a pusher with equilibrium ignition targets using high-Z pushers which contain the radiation. The authors point to the intrinsic advantages of the latter. Equilibrium or volume ignition sacrifices high gain for lower losses, lower ignition temperature, lower implosion velocity and lower sensitivity of the more robust capsule to small fluctuations and asymmetries in the drive system. The reduction in gain is about a factor of 2.5, which is small enough to make the more robust equilibrium ignition an attractive alternative

  10. Endurance test for DUPIC capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Heung June; Bae, K. K.; Lee, C. Y.; Park, J. M.; Ryu, J. S.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the pressure drop, vibration and endurance test results for mini-plate fuel rig which were designed fabricately by KAERI. From the pressure drop test results, it is noted that the flow rate across the capsule corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 9.632 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the capsule ranges from 14 to 18.5 Hz. RMS (Root Mean Square) displacement for the fuel rig is less than 14 μm, and the maximum displacement is less than 54 μm. Based on the endurance test results, the appreciable fretting wear for the DUPIC capsule was not detected. Oxidation on the support tube is observed, also tiny trace of wear between contact points observed. (author). 4 refs., 10 tabs., 45 figs

  11. Refractive neutron lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, P.V.; Kolchevsky, N.N.

    2013-01-01

    Model of the refractive neutron lens is proposed. System of N lenses acts as one thin lens with a complex refraction index n*. The maximum number N max of individual lenses for 'thick' neutron lens is calculated. Refractive neutron lens properties (resolution, focal depth) as function of resolution factor F 0 =ρbc/μ and depth of field factor dF 0 =λF 0 =λρbc/μ are calculated. It is shown that micro resolution of the refractive neutron optics is far from the wavelength in size and its open possibilities for progress in refractive neutron optics. (authors)

  12. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  13. Neodymium:YAG laser cutting of intraocular lens haptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorn, R A; Steinert, R F

    1985-11-01

    Neodymium:YAG laser cutting of polymethylmethacrylate and polypropylene anterior chamber and posterior chamber intraocular lens haptics was studied in terms of ease of transection and physical structure of the cut areas as seen by scanning electron microscopy. A marked difference was discovered, with the polymethylmethacrylate cutting easily along transverse planes, whereas the polypropylene resisted cutting along longitudinal fibers. Clinical guidelines are presented.

  14. Anterior perineal hernia after anterior exenteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Wing Wong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Perineal hernia is a rare complication of anterior exenteration. We reported this complication after an anterior exenteration for bladder cancer with bleeding complication requiring packing and second-look laparotomy. Perineal approach is a simple and effective method for repair of perineal hernia.

  15. Spatial pattern of cell geometry and cell-division orientation in zebrafish lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Mochizuki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell proliferation is a key regulator of tissue morphogenesis. We examined cell proliferation and cell division in zebrafish lens epithelium by visualizing cell-cycle phases and nuclear positions, using fluorescent-labeled geminin and histone proteins. Proliferation was low in the anterior region of lens epithelium and higher in the marginal zone anterior to the equator, suggesting that the proliferation zone, called the germinative zone, is formed in zebrafish lens. Interestingly, cell-division orientation was biased longitudinally in the anterior region, shifted from longitudinal to circumferential along the anterior–posterior axis of lens sphere, and was biased circumferentially in the peripheral region. These data suggest that cell-division orientation is spatially regulated in zebrafish lens epithelium. The Hertwig rule indicates that cells tend to divide along their long axes. Orientation of long axes and cell division were biased similarly in zebrafish lens epithelium, suggesting that cell geometry correlates with cell-division orientation. A cell adhesion molecule, E-cadherin, is expressed in lens epithelium. In a zebrafish e-cadherin mutant, the long axes and cell-division orientation were shifted more longitudinally. These data suggest that E-cadherin is required for the spatial pattern of cell geometry and cell-division orientation in zebrafish lens epithelium.

  16. Anterior eye protection with orbital neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    The administration of adequate doses of radiation to tumors involving the orbit and surrounding facial structures and sinuses is often complicated by the need to protect the sensitive ocular components, the lens and cornea. A technique has been devised that uses four photon beam fields and an optional electron field to treat the contents of both orbits and adjacent sinuses with effective, reproducible protection of cornea and lens. Essential features include: alignment of the corneal surfaces with the central plane of rotation of the treatment machine, use of a narrow eye block across the entire beam to shield a strip equal to the width of the cornea, positioned symmetrically across the central plane of rotation, fine alignment of the eye block with both corneal surfaces by altering pedestal angle, treatment with paired, wedged, anterior oblique fields to encompass desired orbital and sinus volumes with additional blocking placed as needed, and complementary, lateral strip fields using collimators set to eye block thickness to equalize dose in the posterior orbit shielded by the strip eye block. A similar anterior electron beam strip field may be added to boost the medial orbit and ethmoid regions covered by the eye block. Bite block head immobilization and easy, direct daily visualization of block position assures eye protection for each treatment and provides substantial reduction in dose to the cornea, lens and iris. Additional blocking may be incorporated to provide partial lacrimal and parotid sparing

  17. Severe pigment dispersion after iris-claw phakic intraocular lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Galvis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old female patient presented 3 months after the implantation of an Artisan® phakic intraocular lens with a severe depigmentation of the iris and peripheral anterior synechiae. Explantation of the intraocular lens and goniosynechialysis were performed. Eleven months after the explantation appearance of the iris significantly improved. There was no loss of lines of corrected distance visual acuity. Severe pigment dispersion after the implantation of an Artisan® phakic intraocular lens may happen and may require explantation of the lens. Iris depigmentation may improve with time.

  18. Severe pigment dispersion after iris-claw phakic intraocular lens implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, Virgilio; Carreño, Néstor I; Tello, Alejandro; Laiton, Andrea N

    2017-12-01

    A 23-year-old female patient presented 3 months after the implantation of an Artisan® phakic intraocular lens with a severe depigmentation of the iris and peripheral anterior synechiae. Explantation of the intraocular lens and goniosynechialysis were performed. Eleven months after the explantation appearance of the iris significantly improved. There was no loss of lines of corrected distance visual acuity. Severe pigment dispersion after the implantation of an Artisan® phakic intraocular lens may happen and may require explantation of the lens. Iris depigmentation may improve with time.

  19. Humeral avulsion of the anterior shoulder stabilizing structures after anterior shoulder dislocation: demonstration by MRI and MR arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirman, P.F.J.; Steinbach, L.S.; Feller, J.F.; Stauffer, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To demonstrate the MRI findings of an anterior shoulder capsular avulsion from the humerus, with or without subscapularis rupture, after anterior dislocation or severe abduction external rotation injury. Design and patients. We retrospectively reviewed the MRI and MR arthrographic examinations of seven patients who were identified at surgery with avulsion of the anterior shoulder stabilizers from the humerus. MRI was correlated with clinical history and surgical results. Results. MRI findings included: inhomogeneity or frank disruption of the anterior capsule at the humeral insertion (all), fluid intensity anterior to the shoulder (six patients), tear of the subscapularis tendon (six patients), dislocation of the biceps tendon (four patients), and a Hill-Sachs deformity (four patients). MR arthrography additionally found extravasation of contrast through the capsular defect (two patients). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that MRI is helpful for diagnosing humeral avulsion of the anterior glenohumeral capsule, especially when a tear of the subscapularis tendon insertion is present. MR arthrography may be of benefit for diagnosing capsular avulsion without associated subscapularis tendon abnormality. (orig.). With 4 figs

  20. Capsule safety analysis of PRTF irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwarto

    2013-01-01

    Power Ramp Test Facility (PRTF) is an irradiation facility used for fuel testing of power reactor. PRTF has a capsule which is a test fuel rod container. During operation, pressurized water of 160 bars flows through in the capsule. Due to the high pressure it should be analyzed the impact of the capsule on reactor core safety. This analysis has purpose to calculate the ability of capsule pressure capacity. The analysis was carried out by calculating pressure capacity. From the calculating results it can be concluded that the capsule with pressure capacity of 438 bars will be safe to prevent the operation pressure of PRTF. (author)

  1. Probing cell internalisation mechanics with polymer capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Cui, Jiwei; Ping, Yuan; Suma, Tomoya; Cavalieri, Francesca; Besford, Quinn A; Chen, George; Braunger, Julia A; Caruso, Frank

    2016-10-06

    We report polymer capsule-based probes for quantifying the pressure exerted by cells during capsule internalisation (P in ). Poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) capsules with tuneable mechanical properties were fabricated through layer-by-layer assembly. The P in was quantified by correlating the cell-induced deformation with the ex situ osmotically induced deformation of the polymer capsules. Ultimately, we found that human monocyte-derived macrophage THP-1 cells exerted up to approximately 360 kPa on the capsules during internalisation.

  2. Minimizing and measuring lens dose when giving cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, S.Y.; Donaldson, S.S.; Heck, R.J.; Nielson, K.L.; Shostak, C.

    1989-01-01

    Three different techniques of administering cranial irradiation were used to determine the dose to the lens as measured in the Rando phantom. The techniques employed were as follows: (1) the central axis of the radiation beam was placed at the thickest portion of the cranium; (2) the central axis of the radiation beam was placed at the lateral orbital rim (bon canthus); (3) the central axis of the radiation beam was placed at the thickest portion of the cranium but with the beam angled 5deg posteriorly away from the eye. Thermal luminescent dosimeters (TLD) were placed in a phantom, at a point determined from a life-sized anatomical section of the plane through the midsection of the eye, to be at the location of the posterior capsule of the lens. In addition, TLDs were placed on the outer surface of the phantom head, directly lateral to the location determined to be where the lens would lie. With equally weighted lateral opposed beams, delivering a midplane dose of 200cGy, the TLDs at the point of the lens measured 21, 9.9 and 10.6% of the midplane doses from the three techniques respectively. TLDs placed directly lateral to the lens on the surface of the phantom head gave an approximation of the lens dose, particularly when techniques 2 and 3 were used. Isodose curve generated by a General Electric treatment planning computer gave lens doses similar to those of the phantom data for each of the three different radiotherapy techniques. Cranial irradiation should be carried out by either technique 2 or technique 3 to minimize radiation dose to the lens. (author). 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  3. [Iris hooks and modified capsular tension ring for subluxation lens in patients with Marfan's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Jie; Zheng, Dan-ying; Zheng, Ying-feng; Cai, Xiao-yu

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate clinical efficiency and safety of the iris hooks and modified capsular tension ring (MCTR) for the treatment of subluxation lens in patients with Marfan's syndrome. This study comprised 5 patients (7 eyes) with Marfan's syndrome and subluxation lens. After 3.2 mm clear cornea incision and continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC), 2 - 4 disposable nylon iris hooks were inserted through the stab incisions and placed in the capsulorhexis to support the capsule and enlarged the CCC. Following irrigation/aspiration, a MCTR with suture in its eyelet was placed in the capsule bag. After tightening and tying the suture of MCTR, the capsular bag was centered and fixed. A foldable AcrySof one-piece intraocular lens (IOL) was then placed in the capsule bag. Twelve months after the operation, the best corrected visual acuity was >/= 0.8 in six eyes and 0.7 in one eye. The scheimpflug images obtained from the Pentacam demonstrated that the IOL were well centered. UBM showed that all the MCTR and the haptics of the IOL were in the capsule bag, the eyelet of the MCTR was rested stably between the capsulorhexis margin and the iris. The retroillumination photograph indicated that only one eye had obvious posterior capsular opacification. No intraoperative and postoperative complications such as prolapse of vitreous and retina detachment was occurred. The iris hooks can provide excellent intraoperative capsule-lens stability and facilitate the manipulation during operation. MCTR allows additional suture fixation to the eye wall without damaging the capsular bag and maintains the long-term stability of the intraocular lens. Furthermore, MCTR is helpful for avoiding dislocation of the IOL due to progressive weakening of the zonular fibers in some patients and provides long-term safety.

  4. Crystalline lens thickness determines the perceived chromatic difference in magnification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Schaeffel, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Since the origin of the high interindividual variability of the chromatic difference in retinal image magnification (CDM) in the human eye is not well understood, optical parameters that might determine its magnitude were studied in 21 healthy subjects with ages ranging from 21 to 58 years. Two psychophysical procedures were used to quantify CDM. They produced highly correlated results. First, a red and a blue square, presented on a black screen, had to be matched in size by the subjects with their right eyes. Second, a filled red and blue square, flickering on top of each other at 2 Hz, had to be adjusted in perceived brightness and then in size to minimize the impression of flicker. CDM varied widely among subjects from 0.0% to 3.6%. Biometric ocular parameters were measured with low coherence interferometry and crystalline lens tilt and decentration with a custom-built Purkinjemeter. Correlations were studied between CDM and corneal power, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, lens tilt and lens decentration, and vitreous chamber depths. Lens thickness was found significantly correlated with CDM and accounted for 64% of its variance. Vertical lens tilt and decentration were also significantly correlated. It was also found that CDM increased by 3.5% per year, and part of this change can be attributed to the age-related increase in lens thickness.

  5. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Mike A. (Albuquerque, NM); Foreman, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made rom clear Teflon.TM., Mylar.TM., or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube.

  6. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.A.; Foreman, L.R.

    1997-07-08

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made from clear Teflon{trademark}, Mylar{trademark}, or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube. 13 figs.

  7. Anterior dislocation of an empty capsular bag in a pseudophakic eye: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Bin Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL dislocation is uncommon in the absence of any ocular areas with zonular weakness or trauma. There have been no reports of spontaneous capsular bag dislocation into the anterior chamber without an IOL. We report a rare, interesting case of spontaneous capsular bag anterior dislocation, without an IOL, into the anterior chamber with no history of genetic disease, ocular trauma, or pseudoexfoliation that might predispose to a zonular abnormality.

  8. Contraindications for video capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Bandorski, Dirk; Kurniawan, Niehls; Baltes, Peter; Hoeltgen, Reinhard; Hecker, Matthias; Stunder, Dominik; Keuchel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has been applied in the last 15 years in an increasing field of applications. Although many contraindications have been put into perspective, some precautions still have to be considered. Known stenosis of the gastrointestinal tract is a clear contraindication for VCE unless surgery is already scheduled or at least has been considered as an optional treatment modality. In patients with a higher incidence of stenosis, as in an established diagnosis of Crohn?s dise...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ... require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... With Proper Contact Lens Care Apr 23, 2018 Solar Eclipse Inflicts Damage in the Shape of the ... edging closer, thanks to a wave of new technologies aiming to fix failing eye parts with human- ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... glow-in-the-dark lizard lenses, costume contacts can certainly add a spooky, eye-popping touch. But ... consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be purchased over-the-counter or on the ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... valid prescription that includes the brand name, lens measurements, and expiration date. Purchase the colored contact lenses ... with human-made versions. U.S. News Highlights the Value of Ophthalmologists APR 20, 2018 By Dan T. ...

  17. Vortex gas lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Berschauer, Andrew; Parker, Timothy W.; Vickers, Jesse E.

    1989-01-01

    A vortex gas lens concept is presented. Such a lens has a potential power density capability of 10 to the 9th - 10 to the 10th w/sq cm. An experimental prototype was constructed, and the divergence half angle of the exiting beam was measured as a function of the lens operating parameters. Reasonably good agreement is found between the experimental results and theoretical calculations. The expanded beam was observed to be steady, and no strong, potentially beam-degrading jets were found to issue from the ends of the lens. Estimates of random beam deflection angles to be expected due to boundary layer noise are presented; these angles are very small.

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... had not been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like ... lenses do not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... ask for a prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription. Follow the contact lens care directions for cleaning, disinfecting, and wearing the lenses. Never share contact ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  3. Pigment dispersion syndrome associated with spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Veerwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS is an ocular condition characterized by a dispersion of iris pigment throughout the eye. This pigment is deposited in a characteristic manner on the corneal endothelium as Krukenberg's spindle, anterior surface of the iris, in the trabecular meshwork, on the lens and zonule and occasionally on the anterior hyaloid face. Even with deposition of pigment on zonular fibers, no zonular weakness, or zonular dehiscence has been reported in these cases. We report a unique case of PDS with bilateral spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens. With characteristic findings of pigment distribution in both his eyes, the patient had concave iris configuration with heavily pigmented trabecular meshwork confirming the diagnosis of PDS. The patient had bilateral 180° temporal subluxation of crystalline lens in both his eyes. The usual cause of lens subluxation such as Marfan's Syndrome and Ehler's Danlos Syndrome was ruled out. The patient underwent right eye followed by left eye intracapsular cataract extraction with ab-interno technique with postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA of 6/9 in both eyes. Spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens in isolated PDS is not known to occur and has been reported by means of this case. We recommend a thorough assessment of zonular status in all cases of PDS.

  4. Pigment dispersion syndrome associated with spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerwal, Vikas; Goyal, Jawahar Lal; Jain, Parul; Arora, Ritu

    2017-01-01

    Pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) is an ocular condition characterized by a dispersion of iris pigment throughout the eye. This pigment is deposited in a characteristic manner on the corneal endothelium as Krukenberg's spindle, anterior surface of the iris, in the trabecular meshwork, on the lens and zonule and occasionally on the anterior hyaloid face. Even with deposition of pigment on zonular fibers, no zonular weakness, or zonular dehiscence has been reported in these cases. We report a unique case of PDS with bilateral spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens. With characteristic findings of pigment distribution in both his eyes, the patient had concave iris configuration with heavily pigmented trabecular meshwork confirming the diagnosis of PDS. The patient had bilateral 180° temporal subluxation of crystalline lens in both his eyes. The usual cause of lens subluxation such as Marfan's Syndrome and Ehler's Danlos Syndrome was ruled out. The patient underwent right eye followed by left eye intracapsular cataract extraction with ab-interno technique with postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 6/9 in both eyes. Spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens in isolated PDS is not known to occur and has been reported by means of this case. We recommend a thorough assessment of zonular status in all cases of PDS.

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive ... Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive ...

  6. Status of the material capsule irradiation and the development of the new capsule technology in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Kee-Nam; Kang, Young-Hwan; Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Cho, Man-Soon; Kim, Bong-Goo

    2006-01-01

    A material capsule system including a main capsule, fixing, control, cutting, and transport systems was developed for an irradiation test of non-fissile materials in HANARO. 14 irradiation capsules (12 instrumented and 2 non-instrumented capsules) have been designed, fabricated and successfully irradiated in the HANARO CT and IR test holes since 1995. The capsules were mainly designed for an irradiation of the RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel), reactor core materials, and Zr-based alloys. Most capsules were made for KAERI material research projects, but 5 capsules were made as a part of national projects for the promotion of the HANARO utilization for universities. Based on the accumulated irradiation experience and the user's sophisticated requirements, development of new instrumented capsule technologies for a more precise control of the irradiation temperature and fluence of a specimen irrespective of the reactor operation has been performed in HANARO. (author)

  7. NASPGHAN Capsule Endoscopy Clinical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Joel A; Liu, Quin Y; Sahn, Benjamin; Kooros, Koorosh; Walsh, Catharine M; Kramer, Robert E; Lightdale, Jenifer R; Khlevner, Julie; McOmber, Mark; Kurowski, Jacob; Giefer, Matthew J; Pall, Harpreet; Troendle, David M; Utterson, Elizabeth C; Brill, Herbert; Zacur, George M; Lirio, Richard A; Lerner, Diana G; Reynolds, Carrie; Gibbons, Troy E; Wilsey, Michael; Liacouras, Chris A; Fishman, Douglas S

    2017-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) was introduced in 2000 as a less invasive method to visualize the distal small bowel in adults. Because this technology has advanced it has been adapted for use in pediatric gastroenterology. Several studies have described its clinical use, utility, and various training methods but pediatric literature regarding CE is limited. This clinical report developed by the Endoscopic and Procedures Committee of the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition outlines the current literature, and describes the recommended current role, use, training, and future areas of research for CE in pediatrics.

  8. In vivo crystalline lens measurements with novel swept-source optical coherent tomography: an investigation on variability of measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Takuhei; Kato, Naoko; Ishikawa, Sho; Ibuki, Hisashi; Yamada, Norihiro; Kimura, Itaru; Shinoda, Kei

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the reproducibility of in vivo crystalline lens measurements obtained by novel commercially available swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) specifically designed for anterior segment imaging. Methods and analysis One eye from each of 30 healthy subjects was randomly selected using the CASIA2 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan) in two separate visits within a week. Each eye was imaged twice. After image scanning, the anterior and posterior lens curvatures and lens thickness were calculated automatically by the CASIA2 built-in program at 0 dioptre (D) (static), −1 D, −3 D and −5 D accommodative stress. The intraobserver and intervisit reproducibility coefficient (RC) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results The intraobserver and intervisit RCs ranged from 0.824 to 1.254 mm and 0.789 to 0.911 mm for anterior lens curvature, from 0.276 to 0.299 mm and 0.221 to 0.270 mm for posterior lens curvature and from 0.065 to 0.094 mm and 0.054 to 0.132 mm for lens thickness, respectively. The intraobserver and intervisit ICCs ranged from 0.831 to 0.865 and 0.828 to 0.914 for anterior lens curvature, from 0.832 to 0.898 and 0.840 to 0.933 for posterior lens curvature and from 0.980 to 0.992 and 0.942 to 0.995 for lens thickness. High ICC values were observed for each measurement regardless of accommodative stress. RCs in younger subjects tended to be larger than those in older subjects. Conclusions This novel anterior segment SS-OCT instrument produced reliable in vivo crystalline lens measurement with good repeatability and reproducibility regardless of accommodation stress. PMID:29354706

  9. Diagnostic and therapeutic radio pharmaceutical capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, T.A.; Wedeking, P.W.; Morcos, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    An improved pharmaceutical radioactive capsule consisting of a non-toxic, water soluble material adapted to being ingested and rapidly disintegrating on contact with fluids of the gastro-intestinal tract is described. Each capsule is provided with filler material supporting a pharmaceutically useful radioactive compound absorbable from the gastro-intestinal tract. The capsule is preferably of gelatin, methyl cellulose or polyvinyl alcohol and the filler is a polyethylene glycol. The radioactive compound may be iodine e.g. sodium radioiodide I-131 or 123. The capsule may also contain a reducing agent e.g. sodium thiosulphate, sulphite, or bisulphite. (author)

  10. Applanation tonometry in silicone hydrogel contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R J; Dev Borman, A; Saleh, G M

    2007-12-01

    Previous studies have investigated intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements through conventional soft (hydrogel) therapeutic contact lenses, and have found that an accurate IOP can be recorded in normal eyes, and in eyes with abnormal anterior segments. The IOP measurement through soft contact lenses may be affected by the water content and centre thickness of the lens. Silicone hydrogel contact lenses are now being used as therapeutic contact lenses due to their high oxygen permeability. The purpose of this study is to investigate if IOP can be accurately measured in a subject wearing a silicone hydrogel contact lens. In a cohort study, the IOP was measured with a Goldmann applanation tonometer without a contact lens and then repeated with a hydrogel contact lens in situ. The IOP of 20 eyes of 10 volunteers with no ocular pathology was measured. The mean difference (+/-S.D.) found between IOP measurement with (mean 15.55+/-1.70 mmHg) and without (mean 16.05+/-1.90 mmHg) contact lens was found to be -0.5+/-0.89 mmHg. Statistical analysis was performed which revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.89. No significant statistical difference was found between the two groups with paired t-test (p=0.19). Accurate measurement of IOP by applanation tonometry can be achieved through a silicone hydrogel contact lens.

  11. Citation parameters of contact lens-related articles published in the ophthalmic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Genís; Sanz, Joan P

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at exploring the citation parameters of contact lenses articles published in the Ophthalmology thematic category of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). The Thompson Reuters Web of Science database was accessed to record bibliometric information and citation parameters of all journals listed under the Ophthalmology area of the 2011 JCR edition, including the journals with main publication interests in the contact lens field. In addition, the same database was used to unveil all contact lens-related articles published in 2011 in the same thematic area, whereupon differences in citation parameters between those articles published in contact lens and non-contact lens-related journals were explored. Significant differences in some bibliometric indicators such as half-life and overall citation count were found between contact lens-related journals (shorter half-life and fewer citations) and the median values for the Ophthalmology thematic area of the JCR. Visual examination of all Ophthalmology journals uncovered a total of 156 contact lens-related articles, published in 28 different journals, with 27 articles each for Contact Lens & Anterior Eye, Eye & Contact Lens, and Optometry and Vision Science. Significant differences in citation parameters were encountered between those articles published in contact lens and non-contact lens source journals. These findings, which disclosed contact lenses to be a fertile area of research, may be of interest to researchers and institutions. Differences in bibliometric indicators are of relevance to avoid unwanted bias when conducting between- and within-discipline comparisons of articles, journals, and researchers.

  12. Calculation of crystalline lens power in chickens with a customized version of Bennett's equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Rafael; Rozema, Jos J; Schaeffel, Frank; Morgan, Ian G

    2014-03-01

    This paper customizes Bennett's equation for calculating lens power in chicken eyes from refraction, keratometry and biometry. Previously published data on refraction, corneal power, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, lens radii of curvature, axial length and eye power in chickens aged 10-90 days were used to estimate Gullstrand's lens power and Bennett's lens power for chicken eyes, and to calculate the lens equivalent refractive index. Bennett's A and B constants for the front and back surface powers of the lens were calculated for data measured from day 10 to 90 at 10 day intervals, and mean customized constants were calculated. The mean customized constants for Bennett's equation for chicks were A=0.574±0.023 and B=0.379±0.021. As found previously, lens power decreases with age in chicks, while corneal power decreases and axial length increases. The lens equivalent refractive index decreases with age from 10 to 90 days after hatching. Bennett's equation can be used to calculate lens power in chicken eyes for studies on animal myopia, using standard biometry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Stochastic Capsule Endoscopy Image Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohammed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Capsule endoscopy, which uses a wireless camera to take images of the digestive tract, is emerging as an alternative to traditional colonoscopy. The diagnostic values of these images depend on the quality of revealed underlying tissue surfaces. In this paper, we consider the problem of enhancing the visibility of detail and shadowed tissue surfaces for capsule endoscopy images. Using concentric circles at each pixel for random walks combined with stochastic sampling, the proposed method enhances the details of vessel and tissue surfaces. The framework decomposes the image into two detailed layers that contain shadowed tissue surfaces and detail features. The target pixel value is recalculated for the smooth layer using similarity of the target pixel to neighboring pixels by weighting against the total gradient variation and intensity differences. In order to evaluate the diagnostic image quality of the proposed method, we used clinical subjective evaluation with a rank order on selected KID image database and compared it to state-of-the-art enhancement methods. The result showed that the proposed method provides a better result in terms of diagnostic image quality and objective quality contrast metrics and structural similarity index.

  14. Symmetric lens with extended depth of focus

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sung Nae

    2008-01-01

    The lens surface profile is derived based on the instantaneous focal length versus the lens radius data. The lens design based on instantaneous focal length versus the lens radius data has many useful applications in software assisted image focusing technology.

  15. Dose conversion coefficients for neutron exposure to the lens of the human eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manger, Ryan P.; Bellamy, Michael B.; Eckerman, Keith F.

    2011-01-01

    Dose conversion coefficients for the lens of the human eye have been calculated for neutron exposure at energies from 1 x 10 -9 to 20 MeV and several standard orientations: anterior-to-posterior, rotational and right lateral. MCNPX version 2.6.0, a Monte Carlo-based particle transport package, was used to determine the energy deposited in the lens of the eye. The human eyeball model was updated by partitioning the lens into sensitive and insensitive volumes as the anterior portion (sensitive volume) of the lens being more radiosensitive and prone to cataract formation. The updated eye model was used with the adult UF-ORNL mathematical phantom in the MCNPX transport calculations.

  16. Dose conversion coefficients for neutron exposure to the lens of the human eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manger, R. P.; Bellamy, M. B.; Eckerman, K. F.

    2012-01-01

    Dose conversion coefficients for the lens of the human eye have been calculated for neutron exposure at energies from 1 x 10 -9 to 20 MeV and several standard orientations: anterior-to-posterior, rotational and right lateral. MCNPX version 2.6.0, a Monte Carlo-based particle transport package, was used to determine the energy deposited in the lens of the eye. The human eyeball model was updated by partitioning the lens into sensitive and insensitive volumes as the anterior portion (sensitive volume) of the lens being more radiosensitive and prone to cataract formation. The updated eye model was used with the adult UF-ORNL mathematical phantom in the MCNPX transport calculations. (authors)

  17. Application and experience of anterior vitrectomy in phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bo Zeng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe and discuss the clinical application and effect of anterior vitrectomy in phacoemulsification for the treatment of vitreous prolapse caused by posterior capsular rupture or suspensory ligament transection.METHODS:Retrospective analysis of 28 cases(35 eyeswith cataract in whom vitreous prolapse caused by posterior capsular rupture or suspensory ligament transection occurred in phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation and anterior vitrectomy were performed was conducted. RESULTS:Anterior vitrectomy for timely and accurate treatment for vitreous prolapse caused by posterior capsular rupture or suspensory ligament transection occurred in phacoemulsification was satisfied. CONCLUSION: Anterior vitrectomy has good curative effect for vitreous prolapse caused by posterior capsular rupture or suspensory ligament transection occurred in phacoemulsification and is effective with less severe complications.

  18. A catoptric lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambauske, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a catoptric lens for combining energies transmitted by several sources such as lasers; said lens comprising mirrors, the reflective surfaces of which have their focuses spaced from a common axis of symmetry. By means of these reflecting surfaces, which are generated by the nutation of portions of quadratic conics about the axis of symmetry, it is possible to focus the energy emmited by several lasers at the focus of the exit-mirror reflecting surface. This can be applied to thermonuclear fusion [fr

  19. Passive sorting of capsules by deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haener, Edgar; Juel, Anne

    We study passive sorting according to deformability of liquid-filled ovalbumin-alginate capsules. We present results for two sorting geometries: a straight channel with a half-cylindrical obstruction and a pinched flow fractioning device (PFF) adapted for use with capsules. In the half-cylinder device, the capsules deform as they encounter the obstruction, and travel around the half-cylinder. The distance from the capsule's centre of mass to the surface of the half-cylinder depends on deformability, and separation between capsules of different deformability is amplified by diverging streamlines in the channel expansion downstream of the obstruction. We show experimentally that capsules can be sorted according to deformability with their downstream position depending on capillary number only, and we establish the sensitivity of the device to experimental variability. In the PFF device, particles are compressed against a wall using a strong pinching flow. We show that capsule deformation increases with the intensity of the pinching flow, but that the downstream capsule position is not set by deformation in the device. However, when using the PFF device like a T-Junction, we achieve improved sorting resolution compared to the half-cylinder device.

  20. Bilateral spontaneous dislocation of posterior chamber intraocular lens in a patient with gyrate atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kinori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient with gyrate atrophy, a rare metabolic disease, who had bilateral late spontaneous posterior dislocation of in-the-bag posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL. He underwent pars plana vitrectomy, PCIOL retrieval and anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in both eyes. This report may imply that patients with gyrate atrophy are at risk for spontaneous dislocation of intraocular lenses.

  1. A Tribute to Len Barton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2010-01-01

    This article constitutes a short personal tribute to Len Barton in honour of his work and our collegial relationship going back over 30 years. It covers how Len saw his intellectual project of providing critical sociological and political perspectives on special education, disability and inclusion, and his own radical political perspectives. Len's…

  2. Luneburg lens in silicon photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Falco, Andrea; Kehr, Susanne C; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2011-03-14

    The Luneburg lens is an aberration-free lens that focuses light from all directions equally well. We fabricated and tested a Luneburg lens in silicon photonics. Such fully-integrated lenses may become the building blocks of compact Fourier optics on chips. Furthermore, our fabrication technique is sufficiently versatile for making perfect imaging devices on silicon platforms.

  3. Intrauterine fertilization capsules--a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, S; Lindenberg, S; Sundberg, K

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of 26 women with tubal infertility was attempted using intrauterine capsules loaded with oocytes and spermatozoa. The stimulation protocol was as used for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and consisted of short-term use of Buserelin, human menopausal gonadotropin, and human...... and piston from an intrauterine device. Six complete capsules and parts of two other capsules were expelled. None of the women became pregnant, compared with a pregnancy rate of 21% per aspiration following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer during the same period....... chorionic gonadotropin. Oocytes were collected by ultrasonically guided transvaginal aspiration, and spermatozoa were prepared by swim-up technique. The gametes were placed in agar capsules 4 hr after oocyte collection, and the capsules were introduced to the uterine fundus using an insertion tube...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services ... Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced ... Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology Cornea/External ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Annual Meeting Clinical Education ... Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced ... Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology Cornea/ ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology Cornea/External Disease Glaucoma Neuro-Ophthalmology/Orbit Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/ ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. Lenses that are not properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if you have perfect vision, you need to get an eye exam and a prescription ...

  9. Contact Lens Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There is a risk of eye infection from bacteria in swimming pool water, hot tubs, lakes and the ocean Replace your contact lens storage case every 3 months or as directed by your eye care professional. Other Risks of Contact Lenses Other risks of contact lenses include pink eye ( ...

  10. MISSING: BUBBLE CHAMBER LENS

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Would the person who borrowed the large bubble chamber lens from the Microcosm workshops on the ISR please return it. This is a much used piece from our object archives. If anybody has any information about the whereabouts of this object, please contact Emma.Sanders@cern.ch Thank you

  11. The Lens of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalos, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry possesses a distinctive theoretical lens--a distinctive set of theoretical concerns regarding the dynamics and transformations of a perplexing variety of organic and nonorganic substances--to which it must be faithful. Even if it is true that chemical facts bear a special (reductive) relationship to physical facts, nonetheless it will…

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her with a corneal ... A recent article from U.S. News and World Report explains what ophthalmologists are and how they can ...

  13. Quadrupole magnetic lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskunov, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The following connection of windings of electromagnet is suggested for simplification of the design of qUadrupole magnetic lens intended for use in radiotechnical and electron-optical devices. The mentioned windings are connected with each other by a bridge scheme and the variable resistors are switched in its diagonals in the lens containing four electromagnet with windings connected with two variable resistors the mobile contacts of which are connected with a direct current source. Current redistribution between left windings and right windings takes place at shift of mobile contact of variable resistor, and current redistribution between upper and low coils of electromagnets takes place at shifting mobile contact of the other variable resistor. In this case smooth and independent electron-optical misalignment of lens by two mutually perpendicular directions proceeds. Use of the given design of the lens in the oscillograph permits to use printing assembly for alignment plate and to reduce the number of connections at the expense of decreasing the number of resistors

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... ask for a prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. Lenses that are not properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into ...

  15. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: MR arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Han, Tae Il; Lee, Kwang Won; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Dae Hong; Han, Hyun Young; Song, Mun Kab; Kwon, Soon Tae

    2001-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is a clinical syndrome involving pain and decreased joint motion caused by thickening and contraction of the joint capsule. The purpose of this study is to describe the MR arthrographic findings of this syndrome. Twenty-nine sets of MR arthrographic images were included in the study. Fourteen patients had adhesive capsulitis diagnosed by physical examination and arthrography, and their MR arthrographic findings were compared with those of 15 subjects in the control group. The images were retrospectively reviewed with specific attention to the thickness of the joint capsule, volume of the axillary pouch (length, width, height(depth)), thinkness of the coracohumeral ligament, presence of extra-articular contrast extravasation, and contrst filling of the subcoracoid bursa. Mean capsular thickness measured at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch was 4.1 mm in patients with adhesive capsulitis and 1.5 mm in the control group. The mean width of the axillary pouch was 2.5 mm in patients and 9.5 mm in controls. In patients, the capsule was significantly thicker and the axillary pouch significantly narrower than in controls (p<0.05). Capsule thickness greater than 2.5 mm at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch (sensitivity 93%, specificity 80%) and a pouch narrower than 3.5 mm (sensitivity 93%, specificity 100%) were useful criteria for the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis. In patients with this condition, extra-articular contrast extravasation was noted in six patients (43%) and contrast filling of the subcoracoid bursa in three (21%). The MR arthrographic findings of adhesive capsulitis are capsular thickening, a low-volume axillary pouch, extra-articular contrast extravasation, and contrast filling of the subcoracoid bursa. Capsule thickness greater than 2.5 mm at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch and a pouch width of less than 3.5 mm are useful diagnostic imaging characteristics

  16. Thermoregulation of Capsule Production by Streptococcus pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O.; Tesorero, Rafael A.; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2012-01-01

    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosynthetic locus was de-repressed through mutation of the covRS system, the two strains, which have been used for pathogenesis studies in the laboratory, exhibited markedly increased capsule production at sub-body temperature. Employing transposon mutagenesis, we found that CvfA, a previously identified membrane-associated endoribonuclease, is required for the thermoregulation of capsule synthesis. The mutation of the cvfA gene conferred increased capsule production regardless of temperature. However, the amount of the capsule transcript was not changed by the mutation, indicating that a post-transcriptional regulator mediates between CvfA and thermoregulated capsule production. When we tested naturally occurring invasive mucoid strains, a high percentage (11/53, 21%) of the strains exhibited thermoregulated capsule production. As expected, the mucoid phenotype of these strains at sub-body temperature was due to mutations within the chromosomal covRS genes. Capsule thermoregulation that exhibits high capsule production at lower temperatures that occur on the skin or mucosal surface potentially confers better capability of adhesion and invasion when S. pyogenes penetrates the epithelial surface. PMID:22615992

  17. Hydrodynamick instabilities on ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities as relevant to ICF. First we discuss classical, single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and nonlinear effects in the evolution of a single mode. Then we discuss multimode systems, considering: (1) the onset of nonlinearity; (2) a second order mode coupling theory for weakly nonlinear effects, and (3) the fully nonlinear regime. Two stabilization mechanisms relevant to ICF are described next: gradient scale length and convective stabilization. Then we describe a model which is meant to estimate the weakly nonlinear evolution of multi-mode systems as relevant to ICF, given the short-wavelength stabilization. Finally, we discuss the relevant code simulation capability, and experiments. At this time we are quite optimistic about our ability to estimate instability growth on ICF capsules, but further experiments and simulations are needed to verify the modeling. 52 refs

  18. Pigment dispersion and Artisan phakic intraocular lenses: crystalline lens rise as a safety criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baïkoff, Georges; Bourgeon, Grégoire; Jodai, Horacio Jitsuo; Fontaine, Aline; Lellis, Fernando Viera; Trinquet, Laure

    2005-04-01

    To validate the theory that crystalline lens rise can be used as a safety criterion to prevent pigment dispersion in eyes with an Artisan phakic intraocular lens (IOL) (Ophtec BV). Monticelli Clinic, Marseilles, France. A comparative analysis of crystalline lens rise in 9 eyes with pigment dispersion and 78 eyes without dispersion was performed. All eyes had previous implantation of an Artisan IOL. Anterior segment imaging was done using an anterior chamber optical coherence tomography (AC OCT) prototype. Crystalline lens rise was defined by the distance between the anterior pole of the crystalline lens and the horizontal plane joining the opposite iridocorneal recesses. The study confirmed that crystalline lens rise can be considered a safety criterion for implantation of Artisan-type phakic IOLs. The higher the crystalline lens rise, the greater the risk for developing pigment dispersion in the area of the pupil. This complication occurred more frequently in hyperopic eyes than in myopic eyes. Results indicate there is little or no risk for pigment dispersion if the rise is less than 600 microm; 67% of eyes with a rise of 600 microm or more developed pupillary pigment dispersion. In some cases in which the IOL was loosely fixated, there was no traction on the iris root and dispersion was prevented or delayed. Crystalline lens rise should be considered a new safety criterion for Artisan phakic IOL implantation and should also be applied to other types of phakic IOLs. The distance remaining between the crystalline lens rise and a 600 microm theoretical safety level allows one to calculate how long the IOL can safely remain in the eye.

  19. Which soft contact lens power is better for piggyback fitting in keratoconus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Jiménez, Miguel; Santodomingo-Rubido, Jacinto; Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Méijome, Jose Manuel

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of differente soft contact lens power in the anterior corneal curvature and regularity in subjects with keratoconus. Nineteen subjects (30 eyes) with keratoconus were included in the study. Six corneal topographies were taken with Pentacam Eye System over the naked eye and successively with soft lens (Senofilcon A) powers of -3.00, -1.50, 0.00, +1.50 and +3.00 D. Corneal measurements of mean central keratometry (MCK), maximum tangential curvature (TK), maximum front elevation (MFE) and eccentricity (Ecc) at 6 and 8 mm diameters as well as anterior corneal surface high order aberrations (i.e. total RMS, spherical- and coma-like and secondary astigmatism) were evaluated. Negative- and plano-powered soft lenses flattened (ppowered lenses did not induce any significant changes (p>0.05 in all cases) in MCK in comparison to the naked eye. The TK power decreased with negative lenses (psoft lens power in comparison to the naked eye (p>0.05 in all cases). Corneal eccentricity increased at 8 mm diameter for all lens powers (p0.05). Statistically differences were found in coma-like and secondary astigmatism (both ppowered soft contact lenses provide a flatter anterior surface in comparison to positive-powered lenses in subjects with keratoconus and thus they might be more suitable for piggyback contact lens fitting. Copyright © 2012 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Wireless capsule endoscopy of the small bowel: development, testing, and first human trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Paul; Iddan, Gavriel J.; Meron, Gavriel; Glukhovsky, Arkady

    2001-01-01

    Small bowel endoscopy with existing endoscopes is limited by problems of discomfort and the technical difficulty of advancing far into the small-bowel. Our aim has been to develop and test wireless capsule endoscopy. Wireless endoscopes, in the form of capsules (11 x 33 mm), were constructed by Given Imaging. These were powered by silver oxide batteries and each contained a CMOS imaging chip and miniature processor, white light emitting diodes (LEDs), a short focal length lens, and a miniature transmitter and antenna. Two video frames per second were transmitted, using radio-frequency (approx. 410 MHz), to an array of aerials attached to the body. The array of aerials can also be used to calculate the position of the capsule in the body. The images were stored on a portable recorder carried on a belt and subsequently downloaded for analysis. The batteries allow more than 5 hours of recording, although the capsule generally passes through the whole small bowel in under two hours. Clear video images of the human bowel were recorded from the pylorus to the caecum. Wireless endoscopy, for the first time, allows painless optical imaging of the whole of the small bowel.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Lens Nuclear Density Using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT with a Liquid Optics Interface: Correlation between OCT Images and LOCS III Grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Na Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To quantify whole lens and nuclear lens densities using anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (OCT with a liquid optics interface and evaluate their correlation with Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III lens grading and corrected distance visual acuity (BCVA. Methods. OCT images of the whole lens and lens nucleus of eyes with age-related nuclear cataract were analyzed using ImageJ software. The lens grade and nuclear density were represented in pixel intensity units (PIU and correlations between PIU, BCVA, and LOCS III were assessed. Results. Forty-seven eyes were analyzed. The mean whole lens and lens nuclear densities were 26.99 ± 5.23 and 19.43 ± 6.15 PIU, respectively. A positive linear correlation was observed between lens opacities (R2 = 0.187, p<0.01 and nuclear density (R2 = 0.316, p<0.01 obtained from OCT images and LOCS III. Preoperative BCVA and LOCS III were also positively correlated (R2 = 0.454, p<0.01. Conclusions. Whole lens and lens nuclear densities obtained from OCT correlated with LOCS III. Nuclear density showed a higher positive correlation with LOCS III than whole lens density. OCT with a liquid optics interface is a potential quantitative method for lens grading and can aid in monitoring and managing age-related cataracts.

  2. Transglutaminase involvement in UV-A damage to the eye lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinreb, Orly; Dovrat, A.

    1996-01-01

    Solar radiation is believed to be one of the major environmental factors involved in lens cataractogenesis. The purpose of the study was to investigate the mechanisms by which UV-A at 365 nm causes damage to the eye lens. Bovine lenses were placed in special culture cells for pre-incubation of 24 hr. The lenses were positioned so that the anterior surface faced the incident UV-A radiation source and were maintained in the cells during irradiation. After irradiation, lens optical quality was monitored throughout the culture period and lens epithelium, cortex and nuclear samples were taken for biochemical analysis. Transglutaminase activity in the lens was affected by the radiation. The activity of transglutaminase in lens epithelium cortex and nucleus increased as a result of the irradiation and then declined towards control levels during the culture period, as the lens recovered from the UV-A damage. Specific lens proteins αB and βB1 crystallins (the enzyme substrates) were analyzed by SDS polyacrylamid gel electrophoreses and immunoblotting with specific antibodies. Seventy-two hours after irradiation of 44.8 J cm -2 UV-A, αB crystallins were affected as was shown by the appearance of aggregation and degradation products. Some protein changes seem to be reversible. It appears that transglutaminase may be involved in the mechanism by which UV-A causes damage to the eye lens. (Author)

  3. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R

    1992-01-01

    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  4. Oxygen fugacity and piston cylinder capsule assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, S.

    2011-12-01

    A double capsule assembly designed to control oxygen fugacity in piston cylinder experiments has been tested at 1200 °C and 10 kbar. The assembly consists of an outer Pt-capsule containing a solid buffer (Ni-NiO or Co-CoO plus H2O) and an inner AuPd-capsule containing the sample, H2O and a Pt-wire. To prevent direct contact with the buffer phases the AuPd-capsule is embedded in finely ground Al2O3 along with some coarser, fractured Al2O3 facilitating fluid inclusion formation. No water loss is observed in the sample even after 48 hrs but a slight increase in water content is observed in longer duration runs due to oxygen and hydrogen diffusion into the AuPd-capsule. Carbon from the furnace also diffuses through the outer Pt-capsule but reacts with H2O in the outer capsule to form CO2 and never reaches the inner capsule. Oxygen fugacity of runs in equilibrium with the Ni-NiO and Co-CoO buffers was measured by analyzing the Fe content of the Pt-wire in the sample1 and by analyzing Fe dissolved in the AuPd capsule2. The second method gives values that are in good agreement with established buffer whereas results from the first method are one half to one log units higher than the established values. References 1. E. Medard, C. A. McCammon, J. A. Barr, T. L. Grove, Am. Mineral. 93, 1838 (2008). 2. J. Barr, T. Grove, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 160, 631 (2010)

  5. Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Sub; Chung, Young Sun; Suh, Chee Jang; Won, Jong Jin

    1985-01-01

    Two cases of congenital anterior urethral diverticular which have occurred in a 4 year old and one month old boy are presented. Etiology, diagnostic procedures, and its clinical results are briefly reviewed

  6. Conservative treatment of an anterior-lateral ankle dislocation without an associated fracture in a diabetic patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis K. Karampinas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anterior or anterior-lateral dislocation of the ankle is a rare condition that can be treated conservatively as well as any other similar types of ankle dislocations without associated fractures. We present a case report of an anterior-lateral ankle dislocation with a concomitant avulsion injury of the ankle's anterior capsule in a diabetic patient that was treated conservatively. At the patient's visit 12 months after the initial injury, he was asymptomatic with full range of motion of the ankle joint. To our knowledge, we could not identify this type of an injury in a diabetic patient that was treated successfully with conservative treatment in the existing literature.

  7. A Correlation of Thin Lens Approximation to Thick Lens Design by Using Coddington Factors in Lens Design and Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    FARSAKOĞLU, Ö. Faruk

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Coddington factors on aberration functions has been analysed using thin lens approximation. Minimizing spherical aberrations of singlet lenses using Coddington factors in lens design depending on lens manufacturing is discussed. Notation of lens test plate pairs used in lens manufacturing is also presented in terms of Coddington shape factors.

  8. A modified-simple technique of removing the lens cortex during cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Eun Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a surgical technique of removing the remaining cortex after phacoemulsification without performing the conventional irrigation/aspiration (I/A procedure. In this technique, the remaining cortex attached to the posterior capsule was separated and dissected into several pieces by continuous irrigation with balanced salt solution, which was supplied through a syringe attached to a bent, blunt-tip needle. Approximately, 10 s of manual irrigation separated most of the remaining cortex from the posterior capsule. Then, the capsular bag was inflated with an ophthalmic viscoelastic device (OVD, and this pushed the separated cortex toward the capsular fornix mechanically. An intraocular lens was inserted into the capsular bag, following which the remaining cortex and OVD were removed concomitantly using an automated I/A handpiece. This technique is a simple and easy maneuver to remove the cortex from all areas, including the subincisional area, and reduce the possibility of a posterior capsule tear.

  9. Capsule production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, associated almost exclusively with chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, possess a capsule composed of alginic acid similar to one produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. Recent reports have provided evidence that the biosynthetic pathway for alginate in P. aeruginosa may differ from the pathway proposed for A. vinelandii in that synthesis in P. aeruginosa may occur by way of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Incorporation of isotope from (6-/sup 14/C)glucose into alginate by both P. aueroginosa and A. vinelandii was 10-fold greater than that from either (1-/sup 14/C)/sup -/ or (2-/sup 14/C)glucose, indicating preferential utilization of the bottom half of the glucose molecule for alginate biosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway plays a major role in alginate synthesis in both P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii. The enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa appear to be unchanged whether alignate is actively produced or not and activities do not differ significantly from nonmucoid strain PAO.

  10. Arterial blood supply to midbrain, thalamus and internal capsule on CT, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Gen; Ottomo, Michinori; Sasaki, Taisuke; Fukuda, Eiko.

    1984-01-01

    The selective injection of dye into the anterior choroidal artery (blue), the medial posterior choroidal artery (green), and the lateral posterior choroidal artery (red), using seven post-mortem brains, was performed. After fixation, sections parallel with the orbito-meatal line were obtained. The distribution of the anterior choroidal artery was visualized in the uncal region of the temporal lobe and the cerebral peduncle below the slice of the third ventricle. On the slice of the third ventricle, the lateral part of the geniculate region, the globus pallidus, and the posterior limb of the internal capsule were supplied by the anterior choroidal artery. The blood supply of the posterior limb of the internal capsule was also demonstrated on the slice of the anterior horn and on the body of the lateral ventricle. The distribution of the medial posterior choroidal artery was visualized in the tegmentum of the midbrain below the slice of the third ventricle, and on the slice of the anterior horn, the pineal body and the posterior part of the thalamus were also supplied. The distribution of the lateral posterior choroidal artery was visualized in the lateral part of the midbrain, around the red nucleus, below the slice of the third ventricle, and on the slice of the third ventricle, the upper part of the cerebral peduncle, the posterior part of the hypothalamus, and the medial part of the geniculate region were also supplied. Also, distribution to the medial and posterior parts of the thalamus was noted on the slice of the anterior horn. It was quite useful to identify the distribution of each choroidal artery on CT sections for the CT diagnosis of cerebrovascular disorders. (author)

  11. Vortex rings from Sphagnum moss capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Dwight; Strassman, Sam; Cha, Jung; Chang, Emily; Guo, Xinyi; Edwards, Joan

    2010-11-01

    The capsules of Sphagnum moss use vortex rings to disperse spores to suitable habitats many kilometers away. Vortex rings are created by the sudden release of pressurized air when the capsule ruptures, and are an efficient way to carry the small spores with low terminal velocities to heights where they can be carried by turbulent wind currents. We will present our computational model of these explosions, which are carried out using a 2-D large eddy simulation (LES) on FLUENT. Our simulations can reproduce the observed motion of the spore clouds observed from moss capsules with high-speed videos, and we will discuss the roles of bursting pressure, cap mass, and capsule morphology on the formation and quality of vortex rings created by this plant.

  12. A medieval fallacy: the crystalline lens in the center of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, Christopher T; Hadi, Tamer M; Udupa, Akrithi; Schwartz, Stephen G; Schwartz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether, as most modern historians have written, ancient Greco-Roman authors believed the crystalline lens is positioned in the center of the eye. Historians have written that statements about cataract couching by Celsus, or perhaps Galen of Pergamon, suggested a centrally located lens. Celsus specifically wrote that a couching needle placed intermediate between the corneal limbus and the lateral canthus enters an empty space, presumed to represent the posterior chamber. Ancient ophthalmic literature was analyzed to understand where these authors believed the crystalline lens was positioned. In order to estimate where Celsus proposed entering the eye during couching, we prospectively measured the distance from the temporal corneal limbus to the lateral canthus in 30 healthy adults. Rufus of Ephesus and Galen wrote that the lens is anterior enough to contact the iris. Galen wrote that the lens equator joins other ocular structures at the corneoscleral junction. In 30 subjects, half the distance from the temporal corneal limbus to the lateral canthus was a mean of 4.5 mm (range: 3.3-5.3 mm). Descriptions of couching by Celsus and others are consistent with pars plana entry of the couching needle. Anterior angulation of the needle would permit contact of the needle with the lens. Ancient descriptions of anatomy and couching do not establish the microanatomic relationships of the ciliary region with any modern degree of accuracy. Nonetheless, ancient authors, such as Galen and Rufus, clearly understood that the lens is located anteriorly. There is little reason to believe that Celsus or other ancient authors held a variant understanding of the anatomy of a healthy eye. The notion of the central location of the lens seems to have arisen with Arabic authors in 9th century Mesopotamia, and lasted for over 7 centuries.

  13. [Pigment dispersion and Artisan implants: crystalline lens rise as a safety criterion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikoff, G; Bourgeon, G; Jodai, H Jitsuo; Fontaine, A; Vieira Lellis, F; Trinquet, L

    2005-06-01

    To validate the theoretical notion of a crystalline lens rise as a safety criterion for ARTISAN implants in order to prevent the development of pigment dispersion in the implanted eye. Crystalline lens rise is defined by the distance between the crystalline lens's anterior pole and the horizontal plane joining the opposite iridocorneal recesses. We analyzed the biometric measurements of 87 eyes with an Artisan implant. A comparative analysis of the crystalline lens rise was carried out on the nine eyes having developed pigment dispersion and 78 eyes with no problems. Among the modern anterior segment imaging devices (Artemis, Scheimpflug photography, optical coherence tomography, radiology exploration, magnetic resonance imaging, TDM), an anterior chamber optical coherence tomography (AC-OCT) prototype was used. This working hypothesis was confirmed by this study: the crystalline lens rise must be considered as a new safety criterion for implanting Artisan phakic lenses. Indeed, the higher the crystalline lens's rise, the greater the risk of developing pigment dispersion in the pupil area. This complication is more frequent in hyperopes than in myopes. We can consider that there is little or no risk of pigment dispersion if the rise is below 600 microm; however, at 600 microm or greater, there is a 67% rate of pupillary pigment dispersion. In certain cases, when the implant was loosely fixed, there was no traction on the iris root. This is a complication that can be avoided or delayed. The crystalline lens rise must be part of new safety criteria to be taken into consideration when inserting an Artisan implant. This notion must also be applied to other types of phakic implants. The distance remaining between the crystalline lens rise and a 600-micromm theoretical safety level allows one to calculate a safety time interval.

  14. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.1660b... Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. The drug is in capsule form with each capsule containing 125 or 250 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Oxytetracycline is the antibiotic...

  15. Adhesive capsulitis: review of imaging and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Guy; Bou-Haider, Pascal; Harris, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is one of the most common conditions affecting the shoulder; however, early clinical diagnosis can be challenging. Treatment is most effective when commenced prior to the onset of capsular thickening and contracture; consequently, the role of imaging is increasing. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the typical imaging appearances of adhesive capsulitis and to examine some of the evidence regarding each of these imaging modalities. An evaluation of the various management options available to the clinician is also presented.

  16. Radioactive gas-containing polymeric capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchell, H.S.; Lewis, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A disposable ventilation study system for dispensing a single patient dosage of gaseous radioisotopes to patients for pulmonary function studies is disclosed. A gas impermeable capsule encloses the gaseous radioisotope and is stored within a radioactivity shielding body of valve means which shears the capsule to dispense the radioisotope to the patient. A breathing bag receives the patient's exhalation of the radioisotope and permits rebreathing of the radioisotope by the patient. 18 claims, 7 drawing figures

  17. [Are biometric parameters of anterior segment of the eyeball influenced by type 2 diabetes?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmuchowska, Diana A; Kraśnicki, Paweł; Mariak, Zofia

    2012-01-01

    To answer the question whether biometric parameters of anterior segment of the eyeball are influenced by type 2 diabetes, at the stage when the lens is still transparent, so before cataract development. Fifty subjects (28 women and 22 men), at the age of 63.3 +/- 11.3 years were enrolled in this prospective study. They were divided in 2 groups: patients with type 2 diabetes (24 subjects) and analogous age group in good general health - control group (26 subjects). None of the tested individuals presented lens opacities. The planned biometric measurements included: central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth and axial lens thickness. The data were statistically analyzed. There was no difference between the groups of both proven and potential parameters that are associated with biometric measurements of the anterior segment of the eyeball, such as: gender, age, smoking and axial length of the eye. In diabetic patients, as opposed to the subjects in the control group, statistically significantly increased lens thickness (4.78 +/- 0.50 mm vs 4.43 +/- 0.50; p = 0.016), central corneal thickness (561.5 +/- 31.6 microm vs 542.2 +/- 35.2; p = 0.047), and the tendency for shallow anterior chamber (3.06 +/- 0.40 mm vs 3.22 +/- 0.38; p = 0.159), were observed. In patients with diabetes there was no association of the biometric parameters values with the duration of diabetes and presence of diabetic retinopathy. Type 2 diabetes contributes to increased axial corneal and lens thickness at the stage when the lens is transparent, albeit it does not significantly affect anterior chamber depth.

  18. Influence of Gravity on Ocular Lens Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Lucas J; Suheimat, Marwan; Verkicharla, Pavan K; Mallen, Edward A H; Atchison, David A

    2016-04-01

    We determined whether human ocular lens position is influenced by gravity. Anterior chamber depth (ACD) and lens thickness (LT) were determined with a Haag-Streit Lenstar LS900 for right eyes of participants in two age groups, with a young group of 13 participants aged 18 to 21 years (mean, 21 years; SD, 1 year) and an older group of 10 participants aged 50 to 63 years (mean, 58 years; SD, 4 years). There were two sessions for each participant separated by at least 48 hours, with one session for the usual upright head position and one session for a downwards head position. In a session, testing was done for minimum accommodation followed by testing at maximum accommodation. A drop of 2% pilocarpine nitrate was instilled, and testing was repeated after 30 minutes under minimum and maximum accommodation conditions. Gravity, manipulated through head posture, affected ACD for young adult and older adult groups but mean effects were only small, ranging from 0.04 to 0.12 mm, and for the older group required the instillation of an accommodation-stimulating drug. Gravity had a weakly significant effect on LT for the young group without accommodation or a drug, but the effect was small at 0.04 ± 0.06 mm (mean ± SD, P = 0.04). There is a small but real effect of gravity on crystalline lens position, manifested as reduction in ACD at high levels of accommodative effort with the head in a downwards position. This provides evidence of the ability of zonules to slacken during strong accommodation.

  19. A novel lens epithelium gene, LEP503, is highly conserved in different vertebrate species and is developmentally regulated in postnatal rat lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Y; Sachs, G; Athmann, C

    2000-02-01

    The development of the lens is dependent on the proliferation of lens epithelial cells and their differentiation into fiber cells near the lens bow/equator. Identification of genes specifically expressed in the lens epithelial cells and their functions may provide insight into molecular events that regulate the processes of lens epithelial cell differentiation. In this study, a novel lens epithelium gene product, LEP503, identified from rat by a subtractive cDNA cloning strategy was investigated in the genome organization, mRNA expression and protein localization. The genomic sequences for LEP503 isolated from rat, mouse and human span 1754 bp, 1694 bp and 1895 bp regions encompassing the 5'-flanking region, two exons, one intron and 3'-flanking region. All exon-intron junction sequences conform to the GT/AG rule. Both mouse and human LEP503 genes show very high identity (93% for mouse and 79% for human) to rat LEP503 gene in the exon 1 that contains an open reading frame coding for a protein of 61 amino acid residues with a leucine-rich domain. The deduced protein sequences also show high identity (91% between mouse and rat and 77% between human and rat). Western blot shows that LEP503 is present as a specific approximately 6.9 kDa band in the water-insoluble-urea-soluble fraction of lens cortex where lens epithelium is included. Immuno-staining shows that LEP503 is localized in the epithelial cells along the entire anterior surface of rat lens. Developmentally, LEP503 is expressed at a low level at newborn, and then the expression level increases by about ten-fold around postnatal day 14 and remains at this high level for about 25 days before it drops back to the low level by postnatal day 84. These data suggest that the LEP503 may be an important lens epithelial cell gene involving the processes of epithelial cell differentiation. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  20. Capsule endoscopy in neoplastic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Marco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; de Franchis, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, diagnosis and management of small-bowel tumors were delayed by the difficulty of access to the small bowel and the poor diagnostic capabilities of the available diagnostic techniques. An array of new methods has recently been developed, increasing the possibility of detecting these tumors at an earlier stage. Capsule endoscopy (CE) appears to be an ideal tool to recognize the presence of neoplastic lesions along this organ, since it is non-invasive and enables the entire small bowel to be visualized. High-quality images of the small-bowel mucosa may be captured and small and flat lesions recognized, without exposure to radiation. Recent studies on a large population of patients undergoing CE have reported small-bowel tumor frequency only slightly above that reported in previous surgical series (range, 1.6%-2.4%) and have also confirmed that the main clinical indication to CE in patients with small-bowel tumors is obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The majority of tumors identified by CE are malignant; many were unsuspected and not found by other methods. However, it remains difficult to identify pathology and tumor type based on the lesion’s endoscopic appearance. Despite its limitations, CE provides crucial information leading in most cases to changes in subsequent patient management. Whether the use of CE in combination with other new diagnostic (MRI or multidetector CT enterography) and therapeutic (Push-and-pull enteroscopy) techniques will lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment of these neoplasms, ultimately resulting in a survival advantage and in cost savings, remains to be determined through carefully-designed studies. PMID:18785274

  1. β1-integrin controls cell fate specification in early lens development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathania, Mallika; Wang, Yan; Simirskii, Vladimir N.; Duncan, Melinda K.

    2016-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface molecules that mediate cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion, ECM assembly, and regulation of both ECM and growth factor induced signaling. However, the developmental context of these diverse functions is not clear. Loss of β1-integrin from the lens vesicle (mouse E10.5) results in abnormal exit of anterior lens epithelial cells (LECs) from the cell cycle and their aberrant elongation toward the presumptive cornea by E12.5. These cells lose expression of LEC markers and initiate expression of the Maf (also known as c-Maf) and Prox1 transcription factors as well as other lens fiber cell markers, β1-integrin null LECs also upregulate the ERK, AKT and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation indicative of BMP and FGF signaling. By E14.5, β1-integrin null lenses have undergone a complete conversion of all lens epithelial cells into fiber cells. These data suggest that shortly after lens vesicle closure, β1-integrin blocks inappropriate differentiation of the lens epithelium into fibers, potentially by inhibiting BMP and/or FGF receptor activation. Thus, β1-integrin has an important role in fine-tuning the response of the early lens to the gradient of growth factors that regulate lens fiber cell differentiation. PMID:27596755

  2. Arthrographic differential diagnosis between ruptures of the anterior talofibular ligament, the joint capsule and the anterior tibiofibular ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moppes, F.I. van; Hoogenband, C.R. van den; Meijer, F.

    1980-01-01

    Aus einem Studium der Literatur, chirurgischen Befunden und Untersuchungen an Leichen kann es als unwahrscheinlich angesehen werden, dass bei einer Fussverstauchung vom Inversionstyp ein Riss des vorderen tibiofibularen Ligraments haeufig zusammen mit einem Gelenkkapselriss und einem seitlichen Baenderriss auftritt. Entgegen der Beobachtung anderer Verfasser fanden wir, dass ein Riss des vorderen tibiofularen Ligaments in keiner Weise aus dem Vorhandensein oder Nichtvorhandensein folgender arthrographischer Befunde geschlossen werden konnte: a) kontrastfreie Zone, b) tibiofibularer Rezessus, oder c) beide zusammen. Ein Gelenkkapselriss kann angenommen werden, wenn Kontrastmittel aus dem Gelenk in das weiche Gewebe austritt, ohne unterhalb oder seitlich in den Aussenknoechel zu dringen. Ein Austritt des Kontrastmittels unterhalb und seitlich des Aussenknoechels deutet auf einen Riss des vorderen tabofibularen Ligaments hin. Die anatomischen Zusammenhaenge zwischen Bandverbindung, Gelenkkapsel, tibiofibularem Rezessus und dem vorderen talofibularen Ligament wurden an Leichen und waehrend der chirurgischen Eingriffe studiert. Ausbreitung des Kontrastmittels im weichen Gewebe wird wahrscheinlich bestimmt durch die Anordnung und Beschaedigung der Weichteile und durch die Groesse des entstandenen Haematoms und folgt dem Weg des kleinsten Widerstandes. (orig.) [de

  3. RETAINED STONE PIECE IN ANTERIOR CHAMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZvornicaninJasmin, Nadarevic-VodencarevicAmra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We read with interest the article by Surekha et al. regarding the retained stone piece in anterior chamber. Similar to the results of previous studies, the authors found that delayed intraocular foreign body (IOFB management can result in good visual outcome without an apparent increased risk of endophthalmitis or other deleterious side effects. However, the authors failed to explain the exact reason for the diminution of vision in patients left eye. It is unclear what the uncorrected visual acuity was and what kind of correction was used, more precisely type and amount of cylinder, given the presence of the corneal opacity. Since the size of the IOFB is approximately 4x4x1mm, significant irido-corneal angle changes resulting in intraocular pressure raise and optic nerve head damage can be expected. Traumatic glaucoma following open globe injury can occur in 2.7 to 19% of cases, with several risk factors associated with glaucoma development (advanced age, poor visual acuity at presentation,perforating rather than penetrating ocular injury,lens injury, presence of vitreous hemorrhage and presence of an IOFB. Earlier reportsof latetraumaticoptic neuropathy onset, even after several years, indicate that this possibility cannot be completely ruled out too. Therefore, repeated intraocular pressure measurements, gonioscopy, pupillary reaction assessment, together with through posterior segment examination including visual field and optical coherence tomography examinations can be useful in determining the possible optic nerve damage as one of the possible reasons for visual acuity reduction. The authors did not suggest any operative treatment at this time. However, it should bear in mind that the inert anterior chamber IOFB could be a risk factor for non-infectious endophthalmitis development even after many years. Also, long term retained anterior chamber foreign body leads to permanent endothelial cell loss and can even result in a corneal

  4. Foreign Body Embedded in Anterior Chamber Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We present a case of a metallic foreign body embedded in the anterior chamber angle. After standing in close proximity to a construction worker breaking a tile, a 26-year-old woman using soft contact lens for the correction of mild myopia presented to emergency department for evaluation of a foreign body sensation of her right eye. Methods and Results. Diagnosis was confirmed by gonioscopic examination and a noncontrast CT scan of head and orbits. The foreign body was removed by an external approach without utilizing a magnet. The patient's final outcome was favorable. Discussion. The above is a rare clinical situation, which is impossible to detect on slit-lamp examination without a gonioscopic view. Proper imaging and a specific management are mandatory in order to achieve favorable outcome.

  5. A Class I UV-Blocking (senofilcon A) Soft Contact Lens Prevents UVA-induced Yellow Fluorescence and NADH loss in the Rabbit Lens Nucleus in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Frank J.; Lin, Li-Ren; Simpanya, Mukoma F.; Leverenz, Victor R.; Fick, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    It is known that fluorescence, much of it caused by UVA light excitation, increases in the aging human lens, resulting in loss of sharp vision. This study used an in vivo animal model to investigate UVA-excited fluorescence in the rabbit lens, which contains a high level of the UVA chromophore NADH, existing both free and bound to λ-crystallin. Also, the ability of a Class I (senofilcon A) soft contact lens to protect against UVA-induced effects on the rabbit lens was tested. Rabbit eyes were irradiated with UVA light in vivo (100 mW/cm2 on the cornea) for 1 hour using monochromatic 365 nm light. Irradiation was conducted in the presence of either a senofilcon A contact lens, a minimally UV-absorbing lotrafilcon A contact lens, or no contact lens at all. Eyes irradiated without a contact lens showed blue 365 nm-excited fluorescence initially, but this changed to intense yellow fluorescence after 1 hour. Isolated, previously irradiated lenses exhibited yellow fluorescence originating from the lens nucleus when viewed under 365 nm light, but showed normal blue fluorescence arising from the cortex. Previously irradiated lenses also exhibited a faint yellow color when observed under visible light. The senofilcon A contact lens protected completely against the UVA-induced effects on fluorescence and lens yellowing, whereas the lotrafilcon A lens showed no protection. The UVA-exposure also produced a 53% loss of total NADH (free plus bound) in the lens nucleus, with only a 13% drop in the anterior cortex. NADH loss in the nucleus was completely prevented with use of a senofilcon A contact lens, but no significant protection was observed with a lotrafilcon A lens. Overall, the senofilcon A lens provided an average of 67% protection against UVA-induced loss of four pyridine nucleotides in four different regions of the lens. HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection indicated a nearly six-fold increase in 365 nm-excited yellow fluorescence arising from lens nuclear

  6. Characteristics of the thick, compound refractive lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantell, Richard H.; Feinstein, Joseph; Beguiristain, H. Raul; Piestrup, Melvin A.; Gary, Charles K.; Cremer, Jay T.

    2003-01-01

    A compound refractive lens (CRL), consisting of a series of N closely spaced lens elements each of which contributes a small fraction of the total focusing, can be used to focus x rays or neutrons. The thickness of a CRL can be comparable to its focal length, whereupon a thick-lens analysis must be performed. In contrast with the conventional optical lens, where the ray inside the lens follows a straight line, the ray inside the CRL is continually changing direction because of the multiple refracting surfaces. Thus the matrix representation for the thick CRL is quite different from that for the thick optical lens. Principal planes can be defined such that the thick-lens matrix can be converted to that of a thin lens. For a thick lens the focal length is greater than for a thin lens with the same lens curvature, but this lengthening effect is less for the CRL than for the conventional optical lens

  7. Clinical observation of Artisan iris-clip intraocular lens implantation at stage Ⅰ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical efficacy of Artisan iris-clip intraocular lens(IOLimplantation on cataract with a wide range of lens dislocation.METHODS: Twenty-four hospital patients(28 eyesof cataract with lens subluxation by trauma(20 patients, 20 eyesand Marfan's syndrome(4 patients, 8 eyesduring May 2007 to December 2011 were selected. All of them underwent phacoemulsification or an anterior vitrectomy and Artisan iris-clip IOL implantation at stage Ⅰ. Postoperative visual acuity, corneal endothelial cell count, intraocular lens position and postoperative complications were observed. Follow-up time was 6mo.RESULTS:Compared with the preoperative, postoperative best corrected visual acuity improved to varying degrees, visual acuity of 0.1-0.5 was in 20 eyes, 0.5-1.0 in 8 eyes. After followed up 1-6mo, no artificial lens shift, iris inflammation, iris atrophy and corneal decompensation and other complications were observed.CONCLUSION: Cataract surgery with a wide range of lens dislocation is difficult, but as long as surgeons who have a wealth of clinical experience and superb skills, still can carry out phacoemulsification surgery or anterior vitrectomy and Artisan iris-clip IOL implantation and obtain a better outcome.

  8. Oral omega-3 fatty acid treatment for dry eye in contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA) supplementation on dry eye symptoms, tear film tests, and conjunctival impression cytology in patients with contact lens wear-associated dry eye. In this randomized, double-blind, multicentric trial, contact lens wearers (n = 496) were randomized to receive either O3FAs or placebo capsules (corn oil) twice daily for 6 months. Subjects underwent examinations at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. At each visit, a questionnaire of dry eye symptoms and lens wear comfort was administered. Subjects further underwent measurement of tear film break-up time (TBUT) and a Schirmer test. Conjunctival impression cytology was performed by the transfer method. Improvement in symptoms and lens wear comfort were primary outcome measures. Changes from baseline in TBUT, Schirmer, and Nelson grade at 6 months were secondary outcome measures. The mean improvement in symptom score in the O3FA group was 4.7 ± 2 (2.0) as compared with 0.5 ± 2 (0.9) in the placebo group (P dry eye symptoms, improving lens wear comfort, and cytological changes in contact lens wearers.

  9. Growth of the human lens in the Indian adult population: Preliminary observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashik Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The eye lens grows throughout life by the addition of new cells inside the surrounding capsule. How this growth affects the properties of the lens is essential for understanding disorders such as cataract and presbyopia. Aims: To examine growth of the human lens in the Indian population and compare this with the growth in Western populations by measuring in vitro dimensions together with wet and dry weights. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at the research wing of a tertiary eye care center in South India and the study design was prospective. Materials and Methods: Lenses were removed from eye bank eyes and their dimensions measured with a digital caliper. They were then carefully blotted dry and weighed before being placed in 5% buffered formalin. After 1 week fixation, the lenses were dried at 80 °C until constant weight was achieved. The constant weight was noted as the dry weight of the lens. Statistical Analysis Used: Lens parameters were analyzed as a function of age using linear and logarithmic regression methods. Results: Data were obtained for 251 lenses, aged 16-93 years, within a median postmortem time of 22 h. Both wet and dry weights increased linearly at 1.24 and 0.44 mg/year, respectively, throughout adult life. The dimensions also increased continuously throughout this time. Conclusions: Over the age range examined, lens growth in the Indian population is very similar to that in Western populations.

  10. Development of Multiple Capsule Robots in Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxiang Guo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Swallowable capsule robots which travel in body cavities to implement drug delivery, minimally invasive surgery, and diagnosis have provided great potential for medical applications. However, the space constraints of the internal environment and the size limitations of the robots are great challenges to practical application. To address the fundamental challenges of narrow body cavities, a different-frequency driven approach for multiple capsule robots with screw structure manipulated by external electromagnetic field is proposed in this paper. The multiple capsule robots are composed of driven permanent magnets, joint permanent magnets, and a screw body. The screw body generates a propulsive force in a fluidic environment. Moreover, robots can form new constructions via mutual docking and release. To provide manipulation guidelines for active locomotion, a dynamic model of axial propulsion and circumferential torque is established. The multiple start and step-out frequencies for multiple robots are defined theoretically. Moreover, the different-frequency driven approach based on geometrical parameters of screw structure and the overlap angles of magnetic polarities is proposed to drive multiple robots in an identical electromagnetic field. Finally, two capsule robots were prototyped and experiments in a narrow pipe were conducted to verify the different motions such as docking, release, and cooperative locomotion. The experimental results demonstrated the validity of the driven approach for multiple capsule robots in narrow body cavities.

  11. Scaling effects in spiral capsule robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Rong; Chen, Bai; Tang, Yong; Xu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Spiral capsule robots can be applied to human gastrointestinal tracts and blood vessels. Because of significant variations in the sizes of the inner diameters of the intestines as well as blood vessels, this research has been unable to meet the requirements for medical applications. By applying the fluid dynamic equations, using the computational fluid dynamics method, to a robot axial length ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -2  m, the operational performance indicators (axial driving force, load torque, and maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall) of the spiral capsule robot and the fluid turbulent intensity around the robot spiral surfaces was numerically calculated in a straight rigid pipe filled with fluid. The reasonableness and validity of the calculation method adopted in this study were verified by the consistency of the calculated values by the computational fluid dynamics method and the experimental values from a relevant literature. The results show that the greater the fluid turbulent intensity, the greater the impact of the fluid turbulence on the driving performance of the spiral capsule robot and the higher the energy consumption of the robot. For the same level of size of the robot, the axial driving force, the load torque, and the maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall of the outer spiral robot were larger than those of the inner spiral robot. For different requirements of the operating environment, we can choose a certain kind of spiral capsule robot. This study provides a theoretical foundation for spiral capsule robots.

  12. Efficacy on chopping with lens loop-pad in the small incision extracapsular cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ning Peng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the clinical effects of chopping with lens loop-pad in the small incision extracapsular cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation.METHODS:A total of 75 cases(80 eyes, in which loop-pad and chop knife were performed to chop nucleus before implanting intraocular lens. Visual acuity, postoperative astigmatism degree, intraoperative and postoperative complications were observed. The post-operative follow-up periods ranged from 3 to 12mo.RESULTS: The visual acuity was 0.3-0.5 in 37 eyes and 0.6 or better in 21 eyes at 1d, while was respectively in 43 eyes and in 26 eyes at 1mo. Compared with preoperative astigmatism(0.85±0.29D, there were significant difference at postoperative 1wk(1.75±0.55D(PP>0.05. Intraoperative posterior capsule rupture occurred in 4 eyes, which implantation was successful in 1 eye and 3 eyes was managed viaciliary sulcus. Two eyes had dermatoglyphic pattern edema in corneal endothelium which recovered after about 3d. Two eyes had local patchy opacities which recovered in 2wk. Two eyes had transient high intraocular pressure.CONCLUSION: The surgery is efficient, low cost, easy process and less complications, it is worth to be popularized.

  13. Clinical evaluation of arthroscopic treatment of shoulder adhesive capsulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of arthroscopic releases performed in patients with adhesive capsulitis refractory to conservative treatment. METHODS: This was a retrospective study, conducted between 1996 and 2012, which included 56 shoulders (52 patients that underwent surgery; 38 were female, and 28 had the dominant side affected. The mean age was 51 (29-73 years. The mean follow-up was 65 (12-168 months and the mean preoperative time was 8.9 (2-24 months. According to Zukermann's classification, 23 cases were considered primary and 33 secondary. With the patient in the lateral decubitus position, circumferential release of the joint capsule was performed: joint debridement; rotator interval opening; coracohumeral ligament release; anterior, posterior, inferior, and finally antero-inferior capsulotomy. A subscapularis tenotomy was performed when necessary. All patients underwent intense physical therapy in the immediate postoperative period. In 33 shoulders, an interscalene catheter was implanted for anesthetic infusion. Functional results were evaluated by the UCLA criteria. RESULTS: Improved range of motion was observed: mean increase of 45° of elevation, 41° of external rotation and eight vertebral levels of medial rotation. According to the UCLA score excellent results were obtained in 25 (45% patients; good, in 24 (45%; fair, in two (3%; and poor, in two (7%. Patients who had undergone inferior capsulotomy achieved better results. Only 8.8% of patients who used the anesthetic infusion catheter underwent postoperative manipulation. Seven patients had complications. CONCLUSION: There was improvement in pain and range of motion. Inferior capsulotomy leads to better results. The use of the interscalene infusion catheter reduces the number of re-approaches.

  14. Crystalline lens dislocation secondary to bacterial endogenous endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangave, Amit; Komati, Rahul; Weinmann, Allison; Samuel, Linoj; Desai, Uday

    2017-09-01

    To present an unusual case of endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to Group A streptococcus (GAS) that resulted in dislocation of the crystalline lens. An immunocompetent 51-year-old man presented to the emergency room (ER) with upper respiratory infection (URI) symptoms and painful right eye. He was diagnosed with URI and viral conjunctivitis and discharged on oral azithromycin and polytrim eyedrops. He returned to the ER 30 h later with sepsis and findings consistent with endophthalmitis, including light perception only vision. Ophthalmology was consulted at this time and an emergent vitreous tap and injection was performed. Both blood and vitreous cultures grew an atypical non-hemolytic variant of GAS ( Streptococcus pyogenes ). The primary source of infection was presumed to be secondary to pharyngitis or cutaneous dissemination. Final vision in the affected eye was no light perception, likely from a combination of anterior segment scarring, posterior segment damage, and hypotony. Interestingly, head computed tomography (CT) at the initial ER presentation showed normal lens position, but repeat CT at re-presentation revealed posterior dislocation of the lens. Endophthalmitis secondary to GAS has been sparsely reported in the literature, and this case highlights a unique clinical presentation. We suspect that this atypical non-hemolytic strain may have evaded detection on initial pharyngeal cultures. Additionally, we hypothesize that GAS-mediated protease release resulted in breakdown of the zonular fibers and subsequent lens dislocation. Ophthalmologists should be aware of GAS and its devastating intraocular manifestations.

  15. The first capsule implosion experiments on Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbett, W J; Horsfield, C J; Gales, S G; Leatherland, A E; Rubery, M S; Coltman, J E; Meadowcroft, A E; Rice, S J; Simons, A J; Woolhead, V E

    2016-01-01

    Direct drive capsule implosions are being developed on the Orion laser at AWE as a platform for ICF and HED physics experiments. The Orion facility combines both long pulse and short-pulse beams, making it well suited for studying the physics of alternative ignition approaches. Orion implosions also provide the opportunity to study aspects of polar direct drive. Limitations on drive symmetry from the relatively small number of laser beams makes predictive modelling of the implosions challenging, resulting in some uncertainty in the expected capsule performance. Initial experiments have been fielded to evaluate baseline capsule performance and inform future design optimization. Highly promising DD fusion neutron yields in excess of 10 9 have been recorded. Results from the experiments are presented alongside radiation-hydrocode modelling. (paper)

  16. Capsule endoscopy—A mechatronics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Tan, Su Lim; Wong, Kai Juan; Ho, Khek Yu; Phee, Soo Jay

    2011-03-01

    The recent advances in integrated circuit technology, wireless communication, and sensor technology have opened the door for development of miniature medical devices that can be used for enhanced monitoring and treatment of medical conditions. Wireless capsule endoscopy is one of such medical devices that has gained significant attention during the past few years. It is envisaged that future wireless capsule endoscopies replace traditional endoscopy procedures by providing advanced functionalities such as active locomotion, body fluid/tissue sampling, and drug delivery. Development of energy-efficient miniaturized actuation mechanisms is a key step toward achieving this goal. Here, we review some of the actuators that could be integrated into future wireless capsules and discuss the existing challenges.

  17. Production of 131I gelatin capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freud, A.; Hirshfeld, N.; Canfi, A.; Melamud, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Radioiodine ( 131 I) hard-gelatin capsules are widely used for the diagnosis and treatment of various thyroid disorders. Until 1980 radioiodine was supplied by us as a liquid dosage. This proved to be a rather inconvenient form since it resulted in inaccurate dosing by the physicians and caused frequent contamination of the patients and the hospital personnel. In an attempt to overcome these problems we have designed and constructed a production facility for capsules in which 1311 is packaged. Because of the extreme precautions necessary in handling radioactive compounds, encapsulation of radioactive materials requires specifically designed production techniques, special instrumentation and unique quality control procedures that are not encountered in the standard capsule production processes in the pharmaceutical industry

  18. Chord length distribution for a compound capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitřík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Chord length distribution is a factor important in the calculation of ionisation chamber responses. This article describes Monte Carlo calculations of the chord length distribution for a non-convex compound capsule. A Monte Carlo code was set up for generation of random chords and calculation of their lengths based on the input number of generations and cavity dimensions. The code was written in JavaScript and can be executed in the majority of HTML viewers. The plot of occurrence of cords of different lengths has 3 peaks. It was found that the compound capsule cavity cannot be simply replaced with a spherical cavity of a triangular design. Furthermore, the compound capsule cavity is directionally dependent, which must be taken into account in calculations involving non-isotropic fields of primary particles in the beam, unless equilibrium of the secondary charged particles is attained. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of causes of intraocular lens explantations in the material of Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Lodz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Michał; Wilczyńska, Olena; Omulecki, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    Implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLS) has become a standard practice in cataract surgery, however, similar to any other type of surgery, using IOLs is not complication-free and sometimes explantation of intraocular lenses may be necessary. This study was to gather data and analyze causes of intraocular lens explantations, performed in the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Łódź. The data were gathered from medical documentation of all patients who underwent intraocular lens removal from January 2003 to July 2006. The examined group consisted of 16 patients (16 eyes): 9 women (fraction 0.56), and 7 men (fraction 0.44), at the age from 21 to 82 years (mean age 62.4 years, SD +/- 15.5). In all patients IOL explantation was performed under local, peribulbar anaesthesia. Two groups of patients were distinguished: patients who had an anterior chamber lens explanted (3 patients, fraction 0.19) and patients who underwent posterior chamber lens explantation (13 patients, fraction 0.81). Causes of AC IOL explantations were: vaulting of the IOL (1 eye, fraction 0.06), luxation of the IOL to the vitreous cavity (1 eye, fraction 0.06), and painful eyeball after anterior chamber lens implantation (1 eye, fraction 0.06). Causes of PC IOL explantations were: subluxation of the IOL (6 eyes, fraction 0.38), luxation of the lens to the vitreous cavity (3 eyes, fraction 0.19), luxation of the lens to the anterior chamber (1 eye, fraction 0.06), endophthalmitis (2 eyes, fraction 0.13) and incorrect lens power (1 eye, fraction 0.06). In the majority of eyes (n = 13, fraction 0.81) the removed implant was replaced by another intraocular lens, but 3 eyes (fraction 0.19) were left aphakic. We did not observe serious intra- or early postoperative complications which might influence the final result of the operation.

  20. Simple approach to prevent capsule tear-out during capsulorhexis creation in hypermature cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark S; Olson, Randall J

    2015-07-01

    Capsule tear-out in hypermature cataracts (Argentinean flag sign) is a common and frustrating complication during the creation of a capsulorhexis. Completing the capsulorhexis through a small side-port incision, filling the anterior chamber with a highly viscous ophthalmic viscosurgical device such as a viscoadaptive agent, and using a 23- or 25-gauge microcapsulorhexis forceps to fill the side-port incision can reliably prevent this complication. Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Crystalline lens radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkacemi, Y.; Pasquier, D.; Castelain, B.; Lartigau, E.; Warnet, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    During more than a half of century, numerous compounds have been tested in different models against radiation-induced cataract. In this report, we will review the radioprotectors that have been already tested for non-human crystalline lens protection. We will focus on the most important published studies in this topic and the mechanisms of cyto-protection reported in. vitro and in. vivo from animals. The most frequent mechanisms incriminated in the cyto-protective effect are: free radical scavenging, limitation of lipid peroxidation, modulation of cycle progression increase of intracellular reduced glutathione pool, reduction of DNA strand breaks and limitation of apoptotic cell death. Arnifostine (or Ethyol) and anethole dithiolethione (or Sulfarlem), already used clinically as chemo- and radio-protectants, could be further test?r for ocular radioprotection particularly for radiation-induced cataract. (author)

  2. Wedged multilayer Laue lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, Ray; Liu Chian; Qian Jun; Kewish, Cameron M.; Macrander, Albert T.; Yan Hanfei; Maser, Joerg; Kang, Hyon Chol; Stephenson, G. Brian

    2008-01-01

    A multilayer Laue lens (MLL) is an x-ray focusing optic fabricated from a multilayer structure consisting of thousands of layers of two different materials produced by thin-film deposition. The sequence of layer thicknesses is controlled to satisfy the Fresnel zone plate law and the multilayer is sectioned to form the optic. An improved MLL geometry can be created by growing each layer with an in-plane thickness gradient to form a wedge, so that every interface makes the correct angle with the incident beam for symmetric Bragg diffraction. The ultimate hard x-ray focusing performance of a wedged MLL has been predicted to be significantly better than that of a nonwedged MLL, giving subnanometer resolution with high efficiency. Here, we describe a method to deposit the multilayer structure needed for an ideal wedged MLL and report our initial deposition results to produce these structures

  3. Multidisciplinary management of anterior diastemata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Herkrath, Fernando José; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino

    2007-01-01

    Anterior diastemata may compromise the harmony of a patient's smile. Consideration of etiologic factors, previous gingival conditioning, and individual treatment planning are essential in the proper management of anterior diastemata. An integrated orthodontic-restorative approach may enhance the ...

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Survival at Posterior Contact Lens Surfaces after Daily Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yvonne T.; Zhu, Lucia S.; Tam, K. P. Connie; Evans, David J.; Fleiszig, Suzanne M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis is a sight-threatening complication of contact lens wear, yet mechanisms by which lenses predispose to infection remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tear fluid at the posterior contact lens surface can lose antimicrobial activity over time during lens wear. Methods Daily disposable lenses were worn for 1, 2, 4, 6 or 8 h immediately after removal from their packaging, or after presoaking in sterile saline for 2 days to remove packaging solution. Unworn lenses were also tested, some coated in tears “aged” in vitro for 1 or 8 h. Lenses were placed anterior surface down into tryptic soy agar cradles containing gentamicin (100µg/ml) to kill bacteria already on the lens, and posterior surfaces inoculated with gentamicin-resistant P. aeruginosa for 3 h. Surviving bacteria were enumerated by viable counts of lens homogenates. Results Posterior surfaces of lenses worn by patients for 8 h supported more P. aeruginosa growth than lenses worn for only 1 h, if lenses were presoaked prior to wear (~ 2.4-fold, p = 0.01). This increase was offset if lenses were not presoaked to remove packaging solution (p = 0.04 at 2 h and 4 h). Irrespective of presoaking, lenses worn for 8 h showed more growth on their posterior surface than unworn lenses coated with tear fluid that was “aged” for 8 h vitro (~8.6-fold, presoaked, p = 0.003: ~ 5.4-fold from packaging solution, p = 0.004). Indeed, in vitro incubation did not impact tear antimicrobial activity. Conclusions This study shows that post lens tear fluid can lose antimicrobial activity over time during contact lens wear, supporting the idea that efficient tear exchange under a lens is critical for homeostasis. Additional studies are needed to determine applicability to other lens types, wearing modalities, and relevance to contact lens-related infections. PMID:25955639

  5. Comparison of lens oxidative damage induced by vitrectomy and/or hyperoxia in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare of lens oxidative damage induced by vitrectomy and/or hyperoxia in rabbit. METHODS: Sixteen New Zealand rabbits (2.4-2.5 kg were randomly divided into two groups (Group A, n=12; Group B, n=4. In Group A, the right eyes were treated with vitrectomy and systemic hyperoxia (oxygen concentration: 80%-85%, 1 ATA, 4h/d (Group A-right, and the left eyes were treated with hyperoxia without vitrectomy surgery (Group A-left. Four rabbits in group B (eight eyes were untreated as the controls. Lens transparency was monitored with a slit lamp and recorded before and after vitrectomy. After hyperoxic treatment for 6mo, the eyeballs were removed and the lens cortices (containing the capsules and nuclei were separated for further morphological and biochemical evaluation. RESULTS: Six months after treatments, there were no significant morphological changes in the lenses in any experimental group when observed with a slit lamp. However, the levels of water-soluble proteins and ascorbate, and the activities of catalase and Na+-K+-ATPase were significantly reduced, whereas the levels of malondialdehyde and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2 were significantly elevated, in both the cortices and nuclei of eyes treated with vitrectomy and hyperoxia. The increase in protein-glutathione mixed disulfides and the reduction in water-soluble proteins were more obvious in the lens nuclei. The levels of ascorbate in the vitreous fluid were also reduced after vitrectomy, whereas TGF-β2 increased after vitrectomy and hyperoxia. Systemic hyperoxia exposure increased these effects. CONCLUSION: Removal of the intact vitreous gel with vitrectomy and exposing the lens to increased oxygen from the retina induce lens oxidation and aggregation. Thus, an intact vitreous gel structure may protect the lens from oxidative insult and maintain lens transparency.

  6. Application of ultrasound biomicro-scopy in the planning of cataract surgery in anterior megalophthalmos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Zare

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior megalophthalmos, a rare hereditary disorder, is macrocornea (horizontal corneal diameter more than 13 mm in association with enlarged lens-iris diaphragm and ciliary ring. One of the major challenging issues in the cataract surgery of these patients is preventing intraocular lens (IOL malposition, because of probable large capsular bag. Several approaches have been selected by previous surgeons, such as, custom-made anterior chamber IOLs. In this study, we show a normal capsular bag diameter despite ciliary ring enlargement, with application of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UMB. We suggest that in cases of anterior megalophthalmos without phacodonesis, UBM could measure the actual size of the capsular bag and obviate the need for further procedures.

  7. Anterior Urethral Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar P. Mali

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied the clinical presentation and management of four patients with anterior urethral valves; a rare cause of urethral obstruction in male children. One patient presented antenatally with oligohydramnios, bilateral hydronephrosis and bladder thickening suggestive of an infravesical obstruction. Two other patients presented postnatally at 1 and 2 years of age, respectively, with poor stream of urine since birth. The fourth patient presented at 9 years with frequency and dysuria. Diagnosis was established on either micturating cystourethrogram (MCU (in 2 or on cystoscopy (in 2. All patients had cystoscopic ablation of the valves. One patient developed a postablation stricture that was resected with an end-to-end urethroplasty. He had an associated bilateral vesicoureteric junction (VUJ obstruction for which a bilateral ureteric reimplantation was done at the same time. On long-term follow-up, all patients demonstrated a good stream of urine. The renal function is normal. Patients are continent and free of urinary infections. Anterior urethral valves are rare obstructive lesions in male children. The degree of obstruction is variable, and so they may present with mild micturition difficulty or severe obstruction with hydroureteronephrosis and renal impairment. Hence, it is important to evaluate the anterior urethra in any male child with suspected infravesical obstruction. The diagnosis is established by MCU or cystoscopy and the treatment is always surgical, either a transurethral ablation or an open resection. The long-term prognosis is good.

  8. Surgical management of anterior chamber epithelial cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Julia A; Stark, Walter J; Azab, Amr; Thomsen, Robert W; Gottsch, John D

    2003-03-01

    To review management strategies for treatment of anterior chamber epithelial cysts. Retrospective review of consecutive interventional case series. Charts of patients treated for epithelial ingrowth over a 10-year period by a single surgeon were reviewed. Cases of anterior chamber epithelial cysts were identified and recorded, including details of ocular history, preoperative and postoperative acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and ocular examination, type of surgical intervention, and details of further procedures performed. Seven eyes with epithelial cysts were identified. Patient age ranged from 1.5 to 53 years at presentation. Four patients were children. In four eyes, cysts were secondary to trauma, one case was presumably congenital, one case developed after corneal perforation in an eye with Terrien's marginal degeneration, and one case developed after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Three eyes were treated with vitrectomy, en bloc resection of the cyst and associated tissue, fluid-air exchange and cryotherapy. The last four eyes were treated with a new conservative strategy of cyst aspiration (three cases) or local excision (one keratin "pearl" cyst), and endolaser photocoagulation of the collapsed cyst wall/base. All epithelial tissue was successfully eradicated by clinical criteria; one case required repeat excision (follow-up, 9 to 78 months, mean 45). Two eyes required later surgery for elevated IOP, two for cataract extraction and one for repeat PK. Final visual acuity ranged from 20/20 to hand motions, depending on associated ocular damage. Best-corrected visual results were obtained in the more conservatively managed eyes. Anterior chamber epithelial cysts can be managed conservatively in selected cases with good results. This strategy may be particularly useful in children's eyes, where preservation of the lens, iris, and other structures may facilitate amblyopia management. Copyright 2003 by Elsevier Science Inc.

  9. Radiocarbon Dating of the Human Eye Lens Crystallines Reveal Proteins without Carbon Turnover throughout Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Kjeldsen, Henrik; Heegaard, Steffen; Jacobsen, Christina; Heinemeier, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background Lens crystallines are special proteins in the eye lens. Because the epithelial basement membrane (lens capsule) completely encloses the lens, desquamation of aging cells is impossible, and due to the complete absence of blood vessels or transport of metabolites in this area, there is no subsequent remodelling of these fibers, nor removal of degraded lens fibers. Human tissue ultimately derives its 14C content from the atmospheric carbon dioxide. The 14C content of the lens proteins thus reflects the atmospheric content of 14C when the lens crystallines were formed. Precise radiocarbon dating is made possible by comparing the 14C content of the lens crystallines to the so-called bomb pulse, i.e. a plot of the atmospheric 14C content since the Second World War, when there was a significant increase due to nuclear-bomb testing. Since the change in concentration is significant even on a yearly basis this allows very accurate dating. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results allow us to conclude that the crystalline formation in the lens nucleus almost entirely takes place around the time of birth, with a very small, and decreasing, continuous formation throughout life. The close relationship may be further expressed as a mathematical model, which takes into account the timing of the crystalline formation. Conclusions/Significance Such a life-long permanence of human tissue has hitherto only been described for dental enamel. In confront to dental enamel it must be held in mind that the eye lens is a soft structure, subjected to almost continuous deformation, due to lens accommodation, yet its most important constituent, the lens crystalline, is never subject to turnover or remodelling once formed. The determination of the 14C content of various tissues may be used to assess turnover rates and degree of substitution (for example for brain cell DNA). Potential targets may be nervous tissues in terms of senile or pre-senile degradation, as well as other highly

  10. Radiocarbon dating of the human eye lens crystallines reveal proteins without carbon turnover throughout life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Lynnerup

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lens crystallines are special proteins in the eye lens. Because the epithelial basement membrane (lens capsule completely encloses the lens, desquamation of aging cells is impossible, and due to the complete absence of blood vessels or transport of metabolites in this area, there is no subsequent remodelling of these fibers, nor removal of degraded lens fibers. Human tissue ultimately derives its (14C content from the atmospheric carbon dioxide. The (14C content of the lens proteins thus reflects the atmospheric content of (14C when the lens crystallines were formed. Precise radiocarbon dating is made possible by comparing the (14C content of the lens crystallines to the so-called bomb pulse, i.e. a plot of the atmospheric (14C content since the Second World War, when there was a significant increase due to nuclear-bomb testing. Since the change in concentration is significant even on a yearly basis this allows very accurate dating. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results allow us to conclude that the crystalline formation in the lens nucleus almost entirely takes place around the time of birth, with a very small, and decreasing, continuous formation throughout life. The close relationship may be further expressed as a mathematical model, which takes into account the timing of the crystalline formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Such a life-long permanence of human tissue has hitherto only been described for dental enamel. In confront to dental enamel it must be held in mind that the eye lens is a soft structure, subjected to almost continuous deformation, due to lens accommodation, yet its most important constituent, the lens crystalline, is never subject to turnover or remodelling once formed. The determination of the (14C content of various tissues may be used to assess turnover rates and degree of substitution (for example for brain cell DNA. Potential targets may be nervous tissues in terms of senile or pre

  11. Comparison of posterior capsule folds following intracapsular implantation of three types of intraocular lenses with different haptic design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Lin Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the incidence of posterior capsule folds among different types of intraocular lens(IOLto determine risk factors of posterior capsule folds. METHODS:It was a retrospective study. We collected the cases in which the patients underwent phacoemulsification(PHACOand IOL implantation and at least one of the three types of IOL was implanted, including 2-haptic 3-piece IOLs(HOYA PY60AD, 4-haptic 1-piece IOLs(Bausch & Lomb AO, 2-haptic 1-piece IOLs(AMO Tecnis ZCB00. The posterior capsule folds were measured using slit lamp microscope 2d after the surgery. Information of patient's age, gender, length of ocular axis, intraocular pressure, types of IOL were recorded. Posterior capsule fold risk indicators were identified by using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: One hundred eighty-seven patients(242 eyeshad been collected, including 80 eyes implanted with HOYA PY60AD IOLs, 81 eyes implanted with Bausch & Lomb AO IOLs, 81 eyes implanted with AMO Tecnis ZCB00 IOLs. The incidence of posterior capsule folds of patients implanted with HOYA PY60AD IOLs was significantly higher than those of patients implanted with AMO Tecnis ZCB00 IOLs(56.3% vs 38.3%, P=0.027. While the incidence of patients implanted with Bausch & Lomb AO IOLs was significantly lower than those of patients implanted with AMO Tecnis ZCB00 IOLs(14.8% vs 38.3%, P=0.001. Multi-factor logistics regression analysis demonstrated that independent risk factors were type of IOLs and length of ocular axis. Compared with AMO Tecnis ZCB00 IOLs, using HOYA PY60AD IOLs increased the risk of posterior capsule folds \\〖P=0.020, OR(95%CI=2.145(1.129,4.073\\〗, while using Bausch & Lomb AO IOLs reduced the risk \\〖P=0.001, OR(95%CI=0.274(0.127, 0.591\\〗. Shorter ocular axis might increase the risk of posterior capsule folds \\〖P=0.012, OR(95%CI=0.669(0.489, 0.915\\〗. CONCLUSION: Haptic design should be an important consideration in IOL design. Compared with AMO Tecnis ZCB00 IOLs

  12. Compliance among soft contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzman, Tomislav; Kutija, Marija Barisić; Masnec, Sanja; Jandroković, Sonja; Mrazovac, Danijela; Jurisić, Darija; Skegro, Ivan; Kalauz, Miro; Kordić, Rajko

    2014-12-01

    Contact lens compliance is proven to be crucial for preventing lens wear-related complications because of the interdependence of the steps in lens care regime and their influence on lens system microbial contamination. Awareness of the patients' lens handling compliance as well as correct recognition of non-compliant behaviours is the basis for creating more targeted strategies for patient education. The aim of this study was to investigate compliance among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in different aspects of lens care handling and wearing habits. In our research 50 asymptomatic lens wearers filled out a questionnaire containing demographic data, lens type, hygiene and wearing habits, lenses and lens care system replacement schedule and self-evaluation of contact lens handling hygiene. We established criteria of compliance according to available manufacturer's recommendations, prior literature and our clinical experience. Only 2 (4%) of patients were fully compliant SCL wearers. The most common non-compliant behaviours were insufficient lens solution soaking time (62%), followed by failure to daily exchange lens case solution and showering while wearing lenses. 44% of patients reported storing lenses in saline solution. Mean lens storage case replacement was 3.6 months, with up to 78% patients replacing lens case at least once in 3 months. Average grade in self evaluating level of compliance was very good (4 +/- 0.78) (from 1-poor level of hygiene to 5-great level of hygiene). Lens wearers who reported excessive daily lens wear and more than 10 years of lens wearing experience were also found to be less compliant with other lens system care procedures. (t = -2.99, df=47, p rate, self grading was relatively high. Therefore, these results indicate the need for patient education and encouragement of better lens wearing habits and all of the lens maintenance steps at each patient visit.

  13. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related Eye ... Six Steps to Avoid Contact Lens Infections Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Leer en Español: Infecciones relacionadas ...

  14. 21 CFR 886.1375 - Bagolini lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bagolini lens. 886.1375 Section 886.1375 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1375 Bagolini lens. (a) Identification. A Bagolini lens is a device that consists of a plane lens containing almost imperceptible striations that do not obscure...

  15. Straylight Measurements in Contact Lens Wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Ivanka J. E.; Engelbrecht, Leonore A.; van Vliet, Johannes M. J.; Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; Mourits, Maarten P.; Schlingemann, Reinier O.; van den Berg, Thomas J. T. P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To quantify the effect of contact lens wear on straylight in rigid and soft contact lens wearers and (2) to relate findings to morphological changes and subjective complaints. Methods: Straylight was measured using the Oculus C-Quant during contact lens wear and after contact lens

  16. The risk of capsular breakage from phacoemulsification needle contact with the lens capsule: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jay J; Kuo, Annie F; Olson, Randall J

    2010-06-01

    To determine capsular breakage risk from contact by phacoemulsification needles by machine and tip type. Experimental laboratory investigation. Infiniti (Alcon, Inc.) with Intrepid cartridges and Signature (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc.) phacoemulsification machines were tested using 19- and 20-gauge sharp and rounded tips. Actual and unoccluded flow vacuum were determined at 550 mm Hg, bottle height of 75 cm, and machine-indicated flow rate of 60 mL/minute. Breakage from brief tip contact with a capsular surrogate and human cadaveric lenses was calculated. Nineteen-gauge tips had more flow and less unoccluded flow vacuum than 20-gauge tips for both machines, with highest unoccluded flow vacuum in the Infiniti. The 19-gauge sharp tip was more likely than the 20-gauge sharp tip to cause surrogate breakage for Signature with micropulse and Ellips (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc.) ultrasound at 100% power. For Infiniti using OZil (Alcon, Inc.) ultrasound, 20-gauge sharp tips were more likely than 19-gauge sharp tips to break the membrane. For cadaveric lenses, using rounded 20-gauge tips at 100% power, breakage rates were micropulse (2.3%), Ellips (2.3%), OZil (5.3%). Breakage rates for sharp 20-gauge Ellips tips were higher than for rounded tips. Factors influencing capsular breakage may include active vacuum at the tip, flow rate, needle gauge, and sharpness. Nineteen-gauge sharp tips were more likely than 20-gauge tips to cause breakage in lower vacuum methods. For higher-vacuum methods, breakage is more likely with 20-gauge than with 19-gauge tips. Rounded-edge tips are less likely than sharp-edged tips to cause breakage. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunohistochemical studies of lens crystallins in the dysgenetic lens (dyl) mutant mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brahma, S.K.; Sanyal, S.

    1984-01-01

    The lens in the dyl mutant mice shows a persistent lens-ectodermal connection as well as degeneration and extrusion of lens materials after the initial differentiation of the fibres. Immunohistochemical investigation of the ontogeny of the lens crystallins in this developing mutant lens has been

  18. Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW.

  19. Physics of ignition for ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindl, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The implosion of an ICF capsule must accomplish both compression of the main fuel to several hundred grams per cubic centimeter and heating and compression of the central region of the fuel to ignition. This report discusses the physics of these conditions

  20. Extended School Year. Information Capsule. Volume 0910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Extended school years are being considered by districts around the country as educators search for new ways to raise student achievement. The addition of time to the school calendar is also supported by President Barack Obama, who recently stated that American students do not spend enough time in school. This Information Capsule addresses research…

  1. The iliotibial band and anterolateral capsule have a combined attachment to the Segond fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Marcio; Shaikh, Humza; Herbst, Elmar; Onishi, Kentaro; Nagai, Kanto; Musahl, Volker; Fu, Freddie H

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this report was to describe the injury mechanism, surgical findings, and outcomes in a 21-year-old professional female football player who presented with a complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and Segond fracture. Interview and video analysis were performed to elicit the injury mechanism. Clinical examination and imaging revealed a complete ACL tear, Segond fracture, lateral meniscus tear, MCL sprain, and posterolateral corner sprain. Examination under anaesthesia revealed Grade 2 pivot shift and varus/valgus instability. Surgical examination revealed attachment of the posterior fibres of the iliotibial band and the lateral capsule to the Segond fragment. The fracture was reduced with suture fixation, and an anatomic ACL reconstruction was performed. Follow-up demonstrated rotatory and anterior tibial translation stability, and imaging at 7 months post-operatively revealed no movement and continued osseous integration of the Segond fragment. Level of evidence V.

  2. Isolation of Capsulate Bacteria from Acute Dentoalveolar Abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, M. A. O.; Milligan, S. G.; MacFarlane, T. W.; Carmichael, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of a capsule was determined for 198 bacterial strains (57 facultative anaerobes, 141 strict anaerobes) isobdted from pus samples aspirated from 40 acute dentoalveolar abscesses. A total of 133 (67 per cent) of the isolates (42 facultative anaerobes, 91 strict anaerobes) were found to have a capsule. Possession ofa capsule may in part explain the apparent pathogenicity of the bacterial species encountered in acute dentoalveolar abscess.Keywords - Bacterial capsule; Acute dentoalve...

  3. A class I (Senofilcon A) soft contact lens prevents UVB-induced ocular effects, including cataract, in the rabbit in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Frank J; Lin, Li-Ren; Leverenz, Victor R; Dang, Loan

    2011-06-01

    UVB radiation from sunlight is known to be a risk factor for human cataract. The purpose in this study was to investigate the ability of a class I UV-blocking soft contact lens to protect against UVB-induced effects on the ocular tissues of the rabbit in vivo. Eyes of rabbits were exposed to UVB light for 30 minutes (270-360 nm, peak at 310 nm, 1.7 mW/cm(2) on the cornea). Eyes were irradiated in the presence of either a UV-blocking senofilcon A contact lens, a minimally UV-blocking lotrafilcon A contact lens, or no contact lens at all. Effects on the cornea and lens were evaluated at various times after exposure. Eyes irradiated with no contact lens protection showed corneal epithelial cell loss plus lens epithelial cell swelling, vacuole formation, and DNA single-strand breaks, as well as lens anterior subcapsular opacification. The senofilcon A lens protected nearly completely against the UVB-induced effects, whereas the lotrafilcon A lens showed no protection. The results indicate that use of a senofilcon A contact lens is beneficial in protecting ocular tissues of the rabbit against the harmful effects of UVB light, including photokeratitis and cataract.

  4. Ingestible capsule for remote controlled release of a substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The application relates to an ingestible capsule (102) for delivery of a substance e.g. a pharmaceutical drug, to a human or animal. The ingestible capsule comprises a capsule wall structure (202) forming a substantially sealed reservoir or lumen holding the substance (204). An electrical resonance...

  5. Contact Lens Related Corneal Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, KY; Agarwal, P

    2010-01-01

    A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are: overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. Th...

  6. Crystalline lens and refractive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Rafael

    2015-07-01

    Individual refractive errors usually change along lifespan. Most children are hyperopic in early life. This hyperopia is usually lost during growth years, leading to emmetropia in adults, but myopia also develops in children during school years or during early adult life. Those subjects who remain emmetropic are prone to have hyperopic shifts in middle life. And even later, at older ages, myopic shifts are developed with nuclear cataract. The eye grows from 15 mm in premature newborns to approximately 24 mm in early adult years, but, in most cases, refractions are maintained stable in a clustered distribution. This growth in axial length would represent a refractive change of more than 40 diopters, which is compensated by changes in corneal and lens powers. The process which maintains the balance between the ocular components of refraction during growth is still under study. As the lens power cannot be measured in vivo, but can only be calculated based on the other ocular components, there have not been many studies of lens power in humans. Yet, recent studies have confirmed that the lens loses power during growth in children, and that hyperopic and myopic shifts in adulthood may be also produced by changes in the lens. These studies in children and adults give a picture of the changing power of the lens along lifespan. Other recent studies about the growth of the lens and the complexity of its internal structure give clues about how these changes in lens power are produced along life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Single lens laser beam shaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuyu [Newport News, VA; Zhang, Shukui [Yorktown, VA

    2011-10-04

    A single lens bullet-shaped laser beam shaper capable of redistributing an arbitrary beam profile into any desired output profile comprising a unitary lens comprising: a convex front input surface defining a focal point and a flat output portion at the focal point; and b) a cylindrical core portion having a flat input surface coincident with the flat output portion of the first input portion at the focal point and a convex rear output surface remote from the convex front input surface.

  8. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigitan Terbuka Anterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniar Zen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior telah lama dianggap sebagai tantangan bagi ortodontis. Prevalensi gigitan terbuka anterior antara 3,5% hingga 11% terdapat pada berbagai usia dan kelompok etnis, serta ada sekitar 17% pasien ortodonti memiliki gigitan terbuka. Stabilitas hasil perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior sangat sulit, karena adanya kombinasi diskrepansi anteroposterior dengan gigitan terbuka skeletal sehingga dibutuhkan tingkat keterampilan diagnosis dan klinis yang tinggi. Etiologi gigitan terbuka anterior sangat kompleks karena dapat melibatkan skeletal, dental, dan faktor-faktor habitual. Eliminasi faktor etiologi merupakan hal yang penting dalam perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior. Berbagai cara perawatan untuk koreksi gigitan terbuka anterior diantaranya bedah ortognatik dan perawatan ortodontik kamuflase, seperti high-pull headgear, chincup, bite blocks, alatfungsional, pencabutan gigi, multi-loop edgewise archwires dan mini implan. Stabilitas hasil perawatan adalah kriteria yang paling penting dalam menentukan cara perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior. Orthodontic Treatment of Anterior Open Bite. An anterior open bite therapy has long been considered a challenge to orthodontist. The prevalence of anterior openbite range from 3,5 % to 11% among various age and ethnic groups and it has been shown that approximately 17% of orthodontic patients have open bite. Stability of treatment result of anterior open bite with well-maintained results is difficult, because the combination of anteroposteriorly discrepancy with skeletal open bite requires the highest degree of diagnostic and clinical skill. The etiology is complex, potentially involving skeletal, dental and habitual factors. The importance of an anterior open bite therapy is to eliminate the cause of the open bite. Various treatment modalities for the correction of an anterior open bite have been proposed, orthognatic surgery and orthodontic camouflage treatment such as high

  9. Analytical Model for the Probability Characteristics of a Crack Penetrating Capsules in Capsule-Based Self-Healing Cementitious Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong LV

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous crack healing using pre-embedded capsules containing healing agent is becoming a promising approach to restore the strength of damaged structures. In addition to the material properties, the size and volume fraction of capsules influence crack healing in the matrix. Understanding the crack and capsule interaction is critical in the development and design of structures made of capsule-based self-healing materials. Continuing our previous study, in this contribution a more practical rupturing mode of capsules characterizing the rupturing manner of capsules fractured by cracks in cementitious materials is presented, i.e., penetrating mode. With the underlying assumption that a crack penetrating capsules undoubtedly leads to crack healing, geometrical probability theory is employed to develop the quantitative relationship between crack size and capsule size, capsule concentration in capsule-based self-healing virtual cementitious material. Moreover, an analytical expression of probability of a crack penetrating with randomly dispersed capsules is developed in two-dimensional material matrix setup. The influences of the induced rupturing modes of capsules embedded on the self-healing efficiency are analyzed. Much attention is paid to compare the penetrating probability and the hitting probability, in order to assist the designer to make a choice of the optimal rupturing modes of capsules embedded. The accuracy of results of the theoretical model is also compared with Monte-Carlo numerical analysis of crack interacting with capsules. It shows that the developed probability characteristics of a crack interaction with capsules for different rupturing modes is helpful to provide guidelines for designer working with capsule-based self-healing cementitious materials.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.3.16888

  10. A course in lens design

    CERN Document Server

    Velzel, Chris

    2014-01-01

    A Course in Lens Design is an instruction in the design of image-forming optical systems. It teaches how a satisfactory design can be obtained in a straightforward way. Theory is limited to a minimum, and used to support the practical design work. The book introduces geometrical optics, optical instruments and aberrations. It gives a description of the process of lens design and of the strategies used in this process. Half of its content is devoted to the design of sixteen types of lenses, described in detail from beginning to end. This book is different from most other books on lens design because it stresses the importance of the initial phases of the design process: (paraxial) lay-out and (thin-lens) pre-design. The argument for this change of accent is that in these phases much information can be obtained about the properties of the lens to be designed. This information can be used in later phases of the design. This makes A Course in Lens Design a useful self-study book, and a suitable basis for an intro...

  11. Anterior knee pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLopis, Eva; Padron, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries

  12. Anterior knee pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLopis, Eva [Hospital de la Ribera, Alzira, Valencia (Spain) and Carretera de Corbera km 1, 46600 Alzira Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: ellopis@hospital-ribera.com; Padron, Mario [Clinica Cemtro, Ventisquero de la Condesa no. 42, 28035 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: mario.padron@clinicacemtro.com

    2007-04-15

    Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries.

  13. The anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  14. Direct Posterior Bipolar Cervical Facet Radiofrequency Rhizotomy: A Simpler and Safer Approach to Denervate the Facet Capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palea, Ovidiu; Andar, Haroon M; Lugo, Ramon; Granville, Michelle; Jacobson, Robert E

    2018-03-14

    Radiofrequency cervical rhizotomy has been shown to be effective for the relief of chronic neck pain, whether it be due to soft tissue injury, cervical spondylosis, or post-cervical spine surgery. The target and technique have traditionally been taught using an oblique approach to the anterior lateral capsule of the cervical facet joint. The goal is to position the electrode at the proximal location of the recurrent branch after it leaves the exiting nerve root and loops back to the cervical facet joint. The standard oblique approach to the recurrent nerve requires the testing of both motor and sensory components to verify the correct position and ensure safety so as to not damage the slightly more anterior nerve root. Bilateral lesions require the repositioning of the patient's neck. Poorly positioned electrodes can also pass anteriorly and contact the nerve root or vertebral artery. The direct posterior approach presented allows electrode positioning over a broader expanse of the facet joint without risk to the nerve root or vertebral artery. Over a four-year period, direct posterior radiofrequency ablation was performed under fluoroscopic guidance at multiple levels without neuro-stimulation testing with zero procedural neurologic events even as high as the C2 spinal segment. The direct posterior approach allows either unipolar or bipolar lesioning at multiple levels. Making a radiofrequency lesion along the larger posterior area of the facet capsule is as effective as the traditional target point closer to the nerve root but technically easier, allowing bilateral access and safety. The article will review the anatomy and innervation of the cervical facet joint and capsule, showing the diffuse nerve supply extending into the capsule of the facet joint that is more extensive than the recurrent medial sensory branches that have been the focus of radiofrequency lesioning.

  15. COMPLETE RESOLUTION OF LARGE RETINAL FOLD AFTER TRANSECTION OF RETROLENTAL MEMBRANE DURING LENS-SPARING VITRECTOMY FOR RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY: A 15-YEAR FOLLOW-UP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Benjamin J; Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Trese, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    To describe the long-term anatomical and visual outcomes of a patient with retinopathy of prematurity characterized by a prominent retinal fold adherent to the posterior lens capsule, treated by lens-sparing vitrectomy with surgical transection of the retrolental membrane. A premature infant was born at a gestational age of 25 weeks and birthweight of 636 g. She developed threshold retinopathy of prematurity bilaterally and was subsequently treated with laser ablative therapy. The left eye responded favorably, with regression of neovascularization; however, the right eye progressed to Stage 4A with a prominent retinal fold adherent to the posterior lens capsule. The patient underwent lens-sparing vitrectomy with dissection of the retrolental membrane at postmenstrual age of 44 weeks. At 15-year follow-up, the patient has maintained a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/60 and, of note, demonstrated complete resolution of the previous retinal fold. Surgical treatment for retinopathy of prematurity was considerably advanced by the introduction of lens-sparing vitrectomy techniques; however, cases developing retrolental membranes often persisted with poor visual outcomes, and lensectomy is conventionally performed. However, in select cases of Stage 4A retinopathy of prematurity, careful transection of retrolental membranes during lens-sparing vitrectomy using the appropriate technique may provide very good anatomical and visual outcomes.

  16. Determination of absorbed dose to the lens of eye from external sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lishu

    1993-01-01

    The methods of determining absorbed dose distributions in human eyeball by means of the experiments and available theories have been reported. A water phantom was built up. The distributions of beta dose were measured by an extrapolation ionization chamber at some depths corresponding to components of human eyeball such as cornea, sclera, anterior chamber and the lens of eye. The ratios among superficial absorbed dose (at 0.07 mm) and average absorbed doses at the depths 1,2,3 mm are obtained. They can be used for confining the deterministic effects of superficial tissues and organs such as the lens of eye for weakly penetrating radiations

  17. A medieval fallacy: the crystalline lens in the center of the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leffler CT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Christopher T Leffler,1 Tamer M Hadi,2 Akrithi Udupa,1 Stephen G Schwartz,3 Daniel Schwartz1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, 2Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, TN, 3Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Objective: To determine whether, as most modern historians have written, ancient Greco-Roman authors believed the crystalline lens is positioned in the center of the eye. Background: Historians have written that statements about cataract couching by Celsus, or perhaps Galen of Pergamon, suggested a centrally located lens. Celsus specifically wrote that a couching needle placed intermediate between the corneal limbus and the lateral canthus enters an empty space, presumed to represent the posterior chamber. Methods: Ancient ophthalmic literature was analyzed to understand where these authors believed the crystalline lens was positioned. In order to estimate where Celsus proposed entering the eye during couching, we prospectively measured the distance from the temporal corneal limbus to the lateral canthus in 30 healthy adults. Results: Rufus of Ephesus and Galen wrote that the lens is anterior enough to contact the iris. Galen wrote that the lens equator joins other ocular structures at the corneoscleral junction. In 30 subjects, half the distance from the temporal corneal limbus to the lateral canthus was a mean of 4.5 mm (range: 3.3–5.3 mm. Descriptions of couching by Celsus and others are consistent with pars plana entry of the couching needle. Anterior angulation of the needle would permit contact of the needle with the lens. Conclusion: Ancient descriptions of anatomy and couching do not establish the microanatomic relationships of the ciliary region with any modern degree of accuracy. Nonetheless, ancient authors, such as Galen and Rufus, clearly understood that the lens is located anteriorly

  18. Radiation research of materials using irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamrad, B.

    1976-01-01

    The methods are briefly characterized of radiation experiments on the WWR-S research reactor. The irradiation capsule installed in the reactor including the electronic instrumentation is described. Irradiated samples temperature is stabilized by an auxiliary heat source placed in the irradiation space. The electronic control equipment of the system is automated. In irradiation experiments, experimental and operating conditions are recorded by a digital measuring centre with electric typewriter and paper tape data recording and by an analog compensating recorder. The irradiation experiment control system controls irradiated sample temperature, the supply current size and the heating element temperature of the auxiliary stabilizing source, inert and technological pressures of the capsule atmosphere and the thermostat temperature of the thermocouple junctions. (O.K.)

  19. Bioengineered anterior cruciate ligament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ivan (Inventor); Altman, Gregory (Inventor); Kaplan, David (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament ex vivo. The method comprises seeding pluripotent stem cells in a three dimensional matrix, anchoring the seeded matrix by attachment to two anchors, and culturing the cells within the matrix under conditions appropriate for cell growth and regeneration, while subjecting the matrix to one or more mechanical forces via movement of one or both of the attached anchors. Bone marrow stromal cells are preferably used as the pluripotent cells in the method. Suitable matrix materials are materials to which cells can adhere, such as a gel made from collagen type I. Suitable anchor materials are materials to which the matrix can attach, such as Goinopra coral and also demineralized bone. Optimally, the mechanical forces to which the matrix is subjected mimic mechanical stimuli experienced by an anterior cruciate ligament in vivo. This is accomplished by delivering the appropriate combination of tension, compression, torsion, and shear, to the matrix. The bioengineered ligament which is produced by this method is characterized by a cellular orientation and/or matrix crimp pattern in the direction of the applied mechanical forces, and also by the production of collagen type I, collagen type III, and fibronectin proteins along the axis of mechanical load produced by the mechanical forces. Optimally, the ligament produced has fiber bundles which are arranged into a helical organization. The method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament can be adapted to produce a wide range of tissue types ex vivo by adapting the anchor size and attachment sites to reflect the size of the specific type of tissue to be produced, and also adapting the specific combination of forces applied, to mimic the mechanical stimuli experienced in vivo by the specific type of tissue to be produced. The methods of the present invention can be further modified to incorporate other stimuli experienced in vivo by the

  20. [Anterior guidance in complete dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, J; Trevelo, A

    1990-01-01

    Although the anterior guidance in complete dentures is not really a guide, the arrangement of the anterior maxillary and mandibular prosthetic teeth, defines a propulsive line called the virtual anterior guidance, a part from the cinematic criterias. The influence of this guide on cuspal movement is superior, in all mandibular points, to the influence of the condylar pathway. If this line is not respected, the practitioner may have to do excessive grindings during occlusal adjustments.

  1. Automatic blood detection in capsule endoscopy video

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novozámský, Adam; Flusser, Jan; Tachecí, I.; Sulík, L.; Bureš, J.; Krejcar, O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 12 (2016), s. 1-8, č. článku 126007. ISSN 1083-3668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Automatic blood detection * capsule endoscopy video Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 2.530, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/flusser-0466936.pdf

  2. Small bowel endoluminal imaging (capsule and enteroscopy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murino, Alberto; Despott, Edward J

    2017-04-01

    Over the last 16 years, the disruptive technologies of small bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy have revolutionised endoluminal imaging and minimally invasive therapy of the small bowel. Further technological developments continue to expand their indications and use. This brief review highlights the state-of-the-art in this arena and aims to summarise the current and potential future role of these technologies in clinical practice.

  3. Multiple methods of surgical treatment combined with primary IOL implantation on traumatic lens subluxation/dislocation in patients with secondary glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Bi, Chun-Chao; Lei, Chun-Ling; Sun, Wen-Tao; Wang, Shan-Shan; Dong, Xiao-Juan

    2014-01-01

    To describe clinical findings and complications from cases of traumatic lens subluxation/dislocation in patients with secondary glaucoma, and discuss the multiple treating methods of operation combined with primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Non-comparative retrospective observational case series. 30 cases (30 eyes) of lens subluxation/dislocation in patients with secondary glaucoma were investigated which accepted the surgical treatment by author in the Ophthalmology of Xi'an No.4 Hospital from 2007 to 2011. According to the different situations of lens subluxation/dislocation, various surgical procedures were performed such as crystalline lens phacoemulsification, crystalline lens phacoemulsification combined anterior vitrectomy, intracapsular cataract extraction combined anterior vitrectomy, lensectomy combined anterior vitrectomy though peripheral transparent cornea incision, pars plana lensectomy combined pars plana vitrectomy, and intravitreal cavity crystalline lens phacofragmentation combined pars plana vitrectomy. And whether to implement trabeculectomy depended on the different situations of secondary glaucoma. The posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC-IOLs) were implanted in the capsular-bag or trassclerally sutured in the sulus decided by whether the capsular were present. visual acuity, intraocular pressure, the situation of intraocular lens and complications after the operations. The follow-up time was 11-36mo (21.4±7.13). Postoperative visual acuity of all eyes were improved; 28 cases maintained IOP below 21 mm Hg; 2 cases had slightly IOL subluxation, 4 cases had slightly tilted lens optical area; 1 case had postoperative choroidal detachment; 4 cases had postoperative corneal edema more than 1wk, but eventually recovered transparent; 2 cases had mild postoperative vitreous hemorrhage, and absorbed 4wk later. There was no postoperative retinal detachment, IOL dislocation, and endophthalmitis. To take early treatment of traumatic lens

  4. Antioxidant status of dog aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros P.S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the antioxidant status of the aqueous humor after extracapsular lens extraction in 14 mongrel dogs weighing about 10 kg. The animals were examined by slit lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry and indirect ophthalmoscopy. One eye was submitted to conventional extracapsular lens extraction and the other was used as control. Samples of aqueous humor were obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis before and at days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 15 after surgery. Total antioxidant status was determined as the capacity of aqueous humor to inhibit free radical generation by 2,2-azobis(2-amidopropane chlorine. Ascorbic acid concentration was measured by HPLC with UV detection. Protein content was determined with the biuret reagent. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. Protein concentration increased from 0.61 to 22 mg/ml 24 h after surgery. These levels were maintained and returned to normal at day 7. Total antioxidant capacity was reduced from 50 to about 30 min until day 3 and at day 7 it was equal to control. Ascorbic acid levels were reduced from 252 to about 110 µM and then returned to control values at day 15. Considering the importance of ascorbic acid concentration in aqueous humor for the maintenance of the antioxidant status of the anterior segment of the eye, the decrease of antioxidant defenses suggests that the surgical procedures promote an oxidative stress condition in the eye.

  5. Collapse of experimental capsules under external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, F.A.; Shippell, R.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Stress analyses and developmental tests of capsules fabricated from thick-walled tubing were performed for an external pressure design condition. In the design procedure no credit was taken for the expected margin in pressure between yielding of the capsule wall and catastrophic collapse or flattening. In tests of AISI-1018 low carbon steel capsules, a significant margin was seen between yield and collapse pressure. However, the experimental yield pressures were significantly below predictions, essentially eliminating the safety margin present in the conservative design approach. The differences between predictions and test results are attributed to deficiencies in the plasticity theories commonly in use for engineering stress analyses. The results of this study show that the von Mises yield condition does not accurately describe the yield behavior of the AISI-1018 steel tubing material for the triaxial stress conditions of interest. Finite element stress analyses successfully predicted the transition between uniform inward plastic deformation and ovalization that leads to catastrophic collapse. After adjustments to correct for the unexpected yield behavior of the tube material, the predicted pressure-deflection trends were found to follow the experimental data

  6. Hot cell examination on the surveillance capsule and HANARO capsule in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Oh, Wan Ho; Yoo, Byung Ok; Jung, Yang Hong; Ahn, Sang Bok; Baik, Seung Je; Song, Wung Sup; Hong, Kwon Pyo

    2000-01-01

    For the maintenance of integrity and safety of pressurizer of commercial power plant until its life span, it is required by US NRC 10CFR50 APP. G and H and ASTM E185-94 to periodically monitor irradiation embrittlement by neutron irradiation. In order to accomplished the requirement reactor operator has been carrying out the test by extracting the monitoring capsule embeded in reactor during the period of planned preventive maintenance. In relation to this irradiation samples are being used for prediction of reactor vessel life span and reactor vessel's adjusted reference temperature by irradiation of neutron flux enough to reach to end of life span. And also irradiation capsules with and without instrumentation are used for R and D on nuclear materials. Each capsule contains high radioactivity, therefore, post irradiation examination has to be handled by all means in the hot cell. The facility available for this purpose is Irradiated material examination facility (IMEF) to handle such works as capsule receiving, capsule cut and dismantling, sample classification, various examination, and finally development and improvement of examination equipment and instrumentation. (Hong, J. S.)

  7. A case report of intraocular lens luxation with the capsular bag after vitrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kenji; Bando, Masayasu; Suzuki, Takahiro; Hayakawa, Kenji

    2004-04-01

    We experienced a case of intraocular lens (IOL) luxation with the capsular bag after vitrectomy. The case was a 66-year-old female in whom an IOL was implanted one year after surgery for giant tear retinal detachment using silicone oil. Four years after the implantation surgery, the patient suffered subluxation of the IOL with the capsular bag. Examinations of the luxated IOL with the capsular bag using a stereoscopic microscope confirmed the presence of silicone oil droplets between the capsule and the IOL. Adhesion of vitreous body residues was observed in the capsule. Luxation of the IOL was thought to be connected with chronic inflammation resulting from the use of silicone oil and repeated vitrectomy. In addition to examining pathological findings of luxated IOL, it would also be important in the future to identify the pathology of the capsular bag.

  8. Refraction and eye anterior segment parameters in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongabay Cumurcu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the difference in terms of refractive errors and anterior segment parameters between schizophrenic patients and healthy volunteers. Methods: This study compared 70 patients (48 men who were diagnosed with schizophrenia with a control group of 60 (35 men who were similar in terms of age, gender, education, and socioeconomic level. Anterior segment examination was performed using a Scheimflug system. Axial length and lens thickness (LT were measured using optic biometry. The following tests were administered to the psychiatric patient group: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS. Results: Mild myopia was detected in both the schizophrenic and control groups, with no statistically significant difference (p>0.005. Corneal volume (CV, anterior chamber volume (ACV, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and central corneal thickness (CCT values were lower in the schizophrenic group, and there was a statistically significant between-group difference (p=0.026, p=0.014, p=0.048, and p=0.005, respectively. LT was greater in schizophrenics, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p=0.006. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between SAPS and cylinder values (p=0.008. The axial eye length, cylinder value, pupil diameter, mean keratometric value, and anterior chamber angle revealed no statistically significant difference between the groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was detected in terms of refraction disorders between schizophrenics and the healthy control group, while some differences in anterior chamber parameters were present. These results demonstrate that schizophrenics may exhibit clinical and structural differences in the eye.

  9. Semiautomated analysis of optical coherence tomography crystalline lens images under simulated accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eon; Ehrmann, Klaus; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Borja, David; Arrieta-Quintero, Esdras; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2011-05-01

    Presbyopia is an age related, gradual loss of accommodation, mainly due to changes in the crystalline lens. As part of research efforts to understand and cure this condition, ex vivo, cross-sectional optical coherence tomography images of crystalline lenses were obtained by using the Ex-Vivo Accommodation Simulator (EVAS II) instrument and analyzed to extract their physical and optical properties. Various filters and edge detection methods were applied to isolate the edge contour. An ellipse is fitted to the lens outline to obtain central reference point for transforming the pixel data into the analysis coordinate system. This allows for the fitting of a high order equation to obtain a mathematical description of the edge contour, which obeys constraints of continuity as well as zero to infinite surface slopes from apex to equator. Geometrical parameters of the lens were determined for the lens images captured at different accommodative states. Various curve fitting functions were developed to mathematically describe the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lens. Their differences were evaluated and their suitability for extracting optical performance of the lens was assessed. The robustness of these algorithms was tested by analyzing the same images repeated times.

  10. Growth and optical development of the ocular lens of the squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, J G; West, J A; Campbell, M C

    1994-09-01

    Lens focal properties (spherical aberration), diameter and relative anterior/posterior proportions were measured photographically for Japanese squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana) at ages 4-6 weeks, 7-9 weeks and 7-8 months. The measures involved photographing the refractive effects of lenses in a physiological solution, with and without an index matching fluid (polyvinylpyrroloidone solution), on a parallel array of fine helium-neon laser beams. Spherical aberration was determined from measurement of back vertex distance. Similar measurements were made on lenses from the eyes of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis). The cephalopod lens develops as hemispheric halves from separate ectodermal sources. The posterior component contributes, on average, about 60% of axial lens diameter in S. lessoniana of all ages and 55% in S. officinalis. However, these proportions vary widely in both species. All lenses of both species show that spherical aberration is neutralized, although small variations in back vertex distance (positive and negative spherical aberration) were measured. Preliminary measures indicate that the refractive index distribution within the cephalopod lens varies in a manner reminiscent of teleost lenses. Squid lenses from animals 7-9 weeks of age were optimally corrected for spherical aberration. Some squid of this age, from a separate tank, showed a high incidence of cataract development. In each case, lens opacification was caused by deterioration of the posterior lens component.

  11. anomalous left anterior cerebral artery with hypoplastic right anterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... We report an extremely rare anomalous variation of left anterior cerebral artery arising from the ... paraclinoid internal carotid artery and right ... Studies on the arteries of the brain: II-The anterior cerebral artery: Some anatomic ...

  12. Effects of food on a gastrically degraded drug: azithromycin fast-dissolving gelatin capsules and HPMC capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatolo, William; Liu, Ping; Johnson, Barbara A; Hausberger, Angela; Quan, Ernest; Vendola, Thomas; Vatsaraj, Neha; Foulds, George; Vincent, John; Chandra, Richa

    2011-07-01

    Commercial azithromycin gelatin capsules (Zithromax®) are known to be bioequivalent to commercial azithromycin tablets (Zithromax®) when dosed in the fasted state. These capsules exhibit a reduced bioavailability when dosed in the fed state, while tablets do not. This gelatin capsule negative food effect was previously proposed to be due to slow and/or delayed capsule disintegration in the fed stomach, resulting in extended exposure of the drug to gastric acid, leading to degradation to des-cladinose-azithromycin (DCA). Azithromycin gelatin capsules were formulated with "superdisintegrants" to provide fast-dissolving capsules, and HPMC capsule shells were substituted for gelatin capsule shells, in an effort to eliminate the food effect. Healthy volunteers were dosed with these dosage forms under fasted and fed conditions; pharmacokinetics were evaluated. DCA pharmacokinetics were also evaluated for the HPMC capsule subjects. In vitro disintegration of azithromycin HPMC capsules in media containing food was evaluated and compared with commercial tablets and commercial gelatin capsules. When the two fast-dissolving capsule formulations were dosed to fed subjects, the azithromycin AUC was 38.9% and 52.1% lower than after fasted-state dosing. When HPMC capsules were dosed to fed subjects, the azithromycin AUC was 65.5% lower than after fasted-state dosing. For HPMC capsules, the absolute fasting-state to fed-state decrease in azithromycin AUC (on a molar basis) was similar to the increase in DCA AUC. In vitro capsule disintegration studies revealed extended disintegration times for commercial azithromycin gelatin capsules and HPMC capsules in media containing the liquid foods milk and Ensure®. Interaction of azithromycin gelatin and HPMC capsules with food results in slowed disintegration in vitro and decreased bioavailability in vivo. Concurrent measurement of serum azithromycin and the acid-degradation product DCA demonstrates that the loss of azithromycin

  13. Tinting of intraocular lens implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigman, S.

    1982-06-01

    Intraocular lens (IOL) implants of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) lack an important yellow pigment useful as a filter in the visual process and in the protection of the retina from short-wavelength radiant energy. The ability to produce a yellow pigment in the PMMA used in IOL implants by exposure to near-ultraviolet (UV) light was tested. It was found that the highly cross-linked material in Copeland lens blanks was tinted slightly because of this exposure. The absorptive properties of lens blanks treated with near-UV light in this way approached that of the absorptive properties of human lenses. This finding shows that it is possible to alter IOL implants simply so as to induce a pale-yellow pigment in them to improve the visual process and to protect the retinas of IOL users.

  14. Tinting of intraocular lens implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Intraocular lens (IOL) implants of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) lack an important yellow pigment useful as a filter in the visual process and in the protection of the retina from short-wavelength radiant energy. The ability to produce a yellow pigment in the PMMA used in IOL implants by exposure to near-ultraviolet (UV) light was tested. It was found that the highly cross-linked material in Copeland lens blanks was tinted slightly because of this exposure. The absorptive properties of lens blanks treated with near-UV light in this way approached that of the absorptive properties of human lenses. This finding shows that it is possible to alter IOL implants simply so as to induce a pale-yellow pigment in them to improve the visual process and to protect the retinas of IOL users

  15. Automated Fresnel lens tester system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phipps, G.S.

    1981-07-01

    An automated data collection system controlled by a desktop computer has been developed for testing Fresnel concentrators (lenses) intended for solar energy applications. The system maps the two-dimensional irradiance pattern (image) formed in a plane parallel to the lens, whereas the lens and detector assembly track the sun. A point detector silicon diode (0.5-mm-dia active area) measures the irradiance at each point of an operator-defined rectilinear grid of data positions. Comparison with a second detector measuring solar insolation levels results in solar concentration ratios over the image plane. Summation of image plane energies allows calculation of lens efficiencies for various solar cell sizes. Various graphical plots of concentration ratio data help to visualize energy distribution patterns.

  16. Subluxation of the crystalline lens: a no-ring approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos L; Trivedi, Rupal H; Wilson, M Edward

    2012-01-01

    To report the surgical technique and outcomes of a no-ring approach to posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in children and young adults with subluxation of the crystalline lens. A three-piece 5.5-mm hydrophobic acrylic IOL was implanted in which the optic and one haptic were inside the capsular bag and the other haptic was in the ciliary sulcus. The implantations were done in 13 eyes of 10 patients with lens subluxation. One haptic was fixated in the ciliary sulcus by passing it through an operculum-shaped opening in the capsular bag edge, made between 2 and 3 clock hours, clockwise from the middle point of the subluxated area. The mean age of the 10 patients was 12.61 ± 8.04 years and the mean follow-up was 21.38 ± 11.29 months. The mean preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 1.15 ± 0.58 and 0.37 ± 0.17 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, respectively, in 11 measured eyes. The postoperative BCVA was 20/40 or better in 4 eyes (36.36%), between 20/40 and 20/60 in 6 eyes (54.54%), and between 20/80 and 20/100 in 1 eye (9.09%). The BCVA improved in all eyes. Postoperative IOL decentration between 1.0 and 1.5 mm occurred in 3 of 13 eyes (23.08%). The results indicate that the no-ring technique allows centration of an IOL implanted into a subluxated capsular bag without using capsule tension rings. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Thermal characteristic test for saturated temperature type capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Motoji; Someya, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Ohuchi, Mitsuo; Harayama, Yasuo

    1989-08-01

    The Japan Material Testing Reactor Project is developing a new type capsule so-called 'Saturated Temperature Capsule', as a part of irradiation technique improvement program. This type capsule, in which the water is supplied and boiled, bases on the conception of keeping the coolant at the saturated temperature and facilitating the temperature setting of specimens heated by gamma-ray in reactor. However, out-pile test was planned, because there were few usable data for design and operation of the capsule into which the coolant was injected. A out-pile apparatus, simulated the capsule with electric heaters, was fabricated and experiments were carried out, to obtain data concerning design and operation for the capsule into which the water was injected. As a structure of simulated capsule, a type of downward coolant supply was adopted. The downward coolant tube type injectes the water in the bottom of capsule by tube through the upper flange. Major objects of experiences were to grasp thermal features under operation and to provide performances of capsule control equipment. Experimental results proved that the temperature of water within the capsule was easily varied by controlling supply water flow rate, and that the control equipment was operated stably and safety. (author)

  18. Carbachol as miotic agent in intra-ocular lens implant surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Jitendra

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The intra cameral use of 0.025% carbachol as a miotic agent in anterior chamber intraocular lens im-plant surgery us reported in 15 cases. Carbachol produced prompt and effective moisis and was found to be harmless and non-irritating to the anterior chamber structures. A rebound dialatation of the pipit was noticed in the post operative period in 3 of our first 5 cases where only carbachol was used. For prolonged miosis instillation of a more powerful miotic like pilocarpine is recommended at the completion of surgery:

  19. Intraocular Lens Dislocation after Cataract Surgery in Tambolaka, Southwest Sumba, Indonesia: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ratna Sitompul

    2018-01-01

    Intraocular lens (IOL) dislocation is a rare complication of cataract extraction requiring prompt surgery. This case report aims to raise awareness of such cases and the importance of post-surgery follow-up. A 58-year-old female patient was found with anterior IOL dislocation a week after phacoemulsification surgery in her right eye. Visual acuity of the right eye was 1/60 with ciliary injection and IOL dislocation to the anterior chamber of the right eye. The patient underwent surgery of the...

  20. Lens system for SIMS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, G.; Sancho, M.; Garcia-Galan, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A powerful version of the charge-density method is applied to the study of a combined objective and emission lens, suitable for highly localized analysis of a flat sample surface. This lens can extract secondary ions of equal or opposite polarity to that of the primary particles. A computer simulation of the ion trajectories for both modes is made. The behaviour for different values of the geometric parameters and polarizations is analyzed and useful data for design such as primary beam demagnification and secondary image position are given. (author) 4 refs

  1. Motion of an elastic capsule in a square microfluidic channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, S; Dimitrakopoulos, P

    2011-07-01

    In the present study we investigate computationally the steady-state motion of an elastic capsule along the centerline of a square microfluidic channel and compare it with that in a cylindrical tube. In particular, we consider a slightly over-inflated elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane with comparable shearing and area-dilatation resistance. Under the conditions studied in this paper (i.e., small, moderate, and large capsules at low and moderate flow rates), the capsule motion in a square channel is similar to and thus governed by the same scaling laws with the capsule motion in a cylindrical tube, even though in the channel the cross section in the upstream portion of large capsules is nonaxisymmetric (i.e., square-like with rounded corners). When the hydrodynamic forces on the membrane increase, the capsule develops a pointed downstream edge and a flattened rear (possibly with a negative curvature) so that the restoring tension forces are increased as also happens with droplets. Membrane tensions increase significantly with the capsule size while the area near the downstream tip is the most probable to rupture when a capsule flows in a microchannel. Because the membrane tensions increase with the interfacial deformation, a suitable Landau-Levich-Derjaguin-Bretherton analysis reveals that the lubrication film thickness h for large capsules depends on both the capillary number Ca and the capsule size a; our computations determine the latter dependence to be (in dimensionless form) h ~ a(-2) for the large capsules studied in this work. For small and moderate capsule sizes a, the capsule velocity Ux and additional pressure drop ΔP+ are governed by the same scaling laws as for high-viscosity droplets. The velocity and additional pressure drop of large thick capsules also follow the dynamics of high-viscosity droplets, and are affected by the lubrication film thickness. The motion of our large thick capsules is characterized by a Ux-U ~ h ~ a(-2

  2. Three-Dimensional Cataract Crystalline Lens Imaging With Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alberto; Benito, Antonio; Manzanera, Silvestre; Mompeán, Juan; Cañizares, Belén; Martínez, David; Marín, Jose María; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Artal, Pablo

    2018-02-01

    To image, describe, and characterize different features visible in the crystalline lens of older adults with and without cataract when imaged three-dimensionally with a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. We used a new SS-OCT laboratory prototype designed to enhance the visualization of the crystalline lens and imaged the entire anterior segment of both eyes in two groups of participants: patients scheduled to undergo cataract surgery, n = 17, age range 36 to 91 years old, and volunteers without visual complains, n = 14, age range 20 to 81 years old. Pre-cataract surgery patients were also clinically graded according to the Lens Opacification Classification System III. The three-dimensional location and shape of the visible opacities were compared with the clinical grading. Hypo- and hyperreflective features were visible in the lens of all pre-cataract surgery patients and in some of the older adults in the volunteer group. When the clinical examination revealed cortical or subcapsular cataracts, hyperreflective features were visible either in the cortex parallel to the surfaces of the lens or in the posterior pole. Other type of opacities that appeared as hyporeflective localized features were identified in the cortex of the lens. The OCT signal in the nucleus of the crystalline lens correlated with the nuclear cataract clinical grade. A dedicated OCT is a useful tool to study in vivo the subtle opacities in the cataractous crystalline lens, revealing its position and size three-dimensionally. The use of these images allows obtaining more detailed information on the age-related changes leading to cataract.

  3. Evaluation of Artisan aphakic intraocular lens in cases of pediatric aphakia with insufficient capsular support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawdat, Ghada I; Taher, Sameh G; Salama, Marwa M; Ali, Adel A

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the visual outcomes and complications after Artisan iris-claw lens implantation in aphakic children with insufficient capsular support. In this prospective, interventional noncontrolled study, aphakic eyes of consecutive patients >2 years of age with insufficient capsular support who underwent Artisan intraocular lens (IOL) implantation between June 2011 and December 2012 were followed for 1 year. Patients with anterior chamber depth IOL were included, 18 eyes with subluxated lens and 7 following trauma. The mean preoperative logMAR best-corrected visual acuity for traumatic aphakic patients was 0.95 ± 0.36; for patients with subluxation, 0.7 ± 0.26. Values improved at 1 year to 0.38 ± 0.15 (P IOL implantation for pediatric aphakia achieved a good visual outcome. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pigment dispersion syndrome associated with intraocular lens implantation: a new surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut Jordana, M Isabel; Pérez Formigó, Daniel; Abreu González, Rodrigo; Nadal Reus, Jeroni

    2010-11-11

    We report the case of a myopic patient who, after intraocular lens transplant in the posterior chamber, suffered elevated intraocular pressure due to pigment dispersion, with recurrent episodes of blurred vision. The patient was treated with a new surgical technique that can avoid potential iridolenticular contact. Complete ophthalmologic examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the anterior segment were performed. Contact between the pigmentary epithelium and the iris with an intraocular lens was revealed by utrasound biomicroscopy and OCT. In this case, Nd:YAG laser iridotomy and laser iridoplasty were not effective for iridolenticular separation and control of the pigment dispersion. We propose a new technique: stitches on the surface of the iris to obtain good iridolenticular separation and good intraocular pressure control. Stitches on the iris surface should be considered as optional therapy in pigmentary glaucoma secondary to intraocular lens implantation. This surgical technique can avoid potential iridolenticular contacts more definitively.

  5. Refractive lens exchange with a multifocal diffractive aspheric intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Ferrer-Blasco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety, efficacy and predictability after refractive lens exchange with multifocal diffractive aspheric intraocular lens implantation. METHODS: Sixty eyes of 30 patients underwent bilateral implantation with AcrySof® ReSTOR® SN6AD3 intraocular lens with +4.00 D near addition. Patients were divided into myopic and hyperopic groups. Monocular best corrected visual acuity at distance and near and monocular uncorrected visual acuity at distance and near were measured before and 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS: After surgery, uncorrected visual acuity was 0.08 ± 0.15 and 0.11 ± 0.14 logMAR for the myopic and hyperopic groups, respectively (50% and 46.67% of patients had an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better in the myopic and hyperopic groups, respectively. The safety and efficacy indexes were 1.05 and 0.88 for the myopic and 1.01 and 0.86 for the hyperopic groups at distance vision. Within the myopic group, 20 eyes remained unchanged after the surgery, and 3 gained >2 lines of best corrected visual acuity. For the hyperopic group, 2 eyes lost 2 lines of best corrected visual acuity, 21 did not change, and 3 eyes gained 2 lines. At near vision, the safety and efficacy indexes were 1.23 and 1.17 for the myopic and 1.16 and 1.13 for the hyperopic groups. Best corrected near visual acuity improved after surgery in both groups (from 0.10 logMAR to 0.01 logMAR in the myopic group, and from 0.10 logMAR to 0.04 logMAR in the hyperopic group. CONCLUSIONS: The ReSTOR® SN6AD3 intraocular lens in refractive lens exchange demonstrated good safety, efficacy, and predictability in correcting high ametropia and presbyopia.

  6. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B. G.; Joo, K. N. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The development program of advanced nuclear structural and fuel materials includes the in-pile tests using the instrumented capsule at HANARO. The tests were performed in the in-core test holes of CT, IR 1 and 2 and OR 4 and 5 of HANARO. Extensive efforts have also been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO's characteristics. Since the first instrumented capsule(97M-01K) had been designed and successfully fabricated, five tests were done to support the users and provided the economic benefits to user by generating the essential in-pile information on the performance and structural integrity of materials. This paper describes the present status and future plans of these R and D activities for the development of the instrumented capsule including in-situ material property measurement capsules and nuclear fuel test capsules.

  7. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B. G.; Joo, K. N.

    2000-05-01

    The development program of advanced nuclear structural and fuel materials includes the in-pile tests using the instrumented capsule at HANARO. The tests were performed in the in-core test holes of CT, IR 1 and 2 and OR 4 and 5 of HANARO. Extensive efforts have also been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO's characteristics. Since the first instrumented capsule(97M-01K) had been designed and successfully fabricated, five tests were done to support the users and provided the economic benefits to user by generating the essential in-pile information on the performance and structural integrity of materials. This paper describes the present status and future plans of these R and D activities for the development of the instrumented capsule including in-situ material property measurement capsules and nuclear fuel test capsules

  8. Polar tent for reduced perturbation of NIF ignition capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammel, B. A.; Pickworth, L.; Stadermann, M.; Field, J.; Robey, H.; Scott, H. A.; Smalyuk, V.

    2016-10-01

    In simulations, a tent that contacts the capsule near the poles and departs tangential to the capsule surface greatly reduces the capsule perturbation, and the resulting mass injected into the hot-spot, compared to current capsule support methods. Target fabrication appears feasible with a layered tent (43-nm polyimide + 8-nm C) for increased stiffness. We are planning quantitative measurements of the resulting shell- ρR perturbation near peak implosion velocity (PV) using enhanced self-emission backlighting, achieved by adding 1% Ar to the capsule fill in Symcaps (4He + H). Layered DT implosions are also planned for an integrated test of capsule performance. We will describe the design and simulation predictions. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Capsule-odometer: a concept to improve accurate lesion localisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karargyris, Alexandros; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2013-09-21

    In order to improve lesion localisation in small-bowel capsule endoscopy, a modified capsule design has been proposed incorporating localisation and - in theory - stabilization capabilities. The proposed design consists of a capsule fitted with protruding wheels attached to a spring-mechanism. This would act as a miniature odometer, leading to more accurate lesion localization information in relation to the onset of the investigation (spring expansion e.g., pyloric opening). Furthermore, this capsule could allow stabilization of the recorded video as any erratic, non-forward movement through the gut is minimised. Three-dimensional (3-D) printing technology was used to build a capsule prototype. Thereafter, miniature wheels were also 3-D printed and mounted on a spring which was attached to conventional capsule endoscopes for the purpose of this proof-of-concept experiment. In vitro and ex vivo experiments with porcine small-bowel are presented herein. Further experiments have been scheduled.

  10. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B G; Joo, K N [and others

    2000-05-01

    The development program of advanced nuclear structural and fuel materials includes the in-pile tests using the instrumented capsule at HANARO. The tests were performed in the in-core test holes of CT, IR 1 and 2 and OR 4 and 5 of HANARO. Extensive efforts have also been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO's characteristics. Since the first instrumented capsule(97M-01K) had been designed and successfully fabricated, five tests were done to support the users and provided the economic benefits to user by generating the essential in-pile information on the performance and structural integrity of materials. This paper describes the present status and future plans of these R and D activities for the development of the instrumented capsule including in-situ material property measurement capsules and nuclear fuel test capsules.

  11. Stretchable Binary Fresnel Lens for Focus Tuning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Wei, L.; Poelma, R.H.; Vollebregt, S.; Wei, J.; Urbach, Paul; Sarro, P.M.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a tuneable binary amplitude Fresnel lens produced by wafer-level microfabrication. The Fresnel lens is fabricated by encapsulating lithographically defined vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles inside a polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) layer. The composite lens material

  12. 21 CFR 886.1400 - Maddox lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maddox lens. 886.1400 Section 886.1400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1400 Maddox lens. (a) Identification. A Maddox lens is a device...

  13. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials such as glass or plastic intended to be implanted to replace the natural lens of an eye. (b) Classification. Class III. (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of a...

  14. Production, deformation and mechanical investigation of magnetic alginate capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwar, Elena; Kemna, Andre; Richter, Lena; Degen, Patrick; Rehage, Heinz

    2018-02-01

    In this article we investigated the deformation of alginate capsules in magnetic fields. The sensitivity to magnetic forces was realised by encapsulating an oil in water emulsion, where the oil droplets contained dispersed magnetic nanoparticles. We solved calcium ions in the aqueous emulsion phase, which act as crosslinking compounds for forming thin layers of alginate membranes. This encapsulating technique allows the production of flexible capsules with an emulsion as the capsule core. It is important to mention that the magnetic nanoparticles were stable and dispersed throughout the complete process, which is an important difference to most magnetic alginate-based materials. In a series of experiments, we used spinning drop techniques, capsule squeezing experiments and interfacial shear rheology in order to determine the surface Young moduli, the surface Poisson ratios and the surface shear moduli of the magnetically sensitive alginate capsules. In additional experiments, we analysed the capsule deformation in magnetic fields. In spinning drop and capsule squeezing experiments, water droplets were pressed out of the capsules at elevated values of the mechanical load. This phenomenon might be used for the mechanically triggered release of water-soluble ingredients. After drying the emulsion-filled capsules, we produced capsules, which only contained a homogeneous oil phase with stable suspended magnetic nanoparticles (organic ferrofluid). In the dried state, the thin alginate membranes of these particles were rather rigid. These dehydrated capsules could be stored at ambient conditions for several months without changing their properties. After exposure to water, the alginate membranes rehydrated and became flexible and deformable again. During this swelling process, water diffused back in the capsule. This long-term stability and rehydration offers a great spectrum of different applications as sensors, soft actuators, artificial muscles or drug delivery systems.

  15. Non-destructive tests of capsules for JMTR irradiation examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hidetaka; Nagao, Yoshiharu; Sato, Masashi; Osawa, Kenji

    2007-03-01

    Irradiation examination are increasing in advanced irradiation research for accurate prediction control and evaluation of irradiation parameter such as neutron fluence, etc. by using JMTR. Irradiation capsule internals are therefore structurally complicated recently. This report described the procedure of non destructive tests such as radiographic test, penetrant test, ultrasonic test, etc. for inspection of irradiation capsules in JMTR, and the result of Test-case of confirmation procedure for internal parts of irradiation capsules. (author)

  16. Capsule Shields the Function of Short Bacterial Adhesins

    OpenAIRE

    Schembri, Mark A.; Dalsgaard, Dorte; Klemm, Per

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial surface structures such as capsules and adhesins are generally regarded as important virulence factors. Here we demonstrate that capsules block the function of the self-recognizing protein antigen 43 through physical shielding. The phenomenon is not restricted to Escherichia coli but can occur in other gram-negative bacteria. Likewise, we show that other short adhesins exemplified by the AIDA-I protein are blocked by the presence of a capsule. The results support the notion that cap...

  17. Introduction to the physics of ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindl, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion is an approach to fusion which relies on the inertia of the fuel mass to provide confinement. To achieve conditions under which this confinement is sufficient for efficient thermonuclear burn, high gain ICF targets designed to be imploded directly by laser light. These capsules are generally a spherical shell which is filled with low density DT gas. The shell is composed of an outer region which forms the ablator and an inner region of frozen or liquid DT which forms the main fuel. Energy from the driver is delivered to the ablator which heats up and expands. As the ablator expands and blows outward, the rest of the shell is forced inward to conserve momentum. In this implosion process, several features are important. We define the in-flight-aspect-ratio (IFAR) as the ratio of the shell radius R as it implodes to its thickness ΔR. Hydrodynamic instabilities during the implosion impose limits on this ratio which results in a minimum pressure requirement of about 100 Mbar. The convergence ratio is defined as the ratio of the initial outer radius of the ablator to the final compressed radius of the hot spot. This hot spot is the central region of the compressed fuel which is required to ignite the main fuel in high gain designs. Typical convergence ratios are 30--40. To maintain a nearly spherical shape during the implosion, when convergence ratios are this large, the flux delivered to the capsule must be uniform to a few percent. The remainder of this paper discusses the conditions necessary to achieve thermonuclear ignition in these ICF capsules

  18. Welding of iridium heat source capsule components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustaleski, T.M.; Yearwood, J.C.; Burgan, C.E.; Green, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Interplanetary spacecraft have long used radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) to produce power for instrumentation. These RTG produce electrical energy from the heat generated through the radioactive decay of plutonium-238. The plutonium is present as a ceramic pellet of plutonium oxide. The pellet is encapsulated in a containment shell of iridium. Iridium is the material of choice for these capsules because of its compatibility with the plutonium dioxide. The high-energy beam welding (electron beam and laser) processes used in the fabrication of the capsules has not been published. These welding procedures were originally developed at the Mound Laboratories and have been adapted for use at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The work involves joining of thin material in small sizes to exacting tolerances. There are four different electron beam welds on each capsule, with one procedure being used in three locations. There is also a laser weld used to seal the edges of a sintered frit assembly. An additional electron beam weld is also performed to seal each of the iridium blanks in a stainless steel waster sheet prior to forming. In the transfer of these welding procedures from one facility to another, a number of modifications were necessary. These modifications are discussed in detail, as well as the inherent problems in making welds in material which is only 0.005 in. thick. In summary, the paper discusses the welding of thin components of iridium using the high energy beam processes. While the peculiarities of iridium are pertinent to the discussion, much of the information is of general interest to the users of these processes. This is especially true of applications involving thin materials and high-precision assemblies

  19. The Ultrawideband Leaky Lens Antenna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruni, S.; Neto, A.; Marliani, F.

    2007-01-01

    A novel directive and nondispersive antenna is presented: the ultrawideband (UWB) leaky lens. It is based on the broad band Cherenkov radiation occurring at a slot printed between different infinite homogeneous dielectrics. The first part of the paper presents the antenna concept and the UWB design.

  20. ECTOPIC LENS EXTRACTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pfeifer

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ectopia lentis continues to be a therapeutic challenge for ophthalmologists. It can occur as an isolated condition, after ocular trauma, in association with other ocular disorders, as part of a systemic mesodermal disease or a complication of general metabolic disorders. Minimal subluxation of the lens may cause no visual symptoms, but in more advanced cases serious optical disturbances arise. The most important is amblyopia. Surgical treatment options include iris manipulation, lens discission, aspiration, intracapsular or extracapsular extraction, and pars plana lensectomy. The choice of surgical technique remains controversial, in part because of the historically poor visual results and high rate of perioperative complications, including vitreous loss and retinal detachment.Methods. We describe a surgical technique based on the use of the Cionni endocapsular tension ring, dry irrigation aspiration of lens material, centration of the capsular bag and foldable intraocular lens implantation into the bag. With mentioned surgical technique 8 patients were operated; 4 boys and 4 girls, together 11 eyes.Results. The final BCVA after follow up period improved in 9 eyes and it remained the same as before operation in one eye. Statistical comparison of preoperative and postoperative visual acuities showed significant improvement. On the other hand there was no correlation between preoperative and postoperative visual acuity.Conclusions. This surgical procedure is an alternative approach in solving this challenging cases of ectopia lentis with good postoperative visual rehabilitation.

  1. Characterization of an aged WESF capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, B.T.; Schultz, F.J.

    1983-07-01

    A joint effort by SNLA and ORNL was initiated for a detailed characterization of an 18-year-old WESF 137 Cs source which has been used in the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids. The study included evaluation of the inner and outer stainless steel capsules by optical metallography, electron microprobe, and physical testing. Analysis of the residual atmospheres within the two containers was also done. The CsCl was analyzed for isotopic content and impurities. No potential problem areas, including corrosion, were found

  2. Postirradiation examination of capsule GF-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, W.J.; Sedlak, B.J.

    1980-10-01

    The GF-4 capsule test was irradiated in the SILOE reactor at Grenoble, France between April 8, 1975 and July 26, 1976. High-enriched uranium (HEU) UC 2 and weak acid resin (WAR) UC/sub x/O/sub y/ fissile and ThO 2 fertile particles were tested. Postirradiation examination of cured-in-place fuel rods showed no fuel rod/graphite element interaction. In addition, all rods exhibited adequate structural integrity. Irradiation-induced dimensional changes for rods containing all TRISO-coated fuel were consistent with model predictions; however, rods containing BISO-coated fuel exhibited greater volumetric contractions than predicted

  3. C5 capsule operation modes analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gh.; Ancuta, Mirela; Stefan, Violeta

    2008-01-01

    This paper is part of the Nuclear Research Institute Program 13 dedicated to 'TRIGA Research Reactor performance enhancing' and its objective is improving the engineering of the structural materials irradiation. The paper raises the knowledge level on C5 capsule irradiation modes and utilizes previous results in order to increase C5 performances. In the paper the irradiation modes to test zirconium yttrium sample are assessed. These tests are proposed by AECL. There are presented the C5 initial conditions and models. Also. there are presented the thermal hydraulic conditions during normal and accidental operation. The results will be used in the C5 safety report. (authors)

  4. Stability analysis of directly driven Nif capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, V.N.; Skupsky, S.; McKenty, P.W.; Delettrez, J.A.; Town, R.P.J. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Cherfils-Clerouin, C. [CEA/DAM-Ile de France, DIF, 91 - Bruyeres Le Chatel (France)

    2000-07-01

    An analytical model is presented to study perturbation evolution at the ablation and inner surfaces of the imploding shell. The model describes the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor and Bell-Plesset instabilities. The initial conditions for the model are determined by using existing theories of laser imprint, ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, 'feed-out' and by performing a series of 2-D ORCHID simulations. The model and simulations show that the direct-drive cryogenic {alpha} = 3 NIF capsules remain intact during the implosion if laser nonuniformities are smoothed by 2-D SSD used in the current direct-drive target designs. (authors)

  5. Design procedure of capsule with multistage heater control (named MUSTAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someya, Hiroyuki; Endoh, Yasuichi; Hoshiya, Taiji; Niimi, Motoji; Harayama, Yasuo

    1990-11-01

    A capsule with electric heaters at multistage (named MUSTAC) is a type of capsule used in JMTR. The heaters are assembled in the capsule. Supply electric current to the heaters can be independently adjusted with a control systems that keeps irradiation specimens to constant temperature. The capsule being used, the irradiation specimen are inserted into specimen holders. Gas-gap size, between outer surface of specimen holders and inner surface of capsule casing, is calculated and determined to be flatten temperature of loaded specimens over the region. The rise or drop of specimen temperature in accordance with reactor power fluctuations is corrected within the target temperature of specimen by using the heaters filled into groove at specimen holder surface. The present report attempts to propose a reasonable design procedure of the capsules by means of compiling experience for designs, works and irradiation data of the capsules and to prepare for useful informations against onward capsule design. The key point of the capsule lies on thermal design. Now design thermal calculations are complicated in case of specimen holder with multihole. Resolving these issues, it is considered from new on that an emphasis have to placed on settling a thermal calculation device, for an example, a computer program on calculation specimen temperature. (author)

  6. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) singly encapsulated cesium chloride capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Three nonstandard Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) cesium chloride capsules are being shipped from WESF (225B building) to the 324 building. They would normally be shipped in the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) cask under its US Department of Energy (DOE) license (DOE 1996), but these capsules are nonstandard: one has a damaged or defective weld in the outer layer of encapsulation, and two have the outer encapsulation removed. The 3 capsules, along with 13 other capsules, will be overpacked in the 324 building to meet the requirements for storage in WESF's pool

  7. Method of forming capsules containing a precise amount of material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1986-06-24

    A method of forming a sealed capsule containing a submilligram quantity of mercury or the like, the capsule being constructed from a hollow glass tube, by placing a globule or droplet of the mercury in the tube. The tube is then evacuated and sealed and is subsequently heated so as to vaporize the mercury and fill the tube therewith. The tube is then separated into separate sealed capsules by heating spaced locations along the tube with a coiled heating wire means to cause collapse spaced locations there along and thus enable separation of the tube into said capsules. 7 figs.

  8. Increasing Z-pinch vacuum hohlraum capsule coupling efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, Debbie; Vesey, Roger Alan; Cochrane, Kyle Robert; Nikroo, A.; Bennett, Guy R.; Schroen, Diana Grace; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Porter, John L.; Streit, Jon; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Cuneo, Michael Edward

    2004-01-01

    Symmetric capsule implosions in the double-ended vacuum hohlraum (DEH) on Z have demonstrated convergence ratios of 14-21 for 2.15-mm plastic ablator capsules absorbing 5-7 kJ of x-rays, based on backlit images of the compressed ablator remaining at peak convergence (1). Experiments with DD-filled 3.3-mm diameter capsules designed to absorb 14 kJ of x-rays have begun as an integrated test of drive temperature and symmetry, complementary to thin-shell symmetry diagnostic capsules. These capsule implosions are characterized by excellent control of symmetry (< 3% time-integrated), but low hohlraum efficiency (< 2%). Possible methods to increase the capsule absorbed energy in the DEH include mixed-component hohlraums, large diameter foam ablator capsules, transmissive shine shields between the z-pinch and capsule, higher spoke electrode x-ray transmission, a double-sided power feed, and smaller initial radius z-pinch wire arrays. Simulations will explore the potential for each of these modifications to increase the capsule coupling efficiency for near-term experiments on Z and ZR

  9. 21 CFR 520.1920 - Prochlorperazine, isopropamide sustained release capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... dogs in which gastrointestinal disturbances are associated with emotional stress. (2)(i) Capsules...

  10. Diagnostic and therapeutic capsules and method of producing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, N.A.; Haney, T.A.; Wedeking, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    An article of manufacture comprising a pharmaceutical radioactive capsule formed essentially of a non-toxic, water soluble material adapted to being ingested and rapidly disintegrating on contract with fluids of the gastro-intestinal tract, and having a filler material supporting a pharmaceutically useful radioactive compound absorbable from the gastro-intestinal tract said filler material being supported by said capsule. And a method of filling a pharmaceutical radioactive capsule comprising providing filler material supporting a pharmaceutically useful radioactive compound and transporting said filler material carrying a pharmaceutically useful radioactive compound into the chamber of said capsule

  11. Ocular Toxicity after High-Dose Cefuroxime Injection into the Anterior Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Çakmak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cephalosporins are beta-lactam antibiotics and, like penicillin derivatives, they show bacteriostatic effect by disrupting bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cefuroxime is a second generation cephalosporin and the use of intracameral cefuroxime after cataract surgery has been widely used in the endophthalmitis prophylaxis. A 78-year-old male patient was operated for cataracts in both eyes about 8 years ago. Ocular trauma has occurred in the left eye nine months ago. Vitrectomy surgery combined with intraocular lens extraction was performed and the patient was left aphakic. Secondary intraocular lens implantation was performed. In this paper, we present postoperative ocular findings in a patient who was given cefuroxime into the anterior chamber 2.5 times higher than the recommended dose (25 mg/ml after secondary intraocular lens implantation.

  12. Outcomes of Lensectomy in Hereditary Lens Subluxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Dehghan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the results of pars plana lensectomy in patients with hereditary lens subluxation. METHOD: Hospital records of patients with hereditary lens subluxation who had undergone pars plana lensectomy at Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran-Iran from 1996 to 2003 were reviewed. Patients with more than 6 months of follow up were included. Underlying disorders, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA before and after surgery, intraocular pressure (IOP, postoperative refraction and complications were evaluated. RESULTS: Overall, records of 87 eyes of 49 patients including 27 male and 22 female subjects were reviewed. Mean follow up duration was 20±18 months. Underlying disorders leading to lens subluxation included Marfan syndrome (79.5%, Weill-Marchesani syndrome (8.2%, simple ectopia lentis (8.2%, and homocystinuria (4.1%. The most common indication for surgery was non-correctable refractive error (92.1%. Mean BCVA was 1.13 LogMAR (20/250 preoperatively, which improved to 0.26 LogMAR (20/30-20/40 postoperatively (P < 0.001. BCVA better than 20/40 was achieved in 82.8% of cases after surgery. Angle-supported anterior chamber intraocular lens (ACIOL was implanted in

  13. The influence of ionizing radiation on the development of posterior capsule opacification in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietl, B.; Hunner, S.; Herrmann, W.; Mueller, M.; Lohmann, C.; Gabel, V.P.; Marienhagen, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Histologically, the posterior capsule opacification (PCO) corresponds to regenerative tissue of transformed lens epithelial cells (LECs) with extracellular matrix production. In this study, the influence of ionizing radiation on proliferating LECs and the development of PCO was investigated in vitro. Material and methods: Each four and 14 pork lenses, respectively, were irradiated with 6 MeV electrons with single doses of 8, 10, 12, and 20 Gy. 1-2 h after irradiation the lens was removed by capsulorrhexis and hydrodissection. After fixation of the capsular bag in a special device the proliferation of residual LECs was examined daily. The experiment was considered to be finished when the capsular bag was completely opacified by confluent cell proliferates. Results: Single dose irradiation with electrons in a dose range from 8 to 12 Gy significantly protracted the development of PCO with complete inhibition of PCO after application of 20 Gy. Conclusion: To inhibit PCO in vitro, a single dose of 20 Gy is necessary. The actual in vitro model allows an optimal investigation of PCO formation under different external influences and is therefore very suitable for radiobiological questions. (orig.)

  14. Modern lens antennas for communications engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, John

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the modern design principles and analysis of lens antennas. It gives graduates and RF/Microwave professionals the design insights in order to make full use of lens antennas.  Why do we want to write a book in lens antennas? Because this topic has not been thoroughly publicized, its importance is underestimated. As antennas play a key role in communication systems, recent development in wireless communications would indeed benefit from the characteristics of lens antennas: low profile, and low cost etc.  The major advantages of lens antennas are na

  15. A Class I UV-blocking (senofilcon A) soft contact lens prevents UVA-induced yellow fluorescence and NADH loss in the rabbit lens nucleus in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Frank J; Lin, Li-Ren; Simpanya, Mukoma F; Leverenz, Victor R; Fick, Catherine E

    2012-09-01

    It is known that fluorescence, much of it caused by UVA light excitation, increases in the aging human lens, resulting in loss of sharp vision. This study used an in vivo animal model to investigate UVA-excited fluorescence in the rabbit lens, which contains a high level of the UVA chromophore NADH, existing both free and bound to λ-crystallin. Also, the ability of a Class I (senofilcon A) soft contact lens to protect against UVA-induced effects on the rabbit lens was tested. Rabbit eyes were irradiated with UVA light in vivo (100 mW/cm(2) on the cornea) for 1 h using monochromatic 365 nm light. Irradiation was conducted in the presence of either a senofilcon A contact lens, a minimally UV-absorbing lotrafilcon A contact lens, or no contact lens at all. Eyes irradiated without a contact lens showed blue 365 nm-excited fluorescence initially, but this changed to intense yellow fluorescence after 1 h. Isolated, previously irradiated lenses exhibited yellow fluorescence originating from the lens nucleus when viewed under 365 nm light, but showed normal blue fluorescence arising from the cortex. Previously irradiated lenses also exhibited a faint yellow color when observed under visible light. The senofilcon A contact lens protected completely against the UVA-induced effects on fluorescence and lens yellowing, whereas the lotrafilcon A lens showed no protection. The UVA-exposure also produced a 53% loss of total NADH (free plus bound) in the lens nucleus, with only a 13% drop in the anterior cortex. NADH loss in the nucleus was completely prevented with use of a senofilcon A contact lens, but no significant protection was observed with a lotrafilcon A lens. Overall, the senofilcon A lens provided an average of 67% protection against UVA-induced loss of four pyridine nucleotides in four different regions of the lens. HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection indicated a nearly six-fold increase in 365 nm-excited yellow fluorescence arising from lens nuclear

  16. Contribution of the crystalline lens gradient refractive index to the accommodation amplitude in non-human primates: in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceo, Bianca M; Manns, Fabrice; Borja, David; Nankivil, Derek; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Arrieta, Esdras; Ho, Arthur; Augusteyn, Robert C; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of the gradient refractive index to the change in lens power in hamadryas baboon and cynomolgus monkey lenses during simulated accommodation in a lens stretcher. Thirty-six monkey lenses (1.4-14.1 years) and twenty-five baboon lenses (1.8-28.0 years) were stretched in discrete steps. At each stretching step, the lens back vertex power was measured and the lens cross-section was imaged with optical coherence tomography. The radii of curvature for the lens anterior and posterior surfaces were calculated for each step. The power of each lens surface was determined using refractive indices of 1.365 for the outer cortex and 1.336 for the aqueous. The gradient contribution was calculated by subtracting the power of the surfaces from the measured lens power. In all lenses, the contribution of the surfaces and gradient increased linearly with the amplitude of accommodation. The gradient contributes on average 65 ± 3% for monkeys and 66 ± 3% for baboons to the total power change during accommodation. When expressed in percent of the total power change, the relative contribution of the gradient remains constant with accommodation and age in both species. These findings are consistent with Gullstrand's intracapsular theory of accommodation.

  17. Anterior cervical fusion: the role of anterior plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffner, Scott D; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of cervical pathology requires a clear understanding of the biomechanical benefits and limitations of cervical plates, their indications, and their associated complications. The use of anterior cervical plates has evolved significantly since their early application in cervical trauma. They have become widely used for anterior cervical decompression and fusion for cervical spondylosis. Plate design has undergone significant refinement and innovation, from the initial unlocked plates requiring bicortical purchase to the latest rotationally and translationally semiconstrained dynamic plates. Excellent clinical results have been reported for single-level anterior cervical decompression and fusion with or without plate fixation; however, the addition of an anterior cervical plate clearly leads to earlier fusion and better clinical results in longer fusions. Longer fusions should ideally consist of corpectomies and strut grafting because the decreased number of fusion surfaces tends to lead to higher fusion rates. Although anterior plate fixation leads to higher fusion rates in fusions of three or more levels, the associated pseudarthrosis rate is still high. The use of dynamic plates, through increased load sharing across the graft and decreased stress shielding, may improve fusion rates, particularly in long fusions. Nevertheless, adjuvant posterior fixation is recommended for fusions of more than three vertebral levels. Anterior plate fixation may be of particular benefit in the management of traumatic injuries, in revision settings, and in the treatment of smokers. Complications unique to plate fixation include hardware breakage and migration as well as ossification of the adjacent disk levels.

  18. Contact lens surface by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jung Hyuck; Lee, Suk Ju; Hwang, Kwang Ha; Jeon Jin

    2011-01-01

    Contact lens materials needs good biocompatibility, high refractive index, high optical transparency, high water content etc. Surface treat method by using plasma and radiation can modify the physical and/or chemical properties of the contact lens surface. Radiation technology such as electron beam irradiation can apply to polymerization reaction and enhance the functionality of the polymer.The purpose of this study is to modify of contact lens surface by using Eb irradiation technology. Electron beam was irradiated to the contact lens surface which was synthesized thermal polymerization method and commercial contact lens to modify physical and chemical properties. Ft-IR, XP, UV-vis spectrophotometer, water content, oxygen trans-metastability were used to characterize the surface state, physicochemical, and optical property of the contact lens treated with Eb. The water content and oxygen transmissibility of the contact lens treated with Eb were increased due to increase in the hydrophilic group such as O-C=O and OH group on the contact lens surface which could be produced by possible reaction between carbon and oxygen during the Eb irradiation. All of the lenses showed the high optical transmittance above 90%. In this case of B/Es, TES, Ti contact lens, the optical transmittance decreased about 5% with increasing Eb dose in the wavelength of UV-B region. The contact lens modified by Eb irradiation could improve the physical properties of the contact lens such as water content and oxygen transmissibility

  19. Potassium iodide capsule treatment of feline sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Erica G; Gremião, Isabella D F; Kitada, Amanda A B; Rocha, Raphael F D B; Castro, Verônica S P; Barros, Mônica B L; Menezes, Rodrigo C; Pereira, Sandro A; Schubach, Tânia M P

    2012-06-01

    Sporotrichosis is a mycosis caused by Sporothrix schenckii. The most affected animal is the cat; it has played an important role in the zoonotic transmission of this disease, especially in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, since 1998. In order to evaluate the treatment of feline sporotrichosis with potassium iodide, an observational cohort was conducted in 48 cats with sporotrichosis at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fiocruz. All cats received potassium iodide capsules, 2.5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg q24h. The cure rate was 47.9%, treatment failure was 37.5%, treatment abandonment was 10.4% and death was 4.2%. Clinical adverse effects were observed in 52.1% of the cases. Thirteen cats had a mild increase in hepatic transaminase levels during the treatment, six of them presented clinical signs suggestive of hepatotoxicity. Compared to previous studies with itraconazole and iodide in saturated solution, potassium iodide capsules are an alternative for feline sporotrichosis treatment.

  20. Petrous bone fractures violating otic capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliulo, Giuseppe; Ciniglio Appiani, Mario; Iannella, Giannicola; Artico, Marco

    2012-12-01

    This study presents our experience with a series of patients suffering from petrous bone fractures violating the otic capsule who underwent subtotal petrosectomy combined with eustachian tube, middle ear, and mastoid obliteration, with the goal of preventing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and meningitis. This study enrolled 26 patients between 1997 and 2011. The clinical symptoms, otoscopy, and preoperative and postoperative audiometry and facial function, as well as CSF leak or meningitis, were evaluated in each patient. The entire group underwent a subtotal petrosectomy using the technique described in detail by Fisch. In addition, each patient was interviewed using a questionnaire to evaluate the impact on quality of life. Intraoperatively, we found significant CSF leaks in 14 patients (42.5%). No patient reported other episodes of CSF leak or meningitis after the surgery. The patients' responses of facial nerve function were slightly worse than the House-Brackmann evaluation (50% versus 42.3%; p < 0.05). The vast majority (88.5%) of the patients experienced no social impact. Our findings suggest the importance of not underestimating the risk for CSF leak in the petrous bone fractures violating the otic capsule. Preoperative counseling regarding the various troublesome complications must adequately motivate candidates to undergo surgery by pointing out the positive impact of the proposed treatment.

  1. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  2. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions

  3. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    OpenAIRE

    de Leeuw, P.A.J.; Golanó, P.; Clavero, J.A.; van Dijk, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly limited by the overlying anatomy which includes the neurovascular bundle. We hypothesize that in ankle dorsiflexion the anterior neurovascular bundle will move away anteriorly from the ankle joint, where...

  4. Lens decenter and tilt measurement by interferogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Min-Wei; Wu, Wen-Hong; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2009-11-01

    For the recent years, the vigorous development of the electro-optic industry, particularly the digital camera and the cellular phone camera, has placed a larger and larger demand for the optical devices. Among the optical lens, the aspherical optical lens plays the key component because the aspherical lens may provide better imaging quality then the spherical lens does. For the manufacturing reason, the aspherical lens is prone to a decenter or tilt issue with respect to the optical axes of its two surfaces. To measure decenter and tile error specifically would help to obviate the deficient lens, but most of the present measuring method can't provide this function. This paper proposed a new method to specifically measure the decenter and tile of lens by observing the interferogram of each surface. And the corresponding measuring instrument, which contains interferometer and motion stages, was introduced as well.

  5. Plasma Lens for Muon and Neutrino Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Stephen; Korenev, Sergey; Bishai, Mary; Diwan, Milind; Gallardo, Juan; Hershcovitch, Ady; Johnson, Brant

    2008-04-01

    The plasma lens is examined as an alternate to focusing horns and solenoids for use in a neutrino or muon beam facility. The plasma lens concept is based on a combined high-current lens/target configuration. The current is fed at electrodes located upstream and downstream from the target where pion capturing is needed. The current flows primarily in the plasma, which has a lower resistivity than the target. A second plasma lens section, with an additional current feed, follows the target to provide shaping of the plasma stability. The geometry of the plasma is shaped to provide optimal pion capture. Simulations of this plasma lens system have shown a 25% higher neutrino production than the horn system. A plasma lens has additional advantage: larger axial current than horns, minimal neutrino contamination during antineutrino running, and negligible pion absorption or scattering. Results from particle simulations using a plasma lens will be presented.

  6. Reinforcing effects of caffeine in coffee and capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1989-09-01

    In a residential research ward the reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine were studied under double-blind conditions in volunteer subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. In Experiment 1, 6 subjects had 13 opportunities each day to self-administer either a caffeine (100 mg) or a placebo capsule for periods of 14 to 61 days. All subjects developed a clear preference for caffeine, with intake of caffeine becoming relatively stable after preference had been attained. Preference for caffeine was demonstrated whether or not preference testing was preceded by a period of 10 to 37 days of caffeine abstinence, suggesting that a recent history of heavy caffeine intake (tolerance/dependence) was not a necessary condition for caffeine to function as a reinforcer. In Experiment 2, 6 subjects had 10 opportunities each day to self-administer a cup of coffee or (on different days) a capsule, dependent upon completing a work requirement that progressively increased and then decreased over days. Each day, one of four conditions was studied: caffeinated coffee (100 mg/cup), decaffeinated coffee, caffeine capsules (100 mg/capsule), or placebo capsules. Caffeinated coffee maintained the most self-administration, significantly higher than decaffeinated coffee and placebo capsules but not different from caffeine capsules. Both decaffeinated coffee and caffeine capsules were significantly higher than placebo capsules but not different from each other. In both experiments, subject ratings of "linking" of coffee or capsules covaried with the self-administration measures. These experiments provide the clearest demonstrations to date of the reinforcing effects of caffeine in capsules and in coffee.

  7. Anterior Knee Pain (Chondromalacia Patellae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, James G.

    1989-01-01

    This article presents a pragmatic approach to the definition, diagnosis, and management of anterior knee pain. Symptoms and treatment are described. Emphasis is on active involvement of the patient in the rehabilitation exercise program. (IAH)

  8. Anterior approach for knee arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurlo, J.V.; Towers, J.D.; Golla, S.

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To develop a new method of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) of the knee using an anterior approach analogous to the portals used for knee arthroscopy.Design. An anterior approach to the knee joint was devised mimicking anterior portals used for knee arthroscopy. Seven patients scheduled for routine knee MRA were placed in a decubitus position and under fluoroscopic guidance a needle was advanced from a position adjacent to the patellar tendon into the knee joint. After confirmation of the needle tip location, a dilute gadolinium solution was injected.Results and conclusion. All the arthrograms were technically successful. The anterior approach to knee MRA has greater technical ease than the traditional approach with little patient discomfort. (orig.)

  9. Unilateral anterior uveitis complicating zoledronic acid therapy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Saghir Nagi S

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zoledronic acid is very widely used in patients with metastatic bone disease and osteoporosis. Only one case of bilateral uveitis was recently reported related to its use. Case presentation We report the first case of severe unilateral anterior uveitis in a patient with breast cancer and an intraocular lens. Following zoledronic acid infusion, the patient developed severe and dramatic right eye pain with decreased visual acuity within 24 hours and was found to have a fibrinous anterior uveitis of moderate severity The patient was treated with topical prednisone and atropine eyedrops and recovered slowly over several months. Conclusion Internists, oncologists, endocrinologists, and ophtalmologists should be aware of uveitis as a possible complication of zoledronic acid therapy. Patients should be instructed to report immediately to their physicians and treatment with topical prednisone and atropine eyedrops should be instituted immediately at the onset of symptoms. This report documents anterior uveitis as a complication of zoledronic acid therapy. This reaction could be an idiosyncratic one but further research may shed more light on the etiology.

  10. Microscopic analysis of an opacified OFT CRYL® hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Vieira Ventura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A 51-year-old patient underwent posterior vitrectomy with perfluoropropane gas injection, phacoemulsification, and implantation of an Oft Cryl® hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL because of traumatic retinal detachment and cataract in the right eye. On the first postoperative day, gas was filling the anterior chamber because of patient's non-compliance in terms of head positioning, and was reabsorbed within one week. Eight months later, the patient returned complaining of a significant decrease in vision. IOL opacification was noticed by slit-lamp examination. The lens was explanted to undergo gross and light microscopic analysis. The lens was also stained with the alizarin red method for calcium identification. Light microscopic analysis confirmed the presence of granular deposits, densely distributed in an overall circular pattern in the central part of the lens optic. The granules stained positive for calcium. This is the first case of the opacification of this type of hydrophilic lens. Surgeons should be aware of this potential postoperative complication, and the use of hydrophilic IOLs should be avoided in procedures involving intracameral gas because of the risk of IOL opacification.

  11. Capsule shields the function of short bacterial adhesins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Dalsgaard, D.; Klemm, Per

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial surface structures such as capsules and adhesins are generally regarded as important virulence factors. Here we demonstrate that capsules block the function of the self-recognizing protein antigen 43 through physical shielding. The phenomenon is not restricted to Escherichia coli but can...

  12. Iodometric determination of ampicillin in proprietary capsules | Ejele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of ampicillin in ampicillin capsule preparations purchased in Owerri main market, Imo State of Nigeria, was determined using the iodometric titration method. The results showed that the ampicillin concentrations in the capsules contained between 250 and 260 mg/cap of ampicillin trihydrate. Statistical ...

  13. The development of the nasal capsule of the silver carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the nasal capsule, including the procartilaginous as well as some mesenchymatous developmental stages, is described in the chinese silver carp,. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (VaL). In the nasal capsule a primitive feature, namely the presence of a complete paraphysial bridge was observed.

  14. Temporary presence of myofibroblasts in human elbow capsule after trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornberg, Job N.; Bosse, Tjalling; Cohen, Mark S.; Jupiter, Jesse B.; Ring, David; Kloen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Elbow stiffness is a common complication after elbow trauma. The elbow capsule is often thickened, fibrotic, and contracted at the time of surgical release. The limited studies available suggest that the capsule is contracted because of fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. We hypothesize

  15. Evidence for an intact polysaccharide capsule in Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, YiLin; Li, Rui; Howe, Josephine; Hoo, Regina; Pant, Aakanksha; Ho, SiYing; Alonso, Sylvie

    2010-03-01

    Polysaccharide capsules contribute to the pathogenesis of many bacteria species by providing resistance against various defense mechanisms. The production of a capsule in Bordetella pertussis, the etiologic agent of whooping cough, has remained controversial; earlier studies reported this pathogen as a capsulated microorganism whereas the recent B. pertussis genome analysis revealed the presence of a truncated capsule locus. In this work, using transmission electron microscopy and immunostaining approaches, we provide a formal evidence for the presence of an intact microcapsule produced at the surface of both laboratory strain and clinical isolates of B. pertussis. In agreement with previous studies, we found that the capsule is optimally produced in avirulent phase. Unexpectedly, the presence of the capsule was also detected at the surface of virulent B. pertussis bacteria. Consistently, a substantial transcriptional activity of the capsule operon was detected in virulent phase, suggesting that the capsular polysaccharide may play a role during pertussis pathogenesis. In vitro assays indicated that the presence of the capsule does not affect B. pertussis adherence to mammalian cells and does not further protect the bacterium from phagocytosis, complement-mediated killing or antimicrobial peptide attack. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  16. Clinical effect of Resina Draconis capsules on primary dysmenorrhoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical effect of Resina Draconis capsules on primary dysmenorrhoea. Li Sun, Jia Wang. Abstract. Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of Resina Draconis capsules in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. Methods: In total, 324 patients with primary dysmenorrhoea were randomly allocated to three groups based on ...

  17. Evaluation of diminished microbial contamination in handling of a novel daily disposable flat pack contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomachi, Miya; Sakanishi, Kotaro; Ichijima, Hideji; Cavanagh, H Dwight

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a novel daily disposable (DD) flat package in regard to microbial contamination on the anterior and posterior surfaces of a contact lens (CL) during handling of the lens for insertion. Four kinds of commercially available general blister-packed daily disposable contact lenses (DD CLs) as controls and a novel Magic 1-day Menicon Flat Pack as a test lens were used for this in vitro study. Lenses were removed from their packages using fingers coated with fluorescein 3 to 5 μm beads or an approximately 7×10(2) to 2×10(3) colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL Staphylococcus aureus suspension. The transfer of fluorescein beads to the surface of the lenses was then observed by fluorescence microscopy. Microbial contamination on the lenses was observed by light microscopy after a 2-day incubation period; and, the number of colonies isolated from the contaminated lenses was determined after 4 days of incubation. The number of fluorescein beads on the Magic lens was significantly less (p<0.05) than that of the general blister-packed control lenses. Adherence of microbial colonies was observed on both inner and outer surfaces of general blister-packed lenses, whereas no colony formation was found on the inner surface of the Magic lens, and the lowest bacterial adherence was observed for the Magic lens. The data demonstrated that placement of the Magic DD lens onto the eye is accompanied by diminished microbial contamination compared with general blister-packed DD CLs. Eye care professionals; however, should instruct patients to comply with intended use of DD CLs to prevent CL-associated microbial keratitis. In all cases, hand washing is mandated prelens insertion.

  18. Factors associated with strabismus after cataract extraction and primary intraocular lens implantation in congenital cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jung Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate factors associated with the development of strabismus after cataract extraction and primary intraocular lens implantation.METHODS: The medical records of 122 patients, aged 1.5mo to 9y, who had undergone cataract extraction with primary intraocular lens implantation between January 1993 and August 2011 were reviewed. Fourteen patients (17 eyes with strabismus before cataract surgery were excluded. Patients were divided into those with congenital bilateral cataracts (64 patients, 128 eyes and those with unilateral cataracts (44 patients, 44 eyes. The associations between the development of strabismus and age at cataract surgery, pre- and post-cataract extraction corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, interocular CDVA difference, nystagmus, surgical method, and secondary cataract were evaluated.RESULTS: Factors significantly associated with the development of strabismus included age at cataract surgery (≤1y, preoperative mean CDVA ≤20/100, presence of nystagmus in the bilateral cataract group and postoperative interocular CDVA difference >20/70 in the unilateral group. Postoperative CDVA ≤20/100 and preservation of posterior capsule, and presence of secondary cataract were significant factors in both groups.CONCLUSION: Children with congenital cataracts should be monitored carefully after cataract surgery for the development of strabismus, especially when they underwent surgery at age ≤1y, and they have nystagmus, large postoperative interocular CDVA difference, poor preoperative and postoperative CDVA, preservation of the posterior capsule, or secondary cataract.

  19. Lens Coupled Quantum Cascade Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing (Inventor); Lee, Alan Wei Min (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz quantum cascade (QC) devices are disclosed that can operate, e.g., in a range of about 1 THz to about 10 THz. In some embodiments, QC lasers are disclosed in which an optical element (e.g., a lens) is coupled to an output facet of the laser's active region to enhance coupling of the lasing radiation from the active region to an external environment. In other embodiments, terahertz amplifier and tunable terahertz QC lasers are disclosed.

  20. Looking beyond the perfect lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee, W H; Pendry, J B

    2010-01-01

    The holy grail of imaging is the ability to see through anything. From the conservation of energy, we can easily see that to see through a lossy material would require lenses with gain. The aim of this paper therefore is to propose a simple scheme by which we can construct a general perfect lens, with gain-one that can restore both the phases and amplitudes of near and far fields.

  1. Adsorption and desorption of phosphorus in ceramic capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, J.R.F. de.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to analyse the capacity of adsorving P from water using ceramic capsules with 32P, in the presence and absence of water flow through the capsule. Also studied was the desorption of 32 P from the capsule in water, with and without water flow. The desorption of residual 32 P was analysed by isotopic exchange with 31 P, also with and without water flow. It was observed that, in the presence of a flow, the capsule retained 32 P from the solution, which was weakly desorbed by water but was isotopically exchanged with 31 P. In the absence of a flow, the capsule was not an efficient P adsorber. (Author) [pt

  2. Three-dimensional simulations of Nova capsule implosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinak, M.M.; Tipton, R.E.; Landen, O.L.

    1995-01-01

    Capsule implosion experiments carried out on the Nova laser are simulated with the three-dimensional HYDRA radiation hydrodynamics code. Simulations of ordered near single mode perturbations indicate that structures which evolve into round spikes can penetrate farthest into the hot spot. Bubble-shaped perturbations can burn through the capsule shell fastest, however, causing even more damage. Simulations of a capsule with multimode perturbations shows spike amplitudes evolving in good agreement with a saturation model during the deceleration phase. The presence of sizable low mode asymmetry, caused either by drive asymmetry or perturbations in the capsule shell, can dramatically affect the manner in which spikes approach the center of the hot spot. Three-dimensional coupling between the low mode shell perturbations intrinsic to Nova capsules and the drive asymmetry brings the simulated yields into closer agreement with the experimental values

  3. Refractive outcomes after multifocal intraocular lens exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric J; Sajjad, Ahmar; Montes de Oca, Ildamaris; Koch, Douglas D; Wang, Li; Weikert, Mitchell P; Al-Mohtaseb, Zaina N

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the refractive outcomes after multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) exchange. Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA. Retrospective case series. Patients had multifocal IOL explantation followed by IOL implantation. Outcome measures included type of IOL, surgical indication, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), and refractive prediction error. The study comprised 29 patients (35 eyes). The types of IOLs implanted after multifocal IOL explantation included in-the-bag IOLs (74%), iris-sutured IOLs (6%), sulcus-fixated IOLs with optic capture (9%), sulcus-fixated IOLs without optic capture (9%), and anterior chamber IOLs (3%). The surgical indication for exchange included blurred vision (60%), photic phenomena (57%), photophobia (9%), loss of contrast sensitivity (3%), and multiple complaints (29%). The CDVA was 20/40 or better in 94% of eyes before the exchange and 100% of eyes after the exchange (P = .12). The mean refractive prediction error significantly decreased from 0.22 ± 0.81 diopter (D) before the exchange to -0.09 ± 0.53 D after the exchange (P exchange to 0.23 D after the exchange (P exchange can be performed safely with good visual outcomes using different types of IOLs. A lower refractive prediction error and a higher likelihood of 20/40 or better vision can be achieved with the implantation of the second IOL compared with the original multifocal IOL, regardless of the final IOL position. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. CONTACT LENS RELATED CORNEAL ULCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGARWAL P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are:overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. The presenting symptoms of contact lens related corneal ulcers include eye discomfort, foreign body sensation and lacrimation. More serious symptoms are redness (especially circum-corneal injection, severe pain, photophobia, eye discharge and blurring of vision. The diagnosis is established by a thorough slit lamp microscopic examination with fluorescein staining and corneal scraping for Gram stain and culture of the infective organism. Delay in diagnosing and treatment can cause permanent blindness, therefore an early referral to ophthalmologist and commencing of antimicrobial therapy can prevent visual loss.

  5. Glycation precedes lens crystallin aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swamy, M.S.; Perry, R.E.; Abraham, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    Non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) seems to have the potential to alter the structure of crystallins and make them susceptible to thiol oxidation leading to disulfide-linked high molecular weight (HMW) aggregate formation. They used streptozotocin diabetic rats during precataract and cataract stages and long-term cell-free glycation of bovine lens crystallins to study the relationship between glycation and lens crystallin aggregation. HMW aggregates and other protein components of the water-soluble (WS) and urea-soluble (US) fractions were separated by molecular sieve high performance liquid chromatography. Glycation was estimated by both [ 3 H]NaBH 4 reduction and phenylboronate agarose affinity chromatography. Levels of total glycated protein (GP) in the US fractions were about 2-fold higher than in the WS fractions and there was a linear increase in GP in both WS and US fractions. This increase was parallelled by a corresponding increase in HMW aggregates. Total GP extracted by the affinity method from the US fraction showed a predominance of HMW aggregates and vice versa. Cell-free glycation studies with bovine crystallins confirmed the results of the animals studies. Increasing glycation caused a corresponding increase in protein insolubilization and the insoluble fraction thus formed also contained more glycated protein. It appears that lens protein glycation, HMW aggregate formation, and protein insolubilization are interrelated

  6. Intraocular lens alignment from purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Patricia; De Castro, Alberto; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio; Marcos, Susana

    2010-11-01

    The improved designs of intraocular lenses (IOLs) implanted during cataract surgery demand understanding of the possible effects of lens misalignment on optical performance. In this review, we describe the implementation, set-up and validation of two methods to measure in vivo tilt and decentration of IOLs, one based on Purkinje imaging and the other on Scheimpflug imaging. The Purkinje system images the reflections of an oblique collimated light source on the anterior cornea and anterior and posterior IOL surfaces and relies on the well supported assumption of the linearity of the Purkinje images with respect to IOL tilt and decentration. Scheimpflug imaging requires geometrical distortion correction and image processing techniques to retrieve the pupillary axis, IOL axis and pupil centre from the three-dimensional anterior segment image of the eye. Validation of the techniques using a physical eye model indicates that IOL tilt is estimated within an accuracy of 0.261 degree and decentration within 0.161 mm. Measurements on patients implanted with aspheric IOLs indicate that IOL tilt and decentration tend to be mirror symmetric between left and right eyes. The average tilt was 1.54 degrees and the average decentration was 0.21 mm. Simulated aberration patterns using custom models of the patients eyes, built using anatomical data of the anterior cornea and foveal position, the IOL geometry and the measured IOL tilt and decentration predict the experimental wave aberrations measured using laser ray tracing aberrometry on the same eyes. This reveals a relatively minor contribution of IOL tilt and decentration on the higher-order aberrations of the normal pseudophakic eye.

  7. [Multifocal phakic intraocular lens implant to correct presbyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikoff, G; Matach, G; Fontaine, A; Ferraz, C; Spera, C

    2005-03-01

    Presbyopic surgery is considered as the new frontier in refractive surgery. Different solutions are proposed: myopization of one eye, insertion of an accommodative crystalline lens, scleral surgery, the effects of which are still unknown, and finally multifocal phakic implants. We therefore decided to undertake a prospective study under the Huriet law to determine its efficacy and specify the conditions required for an anterior chamber multifocal phakic implant. Fifty-five eyes of 33 patients received an anterior chamber foldable multifocal phakic implant. Twenty-one females and 12 males underwent surgery. Initial refraction was between -5D and +5D. The implant's single addition was +2.50. Recuperating a distant uncorrected visual acuity of 0.6 or better and near uncorrected vision of Parinaud 3 or better can be considered a very good postoperative result. Average follow-up was 42.6+/-18 weeks. Mean postoperative refraction was -0.12+/-0.51 D. Mean postoperative uncorrected visual acuity was 0.78+/-0.20. Postoperative uncorrected visual acuity was Parinaud 2.3+/-0.6. Eighty-four percent of eyes operated on recuperated 0.6 or better without correction and Parinaud 3 or better without correction. Lenses in four eyes were explanted for different reasons, essentially optical, and no severe anatomical complications were observed. Placing an anterior chamber multifocal phakic implant to correct presbyopia is an effective technique with good predictability and has the advantage of being reversible in case of intolerance, optical parasite effects or undesired complications. Considering the particularity of this surgery, it is imperative to respect very strict inclusion criteria: anterior chamber depth equal to or above 3.1 mm, open angle, endothelial cell count equal to or above 2000 cells/mm2, absence of an incipient cataract or the slightest evidence of macular alteration.

  8. The efficiency of aspheric intraocular lens according to biometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Woong-Joo; Piao, Junjie; Yoo, Young-Sik; Joo, Choun-Ki; Yoon, Geunyoung

    2017-01-01

    To analyze internal spherical aberration in pseudophakic eyes that underwent aspheric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and to investigate the relationships between biometric data and the effectiveness of aspheric IOL implantation. This retrospective study included 40 eyes of 40 patients who underwent implantation of an IOL having a negative spherical aberration of -0.20 μm (CT ASPHINA 509M; Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Germany). The IOLMaster (version 5.0; Carl Zeiss AG, Germany) was used for preoperative biometric measurements (axial length, anterior chamber depth, central corneal power) and the measurement of postoperative anterior chamber depth. The spherical aberrations were measured preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively using the iTrace (Tracey Technologies, Houston, TX, USA) at a pupil diameter of 5.0 mm. We investigated the relationships between preoperative biometric data and postoperative internal spherical aberration, and compared biometric measurements between 2 subgroups stratified according to internal spherical aberration (spherical aberration ≤ -0.06 μm vs. spherical aberration > -0.06 μm). The mean postoperative internal spherical aberration was -0.087 ± 0.063 μm. Preoperative axial length and residual total spherical aberration showed statistically significant correlations with internal spherical aberration (p = 0.041, 0.002). Preoperative axial length, postoperative anterior chamber depth, IOL power, and residual spherical aberration showed significant differences between the 2 subgroups stratified according to internal spherical aberration (p = 0.020, 0.029, 0.048, 0.041 respectively). The corrective effect of an aspheric IOL is influenced by preoperative axial length and postoperative anterior chamber depth. Not only the amount of negative spherical aberration on the IOL surface but also the preoperative axial length should be considered to optimize spherical aberration after aspheric IOL implantation.

  9. High-speed precision weighing of pharmaceutical capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cost-effective method for fast and accurate in-line weighing of hard gelatin capsules based on the optimized capacitance sensor and real-time processing of the capsule capacitance profile resulting from 5000 capacitance measurements per second. First, the effect of the shape and size of the capacitive sensor on the sensitivity and stability of the measurements was investigated in order to optimize the performance of the system. The method was tested on two types of hard gelatin capsules weighing from 50 mg to 650 mg. The results showed that the capacitance profile was exceptionally well correlated with the capsule weight with the correlation coefficient exceeding 0.999. The mean precision of the measurements was in the range from 1 mg to 3 mg, depending on the size of the capsule and was significantly lower than the 5% weight tolerances usually used by the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, the method was found feasible for weighing pharmaceutical hard gelatin capsules as long as certain conditions are met regarding the capsule fill properties and environment stability. The proposed measurement system can be calibrated by using only two or three sets of capsules with known weight. However, for most applications it is sufficient to use only empty and nominally filled capsules for calibration. Finally, a practical application of the proposed method showed that a single system is capable of weighing around 75 000 capsules per hour, while using multiple systems could easily increase the inspection rate to meet almost any requirements

  10. Toward an integrated model of capsule regulation in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Haynes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes serious human disease in immunocompromised populations. Its polysaccharide capsule is a key virulence factor which is regulated in response to growth conditions, becoming enlarged in the context of infection. We used microarray analysis of cells stimulated to form capsule over a range of growth conditions to identify a transcriptional signature associated with capsule enlargement. The signature contains 880 genes, is enriched for genes encoding known capsule regulators, and includes many uncharacterized sequences. One uncharacterized sequence encodes a novel regulator of capsule and of fungal virulence. This factor is a homolog of the yeast protein Ada2, a member of the Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase (SAGA complex that regulates transcription of stress response genes via histone acetylation. Consistent with this homology, the C. neoformans null mutant exhibits reduced histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation. It is also defective in response to a variety of stress conditions, demonstrating phenotypes that overlap with, but are not identical to, those of other fungi with altered SAGA complexes. The mutant also exhibits significant defects in sexual development and virulence. To establish the role of Ada2 in the broader network of capsule regulation we performed RNA-Seq on strains lacking either Ada2 or one of two other capsule regulators: Cir1 and Nrg1. Analysis of the results suggested that Ada2 functions downstream of both Cir1 and Nrg1 via components of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG pathway. To identify direct targets of Ada2, we performed ChIP-Seq analysis of histone acetylation in the Ada2 null mutant. These studies supported the role of Ada2 in the direct regulation of capsule and mating responses and suggested that it may also play a direct role in regulating capsule-independent antiphagocytic virulence factors. These results validate our experimental approach to dissecting

  11. Photophysics Applied to Cavitands and Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Orion B; Dube, Henry; Rebek, Julius

    2011-07-01

    The use of light as a stimulus to control functional materials or nano-devices is appealing as it provides convenient control of triggering events where and when they are desired without introducing extra components to the system. Many photophysical and photochemical processes are extremely fast, giving rise to nearly instantaneous onset of events. However, these fast processes can be challenging to engineer into chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry offers a convenient way to study and control photoprocesses. Given the reversible and self-programmed nature of modern host-guest systems, a modular approach can be considered in which different photoprocesses are coupled to obtain complex functions that emerge and are controlled solely by light inputs. In this review, we highlight recent examples of photoswitching and photophysics applied in the context of supramolecular host-guest systems, with a particular emphasis on resorcinarene based cavitands and hydrogen bonded capsules.

  12. Analysis on shift and rotation of intraocular lens after phakic collamer lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Lu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the incidence of myopia increases year by year. The effectiveness of refractive surgery for the correction of ametropia is widely recognized with rapid development of ophthalmic microsurgery. The laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIKhas been accepted as a regular refractive surgery technique to correct mild and moderate myopia. However, it shows inadequacy in ability to correct high refractive errors, and in patients with thin cornea and keratoconus. In 1993, Staar Surgical(A.G. Nidauintroduced a modified intraocular collamer lens(ICLfor the correction of high myopia, which emerged as a safe and effective operation for moderate or high myopia gradually. Although it has already been proved that ICL has safety and efficacy for the correction of high myopia, several studies reported dislocation and rotation of ICL after implantation, which led decreased vision and poor satisfaction. In severe cases, secondary glaucoma, anterior subcapsular cataract happened consequentially. These potential complications have drawn more and more attention by the majority of physicians and scholars. This paper aims to discuss the potential cause of shift and rotation of ICLs after implantation.

  13. Capsule HRB-15B postirradiation examination report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketterer, J.W.; Bullock, R.E.

    1981-06-01

    Capsule HRB-15B design tested 184 thin graphite trays containing unbonded fuel particles to peak exposures of 6.6 x 10 25 n/m 2 (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/ fast fluence, approx. 27% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) fissile burnup, and 6% FIMA fertile burnup at nominal time-averaged temperatures of 815 to 915 0 C. The capsule tested a variety of low-enriched uranium (approx. 19.5% U-235) fissile particle types, including UC 2 , UC/sub x/O/sub y/, UO 2 , zirconium-buffered UO 2 (referred to in this report as UO 2 /sup *), and 1:1(Th,U)O 2 with both TRISO and silicon-BISO coatings. All fertile particles were ThO 2 with BISO, silicon-BISO, or TRISO coatings. The findings indicated that all TRISO particles retained virtually all of their fission product inventories, except small quantities of silver, at these irradiation temperatures, while some of the silicon-BISO particles released significant amounts of both silver and cesium. No kernel migration, pressure vessel, or outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) failures were observed in the fuel particles, which had total diameters of 2 /sup */ particles exhibited no detrimental irradiation effects, but they contained pure carbon precipitates in the kernels after irradiation which were not observed in the undoped UO 2 particles. Postirradiation examination revealed no differences in the irradiation performance of three UC/sub x/O/sub y/ kernel types with varying oxygen/uranium ratios

  14. Comparison of anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography and fluorescein angiography for iris vasculature analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zett, Claudio; Stina, Deborah M Rosa; Kato, Renata Tiemi; Novais, Eduardo Amorim; Allemann, Norma

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study is to perform imaging of irises of different colors using spectral domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography (AS-OCTA) and iris fluorescein angiography (IFA) and compare their effectiveness in examining iris vasculature. This is a cross-sectional observational clinical study. Patients with no vascular iris alterations and different pigmentation levels were recruited. Participants were imaged using OCTA adapted with an anterior segment lens and IFA with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO) adapted with an anterior segment lens. AS-OCTA and IFA images were then compared. Two blinded readers classified iris pigmentation and compared the percentage of visible vessels between OCTA and IFA images. Twenty eyes of 10 patients with different degrees of iris pigmentation were imaged using AS-OCTA and IFA. Significantly more visible iris vessels were observed using OCTA than using FA (W = 5.22; p Iris pigmentation was negatively correlated to the percentage of visible vessels in both imaging methods (OCTA, rho = - 0.73, p iris vasculature. In both AS-OCTA and IFA, iris pigmentation caused vasculature imaging blockage, but AS-OCTA provided more detailed iris vasculature images than IFA. Additional studies including different iris pathologies are needed to determine the most optimal scanning parameters in OCTA of the anterior segment.

  15. Damage to lens fiber cells causes TRPV4-dependent Src family kinase activation in the epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidullah, M; Mandal, A; Delamere, N A

    2015-11-01

    The bulk of the lens consists of tightly packed fiber cells. Because mature lens fibers lack mitochondria and other organelles, lens homeostasis relies on a monolayer of epithelial cells at the anterior surface. The detection of various signaling pathways in lens epithelial cells suggests they respond to stimuli that influence lens function. Focusing on Src Family Kinases (SFKs) and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), we tested whether the epithelium can sense and respond to an event that occurs in fiber mass. The pig lens was subjected to localized freeze-thaw (FT) damage to fibers at posterior pole then the lens was incubated for 1-10 min in Krebs solution at 37 °C. Transient SFK activation in the epithelium was detectable at 1 min. Using a western blot approach, the ion channel TRPV4 was detected in the epithelium but was sparse or absent in fiber cells. Even though TRPV4 expression appears low at the actual site of FT damage to the fibers, SFK activation in the epithelium was suppressed in lenses subjected to FT damage then incubated with the TRPV4 antagonist HC067047 (10 μM). Na,K-ATPase activity was examined because previous studies report changes of Na,K-ATPase activity associated with SFK activation. Na,K-ATPase activity doubled in the epithelium removed from FT-damaged lenses and the response was prevented by HC067047 or the SFK inhibitor PP2 (10 μM). Similar changes were observed in response to fiber damage caused by injection of 5 μl hyperosmotic NaCl or mannitol solution beneath the surface of the posterior pole. The findings point to a TRPV4-dependent mechanism that enables the epithelial cells to detect remote damage in the fiber mass and respond within minutes by activating SFK and increasing Na,K-ATPase activity. Because TRPV4 channels are mechanosensitive, we speculate they may be stimulated by swelling of the lens structure caused by damage to the fibers. Increased Na,K-ATPase activity gives the lens greater capacity to

  16. [Lens exchange for subluxation of posterior chamber lenses implanted in the capsular bag or in the ciliary sulcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürmer, J

    2013-04-01

    There are an increasing number of patients with decreased vision due to dislocated posterior chamber lenses, with pseudoexfoliation being the main risk factor. Various techniques for refixation of the subluxated posterior chamber IOL have been described. Experience with our technique of IOL-explantation, anterior vitrectomy and implantation of an Artisan anterior chamber lens are presented. In a retrospective study design all lens exchanges with implantation of an Artisan anterior chamber lens performed between 2003 and 2012 are analyzed. The study included 65 eyes of 61 patients (age 79.6 ± 9.2 years: 43-98). The majority of eyes (46/65; 70.8%) had Sundown Syndrome (late in-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation), in 19 eyes the posterior chamber lens was implanted primary or secondary into the ciliary sulcus. In the 46 eyes with Sundown Syndrome cataract surgery with implantation of a posterior chamber lens in the capsular bag was performed 7.4 ± 3.7 (1-22) years before subluxation within the bag. Pseudoexfoliation was the main risk factor in 42/46 (91.2%) of these eyes. A capsular tension ring (CTR) was implanted during cataract surgery in 34/46 (73.9%) eyes. The 34 IOLs with a CTR luxated significantly earlier (p IOLs without a CTR (6.6 ± 3.6 years; median 5.8 vs. 9.4 ± 3.1 years; median 9.2). The average visual gain was 0.2 logMAR in the group of luxated capsular bag lenses and 0.12 logMAR in the group of luxated sulcus lenses. Postoperative IOP decompensation was seen in 17/65 (26.2%) eyes (requiring IOP-lowering surgery in 8 eyes), 7 eyes developed corneal decompensation, 5 eyes had central retinal vein occlusion and one eye developed postoperative endophthalmitis. Lens exchange with implantation of an Artisan anterior chamber lens has become a routine procedure to improve vision in patients with subluxated IOLs. Postoperative IOP decompensation and vascular problems are the major complications. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Short-term corneal changes with gas-permeable contact lens wear in keratoconus subjects: a comparison of two fitting approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Jiménez, Miguel; Santodomingo-Rubido, Jacinto; Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Méijome, Jose-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate changes in anterior corneal topography and higher-order aberrations (HOA) after 14-days of rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lens (CL) wear in keratoconus subjects comparing two different fitting approaches. Thirty-one keratoconus subjects (50 eyes) without previous history of CL wear were recruited for the study. Subjects were randomly fitted to either an apical-touch or three-point-touch fitting approach. The lens' back optic zone radius (BOZR) was 0.4mm and 0.1mm flatter than the first definite apical clearance lens, respectively. Differences between the baseline and post-CL wear for steepest, flattest and average corneal power (ACP) readings, central corneal astigmatism (CCA), maximum tangential curvature (KTag), anterior corneal surface asphericity, anterior corneal surface HOA and thinnest corneal thickness measured with Pentacam were compared. A statistically significant flattening was found over time on the flattest and steepest simulated keratometry and ACP in apical-touch group (all p<0.01). A statistically significant reduction in KTag was found in both groups after contact lens wear (all p<0.05). Significant reduction was found over time in CCA (p=0.001) and anterior corneal asphericity in both groups (p<0.001). Thickness at the thinnest corneal point increased significantly after CL wear (p<0.0001). Coma-like and total HOA root mean square (RMS) error were significantly reduced following CL wearing in both fitting approaches (all p<0.05). Short-term rigid gas-permeable CL wear flattens the anterior cornea, increases the thinnest corneal thickness and reduces anterior surface HOA in keratoconus subjects. Apical-touch was associated with greater corneal flattening in comparison to three-point-touch lens wear. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, P.A.J.; Golanó, P.; Clavero, J.A.; van Dijk, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly

  19. Anterior segment sparing to reduce charged particle radiotherapy complications in uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daftari, Inder K.; Char, Devron H.; Verhey, Lynn J.; Castro, Joseph R.; Petti, Paula L.; Meecham, William J.; Kroll, Stewart; Blakely, Eleanor A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to delineate the risk factors in the development of neovascular glaucoma (NVG) after helium-ion irradiation of uveal melanoma patients and to propose treatment technique that may reduce this risk. Methods and Materials: 347 uveal melanoma patients were treated with helium-ions using a single-port treatment technique. Using univariate and multivariate statistics, the NVG complication rate was analyzed according to the percent of anterior chamber in the radiation field, tumor size, tumor location, sex, age, dose, and other risk factors. Several University of California San Francisco-Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) patients in each size category (medium, large, and extralarge) were retrospectively replanned using two ports instead of a single port. By using appropriate polar and azimuthal gaze angles or by treating patients with two ports, the maximum dose to the anterior segment of the eye can often be reduced. Although a larger volume of anterior chamber may receive a lower dose by using two ports than a single port treatment. We hypothesize that this could reduce the level of complications that result from the irradiation of the anterior chamber of the eye. Dose-volume histograms were calculated for the lens, and compared for the single and two-port techniques. Results: NVG developed in 121 (35%) patients. The risk of NVG peaked between 1 and 2.5 years posttreatment. By univariate and multivariate analysis, the percent of lens in the field was strongly correlated with the development of NVG. Other contributing factors were tumor height, history of diabetes, and vitreous hemorrhage. Dose-volume histogram analysis of single-port vs. two-port techniques demonstrate that for some patients in the medium and large category tumor groups, a significant decrease in dose to the structures in the anterior segment of the eye could have been achieved with the use of two ports. Conclusion: The development of NVG after

  20. Acute and chronic tears of anterior cruciate ligament : role of gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Jee, Won Hee; Im, Soo A; Chun, Ho Jong; Jung, Hyun Seouk; Kim, Soo Young; Kwon, Tae An; Song, Sun Wha; Choi, Kyu Ho

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging in differentiating acute from chronic ligament tears of anterior cruciate ligament. Materials and Methods : MR images of 22 patients with arthroscopically proven complete tear of the anterior cruciate ligament were retrospectively reviewed. The interval between injury and MR examination was one day to seven years. When ligament tear was detected on MR image with three months of injury, the case was considered acute;if detected after three months had elapsed, it was judged to be chronic. The extent of contrast enhancement was graded as 1, 2 or 3; grade 1, enhancement was confined to the expected ligament region; grade 2, enhancement extended to the joint capsule; grade 3, enhancement extended beyond the joint capsule. The grades of contrast enhancement correlated with the acute and chronic stages of ligament tears. Associated bone bruise and/or adjacent soft tissue edema were also evaluated. Results : Among 15 patients with acute ligament tear, nine (60%) showed grade 3 enhancement; among seven in whom tearing was chronic, four (57%) showed grade 1 enhancement. Bone bruising was present in 100% of acute tears (15/15) and 29 % of chronic tears (2/7). Soft tissue edema was associated in 87% of acute tears (13/15) and 29% of chronic tears(2/7). Conclusion : Fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging could help differentiate acute from chronic tears of anterior cruciate ligament, as well as bone bruising and tissue edema

  1. DISSECTING THE GRAVITATIONAL LENS B1608+656. I. LENS POTENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suyu, S. H.; Marshall, P. J.; Blandford, R. D.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; McKean, J. P.; Treu, T.

    2009-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing is a powerful technique for probing galaxy mass distributions and for measuring cosmological parameters. Lens systems with extended source-intensity distributions are particularly useful for this purpose since they provide additional constraints on the lens potential (

  2. Shoulder Magnetic Resonance Arthrography: A Prospective Randomized Study of Anterior and Posterior Ultrasonography-Guided Contrast Injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivikko, M.P.; Mustonen, A.O.T. (Dept. of Radiology, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-10-15

    , depending on anticipated shoulder pathology, is recommended. Because in posterior injections all artifacts were posterior and readily recognizable, it seems especially suitable for suspected anterior rotator cuff, joint capsule, and labral pathologies

  3. Determining spherical lens correction for astronaut training underwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Jason; Gibson, C Robert; Strauss, Samuel

    2011-09-01

    To develop a model that will accurately predict the distance spherical lens correction needed to be worn by National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronauts while training underwater. The replica space suit's helmet contains curved visors that induce refractive power when submersed in water. Anterior surface powers and thicknesses were measured for the helmet's protective and inside visors. The impact of each visor on the helmet's refractive power in water was analyzed using thick lens calculations and Zemax optical design software. Using geometrical optics approximations, a model was developed to determine the optimal distance spherical power needed to be worn underwater based on the helmet's total induced spherical power underwater and the astronaut's manifest spectacle plane correction in air. The validity of the model was tested using data from both eyes of 10 astronauts who trained underwater. The helmet's visors induced a total power of -2.737 D when placed underwater. The required underwater spherical correction (FW) was linearly related to the spectacle plane spherical correction in air (FAir): FW = FAir + 2.356 D. The mean magnitude of the difference between the actual correction worn underwater and the calculated underwater correction was 0.20 ± 0.11 D. The actual and calculated values were highly correlated (r = 0.971) with 70% of eyes having a difference in magnitude of astronauts. The model accurately predicts the actual values worn underwater and can be applied (more generally) to determine a suitable spectacle lens correction to be worn behind other types of masks when submerged underwater.

  4. Effect of hemodialysis on intraocular lens power calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, Sinan; Çelikay, Osman; Biçer, Tolga; Aylı, Mehmet Deniz; Gürdal, Canan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate changes in ocular biometric parameters after hemodialysis (HD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Forty eyes of 40 patients undergoing HD were included in this cross-sectional study. Keratometry (K) readings, white-to-white (WTW) distance, central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), pupil diameter, lens thickness (LT), axial length (AL), and intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation were measured with Lenstar LS 900 (Haag Streit AG, Koeniz, Switzerland) before and after hemodialysis. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with a non-contact tonometer (Tonopachy NT-530P, Nidek Co., LTD, Tokyo, Japan). Main outcomes were changes in biometric parameters after HD. Reliability of the measurements (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs)) and the effect size (Cohen's d) were also calculated. Mean difference in AL before and after HD was -0.041 ± 0.022 mm with ICCs > 0.90 (p  0.90 (p = 0.041 and Cohen's d = 0.20). Hemodialysis had no significant effect on K readings, WTW distance, CCT, ACD, LT, or IOP. Axial length and pupil diameter increase after HD with small effect size, while HD does not significantly affect IOL power calculations.

  5. Preliminary observation about anterior capsular changes in different patients after cataract phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare changes of anterior capsular opening size between complicated and simple cataract patients who underwent phacoemulsification and foldable IOL implantation.METHODS:Patients complicated with high myopia, primary angle-closure glaucoma(PACG, diabetic cataract and simple cataract(control groupwere selected, 25 case in each group. All patients accepted phacoemulsification by the doctor with operation experience of more than 5 000 cases, and the same 1-piece hydrophilic acrylic IOL was implanted without any complicated happened. The measured value about anterior capsular area by Image-pro plus 6.0 was greater than 23mm2. Every patient was checked regularly through dilated pupil, take photos by slit-lamp camera and area was measured after operation 1 week, 1 month, 3 and 6 months, then to record the biological changes about anterior capsular in 4 groups.RESULTS: The average anterior capsular area in 4 groups 1 week after operation had no difference(P>0.05; No difference was found between simple and complicated high myopia group 6 months after operation(P>0.05. Capsule contraction was observed in complicated POAG group 3 months after operation and in diabetes mellitus group 6 months postoperatively, the average anterior capsular area become smaller than 1 week postoperatively(PCONCLUSION: Cataract patients who complicated PACG or diabetes mellitus maybe the high-risk groups, capsule contraction will be happened 1 month after operation. For high-risk groups, we should prolong the follow-up time, enrich the observation data, and provide the clinical basis for reasonable and preventive intervention.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Motoyuki

    1994-01-01

    The diagnostic capability of MRI in depicting abnormalities in traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder (TAI) was evaluated with special attention to MR arthrogram enhanced by joint effusion or saline solution. Sixty five shoulders with TAI and 19 control shoulders were scanned using the field gradient echo method (STAGE technique) on axial plane with a 1.0 or 1.5 Tesla system. MR arthrogram was obtained in 36 shoulders with TAI (Group A) and 11 control shoulders (Group C). Conventional MRI was obtained in 29 shoulders with TAI (Group B) and 8 control shoulders (Group D). Abnormalities in Bankart lesion were assessed according to signal intensity and labral shape. Abnormal signal was obtained in 8 shoulders (27.6%) in group B. Changes in shape were seen in 35 shoulders (97.2%) in group A and 18 (62.1%) in group B. Interruption of the anterior capsule was suspected in 3 (8.3%) in group A. Hill-Sachs lesion was suspected in 60 shoulders. Shoulders in the control group showed no abnormal change. Details of Bankart lesion confirmed by subsequent arthroscopy were diagnosed correctly in all of 14 shoulders on MR arthrogram and 8 of 16 shoulders on conventional MRI. These results show that MRI, MR arthrogram in particular, is useful for depicting abnormalities in TAI. (author)

  7. Role of Aquaporin 0 in lens biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindhu Kumari, S.; Gupta, Neha; Shiels, Alan; FitzGerald, Paul G.; Menon, Anil G.; Mathias, Richard T.; Varadaraj, Kulandaiappan

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of proper biomechanics of the eye lens is important for its structural integrity and for the process of accommodation to focus near and far objects. Several studies have shown that specialized cytoskeletal systems such as the beaded filament (BF) and spectrin-actin networks contribute to mammalian lens biomechanics; mutations or deletion in these proteins alters lens biomechanics. Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), which constitutes ∼45% of the total membrane proteins of lens fiber cells, has been shown to function as a water channel and a structural cell-to-cell adhesion (CTCA) protein. Our recent ex vivo study on AQP0 knockout (AQP0 KO) mouse lenses showed the CTCA function of AQP0 could be crucial for establishing the refractive index gradient. However, biomechanical studies on the role of AQP0 are lacking. The present investigation used wild type (WT), AQP5 KO (AQP5 −/− ), AQP0 KO (heterozygous KO: AQP0 +/− ; homozygous KO: AQP0 −/− ; all in C57BL/6J) and WT-FVB/N mouse lenses to learn more about the role of fiber cell AQPs in lens biomechanics. Electron microscopic images exhibited decreases in lens fiber cell compaction and increases in extracellular space due to deletion of even one allele of AQP0. Biomechanical assay revealed that loss of one or both alleles of AQP0 caused a significant reduction in the compressive load-bearing capacity of the lenses compared to WT lenses. Conversely, loss of AQP5 did not alter the lens load-bearing ability. Compressive load-bearing at the suture area of AQP0 +/− lenses showed easy separation while WT lens suture remained intact. These data from KO mouse lenses in conjunction with previous studies on lens-specific BF proteins (CP49 and filensin) suggest that AQP0 and BF proteins could act co-operatively in establishing normal lens biomechanics. We hypothesize that AQP0, with its prolific expression at the fiber cell membrane, could provide anchorage for cytoskeletal structures like BFs and together they help to

  8. Algorithm design of liquid lens inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Lu-Lin; Wang, Chun-Chieh

    2008-08-01

    In mobile lens domain, the glass lens is often to be applied in high-resolution requirement situation; but the glass zoom lens needs to be collocated with movable machinery and voice-coil motor, which usually arises some space limits in minimum design. In high level molding component technology development, the appearance of liquid lens has become the focus of mobile phone and digital camera companies. The liquid lens sets with solid optical lens and driving circuit has replaced the original components. As a result, the volume requirement is decreased to merely 50% of the original design. Besides, with the high focus adjusting speed, low energy requirement, high durability, and low-cost manufacturing process, the liquid lens shows advantages in the competitive market. In the past, authors only need to inspect the scrape defect made by external force for the glass lens. As to the liquid lens, authors need to inspect the state of four different structural layers due to the different design and structure. In this paper, authors apply machine vision and digital image processing technology to administer inspections in the particular layer according to the needs of users. According to our experiment results, the algorithm proposed can automatically delete non-focus background, extract the region of interest, find out and analyze the defects efficiently in the particular layer. In the future, authors will combine the algorithm of the system with automatic-focus technology to implement the inside inspection based on the product inspective demands.

  9. Freeform lens design for LED collimating illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Jia; Wang, Te-Yuan; Huang, Kuang-Lung; Liu, Te-Shu; Tsai, Ming-Da; Lin, Chin-Tang

    2012-05-07

    We present a simple freeform lens design method for an application to LED collimating illumination. The method is derived from a basic geometric-optics analysis and construction approach. By using this method, a highly collimating lens with LED chip size of 1.0 mm × 1.0 mm and optical simulation efficiency of 86.5% under a view angle of ± 5 deg is constructed. To verify the practical performance of the lens, a prototype of the collimator lens is also made, and an optical efficiency of 90.3% with a beam angle of 4.75 deg is measured.

  10. Anterior ethmoid anatomy facilitates dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, W K; Moore, C A; Linberg, J V

    1990-12-01

    The ethmoid air cell labyrinth lies adjacent to the medial orbital wall, extending even beyond the sutures of the ethmoid bone. Its anatomic relationship to the lacrimal sac fossa is important in lacrimal surgery. We evaluated computed tomographic scans of 190 orbits with normal ethmoid anatomy to define the anatomic relationship of anterior ethmoid air cells to the lacrimal sac fossa. In 93% of the orbits, the cells extended anterior to the posterior lacrimal crest, with 40% entering the frontal process of the maxilla. This anatomic relationship may be used to facilitate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. During a 10-year period (310 cases), one of us routinely entered the anterior ethmoid air cells to initiate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. This technique has helped to avoid lacerations of the nasal mucosa.

  11. A and B mode ultrasonography in preoperative evaluation of lens and posterior segment of dogs eyes with cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca C. Martins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography of the lens and posterior segment is an indispensable step in the preoperative evaluation of dogs with cataracts, since ophthalmoscopy is not feasible when there is opacification of the lens. This study evaluated the echographic conditions of cataractous lens and fundus of the eye in dogs affected by cataracts. The study was conducted in 30 dogs (56 eyes, 10 males and 20 females, with different types of cataracts at different stages of development. Echography in A and B modes, simultaneously, was carried out for the examination of the lens and posterior segment. The examinations revealed anterior cortical, posterior cortical and nuclear cataract in 12 eyes (21.4%, anterior cortical, posterior cortical, nuclear and posterior capsular in 23 eyes (41%, anterior cortical, posterior cortical and posterior capsular cataract in one eye (1.7%, anterior cortical and nuclear cataract in one eye (1.7%, anterior cortical, nuclear and posterior capsular cataract in five eyes (8.9%, and anterior cortical cataract in seven eyes (12.5%. Abnormal ultrasonographic alterations were observed in the posterior segment in 26 eyes evaluated (46.4%. Vitreal degeneration was detected in 12 eyes (21.4%, images of vitreal exudate or hemorrhage in seven eyes (12.5%, persistence of hyaloid artery in four eyes (7.1% and lens subluxation in three eyes (5.3%. The results obtained reiterate the importance of ultrasonography in canine patients presented for cataract surgery given that alterations of the posterior segment are difficult to identify in a clinical examination when the lens is opacified.A ultrassonografia do segmento posterior do bulbo do olho é etapa indispensável na avaliação de cães com catarata que serão submetidos à facectomia, uma vez que a oftalmoscopia não é factível quando há opacificação da lente, notadamente nas cataratas maduras. Este estudo avaliou as condições ecográficas da lente cataratogênica e do fundo de olho de c

  12. Changes in lens stiffness due to capsular opacification in accommodative lens refilling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Lisanne M.; Sharma, Prashant K.; van Kooten, Theo G.; Koopmans, Steven A.

    Accommodation may be restored to presbyopic lenses by refilling the lens capsular bag with a soft polymer. After this accommodative lens refilling prevention of capsular opacification is a requirement, since capsular opacification leads to a decreased clarity of the refilled lens. It has been

  13. Exchange of tears under a contact lens is driven by distortions of the contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kara L; Ross, David S

    2014-12-01

    We studied the flow of the post-lens tear film under a soft contact lens to understand how the design parameters of contact lenses can affect ocular health. When a soft contact lens is inserted, the blinking eyelid causes the lens to stretch in order to conform to the shape of the eye. The deformed contact lens acts to assume its un-deformed shape and thus generates a suction pressure in the post-lens tear film. In consequence, the post-lens tear fluid moves; it responds to the suction pressure. The suction pressure may draw in fresh fluid from the edge of the lens, or it may eject fluid there, as the lens reassumes its un-deformed shape. In this article, we develop a mathematical model of the flow of the post-lens tear fluid in response to the mechanical suction pressure of a deformed contact lens. We predict the amount of exchange of fluid exchange under a contact lens and we explore the influence of the eye's shape on the rate of exchange of fluid. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. High-gain capsule design for the HIDIF project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honrubia, J.J.; Cerrada, J.A.; Gomez, R.

    2000-01-01

    A high-gain capsule has been designed for the HIDIF project. The goal has been to relax the accelerator requirements by using a radiation pulse with lower peak temperature (220 eV) than previous designs (260 eV). The ablator material is beryllium doped with a very low concentration (0.2 atom %) of copper. The capsule absorbs 1.3 MJ and yields, approximately, 450 MJ in I-D simulations. The effect of the opacity of the ablator on capsule performance has been studied in detail. (authors)

  15. Characterisation of two AGATA asymmetric high purity germanium capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colosimo, S.J.; Moon, S.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Harkness-Brennan, L.; Judson, D.S.; Lazarus, I.H.; Nolan, P.J.; Simpson, J.; Unsworth, C.

    2015-01-01

    The AGATA spectrometer is an array of highly segmented high purity germanium detectors. The spectrometer uses pulse shape analysis in order to track Compton scattered γ-rays to increase the efficiency of nuclear spectroscopy studies. The characterisation of two high purity germanium detector capsules for AGATA of the same A-type has been performed at the University of Liverpool. This work will examine the uniformity of performance of the two capsules, including a comparison of the resolution and efficiency as well as a study of charge collection. The performance of the capsules shows good agreement, which is essential for the efficient operation of the γ-ray tracking array

  16. Characterisation of two AGATA asymmetric high purity germanium capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colosimo, S.J., E-mail: sjc@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Moon, S.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Harkness-Brennan, L.; Judson, D.S. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.H. [STFC Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Unsworth, C. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-11

    The AGATA spectrometer is an array of highly segmented high purity germanium detectors. The spectrometer uses pulse shape analysis in order to track Compton scattered γ-rays to increase the efficiency of nuclear spectroscopy studies. The characterisation of two high purity germanium detector capsules for AGATA of the same A-type has been performed at the University of Liverpool. This work will examine the uniformity of performance of the two capsules, including a comparison of the resolution and efficiency as well as a study of charge collection. The performance of the capsules shows good agreement, which is essential for the efficient operation of the γ-ray tracking array.

  17. Irradiation capsules VISA-2a-f, chapter VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicevic, M.

    1962-01-01

    Irradiation capsules VISA-2a, b,c,d, and e were constructed in Saclay according to the drawings from Vinca and according to the demand of the experimentators. This chapter VI includes documentation for each type of capsule, review about each experiment within the VISA-2 project, the objective and purpose of the experiment as well as experimental device. Irradiation capsule VISA-2f was placed in the RA reactor core in September 1962. It was completely manufactured in Vinca including sample holders and leak tight shells. It will remain in the reactor core for about month in order to obtain the integral fast neutron flux [sr

  18. Lens design and local minima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixner, B.

    1981-01-01

    The widespread belief that local minima exist in the least squares lens-design error function is not confirmed by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) optimization program. LASL finds the optimum-mimimum region, which is characterized by small parameter gradients of similar size, small performance improvement per iteration, and many designs that give similar performance. Local minima and unique prescriptions have not been found in many-parameter problems. The reason for these absences is that image errors caused by a change in one parameter can be compensated by changes in the remaining parameters. False local minima have been found, and four cases are discussed

  19. Spontaneous, late, in-the-bag intraocular lens subluxation in a patient with a previous acute angle-closure glaucoma attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Wen; Chang, Shirley H L

    2004-08-01

    Cataract surgery was performed in a 49-year-old woman 16 months after an acute angle-closure glaucoma attack. Zonular dialysis was observed during surgery, but the intraocular lens (IOL) was implanted in the capsular bag uneventfully. At 4 1/2 months, 1 IOL loop wrapped in the bag herniated into the anterior chamber. The patient had no history of trauma. The IOL loop remained in the anterior chamber for 9 months, until the subluxated IOL spontaneously returned to its original position. Six months later, the IOL again dislocated into the anterior chamber.

  20. Clinical outcomes of pars plicata anterior vitrectomy: 2-year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Narang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To demonstrate the safety and outcome of a surgical approach that uses pars plicata site for anterior vitrectomy during phacoemulsification procedure complicated by posterior capsule rupture and residual cortical matter. Design: Single center, retrospective, interventional, noncomparative study. Materials and Methods: Medical records of a consecutive series of 35 eyes of 35 patients who underwent pars plicata anterior vitrectomy (PPAV were reviewed. The main outcome measures were corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, UDVA, early and late postoperative complications and intraocular pressure (IOP. Ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM evaluation of sclerotomy site and spectral domain optical coherence tomography analysis for central macular thickness (CMT was performed. The final visual outcome at 2 years was evaluated. Results: At 2 years follow-up, the mean postoperative UDVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] and CDVA (logMAR was 0.49 ± 0.26 and 0.19 ± 0.14, respectively. There was no significant change in the IOP (P = 0.061 and the mean CMT at 2 years was 192.5 ± 5.54 mm. The postoperative UBM image of the sclerotomy site at 8 weeks demonstrated a clear wound without any vitreous adhesion or incarceration. Intraoperative hyphema was seen in 1 (2.8% case and postoperative uveitis was seen in 2 (5.7% cases, which resolved with medications. No case of an iatrogenic retinal break or retinal detachment was reported. Conclusions: PPAV enables a closed chamber approach, allows thorough cleanup of vitreous in the pupillary plane and anterior chamber and affords better access to the subincisional and retropupillary cortical remnant with a significant visual outcome and an acceptable complication rate.

  1. Unilateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the ipRGC mediated pupil response in patients with a unilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Consensual pupil responses during and after exposure to continuous 20 s blue (470 nm) or red (660 nm) light of high intensity (300 cd/m(2)) were recorded...

  2. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-10-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  3. Protection of the eye lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The limit of radiation exposure for eye lens is going to decrease dramatically from 150 to 20 mSv as a transposition into the French law of a CIPR (International Commission for Radiation Protection) directive. Sanitary studies have shown that radiologists are more likely by a factor of 3.8 to get eye lens opacities than the rest of the population. The wearing of protective glasses is recommended and in order to get a better monitoring of the radiation dose new dosimeters have been designed, they can be worn on the glass frame of directly stuck on the skin near the eyes. A study has shown that veterinary surgeons that are accustomed to stay near animals to keep them quiet during radiological exams are prone to receive high doses as well as physicians that use hypnosis to decrease the level of anxiety of their patients during radiological exams. Radiation exposure of radiologists can be mitigated through: the use of protective shields and equipment and the optimization of the dose delivered to the patient. (A.C.)

  4. Radiation therapy for retinoblastoma: comparison of results with lens-sparing versus lateral beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, B.; Ellsworth, R.; Abramson, D.; Haik, B.; Tome, M.; Grabowski, E.; LoSasso, T.

    1988-01-01

    From 1979 through 1986, 170 children were seen at our institution diagnosed with retinoblastoma. Sixty-six of the children with involvement of 121 eyes, were referred for definitive external beam radiation to one or both eyes. During the study period, two distinct radiation techniques were used. From 1980 through mid-1984, a lens-sparing technique included an anterior electron beam with a contact lens mounted lead shield, combined with a lateral field, was used. Since mid-1984, a modified lateral beam technique has been used, mixing lateral electrons and superior and inferior lateral oblique split beam wedged photons. Doses prescribed were similar for both techniques, ranging from 3,850 to 5,000 cGy in 4 to 5 weeks. The lens-sparing and the modified lateral techniques are compared for local control. For eyes with Group I through III disease, the lens-sparing technique resulted in local control in 33% of the eyes treated, where the modified lateral technique controlled 83% of the eyes treated (p = .006). Mean time to relapse was identical in both groups, that is 24 and 26 months respectively. Most relapses were successfully treated with further local therapy, including laser or cryosurgery, or 60Co plaques. Five eyes required enucleation following initial treatment with the lens-sparing technique, but none thus far with the lateral beam technique. For eyes with Group IV and V disease, no significant differences were found between the two techniques in terms of local control or eventual need for enucleation. With a mean follow-up time of 33 months for the entire group, the 4-year survival is 93%. Two of the 4 deaths are due to second primary tumor, and all 4 have occurred in the lens-sparing group. Because follow-up time is more limited in the lateral beam group, this is not statistically significant and direct survival comparisons are premature

  5. Area densitometry using rotating Scheimpflug photography for posterior capsule opacification and surface light scattering analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Keiichiro; Honbo, Masato; Mori, Yosai; Kataoka, Yasushi; Miyata, Kazunori

    2015-11-01

    To compare area densitometry analysis using rotating Scheimpflug photography in quantifications of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) and surface light scattering with previous anterior-segment analyzer measurement. Miyata Eye Hospital, Miyazaki, Japan. Prospective observational case series. Scheimpflug images of eyes with foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs) were obtained using rotating and fixed Scheimpflug photography. Area densitometry on the posterior and anterior surfaces was conducted for PCO and surface light scattering analyses, respectively, with an identical area size. Correlation between two measurements was analyzed using linear regression. The study included 105 eyes of 74 patients who received IOLs 1 to 18 years (mean, 4.9 ± 4.5 years) postoperatively. In the PCO analysis on the posterior IOL surface, there was a significant correlation between the two measurements (P photography exhibited saturation due to intensive scatterings. Area densitometry combined with a rotating Scheimpflug photography was exchangeable to previously established densitometry measurement, and allowed successive evaluation in longer-term observations. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biosorption of mercury by capsulated and slime layer- forming Gram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... high negatively charged components, showed more than 1.5 fold increase as compared to capsulated ... Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals released in ... ion exchange, activated carbon adsorption and separation.

  7. [Acute caffeine intoxication after intake of 'herbal energy capsules'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.E.; Landstra, A.M.; Luin, M. van; Setten, P.A. van

    2008-01-01

    Two males, 15 and 17 years old respectively, presented at the Emergency Department complaining of cramping abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting after ingestion of energy capsules. Physical examination revealed sinus tachycardia and slight abdominal pain. Laboratory examination showed substantial

  8. Positron radiography of ignition-relevant ICF capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. J.; Chen, Hui; Field, J. E.; Landen, O. L.; Strozzi, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Laser-generated positrons are evaluated as a probe source to radiograph in-flight ignition-relevant inertial confinement fusion capsules. Current ultraintense laser facilities are capable of producing 2 × 1012 relativistic positrons in a narrow energy bandwidth and short time duration. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that the unique characteristics of such positrons allow for the reconstruction of both capsule shell radius and areal density between 0.002 and 2 g/cm2. The energy-downshifted positron spectrum and angular scattering of the source particles are sufficient to constrain the conditions of the capsule between preshot and stagnation. We evaluate the effects of magnetic fields near the capsule surface using analytic estimates where it is shown that this diagnostic can tolerate line integrated field strengths of 100 T mm.

  9. Versatile Loading of Diverse Cargo into Functional Polymer Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph J; Maina, James W; Ejima, Hirotaka; Hu, Ming; Guo, Junling; Choy, Mei Y; Gunawan, Sylvia T; Lybaert, Lien; Hagemeyer, Christoph E; De Geest, Bruno G; Caruso, Frank

    2015-02-01

    Polymer microcapsules are of particular interest for applications including self-healing coatings, catalysis, bioreactions, sensing, and drug delivery. The primary way that polymer capsules can exhibit functionality relevant to these diverse fields is through the incorporation of functional cargo in the capsule cavity or wall. Diverse functional and therapeutic cargo can be loaded into polymer capsules with ease using polymer-stabilized calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) particles. A variety of examples are demonstrated, including 15 types of cargo, yielding a toolbox with effectively 500+ variations. This process uses no harsh reagents and can take less than 30 min to prepare, load, coat, and form the hollow capsules. For these reasons, it is expected that the technique will play a crucial role across scientific studies in numerous fields.

  10. Pharmacokinetic Study of a Capsule-based Chronomodulated Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cross-linked gelatin capsule shells containing salbutamol pellets, and sealed with a suitable mixture of ... delivered at a constant rate, since the drug effect decreases with time at .... parameters were analyzed by Wilcoxon Signed. Rank test for ...

  11. Regional gastrointestinal contractility parameters using the wireless motility capsule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, A D; Wegeberg, A-M L; Brock, B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The wireless motility capsule concurrently measures temperature, pH and pressure as it traverses the gastrointestinal tract. AIMS: To describe normative values for motility/contractility parameters across age, gender and testing centres. METHODS: Healthy participants underwent...

  12. Válvula de uretra anterior Anterior urethral valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Tucci Jr.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: apresentar os aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos de pacientes portadores de válvula da uretra anterior. Descrição: em dois neonatos, o diagnóstico presuntivo de patologia obstrutiva do trato urinário foi sugerido pela ultra-sonografia realizada no período pré-natal, confirmando-se o diagnóstico de válvula de uretra anterior pela avaliação pós-natal. Os pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico paliativo, com vesicostomia temporária e, posteriormente, definitivo, pela fulguração endoscópica das válvulas. Ambos evoluíram com função renal normal. Comentários: a válvula da uretra anterior é anomalia rara que deve ser considerada em meninos com quadro radiológico pré-natal sugestivo de obstrução infravesical, secundariamente à hipótese mais comum de válvula da uretra posterior. Ressaltamos a utilização da vesicostomia como derivação urinária temporária nestes casos, prevenindo potenciais complicações pela manipulação da uretra do recém-nascido.Objective: to discuss clinical signs, diagnostic tools and therapeutics of anterior urethral valves, an obstructive anomaly of the urinary system in males. Description: signs of urinary tract obstruction were identified on pre-natal ultrasound in two male fetuses and the diagnosis of anterior urethral valves was made through post-natal evaluation. As an initial treatment, vesicostomy was performed in both patients. Later, the valves were fulgurated using an endoscopic procedure. During the follow-up period both patients presented normal renal function. Comments: anterior urethral valves are a rare form of urethral anomaly that must be ruled out in boys with pre-natal ultrasound indicating infravesical obstruction. Vesicostomy used as an initial treatment rather than transurethral fulguration may prevent potential complications that can occur due to the small size of the neonatal urethra.

  13. Color corrected Fresnel lens for solar concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritchman, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    A new linear convex Fresnel lens with its groove side down is described. The design philosophy is similar to the highly concentrating two focal Fresnel lens but including a correction for chromatic aberration. A solar concentration ratio as high as 80 is achieved. For wide acceptance angles the concentration nears the theoretical maximum. (author)

  14. Analysis of a Thin Optical Lens Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivchenko, Vladimir V.

    2011-01-01

    In this article a thin optical lens model is considered. It is shown that the limits of its applicability are determined not only by the ratio between the thickness of the lens and the modules of the radii of curvature, but above all its geometric type. We have derived the analytical criteria for the applicability of the model for different types…

  15. Mathematical Lens: How Much Can You Bench?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognese, Chris A.

    2013-01-01

    "How Much Can You Bench?" appears in the "Mathematical Lens" section of "Mathematics Teacher." "Mathematical Lens" uses photographs as a springboard for mathematical inquiry and appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher." This month the mathematics behind the photograph includes finding areas…

  16. Plasma Lens for Muon and Neutrino Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, S.A.; Korenev, S.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M.; Gallardo, J.C.; Hershcovitch, A.; Johnson, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    The plasma lens is examined as an alternate to focusing horns and solenoids for use in a neutrino or muon beam facility. The plasma lens concept is based on a combined high-energy lens/target configuration. The current is fed at electrodes located upstream and downstream from the target where pion capturing is needed. The current flows primarily in the plasma, which has a lower resistivity than the target. A second plasma lens section, with an additional current feed, follows the target to provide shaping of the plasma for optimum focusing. The plasma lens is immersed in an additional solenoid magnetic field to facilitate the plasma stability. The geometry of the plasma is shaped to provide optimal pion capture. Simulations of this plasma lens system have shown a 25% higher neutrino production than the horn system. Plasma lenses have the additional advantage of negligible pion absorption and scattering by the lens material and reduced neutrino contamination during anti-neutrino running. Results of particle simulations using plasma lens will be presented

  17. SATCAP-C : a program for thermal hydraulic design of pressurized water injection type capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harayama, Yasuo; Someya, Hiroyuki; Asoh, Tomokazu; Niimi, Motoji

    1992-10-01

    There are capsules called 'Pressure Water Injection Type Capsule' as a kind of irradiation devices at the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). A type of the capsules is a 'Boiling Water Capsule' (usually named BOCA). The other type is a 'Saturated Temperature Capsule' (named SATCAP). When the water is kept at a constant pressure, the water temperature does not become higher than the saturated temperature so far as the water does not fully change to steam. These type capsules are designed on the basis of the conception of applying the water characteristic to the control of irradiation temperature of specimens in the capsules. In designing of the capsules in which the pressurized water is injected, thermal performances have to be understood as exactly as possible. It is not easy however to predict thermal performances such as axially temperature distribution of water injected in the capsule, because there are heat-sinks at both side of inner and outer of capsule casing as the result that the water is fluid. Then, a program (named SATCAP-C) for the BOCA and SATCAP was compiled to grasp the thermal performances in the capsules and has been used the design of the capsules and analysis of the data obtained from some actual irradiation capsules. It was confirmed that the program was effective in thermal analysis for the capsules. The analysis found out the values for heat transfer coefficients at various surfaces of capsule components and some thermal characteristics of capsules. (author)

  18. Water Landing Impact of Recovery Space Capsule: A Research Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Eiichiro; Uchikawa, Hideaki; Tanno, Hideyuki; Sugimoto, Ryu

    2014-01-01

    For the design of a manned or cargo space capsule, it is important to precisely estimate the Earth landing loads to the crew or cargo, and to limit the loads to within a permissible range. Water landing simulations and scale-model water landing tests with varying conditions for descending velocity, pitch angle, and horizontal velocity during splashdown were conducted to estimate the magnitude of water impact on the recovery space capsule. This paper describes the results of the simulation and...

  19. Fabrication of mechanical system of the FPM capsule puller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudirdjo, Hari; Prasetya, Hendra

    2000-01-01

    A mechanical system of the FPM capsule puller has been fabricated, which has a function to pull the irradiated FPM capsule. The construction of the system consist of driving motor equipped with reduction gear, spindle, and puller wire. The system has puller stroke of 700 mm, therefore the puller will be terminated at the outside of the reactor core. A function test had been done and shows that the system has fulfilled the requirements

  20. Demonstration of Polysaccharide Capsule in Campylobacter jejuni Using Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Karlyshev, Andrey V.; McCrossan, Maria V.; Wren, Brendan W.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we reported that Campylobacter jejuni, an important gastrointestinal pathogen, has the genetic determinants to produce a capsular polysaccharide (Karlyshev et al., Mol. Microbiol. 35:529–541, 2000). Despite these data, the presence of a capsule in these bacteria has remained controversial. In this study we stain C. jejuni cells with the cationic dye Alcian blue and demonstrate for the first time by electron microscopy that C. jejuni cells produce a polysaccharide capsule that is ret...

  1. Polysaccharide capsule-mediated resistance to opsonophagocytosis in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico, P; Salo, R J; Cross, A S; Cunha, B A

    1994-01-01

    The polysaccharide capsule of Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important virulence factor that confers resistance to phagocytosis. The treatment of encapsulated bacteria with salicylate to inhibit capsule expression was found to enhance the phagocytosis of encapsulated bacteria by human neutrophils only in the presence of cell surface-specific antibodies. Both type-specific rabbit antisera and anticapsular human hyperimmune globulin were employed as opsonins. Salicylate significantly enhanced phag...

  2. The position control of a capsule filled with magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, E.J.; Park, M.K.; Yamane, R.; Oshima, S.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, in order to establish the technique of a nozzle-flapper system of a servo valve using magnetic fluid in hydraulic system, a governing equation regarding the levitation of a capsule filled with magnetic fluid is formulated. Using PID control, an experiment for the position control of a capsule was performed. The experimental results were compared with the simulation results found by the governing equation

  3. LensEnt2: Maximum-entropy weak lens reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P. J.; Hobson, M. P.; Gull, S. F.; Bridle, S. L.

    2013-08-01

    LensEnt2 is a maximum entropy reconstructor of weak lensing mass maps. The method takes each galaxy shape as an independent estimator of the reduced shear field and incorporates an intrinsic smoothness, determined by Bayesian methods, into the reconstruction. The uncertainties from both the intrinsic distribution of galaxy shapes and galaxy shape estimation are carried through to the final mass reconstruction, and the mass within arbitrarily shaped apertures are calculated with corresponding uncertainties. The input is a galaxy ellipticity catalog with each measured galaxy shape treated as a noisy tracer of the reduced shear field, which is inferred on a fine pixel grid assuming positivity, and smoothness on scales of w arcsec where w is an input parameter. The ICF width w can be chosen by computing the evidence for it.

  4. Design and fabrication of non-instrumented capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Jeong Young; Kim, Joon Yeon; Lee, Sung Ho; Ji, Dae Young; Kim, Suk Hoon; Ahn, Sung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-01

    The use of non-instrumented capsule designed and fabricated in this time is for the evaluation of material irradiation performance, it is to be installed in the inner core of HANARO. The design process of non-instrumented capsule was accomplished by the decision of the quality of material and the shape, thermal analysis, structural analysis. The temperature of the specimen and the stress in capsule during irradiation test was calculated by the thermal analysis and the structural analysis. GGENGTC code and ABAQUS code were used for the calculation of non-instrumented capsule. In case of installing the capsule in irradiation hole, the coolant flow rate and the pressure drop in the hole is changed, which will affect the coolant flow rate of the fuel region. Eventually the coolant flow rate outside capsule have to be restricted to the allowable range. In order to obtain the required pressure drop, the flow rate control mechanism, end plate and orifice ring were used in this test. The test results are compared with 36-element fuel pressure drop data which AECL performed by the SCTR facility.

  5. Capsule Development and Utilization for Material Irradiation Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B. G.; Joo, K. N.

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this project was to establish basic capsule irradiation technology using the multi-purpose research reactor [HANARO] to eventually support national R and D projects of advanced fuel and materials related to domestic nuclear power plants and next generation reactors. There are several national nuclear projects in KAERI, which require several irradiation tests to investigate in-pile behavior of nuclear reactor fuel and materials for the R and D of several types of fuels such as advanced PWR and DUPIC fuels and for the R and D of structural materials such as RPV(reactor pressure vessel) steel, Inconel, zirconium alloy, and stainless steel. At the moment, internal and external researchers in institutes, industries and universities are interested in investigating the irradiation characteristics of materials using the irradiation facilities of HANARO. For these kinds of material irradiation tests, it is important to develop various capsules using our own techniques. The development of capsules requires several leading-edge technologies and our own experiences related to design and fabrication. In the second phase from April 1,2000 to March 31, 2003, the utilization technologies were developed using various sensors for the measurements of temperature, pressure and displacement, and instrumented capsule technologies for the required fuel irradiation tests were developed. In addition, the improvement of the existing capsule technologies and the development of an in-situ measurable creep capsule for specific purposes were done to meet the various requirements of users

  6. Failure of the capsule for coated particles irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaki, Jikei; Nomura, Yasushi; Nagamatsuya, Takaaki; Yamahara, Takeshi; Sakai, Haruyuki

    1975-10-01

    During operation cycle No. 27 of the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) on May 20, 1974, leakage of the fission product gas occurred from the capsule 72F-7A, which contained coated particles for the irradiation; the coated particles are for the development of a multi-purpose high temperature gas cooled reactor. The capsule was designed for heat 1600 0 C. Three nickel plates as the heat reflector were sandwiched in between the plates of titanium and zirconium, which were adsorbents for the impurity gases in the cladding tube (Nb-1%Zr). Temperatures of the plates were about 1000 0 C under the irradiation, so one metal diffused into the other metal through interfaces, resulting in the formation of an alloy. Its melting point was lower than those of metals in the capsule. The cladding material Nb-1%Zr was melted by the alloy and finally a pin hole developed through the cladding. The process of failure, design of the capsule, post-irradiation test of the capsule and the failure-reproducing experiment with a mock-up capsule are described. (auth.)

  7. Design and fabrication of non-instrumented capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Jeong Young; Kim, Joon Yeon; Lee, Sung Ho; Ji, Dae Young; Kim, Suk Hoon; Ahn, Sung Ho

    1995-04-01

    The use of non-instrumented capsule designed and fabricated in this time is for the evaluation of material irradiation performance, it is to be installed in the inner core of HANARO. The design process of non-instrumented capsule was accomplished by the decision of the quality of material and the shape, thermal analysis, structural analysis. The temperature of the specimen and the stress in capsule during irradiation test was calculated by the thermal analysis and the structural analysis. GGENGTC code and ABAQUS code were used for the calculation of non-instrumented capsule. In case of installing the capsule in irradiation hole, the coolant flow rate and the pressure drop in the hole is changed, which will affect the coolant flow rate of the fuel region. Eventually the coolant flow rate outside capsule have to be restricted to the allowable range. In order to obtain the required pressure drop, the flow rate control mechanism, end plate and orifice ring were used in this test. The test results are compared with 36-element fuel pressure drop data which AECL performed by the SCTR facility

  8. Thermal analysis of an instrumented capsule using an ANSYS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Myoung Hwan; Choo, Kee Nam; Kang, Young Hwan; Cho, Man Soon; Sohn, Jae Min; Kim, Bong Goo

    2006-01-01

    An instrumented capsule has been used for an irradiation test of various nuclear materials in the research reactor, HANARO. To obtain the design data of the instrumented capsule, a thermal analysis is performed using a finite element analysis program, ANSYS. The 2-dimensional model for a cross section of the capsule including the specimens is generated, and a gamma-heating rate of the materials for the HANARO power of 24 or 30 MW is considered as an input force. The effect of the gap size and the control rod position on the temperature of the specimens or other components is discussed. From the analysis it is found that the gap between the thermal media and the external tube has a significant effect on the temperature of the specimen. In the case of the material capsule, the maximum temperature for the reactor power of 24 MW is 255degC for an irradiation test and 257degC for a FE analysis at the center stage of the capsule in the axial direction. It is expected that the analysis models using an ANSYS program will be useful in designing the instrumented capsules for an irradiation test and estimating the test results. (author)

  9. Some views on mechanical safety of capsules for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, F.

    1978-02-01

    Three different concepts for encapsulation of used nuclear fuel are discussed with respect to their mechanical safety. In the first concept the burnt out fuel elements are encapsulated into a copper capsule. The material properties of copper are discussed especially with reference to toughness and creep. A simple fracture mechanical analysis shows that the risk for direct fracture is negligible at the actual stress levels. The loads on the capsule are studied and are found to be normally less than 40 MPa (residual stresses). Transient loads that might arise in the handling of the capsule might however be dangerous to its integrity. The next concept is encapsulation of the fuel elements into a sintered aluminium oxide capsule. A fracture probability analysis based on Weibull's statistical fracture theory gives fracture probabilities that are acceptable. Extended studies of this concept, especially of the risk for delayed fracture, is recommended. The last concept is a Pb-Ti capsule for glassed refined fuel. An analysis of the relaxation of internal stresses is performed. The critical point of these capsules appears to be the welds on the titanium shell where the risk for a direct fracture is not neglibigle

  10. Advanced pigment dispersion glaucoma secondary to phakic intraocular collamer lens implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Ye

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of pigment dispersion glaucoma secondary to uncomplicated phakic intraocular collamer lens (ICL (Visian ICL™, Staar Inc., Monrovia, CA implant that resulted in advanced visual field loss. Observations: A 50-year-old man presented for routine follow-up status post bilateral phakic intraocular collamer lens (ICL placement 8 years earlier. He was incidentally found to have a decline in visual acuity from an anterior subcapsular cataract and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in the left eye. There were signs of pigment dispersion and no evidence of angle closure. Diffuse optic nerve thinning was consistent with advanced glaucomatous visual field defects. Pigment dispersion was also present in the patient's right eye, but without elevated IOP or visual field defects. The patient was treated with topical glaucoma medications and the phakic ICL in the left eye was removed concurrently with cataract surgery to prevent further visual field loss. Conclusions and importance: Pigment dispersion glaucoma is a serious adverse outcome after phakic ICL implantation and regular post-operative monitoring may prevent advanced visual field loss. Keywords: Phakic intraocular lens, Intraocular collamer lens, Pigment dispersion, Glaucoma

  11. Pigment dispersion syndrome associated with intraocular lens implantation: a new surgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Isabel Canut Jordana

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available M Isabel Canut Jordana1, Daniel Pérez Formigó1, Rodrigo Abreu González2, Jeroni Nadal Reus11Barraquer Ophthalmology Centre, Barcelona, Spain; 2University Hospital of La Candelaria, Tenerife, SpainAims: We report the case of a myopic patient who, after intraocular lens transplant in the posterior chamber, suffered elevated intraocular pressure due to pigment dispersion, with recurrent episodes of blurred vision. The patient was treated with a new surgical technique that can avoid potential iridolenticular contact.Methods: Complete ophthalmologic examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT of the anterior segment were performed.Results: Contact between the pigmentary epithelium and the iris with an intraocular lens was revealed by utrasound biomicroscopy and OCT. In this case, Nd:YAG laser iridotomy and laser iridoplasty were not effective for iridolenticular separation and control of the pigment dispersion. We propose a new technique: stitches on the surface of the iris to obtain good iridolenticular separation and good intraocular pressure control.Conclusion: Stitches on the iris surface should be considered as optional therapy in pigmentary glaucoma secondary to intraocular lens implantation. This surgical technique can avoid potential iridolenticular contacts more definitively.Keywords: pigmentary glaucoma, intraocular lens, optical coherence tomography, laser

  12. Anterior chamber angle assessment using gonioscopy and ultrasound biomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Arun; Vijaya, Lingam; Shantha, B; Baskaran, Mani; Sathidevi, A V; Baluswamy, Sukumar

    2004-01-01

    Comparison of anterior chamber angle measurements using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and gonioscopy. Five hundred subjects were evaluated for grading of angle width by the Shaffer method. UBM was done in the same group to document angle width, angle opening distance (AOD 500), and anterior chamber depth. Biometric parameters were documented in all subjects. UBM and gonioscopic findings were compared. A study was conducted in 282 men and 218 women with a mean age of 57.32 +/- 12.48 years. Gonioscopic grading was used to segregate occludable (slit-like, grades 1 and 2) from nonoccludable (grades 3 and 4) angles. Subjective assessment by gonioscopy resulted in an overestimation of angle width within the occludable group when compared with values obtained by UBM. This did not affect the segregation of occludable versus nonoccludable angles by gonioscopy. Biometric parameters in eyes with occludable angles were significantly lower in comparison with eyes with nonoccludable angles, except for lens thickness. AOD 500 correlated well with angle width. We concluded that clinical segregation into occludable and nonoccludable angles by an experienced observer using gonioscopy is fairly accurate. However, UBM is required for objective quantification of angles, and AOD 500 can be a reliable and standard parameter to grade angle width.

  13. Anatomia microcirúgica da substâcia perfurada anterior basal humana Microsurgical anatomy of the human basal anterior perforated substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Alfredo Silveira D’Ávila

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A substância perfurada anterior constitui referencial na base do encéfalo. Localizada acima da bifurcação subaracnóidea da artéria carótida interna em sua porção basal e junto à artéria comunicante anterior na face inter-hemisférica, é transfixada por ramos perfurantes dirigidos aos núcleos telencefálicos corticais, cápsula interna e parte do tálamo. Por injeção intravascular de gelatina carminada, resina de Batson e látex, analisamos 50 hemisférios cerebrais humanos adultos de ambos os sexos, sob o microscópio cirúrgico. Objetivamos contribuir para a determinação da origem, número e topografia dos ramos destinados a essa região, seu curso, anastomoses e territórios de penetração. Propusemo-nos também a analisar a contribuição da artéria comunicante anterior à substância perfurada anterior. Foram encontradas variações anatômicas, incluindo anastomoses, envolvendo principalmente a artéria cerebral média e a artéria coróidea anterior. Estes conhecimentos são de interesse clínico-cirúrgico em razão da freqüência de patologias vasculares e tumorais a ela relacionadas.The anterior perforated substance (APS is a landmark in the basal forebrain. It has a basal face located above the carotid bifurcation in the subarachnoid space, and an interhemispheric one. It is the site of passage of the arteries to the caudate nucleus, putamen, internal capsule, adjacent areas of the globus pallidus and thalamus. Fifty hemispheres from twenty-five adult cadavers were obtained. The arteries were perfused with colored latex, Batson’s resin and gelatin colored with carmine. Using a surgical microscope we have determined the origin, local and number of origin from the parent vessel. The sites of penetration in the mediolateral and anteroposterior direction were also recorded. The anterior communicating artery contribution to the basal APS was reviewed. Significant vascular variations and anastomoses were encountered

  14. Study of the structure of buffalo's eye lens and scleroretinal rim in Tabriz by ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH Assadnassab

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrasonographic condition of lens and posterior wall of buffalo's eye in Tabriz area were investigated due to their important role in vision and also measurements were made in anterior-posterior axial B-mode display methods. The ultrasonographic images were similar to the images obtained from other particularly the cow. Total thickness of the lens was 1.133 ± 0.052 cm with the thickness being 1.135 ± 0.052 cm in the right eye and 1.132 ± 0.053 cm in the left eye. Thickness of the posterior wall of the right and left eyes were 1.677 ± 0.042 mm and 1.672 ± 0.041 mm respectively with the total thickness of the posterior wall measuring 1.674 ± 0.040 mm. There was no significant difference between the left and right eyes regarding these parameters.

  15. Development of a sealing process of capsules for surveillance test tubes of the vessel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, J.; Fernandez T, F.; Perez R, N.; Rocamontes A, M.; Garcia R, R.

    2007-01-01

    The surveillance capsule is composed by the support, three capsules for impact test tubes, five capsules for tension test tubes and one porta dosemeters. The capsules for test tubes are of two types: rectangular capsule for Charpy test tubes and cylindrical capsule for tension test tubes. This work describes the development of the welding system to seal the capsules for test tubes that should contain helium of ultra high purity to a pressure of 1 atmosphere. (Author)

  16. Lessons learned: wrong intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Oliver D; Banta, James T; Chen, Teresa C; Pritzker, Scott; Schachat, Andrew P

    2012-10-01

    To report cases involving the placement of the wrong intraocular lens (IOL) at the time of cataract surgery where human error occurred. Retrospective small case series, convenience sample. Seven surgical cases. Institutional review of errors committed and subsequent improvements to clinical protocols. Lessons learned and changes in procedures adapted. The pathways to a wrong IOL are many but largely reflect some combination of poor surgical team communication, transcription error, lack of preoperative clarity in surgical planning or failure to match the patient, and IOL calculation sheet with 2 unique identifiers. Safety in surgery involving IOLs is enhanced both by strict procedures, such as an IOL-specific "time-out," and the fostering of a surgical team culture in which all members are encouraged to voice questions and concerns. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation studies in Lens culinaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S.S.N.

    1977-01-01

    Estimation of chromosomal aberrations in flowers of Lens culinaris according to their sequence of development in the plants at 4, 8 and 12 Kr in the M 1 generation, showed that the later formed flowers had smaller percentages of cells with aberrations than those developed earlier. It is suggested that this may be the result of competition between more damaged and less damaged cells during the development of the shoot. There is consequently a decrease of sterility in successive flowers. The numbers of karyotypes taking part in the formation of lower and uppermost flowers were estimated cytologically at 4, 8 and 12 Kr. It was found that more karyotypes were involved in the formation of the lower flowers than in the upper ones. It appeared that at lower doses larger numbers of karyotypes were taking part in the formation of the chimaera than at higher doses. (auth.)

  18. Epidermoid cyst in Anterior, Middle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankane Vivek Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are benign slow growing more often extra-axial tumors that insinuate between brain structures, we present the clinical, imaging, and pathological findings in 35 years old female patients with atypical epidermoid cysts which was situated anterior, middle & posterior cranial fossa. NCCT head revealed hypodense lesion over right temporal and perisylvian region with extension in prepontine cistern with mass effect & midline shift and MRI findings revealed a non-enhancing heterogeneous signal intensity cystic lesion in right frontal & temporal region extending into prepontine cistern with restricted diffusion. Patient was detoriated in night of same day of admission, emergency Fronto-temporal craniotomy with anterior peterousectomy and subtotal resection was done. The histological examination confirms the epidermoid cyst. The timing of ectodermal tissue sequestration during fetal development may account for the occurrence of atypical epidermoid cysts.

  19. Capability of MRI for the indication at arthroscopic staple capsulorrhaphy on traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Motoyuki; Kurokawa, Masao; Kubo, Toshikazu; Yamashita, Taku; Hirasawa, Yasusuke; Katsumi, Yasukazu.

    1996-01-01

    We compared MRI findings in the shoulder with arthroscopic findings of the anterior part of inferior gleno-humeral ligament (AIGHL) in 49 shoulders showing traumatic anterior instability (TAI). Arthroscopic findings were classified into two types according to whether the AIGHL is adequately wide and thick for arthroscopic staple capsulorrhaphy (ASC). MRI findings were graded into two types according to the continuity of the articular capsule in 23 shoulders examined by MR arthrograms and according to the morphology of the anterior labrum in 26 examined by conventional MRI. In each shoulder, two or three different sections containing the anteroinferior area of the glenoid were evaluated. MRI findings were significantly correlated with arthroscopic findings. Both MR arthrograms and conventional MRI are useful for determining the indications for ASC. (author)

  20. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Peter A J; Golanó, Pau; Clavero, Joan A; van Dijk, C Niek

    2010-05-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly limited by the overlying anatomy which includes the neurovascular bundle. We hypothesize that in ankle dorsiflexion the anterior neurovascular bundle will move away anteriorly from the ankle joint, whereas in ankle distraction the anterior neurovascular bundle is pulled tight towards the joint, thereby decreasing the safe anterior working area. Six fresh frozen ankle specimens, amputated above the knee, were scanned with computed tomography. Prior to scanning the anterior tibial artery was injected with contrast fluid and subsequently each ankle was scanned both in ankle dorsiflexion and in distraction. A special device was developed to reproducibly obtain ankle dorsiflexion and distraction in the computed tomography scanner. The distance between the anterior border of the inferior tibial articular facet and the posterior border of the anterior tibial artery was measured. The median distance from the anterior border of the inferior tibial articular facet to the posterior border of the anterior tibial artery in ankle dorsiflexion and distraction was 0.9 cm (range 0.7-1.5) and 0.7 cm (range 0.5-0.8), respectively. The distance in ankle dorsiflexion significantly exceeded the distance in ankle distraction (P = 0.03). The current study shows a significantly increased distance between the anterior distal tibia and the overlying anterior neurovascular bundle with the ankle in a slightly dorsiflexed position as compared to the distracted ankle position. We thereby conclude that the distracted ankle position puts the neurovascular structures more at risk for iatrogenic damage when performing anterior ankle arthroscopy.

  1. Anterior spinal cord syndrome of unknown etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Klakeel, Merrine; Thompson, Justin; Srinivasan, Rajashree; McDonald, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A spinal cord injury encompasses a physical insult to the spinal cord. In the case of anterior spinal cord syndrome, the insult is a vascular lesion at the anterior spinal artery. We present the cases of two 13-year-old boys with anterior spinal cord syndrome, along with a review of the anatomy and vasculature of the spinal cord and an explanation of how a lesion in the cord corresponds to anterior spinal cord syndrome.

  2. Anterior fixation of the axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynelis, Vincent C; Fontes, Ricardo B V

    2010-09-01

    Although anterior fixation of the axis is not commonly performed, plate fixation of C2 is an important technique for treating select upper cervical traumatic injuries and is also useful in the surgical management of spondylosis. To report the technique and outcomes of C2 anterior plate fixation for a series of patients in which the majority presented with symptomatic degenerative spondylosis. Forty-six consecutive patients underwent single or multilevel fusions over a 7-year period; 30 of these had advanced degenerative disease manifested by myelopathy or deformity. Exposure was achieved with rostral extension of the standard anterior cervical exposure via careful soft tissue dissection, mobilization of the superior thyroid artery, and the use of a table-mounted retractor. It was not necessary to remove the submandibular gland, section the digastric muscle, or make additional skin incisions. Screws were placed an average of 4.6 mm (+/- 2.3 mm) from the inferior C2 endplate with a mean sagittal trajectory of 15.7 degrees (+/- 7.6 degrees). Short- and long-term procedure-related mortality was 4.4%, and perioperative morbidity was 8.9%. Patients remained intubated an average of 2.5 days following surgery. Dysphagia was initially reported by 15.2% of patients but resolved by the 8th postoperative week in all patients. Arthrodesis was achieved in all patients available for long-term follow-up. Multilevel fusions were not associated with longer hospitalization or morbidity. Anterior plate fixation of the axis for degenerative disease can be accomplished with acceptable morbidity employing an extension of the standard anterolateral route.

  3. Biometric analysis of pigment dispersion syndrome using anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptel, Florent; Beccat, Sylvain; Fortoul, Vincent; Denis, Philippe

    2011-08-01

    To compare anterior chamber volume (ACV), iris volume, and iridolenticular contact (ILC) area before and after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in eyes with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT) and image processing software. Cross-sectional study. Eighteen eyes of 18 patients with PDS; 30 eyes of 30 controls matched for age, gender, and refraction. Anterior segment OCT imaging was performed in all eyes before LPI and 1, 4, and 12 weeks after LPI. At each visit, 12 cross-sectional images of the AS were taken: 4 in bright conditions with accommodation (accommodation), 4 in bright conditions without accommodation (physiological miosis), and 4 under dark conditions (physiologic mydriasis). Biometric parameters were estimated using AS OCT radial sections and customized image-processing software. Anterior chamber volume, iris volume-to-length ratio, ILC area, AS OCT anterior chamber depth, and A-scan ultrasonography axial length. Before LPI, PDS eyes had a significantly greater ACV and ILC area than control eyes (PPigment dispersion syndrome eyes do not have an iris that is abnormally large, relative to the AS size, but have a weakly resistant iris that is stretched and pushed against the lens when there is a pressure difference across the iris. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Precision lens assembly with alignment turning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Fang; Huang, Chien-Yao; Lin, Yi-Hao; Kuo, Hui-Jean; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Chen, Fong-Zhi

    2017-10-01

    The poker chip assembly with high precision lens barrels is widely applied to ultra-high performance optical system. ITRC applies the poker chip assembly technology to the high numerical aperture objective lenses and lithography projection lenses because of its high efficiency assembly process. In order to achieve high precision lens cell for poker chip assembly, an alignment turning system (ATS) is developed. The ATS includes measurement, alignment and turning modules. The measurement module is equipped with a non-contact displacement sensor (NCDS) and an autocollimator (ACM). The NCDS and ACM are used to measure centration errors of the top and the bottom surface of a lens respectively; then the amount of adjustment of displacement and tilt with respect to the rotational axis of the turning machine for the alignment module can be determined. After measurement, alignment and turning processes on the ATS, the centration error of a lens cell with 200 mm in diameter can be controlled within 10 arcsec. Furthermore, a poker chip assembly lens cell with three sub-cells is demonstrated, each sub-cells are measured and accomplished with alignment and turning processes. The lens assembly test for five times by each three technicians; the average transmission centration error of assembly lens is 12.45 arcsec. The results show that ATS can achieve high assembly efficiency for precision optical systems.

  5. Bioinspired adaptive gradient refractive index distribution lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kezhen; Lai, Chuan-Yar; Wang, Jia; Ji, Shanzuo; Aldridge, James; Feng, Jingxing; Olah, Andrew; Baer, Eric; Ponting, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Inspired by the soft, deformable human eye lens, a synthetic polymer gradient refractive index distribution (GRIN) lens with an adaptive geometry and focal power has been demonstrated via multilayer coextrusion and thermoforming of nanolayered elastomeric polymer films. A set of 30 polymer nanolayered films comprised of two thermoplastic polyurethanes having a refractive index difference of 0.05 were coextruded via forced-assembly technique. The set of 30 nanolayered polymer films exhibited transmission near 90% with each film varying in refractive index by 0.0017. An adaptive GRIN lens was fabricated from a laminated stack of the variable refractive index films with a 0.05 spherical GRIN. This lens was subsequently deformed by mechanical ring compression of the lens. Variation in the optical properties of the deformable GRIN lens was determined, including 20% variation in focal length and reduced spherical aberration. These properties were measured and compared to simulated results by placido-cone topography and ANSYS methods. The demonstration of a solid-state, dynamic focal length, GRIN lens with improved aberration correction was discussed relative to the potential future use in implantable devices.

  6. 38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3... Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a veteran within 35 days of termination of active military service, it is...

  7. Fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, J.; Washiyama, K.; Hong Kim, C.; Ibuchi, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Three cases of angiographically demonstrated fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery are reported. Fenestration occurred at the medial half of the horizontal segment of the anterior cerebral artery in all cases. Its embryology and clinical significance are briefly discussed, and the anatomical and radiological literature on fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery is reviewed. (orig.)

  8. Clinical features of secondary glaucoma caused by lens suspensory ligament laxity or occult subluxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the clinical characteristics of secondary glaucoma caused by lens suspensory ligament laxity or occult subluxation, and to analyze the influence of operation on visual acuity and intraocular pressure(IOP. METHODS: Totally 38 cases(38 eyesof the secondary glaucoma caused by lens suspensory ligament laxity or occult subluxation in ophthalmology department of our hospital from December 2014 to December 2016 were enrolled and their medical records were analyzed retrospectively to observe the clinical characteristics of glaucoma. Preoperative mydriasis was carried out and surgical methods were chosen according to the lenses location and extent of suspensory ligament. Preoperative and postoperative anterior chamber depth, corneal endothelial cell density, IOP, visual field, visual acuity and complications were analyzed. RESULTS: The average intraocular pressure was 18.17±1.43mmHg at postoperatively 10d, which was significantly lower than 38.77±2.45mmHg before operation, the difference had statistical significance(PP>0.05. The postoperative anterior chamber depth was 2.45±0.44mm, which was significantly higher than 1.23±0.35mm before operation, the difference had statistical significance(P2 and decreased significantly, compared with 1735.32±340.32/mm2 before operation, the difference had statistical significance(PCONCLUSION: Clinical symptoms and signs of secondary glaucoma in patients with lens suspensory ligament laxity or occult subluxation are more complex, which needs to be distinguished with other types of glaucoma in clinical treatment, and its surgical methods shall be chosen according to different suspensory ligament site and lens subluxation scope.

  9. Combined surgical management of capsular and iris deficiency with glued intraocular lens technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhivya Ashok; Agarwal, Amar; Jacob, Soosan; Lamba, Mandeep; Packialakshmi, Sathiya; Meduri, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    To determine the outcome after glued aniridia intraocular lens (IOL) and glued IOL with iridoplasty in eyes with combined lens capsular and iris deficiency. Twenty-seven eyes of 25 patients (6 had congenital aniridia with subluxated cataract and 19 had acquired lens/iris defects) were included. Glued IOL with aniridia IOL (Intra Ocular Care, Gujarat, India) was performed in eyes with total aniridia and iridoplasty with glued IOL with a three-piece foldable IOL (Sofport; Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY) was performed in eyes with partial aniridia. The postoperative outcomes were analyzed at follow-up examination (range: 6 to 48 months). Eleven eyes underwent glued aniridia IOL and 16 eyes underwent glued IOL with iridoplasty. There was significant improvement in (spectacle) corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) (P = .002). Postoperatively, pigment dispersion on the IOL (n = 1) and raised intraocular pressure was seen in the glued aniridia IOL group and chronic uveitis (n = 1), cystoid macular edema (n = 1), and hyphema (n = 1) in the glued IOL with iridoplasty group. The CDVA remained unchanged in 14 eyes (51.8%) and improved in 13 eyes (48.1%). There was a difference in postoperative CDVA (P = .001) between eyes with glued aniridia IOL and glued IOL with iridoplasty. There was no IOL decentration, retinal detachment, corneal decompensation, or endophthalmitis. There was reduction in glare and photophobia. Both glued aniridia IOL and glued IOL/iridoplasty showed good functional and anatomical results with fewer complications in eyes with lens capsule and iris deficiency. However, long-term follow-up is required.[J Refract Surg. 2013;29(5):342-347.]. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Validity, Reliability, and Inertia of Four Different Temperature Capsule Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Coen C W G; Daanen, Hein A M; Bogerd, Cornelis P; Hopman, Maria T E; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H

    2018-01-01

    Telemetric temperature capsule systems are wireless, relatively noninvasive, and easily applicable in field conditions and have therefore great advantages for monitoring core body temperature. However, the accuracy and responsiveness of available capsule systems have not been compared previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the validity, reliability, and inertia characteristics of four ingestible temperature capsule systems (i.e., CorTemp, e-Celsius, myTemp, and VitalSense). Ten temperature capsules were examined for each system in a temperature-controlled water bath during three trials. The water bath temperature gradually increased from 33°C to 44°C in trials 1 and 2 to assess the validity and reliability, and from 36°C to 42°C in trial 3 to assess the inertia characteristics of the temperature capsules. A systematic difference between capsule and water bath temperature was found for CorTemp (0.077°C ± 0.040°C), e-Celsius (-0.081°C ± 0.055°C), myTemp (-0.003°C ± 0.006°C), and VitalSense (-0.017°C ± 0.023°C; P 0.05). Comparable inertia characteristics were found for CorTemp (25 ± 4 s), e-Celsius (21 ± 13 s), and myTemp (19 ± 2 s), whereas the VitalSense system responded more slowly (39 ± 6 s) to changes in water bath temperature (P inertia were observed between capsule systems, an excellent validity, test-retest reliability, and inertia was found for each system between 36°C and 44°C after removal of outliers.

  11. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: evaluation with MR arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Joon-Yong; Jee, Won-Hee; Chun, Ho Jong; Kim, Yang-Soo; Chung, Yang Guk; Kim, Jung-Man

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography for diagnosing adhesive capsulitis. Shoulder MR images of 28 patients with (n=14) and without (n=14) adhesive capsulitis were retrospectively analyzed. MR images were assessed for capsule and synovium thickness as well as the width of the axillary recess on oblique coronal fat-suppressed T1-weighted images and T2-weighted images, respectively. On oblique sagittal fat-suppressed T1-weighted images, the width of the rotator interval and the presence of abnormal tissue in the interval were evaluated. Significant differences were found between the two groups in capsule and synovium thickness on both sides of the recess on oblique coronal T2-weighted images (P=0.000), whereas thickness on the humeral aspect showed no significant difference on oblique coronal fat-suppressed T1-weighted images (P=0.109). On oblique coronal T2-weighted images, a cut-off value of 3-mm thickness gave the highest diagnostic accuracy for adhesive capsulitis with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 79% (11/14), 100% (14/14), and 89% (25/28) at the humeral side and 93% (13/14), 86% (12/14), and 89% (25/28) at the glenoid side, respectively. There were significant differences in rotator interval width, presence of abnormal tissue in the rotator interval, and axillary recess width between the two groups (P<0.05). Thickness of capsule and synovium of the axillary recess greater than 3 mm is a practical MR criterion for diagnosing adhesive capsulitis when measured on oblique coronal T2-weighted MR arthrography images without fat suppression. The presence of abnormal tissue in the rotator interval showed high sensitivity but rather low specificity. (orig.)

  12. Clinical research of phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation for glaucoma with different goniosynechia ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Yu Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To study the effect of phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation to treat glaucoma with different angle-closure range, which may provide a better way to treat the angle-closure glaucoma.METHODS:There were 47 cases(54 eyeswith angle-closure glaucoma, and all of them underwent phacoemulsification and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. According to the range of goniosynechia, these patients were divided into three groups:the eyes with the range of goniosynechia≤1/2 were group A(13 eyes; the eyes with 1/23/4 were group C(23 eyes. We observed the status of anterior chamber angle and the intraocular pressure(IOPof the three groups at 2wk after operations. RESULTS:Compared to the preoperative condition, the IOP of the three groups at 2wk after operations decreased significantly. The IOP reductions of group B and C were more significant than that of group A, and the differences were significant(PPP3/4 appeared in group B; in group C, there were 5 eyes with goniosynechia>3/4, 1 eye with disappeared anterior chamber, 3 eyes with corneal edema, 1 eye with choroidal hemorrhage. The differences of postoperative complication rate among the three groups was statistically significant(PPCONCLUSION:For patients with angle closure glaucoma who have mild to moderate goniosynechia, phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation is an effective way. After operations, their closed anterior angle reopened. But to the patients with severe adhesions, there are more complications after operations, especially the glaucoma may reoccur.

  13. Epidemiological evaluation of YAG capsulotomy incidence for posterior capsule opacification in various intraocular lenses in Japanese eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishi Y

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Yutaro Nishi,1,2 Tomohiro Ikeda,1 Kayo Nishi,2 Osamu Mimura1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo, 2Nishi Eye Hospital, Osaka, Japan Background and objective: We investigated the yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG capsulotomy rates in various intraocular lenses (IOLs. Study design/patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 23,440 eyes implanted with either MA60BM, MA60AC, VA-60BB, CeeOnEdge, Clariflex, Technis Z9002, SI-40NB, or UV26T IOLs. We calculated the YAG capsulotomy rates at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years post lens implantation. Results: YAG capsulotomy rates at 3 years postimplantation for the eight groups of IOLs were, respectively, 3.7%, 3.9%, 23.7%, 3.4%, 4.5%, 4.7%, 10.4%, and 21.0%. YAG capsulotomy rates at 10 years postimplantation for the MA60BM and SI-40NB IOLs were, respectively, 9.1% and 15% (P<0.05. The average YAG rates for all sharp-edged and round-edged IOLs at 5 years postimplantation were, respectively, 5.2%±0.7% and 25.6%±9.0% (P<0.05. Conclusion: In all studied IOLs, posterior capsule opacification prevention seemed to be associated with the posterior optic sharp-edge design. Round-edged silicone IOLs may also retard posterior capsule opacification formation, though not as much as sharp-edged IOLs. As the follow-up period progressed, round-edged silicone IOLs showed significantly higher YAG rates than sharp-edged IOLs. Keywords: silicone, intraocular lenses, sharp optic edge, chi-square test, implantation surgery, posterior capsule opacification

  14. Awful face of the war-impacted smoke bomb capsule in the face and systemic toxicity: reports from the conflict in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Bahar; Yeşiloğlu, Nebil; Firincioğullari, Remzi; Gökkaya, Ali; Özbey, Rafet; Özgür, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a rare kind of injury due to smoke bomb capsule impaction to midface and under the cranial base is presented, and maneuvers to reduce mortality are discussed. Three male patients were presented with impacted smoke bomb capsules into the midface and under the cranial base structures. Midface structures, anterior cranial base, and, in 2 patients, unilateral eye were severely damaged. Two patients died after the initial emergency operations because their lung disease progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome. One of the patients lived, and soft tissue reconstruction was achieved by using temporal transposition and cheek advancement skin flaps with split-thickness skin graft from donor site. However, craniofacial destruction is important in these patients; a multidisciplinary approach is needed for the treatment of direct smoke bomb injuries because the patients experienced chemical burn and acute trauma. The timing of maxillofacial reconstruction is also a question in these specific patients.

  15. Design of a hyperbolic microwave metallic lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.

    1979-12-01

    Due to problems caused by multiple reflections in the cavity walls of the EBT fusion research device, the use of a horn becomes important for the directivity of waves in the millimetric range. An ordinary dielectric lens cannot be used because of plasma-wall interactions. Microwave metallic lenses, designed to focus the energy into a plane wave, can improve the directivity considerably. By implementing a 70-GHz standard-gain horn with a delay-type hyperbolic lens, which consists of a solid metallic disk with a number of equal size small holes has indicated a gain of 15 dB over the no lens case

  16. Accelerating convergence in automatic lens design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixner, B.

    1981-01-01

    Among the various factors that slow lens optimization-insufficient performance targets, the absence of a unique solution, false local minima, a poorly scaled change vector, failure to find the optimum damping number, and failure to equalize the parameter gradients-the importance of parameter gradient equalization has been insufficiently recognized. Gradients can be approximately equalized by scaling the lens to a suitable size while it is being optimized. For best results, the size of the damping number should also be optimized during each iteration. If these two procedures are followed, scaling the change vector is usually not crucial. To illustrate the importance of parameter equalization, a lens optimization is analyzed

  17. 21 CFR 886.1395 - Diagnostic Hruby fundus lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic Hruby fundus lens. 886.1395 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1395 Diagnostic Hruby fundus lens. (a) Identification. A diagnostic Hruby fundus lens is a device that is a 55 diopter lens intended for use in the...

  18. 21 CFR 886.5844 - Prescription spectacle lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription spectacle lens. 886.5844 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5844 Prescription spectacle lens. (a) Identification. A prescription spectacle lens is a glass or plastic device that is a lens intended to be worn by...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1390 - Flexible diagnostic Fresnel lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flexible diagnostic Fresnel lens. 886.1390 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1390 Flexible diagnostic Fresnel lens. (a) Identification. A flexible diagnostic Fresnel lens is a device that is a very thin lens which has...

  20. Fungal endophthalmitis caused by Paecilomyces variotii, in an immunocompetent patient, following intraocular lens implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 70-year-old man who was admitted for anterior endophthalmitis following an intraocular lens implantation. He had developed a fluffy growth resembling a fungal mass on the iris of the right eye. The mass was removed and sent for fungal studies to our department. Direct microscopy revealed hyphae. Further studies helped identify the fungus to belong to genus Paecilomyces. This is a rare case of fungal endophthalmitis caused by Paecilomyces variotii in an immunocompetent person.